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Sample records for adult sex offender

  1. Sexual Abuse History among Adult Sex Offenders and Non-Sex Offenders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jespersen, Ashley F.; Lalumiere, Martin L.; Seto, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The sexually abused-sexual abuser hypothesis states there is a specific relationship between sexual abuse history and sexual offending, such that individuals who experience sexual abuse are significantly more likely to later engage in sexual offenses. Therefore, samples of adult sex offenders should contain a disproportionate number of…

  2. Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Eileen P

    2016-01-01

    Public policy has tended to treat juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) as adult sex offenders in waiting, despite research that contradicts this notion. Although as a group, JSOs are more similar to general delinquents than to adult sex offenders, atypical sexual interests and sexual victimization during childhood may be a pathway for sexual offending that differentiates some JSOs from their nonsexually delinquent peers. Developmental considerations must be considered in risk assessment evaluations of these youth. This article reviews theories of sexual offending in youth, risk factors for juvenile offending and reoffending, psychopathology in JSOs, risk assessment, and treatment. PMID:26593121

  3. Childhood Attachment and Adult Attachment in Incarcerated Adult Male Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallbone, Stephen W.; Dadds, Mark R.

    1998-01-01

    Forty-eight incarcerated sex offenders were compared with 16 property offenders and 16 nonoffenders on self-report measures of childhood maternal and paternal attachment and adult attachment. Results suggest that insecure childhood attachments may be related to offending behavior generally and that certain combinations of childhood attachment…

  4. Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Susan

    1991-01-01

    This paper on the problem of sex offending among individuals with intellectual disabilities examines the incidence of this problem, characteristics of intellectually disabled sex offenders, determination of whether the behavior is a paraphilia or functional age-related behavior, and treatment options, with emphasis on the situation in New South…

  5. Sexual history disclosure polygraph outcomes: do juvenile and adult sex offenders differ?

    PubMed

    Jensen, Todd M; Shafer, Kevin; Roby, C Y; Roby, Jini L

    2015-03-01

    Despite the empirical and theoretical chasm between the opponents and proponents of polygraphy, its use is prominent among sex offender agencies in the United States. However, current research on polygraph examination outcomes among juvenile sex offenders, along with potential differences from their adult counterparts, is scarce and outdated. In the present study, we assess the difference between juvenile and adult sex offenders in terms of the propensity for passing a sexual history disclosure polygraph examination. A sample of 324 sex offenders (86 juveniles and 238 adults) who engaged in a sexual history disclosure polygraph examination as part of their treatment in an Intermountain West sex offender treatment agency was used for the analysis. Results from preliminary and logistic regression analyses indicate that juvenile and adult offenders do not significantly differ in the likelihood of passing a sexual history disclosure polygraph examination. Implications and limitations are discussed. PMID:25049032

  6. Cognitive Distortions and Blame Attribution in Sex Offenders against Adults and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenthal, Stephen; Gudjonsson, Gisli; Burns, Jan

    1999-01-01

    This study compared sex offenders against children and adults on measures of cognitive distortions relating to sex with children and rape and a measure of blame attribution. Child sexual offenders endorsed more cognitive distortions relating to sex with children and reported more guilt-feeling attributions. (Author/DB)

  7. Family Experiences of Young Adult Sex Offender Registration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comartin, Erin B.; Kernsmith, Poco D.; Miles, Bart W.

    2010-01-01

    Since 1994, policies have been instituted throughout the United States that require sex offenders to register their personal information with law enforcement officials (Jacob Wetterling Crimes against Children and Sexually Violent Offender Registration Program, 1994). With the passage of additional laws, this information is now available to the…

  8. Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Eileen P; Otonichar, Joseph M

    2016-07-01

    Sexual offending by juveniles accounts for a sizable percentage of sexual offenses, especially against young children. In this article, recent research on female juvenile sex offenders (JSOs), risk factors for offending in juveniles, treatment, and the ways in which these youth may differ from general delinquents will be reviewed. Most JSOs do not go on to develop paraphilic disorders or to commit sex offenses during adulthood, and as a group, they are more similar to nonsexual offending juvenile delinquents than to adult sex offenders. Recent research has elucidated some differences between youth who commit sex offenses and general delinquents in the areas of atypical sexual interests, the use of pornography, and early sexual victimization during childhood. PMID:27222141

  9. Adolescent and young adult male sex offenders: understanding the role of recidivism.

    PubMed

    Riser, Diana K; Pegram, Sheri E; Farley, Julee P

    2013-01-01

    The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly recidivistic offenders. It is imperative to focus on adolescents and young adults who sexually abuse because they represent a particularly important intervention point in preventing sexual abuse in comparison to older age groups and address the importance of differentiating among youths who sexually abuse, particularly between one-time offenders and recidivistic offenders. Implications for addressing these differences are discussed. PMID:23350537

  10. Adolescent and Young Adult Male Sex Offenders: Understanding the Role of Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riser, Diana K.; Pegram, Sheri E.; Farley, Julee P.

    2013-01-01

    The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly…

  11. Sex Offender Rehabilitation Programs in State Prisons: A Nationwide Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Allen D.; Vaughn, Michael S.

    1991-01-01

    Examined programs and strategies for rehabilitation used in adult sex offender treatment programs in state-operated adult correctional institutions. Questionnaires were completed by 73 adult sex offender treatment providers. The results revealed that incarcerated adult sex offenders were receiving comprehensive psychotherapy and behavior…

  12. Counseling Adult Sex Offenders: Unique Challenges and Treatment Paradigms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priest, Ronnie; Smith, Annalee

    1992-01-01

    Reviews current definitions and research literature related to characteristics of adults who sexually victimize children. Presents discussion of pedophilia as a sexual deviation. Examines treatment issues that may confront counselors engaged in treating adults who sexually victimize children and discusses implications for practitioners. (Author/NB)

  13. Is More Better? Combining Actuarial Risk Scales to Predict Recidivism among Adult Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seto, Michael C.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine whether combining the results of multiple actuarial risk scales increases accuracy in predicting sex offender recidivism. Multiple methods of combining 4 validated actuarial risk scales--the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide, the Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide, the Rapid Risk Assessment for Sexual…

  14. Hypnotic Psychotherapy with Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Sullivan; Briggs, Wanda P.; Magnus, Virginia

    2005-01-01

    The authors review the literature on the prevalence of sex offenders; multiple treatment modalities; and implications of the use of hypnotic psychotherapy, coupled with cognitive behavioral treatment programs, for treating sex offenders. (Contains 2 tables.)

  15. A Prospective Analysis of Juvenile Male Sex Offenders: Characteristics and Recidivism Rates as Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandiver, Donna M.

    2006-01-01

    This research assesses the recidivism rates of a sample of 300 registered male sex offenders who were juveniles at the time of their initial arrest for a sex offense. This sample is followed for 3 to 6 years after they reached adulthood; recidivism rates are assessed during their adulthood only. The typical juvenile is a 15-year-old Caucasian male…

  16. Attachment Styles and Psychological Profiles of Child Sex Offenders in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsa, Fiona; O'Reilly, Gary; Carr, Alan; Murphy, Paul; O'Sullivan, Maura; Cotter, Anthony; Hevey, David

    2004-01-01

    When 29 child sex offenders, 30 violent offenders, 30 nonviolent offenders, and 30 community controls were compared, a secure adult attachment style was 4 times less common in the child sex offender group than in any of the other three groups. Ninety-three percent of sex offenders had an insecure adult attachment style. Compared with community…

  17. Assessment of Deviant Arousal in Adult Male Sex Offenders with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Jorge R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Sloman, Kimberly N.; Hall, Astrid; Reed, Robert; Jansen, Greg; Carr, Sam; Jackson, Kevin; Stoutimore, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Ten individuals, residing in a treatment facility specializing in the rehabilitation of sex offenders with developmental disabilities, participated in an arousal assessment involving the use of the penile plethysmograph. The arousal assessments involved measuring change in penile circumference to various categories of stimuli both appropriate…

  18. A prospective analysis of juvenile male sex offenders: characteristics and recidivism rates as adults.

    PubMed

    Vandiver, Donna M

    2006-05-01

    This research assesses the recidivism rates of a sample of 300 registered male sex offenders who were juveniles at the time of their initial arrest for a sex offense. This sample is followed for 3 to 6 years after they reached adulthood; recidivism rates are assessed during their adulthood only. The typical juvenile is a 15-year-old Caucasian male who was arrested for sexual assault or indecency with a child. The majority of the victims are females with an average age of 8. Although only 13 are rearrested during the follow-up period for a sex offense, more than half of the sample is arrested at least once for a nonsexual offense. The results of a Cox regression indicate that victim age, offender age, and victim sex are significant predictors of recidivism during adulthood. PMID:16574639

  19. Brain Dysfunction in Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galski, Thomas; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Attempted to establish the connection between disordered sexuality and brain impairment by using newly developed techniques of neuropsychological investigation with sex offenders (n=35). Results indicated a major portion of the sex offenders showed impaired brain functioning on Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery. (Author/ABL)

  20. Public Attitudes toward Sexual Offenders and Sex Offender Registration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernsmith, Poco D.; Craun, Sarah W.; Foster, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between fear of various types of sexual offenders and a belief that those sexual offenders should be subject to sex offender registration. We hypothesized that those who offend against children would elicit the most fear; consequently, the most feared offenders would be rated as most requiring registration. As…

  1. A prospective study of the impact of polygraphy on high-risk behaviors in adult sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Grubin, Don; Madsen, Lars; Parsons, Shaun; Sosnowski, Dan; Warberg, Brent

    2004-06-01

    This study examined whether polygraph testing would result in sex offenders engaging in fewer high-risk behaviors. Fifty adult male sex offenders taking part in community treatment programs were allocated into 2 groups: "Polygraph Aware" subjects were told they would receive a polygraph examination in 3 months regarding their high-risk behaviors, while "Polygraph Unaware" subjects were told their behavior would be reviewed in 3 months. Relevant behaviors for each subject were established at baseline interviews, following which both groups were polygraphed at 3 months. All subjects were polygraphed again at 6 months. The hypothesis was that subjects in the "Polygraph Aware" group would have engaged in fewer high-risk behaviors, based on their self-report during the examination. Thirty-two subjects (64%) attended the first polygraph examination, with 31 (97%) disclosing an average of 2.45 high-risk behaviors each previously unknown to supervising probation officers. There was no significant difference between the two groups. Because of the high failure rate, all subjects were told to expect a second polygraph. Twenty-one subjects (42%) completed the second polygraph test, with 71% disclosing an average of 1.57 behaviors, a significant decrease compared with the first test. Disclosures to treatment providers and probation officers also increased. It was concluded that polygraph testing resulted in offenders engaging in less high-risk behavior, although the possibility that offenders fabricated reports of high-risk behaviours to satisfy examiners is also considered; similarly, offenders seemed to be more honest with their supervisors, but this only occurred after experience of the test itself. Feedback from offenders who completed the study, taken together with the high drop out rate, suggested that those motivated not to reoffend found polygraphy useful, while those less motivated sought to avoid it. PMID:15326881

  2. Women don't do such things! Characteristics of female sex offenders and offender types.

    PubMed

    Wijkman, Miriam; Bijleveld, Catrien; Hendriks, Jan

    2010-06-01

    The authors studied offender, offense, and victim characteristics in a cohort of 111 adult female sex offenders comprising all female sex offenders known to the criminal justice authorities in the Netherlands between 1994 and 2005. In 77% of the cases, the female sex offenders had abused children; almost two thirds of the women had co-offended with a male co-offender. Their backgrounds are on average problematic with sexual abuse being prominent (31%); mental disorders were also prominent (59%). Using multiple correspondence analysis, the authors distinguished four prototypical offender types. They identified the young assaulter and the rapist who are relatively young solo offenders. Two prototypes, the psychologically disturbed co-offender and the passive mother, comprise older women. They mostly abused their own children together with their male/intimate partner. These prototypes partly overlap with previous typologies. The authors discuss implications for theory and treatment. PMID:20237394

  3. Providing long term care for sex offenders: liabilities and responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Corson, Tyler Rogers; Nadash, Pamela

    2013-11-01

    The high risk for recidivism among sex offenders who need long term care (LTC) raises serious issues when they are cared for alongside frail, vulnerable adults. LTC providers must balance offenders' right to access care with other residents' right to be free from abuse and must assess and manage the risks associated with admitting offenders. This article identifies sources of legal liability that derive from sex offender management and discusses the need for the LTC community to develop reasonable, balanced guidance on how best to mitigate the risks associated with sex offenders, protect the rights of all residents, and reduce provider liabilities. PMID:24094899

  4. Sex offender treatment and legislation.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Fred S

    2003-01-01

    The current issue of the Journal contains three articles related to sex offenders. The first, by Scott and Holmberg, discusses legislation that mandates either "chemical or surgical castration." The second, by Saleh and Guidry, reviews diagnostic and treatment considerations. The third, by Scott and Gerbasi, discusses sex offender registration and community notification. Much of the relevant sex offender legislation, including that pertaining to testosterone-lowering treatments, has been enacted in response to intense public passion. When it comes to the issue of sex offenders, there is a pressing need to develop a coherent body of evidence-based forensic concepts and knowledge that can rationally inform both clinical practice and future public policy. That may require a closer collaboration between both the criminal justice and legislative sectors, and the scientific-medical communities. The three papers published in this issue provide useful information that may assist toward such a goal. PMID:14974807

  5. Psychopathology of incarcerated sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Ahlmeyer, Sean; Kleinsasser, Dennis; Stoner, John; Retzlaff, Paul

    2003-08-01

    The psychopathology and particularly the personality disorders of sex offenders were compared to general inmates of the Colorado Department of Corrections. Using the MCMI-III (Millon, 1994, 1997), sex offenders in general were found to have more varied types of personalities than general population inmates. Specifically, they were more schizoid, avoidant, depressive, dependent, self-defeating, and schizotypal. General population inmates had the more classically criminal personality characteristics of antisocial, narcissistic, and sadistic. Multivariate analysis showed the Dependent, Narcissistic, Antisocial, and Schizotypal scales to be the most differentiating. Sex offenders were also found to have more affective psychopathology such as anxiety, dysthymia, PTSD, and major depression. A similar trend was found when comparing child molesters to rapists. The child molesters were more neurotic, affective, and socially impaired than the rapists. Multivariate analysis showed the Dependent scale to be the most important in differentiating these two types of sex offenders. PMID:14521179

  6. Adolescent Sex Offenders' Rankings of Therapeutic Factors Using the Yalom Card Sort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sribney, Christine L.; Reddon, John R.

    2008-01-01

    Following 11-98 weeks of inpatient residential treatment, 69 male adolescent sex offenders completed the 60-item, 12-factor Yalom Card Sort. The rank orders were compared to adult sex offenders and a psychiatric adult outpatient group. Relative to adult psychiatric outpatients, the adolescent sex offenders had rated Instillation of Hope three…

  7. Incarcerated Dutch Juvenile Sex Offenders Compared with Non-Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wijk, Anton Ph.; Vreugdenhil, Coby; van Horn, Joan; Vermeiren, Robert; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.

    2007-01-01

    There is some debate about whether or not sex offenders are similar to non-sex offenders with regard to family background (parental characteristics), personality, and psychopathology. The central aim of this study focused on the comparison of juvenile sex offenders and non-sex offenders. The sample consisted of incarcerated juvenile male sex (n =…

  8. The neuropsychology of sex offenders: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Joyal, Christian C; Beaulieu-Plante, Jolyane; de Chantérac, Antoine

    2014-04-01

    Typically, neuropsychological studies of sex offenders have grouped together different types of individuals and different types of measures. This is why results have tended to be nonspecific and divergent across studies. Against this background, the authors undertook a review of the literature regarding the neuropsychology of sex offenders, taking into account subgroups based on criminological theories. They also conducted a meta-analysis of the data to demonstrate the cognitive heterogeneity of sex offenders statistically. Their main objective was to test the hypothesis to the effect that the neuropsychological deficits of sex offenders are not broad and generalized compared with specific subgroups of participants based on specific measures. In all, 23 neuropsychological studies reporting data on 1,756 participants were taken into consideration. As expected, a highly significant, broad, and heterogeneous overall effect size was found. Taking subgroups of participants and specific cognitive measures into account significantly improved homogeneity. Sex offenders against children tended to obtain lower scores than did sex offenders against adults on higher order executive functions, whereas sex offenders against adults tended to obtain results similar to those of non-sex offenders, with lower scores in verbal fluency and inhibition. However, it is concluded that neuropsychological data on sex offenders are still too scarce to confirm these trends or to test more precise hypotheses. For greater clinical relevance, future neuropsychological studies should consider specific subgroups of participants and measures to verify the presence of different cognitive profiles. PMID:23567470

  9. A Commentary on the Michigan Sex Offender Registration Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Lucinda A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the author's comments on the Michigan sex offender registration article "Family Experiences of Young Adult Sex Offender Registration" (Comartin, Kernsmith, & Miles, 2010). The article is an important piece of research that addresses a much neglected and almost invisible population in the annals of research: the families of…

  10. Traumagenic Dynamics in Adult Women Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse vs. Adolescent Male Sex Offenders with Similar Histories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Carla; Hendrix, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    Female childhood sexual abuse survivors and adolescent male sexual offenders with a history of childhood sexual abuse were assessed using the Trauma-Related Beliefs Questionnaire. Results suggested that male sex offenders hold high levels of traumagenic beliefs common in females, especially related to trust and betrayal. (Author)

  11. Sex Offender Recidivism Revisited: Review of Recent Meta-analyses on the Effects of Sex Offender Treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bitna; Benekos, Peter J; Merlo, Alida V

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of sex offender treatment programs continues to generate misinformation and disagreement. Some literature reviews conclude that treatment does not reduce recidivism while others suggest that specific types of treatment may warrant optimism. The principal purpose of this study is to update the most recent meta-analyses of sex offender treatments and to compare the findings with an earlier study that reviewed the meta-analytic studies published from 1995 to 2002. More importantly, this study examines effect sizes across different age populations and effect sizes across various sex offender treatments. Results of this review of meta-analyses suggest that sex offender treatments can be considered as "proven" or at least "promising," while age of participants and intervention type may influence the success of treatment for sex offenders. The implications of these findings include achieving a broader understanding of intervention moderators, applying such interventions to juvenile and adult offenders, and outlining future areas of research. PMID:25575803

  12. 77 FR 73558 - Sex Offender Registration Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 28 CFR Part 811 RIN 3225-AA10 Sex Offender Registration... requirements relating to periodic verification of registration information for sex offenders. The proposed rule, if finalized, would permit CSOSA to verify addresses of sex offenders by conducting home visits...

  13. Factors affecting attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Sahlstrom, Kimberly J; Jeglic, Elizabeth L

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment amenability were negative. No differences in attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders were found between those who had been victims of sexual abuse and those that had not. Sex offenses committed by juvenile female sex offenders were viewed to be more serious and require more intervention than those committed by juvenile male sex offenders. PMID:19042245

  14. Deaf Sex Offenders in a Prison Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Katrina; Vernon, McCay

    2003-01-01

    A study of 41 sex offenders who are deaf found the rate of sexual offending was 4 times the rate of sexual offending by hearing offenders, with 30% recidivism. Sixty-two percent of subjects were functionally illiterate. However, the performance IQs were comparable to those of the overall prison population. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  15. Sex Offender Task Force Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of the Youth Authority, Sacramento.

    This report includes the findings of a California task force convened to examine juvenile and youthful sex offenders and the impact of their behavior on the citizenry. The foreword notes this report attempts to identify informational and research needs and encourage networking and coordination to support state and local efforts to improve the…

  16. Sexual preferences and recidivism of sex offenders with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Rice, Marnie E; Harris, Grant T; Lang, Carol; Chaplin, Terry C

    2008-12-01

    By some accounts, sex offenders with mental retardation commit sex offenses against children because the offenders lack sexual knowledge or are socially and intellectually immature rather than because of sexually deviant interests. By other accounts, these offenders exhibit pedophilic sexual interests. In this study, phallometrically determined sexual interests, recidivism, and choices of victims of 69 sex offenders with mental retardation are examined and compared with those of 69 sex offenders of average or higher IQ. Consistent with hypotheses, sex offenders with mental retardation exhibit more deviant preferences for prepubertal children, male children, and young children than do the comparison offenders. They are also more likely to have had a prepubertal victim, a prepubertal male victim, and a very young victim. They are no more likely than the comparison offenders to exhibit preferences for extremely coercive sex with children or to exhibit deviant adult activity preferences, nor are they more likely to recidivate violently. Results support the idea that pedophilia is a disorder of neurodevelopment and point to the importance of risk assessments that include assessing sexual preferences among sex offenders with mental retardation. PMID:19020337

  17. The Colorado Sex Offender Risk Scale.

    PubMed

    English, Kim; Retzlaff, Paul; Kleinsasser, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    This study documents the development of an adult sex offender risk assessment tool. A sample of 494 sex offenders were followed for an average of 30 months. A risk scale was developed based upon criminal and therapeutic outcomes. The final risk scale included prior juvenile felony convictions, prior adult felony convictions, failure of the first or second grade, not being employed, victim being intoxicated, the perpetrator reporting not being sexually aroused during the crime, possession of a weapon during the crime, denial in therapy, sexual deviance in therapy, and motivation in therapy. The risk scale provided significant relative risk ratios against program failure at 12 and 30 months. Overall, those scoring high on the risk tool were 372% as likely to fail as those scoring low. PMID:16221641

  18. Neuropsychological Assessment of Adult Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marceau, Roger; Meghani, Rehana; Reddon, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This report is primarily concerned with reporting on the normative results obtained on a large sample of serious adult offenders. An expanded Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery was administered to 584 adult offenders (OF), 132 normal controls (NC), and 494 acute psychiatric patients (PP). Subjects were between 18 and 44 years of age.…

  19. Model Underpinning Treatment for Sex Offenders with Mild Intellectual Disability: Current Theories of Sex Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, William R.

    2005-01-01

    Although many writers have provided a theoretical framework for treatment of mainstream sex offenders, this research has not been extended to sex offenders with mild intellectual disability. My purpose here is to bring together several research strands to provide a theoretical model for working in this field, including theories of sex offending,…

  20. Misperceptions of Sex Offender Perpetration: Considering the Impact of Sex Offender Registration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craun, Sarah W.; Theriot, Matthew T.

    2009-01-01

    A popular misconception among the general public is that sex offenders most often victimize strangers. To better understand these misconceptions about sex offenders, this study determines the frequency of misperception in the general public and establishes if the misconceptions are related to the policy of sex offender registration. Using a…

  1. Altruism, Empathy, and Sex Offender Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Tony; Durrant, Russil

    2013-01-01

    Treatment programs for serious offenders such as sex offenders typically include an empathy training component as part of a comprehensive intervention package. The reasons for doing so are partly based on research evidence indicating that social disconnection and relationship ruptures related to empathy failures often trigger offending, and also…

  2. Predictors of Sex Offender Treatment Completion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Donna L.; Bergman, Barbara A.; Knox, Pamela L.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews records of 126 incarcerated offenders who participated in a prison-based sex offender treatment program. Discriminate function analysis reveals that offenders who completed treatment were more often diagnosed with a substance disorder, had a history of nonviolence offenses, and were less often diagnosed as having an antisocial personality…

  3. 78 FR 23835 - Sex Offender Registration Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... it can be found at 77 FR 73558. The proposed rule was published to allow CSOSA to better meet the... SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 28 CFR Part 811 RIN 3225-AA10 Sex Offender Registration... verification of registration information for sex offenders. Furthermore, the rule permits CSOSA to...

  4. Factors Affecting Attitudes toward Juvenile Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlstrom, Kimberly J.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment…

  5. Validating the Attitudes toward Sex Offenders Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Charmeka

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Attitudes Toward Sex Offenders Scale (ATS) measurement by assessing attitudes of counselors in training towards juvenile sex offenders. The specific aims of this study were to determine (a) internal consistency of the ATS, (b) construct validity of the ATS based on exploratory factor…

  6. Predictors of victim disclosure in child sexual abuse: Additional evidence from a sample of incarcerated adult sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Benoit; Wortley, Richard

    2015-05-01

    The under-reporting of child sexual abuse by victims is a serious problem that may prolong the suffering of victims and leave perpetrators free to continue offending. Yet empirical evidence indicates that victim disclosure rates are low. In this study, we perform regression analysis with a sample of 369 adult child sexual offenders to examine potential predictors of victim disclosure. Specifically, we extend the range of previously examined potential predictors of victim disclosure and investigate interaction effects in order to better capture under which circumstances victim disclosure is more likely. The current study differs from previous studies in that it examines the impact of victim and offense variables on victim disclosure from the perspective of the offender. In line with previous studies, we found that disclosure increased with the age of the victim and if penetration had occurred. In addition, we found that disclosure increased when the victim came from a non-dysfunctional family and resisted the abuse. The presence of an interaction effect highlighted the impact of the situation on victim disclosure. This effect indicated that as victims get older, they are more likely to disclose the abuse when they are not living with the offender at the time of abuse, but less likely to do so when they are living with the offender at the time of abuse. These findings are discussed in relation to previous studies and the need to facilitate victim disclosure. PMID:25812798

  7. Evaluating Awareness of Registered Sex Offenders in the Neighborhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craun, Sarah W.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of sex offender registration is to protect residents from recidivistic sexual offenders by providing public information about local offenders. This study determines what percentage of residents living near registered sex offenders are aware of the offenders and the predictors of awareness. The investigational group includes randomly…

  8. Misperceptions of sex offender perpetration: considering the impact of sex offender registration.

    PubMed

    Craun, Sarah W; Theriot, Matthew T

    2009-12-01

    A popular misconception among the general public is that sex offenders most often victimize strangers. To better understand these misconceptions about sex offenders, this study determines the frequency of misperception in the general public and establishes if the misconceptions are related to the policy of sex offender registration. Using a self-administered mail survey, it is found that on average, 3 out of 10 respondents indicate more worry about a child being sexually abused by a stranger than a child being sexually abused by someone known to them. In neighborhoods where registered sex offenders reside, awareness of a local sex offender significantly increases the likelihood that a respondent is more worried about a stranger sexually abusing a child. Interpretations of the findings follow, including discussing if the findings demonstrate an unintended consequence of sex offender registries. PMID:19074256

  9. Sex Offender Treatment: The Case for Manualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Ruth E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper sets out the case for the manualization of sex offender treatment. The movement towards evidence-based practice in psychotherapy has led to strongly voiced opposing views on the value of manualization. However, "what works" evidence, i.e. the meta-analytical research behind the Risk-Needs-Responsivity model of offender rehabilitation,…

  10. Moral Development of Solo Juvenile Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Vugt, Eveline; Stams, Geert Jan; Dekovic, Maja; Brugman, Daan; Rutten, Esther; Hendriks, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the moral development of solo juvenile male sex offenders (n = 20) and juvenile male non-offenders (n = 76), aged 13-19 years, from lower socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. The Moral Orientation Measure (MOM) was used to assess punishment- and victim-based moral orientation in sexual and non-sexual situations. Moral…

  11. Castration of sex offenders: prisoners' rights versus public safety.

    PubMed

    Scott, Charles L; Holmberg, Trent

    2003-01-01

    Sexual victimization of children and adults is a significant treatment and public policy problem in the United States. To address increasing concerns regarding sex offender recidivism, nine states have passed legislation since 1996 authorizing the use of either chemical or physical castration. In most statutes, a repeat offender's eligibility for probation or parole is linked to acceptance of mandated hormonal therapy. Future legal challenges to this wave of legislation will probably include arguments that such laws violate constitutional rights guaranteed to the offender by the First, Eighth, and Fourteenth Amendments. When the promise of freedom is predicated on mandated treatment, the clinician must carefully assess the validity of informed consent. PMID:14974806

  12. Sex offender registration and recidivism risk in juvenile sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Michael F; Dickinson, Casey

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile sex offenders are increasingly included in sex offender registration laws, based, in part, on the assumption that they pose a distinctively high risk for future sexual violence and registration may help to mitigate this risk. To test this assumption, the current study compares risk scores on the static scales of the Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol-II (JSOAP-II; Prentky & Righthand, 2003) and the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI; Hoge, Andrews, & Leschied, 2002), between samples of 106 registered and 66 unregistered juvenile sex offenders. New criminal charges, including sexually based crimes, were examined over a mean follow-up of 49.2 months (SD = 29.6 months). Results indicated that registered youth had lower risk scores on scales that most accurately predicted recidivism and registered youth were charged with new crimes at rates similar to those of unregistered youth. Reoffense risk, as measured by the risk scales, was not moderated by registration. The findings did not support the assumption that registration can effectively lower the risk for reoffense in juvenile offenders. PMID:19937920

  13. Comparative Differences in the Psychological Histories of Sex Offenders, Victims, and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miccio-Fonseca, L. C.

    1996-01-01

    Presents the findings of a comprehensive seven-year research project which involved 656 participants (male, female, adolescent sex offenders, adult sex offenders, victims, and their families) ages 4-71. Comparative data are reported on age, marital status, educational level, psychological histories, violence, life stressors, sexual behavior and…

  14. Adverse childhood experiences in the lives of female sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Willis, Gwenda M; Prescott, David S

    2015-06-01

    This study explored the prevalence of early trauma in a sample of U.S. female sexual offenders (N = 47) using the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale. Compared with females in the general population, sex offenders had more than three times the odds of child sexual abuse, four times the odds of verbal abuse, and more than three times the odds of emotional neglect and having an incarcerated family member. Half of the female sex offenders had been sexually abused as a child. Only 20% endorsed zero adverse childhood experiences (compared with 35% of the general female population) and 41% endorsed four or more (compared with 15% of the general female population). Higher ACE scores were associated with having younger victims. Multiple maltreatments often co-occurred in households with other types of dysfunction, suggesting that many female sex offenders were raised within a disordered social environment by adults with problems of their own who were ill-equipped to protect their daughters from harm. By enhancing our understanding of the frequency and correlates of early adverse experiences, we can better devise trauma-informed interventions that respond to the clinical needs of female sex offender clients. PMID:25210107

  15. Examining Specialization Among Sex Offenders Released From Prison.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jeffrey; Simon, Walter

    2016-04-01

    A prevailing cultural stereotype about sex offenders is that they tend to specialize in sexual offending. Many recent policy developments-mainly aimed to restrict the liberties of sex offenders-are rooted in this idea. We examined the correctional and arrest records of a sample of 312 sex offenders released on parole in Colorado to determine the prevalence of sexual specialization among these offenders, and to compare the legal and social characteristics of specialists and versatile sex offenders. Overall we found that very few participants officially classified as sex offenders fit the specialist stereotype. Study participants generally displayed versatile histories of criminal offending. We also found that specialists were distinguishable from versatile offenders on certain indices of social integration and mental health, and they were more likely to have had a history of offending against children. PMID:25143435

  16. Female Sex Offenders' Relationship Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Louanne

    2010-01-01

    Interventions for child sexual abusers should take into account their perspectives on the context of their offenses, but no descriptions of everyday life from the offender's point of view have been published. This study therefore explored female offenders' views of their strengths and challenges. Documented risk assessments of 20 female offenders were analyzed using inductive content analysis (Cavanagh, 1997; Priest, Roberts & Woods, 2002; Woods, Priest & Roberts, 2002). The Good Lives Model provided the initial coding framework and Atlas/ti software (Muhr, 1997) was used for simultaneous data collection and analysis. The content analysis yielded 999 coding decisions organized in three themes. The global theme was relationship experiences. Offenders described the quality of their relationship experiences, including their personal perspectives, intimate relationships and social lives. These descriptions have implications for treatment planning and future research with women who have molested children. PMID:18624098

  17. The characteristics of online sex offenders: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Babchishin, Kelly M; Hanson, R Karl; Hermann, Chantal A

    2011-03-01

    There is much debate as to whether online offenders are a distinct group of sex offenders or if they are simply typical sex offenders using a new technology. A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the extent to which online and offline offenders differ on demographic and psychological variables. Online offenders were more likely to be Caucasian and were slightly younger than offline offenders. In terms of psychological variables, online offenders had greater victim empathy, greater sexual deviancy, and lower impression management than offline offenders. Both online and offline offenders reported greater rates of childhood physical and sexual abuse than the general population. Additionally, online offenders were more likely to be Caucasian, younger, single, and unemployed compared with the general population. Many of the observed differences can be explained by assuming that online offenders, compared with offline offenders, have greater self-control and more psychological barriers to acting on their deviant interests. PMID:20660639

  18. Psychophysiological assessment of sex offenders in a security hospital.

    PubMed

    Hinton, J W; O'Neill, M T; Webster, S

    1980-06-01

    A study on the sexual orientation and responsiveness of sexual offenders in a maximum security hospital who had been referred to the Psychology Department for sexual assessment is described. Correlations between "felt sexual arousal" ratings and penis diameter increase were calculated to assess validity, but a high proportion of detained patients gave results which could be interpreted as indicating defensiveness or faking. Groups of sexual offenders (against women, girls, boys, and men), nonsexual attackers of women, and typical heterosexuals were compared on their profiles of response to films showing consenting adult heterosexual, adult homosexual, and boy homosexual activity, girl abduction, and girl rape. Groups did not differ on the consenting heterosexual activity film, but typical heterosexuals and nonsexual attackers of women showed significantly less response to the film of girl abduction (p less than 0.001) and rape (p less than 0.001) than did groups of sex offenders generally. PMID:7396693

  19. Enhancing Victim Empathy for Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carich, Mark S.; Metzger, Carole K.; Baig, Mirza S. A.; Harper, Joseph J.

    2003-01-01

    Victim empathy is a widely used component of sex offender treatment throughout North America and Great Britain. Yet, it has been controversial over the past few years. One of the complications involves giving empathy a solid definition. Empathy was defined as the capacity to express compassion for victims. A multi-level system was developed to…

  20. Enhancing victim empathy for sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Carich, Mark S; Metzger, Carole K; Baig, Mirza S A; Harper, Joseph J

    2003-01-01

    Victim empathy is a widely used component of sex offender treatment throughout North America and Great Britain. Yet, it has been controversial over the past few years. One of the complications involves giving empathy a solid definition. Empathy was defined as the capacity to express compassion for victims. A multi-level system was developed to help specify the definition. The second issue concerns which methods to use in enhancing victim empathy. A variety of techniques are provided as specific ways in which clinicians can help enhance an offender's empathy level. PMID:15308454

  1. Treatment of Adolescent Sex Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, William R.; Olley, Susan; Baillie, Nicola; Smith, Anne H. W.

    1999-01-01

    This article presents four case studies of male adolescent sex offenders with intellectual disabilities. All were successfully treated in a group program that focused on specific techniques for cognitive change for thinking errors related to sex offending, problem-solving in offending situations, and analysis of behavior and routines consistent…

  2. Further Investigation of Findings Reported for the Minnesota Sex Offender Screening Tool--Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langton, Calvin M.; Barbaree, Howard E.; Harkins, Leigh; Peacock, Edward J.; Arenovich, Tamara

    2008-01-01

    Among a number of widely used risk assessment instruments with adult sexual offenders, the Minnesota Sex Offender Screening Tool-Revised (MnSOST-R) has been subject to relatively few evaluation studies. Only two independent research groups have published replication studies in the peer-reviewed literature with data not provided by the MnSOST-R's…

  3. The proportions of heterosexual and homosexual pedophiles among sex offenders against children: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Freund, K; Watson, R J

    1992-01-01

    Previous investigations have indicated that the ratio of sex offenders against female children vs. offenders against male children is approximately 2:1, while the ratio of gynephiles to androphiles among the general population is approximately 20:1. The present study investigated whether the etiology of preferred partner sex among pedophiles is related to the etiology of preferred partner sex among males preferring adult partners. Using phallometric test sensitivities to calculate the proportion of true pedophiles among various groups of sex offenders against children, and taking into consideration previously reported mean numbers of victims per offender group, the ratio of heterosexual to homosexual pedophiles was calculated to be approximately 11:1. This suggests that the resulting proportion of true pedophiles among persons with a homosexual erotic development is greater than that in persons who develop heterosexually. This, of course, would not indicate that androphilic males have a greater propensity to offend against children. PMID:1556756

  4. A comparison of sex offenders against female and male minors.

    PubMed

    Freund, K; Watson, R; Rienzo, D

    1987-01-01

    Male sex offenders against minors were grouped according to age and sex of victims, and according to whether they had offended against one or more than one minor. Cases of incest or courtship disorder were not included in the study. Among offenders against female children, the number of one-case offenders was substantially larger than that of multicase offenders. The opposite was true of offenders against male children, and there was no significant difference between one-case and multicase offenders against female or male early adolescents. If these counts reflect corresponding prevalences within sex offenders against minors in a Western cultural setting, some inferences can be made from these comparisons. PMID:3694689

  5. Do Sexual Offenders with Learning Disabilities Benefit from Sex Offender Treatment Programmes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses some of the clinical and practical issues in relation to sex offender treatment in prisons and compares, through the experience of one offender who has been called Sam, how the experiences may differ between offenders with and without learning disabilities. It gives a brief overview of how programmes have developed in…

  6. Sex offender reentry courts: a cost effective proposal for managing sex offender risk in the community.

    PubMed

    La Fond, John Q; Winick, Bruce J

    2003-06-01

    Recently enacted legal strategies to protect society from dangerous sex offenders generally use two very different approaches: Long-term incapacitation or outright release. The first strategy relies on harsh criminal sentences or indeterminate sexual predator commitment laws. The second relies primarily on registration and notification laws. Both strategies rely on prediction models of dangerousness. Authorities determine at a single moment the likelihood that an offender will sexually "recidivate" and then choose the appropriate type of control for an extended period. This paper reviews the problems of predicting sexual recidivism in the context of both strategies. It then proposes special sex offender reentry courts to manage the risk that sexual offenders will reoffend. Risk management allows decision makers to adjust calculations of individual risk on an ongoing basis in light of new information and to adjust the level of control. Drawing on Therapeutic Jurisprudence-a belief that legal rules, procedures, and legal roles can have positive or negative psychological impact on participants in the legal system-these courts can impose, and then adjust control over sex ofenders in the community. In a sex offender reentry court, the judge is a member of an interdisciplinary team that uses a community containment approach; the offender, as a condition for release, enters into a behavioral contract to engage in treatment and submit to periodic polygraph testing. This therapeutic jurisprudence approach creates incentives for offenders to change their behavior and attitudes, thereby reducing their recidivism risk and earning more freedom. It can also monitor compliance and manage risk more effectively. PMID:12839907

  7. Attitudes Toward Juvenile Sex Offender Legislation: The Influence of Case-Specific Information.

    PubMed

    Campregher, Julia; Jeglic, Elizabeth L

    2016-01-01

    This study examined attitudes toward the application of adult sex offender legislation to juvenile sex offenders. Participants were randomly assigned to one of nine conditions. In the generic condition, the participants were asked to envision a generic juvenile sex offender, whereas in the manipulated conditions, participants read a vignette with three manipulated variables: offense type, victim age, and victim gender. Afterward, all participants (n = 978) completed questionnaires assessing perceptions of juvenile sex offenders and juvenile sex offender legislation. Overall, participants in the generic juvenile sex offender condition rated the perpetrator as more dangerous and more likely to reoffend than participants in the experimental conditions. Moreover, participants in the generic juvenile sex offender condition were more likely to endorse more punitive punishments and viewed perpetrators as "superpredators." When examining differences between the experimental conditions, participants reading vignettes with younger victims and male victims as well as vignettes with contact offenses were more likely to view the perpetrator as dangerous, likely to recidivate, as a "superpredator," and deserving of more punitive punishments. Implications for public policy as well as future research directions are discussed. PMID:27266540

  8. Offending Behaviour in Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David; Evans, Carys; Hider, Andrew; Hawkins, Sarah; Peckett, Helen; Morgan, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    Considerable speculation is evident both within the scientific literature and popular media regarding possible links between Asperger syndrome and offending. A survey methodology that utilised quantitative data collection was employed to investigate the prevalence of offending behaviour amongst adults with Asperger Syndrome in a large geographical…

  9. Interpreting multiple risk scales for sex offenders: evidence for averaging.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Robert J B; Hanson, R Karl; Babchishin, Kelly M; Gallasch-Nemitz, Franziska; Biedermann, Jürgen; Dahle, Klaus-Peter

    2013-09-01

    This study tested 3 decision rules for combining actuarial risk instruments for sex offenders into an overall evaluation of risk. Based on a 9-year follow-up of 940 adult male sex offenders, we found that Rapid Risk Assessment for Sex Offender Recidivism (RRASOR), Static-99R, and Static-2002R predicted sexual, violent, and general recidivism and provided incremental information for the prediction of all 3 outcomes. Consistent with previous findings, the incremental effect of RRASOR was positive for sexual recidivism but negative for violent and general recidivism. Averaging risk ratios was a promising approach to combining these risk scales, showing good calibration between predicted (E) and observed (O) recidivism rates (E/O index = 0.93, 95% CI [0.79, 1.09]) and good discrimination (area under the curve = 0.73, 95% CI [0.69, 0.77]) for sexual recidivism. As expected, choosing the lowest (least risky) risk tool resulted in underestimated sexual recidivism rates (E/O = 0.67, 95% CI [0.57, 0.79]) and choosing the highest (riskiest) resulted in overestimated risk (E/O = 1.37, 95% CI [1.17, 1.60]). For the prediction of violent and general recidivism, the combination rules provided similar or lower discrimination compared with relying solely on the Static-99R or Static-2002R. The current results support an averaging approach and underscore the importance of understanding the constructs assessed by violence risk measures. PMID:23730829

  10. Homicidal sex offenders: psychological, phallometric, and diagnostic features.

    PubMed

    Firestone, P; Bradford, J M; Greenberg, D M; Larose, M R

    1998-01-01

    Homicidal sex offenders represent an understudied population in the forensic literature. Forty-eight homicidal sex offenders assessed between 1982 and 1992 were studied in relation to a comparison group of incest offenders. Historical features, commonly used psychological inventories, criminal histories, phallometric assessments, and DSM diagnoses were collected on each group. The homicidal sex offenders, compared with the incest offenders, self-reported that they had more frequently been removed from their homes during childhood and had more violence and forensic psychiatric contact in their histories. On the self-report psychological inventories, the homicidal sex offenders portrayed themselves as functioning significantly better in the areas of sexuality (Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory) and aggression/hostility (Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory). However, on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), researchers rated the homiciders significantly more psychopathic than the incest offenders on Factor 1 (personality traits) and Factor 2 (antisocial history). Police records revealed the homicidal subjects also had been charged or convicted of more violent and nonviolent nonsexual offenses. The phallometric assessments indicated that the homicidal sex offenders demonstrated higher levels of response to pedophilic stimuli and were significantly more aroused to stimuli depicting assaultive acts to children, relative to the incest offenders. Despite the homiciders' self-reports of fairly good psychological functioning, DSM-III diagnoses reliably discriminated between the groups. A large number of homicidal sex offenders were diagnosed as suffering from psychosis, antisocial personality disorder, paraphilias, sexual sadism, sexual sadism with pedophilia, and substance abuse. Seventy-five percent of the homicidal sex offenders had three or more diagnoses compared with six percent of the incest offenders. The article addresses the role of "hard" versus "soft

  11. The role of theory in the assessment of sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Quackenbush, Ray E

    2003-01-01

    No generally accepted theory of sex offender behavior exists at this point. As clinical experience and research findings interact within an evolving theoretical framework, the picture of what is important, as well as what is possible to know about a sex offender, is rapidly changing. It is vital that mental health professionals, the legal system, social service agencies, and other consumers and providers of sex offender assessments be aware of both what is possible to learn about an offender as well as the limitations on that knowledge and its application. Prominent theories that influence the assessment of offenders in North America and Europe are presented and examined. Uses and limitations of each theory are discussed. Several trends emerge which could influence the future of sex offender assessment, treatment, management, and policy. PMID:15308448

  12. Treated Sex Offenders as "Paraprofessional" Co-Workers in the Treatment of the Sex Offender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossack, Alex; Robinson, Julie

    2005-01-01

    This paper will briefly review the utilization of the paraprofessional in a community-based sex offender treatment programme in Merseyside, UK. The paraprofessionals are treated paedophiles in the role of treatment co-facilitators. Further thoughts on the role dynamic, training issues and supervision are discussed. This is an example of…

  13. The Current Role of Post-Conviction Sex Offender Polygraph Testing in Sex Offender Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokish, Ron

    2003-01-01

    Polygraph testing is becoming increasingly important in sex offender treatment. Polygraph advocates cite dramatic increases in historical disclosures that presumably allow more precise targeting of treatment interventions, earlier detection of risky behaviors that often lead to new offenses, and improved treatment and supervision compliance. Based…

  14. The Experiences of Registered Sex Offenders with Internet Offender Registries in Three States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Alissa R.; Sacks, Meghan; Osier, Lindsay N.

    2013-01-01

    For over two decades, U.S. state and federal governments have enacted broad legislation in an effort to keep communities aware about and safe from sex offenders living nearby. The current study qualitatively analyzes unsolicited responses from sex offenders regarding their feelings, attitudes, and experiences living under the auspices of such…

  15. Patterns of exposure to sexually explicit material among sex offenders, child molesters, and controls.

    PubMed

    Nutter, D E; Kearns, M E

    1993-01-01

    The Meese Commission Report claimed exposure to sexually explicit material leads to sex offenses and recommended examining developmental patterns and pornography experiences of offenders. This second phase of our study examines developmental patterns and sexually explicit material experiences of sex offenders, a subgroup of child molesters, and controls. Results indicate sex offenders (but not the child molester subgroup) began masturbating at a significantly younger age than controls. Sexually explicit material was used during the first masturbatory experience of 33.3% of sex offenders and 14% of controls. Child molesters were significantly older than controls when exposed to sexually explicit material. Frequency of adult use of sexually explicit material does not differ significantly among groups. PMID:8468712

  16. An Investigation into the Effect of Respondent Gender, Victim Age, and Perpetrator Treatment on Public Attitudes towards Sex Offenders, Sex Offender Treatment, and Sex Offender Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Paul; Hirst, Lindsay; Davies, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    In this study the authors examine the effect respondent gender, victim age, and offender treatment programs have upon public attitudes towards sex offenders. A community sample of 235 participants were asked to read a hypothetical vignette involving the sexual assault of a 10-, 15-, or 20-year-old female by a 35-year-old male who subsequently…

  17. Young Female Sex Offenders: Assessment and Treatment Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, Jennifer; McRoy, Ruth; Matthews, Bobbie M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the literature on female sex offenders and presents the results of a nationwide survey of mental health providers on approaches to diagnosing prior sexual abuse history and/or perpetration among juvenile females. Key findings include the lack of research, tools, and literature on young female sex offenders and perceived differences between…

  18. The Role of Theory in the Assessment of Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quackenbush, Ray E.

    2003-01-01

    No generally accepted theory of sex offender behavior exists at this point. As clinical experience and research findings interact within an evolving theoretical framework, the picture of what is important, as well as what is possible to know about a sex offender, is rapidly changing. It is vital that mental health professionals, the legal system,…

  19. Assessment of Risk Manageability of Intellectually Disabled Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boer, Douglas P.; Tough, Susan; Haaven, James

    2004-01-01

    Background: There are no validated risk assessment tools for intellectually disabled (ID) sex offenders, with the exception of the work of Lindsay et al. ["Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities" (2004) 17: 267] regarding the prediction of risk for aggressive behaviour of ID offenders in residential settings. ID sex offenders…

  20. 32 CFR 635.7 - Registration of sex offenders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Registration of sex offenders. 635.7 Section 635.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW... of sex offenders. Soldiers who are convicted by court-martial for certain sexual offenses must...

  1. 32 CFR 635.7 - Registration of sex offenders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Registration of sex offenders. 635.7 Section 635.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW... of sex offenders. Soldiers who are convicted by court-martial for certain sexual offenses must...

  2. 32 CFR 635.7 - Registration of sex offenders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Registration of sex offenders. 635.7 Section 635.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW... of sex offenders. Soldiers who are convicted by court-martial for certain sexual offenses must...

  3. 32 CFR 635.7 - Registration of sex offenders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Registration of sex offenders. 635.7 Section 635.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW... of sex offenders. Soldiers who are convicted by court-martial for certain sexual offenses must...

  4. 32 CFR 635.7 - Registration of sex offenders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Registration of sex offenders. 635.7 Section 635.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW... of sex offenders. Soldiers who are convicted by court-martial for certain sexual offenses must...

  5. Working with Parents to Reduce Juvenile Sex Offender Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zankman, Scott; Bonomo, Josephine

    2004-01-01

    Although there is very little research in the area of including parents in juvenile sex offender treatment, one of the factors that might be worth exploring is how the parental relationship may aid in successful relapse prevention. Since the family environment is a potential risk factor for adolescent sex offenders, integration of relapse…

  6. Electronic Monitoring of Sex Offenders: Identifying Unanticipated Consequences and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demichele, Matthew; Payne, Brian K.; Button, Deeanna M.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, increased legislative attention has been given to strategies to supervise sex offenders in the community. Among other policies, several states have passed laws calling for the use of electronic monitoring technologies to supervise sex offenders in the community. When initially developed, this community-based sanction was designed…

  7. The Effectiveness of the Tupiq Program for Inuit Sex Offenders.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lynn A; Hamilton, Ellen; Wilton, Geoff; Cousineau, Colette; Varrette, Steven K

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of the Tupiq program, a culturally specific program for Inuit sex offenders that incorporates cognitive behavioural methods with traditional Inuit knowledge and culture led by Inuit healers and facilitators. Outcomes of 61 offenders who participated in the Tupiq program and were released were compared with outcomes of a cohort of 114 released Inuit sex offenders incarcerated during the same time period who had taken alternative sex offender treatment programs, or had not attended any sex offender program. On release, Tupiq participants had significantly lower rates of general reoffending and violent reoffending than those in the combined comparison group. The hazard of reoffending for the comparison group was almost twice that of the Tupiq group. Although the sexual reoffending rate for the Tupiq participants was less than half of that of the comparison group, the difference between the two groups was not significant because of reduced statistical power. Survival analysis controlling for covariates confirmed significantly lower rates of general reoffending for the Tupiq group. Further analyses comparing the outcomes of the subgroup of offenders in the comparison group who participated in alternative sex offender treatment programs with those who participated in Tupiq indicated that Tupiq participants had significantly lower rates of both general and sexual reoffending. These positive results for this culturally specific program suggest that similarly designed interventions have a probability of contributing to the reduction of sexual offending within Inuit communities and, potentially, other jurisdictions that work with cultural minority sex offender groups from relatively isolated communities. PMID:24913245

  8. Too close for comfort? Registered sex offender spatial clustering and recidivistic sex crime arrest rates.

    PubMed

    Socia, Kelly M

    2013-12-01

    This study examined whether three measures of the spatial distribution of registered sex offenders (RSOs) in September 2010 were associated with differences in county-level rates of recidivistic sex crime arrests over the following year in 52 upstate New York counties. Results indicate that RSO clustering was positively associated with modest increases of recidivistic sex crime arrest rates, but results were significant only for adult victim sex crimes and only for certain types of RSO clustering. Under no circumstances, however, was increased RSO clustering associated with decreased rates of recidivistic sex crime arrests. The results of this study, combined with the limited prior research, suggest that RSO clustering has only a limited association with recidivistic sex crime arrest rates. This implies that housing policies such as residence restrictions may be useful in mitigating risk from some types of recidivistic sex crimes only to the extent that they result in more equitable distributions of RSOs within a county. PMID:23296093

  9. Appraising the risk matrix 2000 static sex offender risk assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Tully, Ruth J; Browne, Kevin D

    2015-02-01

    This critical appraisal explores the reliability and validity of the Risk Matrix 2000 static sex offender risk assessment tool that is widely used in the United Kingdom. The Risk Matrix 2000 has to some extent been empirically validated for use with adult male sex offenders; however, this review highlights that further research into the validity of this static tool with sex offender subgroups or types is necessary in order to improve practical utility. The Risk Matrix 2000 relies on static risk predictors, thus it is limited in scope. This article argues that the addition of dynamic items that have been shown to be predictive of sexual recidivism would further enhance the tool. The paper argues that adding dynamic risk items would fit better with a rehabilitative approach to sex offender risk management and assessment. This would also provide a means by which to effectively plan sex offender treatment and evaluate individual offenders' progress in treatment; however, difficulties remain in identifying and assessing dynamic risk factors of sexual offending and so further research is required. PMID:24146356

  10. Effectiveness of sex offender treatment for psychopathic sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Doren, Dennis M; Yates, Pamela M

    2008-04-01

    Meta-analyses have suggested that sexual offender treatment (SOT) completion is associated with lowered sexual recidivism rates for convicted sexual offenders. The paucity of properly designed studies allows for the alternative explanation of less recidivism among treated samples as reflecting that lower risk offenders disproportionately self-select into treatment. A test of the "self-selection explanation" can occur by investigating treatment effect on known high-risk offenders. Psychopathy correlates with increased sexual recidivism risk, such that an exploration of the SOT effect on psychopathic offenders could clarify the accuracy of the self-selection hypothesis. Additionally, the debated degree to which psychopaths are treatable might obtain clarification by a research review. This article examines empirical findings concerning the effectiveness of SOT for psychopathic sexual offenders. Ten studies were found to meet the minimal quality standards used, stemming from only four data sources. Shortcomings of existing research precluded clear conclusions, though trends in the data are delineated. PMID:17615428

  11. The treatment of sex offenders: evidence, ethics, and human rights.

    PubMed

    Birgden, Astrid; Cucolo, Heather

    2011-09-01

    Public policy is necessarily a political process with the law and order issue high on the political agenda. Consequently, working with sex offenders is fraught with legal and ethical minefields, including the mandate that community protection automatically outweighs offender rights. In addressing community protection, contemporary sex offender treatment is based on management rather than rehabilitation. We argue that treatment-as-management violates offender rights because it is ineffective and unethical. The suggested alternative is to deliver treatment-as-rehabilitation underpinned by international human rights law and universal professional ethics. An effective and ethical community-offender balance is more likely when sex offenders are treated with respect and dignity that, as human beings, they have a right to claim. PMID:20937793

  12. Female sex offender recidivism: a large-scale empirical analysis.

    PubMed

    Sandler, Jeffrey C; Freeman, Naomi J

    2009-12-01

    Using a sample of 1,466 females convicted of a sexual offense in New York State, the current study explored the following: (a) offending prior to the commission of the offenders' first sexual offense, (b) rates of recidivism following their first sexual offense conviction, and (c) factors associated with the likelihood of sexual recidivism. Results showed the recidivism rates of female sex offenders to be lower than those of male sex offenders for all types of recidivism studied (any rearrest, felony rearrest, violent [including violent sexual] felony rearrest, and sexual rearrest). Several significant differences were found between the group of female sex offenders who sexually recidivated and the group who did not, including crime of first sexual conviction and measures of prior offending. PMID:19901239

  13. A critical review of objective personality inventories with sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Davis, Karen M; Archer, Robert P

    2010-12-01

    This review provides a critical analysis of the ability of multiscale inventories to distinguish between sex offender and nonoffender control groups, as well as to discriminate sex offenders from other types of offenders. In addition to expanding upon previous reviews that examined the utility of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) with this population (e.g., Levin & Stava, 1987), the current review included studies that utilized other multiscale inventories commonly used in forensic practice (i.e., MMPI-2, Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III [MCMI-III], Personality Assessment Inventory) and, when possible, provides effect sizes to evaluate group differences. Based on the review, the various forms of the MMPI and MCMI are clearly the most widely used instruments in sex offender populations. The MMPI Pd scale has shown moderate to large effect sizes when distinguishing between sex offender and nonsex offender groups, but this relationship may be reflective of antisocial behavior in general rather than traits specific to sex offenders. Recommendations to standardize future research classification strategies and more effectively utilize these instruments when assessing sex offenders are also provided. PMID:20734319

  14. The impact of specialized sex offender legislation on community reentry.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Cynthia Calkins; Alvarez, Shea; Levenson, Jill

    2008-06-01

    The authors sought to examine the impact of notification and residence restriction statutes on sex offender reintegration. Although previous research has primarily sampled sex offenders receiving treatment, the authors examined the impact of these policies on a broad sample of registered sex offenders subject to notification via the Internet. Findings from a survey of 138 community sex offenders revealed that a high percentage perceived residence restriction and community notification legislation to negatively affect employment, housing, and social relations. Consistent with prior research in this area, these findings suggest that such policies might hamper offenders' efforts toward community reintegration, which ultimately could serve to inflate rates of recidivism. Directions for future research and implications for practice and policy evaluation are discussed. PMID:18490481

  15. Views of sexual abuse professionals about sex offender notification policies.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Fortney, Timothy; Baker, Juanita N

    2010-04-01

    This study examines the views of 261 sexual abuse professionals regarding sex crime policies. Few participants believe that community notification is very effective in reducing sex offenses, but about half believe that all sex offenders should be subject to public disclosure. About one quarter of respondents opine that sex offenders should not be allowed to live in their communities, but a majority do not view residential housing restrictions for sex offenders as effective at reducing recidivism. Most believe in the helpfulness of therapeutic intervention. More than half say that they will support sex offender policies even without scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Criminal justice professionals are more likely to approve of these laws compared to mental health professionals. Those with more conservative political leanings also favor more restrictive policies. There are few differences attributable to gender, parenting status, or victimization experiences. PMID:19131567

  16. Offense related characteristics and psychosexual development of juvenile sex offenders

    PubMed Central

    Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette 't A; Doreleijers, Theo AH; Jansen, Lucres MC; van Wijk, Anton PH; Bullens, Ruud AR

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This article reports on offense related characteristics and the psychosexual development in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders as measured by the Global Assessment Instrument for Juvenile Sex Offenders (GAIJSO). The predictive validity of these characteristics for persistent (sexual) offensive behavior in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders was investigated. Methods: One hundred seventy four sex offenders (mean age 14.9 SD 1.4) referred by the police to the Dutch Child Protection Board were examined. Offense related characteristics were assessed by means of the GAIJSO and the BARO (a global assessment tool for juvenile delinquents), and criminal careers of the subjects were ascertained from official judicial records. Results: Serious need for comprehensive diagnostics were found on the domains sexual offense and psychosexual development in juvenile sex offenders, especially in the group of child molesters. These youngsters displayed more internalizing and (psychosexual) developmental problems and their sexual offense was more alarming as compared to the other juvenile sex offender subgroups. Although one third of the juveniles had already committed one or more sex offenses prior to the index offense, at follow up (mean follow up period: 36 months SD 18 months) almost no sexual recidivism was found (0.6% of the entire sample). However, a substantial proportion of the entire sample of juvenile sex offenders showed non-sexual (55.6%) and violent recidivism (32.1%). Several predictors for a history of multiple sex offending and non-sexual recidivism were identified. Conclusion: This study revealed numerous problems in juvenile sex offenders. Assessment using the GAIJSO is helpful in order to identify indicators for extensive diagnostic assessment. In order to investigate the predictive validity for sexual reoffending a longer follow up period is necessary. PMID:19594889

  17. 28 CFR 72.3 - Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability of the Sex Offender...) SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION AND NOTIFICATION § 72.3 Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act. The requirements of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act apply to all...

  18. 28 CFR 72.3 - Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability of the Sex Offender...) SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION AND NOTIFICATION § 72.3 Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act. The requirements of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act apply to all...

  19. 28 CFR 72.3 - Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability of the Sex Offender...) SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION AND NOTIFICATION § 72.3 Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act. The requirements of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act apply to all...

  20. 28 CFR 72.3 - Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability of the Sex Offender...) SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION AND NOTIFICATION § 72.3 Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act. The requirements of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act apply to all...

  1. 28 CFR 72.3 - Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability of the Sex Offender...) SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION AND NOTIFICATION § 72.3 Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act. The requirements of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act apply to all...

  2. Juvenile sex offenders: similar to, or different from, other incarcerated delinquent offenders?

    PubMed

    Kempton, T; Forehand, R

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare incarcerated juvenile sex offenders to incarcerated youth who committed confrontational but nonsex offenses, and to those youth who committed only nonconfrontational, nonsex offenses. Furthermore, comparisons were made between two subtypes of sex offenders: those youth convicted for rape or sodomy vs those convicted for child molestation. Eighty-three male juvenile delinquents served as participants. Teachers within the correctional facility completed an instrument which allowed the examination of the two areas of interest: externalizing problems and internalizing problems. The results indicated that sex offenders generally, and particularly those who had committed only sex offenses, were perceived as having fewer externalizing and internalizing problems. No differences emerged between the two subtypes of sex offenders. Implications, as well as limitations, of the findings are discussed. PMID:1520239

  3. Adolescent Sex Offenders: Issues in Research and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otey, Emeline M., Ed.; Ryan, Gail D., Ed.

    This document contains an introduction by Richard D. Krugman and five papers from the Adolescent Sex Offender Work Group meeting, which provide an overview of the present status of treatment programs for adolescent sexual offenders, methodological and ethical issues in research on etiology and treatment, and perspectives on research from those…

  4. Some Essential Environmental Ingredients for Sex Offender Reintegration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boer, Douglas P.

    2013-01-01

    Until the systematic work on the Good Lives Model (GLM) produced by Tony Ward, not a great deal of conceptual structure existed to provide sex offender treatment specialists with a theoretical underpinning for their work in helping offenders develop a better life as a way to prevent reoffending. However, the work of Ward and colleagues initially…

  5. Perceptions of Punishment: How Registered Sex Offenders View Registries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tewksbury, Richard; Lees, Matthew B.

    2007-01-01

    Sex offender registries (SORs) are a societal response to serious and presumably dangerous criminal offenders. Existing research on registries has focused on demographic overviews of registrants, assessments of registrants' recidivism, accuracy and completeness of listed information, and collateral consequences for registrants. The present…

  6. Phoenix: An Inhospital Treatment Program for Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Studer, Lea H.; Reddon, John R.; Roper, Vincent; Estrada, Leonel

    1996-01-01

    Evaluates the post-discharge recidivism rates of an eclectic sex offender treatment program. Study of 120 program completers and 100 noncompleters indicates significant differences in recidivism for the two groups. Results suggest that comprehensive treatment of sexual offenders can substantially reduce sexual as well as nonsexual offense…

  7. Serum Testosterone Levels in Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurnani, Prem D.; Dwyer, Margretta

    1986-01-01

    Reports that with the increase in diagnosis of offenders across the nation, physicians and psychiatric personnel need to be aware of low testosterone as a possible indicator of hypo-sexuality and possible concurrent offending behavior. (Author/ABB)

  8. Sex Offender Registration: Balancing the Rights of the Individual with the Public Good--A Commentary on Comartin, Kernsmith, and Miles (2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Carol D.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's comments on the article "Family Experiences of Young Adult Sex Offender Registration" by E. B. Comartin, P. D. Kernsmith, & P. W. Miles (2010). In the article "Family Experiences of Young Adult Sex Offender Registration", Comartin, Kernsmith, and Miles (2010) put forth a telling argument about the impact of the…

  9. Isolation and normlessness: attitudinal comparisons of adolescent sex offenders, juvenile offenders, and nondelinquents.

    PubMed

    Miner, Michael H; Munns, Rosemary

    2005-10-01

    The authors explored attitudinal differences among adolescent male sex offenders, juvenile delinquents, and nondelinquent youth based on three variables drawn from integrated delinquency theory: conventional attitudes, normlessness, and social isolation. Consistent with previous juvenile delinquency studies, the results indicate no differences among the three groups on conventional attitudes. With respect to normlessness, both the sex offenders and juvenile delinquent groups demonstrated more school normlessness than did nondelinquent youths, and adolescent sex offenders showed greater peer normlessness than did either nondelinquent youths or juvenile delinquents. Examination of perceived social isolation among the three groups indicates that sex offenders consistently perceived themselves as more isolated than other youths with their families, in their school, and among their peers. These results suggest that interpersonal factors, in addition to a lack of social controls and normlessness, are associated with sexually inappropriate behavior. PMID:16260479

  10. Can We Distinguish Juvenile Violent Sex Offenders, Violent Non-Sex Offenders, and Versatile Violent Sex Offenders Based on Childhood Risk Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanklyn, Sonya G.; Ward, Ashley K.; Cormier, Nicole S.; Day, David M.; Newman, Jennifer E.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the developmental precursors of juvenile violent sex offending can contribute to the promotion of effective early intervention and prevention programs for high-risk children and youth. However, there is currently a lack of research on the early characteristics of adolescents who commit violent sex offenses. Drawing on the literature…

  11. Sex offender management using the polygraph: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Ewout H; Verschuere, Bruno; Merckelbach, Harald L G J; Crombez, Geert

    2008-01-01

    Reducing recidivism is a central goal in the treatment of sex offenders. In Europe, there is an increased interest in using the polygraph ("lie detector") as a tool in the treatment and risk assessment of convicted sex offenders. This interest originated from optimistic reports by American clinicians who argued that polygraph testing in the treatment of sex offenders is akin to urine analysis in the treatment of drug addiction. In this article, we critically examine the validity and utility of post-conviction sex offender polygraph testing. Our review shows that the available evidence for the claims about the clinical potential of polygraph tests is weak, if not absent. We conclude that portraying post-conviction polygraph testing as analogous to urine analysis is inaccurate, misleading, and ultimately, risky. PMID:18789528

  12. Collaboration among sex offender treatment providers and probation and parole officers: the beliefs and behaviors of treatment providers.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Robert J; Cumming, Georgia; Holt, John

    2002-01-01

    New and emerging collaborative responses to sex offender management are challenging traditional notions about how treatment providers and probation and parole officers (POs) deliver services to this difficult population. Typically, sex offender treatment professionals provide community-based services to offenders who are supervised by POs. Yet, no comprehensive survey has investigated how treatment providers and POs collaborate and view their relationships with each other. This national random survey examined the beliefs and behaviors of community-based adult sex-offender treatment providers concerning various types of provider and PO interactions and collaborative models. Overall, treatment providers reported that they value frequent and substantive communication with POs concerning mutual clients. There was, however, considerable diversity in practice and opinion among providers with regard to POs leading, coleading, and observing sex offender treatment groups. Treatment providers' opinions about various clinical, ethical, and legal issues evident in these collaborative approaches are examined. PMID:11803595

  13. Sex Offender Populations and Clinical Efficacy: A Response to Rosky.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Todd M; Shafer, Kevin; Roby, C Y; Roby, Jini L

    2016-06-01

    We provide a brief response to a commentary submitted by Rosky in which he questions the rationale and methodological merits of our original study about full-disclosure polygraph outcome differences between juvenile and adult sex offenders. At the heart of Rosky's substantive concerns is the premise that only research tying polygraphy outcomes to actual recidivism is useful or worthwhile. He also questions the overall utility and validity of polygraphy. We acknowledge and challenge these two points. Furthermore, many of the methodological concerns expressed by Rosky represent either a misunderstanding of our research question, study design, and sample, or a disregard for the explicit declarations we made with respect to our study limitations. Overall, it appears Rosky has accused us of not answering well a question we were not trying to ask. Our response addresses the key substantive and methodological concerns extended by Rosky and clarifies the actual aims and scope of our original study. We also argue that a calm, rational, and scientific discussion is the best approach to understanding how to improve clinical methods used in sex offender treatment. PMID:25670743

  14. Knowledge of Juvenile Sex Offender Registration Laws Predicts Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Margaret C.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Wiley, Tisha R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Because juveniles can now be registered as sex offenders, we conducted a pilot study to investigate awareness of these policies and sexual behavior histories in a convenience sample of 53 young adults (ages 18 to 23, 79% women). These preliminary data revealed that 42% percent of participants were unaware that youth under the age of 18 can be…

  15. Replications and Extensions in Arousal Assessment for Sex Offenders with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Jorge R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Hall, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in phallometric assessments that involved repeated measures of arousal when exposed to various stimuli. Arousal assessment outcomes were similar to those obtained by Reyes et al. (2006). Additional data-analysis methods provided further information about sexual…

  16. Community Management of Sex Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities: Characteristics, Services, and Outcome of a Statewide Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Robert J.; Livingston, Joy A.; Falk, Gail

    2007-01-01

    The state of Vermont closed its only institution for persons with intellectual disabilities in 1993 and moved to a totally community-based model of services. Here we describe the characteristics of the near exhaustive statewide sample of adult male sex offenders with intellectual disabilities (N = 103) who received these services between 1993 and…

  17. Why Therapy Fails with Some Sex Offenders: Learning Difficulties Examined Empirically.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langevin, Ron; Marentette, Dennis

    1996-01-01

    A total of 203 men accused of sexual offenses were compared on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the Halstead-Reitan Battery, school grade repeats, and therapy outcome measures. Sex offenders with and without learning problems did not differ in desire for treatment, but those with learning problems had better attendance. (LSR)

  18. Criminal Profiles of Violent Juvenile Sex and Violent Juvenile Non-Sex Offenders: An Explorative Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wijk, Anton Ph.; Mali, Bas R. F.; Bullens, Ruud A. R.; Vermeiren, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have longitudinally investigated the criminal profiles of violent juvenile sex and violent juvenile non-sex offenders. To make up for this lack, this study used police records of juveniles to determine the nature of the criminal profiles of violent sex offenders (n = 226) and violent non-sex offenders (n = 4,130). All offenders…

  19. A comparison of modified versions of the Static-99 and the Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Kevin L; Firestone, Philip; Bradford, John M; Greenberg, David M; Broom, Ian

    2002-07-01

    The predictive validity of 2 risk assessment instruments for sex offenders, modified versions of the Static-99 and the Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide, was examined and compared in a sample of 258 adult male sex offenders. In addition, the independent contributions to the prediction of recidivism made by each instrument and by various phallometric indices were explored. Both instruments demonstrated moderate levels of predictive accuracy for sexual and violent (including sexual) recidivism. They were not significantly different in terms of their predictive accuracy for sexual or violent recidivism, nor did they contribute independently to the prediction of sexual or violent recidivism. Of the phallometric indices examined, only the pedophile index added significantly to the prediction of sexual recidivism, but not violent recidivism, above the Static-99 alone. PMID:12087686

  20. Risk Assessment with Adolescent Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christodoulides, T. E.; Richardson, G.; Graham, F.; Kennedy, P. J.; Kelly, T. P.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes an evaluation of a risk assessment tool's effectiveness in distinguishing adolescent sexual offenders who had committed further sexual offences from those who had not. The sample consisted of 50 male adolescent sexual offenders referred to a forensic outpatient service within a healthcare setting. The adolescents within the…

  1. Juvenile Sex Offenders: Development and Correction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Gail; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Three case histories elucidate a discussion of the developmental nature of the behaviors of juvenile male sexual offenders. The sexual assault cycle is defined in the stages of negative self-image, predicting rejection, isolation, fantasies, planning the offense, and committing the offense. Tools for treating the offender are outlined. (Author/JDD)

  2. Sentencing Outcomes of Convicted Child Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Steven; Marsh, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the sentencing outcomes of convicted child sexual offenders from data collected over an eight year period. Multiple regression and nominal log linear regression are used to examine length of prison sentence, length of probation sentence, and whether the convicted offender is actually sent to prison or to probation. While…

  3. Sex differences in empathy and its relation to juvenile offending.

    PubMed

    Broidy, Lisa; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Espelage, Dorothy L; Mazerolle, Paul; Piquero, Alex

    2003-10-01

    Implicit in most theoretical accounts of sex differences in offending is the assumption that females are less likely than males to engage in crime--especially serious, violent crime--in part because of their comparatively higher levels of concern for others and stronger affiliative ties. Much research suggests that significant sex differences in both empathy and serious offending emerge in adolescence, with females displaying notably higher levels of empathy and males engaging in notably higher levels of serious offending. However, there has been little empirical work assessing the degree to which sex differences in empathy among adolescents can account for sex differences in offending. This research uses data from a sample of adolescents attending public high schools in Philadelphia (n = 425) and a sample of adolescents incarcerated in the California Youth Authority (CYA) (n = 232) to examine the relation between empathy and serious offending. Results suggest that empathy acts as a protective factor for both males and females but that there are subtle differences among males and females in the relation between empathy and offending. PMID:14695017

  4. Sex Differences in Trajectories of Offending Among Puerto Rican Youth.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Wesley G; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M; Piquero, Alex R; Odgers, Candice L; Bird, Hector; Canino, Glorisa

    2010-07-01

    Although sex is one of the strongest correlates of crime, contentions remain regarding the necessity of sex-specific theories of crime. The current study examines delinquent trajectories across sex among Puerto Rican youth socialized in two different cultural contexts (Bronx, United States and San Juan, Puerto Rico). Results indicate: similar substantive offending trajectories across males and females within each cultural context; that males exhibit a higher frequency of offending and higher levels of risk factors for delinquency; and there more similarities than differences in how risk/protective factors relate to patterns of offending across male versus female youth. Study limitations and implications for sex-specific criminological theories are also discussed. PMID:21701603

  5. Sex Differences in Trajectories of Offending Among Puerto Rican Youth

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Wesley G.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Bird, Hector; Canino, Glorisa

    2011-01-01

    Although sex is one of the strongest correlates of crime, contentions remain regarding the necessity of sex-specific theories of crime. The current study examines delinquent trajectories across sex among Puerto Rican youth socialized in two different cultural contexts (Bronx, United States and San Juan, Puerto Rico). Results indicate: similar substantive offending trajectories across males and females within each cultural context; that males exhibit a higher frequency of offending and higher levels of risk factors for delinquency; and there more similarities than differences in how risk/protective factors relate to patterns of offending across male versus female youth. Study limitations and implications for sex-specific criminological theories are also discussed. PMID:21701603

  6. Female Adolescent Sex Offenders--An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendriks, J.; Bijleveld, C. C. J. H.

    2006-01-01

    A sample of 10 female adolescent sex offenders, aged between 11 and 18 years, is studied. They constitute about one-sixth of all young women who were registered at the prosecutor's office in the Netherlands during the past 10 years. Information was gathered from psychological screenings carried out in relation to the sex offence. Most young women…

  7. The kindest cut? Surgical castration, sex offenders and coercive offers.

    PubMed

    McMillan, John

    2014-09-01

    The European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT) have conducted visits and written reports criticising the surgical castration of sex offenders in the Czech Republic and Germany. They claim that surgical castration is degrading treatment and have called for an immediate end to this practice. The Czech and German governments have published rebuttals of these criticisms. The rebuttals cite evidence about clinical effectiveness and point out this is an intervention that must be requested by the sex offender and cannot occur without informed consent. This article considers a number of relevant arguments that are not discussed in these reports but which are central to how we might assess this practice. First, the article discusses the possible ways in which sex offenders could be coerced into castration and whether this is a decisive moral problem. Then, it considers a number of issues relevant to determining whether sex offenders are harmed by physical castration. The article concludes by arguing that sex offenders should not be coerced into castration, be that via threats or offers, but that there is no reason to think that this is occurring in the Czech Republic or Germany. In some cases, castration might be useful for reconfiguring a life that has gone badly awry and where there is no coercion, the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment are mistaken about this being degrading treatment. PMID:23665998

  8. Adolescent Sibling-Incest Offenders: Differences in Family and Individual Functioning When Compared to Adolescent Nonsibling Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worling, James R.

    1995-01-01

    Adolescent male sex offenders who assaulted younger siblings (n=32) were compared to those who offended against nonsibling children (n=28). Adolescent sibling-incest offenders reported significantly more marital discord, parental rejection, physical discipline, negative family atmosphere, and general dissatisfaction with family relationships and…

  9. Working with parents to reduce juvenile sex offender recidivism.

    PubMed

    Zankman, Scott; Bonomo, Josephine

    2004-01-01

    Although there is very little research in the area of including parents in juvenile sex offender treatment, one of the factors that might be worth exploring is how the parental relationship may aid in successful relapse prevention. Since the family environment is a potential risk factor for adolescent sex offenders, integration of relapse prevention into daily family life may be a significant part of these youths' success or failure in the community. This article focuses on the concept of including parents in juvenile sex offender treatment. Issues addressed include what treatment providers can do to involve parents in relapse prevention, treatment providers' misconceptions about the inclusion of parents in treatment, a rationale for including parents in treatment, and research regarding different parenting styles. PMID:15914394

  10. Birth order in sex-offending and aggressive-offending men.

    PubMed

    MacCulloch, Sophie I; Gray, Nicola S; Phillips, Helen K; Taylor, John; MacCulloch, Malcolm J

    2004-10-01

    The relation between birth order and number of sexual and violent convictions was investigated retrospectively in a sample of 113 men, to determine whether the established fraternal birth order effect in male homosexual preference and deviant sexual preference (e.g., for rape and pedophilia) may be extended to sexual behavior. Participants were mentally disordered offenders detained in a medium secure psychiatric unit in the United Kingdom and comprised 64 men with sexual convictions and 49 men with nonsexual violent convictions. Sibling data from psychiatric notes were used to calculate Berglin's birth order index for each participant and conviction data were obtained from the Home Office Offenders' Index. Fraternal birth order was significantly correlated with number of sexual convictions (p < or = .05). No association was found between fraternal or sororal birth order and violent convictions in either the sex offender or violent offender group. Results suggest that the fraternal birth order effect previously found for deviant sexual preference in sex offenders (K. Côté, C. M. Earls, & M. L. Lalumière, 2002; M. L. Lalumière, G. T. Harris, V. L. Quinsey, & M. E. Rice, 1998) also applies to sexually deviant behavior and is specific to sexual rather than general offending. Results are discussed in terms of the maternal immunosensitization hypothesis. PMID:15305117

  11. Post-conviction sex offender polygraph examination: client-reported perceptions of utility and accuracy.

    PubMed

    Kokish, Ron; Levenson, Jill S; Blasingame, Gerry D

    2005-04-01

    Post-conviction polygraph testing of adult sex offenders in treatment has been a somewhat controversial subject. This study (n = 95 participants who took 333 polygraph tests) explored how sexual offenders enrolled in outpatient treatment programs perceived their polygraph experience. Participants reported a relatively low incidence of false indications of both deception (22 of 333 tests) and truthfulness (11 of 333) tests, suggesting that clients agreed with examiners' opinions 90% of the time. The majority of clients reported that polygraph testing was a helpful part of treatment. Finally, about 5% of participants reported that they responded to allegedly inaccurate accusations of deception by admitting to things they had not done. The data offer encouragement for continued but cautious use of polygraphs by sex offender treatment programs. Implications for practice and research are identified. PMID:15974426

  12. Outcomes in a community sex offender treatment program: a comparison between polygraphed and matched non-polygraphed offenders.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Robert J; Cumming, Georgia F; Hoke, Stephen E; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2007-12-01

    This study compared a group of 104 adult male sex offenders who received community cognitive-behavioral treatment, correctional supervision, and periodic polygraph compliance exams with a matched group of 104 sex offenders who received the same type of treatment and supervision services but no polygraph exams. Polygraph exams focused on whether participants were following their conditions of community supervision and treatment and had avoided committing new sexual offenses. The two groups were exact pair-wise matched on three variables: (1) Static-99 risk score (Hanson & Thornton 2000, Law and Human Behavior, 24, 119-136), (2) status as a completer of prison sex offender treatment, and (3) date placed in the community. At fixed 5-year follow-up periods, the number of individuals in the polygraph group charged with committing a new non-sexual violent offense was significantly lower than in the no polygraph group (2.9% versus 11.5%). However, there were no significant between-group differences for the number of individuals charged for new sexual (5.8% versus 6.7%), any sexual or violent (8.7% versus 16.3%), or any criminal offense (39.4% versus 34.6%). The results are discussed in terms of their clinical and research implications. PMID:17914673

  13. The current role of post-conviction sex offender polygraph testing in sex offender treatment.

    PubMed

    Kokish, Ron

    2003-01-01

    Polygraph testing is becoming increasingly important in sex offender treatment. Polygraph advocates cite dramatic increases in historical disclosures that presumably allow more precise targeting of treatment interventions, earlier detection of risky behaviors that often lead to new offenses, and improved treatment and supervision compliance. Based on this, they believe the procedure supports desirable behavior that continues to various degrees after treatment and supervision end. Opponents cite ethical problems related to inaccurate results, unproven accuracy rates, and the risk that examinees may be coerced into making false admissions. To counter these criticisms, proponents have developed standards, best practices, and examiner training and certification programs intended to reduce error rates and address ethical issues. Opponents argue that these measures have not been tested and that empirically established error rates and best practices may not be possible for a variety of reasons. This article reviews the current situation, leaving readers to decide the wisdom and ethics of using polygraph testing in their own practices. PMID:15308451

  14. What Is in a Symptom? A Conservative Approach in the Therapy of Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfafflin, Friedemann

    1992-01-01

    Reviews methods of treatment used with sex offenders, each based on the erroneous belief that sex offenders constitute a relatively homogeneous taxonomic class. Asserts that sex offenders are people with a sad personal history, in which their deviant sexual behavior represents an effort to banish the pain they experienced during their developing…

  15. 24 CFR 5.856 - When must I prohibit admission of sex offenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sex offenders? 5.856 Section 5.856 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department... Denying Admissions § 5.856 When must I prohibit admission of sex offenders? You must establish standards... lifetime registration requirement under a State sex offender registration program. In the screening...

  16. 76 FR 1630 - Supplemental Guidelines for Sex Offender Registration and Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... Notification, 73 FR 38030, on July 2, 2008. The SORNA standards are administered by the Office of Sex Offender... nonconsensual sex offenses involving penetration or related attempts or conspiracies. See 73 FR at 38030, 38040... offender's ``tier'' for SORNA purposes. See 73 FR at 38043, 38064. In relation to sex offenders in...

  17. 24 CFR 5.856 - When must I prohibit admission of sex offenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sex offenders? 5.856 Section 5.856 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department... Denying Admissions § 5.856 When must I prohibit admission of sex offenders? You must establish standards... lifetime registration requirement under a State sex offender registration program. In the screening...

  18. 24 CFR 5.856 - When must I prohibit admission of sex offenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sex offenders? 5.856 Section 5.856 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department... Denying Admissions § 5.856 When must I prohibit admission of sex offenders? You must establish standards... lifetime registration requirement under a State sex offender registration program. In the screening...

  19. 24 CFR 5.856 - When must I prohibit admission of sex offenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sex offenders? 5.856 Section 5.856 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department... Denying Admissions § 5.856 When must I prohibit admission of sex offenders? You must establish standards... lifetime registration requirement under a State sex offender registration program. In the screening...

  20. 24 CFR 5.856 - When must I prohibit admission of sex offenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... sex offenders? 5.856 Section 5.856 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department... Denying Admissions § 5.856 When must I prohibit admission of sex offenders? You must establish standards... lifetime registration requirement under a State sex offender registration program. In the screening...

  1. 75 FR 27362 - Supplemental Guidelines for Sex Offender Registration and Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... included in their public Web site postings. See 73 FR at 38059. A sex offender's use of his name or an... tracking sex offenders who enter or leave the United States. See 42 U.S.C. 16928; 73 FR at 38066- 67. To... sex offender's registration information in the national databases. See 73 FR at 38067. (Regarding...

  2. Development and Refinement of a Measure of Attitudes toward Sex Offender Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wnuk, Dorota; Chapman, Jason E; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years public attitudes toward sex offenders have become increasingly punitive. Consequently, new legislation pertaining to the sentencing and treatment of convicted sex offenders has been focused on containment and monitoring rather than rehabilitation. However, research suggests that treatment programs for sex offenders are effective in…

  3. Outcome Evaluation of a High-Intensity Inpatient Sex Offender Treatment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.; Nicholaichuk, Terry P.

    2009-01-01

    The treatment outcome of a high-intensity inpatient sex offender treatment program was evaluated by comparing the sexual recidivism rates of 472 treated and 282 untreated sex offenders. The program is designed for moderate- to high-risk sex offenders and follows the principles of effective correctional treatment. The current investigation is an…

  4. Community reintegration of sex offenders of children in new zealand.

    PubMed

    Russell, Gemma; Seymour, Fred; Lambie, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Reintegration of offenders following incarceration is most successful if matched to the needs of offenders, victims, and the community. This study explored child sex offenders' expectations for and experiences of reintegration into the community. A longitudinal design was used in which semistructured interviews covered issues identified in the literature as being related to reintegration. Nine offenders were interviewed within 1 week prior to release, 3 months post release, and 6 months post release. Interviews were analysed using thematic analyses producing six key themes. The interviews revealed that most of the participants feared their release from prison into the community and once released struggled to live in society. Overall, reintegration planning was simplistic and aimed primarily to manage risk factors rather than promote reintegration. Those participants who reported most satisfaction with their adjustment following release had more comprehensive reintegration plans, which enabled them to visualise what life would be like after release. PMID:22100427

  5. Online child pornography offenders are different: a meta-analysis of the characteristics of online and offline sex offenders against children.

    PubMed

    Babchishin, Kelly M; Hanson, R Karl; VanZuylen, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The current meta-analysis compared the characteristics of online child pornography-only offenders, typical (offline) sex offenders against children, and offenders with both child pornography and contact sex offences against children (mixed). Based on 30 unique samples (comparison ns ranging from 98 to 2,702), the meta-analysis found key differences between groups. Offenders who committed contact sex offences were more likely to have access to children than those with only child pornography offences. In contrast, offenders who used the internet to commit sexual offences had greater access to the internet than those with contact sex offenders. Differences between the groups, however, were not limited to differential opportunities. Sex offenders against children and mixed offenders were found to score higher on indicators of antisociality than online child pornography offenders (CPOs). CPOs were also more likely to have psychological barriers to sexual offending than sex offenders against children and mixed offenders (e.g., greater victim empathy). Mixed offenders were found to be the most pedophilic, even more than CPOs. The findings suggest that offenders who restricted their offending behavior to online child pornography offences were different from mixed offenders and offline sex offenders against children, and that mixed offenders were a particularly high risk group. PMID:24627189

  6. Differences in Offending Patterns between Adolescent Sex Offenders High or Low in Callous--Unemotional Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawing, Kathryn; Frick, Paul J.; Cruise, Keith R.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, the authors investigated whether callous and unemotional (CU) traits designated a distinct and important group of adolescent sex offender. A sample of 150 detained adolescents (mean age = 15.89, SD = 1.53) with a current sexual offense disposition was assessed with a self-report measure of CU traits and through extensive…

  7. A multimodal examination of sexual interest in children: a comparison of sex offenders and nonsex offenders.

    PubMed

    Babchishin, Kelly M; Nunes, Kevin L; Kessous, Nicolas

    2014-08-01

    Research and theoretical models have consistently identified sexual interest in children as a key factor involved in child sexual offending. However, there is only moderate agreement in the diagnosis of pedophilia and different assessment methods identify different offenders as pedophiles. The current study examined the discriminative and convergent validity of three different measures of sexual interest in children. Participants included sex offenders and nonsex offenders recruited from federal prisons (i.e., offenders serving sentences of more than 2 years) in Ontario, Canada. Child molesters' responses (n = 35) were not significantly different from nonsex offenders (n = 21) on an implicit measure of sexual interest in children (Sexual Attraction to Children Implicit Association Test [SAC-IAT] d = 0.44, 95% CI [-0.11, 0.99]), but differed on the self-report (Sexual Interest Profiling System; d = 0.83, 95% CI [0.27, 1.39]) and viewing time (d = 1.15, 95% CI [0.54, 1.75]) measures. Findings did not provide clear support for the superiority of a multimodal approach, possibly due to the relatively small sample. More often than not, convergence between the three measures was observed (n = 74). Findings from the present study are an important step toward understanding the relationship between different measures of sexual interest in children and establishing their validity. PMID:23861406

  8. Relationship conflict management patterns among sex dysfunction, sex offender, and satisfied couples.

    PubMed

    Metz, M E; Dwyer, S M

    1993-01-01

    A substantial amount of research has distinguished specific behaviors of distressed from nondistressed couples. Among this evidence are differences in relationship conflict management styles. This investigation examined differences in relationship satisfaction and conflict management styles among 30 sex dysfunction, 25 sex offender, and 26 satisfied couples assessed by the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) and the Styles of Conflict Inventory (SCI). Results indicate significantly different levels of marital adjustment and distinctive conflict management patterns among the three couples groups. The two sex problem groups were significantly more distressed than the satisfied couples, and sex offender couples appeared more conflicted than sex dysfunction couples. Compared to satisfied couples, sex dysfunction couples address relationship conflict with somewhat polarized roles with an "avoid vs. engage" pattern, while sex offender couples employ a more chaotic "engage-avoid vs. engage-avoid" style. These different patterns of reactivity to conflict suggest that individualized treatment approaches to this dimension of the clinical picture is warranted. PMID:8336343

  9. Police posing as juveniles online to catch sex offenders: is it working?

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Wolak, Janis; Finkelhor, David

    2005-07-01

    This paper explores the extent and effectiveness of proactive investigations in which investigators pose as minors on the Internet to catch potential sex offenders. It utilizes a subsample of cases from the National Juvenile Online Victimization Survey, which concerned persons arrested for Internet sex crimes against minors in the year beginning July 1, 2000. Results suggest proactive investigations represented a significant proportion (25%) of all arrests for Internet sex crimes against minors. Such investigations were being conducted at all levels of law enforcement. The online personas assumed by investigators paralleled the ages and genders of real youth victimized in sex crimes that started as online encounters. These proactive investigations accessed an offender group that appeared somewhat less deviant in terms of adult sexual behavior and arrest history but equally deviant as other online offenders in terms of possession of child pornography. Prosecution of these cases produced high rates of guilty pleas and low rates of dismissed or dropped cases. The entrapment, fantasy or role-playing, and factual impossibility defenses were used but not successfully. Findings suggest that the Internet sometimes allows law enforcement to interdict before a youth is victimized, gather solid evidence of offenses, and find and track some offenders. PMID:16121838

  10. Myth Information and Bizarre Beliefs of Male Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakey, Joyce F.

    1992-01-01

    Describes mythical beliefs, thinking errors, and faulty attitudes collected from a group of 67 male juvenile sex offenders. Addresses four major thinking errors: pretentiousness, uniqueness, failure to assume responsibility, and distorted values. Notes that therapists need this information to develop effective treatment strategies for replacing…

  11. Physical and Chemical Castration of Sex Offenders: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Walter J., III; Cole, Collier M.

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of physical and chemical castration and its use in controlling sex offenders. Discusses castration and sexual aggression, then focuses on the use of therapeutic physical castration in dealing with those who display unacceptable sexual behaviors. Details legal and ethical issues and the efficacy of testosterone-lowering…

  12. Neighborhood Characteristics and the Social Control of Registered Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Socia, Kelly M.; Stamatel, Janet P.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses geospatial and regression analyses to examine the relationships among social disorganization, collective efficacy, social control, residence restrictions, spatial autocorrelation, and the neighborhood distribution of registered sex offenders (RSOs) in Chicago. RSOs were concentrated in neighborhoods that had higher levels of social…

  13. Assessing Juvenile Sex Offenders to Determine Adequate Levels of Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Karen E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories used by Utah probation officers to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. Three factors accounted for 41.2 percent of variance (custodian's and juvenile's attitude toward intervention, offense characteristics, and historical…

  14. Integrating a Humanistic Approach in Outpatient Sex Offender Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Sheri; Kopp, T. Gregory

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral and relapse prevention models are currently the treatments of choice among sex offender treatment providers. This article recommends integrating humanistic principles within treatment programs in order to maximize the power of group psychotherapy. Humanistic treatment processes and therapist characteristics that improve…

  15. What Happens to Therapists Who Work with Sex Offenders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrenkopf, Toni

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 24 experienced therapists working with sex offenders regarding personal impact of work. Most reported shift in perspective, becoming discouraged about client change. Several adjustment phases were reported. One-quarter experienced burnout. Alternative to burnout was adaptation: lowering of expectations, objective detachment, acceptance of…

  16. The Impact of Training on Attitudes towards Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Leam A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to measure attitudes towards sex offenders held by professionals and paraprofessionals and to evaluate an introductory training workshop aimed at increasing knowledge and improving attitudes to this client group. Eighty-five residential hostel workers and probation officers attended an intensive two-day…

  17. Sanctions for Sex Offenders: Fear and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comartin, Erin B.; Kernsmith, Poco D.; Kernsmith, Roger M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated public attitudes regarding sex offender sanctions through telephone surveys (n = 703). The greatest support was for residency and work restrictions. There was less support for publication of names in a newspaper, curfews, life in prison, and castration. Support for nonsevere sanctions correlated with socioeconomic status,…

  18. An Investigation of Successfully Treated Adolescent Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franey, Kristina Crumpton; Viglione, Donald J.; Wayson, Peter; Clipson, Clark; Brager, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the characteristics of adolescent sex offenders who do not reoffend. Most studies emphasize reoffense rates, recidivism and those who reoffend. Moreover, these studies provide quantitative summaries without describing the individual, his behavior, and challenges after treatment. The present study seeks to provide novel…

  19. Motivational Counseling: Implications for Counseling Male Juvenile Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Samir H.; Lambie, Glenn W.; Glover, Michelle Muenzenmeyer

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) often appear unmotivated to change, which thus necessitates a therapeutic approach that matches "resistant" client characteristics. In this article, the authors review common traits of JSOs, introduce motivational counseling as an effective treatment modality, and offer a case illustration. (Contains 1 table and 1…

  20. The Profile and Treatment of Male Adolescent Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakey, Joyce F.

    1994-01-01

    Outlines characteristics of sex offenders, including family and school histories, sexual attitudes, social skills and relationships, delinquent behaviors, psychiatric diagnoses, and cognitive distortions based on mythical beliefs. Treatment requires correction of thinking errors and promotion of accountability, empathy, education, morality,…

  1. Young Offenders' Diagnoses as Predictors of Subsequent Adult Criminal Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevc, Irene; Duchesne, Thierry; Rosenthal, Jeffrey; Rossman, Lianne; Theodor, Frances; Sowa, Edward

    This longitudinal study of 248 male offenders examined the relationship between psychiatric disorders, diagnosed in adolescence, and subsequent adult criminal activity. Criminal offences were tracked for an average of 8.7 years from age 18-33. Cox Proportional Intensity regression analyses were conducted to predict the rates of adult offending of…

  2. Sex Offender Situational Competency Test (SOSCT) Pretreatment and Posttreatment Effects for Inpatient Sex Offenders in Hypothetical High-Risk Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddon, John R.; Takacs, Shelly; Hogan, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate relapse prevention skill acquisition within the context of a comprehensive treatment program involving group psychotherapy, relapse prevention programming, and other essential psychoeducational components. The Sex Offender Situational Competency Test (SOSCT) was administered pretreatment and posttreatment…

  3. Assessing Components of Empathy in Sex-Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralfs, Sonya; Beail, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    Background: Because of a lack of research investigating empathy in sex offenders with intellectual disabilities, this study explored empathy in sex offenders and non-offenders with intellectual disabilities. Specific aims were to explore differences between these groups on measures of the components of empathy. Methods: The scores of 21…

  4. Female and Male Sex Offenders: A Comparison of Recidivism Patterns and Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Naomi J.; Sandler, Jeffrey C.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have empirically validated the assertion that female and male sex offenders are vastly different. Therefore, utilizing a matched sample of 780 female and male sex offenders in New York State, the current study explored differences and similarities of recidivism patterns and risk factors for the two offender groups. Results suggested…

  5. Physiological and Psychosocial Assessment and Treatment of Sex Offenders: A Comprehensive Victim-Oriented Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    Attempts to define the optimal sex offender treatment program based on a review of the empirical literature and on personal clinical experience with sex offenders. Discusses the use of the penile plethysmograph and the polygraph as methods of psychosocial assessment used in conjunction with antiandrogen medication to dampen the offender's libido…

  6. Risk factors for adolescent sex offender recidivism: evaluation of predictive factors and comparison of three groups based upon victim type.

    PubMed

    Parks, Gregory A; Bard, David E

    2006-10-01

    This study investigated differences in recidivism risk factors and traits associated with psychopathy among 3 groups of male adolescent sexual offenders (N=156): offenders against children, offenders against peers or adults, and mixed type offenders. Furthermore, those same variables were examined for their association with sexual and nonsexual recidivism and the 3 groups were compared for differences in rates of recidivism. Based upon both juvenile and adult recidivism data, 6.4% of the sample reoffended sexually and 30.1% reoffended nonsexually. Retrospective risk assessments were completed using the Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol-II (JSOAP-II) and the Psychopathy Checklist:Youth Version (PCL:YV). Comparisons of the 3 preexisting groups for differences on scale and factor scores were conducted using analyses of variance (ANOVAs). Differences among groups for recidivism were measured using survival curve analysis. Associations between risk scales and recidivism were measured using Cox regression analyses. Results suggest significant differences among the 3 offender groups on multiple scales of the JSOAP-II and PCL:YV, with mixed type offenders consistently producing higher risk scores as compared to those who exclusively offend against children or peers/adults. The Impulsive/Antisocial Behavior scale of the JSOAP-II and the Interpersonal and Antisocial factors of the PCL:YV were significant predictors of sexual recidivism. The Behavioral and Antisocial factors of the PCL:YV were significant predictors of nonsexual recidivism. Results supported previous research indicating that most adolescents who sexually offend do not continue offending into adulthood. Such results can lead to improved treatment by targeting specific risk factors for intervention and better use of risk management resources in the community, while preserving the most restrictive treatment options for the highest risk offenders. PMID:17136626

  7. REPLICATIONS AND EXTENSIONS IN AROUSAL ASSESSMENT FOR SEX OFFENDERS WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Jorge R; Vollmer, Timothy R; Hall, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in phallometric assessments that involved repeated measures of arousal when exposed to various stimuli. Arousal assessment outcomes were similar to those obtained by Reyes et al. (2006). Additional data-analysis methods provided further information about sexual preferences, thus replicating and extending previous research. The results provide preliminary data for establishing a preference gradient by age. Implications for the use of repeated measures and preference gradients in arousal assessments are discussed. PMID:21709795

  8. Offense history and recidivism in three victim-age-based groups of juvenile sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Therese Skubic; Kistner, Janet A

    2007-12-01

    This study compared subgroups of juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) who victimized children (child offenders), peers (peer offenders), or both children and peers (mixed offenders) on sexual and nonsexual offense history, treatment outcomes, and recidivism to determine if these are distinct and valid subgroups. Though the group of mixed offenders was small, results showed that they exhibited a more diverse and more physically intrusive sexual offense history than the other JSOs and were less likely to successfully complete treatment. Sexual and nonsexual recidivism rates of mixed offenders did not differ from the other subgroups despite subgroup differences in juvenile sexual and nonsexual criminal records. However, differences in sexual recidivism rates of child versus peer offenders were found when the mixed offenders were either excluded from the sample or combined with child offenders. The results highlight the need to include mixed offenders in future research examining the etiology of sexual offending, treatment, and recidivism of JSOs. PMID:17952596

  9. Sex offender treatment outcome, actuarial risk, and the aging sex offender in Canadian corrections: a long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Olver, Mark E; Nicholaichuk, Terry P; Gu, Deqiang; Wong, Stephen C P

    2013-08-01

    The present study is an examination of sex offender treatment outcome in a large national cohort of Canadian Federally incarcerated sex offenders followed up an average of 11.7 years postrelease. A brief actuarial risk scale (BARS), which predicted sexual and violent recidivism, was created for the purposes of the present study to control for risk-related differences between treated and untreated offenders. In total, 732 offenders were identified as having completed (n = 625) or not attended (n = 107) a sex offender treatment program and for whom sufficient information was available to complete the scale. Controlling for risk and individual differences in follow-up time using Cox regression survival analyses and an 8-year fixed follow-up period, treated sex offenders demonstrated significantly lower rates of violent, but not sexual, recidivism. When the treated and untreated groups were stratified by risk level, significant differences were observed only among moderate or high risk offenders. Some significant group differences also emerged on indicators of recidivism severity, with treated offenders demonstrating slower times to sexual reoffense and lower scores on a quantified metric of sexual and violent recidivism severity after controlling for risk. Differences in recidivism base rates between treated and untreated offenders were also larger in magnitude for younger offenders (i.e., under age 50 at release), than for older offenders; however, interactions between age and treatment were not found. The findings are consistent with the risk principle and have possible implications regarding the dynamic nature of sexual violence risk. PMID:23136142

  10. Posthospitalization Outcomes for Psychiatric Sex Offenders: Comparing Two Treatment Protocols.

    PubMed

    Stinson, Jill D; McVay, Lee Ann; Becker, Judith V

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of safe offender strategies (SOS) in comparison with relapse prevention (RP) in a sample of 91 inpatient males in a secure psychiatric setting. All men evidenced a history of violent sexual offending and were diagnosed with serious psychiatric disorders and/or intellectual disabilities. Participants who received SOS (n= 58) and RP (n= 33) were followed from 6 to 36 months post release. SOS clients were significantly less likely to be arrested (0%) or rehospitalized (5.2%) than RP clients (9% arrested; 54.5% rehospitalized). In addition, SOS clients were more likely to transition continuously to less restrictive alternatives, with no returns to high security, in comparison with RP clients. The authors discuss implications for use of SOS, a treatment that facilitates skills development and affects global self-regulatory functioning, particularly in sex offenders with serious mental illness or intellectual impairment, in promoting community reintegration and limiting returns to psychiatric settings. PMID:26205684

  11. A Restorative Justice Approach to Empathy Development in Sex Offenders: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseman, Christopher P.; Ritchie, Martin; Laux, John M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe an exploratory study in sex offender treatment using a restorative justice approach to examine the shame, guilt, and empathy development of convicted sexual offenders. Implications for clinical practice and future research are highlighted. (Contains 3 tables.)

  12. Juvenile sex offenders: Personality profile, coping styles and parental care.

    PubMed

    Margari, Francesco; Lecce, Paola Alessandra; Craig, Francesco; Lafortezza, Elena; Lisi, Andrea; Pinto, Floriana; Stallone, Valentina; Pierri, Grazia; Pisani, Rossella; Zagaria, Giuseppina; Margari, Lucia; Grattagliano, Ignazio

    2015-09-30

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in juvenile sex offenders showing that this population is highly heterogeneous. The aim of the present study was to identify possible different profiles that could help understand the motivation behind offending, comparing 31 Juvenile Sexual Offenders (JSOs), 31 Juvenile Sexual Non Offenders (JSNOs) and 31 Juvenile Non Offenders (Control Group). A data collection form, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) or Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) and the Parental Bonding Inventory (PBI) were administered to all participants. The results show that JSOs differs from JNSOs in some domains, such as living in single-parent homes, while maintain some common aspects such as academic failure and previous sexual intercourse. Moreover, JNSOs showed more abnormal personality traits, such as Authority Problems, MacAndrew Alcoholism, Acknowledgement and Alcohol-Drug Problem Proneness compared to JSOs and the Control Group, while JSOs and JNSOs use a coping strategy more oriented to Avoidance and Distraction compared to the Control group. Finally, JSOs described the relationships with fathers characterized by higher care and protection than JNSOs. These findings provide additional evidence with respect the prevention and treatment of criminal sexual behavior in adolescent. PMID:26233829

  13. Comparing Offenders against Women and Offenders against Children on Treatment Outcome in Offenders with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, William R.; Michie, Amanda M.; Steptoe, Lesley; Moore, Fhionna; Haut, Fabian

    2011-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown the positive effects of sex offender treatment for men with intellectual disabilities who have perpetrated sex offences or inappropriate sexual behaviour. The present study investigates the process of treatment change and compares two groups of offenders against adults and offenders against children. Method:…

  14. Culturally competent practice with African American juvenile sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Venable, Victoria M; Guada, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    African American juveniles adjudicated for sexual offenses may struggle with the mistrust of both the judicial and treatment systems. Unlike general mental health services, juvenile sex offender treatment is often mandated by the court or child welfare services, thus these youths and their families must engage in the treatment process. Without clinicians and services that can acknowledge and respond to a minority youth's experience in a sensitive, culturally competent manner, there could be significant resistance to treatment. Traditional treatment approaches fail to prioritize issues involving cultural competence. This article addresses the unique challenges of African American juvenile sex offenders and makes recommendations for creating culturally competent practice for these youth and their families. PMID:24641684

  15. Assessing juvenile sex offenders to determine adequate levels of supervision.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, K E; Gourley, M M; Cash, M C

    1995-08-01

    The present study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories currently being used by probation officers in the state of Utah to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. The internal consistency or reliability of the inventories ranged from moderate to good. Factor analysis was utilized to significantly increase the reliability of the four inventories by collapsing them into the following three factors: (a) Custodian's and Juvenile's Attitude Toward Intervention; (b) Offense Characteristics; and (c) Historical Risk Factors. These three inventories/factors explained 41.2% of the variance in the combined inventories' scores. Suggestions are made regarding the creation of an additional inventory. "Characteristics of the Victim" to account for more of the variance. In addition, suggestions as to how these inventories can be used by probation officers to make objective and consistent decisions about adequate supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders are discussed. PMID:7583754

  16. Refusers, dropouts, and completers: measuring sex offender treatment efficacy.

    PubMed

    Seager, James A; Jellicoe, Debra; Dhaliwal, Gurmeet K

    2004-10-01

    A sex offender program delivered in a medium-security prison followed 109 treatment completers and 37 noncompleters for 2 years after release. Noncompleters, those who refused treatment or dropped out, had 6 times the rate of sexual and violent reoffending relative to completers. Among those who completed the program, however, positive evaluations of treatment change, such as quality of disclosure and enhanced victim empathy, found in posttreatment assessments did not correlate with recidivism. Furthermore, completers did not differ in their rates of recidivism from pretreatment rates predicted by the Static 99, an actuarial measure of anticipated sexual and violent recidivism. We conclude that the program did not influence propensities for sexual and violent recidivism but rather served as a prolonged screening instrument for sex offenders whose failure to comply with treatment attendance predicted higher rates of recidivism. PMID:15358934

  17. Response Patterns on the Questionnaire on Attitudes Consistent with Sexual Offending in Groups of Sex Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, William R.; Michie, Amanda M.; Whitefield, Elaine; Martin, Victoria; Grieve, Alan; Carson, Derek

    2006-01-01

    Background: This report employs a recently developed assessment on attitudes consistent with sexual offending [Questionnaire on Attitudes Consistent with Sexual Offences (QACSO)] to compare different groups of sex offenders with intellectual disability. Method: Two studies are reported each from a different region and each conducted by different…

  18. Study characteristics and recidivism base rates in juvenile sex offender recidivism.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Michael F

    2010-04-01

    This study reports on the results of a review and meta-analysis of 63 data sets that examine sexual recidivism among juvenile sex offenders. The studies include a total of 11,219 juvenile sex offenders, followed for a weighted mean of 59.4 months (SD = 36.1 months). Recidivism is identified through official records of arrest or conviction. The weighted mean sexual recidivism rate is 7.08% ( SD = 3.9%). The weighted mean rate of general recidivism is 43.4% ( SD = 18.9%). Studies that examine sexual recidivism during adolescence find monthly sexual recidivism rates that are more than 4 times higher than those found in studies that rely only on adult recidivism records. Neither the level of secured placement (community, residential, or secured custody) nor the use of arrest versus conviction as an outcome significantly influences sexual recidivism rates. PMID:19168638

  19. "Brothers Under the Bridge": Factors Influencing the Transience of Registered Sex Offenders in Florida.

    PubMed

    Socia, Kelly M; Levenson, Jill S; Ackerman, Alissa R; Harris, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    The transience of registered sex offenders (RSOs) is a major impediment to reentry success, particularly because it has been linked to increased absconding and recidivism, and thus decreased community safety. Unfortunately, there is limited existing research on what factors most influence this transience. The purpose of this study was to identify and explore the relative influence of factors predicting transience for RSOs. Using data gathered from the Florida sex offender registry and multiple supplemental state and federal data sources, the analysis revealed a number of county- and individual-level characteristics that are associated with the likelihood of RSO transience. At the county level, these include residence restriction coverage, housing affordability, and population density. At the individual level, these include age, minority status, victim type (minor vs. adult), risk level, supervision status, and prior failure to register convictions. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. PMID:24501210

  20. Adult interpersonal features of subtypes of sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2015-08-01

    Although the role of interpersonal factors on sexual offending is already recognized, there is a need for further investigation on the psychosocial correlates of pedophilic behavior. This study aimed to examine the relationship between adult interpersonal features and subtypes of sexual offending. The study involved the participation of a total of 164 male convicted offenders namely 50 rapists, 63 child molesters (20 pedophilic and 43 nonpedophilic), and 51 nonsexual offenders. All participants were assessed using the Adult Attachment Scale, the Interpersonal Behavior Survey, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure. Results from sets of multinomial logistic regression analyses showed that pedophilic offenders were more likely to present anxiety in adult relationships compared to nonsex offenders. Likewise, nonpedophilic child molesters were less likely to be generally aggressive compared to rapists and nonsex offenders, as well as less generally assertive than rapists. Overall, findings indicated that certain interpersonal features characterized subtypes of offenders, thus providing some insight on their particular therapeutic needs. Further replications with larger samples particularly of pedophilic child molesters are required. PMID:26165651

  1. The Effect of Adolescent Sex Offender Abuse History on Counselor Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carone, Stacia S.; LaFleur, N. Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    Examines judgment of counseling students, with history of sexual or physical abuse, about their attitudes towards counseling adolescent sex offenders. Reports sexually abused counselors desired to see physically abused offenders as clients over sexually abused offenders. Presents implications for counseling, including ways in which nonabused…

  2. The Effect of Offenders' Sex on Reporting Crimes to the Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Thessa M. L.; Van de Schoot, Rens

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the difference in victims' reporting behavior regarding crimes committed by males and by females. The authors expect that victims of female offenders are less likely to report to the police than victims of male offenders because of differences in the victim-offender relationship as well as in the victim's sex. With recent…

  3. Female Sex Offenders: Exploring Issues of Personality, Trauma, and Cognitive Distortions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the characteristics of female sex offenders and factors and/or causes of female deviance. Research to date has been descriptive in nature, with few comparison studies. Using a correlational design and three valid instruments, female sexual offenders and a matched group of female nonsexual offenders are compared in the…

  4. Development of an object relation-based typology of adolescent sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Gamache, Dominick; Diguer, Louis; Laverdière, Olivier; Rousseau, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a typology of adolescent sex offenders based on object relations theory and Otto F. Kernberg's model of personality organizations (PO). A secondary objective was to compare the identified subtypes on offense characteristics as well as some psychological variables of adolescent sex offenders. Clinical files from 40 male adolescent sex offenders in treatment were examined. Cluster analysis based on PO and object relations variables identified six subtypes of offenders, in line with Kernberg's PO model. These subtypes differed from one another on various variables pertaining to characteristics of sex offenses, general delinquency, relational/sexual history, and trauma history. PMID:23244526

  5. Learning to pass: sex offenders' strategies for establishing a viable identity in the prison general population.

    PubMed

    Schwaebe, Charles

    2005-12-01

    This article endeavors to illustrate the realities of prison life for sex offenders and the means by which they attempt to establish viable identities and acquire a survivable niche in the prison general population, particularly when established identities and protective niches are put at risk by entry into a sex offender treatment program. Qualitative data was collected by repeatedly interviewing a cohort of sex offenders for 6 months as they completed a basic sex offender treatment program. The findings indicate a need to include consideration of treatment context in understanding the limits of treatment gain in prison-based programs. PMID:16249394

  6. Sex Education for Male Adolescent Sex Offenders in a Group Setting Led by General Psychiatry Residents: A Literature Review and Example in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, R. Gregg; Boyd, Mary S.

    2009-01-01

    Male adolescents have been credited with a significant percentage of sex crimes in recent years. They are a heterogeneous population with offenses spanning the same range found among adult offenders. A lack of interpersonal social skills relevant to intimate relationships and inaccurate knowledge regarding appropriate sexual behaviors contribute…

  7. 24 CFR 5.905 - What special authority is there to obtain access to sex offender registration information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... obtain access to sex offender registration information? 5.905 Section 5.905 Housing and Urban Development... access to sex offender registration information? (a) PHA obligation to obtain sex offender registration... applying for admission to any federally assisted housing program is subject to a lifetime sex...

  8. 24 CFR 5.905 - What special authority is there to obtain access to sex offender registration information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... obtain access to sex offender registration information? 5.905 Section 5.905 Housing and Urban Development... access to sex offender registration information? (a) PHA obligation to obtain sex offender registration... applying for admission to any federally assisted housing program is subject to a lifetime sex...

  9. 24 CFR 5.905 - What special authority is there to obtain access to sex offender registration information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... obtain access to sex offender registration information? 5.905 Section 5.905 Housing and Urban Development... access to sex offender registration information? (a) PHA obligation to obtain sex offender registration... applying for admission to any federally assisted housing program is subject to a lifetime sex...

  10. 24 CFR 5.905 - What special authority is there to obtain access to sex offender registration information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... obtain access to sex offender registration information? 5.905 Section 5.905 Housing and Urban Development... access to sex offender registration information? (a) PHA obligation to obtain sex offender registration... applying for admission to any federally assisted housing program is subject to a lifetime sex...

  11. 24 CFR 5.905 - What special authority is there to obtain access to sex offender registration information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... obtain access to sex offender registration information? 5.905 Section 5.905 Housing and Urban Development... access to sex offender registration information? (a) PHA obligation to obtain sex offender registration... applying for admission to any federally assisted housing program is subject to a lifetime sex...

  12. Rape against Brazilian Women: Characteristics of Victims and Sex Offenders

    PubMed Central

    SOUTO, Rafaella Q.; ARAÚJO, Francisco K. C. D.; XAVIER, Alidianne F. C.; CAVALCANTI, Alessandro L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Violence against women is a serious social problem and affects mainly young women. This study aimed to evaluate sexual violence against women in Campina Grande, Brazil. Methods: A retrospective study with analysis of 886 forensic medical reports of sexual violence from the Institute of Legal Medicine of Campina Grande, Brazil, was conducted between January 2005 and December 2009. Sociodemographic variables related to victims, offenders and aggressions were analyzed. Significance level of 5% was adopted. Results: Two hundred and ninety-one cases of rape (32.8%) were confirmed, the majority of victims aged between 0 and 19 years (89.9%), were single (98.8%) and had low educational level (86.9%), with association with marital status (P = 0.02). The sex offender was known to the victim in 84.2% of cases and in 93.8% of cases, he acted alone. There was an association between rape and the relationship with the offenders (P = 0.01) and the age of the offenders (P = 0.03). The rape occurred in most cases at the home of victims (49.3%), with the use of violence in 72.3% of cases, but only 5.7% of the victims exhibited physical injuries. There was an association between rape and variables date of occurrence (P = 0.001), previous virginity (P = 0.001) and violence during practice (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Over one third of women were victims of rape, predominantly adolescents, unmarried and with low educational level. The offenders were known to the victims, and acted alone in most situations, making use of physical violence. PMID:26811812

  13. The association between psychiatric diagnosis and violent re-offending in adult offenders in the community

    PubMed Central

    Grann, Martin; Danesh, John; Fazel, Seena

    2008-01-01

    Background High rates of repeat offending are common across nations that are socially and culturally different. Although psychiatric disorders are believed to be risk factors for violent reoffending, the available evidence is sparse and liable to bias. Method We conducted a historical cohort study in Sweden of a selected sample of 4828 offenders given community sentences who were assessed by a psychiatrist during 1988–2001, and followed up for an average of 5 years for first violent offence, death, or emigration, using information from national registers. Hazard ratios for violent offending were calculated by Cox regression models. Results Nearly a third of the sample (n = 1506 or 31.3%) offended violently during follow-up (mean duration: 4.8 years). After adjustment for socio-demographic and criminal history variables, substance use disorders (hazard ratio 1.97, 95% CI, 1.40–2.77) and personality disorders (hazard ratio 1.71, 1.20–2.44) were significantly associated with an increased risk of violent offending. No other diagnoses were related to recidivism risk. Adding information on diagnoses of substance use and personality disorders to data recorded on age, sex, and criminal history improved only minimally the prediction of violent offending. Conclusion Diagnoses of substance use and personality disorders are associated with the risk of subsequent violent offending in community offenders about as strongly as are its better documented demographic and criminal history risk factors. Despite this, assessment of such disorders in addition to demographic and criminal history factors enhances only minimally the prediction of violent offending in the community. PMID:19032787

  14. Outcome evaluation of a high-intensity inpatient sex offender treatment program.

    PubMed

    Olver, Mark E; Wong, Stephen C P; Nicholaichuk, Terry P

    2009-03-01

    The treatment outcome of a high-intensity inpatient sex offender treatment program was evaluated by comparing the sexual recidivism rates of 472 treated and 282 untreated sex offenders. The program is designed for moderate- to high-risk sex offenders and follows the principles of effective correctional treatment. The current investigation is an extension of an earlier study (Nicholaichuk et al., 2000) with the addition of 176 participants, an extra 4 years follow-up, and the use of Cox regression survival analysis to control for three potentially confounding variables: age of release, sexual offending history, and length of follow-up. Treated offenders sexually recidivated significantly less than the comparison group over nearly 20 years of follow-up, even after controlling for the aforementioned variables. The substantive findings suggest that treatment adhering to the what works principles can reduce long-term sexual recidivism for a moderate- to high-risk group of sex offenders. PMID:18458350

  15. Moral Judgment of Young Sex Offenders with and without Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Vugt, Eveline; Asscher, Jessica; Stams, Geert Jan; Hendriks, Jan; Bijleveld, Catrien; van der Laan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This study examined differences in moral judgment between juvenile sex offenders with and without intellectual disabilities. The Sociomoral Reflection Measure-Short Form (SRM-SF) was used to assess moral judgment, and was extended with questions referring to general sexual situations and to the offenders' abuse victim(s). Juvenile sex offenders…

  16. An Empirical Study of the Personality Characteristics of Internet Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomak, Sheri; Weschler, Frederick S.; Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan; Virden, Thomas; Nademin, Mahsaw Elicia

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated the personality characteristics and psychopathology of internet sex offenders (ISOs) using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, Second Edition (MMPI-2) to determine whether ISO personality profiles are different to those of general sex offenders (GSOs; e.g. child molesters and rapists). The ISOs consisted of…

  17. The Community Attitudes toward Sex Offenders Scale: The Development of a Psychometric Assessment Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Wesley T., II; Wakeman, Emily E.; Miller, Sarah L.; Clements, Carl B.; Sun, Fei

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the nature of individual attitudes toward sex offenders. Because the term "sex offender" tends to evoke strong emotions, and given that open-ended self reports tend to be highly subjective, particularly in the context of such pointed terminology, this study sought to develop an attitude…

  18. Prolonged Exposure Treatment of Chronic PTSD in Juvenile Sex Offenders: Promising Results from Two Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged exposure (PE) was used to treat chronic PTSD secondary to severe developmental trauma in two adolescent male sex offenders referred for residential sex offender treatment. Both youth were treatment resistant prior to initiation of PE and showed evidence of long-standing irritability and depression/anxiety. Clinical observation and…

  19. The Impact of Risk Factors on the Treatment of Adolescent Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Sharon M.; Lewis, Kathy; Sigal, Janet

    2004-01-01

    The authors investigated the impact that 5 selected risk factors have on the treatment outcome of adolescent male sex offenders. The results indicated that the greatest risk factor among sex offenders was having a mother who had a substance abuse problem. Study participants were 35 adolescent boys in a New Jersey residential facility for…

  20. Dispelling the Myths: Can Psychoeducation Change Public Attitudes towards Sex Offenders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleban, Holly; Jeglic, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The public desires more punitive sentencing for sex offenders; however, treatment has been shown to be most effective in increasing public safety. It has been suggested that public education about the benefits of sex offender treatment could influence public policy. The purpose of this study was to determine if a brief psychoeducational…

  1. The Social Construction of the Child Sex Offender Explored by Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, Helen

    2005-01-01

    The notion of "child sex offender" provokes aversion, but it may be that it is a social construction. We suggest that a Dominant narrative, in which child sex offenders are constructed as irredeemable, persists, despite the emergence of assumption challenging Alternative narratives. A story completion method was used to elicit themes of Dominant…

  2. Recidivism among sex offenders: a follow-up study of 541 Norwegian sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Grünfeld, B; Noreik, K

    1986-01-01

    A study of recidivism to sexual offences was conducted among Norwegian males who had received their first conviction for a sexual crime during the years 1970-1974. Five hundred and forty-one out of a total of 1,071 offenders were randomly selected and followed by means of official and public register systems until the end of August 1983. No one was contacted personally by the investigators. The recidivism rate was 12.8%, with the rapists having the highest tendency to commit new sexual crimes. Acts like incest, exploitation of someone in the custody of the perpetrator or similar felonies against so-called public morals were least likely to be repeated. Most of the repeat offenders only had one single subsequent offence, either of the same type of crime as at the first or to a less severe crime. Only a handful committed more than one repeat offence. A large number of the sexual offenders had committed others types of crimes, some prior to their first conviction for the sexual crime and some subsequent. Most of our criminally convicted males had a record of mixed criminality, in which crimes of profit and violence dominated. PMID:3793349

  3. A practical guide for the evaluation of sexual recidivism risk in mentally retarded sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Phenix, Amy; Sreenivasan, Shoba

    2009-01-01

    Although sex offender risk assessment has progressed greatly over the past decade and a half since most states implemented the sexually violent predator/sexually dangerous person (SVP/SDP) laws, there continues to be limited applicability of such models to intellectually disabled sex offenders because there has been no empirical validation. However, SVP/SDP civil commitment programs have reported increased admission of developmentally disabled sex offenders. Differentiating sexual deviance, the primary factor predisposing most individuals to criminal sexual violence, from impulsive, immature, and inappropriate behavior stemming from cognitive deficits presents yet another challenge to the clinician tasked with performing such evaluations. This article reviews actuarial risk models and their limited applicability to mentally retarded sex offenders and offers a conceptual method of assessing the risk of recidivism in intellectually disabled sex offenders under SVP/SDP evaluation. PMID:20018999

  4. 76 FR 68509 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Reintegration of Ex-Offenders-Adult Reporting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... Request for Information Collection for Reintegration of Ex-Offenders-Adult Reporting System, Extension... support the Reintegration of Ex-Offenders-Adult (RExO-Adult) grants, which expires on March 31, 2012. A... Reintegration of Ex-Offender-Adult (formerly Prisoner Reentry Initiative) grants, faith-based and...

  5. A longitudinal examination of sex offender recidivism prior to and following the implementation of SORN.

    PubMed

    Tewksbury, Richard; Jennings, Wesley G; Zgoba, Kristen M

    2012-01-01

    The goals of the present study were to examine the recidivism rates of two matched samples of sexual offenders, those released prior to and after sex offender registration and notification (SORN) in New Jersey. The pre-SORN group (1990-1994) included 247 offenders, while the post-SORN group (1996-2000) included 248 offenders. The longitudinal analysis demonstrated that for sex offenders released from prison both prior to and after implementation of SORN, there are clearly two distinguishable groups of sex offenders in relation to patterns of recidivism. More than three-quarters of sex offenders were identified as at low risk of recidivism, with low rates of repeat criminal offenses. By contrast, the high-risk group of offenders was not only more likely to commit future criminal offenses, including sex offenses, but they were also more likely to commit significantly more offenses and to do so fairly quickly following release. Analyses also include an examination of the influence of demographics, substance abuse and mental health issues, treatment history, sex offense incident characteristics, and criminal history on recidivism. Finally, SORN status was not a significant predictor of sex or general recidivism. The study limitations and policy implications are discussed. PMID:21898579

  6. Recidivism Risk Assessment for Adult Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    Holoyda, Brian J; Newman, William J

    2016-02-01

    Sexual offending is a significant public health problem in the USA due to its prevalence and the substantial impact it has on victims, victims' families, and the legal and mental health systems. The assessment of sexual offender recidivism risk is an important aspect of developing effective management strategies for sexual offenders in terms of placement, treatment, and other interventions. Researchers have developed numerous tools to aid in the assessment of sexual violence recidivism risk, including actuarial measures, structured professional judgment methods, and psychophysiologic assessment of sexual interests. The Static-99R and Sexual Violence Risk-20 are two instruments that have received substantial research attention for their ability to accurately compare offenders' risk of recidivism to normative group data. Penile plethysmography and visual reaction time are used to evaluate subjects' responses to sexual stimuli in an effort to characterize offenders' sexual arousal and interest, respectively. Though current research has focused on risk assessment tools' predictive utility, future research will need to examine the impact that actuarial and structured professional judgment tools have on reducing recidivism if they are to have relevance in the management of sexual offenders. PMID:26781555

  7. Contingent negative variation (CNV) and erotic preference in self-declared homosexuals and in child sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Howard, R C; Longmore, F J; Mason, P A; Martin, J L

    1994-10-01

    Contingent negative variation (CNV) was recorded bilaterally from central electrodes using a "match/mismatch" paradigm in (Study 1) samples of heterosexual men (N = 6), gay men (N = 10) and lesbian women (N = 14) and (Study 2) in samples of child sex offenders (N = 34) and heterosexual control men (N = 19). Sexual orientation was assessed using the Multidimensional Scale of Sexuality (MSS) and the Human Sexuality Questionnaire (HSQ). Separate CNV averages were formed for each condition of stimulation: for Study 1, slides of adult male and female nudes; for Study 2, slides of child, pubescent and adult male and female nudes. Penile plethysmographic (PPG) data were also obtained from 15 of the child sex offender sample while they viewed stimuli of the same categories as were used in the CNV recording. On the basis of their PPG responses to children, child sex offenders were classified as either "pedophiles" or "non-pedophiles". In Study 1 significant Group x Sex (of slide) and Group x Electrode interactions indicated that: (i) heterosexual men (but neither homosexual group) showed significantly larger CNVs to female than to male slides; (ii) both homosexual groups showed significantly asymmetrical (R > L) CNVs. In Study 2, controls showed significantly greater CNVs to adult females than to both adult males and female children. Child sex offenders showed no significant differences in CNV to male and female slides for any age. "Non-pedophiles" showed significantly larger CNVs to female adults than to female children, but "pedophiles" did not. It is concluded that CNV has promise as a measure of both deviant and non-deviant sexual preference. PMID:7873701

  8. No Time To Play: Youthful Offenders in Adult Correctional Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Barry; Sturgeon, William

    The number of juveniles tried as adults increased by 71 percent from 1985 through 1994. A comprehensive look at the growing population of youthful offenders housed in adult facilities and guidance in managing this special needs population is provided. Section 1, "History and Current Realities," includes a brief review of the history of the…

  9. Characterization and prediction of sexual and nonsexual recidivism among adjudicated juvenile sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Ashley K; Vincent, John P

    2013-01-01

    Estimating the risk of sexual recidivism for a juvenile sex offender is essential in order to protect public safety by identifying and evaluating high risk adolescents and to ensure the rights and welfare of juvenile offenders who will not likely reoffend. Empirically validated risk assessment methods are needed to aid in the classification and treatment of juvenile sex offenders. The present study utilized a dataset collected by Maricopa County, AZ, and aggregated by the National Juvenile Court Data Archive. The purpose of the study was to evaluate and characterize risk factors for juveniles who have been charged with a sexual offense in order to determine the predictive utility of these factors for subsequent offending, as well as offense trajectory, and to evaluate risk factors for nonsexual offenders who have committed crimes of various severities. The results of the present study show the strongest individual predictors of sexual recidivism to be prior nonsexual offending, prior sexual offending, hands-off offending, offending against a child, younger school grade/age at time of initial offense, Asian or Hispanic ethnicity, and not attending school. A preliminary screening measure was developed from the seven positive risk factors, and ROC analysis produced an AUC indicating moderate predictive utility in discriminating between juvenile sex offenders who would sexually reoffend and those who would not. PMID:23703937

  10. A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of High-Intensity Inpatient Sex Offender Treatment in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Smid, Wineke J; Kamphuis, Jan H; Wever, Edwin C; Van Beek, Daan J

    2016-08-01

    The current study quasi-experimentally assessed the outcome of high-intensity inpatient sex offender treatment in the Netherlands in terms of sexual and violent (including sexual) recidivism. It was hypothesized that treated sex offenders would show lower recidivism rates than untreated sex offenders of the same risk level. In line with the risk principle of the Risk, Need, Responsivity (RNR) model, we predicted that this would especially hold true for offenders of higher risk levels. The study sample consisted of 25% of all convicted Dutch sex offenders not referred to any form of treatment and discharged from prison between 1996 and 2002, and all convicted Dutch sex offenders referred to inpatient treatment who were discharged between 1996 and 2002. Static-99R risk levels of these 266 offenders were retrospectively assessed and survival curves regarding sexual and violent (including sexual) recidivism were compared between treated and untreated offenders, controlling for level of risk. Mean follow-up was 148.0 months (SD = 29.6) and the base rate of sexual recidivism was 15.0% and 38.4% for violent (including sexual) recidivism. Cox regression survival analyses showed marginally significant lower failure rates regarding sexual recidivism for treated high-risk offenders only, and significantly lower failure rates regarding violent (including sexual recidivism) for treated sex offenders of moderate-high and high-risk levels. No treatment effects for low and low-moderate risk offenders were found. Results underscore the risk principle of the RNR model: Treatment is more effective when its dosage is attuned to risk level. PMID:24867416

  11. Catch me if you can: an analysis of fugitive sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Ackerman, Alissa R; Harris, Andrew J

    2014-04-01

    The presumed dangers presented by sex offenders who have absconded from authorities have played a prominent role in public discourse surrounding state and federal sex offender management policy. The current study is the first to empirically investigate the characteristics of absconded sex offenders and explore how this group compares to other groups of sex offenders. Utilizing data from the Florida sex offender registry (N = 23,557), this exploratory study compares the characteristics and risk factors of absconders with those of compliant and noncompliant (nonabsconding) registrants as well as with those with convictions for failure to register (FTR). Absconders, as a group, were less likely than compliant registrants to be listed as predators, and less likely than both compliants and noncompliants to have a minor victim or to be a repeat sex offender. Absconders were also least likely to have a prior FTR conviction, but those with a previous FTR conviction were more likely to abscond from registration than probation. The findings fail to support the hypothesis that fugitive sex offenders are more sexually dangerous (especially to children), and suggest a multitude of explanations for absconding. PMID:23567471

  12. An ecological process model of female sex offending: the role of victimization, psychological distress, and life stressors.

    PubMed

    DeCou, Christopher R; Cole, Trevor T; Rowland, Sarah E; Kaplan, Stephanie P; Lynch, Shannon M

    2015-06-01

    Female sex offenders may be implicated in up to one fifth of all sex crimes committed in the United States. Despite previous research findings that suggest unique patterns of offending among female sex offenders, limited empirical research has investigated the motivations and processes involved. The present study qualitatively examined female sex offenders' offense-related experiences and characterized the internal and external factors that contributed to offending. Semi-structured interviews with 24 female sex offenders were analyzed by a team of coders with limited exposure to the existing literature using grounded theory analysis. A conceptual framework emerged representing distinctive processes for solo- and co-offending, contextualized within ecological layers of social and environmental influence. This model extends previous work by offering an example of nested vulnerabilities proximal to female sexual offending. Implications for future research, prevention, and treatment are discussed. PMID:25413945

  13. An exploratory study of Internet-initiated sexual offenses and the chat room sex offender: has the Internet enabled a new typology of sex offender?

    PubMed

    Briggs, Peter; Simon, Walter T; Simonsen, Stacy

    2011-03-01

    This exploratory study examined 51 participants convicted of an Internet-initiated sex offense in which they attempted to entice an adolescent into a sexual relationship using an Internet chat room. All participants were convicted of a sex offense and subject to an evaluation as a part of sentencing requirements in Colorado. Clinical and behavioral data were obtained from each subject's offense-specific evaluation and chat room transcripts. The results of the study found that 90% of the participants were apprehended as a result of an Internet sex sting. The authors conclude that Internet chat room sex offenders constitute a separate group characterized by less severe criminogenic factors than other sex offenders (rapists, child molesters). It can be hypothesized that chat room sex offenders avoid relationships and spend a significant amount of time in online chat rooms as a primary social and sexual outlet, and engage in other sexually compulsive behaviors. Within this offender group, it was discovered that two subgroups exist: a contact-driven group motivated to engage in offline sexual behavior with an adolescent and a fantasy-driven group motivated to engage an adolescent in online cybersex without an express intent to meet offline. The chat room sex offender presents a significant clinical issue to treatment providers as a live victim does not exist. Thus, it is unclear if Internet sex stings prevent incidents of child sexual exploitation and may result in convictions of individuals who may never have abused a child. The data suggest a tentative sex offender typology, including subtypes, which need to be replicated in future studies. PMID:20947699

  14. Age, actuarial risk, and long-term recidivism in a national sample of sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Nicholaichuk, Terry P; Olver, Mark E; Gu, Deqiang; Wong, Stephen C P

    2014-10-01

    Age at release has become an increasing focus of study with regard to evaluating risk in the sex offender population and has been repeatedly shown to be an important component of the risk assessment equation. This study constitutes an extension of a study of sex offender outcomes prepared for the Evaluation Branch, Correctional Service of Canada. The entire cohort of 2,401 male federally incarcerated sexual offenders who reached their warrant expiry date (WED) within 1997/1998, 1998/1999, and 1999/2000 fiscal years were reviewed for the study. Sexual and violent reconviction information was obtained from CPIC criminal records over an average of 12.0 years (SD = 1.7) follow-up. This study focused upon the cohort of sex offenders who were 50 years or older at time of release (N = 542). They were stratified according to risk using a brief actuarial scale (BARS) comprising six binary variables. For the most part, older offenders showed low base rates of sexual recidivism regardless of the risk band into which they fell. The exception was a small group of elderly offenders (n = 20) who fell into the highest risk band, and who showed high levels of sexual recidivism. The results of this combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of elderly sexual offenders may have important implications for offender management, particularly in light of the increasing numbers of offenders in Canada who fall into the over 50 age cohort. PMID:23818657

  15. What makes sex offenders confess? An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Faller, K C; Birdsall, W C; Henry, J; Vandervort, F; Silverschanz, P

    2001-01-01

    This study examines correlates of offender confession in criminal sexual conduct cases involving children. The cases consist of all closed court files (N=318), spanning the last 10 years from a single jurisdiction. This jurisdiction has a community-wide protocol for handling child sexual abuse cases, a high rate of charging (69%), a high rate of confession (64%), and high rates of pleas to sex crimes (77%). To determine what factors were associated with suspect confession before adjudication, we examined characteristics of the suspect, the child, the abuse, and the system using bi-variate and multi-variate analysis. The following four variables are associated with suspect confession: (1) having the state police conducting the law enforcement part of the investigation, (2) more serious abuse, (3) younger age of the suspect, and (4) having a court appointed (as opposed to a retained) attorney. PMID:16221625

  16. A Brunswikian evolutionary-developmental theory of adolescent sex offending.

    PubMed

    Figueredo, A J; Sales, B D; Russell, K P; Becker, J V; Kaplan, M

    2000-01-01

    A Brunswikian Evolutionary-Developmental model was developed to relate the sex offending behavior of adolescents to other forms of social deviance, tracing a history of repeated frustration and failure in various competitive sexual strategies and escalation to more extreme means of obtaining sexual gratification. Four hypothetical constructs were proposed as stages in the development of sexual criminality: (1) Psycho-Social Deficiency (PSD); (2) Non-Criminal Sexuality (NCS); (3) Non-Sexual Criminality (NSC); and (4) Sexual Criminality (SC). Significant direct and indirect pathways led from PSD to SC through both NCS and NSC, each time facilitated by an interaction with PSD. Although the causal orders between stages remain equivocal, the current results are consistent with our theory and establish the heuristic value of our theoretical approach, providing empirical support for otherwise counterintuitive predictions. This interpretation also offers hope for focusing preventative intervention at one major root cause of this unfortunate cascade of consequences, Psycho-Social Deficiency. PMID:10874291

  17. Predictors of the sex offender civil commitment trial outcomes in New York State.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yunmei; Freeman, Naomi J; Sandler, Jeffrey C

    2015-10-01

    The present study analyzed sex offender civil management (i.e., civil commitment) legal proceedings in New York State and identified factors that predict trial results. Specifically, the current study compared a sample of 38 sex offenders who were released to the community after winning their civil management trials to 183 sex offenders who lost their civil management trials. Additionally, for the 183 sex offenders who lost their civil management trials, the current study compared 146 offenders who were ordered to inpatient civil commitment to 37 offenders who were deemed fit for civil management in the community. Results of the analyses indicated that sexual criminality, sexual deviance, and criminality involving child victims increased the likelihood of offenders both losing their civil management trial and being found to be in need of inpatient care, while the presence of variables associated with nonsexual criminality increased the likelihood of offenders both winning their civil management trials and being deemed fit for management in the community. The findings of this study provide guidance for psychiatric examiners who testify in civil management legal proceedings, as well as for legal professionals specializing in civil management cases. PMID:26076118

  18. The Relationship between Childhood Abuse, Psychological Symptoms and Subsequent Sex Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Childhood sexual and physical abuse has been related to subsequent offending behaviour in non-disabled individuals as well as people with intellectual disabilities, but there is a dearth of research examining the link between these two characteristics and psychological, behavioural and psychiatric symptoms amongst sex offenders with…

  19. Quality of Life and Relationships in Sex Offenders with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steptoe, Lesley; Lindsay, William R.; Forrest, Diane; Power, Mick

    2006-01-01

    Background: Hayes (1991) and Day (1994) have developed hypotheses about the importance of social and developmental variables in the aetiology of sexual offences in offenders with intellectual disability. The present study is the first of its kind to investigate the perceived quality of life and relationships of sex offenders in comparison to an…

  20. The Role of the Juvenile Probation Officer regarding the Adolescent Sex Offender and Related Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Herbert R.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the ethical role of the juvenile probabtion officer regarding the adolescent sex offender. Demonstrates the need for role consonant treatment models. Explores the applicability of the proffered model to other offender populations and stresses the appropriate role of the juvenile probation officer. Examines appropriate assessment of…

  1. The Public Safety Impact of Community Notification Laws: Rearrest of Convicted Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Naomi J.

    2012-01-01

    Sex offender management is one of the highest-profile issues in public safety today. Although states have enacted community notification laws as a means to protect communities from sexual offending, limited research has been conducted to examine the impact of these laws on public safety. As such, this study used a quasi-experimental design to…

  2. Post-release controls for sex offenders in the U.S. and UK.

    PubMed

    Lieb, Roxanne; Kemshall, Hazel; Thomas, Terry

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, both the United States and United Kingdom have developed numerous innovations in legal efforts to protect society from sex offenders. Each country has adopted special provisions for sex offenders. In particular, governments have focused on forms of social control after release from incarceration and probation. These policy innovations for this category of offenders have been more far reaching than those for any other offender population. The two jurisdictions have adopted policies with similar goals, but the selected strategies have important differences. Generally speaking, the U.S. has favored an ever-expanding set of policies that place sex offenders into broad categories, with few opportunities that distinguish the appropriate responses for individual offenders. The UK government observed the proliferation of Megan's Laws(1) in the U.S., and deliberately chose to establish carefully controlled releases of information, primarily relying on governmental agencies to work in multi-disciplinary groups and make case-specific decisions about individual offenders. Although the UK policy leaders expressed significant concern that the public's response to knowing about identified sex offenders living in the community would result in vigilantism, to date the results have not borne out this fear. Both governments have turned to other crime control measures such as polygraphy testing, electronic monitoring, and civil protection orders as a means to prevent further sexual violence. PMID:21555154

  3. Clinical Assessment of Adult Sexual Offenders with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudway, Jeremy A.; Darmoody, Malcolm

    2005-01-01

    Assessment and treatment of adults with learning disabilities who commit sexual offences presents a number of challenges. Much of the professional forensic and psychiatric literature on work with this group concentrates on the development of interventions based on theoretical models of sexual offending originating from the mainstream criminal…

  4. Comparisons of Sex Offenders with Non-Offenders on Attitudes Toward Masturbation and Female Fantasy as Related to Participation in Human Sexuality Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotten-Hustan, Annie L.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the effects of sexuality classes on 23 sex offenders and 28 college students. Results showed that compared to controls, participants had more positive attitudes toward masturbation and a disgust of perverse fantasies about women, suggesting human sexuality education may be useful in preventing sex offenses and rehabilitating offenders.…

  5. Stumbling into sexual crime: the passive perpetrator in accounts by male internet sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Winder, Belinda; Gough, Brendan; Seymour-Smith, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Public reactions to internet child offending remain ambivalent in that, while there is vocal condemnation of contact child sex offending, there is less indignation about internet child abuse. This is potentially due to a lack of recognition of this type of offence as sexual offending per se. This ambiguity is reflected by internet sex offenders themselves in their verbalizations of their offending. This article presents a qualitative analysis of the accounts offered by seven individuals convicted of internet-based sexual offences involving the downloading and viewing of images of children. In particular, this article presents an analysis of the explanations of offenders for the commencement of internet activity and the progression to more illicit online materials. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using discursive methods, paying close attention to language use and function. The analysis documented the practices that internet child abusers employed in order to manage their identities, distance themselves from the label of sex offender, and/or reduce their personal agency and accountability. Implications of this analysis are discussed with reference to the current minimization of the downloading of sexually explicit images of children as a sexual crime per se by the public and offenders alike and the risk assessment and treatment of individuals convicted of these offences. PMID:24917484

  6. Differential effects of adult court transfer on juvenile offender recidivism.

    PubMed

    Loughran, Thomas A; Mulvey, Edward P; Schubert, Carol A; Chassin, Laurie A; Steinberg, Laurence; Piquero, Alex R; Fagan, Jeffrey; Cota-Robles, Sonia; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Losoya, Sandy

    2010-12-01

    Prior research indicates that adolescent offenders transferred to adult court are more likely to recidivate than those retained in the juvenile system. The studies supporting this conclusion, however, are limited in addressing the issue of heterogeneity among transferred adolescents. This study estimates the effect of transfer on later crime using a sample of 654 serious juvenile offenders, 29% of whom were transferred. We use propensity score matching to reduce potential selection bias, and we partition the sample on legal characteristics to examine subgroup effects. We find an overall null effect of transfer on re-arrest, but evidence of differential effects of transfer for adolescents with different offending histories. These results suggest that evaluating the effects of transfer for all transferred adolescents together may lead to misguided policy conclusions. PMID:20195895

  7. Differential Effects of Adult Court Transfer on Juvenile Offender Recidivism

    PubMed Central

    Loughran, Thomas A.; Schubert, Carol A.; Chassin, Laurie A.; Steinberg, Laurence; Piquero, Alex R.; Fagan, Jeffrey; Cota-Robles, Sonia; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Losoya, Sandy

    2010-01-01

    Prior research indicates that adolescent offenders transferred to adult court are more likely to recidivate than those retained in the juvenile system. The studies supporting this conclusion, however, are limited in addressing the issue of heterogeneity among transferred adolescents. This study estimates the effect of transfer on later crime using a sample of 654 serious juvenile offenders, 29% of whom were transferred. We use propensity score matching to reduce potential selection bias, and we partition the sample on legal characteristics to examine subgroup effects. We find an overall null effect of transfer on re-arrest, but evidence of differential effects of transfer for adolescents with different offending histories. These results suggest that evaluating the effects of transfer for all transferred adolescents together may lead to misguided policy conclusions. PMID:20195895

  8. Recent research related to juvenile sex offending: findings and directions for further research.

    PubMed

    Malin, H Martin; Saleh, Fabian M; Grudzinskas, Albert J

    2014-04-01

    Serious scholarly inquiry into juvenile sex offending represents a relatively new field, dating from the mid 1940s. During the next 4 decades, a mere handful of articles exploring aspects of juvenile sex offending were added to the available literature. By the 1980s, however, the literature began to increase rapidly, a trend that continues today. The purpose of this article is a focused review of the juvenile sex offender literature cited in PubMed over the last 5 years (2009-2013). The authors have chosen studies that will bring readers up to date on research they believe impacts our current understanding of best practices in the management of juvenile sex offending. For convenience, our review is organized into topical categories including research into characteristics and typologies of juvenile sex offenders, risk assessment and recidivism, assessment and treatment, the ongoing debate about mandatory registration of sex offenders as it applies to juveniles, and other thought provoking studies that do not fit neatly into the aforementioned categories. The studies included contain findings that both reinforce and challenge currently held notions about best practices concerning treatment and public policy, suggesting that our knowledge of the field continues to evolve in important ways. PMID:24562765

  9. The sex offender treatment intervention and progress scale (SOTIPS): psychometric properties and incremental predictive validity with static-99R.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Robert J; Lasher, Michael P; Cumming, Georgia F

    2012-10-01

    The Sex Offender Treatment Intervention and Progress Scale (SOTIPS) is a 16-item rating scale designed to assess dynamic risk among adult male sex offenders and degree of change at 6-month intervals during treatment. The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the SOTIPS in a construction sample of 759 adult male sex offenders who were under correctional supervision and enrolled in cognitive-behavioral community treatment in Vermont between 2001 and 2007. The scale showed acceptable interrater reliability. SOTIPS scores at 1, 7, and 13 months after participants began treatment predicted sexual, violent, and any recidivism, and return to prison at fixed 1- and 3-year follow-up periods (AUCs = .60 to .85). Combined SOTIPS and Static-99R scores predicted all recidivism types (AUCs = .67 to .89) and outperformed either instrument alone when both instruments had similar predictive power. Participants who demonstrated treatment progress, as reflected by reductions in SOTIPS scores, showed lower rates of recidivism than those who did not. PMID:22368161

  10. Drug treatment services for adult offenders: the state of the state.

    PubMed

    Taxman, Faye S; Perdoni, Matthew L; Harrison, Lana D

    2007-04-01

    We conducted a national survey of prisons, jails, and community correctional agencies to estimate the prevalence of entry into and accessibility of correctional programs and drug treatment services for adult offenders. Substance abuse education and awareness is the most prevalent form of service provided, being offered in 74% of prisons, 61% of jails, and 53% of community correctional agencies; at the same time, remedial education is the most frequently available correctional program in prisons (89%) and jails (59.5%), whereas sex offender therapy (57.2%) and intensive supervision (41.9%) dominate in community correctional programs. Most substance abuse services provided to offenders are offered through correctional programs such as intensive supervision, day reporting, vocational education, and work release, among others. Although agencies report a high frequency of providing substance abuse services, the prevalence rates are misleading because less than a quarter of the offenders in prisons and jails and less than 10% of those in community correctional agencies have daily access to these services through correctional agencies; in addition, these are predominantly drug treatment services that offer few clinical services. Given that drug-involved offenders are likely to have dependence rates that are four times greater than those among the general public, the drug treatment services and correctional programs available to offenders do not appear to be appropriate for the needs of this population. The National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices survey provides a better understanding of the distribution of services and programs across prisons, jails, and community correctional agencies and allows researchers and policymakers to understand some of the gaps in services and programs that may negatively affect recidivism reduction efforts. PMID:17383549

  11. What Keeps Them Together? Insights into Sex Offender Couples Using Qualitative Content Analyses.

    PubMed

    Iffland, J A; Berner, W; Dekker, A; Briken, P

    2016-08-17

    Research on sex offenders' relationships is scarce. The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate sex offenders' relationships as well as their female partners' adjustment strategies by means of interview analysis. Both partners profit from the relationship in terms of mutual support and acceptance. The sexual offense is a taboo subject, and the female partners were found to demonstrate cognitive distortions. The imbalance of power found in the sex offenders' relationships is discussed, as is the finding that those sexual offenders interviewed live out their need for dominance and sometimes their aggression. The women interviewed were found to cling to their partners as a result of their insecure attachment style. We discuss couples counseling and therapy as possibilities for addressing the imbalance of power and casting light upon the sexual aspect of the relationship. PMID:26280194

  12. Adverse Childhood Experiences in the Lives of Male Sex Offenders: Implications for Trauma-Informed Care.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Willis, Gwenda M; Prescott, David S

    2016-06-01

    This study explored the prevalence of childhood trauma in a sample of male sexual offenders (N = 679) using the Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) scale. Compared with males in the general population, sex offenders had more than 3 times the odds of child sexual abuse (CSA), nearly twice the odds of physical abuse, 13 times the odds of verbal abuse, and more than 4 times the odds of emotional neglect and coming from a broken home. Less than 16% endorsed zero ACEs and nearly half endorsed four or more. Multiple maltreatments often co-occurred with other types of household dysfunction, suggesting that many sex offenders were raised within a disordered social environment. Higher ACE scores were associated with higher risk scores. By enhancing our understanding of the frequency and correlates of early adverse experiences, we can better devise trauma-informed interventions that respond to the clinical needs of sex offender clients. PMID:24872347

  13. The impact of prison-based treatment on sex offender recidivism: evidence from Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Duwe, Grant; Goldman, Robin A

    2009-09-01

    Using a retrospective quasi-experimental design, this study evaluates the effectiveness of prison-based treatment by examining recidivism outcomes among 2,040 sex offenders released from Minnesota prisons between 1990 and 2003 (average follow-up period of 9.3 years). To reduce observed selection bias, the authors used propensity score matching to create a comparison group of 1,020 untreated sex offenders who were not significantly different from the 1,020 treated offenders. In addition, intent-to-treat analyses and the Rosenbaum bounds method were used to test the sensitivity of the findings to treatment refuser and unobserved selection bias. Results from the Cox regression analyses revealed that participating in treatment significantly reduced the hazard ratio for rearrest by 27% for sexual recidivism, 18% for violent recidivism, and 12% for general recidivism. These findings are consistent with the growing body of research supporting the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral treatment for sex offenders. PMID:19531811

  14. Lifetime criminal history of sex offenders seen for psychological assessment in five decades.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Ron; Curnoe, Suzanne

    2012-10-01

    A sample of 2,190 sex offenders seen between 1966 and 2009 was compared on lifetime sexual and all offending, using charges, convictions, court appearances, and self-report as criteria. Of these various criteria, between 47.4% and 81.1% reoffended. Canadian child abuse reporting laws, which came into effect in the 1980s, were associated with increased charges and convictions for offenders, who victimized children, and with a reduction in their longer term reoffense rates. Immigration and population mobility, use of aliases, study follow-up time, and self-reported undetected sex crimes influenced reoffense rates. Results indicate that sex offenders continued to have short prison sentences and/or spend little or no time incarcerated during the latter part of the 20th century. PMID:21862525

  15. An empirical assessment of the overlap between sexual victimization and sex offending.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Wesley G; Zgoba, Kristen M; Maschi, Tina; Reingle, Jennifer M

    2014-12-01

    There has been a recent proliferation in the number of studies that are investigating the phenomenon that has been coined the victim-offender overlap. There has been noticeably less attention toward examining the sexual victimization and sex offending overlap. Acknowledging this gap in the literature, the present study provides an assessment of this overlap among a large sample of male prisoners with a focus on the cycle of violence hypothesis. Bivariate results reveal a considerable degree of overlap between sexual victimization and sex offending, and multivariate results estimated from a series of bivariate probit models simultaneously assessing both outcomes suggest that experiencing emotional abuse early on in the life-course is a robust risk factor for experiencing sexual victimization and demonstrating sex offending behavior. Furthermore, being physically neglected and witnessing family violence also emerged as significant risk factors for sexual victimization. Study limitations and policy implications are also discussed. PMID:23864522

  16. A Comparative Study of Two Groups of Sex Offenders Identified as High and Low Risk on the Static-99

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coxe, Ray; Holmes, William

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify possible differences between high- and low-risk sex offenders. The subjects included 285 sex offenders on probation. They were evaluated with the Static-99, Abel Assessment, Raven's, and MMPI-2. A criminal history review identified the number of prior offenses and the age/sex category in the index offense.…

  17. Predictors of recidivism in Australian juvenile sex offenders: implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Kenny, D T; Keogh, T; Seidler, K

    2001-04-01

    Juvenile sex offenders charged with their first sexual offense were compared with recidivist juvenile sex offenders who had been charged with more than one sexual offense on a number of factors related to sexual offending. Participants were 70 male juvenile sex offenders, aged 13-21 years who were awaiting court disposition. Negative family history, negative family characteristics, school and learning problems, social skill deficits, deviant sexual experiences, deviant sexual fantasies, and cognitive distortions were assessed for their direct and mediating roles in recidivism. Path analysis indicated that poor social skills, learning problems, and deviant sexual experiences were causally related to recidivism of sexual offending. Poor social skills were directly related to recidivism, whereas cognitive distortions and deviant sexual fantasies mediated the role of learning problems and deviant sexual experiences. There was a significant association between deviant sexual experience and learning problems. The findings support the role of cognitive distortions and deviant sexual fantasies in recidivist sexual offending for this sample. The causal role identified for poor social skills and learning problems in recidivism for sexual offending has implications for treatment and therefore deserves further attention. PMID:11294124

  18. Sex differences in predictors of violent and non-violent juvenile offending.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Zoe; Woodhams, Jessica; Cooke, Claire

    2014-01-01

    In response to concerns regarding the rise in female juvenile violent crime and the dearth of gender-specific research, this study aimed to identify predictors of violent offending in female offenders. Data were extracted from risk assessments of 586 male and female juvenile offenders (aged 11-17 years) conducted between 2005 and 2009 by the Youth Offending Service in Gloucestershire, an English county. Information regarding the young people's living arrangements, family and personal relationships, education, emotional/mental health, thinking and behavior, and attitudes to offending was recorded. Comparisons were made between the violent male offenders (N = 185), the violent female offenders (N = 113), the non-violent male offenders (N = 150), and the non-violent female offenders (N = 138) for these variables. These were followed by a multinomial logistic regression analysis. The findings indicated that engaging in self-harm was the best predictor of being a female violent offender, with the predictors of giving into pressure from others and attempted suicide nearing significance. Furthermore, non-violent females were significantly less likely to lose control of their temper and more likely to give in to pressure from others than their violent counterparts. Non-violent males were significantly less likely to lose control of their temper and more likely to self-harm and give in to pressure from others than violent males. Although many similarities existed between sexes for predictors of violent offending, the findings of this study indicate that more attention needs to be paid to the mental health of female offenders. PMID:24014192

  19. A geospatial analysis of the impact of sex offender residency restrictions in two New York counties.

    PubMed

    Berenson, Jacqueline A; Appelbaum, Paul S

    2011-06-01

    The efficacy of sex offender residence restriction laws in enhancing public safety is controversial and further complicated by evidence that adverse collateral effects may negate or even outweigh whatever benefits they achieve. Based on the theory of "distance decay" that postulates that offenders are more likely to recidivate closer to home, the statutes seek to distance offenders from potential child victims. However, to the extent that such statutes preclude residence in large portions of covered jurisdictions, it has been argued that they contribute to social instability, relegation of offenders to rural or undesirable locations, and even homelessness. A small number of studies have demonstrated the impact of restrictions on residential availability and compliance with the laws, but methodologic issues make it difficult to compare findings. This study uses parcel geocoding, a computerized mapping method, to examine the impact of the sex offender residency restrictions enacted in Erie and Schenectady Counties, NY. Identification and mapping of restricted locations revealed that in nonurban areas, available residential locations were drastically reduced by the restrictions (89.46% and 73.16% restricted in the two counties) and in urban areas almost completely eliminated (95.45% and 97.21%). Unexpectedly, however, when the registered sex offenders in each county were matched to their addresses in the state database, analysis revealed that residence restrictions had no demonstrable effect on where offenders live. More than 85% of offenders in each of the counties were found living in the urban centers, the vast majority of whom (91.89% and 100%) were matched to addresses in restricted locations. These findings may have important policy and procedural implications in the creation and enforcement of sex offender statutes, as well as in the evaluation of those presently in place. PMID:20549319

  20. Beyond Static and Dynamic Risk Factors: The Incremental Validity of Release Planning for Predicting Sex Offender Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scoones, Carwyn D.; Willis, Gwenda M.; Grace, Randolph C.

    2012-01-01

    Both desistance research and strengths-based approaches to offender rehabilitation suggest that attempts to reduce sex offender recidivism should attend to an offender's release environment. Recent research has demonstrated that better quality release planning is associated with reduced recidivism; however, whether release planning contributes…

  1. The Differential Treatment Model: Empirical Evidence from a Personality Typology of Adult Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annis, Helen M.; Chan, David

    1983-01-01

    Interaction of offender type by treatment program was examined for 100 adult offenders with alcohol and drug problems assigned to a group therapy program and 50 to routine care. Offenders who were classified high in self-image showed greater improvement in the group therapy program. (Author/HLM)

  2. The Remodeling Process: A Grounded Theory Study of Perceptions of Treatment among Adult Male Incest Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheela, Rochelle A.

    1992-01-01

    Conducted grounded theory study to explore incest offender perceptions of treatment to generate explanatory theory of sexual abuse treatment process. Findings from theoretical sampling of 20 adult male incest offenders revealed that offenders felt remodeling process occurred as they faced discovery of their abuse and went through treatment.…

  3. Community management of sex offenders with intellectual disabilities: characteristics, services, and outcome of a statewide program.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Robert J; Livingston, Joy A; Falk, Gail

    2007-12-01

    The state of Vermont closed its only institution for persons with intellectual disabilities in 1993 and moved to a totally community-based model of services. Here we describe the characteristics of the near exhaustive statewide sample of adult male sex offenders with intellectual disabilities (N=103) who received these services between 1993 and 2004, discuss these services, and examine the sexual recidivism rates of the sample. Over an average follow-up period of 5.8 years, 10.7% of the sample was identified as having sexually reoffended. Most reoffenses were noncontact, and most victims were staff members, relatives, or housemates of the abuser. Results are discussed in terms of their clinical, policy, and research implications. PMID:17997615

  4. Interpreting Child Sexual Abuse: Empathy and Offense-Supportive Cognitions among Child Sex Offenders.

    PubMed

    Hempel, Inge Sarah; Buck, Nicole Maria Leonarda; van Vugt, Eveline Stefanie; van Marle, Hjalmar Johan Carel

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that child sex offenders hold distorted views on social interactions with children. Misinterpreting children's behavior and intentions could lead to sexually abusive behavior toward children. It is further suggested that the interpretation process is influenced by offenders' offense-supportive cognitions and levels of empathy. To examine the relationships between these three concepts, 47 contact offenders completed self-reports on offense-supportive cognitions and empathy. Vignettes were developed to assess the extent to which offenders attributed responsibility, benefit, and complicity to children in hypothetical child molestation incidents. This study showed that cognitions that justify sexual offending against children seem to diminish the threshold for sexual assault by assigning more cooperation and willingness of the victim in a child molestation incident. PMID:26061021

  5. Self-Reported Sexual Assault in Convicted Sex Offenders and Community Men

    PubMed Central

    Widman, Laura; Olson, Michael A.; Bolen, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    Although self-reported sexual assault perpetrated by men against women has been well documented among college men, less is known about self-reported perpetration among convicted sex offenders and community men. This study provides unique descriptive and comparative information on sexual assaults in these understudied populations. Participants were 40 convicted sex offenders and 49 demographically-comparable community men who completed the Sexual Experiences Survey (SES; Abbey, Parkhill, & Koss, 2005; Koss, Gidycz, & Wisniewski, 1987) and other surveys to capture the promiscous sex and hostile masculinity pathways posited by the confluence model (Malamuth, 2003). We found notably few differences between sex offenders and community men in the rate and severity of sexual assault perpetration and the tactics used to obtain unwanted sexual contact. Specifically, 68% of sex offenders and 59% of community men acknowledged they had perpetrated sexual assault. Both groups used guilt and anger as the most frequent tactics to obtain unwanted sexual activity from their female victims. Consistent with the confluence model, an impersonal orientation towards sexual relationships was associated with sexual assault for both sex offenders and community men. Future directions for research on sexual assault perpetration and violence prevention efforts are discussed in light of these findings. PMID:23262829

  6. The cycle of violence: examining the impact of maltreatment early in life on adult offending.

    PubMed

    Reckdenwald, Amy; Mancini, Christina; Beauregard, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Over the last two decades, considerable scholarly attention has been directed toward explaining the "cycle of violence"-a phenomenon whereby victimization and offending appear inexorably linked to one another. Extant work has greatly contributed to our understanding of this cycle for different types of abuse and different types of offending, such as sex offending. The link between sexual abuse and later offending cannot be overstated, with research suggesting the impact of sexual abuse on sex offending to be more pronounced than any other type of abuse. However, in the literature, questions remain regarding sex offenders' patterns of offending. Specifically, it remains unclear whether type of abuse experienced has a differential impact on type of offending in adulthopd. Using retrospective data from sexual offenders in a Canadian penitentiary, we address this research gap by examining the impact of abuse experienced during childhood and adolescence on various types of offending in adulthood. Results indicate partial support for the cycle of violence hypothesis-the extent of criminal involvement can be explained as being a consequence of prior maltreatment; however, findings also suggest refinements to the theory, because the influence of type of abuse varies depending on the type of offending examined. Research and policy implications are discussed. PMID:23862310

  7. Family or Caregiver Instability, Parental Attachment, and the Relationship to Juvenile Sex Offending.

    PubMed

    Felizzi, Marc V

    2015-01-01

    A violent or unstable home life-characterized by caregivers physically or sexually abusing children, physical violence in the home, homelessness, and other factors-and disrupted parental attachment are examined in this secondary data analysis for their possible relationship to juvenile sex offending. Parent or caregiver instability is measured by a demographic questionnaire administered to participants. Parental attachment is measured by the Inventory of Peer and Personal Attachment. The population included 502 adjudicated juvenile male sexual and nonsexual offenders in a Midwest state who responded to questionnaires in order to examine juvenile offending antecedents. The highest correlated parent or caregiver instability variables to juvenile sex offending status were multiple relocations or homelessness, children placed out of the home, slapping or punching in the home, and sexual abuse victimization. The quality of parental attachment had little impact on the respondents' offense status. PMID:26340072

  8. Juvenile Group Sex Offenders: A Comparison of Group Leaders and Followers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    't Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette A.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; Jansen, Lucres M. C.; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate group sex offenses with regard to the role of leaders versus followers and to compare both groups on levels of psychopathology, intelligence, and psychosocial and offense-related characteristics. Eighty-nine adolescent group sex offenders (mean age = 14.9, SD = 1.4) referred by the police to the Dutch child…

  9. Do adolescent child abusers, peer abusers, and non-sex offenders have different personality profiles?

    PubMed

    Glowacz, Fabienne; Born, Michel

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify two sub-populations of sex offenders based on the age of the victims and on the age difference between the abuser and the victim (child sexual abusers vs. peer sexual abusers), and to compare the personality characteristics of these two subgroups with those of juvenile non-sex offenders. The group was composed of 67 adolescent offenders aged 13-18 years who were adjudicated for sexual offenses or non-sexual offenses: 20 non-sex offenders (JNSOs), 26 child sexual abusers (CAs), and 21 peer sexual abusers (PAs). The Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) was administered to all participants. The mean scores and clinical cutoffs on the MACI scales were compared across the three samples. Compared with PAs, CAs were more submissive and conforming, and they experienced more anxious feelings. Peer sexual abusers scored higher on the unruly and forceful personality scales, on social insensitivity, and on delinquent predisposition. Peer sexual abusers also reported higher scores on substance-abuse proneness, impulsive propensities, and antisocial functioning than CAs, but their scores were similar to those of JNSOs. Our results show clear similarities between PAs and JNSOs in terms of personality and clinical characteristics, especially with regard to antisocial personality traits. Child sexual abusers did not display the personality characteristics typical of PAs and JNSOs which predisposed them to delinquent activities. These results raise questions as to whether juvenile sex offenders should be treated within the same institutions as non-sex offenders and whether the same treatment programs should be implemented for all types of juvenile sex offenders. PMID:23064997

  10. High-risk sex offenders may not be high risk forever.

    PubMed

    Hanson, R Karl; Harris, Andrew J R; Helmus, Leslie; Thornton, David

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the extent to which sexual offenders present an enduring risk for sexual recidivism over a 20-year follow-up period. Using an aggregated sample of 7,740 sexual offenders from 21 samples, the yearly recidivism rates were calculated using survival analysis. Overall, the risk of sexual recidivism was highest during the first few years after release, and decreased substantially the longer individuals remained sex offense-free in the community. This pattern was particularly strong for the high-risk sexual offenders (defined by Static-99R scores). Whereas the 5-year sexual recidivism rate for high-risk sex offenders was 22% from the time of release, this rate decreased to 4.2% for the offenders in the same static risk category who remained offense-free in the community for 10 years. The recidivism rates of the low-risk offenders were consistently low (1%-5%) for all time periods. The results suggest that offense history is a valid, but time-dependent, indicator of the propensity to sexually reoffend. Further research is needed to explain the substantial rate of desistance by high-risk sexual offenders. PMID:24664250

  11. Cognitive Distortions about Sex and Sexual Offending: A Comparison of Sex Offending Girls, Delinquent Girls, and Girls from the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubik, Elizabeth K.; Hecker, Jeffrey E.

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive distortions about sexual offending were examined in 11 girls who committed sexual offenses, 12 girls who committed non-sexual criminal offenses, and 21 girls with no history of sexual or non-sexual offending. Participants responded to 12 vignettes that described sexual contact between an adolescent girl and a younger boy. The vignettes…

  12. Polish project of a Sex Offenders Registry - a mental health professionals' perspective.

    PubMed

    Szumski, Filip; Kasparek, Krzysztof; Gierowski, Józef Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses the governmental draft of the Act on counteracting threats of sexual offences. It assumes the creation of the Registry of Sex Offenders in a version with a limited access and a version available to the public. The registry is supplemented with a publically available map of sexual crime threats, which includes the places of sexual offences and the places of residence of offenders. Criticising the proposed solutions, the authors point out the lack of integration with other interventions conducted in Poland against sex offenders, noncompliance with the recommendations of the most important expert circles in the field, as well as the research results showing the lack of effectiveness of the planned measures to reduce sexual offences. Anumber of negative consequences of making the sex offenders'data available to the public was also highlighted in the form of a clear deterioration of social rehabilitation prognoses, additional stigmatisation, as well as social exclusion of the offenders themselves and the victims of sexual violence. The summary emphasises the need to counteract the problem of sexual offences in a systematic way and the need to diversify the interventions undertaken against the offenders, depending on the level of risk of sexual recidivism. PMID:27556108

  13. Risk and the preventive detention of sex offenders in Australia and the United States.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Cynthia Calkins; Ogloff, James R P

    2007-01-01

    The development of recent statutory schemes, in both the United States and Australia, aim to keep the most dangerous sex offenders detained beyond the expiration of their prison sentence. In Kansas v. Hendricks (1997), the United States Supreme Court found constitutional Sexually Violent Predator (SVP) legislation that allows for the post-sentence, indefinite civil commitment of a subclass of dangerous offenders. More recently, the Australian High Court in Attorney-General (Qld) v. Fardon (2004) similarly upheld the constitutionality of Queensland's Dangerous Prisoners (Sexual Offenders) Act (2003), which allows for the post-sentence preventive detention of sex offenders deemed to be at high risk of serious sexual recidivism. Because an evaluation of a sex offender's likelihood of re-offending is fundamental to these schemes, this article provides an overview of recent advances in the risk assessment literature, discussing base rates of sexual recidivism, the identification of empirically validated risk factors, and the utility of structured risk assessment tools. Although it is recommended that risk assessment measures be utilized to assist the courts in making sound decisions about commitment, the limits of current research knowledge and areas of future research need are discussed. PMID:17157911

  14. Predicting recidivism among adult male child pornography offenders: Development of the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT).

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we developed a structured risk checklist, the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT), to predict any sexual recidivism among adult male offenders with a conviction for child pornography offenses. We identified predictors of sexual recidivism using a 5-year fixed follow-up analysis from a police case file sample of 266 adult male child pornography offenders in the community after their index offense. In our 5-year follow-up, 29% committed a new offense, and 11% committed a new sexual offense, with 3% committing a new contact sexual offense against a child and 9% committing a new child pornography offense. The CPORT items comprised younger offender age, any prior criminal history, any contact sexual offending, any failure on conditional release, indication of sexual interest in child pornography material or prepubescent or pubescent children, more boy than girl content in child pornography, and more boy than girl content in other child depictions. The CPORT was significantly associated with any sexual recidivism, with moderate predictive accuracy, and thus has promise in the risk assessment of adult male child pornography offenders with further cross-validation. PMID:25844514

  15. An exploration of psychopathy in self-report measures among juvenile sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Morrell, Laura M; Burton, David L

    2014-05-01

    Researchers have indicated that adult psychopathy often originates in childhood or adolescence. It has also been established that psychopathic traits are linked to disruptive behavior, criminality, and violence. As knowledge about psychopathy and its manifestations in juvenile sex offender populations remains limited, several instruments have been developed in an effort to measure the construct. In this study, we assessed how the relationship of diverse scales of psychopathy related to characteristics of sexual aggression, and determined which scales were most correlated to sexual and nonsexual delinquency. We utilized four measures of juvenile psychopathy: the Modified Childhood Psychopathy Scale (mCPS; Lynam, 1997), the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick & Hare, 2001; Frick, O'Brien, Wootton, & McBurnett, 1994), the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI; Millon & Davis, 1993; using two derived psychopathy scales), and the Inventory of Callous and Unemotional (ICU) Traits (Frick, 2003), in a sample of 191 incarcerated adolescent sex offenders located in juvenile detention facilities across a Midwestern state. We found that of the four instruments and seven subscales, only the APSD Narcissism and Impulsivity Scale was significantly correlated to a characteristic of sexual crime (i.e., number of victims, level of crime severity). No subscales were found to predict sexual crime at a significant level. However, several scales were correlated to the total delinquency score as measured by the Self-Reported Delinquency Measure. In a series of multiple regressions, the MACI Factor 2 and ICU total score were determined as the best fit to total nonsexual delinquency. Implications are offered. PMID:23525176

  16. The Empathy Index: An Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of a New Empathy Measure for Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Melissa D.; Rose, Roderick A.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the analysis of the psychometric properties, including the validity and reliability, of the Empathy Index (EI), a new instrument designed to measure empathy deficits of sex offenders. The EI was tested with a sample of 158 sex offenders incarcerated in North Carolina prisons. An exploratory factor analysis yielded three…

  17. Resiliency Programming for Adult Offenders in Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, E. Frances

    2000-01-01

    Discusses resiliency programming as an alternative approach to program development for incarcerated adults, and describes a pilot project in a Georgia prison, Leadership Development, that uses the concept of resiliency to frame inmate education. Discusses implications of this model of correctional education. (SLD)

  18. Evaluation for civil commitment of sex offenders: a survey of experts.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Rebecca L; Hess, Derek T

    2007-12-01

    At this study's commencement, 17 states had enacted sex offender civil commitment legislation. Although each statute outlines broad criteria that must be met, civil commitment evaluators are given considerable latitude in how to conduct their assessment. Forty-one experts who conduct sex offender civil commitment evaluations were surveyed to identify the usual practice of these evaluators. A great deal of agreement exists across experts regarding the conduct of sex offender civil commitment evaluations. However, these patterns appear quite different from the usual practice outlined in other types of forensic evaluations. Experts in sex offender civil commitment endorsed documentation as the core method for evaluation. The majority of evaluators reported the assessment of paraphilias, substance abuse, other Axis I disorders, Axis II disorders, and psychopathy as essential to the evaluation. Virtually all survey respondents utilized actuarial risk assessment measures, primarily the Static-99, in assessing for risk of future sexual violence. Although several approaches to assessing volitional impairment were described, the majority of respondents reported that a history of sex offending combined with a personality disorder or a paraphilia established the necessary link between mental abnormality and risk of future sexual violence. An overwhelming majority of experts indicated that it was essential for evaluators to report their ultimate opinion as to whether criteria had been met for civil commitment. Future research regarding the use and incorporation of documentation should be conducted to determine whether the heavy reliance on documentation is unique to sex offender civil commitment evaluations, or whether it is commonly used in other forensic evaluations. PMID:18000756

  19. 45 CFR 2540.203 - When must I conduct a State criminal registry check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? 2540.203... National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? (a) The State criminal... enrolls in, or is hired by, your program on or after October 1, 2009. (b) The National Sex Offender...

  20. 45 CFR 2540.203 - When must I conduct a State criminal registry check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? 2540.203... National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? (a) The State criminal... enrolls in, or is hired by, your program on or after October 1, 2009. (b) The National Sex Offender...

  1. 45 CFR 2540.203 - When must I conduct a State criminal registry check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? 2540.203... National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? (a) The State criminal... enrolls in, or is hired by, your program on or after October 1, 2009. (b) The National Sex Offender...

  2. Helping Sex Offenders to Desist Offending: The Gains and Drains for CoSA Volunteers-A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Höing, Mechtild; Bogaerts, Stefan; Vogelvang, Bas

    2016-08-01

    In Circles of Support and Accountability (CoSA), a group of trained volunteers support sex offenders in their desistance process by engaging in a long-lasting empathic relationship. Is it safe to employ volunteers in this way? This literature review provides an overview of both theoretical explanations and empirical evidence of the possible impact of this type of volunteerism on the volunteers themselves. Fifty original research articles and reviews met the selection criteria of a systematic search. Results on effects of volunteering in general, effects of volunteer work with offenders, and effects of working with sex offenders on professionals are summarized and integrated. Generally, volunteering supports and improves physical health and mental well-being, personal growth, and citizenship. However, working with sex offenders in an empathic relationship generates both positive and negative effects on psychological and social function. Personal characteristics, task characteristics, and organizational characteristics moderate and mediate the impact. PMID:24906364

  3. Perceptions of sex offenders about treatment: satisfaction and engagement in group therapy.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Macgowan, Mark J; Morin, John W; Cotter, Leo P

    2009-03-01

    Surveying the views of sex offender clients can help ensure that treatment is relevant and responsive to client needs. The purpose of this exploratory study is to elicit sex offender clients' perceptions of their experiences in treatment in order to better understand the components of treatment perceived to be helpful in preventing reoffense. Samples (N = 338) of male sex offenders in outpatient group therapy are found to be generally satisfied with treatment services and have positive perceptions of treatment effectiveness. Offenders in treatment value the role of group therapy, and they find accountability, victim empathy, relapse prevention, and "good lives" concepts to be most helpful in managing their behavior. Their engagement in group therapy is assessed using the Group Engagement Measure, and a positive correlation is found between engagement and treatment satisfaction. Eliciting client opinions about the helpfulness of program content and process, and adjusting treatment protocols accordingly, is consistant with the principles of risk, need, and responsivity, a model recommended for therapeutic interventions with criminal offenders. PMID:18948429

  4. Adolescent delinquency and antisocial tendencies as precursors to adult violent offending: a prospective study of a representative sample of swiss men.

    PubMed

    Laubacher, Arja; Rossegger, Astrid; Endrass, Jérôme; Angst, Jules; Urbaniok, Frank; Vetter, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Studies on adult sex and violent offenders have found high rates of adolescent delinquency, while early delinquency has been shown to be significantly associated with adult offending. The examined subsample (n = 123) of a longitudinal prospective study (n = 6,315) includes all men who at the age of 19 had an entry in the criminal records. During the observation period of 34 years, 68.3% of the sample had been reconvicted as adults, 23.6% for violent or sex offenses. The odds of adult sex or violent offending were 2.8 times higher for those who had committed a violent offense in adolescence and 1.05 times higher for any offense committed before the age of 19. The characteristics of criminal history showed the highest discriminative values (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.61-0.65). The most important finding of this study was that characteristics of adolescent delinquency predicted adult violent or sex offending, whereas socioeconomic and psychiatric characteristics did not. PMID:23486754

  5. Assessment and treatment of sex offenders: the Prince of Wales Programme.

    PubMed

    McConaghy, N

    1990-06-01

    The treatment programme for sex offenders at the Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, is described. Penile circumference assessment is not used as there is no evidence it provides a valid measure of individuals' paedophile or rapist tendencies. Sex offenders' self-reports remain the major source of information in their assessment. The development of the two major techniques used--imaginal desensitization and short-term medroxyprogesterone--is outlined. About 80% of subjects can be expected to show a good response to one or other of these therapies. Of those who do not, most respond to the alternative or aversive therapy. Adolescent offenders appear to require more intensive treatment. Results appear comparable with those of more intensive programmes in use overseas. PMID:2204335

  6. Washington State's unscientific approach to the problem of repeat sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Brody, A L; Green, R

    1994-01-01

    In 1990, Washington State enacted the Sexual Predator Act, allowing the civil commitment of sex offenders to a mental health facility for life if they are deemed to be sexual predators (repeat, hardcore offenders). They are released only upon proof that they are no longer a threat to others. This paper reviews the debate about this law and the recent literature on the treatment of sex offenders. We conclude that the Washington State law is unscientific, because the available treatments are not adequate to ensure future safety and because the law selects poor candidates for treatment. Finally, a comment is made about preventive detention effected by psychiatry, and an analogy made to the habitual drunk driver. PMID:7841506

  7. The impact of polygraphy on admissions of victims and offenses in adult sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Ahlmeyer, S; Heil, P; McKee, B; English, K

    2000-04-01

    Sexual offenders are extremely reluctant to disclose their offending histories for a variety of psychosocial and legal reasons. The polygraph has shown promise as a intervention for eliciting admissions of past sexual offending behaviors. For 60 adult male sexual offender (35 inmates and 25 parolees), the number of victims and offenses were recorded from the Presentence Investigative Report, Sexual History Disclosure form, and 2 consecutive polygraph examination reports. Dramatic increases in the number of admitted victims and offenses were found for inmates, but not for parolees, across each source. However, there was a substantial decline in the number of victim and offense admissions by the second polygraph examination for both groups, even though 80% of the examination results reveled deception about sexual offending behaviors. Standardized use of sanctions and privileges for deceptive and nondeceptive polygraph results, respectively, are proposed as a way of eliciting full disclosure of offending histories for these offenders. PMID:10872241

  8. Child Pornography Possessors and Child Contact Sex Offenders: A Multilevel Comparison of Demographic Characteristics and Rates of Recidivism.

    PubMed

    Faust, Erik; Bickart, William; Renaud, Cheryl; Camp, Scott

    2015-10-01

    Considerable debate surrounds the topic of whether possessing or distributing online images of child pornography (CP) represents a new type of crime perpetrated by conventional sex offenders (e.g., child contact [CC] sex offenders), or whether individuals who commit these crimes differ from contact sex offenders in meaningful ways. The current study compares groups of Internet (CP) and CC sexual offenders, with each group's sexual offending history exclusively confined to its offense category. T tests were used to conduct bivariate comparisons of group demographics and criminal histories. Rates of recidivism were examined using survival curves and Cox proportional hazard regression models. Results showed significant differences on demographic and criminal history variables, with CP offenders demonstrating a lower frequency of prior criminal offending and substance abuse, and higher rates of pre-incarceration employment and level of education. Rates of recidivism were significantly different between the two groups, with CP offenders showing lower rates of re-offense for most measures of recidivism. When controlling for background characteristics and the timing of the event, CC offenders were at much greater risk for having an arrest for a new crime or a non-sexual violent crime than CP offenders. Treatment and policy implications are discussed, along with suggestions for future research. PMID:24556314

  9. A New Way of Doing Time on the Outside: Sex Offenders' Pathways In and Out of a Transitional Housing Facility.

    PubMed

    Kras, Kimberly R; Pleggenkuhle, Breanne; Huebner, Beth M

    2016-04-01

    Although housing has been highlighted as a key element of successful reentry experiences, little research has considered the perspectives of sex offenders living in transitional housing upon release from prison. This topic is important given the increasing legal restrictions faced by this offender population. The current study utilizes qualitative data to explore the pathways from prison to transitional housing, the experience of residing in these facilities, and how transitional housing is perceived to affect the overall reentry experience. In general, results suggest that sex offenders reside in the facility because of lack of access to a suitable home, and report a need for service provisions. However, most view their experiences in the transitional facility (TF) as contrary to the rehabilitative ideal, and some indicate that this type of programming has collateral consequences for reentry. The proliferation of sex offender restriction laws has only exacerbated the challenges faced by sex offenders living in the TF. PMID:25326464

  10. What Makes Sex Offenders Confess? An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faller, Kathleen Coulborn; Birdsall, William Chalk; Henry, James; Vandervort, Frank; Silverschanz, Peregrine

    2001-01-01

    Examines correlates of offender confession in criminal sexual conduct cases involving children. The following four variables are associated with suspect confession: (1) having the state police conducting the law enforcement part of the investigation, (2) more serious abuse, (3) younger age of the suspect, and (4) having a court appointed (as…

  11. Variables Associated with Treatment Failure among Adolescent Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Brenda J.

    2005-01-01

    While an adolescent sexual offender's response to treatment is thought to be impacted by both static and dynamic factors, there is no objective method of assessing the likelihood of success or failure in treatment. The assessment of amenability to treatment is generally a subjective process completed by clinicians in the field. Using descriptive…

  12. An Integrated Groupwork Methodology for Working with Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Andrew; Ware, Jayson; Boer, Douglas P.

    2009-01-01

    There is now a considerable literature on the assessment and treatment of sexual offenders. There exists another substantial literature on therapeutic groupwork and its relevance to a range of clinical populations. These bodies of work have made reference to the other in terms of their mutual relevance. However, there has been no comprehensive…

  13. Juvenile sex offender re-arrest rates for sexual, violent nonsexual and property crimes: a 10-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Waite, Dennis; Keller, Adrienne; McGarvey, Elizabeth L; Wieckowski, Edward; Pinkerton, Relana; Brown, Gerald L

    2005-07-01

    We report the results of a 10-year follow-up recidivism study of two sex offender treatment programs for incarcerated juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) in Virginia. The programs vary in environment and intensity. The more intense JSO program ("self-contained") operates in specialized living units that are separate from those of the general juvenile incarcerated population. In the less intense program ("prescriptive"), JSOs remain housed with the general population of juvenile offenders. Arrest and incarceration data through January 2003 were obtained for 261 male JSOs released between 1992 and 2001. The inclusion of adult incarceration data allowed for a more accurate assessment of the actual time at risk for sexual re-offending. Outcomes are re-arrest rates, length of time to re-arrest and type of offense (property, nonsexual assault, sexual) on re-arrest, with analyses using survival curve functions. For both groups, actual re-arrest is most likely to be for a nonsexual person offense (31 and 47%, respectively) and least likely to be for a sexual offense (<5% for both groups). Comparing the nonequivalent groups, the self-contained treatment group has a lower predicted re-arrest rate and a longer mean time to re-arrest, for all types of offenses, than the prescriptive treatment group. In addition, juveniles who indicate high levels of impulsive/antisocial behaviors are significantly more likely to recidivate compared to juveniles with low-levels of impulsive/antisocial behaviors, regardless of treatment type. This is the first 10-year follow-up study of treatment outcomes for a relatively large sample of males who were incarcerated for sexual offenses as juveniles. PMID:16121841

  14. Conceptualizing Sex Offender Denial from a Multifaceted Framework: Investigating the Psychometric Qualities of a New Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Sandy; Daniels, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the psychometric properties of a clinician-rated measure of sex offender denial. Convergent and discriminant validity for the measure was supported, and given its relationship to treatment attitudes, the measure demonstrated utility for assessing treatment change and readiness. (Contains 3 tables.)

  15. Web Systems Help Schools Screen Visitors: Officials Responding to Increased Fears About Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports, that in a growing number of districts, school leaders are ranking the threat of sex offenders-some of them the parents of enrolled students--as one of their chief student-safety concerns. That threat, they say, is a primary reason for investing thousands of dollars in a Web-based tracking system that tells school officials if…

  16. The North Carolina Online Sex Offender Registry: Awareness and Utilization by Childcare Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Jennifer L.; Malesky, L. Alvin, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined childcare providers' usage of the North Carolina Sex Offender and Public Protection Registry. One hundred twenty three childcare providers in 76 counties in North Carolina were surveyed via telephone interview about their utilization of the registry Web site. Responses revealed that most providers knew about the registry…

  17. Sex Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities and Their Academic Observers: Popular Methodologies and Research Interests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollomotz, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over the past two decades, disability activists and scholars have developed research paradigms that aim to place (some of the) control over the research process in the hands of disabled people. This paper discusses the appropriateness of applying such paradigms to sex offenders with intellectual disabilities (ID). It exposes to what…

  18. The Effectiveness of Treatment for Male Sex Offenders with Learning Disabilities: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Jude; Rose, John

    2004-01-01

    Background. A variety of research designs have been employed to explore the efficacy of the wide range of interventions for sex offenders with learning disabilities. This paper reviews these studies to consider the efficacy of such treatments. Methods. Computerized searches and less formal literature gathering led to the identification of 31…

  19. The American Bar Association and Legislatively Mandated Treatment for Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallone, Nathanial J.

    1991-01-01

    Offers historical overview of "criminal sexual psychopath" legislation, which customarily prescribes confinement for treatment (rather than incarceration for punishment) for offenders whose sex crimes are attributed to sexual psychopathology. Discusses desire of American Bar Association and Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry to repeal extant…

  20. Depo provera treatment for sex offending behavior: an evaluation of outcome.

    PubMed

    Meyer, W J; Cole, C; Emory, E

    1992-01-01

    Forty men, ages 16 to 78 years, with sex-offending behavior, were treated with combined medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), group therapy, and individual psychotherapy. Twenty-three are pedophiles; seven, rapists; and 10, exhibitionists. Five had sex-offending behavior that began after head trauma. The duration of MPA therapy, usual intramuscular dose 400 mg/wk, ranged from six months to 12 years, usually more than two years. These men were compared with a control group of 21 men who refused MPA therapy. They had similar types of sex-offending behavior and were treated with psychotherapy alone with follow-up for a period that ranged from two to 12 years. MPA-related side effects included excessive weight gain, malaise, migraine headaches, severe leg cramps, elevation of blood pressure, gastrointestinal complaints, gallbladder stones, and diabetes mellitus. Of the 40 individuals who took MPA, 10 are still on therapy. Eighteen percent reoffended while receiving MPA therapy; 35 percent reoffended after stopping MPA. In contrast, 58 percent of the control patients, who refused and never received MPA, reoffended. Patients defined as regressed were much more likely to reoffend off therapy than the patients defined as fixated. Other risk factors for reoffense include elevated baseline testosterone, previous head injury, never forming a marriage relationship, and alcohol and drug abuse. In spite of significant medical side effects, maintenance MPA offers benefit for the compulsive sex offender by reducing the reoffense rate. PMID:1421556

  1. Predicting recidivism in sex offenders with the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS).

    PubMed

    Walters, Glenn D; Deming, Adam; Casbon, Todd

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) was capable of predicting recidivism in 322 male sex offenders released from prison-based sex offender programs in a Midwestern state. The Static-99R and PICTS General Criminal Thinking (GCT), Reactive (R), and Entitlement (En) scores all correlated significantly with general recidivism, the Static-99R correlated significantly with violent recidivism, and the Static-99R score and PICTS GCT, Proactive (P), and En scores correlated significantly with failure to register as a sex offender (FTR) recidivism. Area under the curve effect size estimates varied from small to large, and Cox regression analyses revealed that the PICTS En score achieved incremental validity relative to the Static-99R in predicting general recidivism and the PICTS GCT, P, and En scores achieved incremental validity relative to the Static-99R in predicting FTR recidivism. It is speculated that the PICTS in general and the En scale in particular may have utility in risk management and treatment planning for sex offenders by virtue of their focus on antisocial thinking. PMID:25013121

  2. Development of Vermont assessment of sex offender risk-2 (VASOR-2) reoffense risk scale.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Robert J; Lasher, Michael P; Cumming, Georgia F; Langton, Calvin M; Hoke, Stephen E

    2014-06-01

    The present study aimed to revise the Vermont Assessment of Sex Offender Risk (VASOR) Reoffense Risk Scale, a commonly used sex offender risk assessment tool. The revised tool was named the VASOR-2. Among models tested to revise the scale, a logistic regression model showed the best balance between simplicity of use, goodness of fit, and internal validity (as tested with K-10 cross-validation), and maximized predictive accuracy. Predictive accuracy was tested using four meta-analytically combined data sets drawn from Canada and Vermont (N = 1,581). At 5-year fixed follow-up, the predictive accuracy for sexual recidivism for VASOR-2 (AUC = .74) was similar to the VASOR (AUC = .71). The findings show the VASOR-2 is well calibrated with observed recidivism rates for all but the highest risk sex offenders. The instrument showed good interrater reliability (ICC = .88). An advantage of the VASOR-2 is that it has fewer items and simpler scoring instructions than the VASOR. Norms are presented for a contemporary, nonselected, routine sample of Vermont sex offenders (n = 887). PMID:23630225

  3. Comparing Sex Offender Risk Classification Using the Static-99 and LSI-R Assessment Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Amanda L.; Dulmus, Catherine N.; Theriot, Matthew T.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study compares sex offender risk classification using two popular actuarial risk assessment instruments--the Static-99 and the Level of Service Inventory-Revised (LSI-R). Despite their extensive use, the two scales assess different types of risk factors and research has yet to compare them. Method: Static-99 and LSI-R risk…

  4. Effectively Utilizing the "Behavioral" in Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy of Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Jerry L.; Deming, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is touted as the predominant approach in sex offender-specific group treatment, a review of the field shows that the "behavioral" part of CBT has become minimal in relation to that which is cognitive. The authors show how a revitalized "behavioral sensibility" may help to enhance…

  5. Even Highly Correlated Measures Can Add Incrementally to Predicting Recidivism among Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babchishin, Kelly M.; Hanson, R. Karl; Helmus, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    Criterion-referenced measures, such as those used in the assessment of crime and violence, prioritize predictive accuracy (discrimination) at the expense of construct validity. In this article, we compared the discrimination and incremental validity of three commonly used criterion-referenced measures for sex offenders (Rapid Risk Assessment for…

  6. Supporting Every Child: School Counselors' Perceptions of Juvenile Sex Offenders in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Leann Wyrick; McClendon, Levi S.; McCarty, Jenna; Zinck, Kirk

    2016-01-01

    Researchers explored the attitudes and concerns of professional school counselors in their roles in working with juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) who attend school. Little empirical data exist regarding school counselors' roles in effectively engaging and supporting JSOs toward school success. Focus groups contributed to the consensual qualitative…

  7. The Efficacy of County-Level Sex Offender Residence Restrictions in New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Socia, Kelly M.

    2012-01-01

    Residence restrictions seek to protect community members from registered sex offenders (RSOs) reentering society following incarceration. These policies, first passed in 1995 at the state level and in 2005 at the county and local levels, have become extremely popular throughout the United States but without proof that they are effective. To date,…

  8. Ethical practice in sex offender assessment: consideration of actuarial and polygraph methods.

    PubMed

    Vess, James

    2011-09-01

    The current generation of community protection laws represents a shift in priorities that may see the individual rights of sex offenders compromised for the goal of public safety. At the center of many judicial decisions under these laws are the risk assessment reports provided by mental health practitioners. The widespread enactment of laws allowing for additional sanctions for sex offenders, and a burgeoning research literature regarding the methods used to assess risk have served to heighten rather than resolve the ethical concerns associated with professional practice in this area. This article examines ethical issues inherent in the use of two assessment methods commonly used with sex offenders in the correctional context, focusing on actuarial measures and polygraph tests. Properly conducted and adequately reported actuarial findings are considered to provide useful information of sufficient accuracy to inform rather than mislead judicial decision makers, although careful consideration must be given to the limitations of current measures in each individual case. Despite its increasing use, polygraph testing is considered controversial, with little consensus regarding its accuracy or appropriate applications. On the basis of the current state of the professional literature regarding the polygraph, its use with sex offenders raises unresolved ethical concerns. PMID:20944058

  9. Concerned about Juvenile Sex Offenders, States Move to Tighten Their Regulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2007-01-01

    Confronted with widely publicized accounts of assaults by juvenile sex offenders against fellow students or school staff members, several states are grappling with the issue of how to balance a student's right to an education with the threat that such a student may pose. Legislatures and agencies in several states, such as Arkansas, New Mexico,…

  10. Treating Juveniles in a Sex Offender Program Using Adventure-Based Programming: A Matched Group Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, H. L.; Gass, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Ninety-five male juvenile sex offenders in an adventure-based behavior management program (LEGACY) were matched with male juveniles in state treatment-as-usual and other specialized programs in the same state to determine program effectiveness (as measured by rearrest rates). The LEGACY program demonstrated significant treatment effectiveness on…

  11. A Problem-Solving Intervention for Sex Offenders with an Intellectual Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Wendy

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted of 13 male sex offenders with mild intellectual disability (ages 17 to 43) in Victoria (Australia). Results suggest that cognitive restructuring, consequence training, relapse prevention, and covert sensitization appear to be promising intervention techniques. The importance of early intervention to prevent sexual offenses is…

  12. Concept Mapping Professionals' Perceptions of Reward and Motive in Providing Sex Offender Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadambi, Michaela; Truscott, Derek

    2006-01-01

    Concept mapping (a combined qualitative/quantitative approach) was used to clarify the domain, composition, and underlying structure of 82 Canadian professionals' experiences of reward in their work with sex offenders. Seven thematic clusters were identified: Protection of Potential Victims, Socially Meaningful Curiosity, Enjoyment of Counselling,…

  13. Predictors of Support for Juvenile Sex Offender Registration: Educated Individuals Recognize the Flaws of Juvenile Registration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Margaret C.; Smith, Amy C.; Sekely, Ady; Farnum, Katlyn S.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated demographic predictors of support for juvenile sex offender registration policies, including education level, gender, political orientation, and age. Participants were 168 individuals recruited from public places in a Midwest community (45% women; M age = 42). In line with hypotheses, as education level increased, support for…

  14. The Incidence of Depressive Symptomatology in Juvenile Sex Offenders with a History of Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Judith V.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Depressive symptomatology was assessed in 246 male juvenile sex offenders. Scores on the Beck Depression Inventory indicated 42 percent showed appreciable depressive symptomatology. A history of sexual or physical abuse was related to high Beck scores. Racial differences were not statistically significant. (Author/DB)

  15. Victimization and Violent Offending: An Assessment of the Victim-Offender Overlap Among Native American Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Reingle, Jennifer M.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the victim–offender overlap among a nationally representative sample of Native American adolescents and young adults. Data for this study were obtained from 338 Native American youth who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) Waves I-IV. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to estimate trajectories of violence and victimization separately. Bivariate tests were used to assess the overlap between victimization and violent trajectory groups. Multinomial regression procedures were used to assess the predictors of victimization, offending, and the overlap category of both victimization and offending. Three trajectory groups were found for violence (nonviolent, escalators, and desistors) and victimization (nonvictim, decreasing victimization, and increasing victimization). We found substantial evidence of an overlap between victimization and offending among Native Americans, as 27.5% of the sample reported both victimization and offending. Those in the overlap group had greater number of risk factors present at baseline. These results suggest that the victim–offender overlap is present in Native American adolescents. Explanations and implications are discussed. PMID:24078778

  16. Doing cognitive distortions: a discursive psychology analysis of sex offender treatment talk.

    PubMed

    Auburn, Timothy; Lea, Susan

    2003-06-01

    Theories of sex offending have for several years relied upon the notion of cognitive distortions as an important cause of sexual offending. In this study we critique this notion and suggest that the sort of phenomenon addressed by cognitive distortions is better understood by adopting a discursive psychology approach. In this approach, talk is regarded as occasioned and action oriented. Thus 'cognitive distortions' are conceptualized as something people do rather than something that people have. Sessions from a prison-based sex offender treatment programme were taped and transcribed. A discursive psychology analysis was conducted on those sessions relating to offenders' first accounts of their offences. Our analysis suggests that offenders utilize a particular narrative organization to manage their blame and responsibility for the offence. This organization is based on a first part which is oriented to quotidian precursors to the offence and an immediately following second which is oriented to a sudden shift in the definition of the situation. The implications of this analysis are discussed, in relation to the status of cognitive distortions and treatment. PMID:12869249

  17. The Good, the Bad, and the Incomprehensible: Typifications of Victims and Offenders as Antecedents of Beliefs About Sex Crime.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Christina; Pickett, Justin T

    2016-01-01

    Public opinion has played a critical role in the development of sex crime laws. However, little scholarly work has focused directly on the origins of negative attitudes toward sex offenders. We address this research gap by developing and testing a theoretical account of such views. Drawing on recent national survey data, we examine the extent to which typifications about sexual victims and offenders--believing sex crime typically affects children and female victims and is committed by strangers--explain beliefs about the reformability of sex offenders, harm inflicted on victims, and the causes of offending. Results indicate that judging children to be typical targets of sex crimes is a key determinant of public views. We discuss the implications of our findings. PMID:25381282

  18. The Influence of a Juvenile’s Abuse History on Support for Sex Offender Registration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether and how a juvenile’s history of experiencing sexual abuse affects public perceptions of juvenile sex offenders in a series of 5 studies. When asked about juvenile sex offenders in an abstract manner (Studies 1 and 2), the more participants (community members and undergraduates) believed that a history of being sexually abused as a child causes later sexually abusive behavior, the less likely they were to support sex offender registration for juveniles. Yet when participants considered specific sexual offenses, a juvenile’s history of sexual abuse was not considered to be a mitigating factor. This was true when participants considered a severe sexual offense (forced rape; Study 3 and Study 4) and a case involving less severe sexual offenses (i.e., statutory rape), when a juvenile’s history of sexual abuse backfired and was used as an aggravating factor, increasing support for registering the offender (Study 3 and Study 5). Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:26074717

  19. Public attitudes toward sex offenders and their relationship to personality traits and demographic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Olver, Mark E; Barlow, Ashley A

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined public attitudes toward the sentencing, treatment, management, and perceived dangerousness of sex offenders. Seventy-eight university undergraduates completed a 25-item attitude toward sex offenders survey developed for the present study, along with a five-factor measure of personality (NEO Personality Inventory - Revised), a demographic questionnaire, and the Paulhus Deception Scale, to control for social desirability. While participants most frequently endorsed the belief that sentences were not sufficiently severe, they tended to espouse treatment and risk management alternatives to longer sentences and eschewed exceptionally severe punishments (e.g., surgical castration). Participants estimated high rates of sexual recidivism (59%), although they also estimated significantly lower recidivism rates for treated offenders. Results of a principle components analysis suggested that participant attitudes comprised two broad domains: systems attitudes (e.g., law enforcement, corrections, justice) and rehabilitative attitudes. Although few demographic differences emerged in participant attitudes, 'openness to experience' and 'agreeableness' each significantly predicted more rehabilitative attitudes, while contrary to expectations, 'extraversion' was significantly associated with more negative systems-related attitudes. The results provide support that personality traits may be linked to important social attitudes, including those toward sex offenders. PMID:20857417

  20. Sex Differences in Trajectories of Offending among Puerto Rican Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Wesley G.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Bird, Hector; Canino, Glorisa

    2010-01-01

    Although sex is one of the strongest correlates of crime, contentions remain regarding the necessity of sex-specific theories of crime. The current study examines delinquent trajectories across sex among Puerto Rican youth socialized in two different cultural contexts (Bronx, United States; and San Juan, Puerto Rico). Results indicate similar…

  1. Vocational Education and Training for Adult Prisoners and Offenders in Australia. Research Readings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawe, Susan, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book of research readings provides clear evidence that adult prisoners and offenders who participate in vocational education and training (VET) during their sentence are less likely to re-offend. A reduction in recidivism represents significant cost savings to the community. The book highlights recent improvements in the delivery of VET for…

  2. Relationship between Parenting and Cognitive Schemas in a Group of Male Adult Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Pellerone, Monica; Craparo, Giuseppe; Tornabuoni, Ylenia

    2016-01-01

    This work analyzes the correlation of retrospective ratings on parental binding with cognitive patterns in the inmates for property crimes. The participant group comprehended 248 adults men, including 130 marked out as offenders (the target group), aged between 19 and 70, currently serving sentences in the Cavadonna prison in Siracusa, and 118 marked out as non-offenders (the control group), aged between 20 and 70, living in Siracusa (Sicily). The instruments used were the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), and the Young Schema Questionnaire-3 (YSQ). The preliminary analysis showed a high percentage of offenders who experienced an affectionate constraint parenting. Offenders scored significantly higher than the non-offenders on the level of paternal control and the YSQ subscales. The study underlines the influence of maternal care on most of the cognitive schemas, and the role of father's control on the tendency to social isolation and defectiveness in the offenders. PMID:27014121

  3. Relationship between Parenting and Cognitive Schemas in a Group of Male Adult Offenders.

    PubMed

    Pellerone, Monica; Craparo, Giuseppe; Tornabuoni, Ylenia

    2016-01-01

    This work analyzes the correlation of retrospective ratings on parental binding with cognitive patterns in the inmates for property crimes. The participant group comprehended 248 adults men, including 130 marked out as offenders (the target group), aged between 19 and 70, currently serving sentences in the Cavadonna prison in Siracusa, and 118 marked out as non-offenders (the control group), aged between 20 and 70, living in Siracusa (Sicily). The instruments used were the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), and the Young Schema Questionnaire-3 (YSQ). The preliminary analysis showed a high percentage of offenders who experienced an affectionate constraint parenting. Offenders scored significantly higher than the non-offenders on the level of paternal control and the YSQ subscales. The study underlines the influence of maternal care on most of the cognitive schemas, and the role of father's control on the tendency to social isolation and defectiveness in the offenders. PMID:27014121

  4. Sadistic personality disorder in sex offenders: relationship to antisocial personality disorder and sexual sadism.

    PubMed

    Berger, P; Berner, W; Bolterauer, J; Gutierrez, K; Berger, K

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the relationship of sadistic personality disorder (SPD), as defined in the appendix of DSM-III-R, to other personality disorders and to sexual sadism, 70 sex offenders (27 child molesters, 33 rapists, and 10 murderers) were assessed by the International Personality Disorder Examination. In 19 subjects (27.2%) from the total sample, SPD was diagnosed. The highest overlap appeared with borderline personality disorder (31.6%) and antisocial personality disorder (42.1%). However, in four cases SPD was the only personality disorder diagnosed. Factor analysis of the antisocial and sadistic criteria resulted in four major factors--one factor with high loadings on the sadistic criteria and the violent criteria of antisocial personality disorder, two factors with different forms of adult and juvenile aggression, and a fourth factor with high loadings on the antisocial criteria covering exploitative behavior. The results do not support SPD as a discrete disorder. Nevertheless, SPD may be seen as an important subdimension of antisocial personality disorder, distinct from more exploitative forms of antisocial behavior with less violence. Of those patients with SPD, 42.1% also had a DSM-III-R diagnosis of sexual sadism, which may be the most dangerous configuration. PMID:10372350

  5. Female Juvenile Sexual Offenders: Understanding Who They Are and Possible Steps That May Prevent Some Girls From Offending.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Brian E; Holmes, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been accumulating evidence that sexual abuse committed by females is not rare and can be just as traumatic as sexual abuse committed by males. Despite the increased recognition given to sex offending by adult women, however, very little attention has been given to sex offenses committed by juvenile females. There has further been very little published material that has focused specifically on intervening with female children and adolescents before they offend. In an attempt to fill this gap, this article describes common characteristics of juvenile female sex offenders, ways in which juvenile female sex offenders are similar to and different from juvenile male sex offenders, and the limitations that exist related to our knowledge about these offenders. Based on this information, suggestions are given for possible ways to intervene in the lives of at-risk female youth before they offend. PMID:26340075

  6. The Effectiveness of Aftercare for Juvenile and Young Adult Offenders.

    PubMed

    James, Chrissy; Asscher, Jessica J; Stams, Geert Jan J M; van der Laan, Peter H

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the New Perspectives Aftercare Program (NPAP) for serious juvenile and young adult offenders in The Netherlands. Participants (n = 127) were randomly assigned to NPAP (n = 66) or existing aftercare services ("treatment as usual" [TAU], n = 61). The aim was to determine whether NPAP was effective in decreasing cognitive distortions and criminal thinking patterns and increasing prosocial skills of the juveniles compared with TAU. No direct intervention effects were found on any of the outcome measures. Moderator analyses, however, showed several interaction effects of ethnicity and coping skills for both NPAP and TAU youths. Furthermore, NPAP dropouts displayed significantly more indirect aggression at posttest compared with youths dropping out from TAU. Possible explanations for the mostly null effects are discussed, including implications for further research, policy, and practice. PMID:25829455

  7. Predicting relapse for Catholic clergy sex offenders: the use of the static-99.

    PubMed

    Montana, Stephen; Thompson, Gary; Ellsworth, Peter; Lagan, Hugh; Helmus, Leslie; Rhoades, Colin J

    2012-12-01

    The Static-99 is an instrument commonly used to measure the likelihood of recidivism among sex offenders. The current study explores whether the Static-99 is an effective predictor of relapse among Catholic clergy who have had sexual contact with minors. Static-99 scores were compiled for 337 treated clergy who had offended against minors, including 21 who were known to have relapsed after treatment. Clergy were followed up for 5 to 25 years posttreatment (M = 16.05; SD = 5.12) after their completion of treatment. Post release, they were closely supervised, with explicit rules limiting their contacts with minors and church officials monitoring their compliance with posttreatment plans. Descriptive information on the victims of clergy sex offenders is provided. Although all clergy offenders had the same score on 4 of the 10 Static-99 items, Static-99 total scores still significantly predicted relapse with a moderate to large effect size (area under the curve [AUC] = .672; Cohen's d = .808). Predictive accuracy of each item is also reported. Issues concerning the use of the Static-99 with this population are discussed. PMID:22593148

  8. Effectiveness of a sex offender treatment programme: a risk band analysis.

    PubMed

    Woodrow, Anna C; Bright, David A

    2011-02-01

    This article reports an evaluation of a New South Wales Department of Corrective Services custody-based treatment programme for adult male sexual offenders. A risk band analysis was used to compare observed and predicted sexual and violent recidivism rates in a sample of 117 treated and released offenders. Risk bands and predicted recidivism were determined using the Static-99 risk assessment measure. Results demonstrated that during an average follow-up period of 3.75 years, observed sexual recidivism rates were lower than Static-99 predictions for the overall sample (8.5% vs. 26%). The same pattern was observed for violent recidivism (12.8% vs. 36%). At each Static-99 level of risk (low, low-moderate, moderate-high, and high), observed sexual and violent recidivism rates were lower than predicted rates. These findings were consistent with the general consensus that well-implemented cognitive-behavioural treatment can have a positive effect on offending behaviour. PMID:20081095

  9. Sex offender registration and community notification challenges: the Supreme Court continues its trend.

    PubMed

    Scott, Charles L; Gerbasi, Joan B

    2003-01-01

    All states and the District of Columbia have passed sex offender registration and community notification laws. While the specific provisions of these statutes vary, all have public safety as a primary goal. The authors discuss two recent cases heard by the United States Supreme Court that challenged the constitutionality of Alaska's and Connecticut's statutes. The laws were challenged as violations of the United States Constitution's prohibition on ex post facto laws and its Fourteenth Amendment guarantee of procedural due process. In both cases, the statutes were upheld. As it has found in challenges to sexually violent predator statutes, the Court emphasized that the registration and community notification schemes are civil and not criminal in nature. The article concludes with a discussion of possible implications for clinicians involved in evaluating or treating sex offenders. PMID:14974805

  10. Effects of defendant and victim race on perceptions of juvenile sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Margaret C; Sorenson, Katlyn M; Smith, Amy C; Sekely, Ady; Dzwairo, Rukudzo A

    2009-01-01

    We investigated effects of defendant race, victim race, and juror gender on public perceptions of a juvenile sex offense. We predicted that participants, particularly men, would support registering a juvenile defendant as a sex offender more when he was Black than White and that participants, particularly women, would support registering the defendant more when the female crime victim was portrayed as White than as Black. We also expected that support for registration would be higher when the defendant and victim were different races than when they were the same race. As expected, women (but not men) recommended registration more when the victim was White than Black. Further, participants supported registration more when the defendant and the victim were different races than when they were the same race. These effects were mediated by retributive goals to punish the offender-not by utilitarian goals to protect society. Explanations and implications are discussed. PMID:19937924

  11. Sex offender commitments in Minnesota: a descriptive study of second generation commitments.

    PubMed

    Janus, E S; Walbek, N H

    2000-01-01

    Civil commitment laws intended to prevent sexual violence are being considered and enacted by many state legislatures. In their use of "preventive detention" to lock up the "most dangerous," the laws are highly controversial legally and morally. As well, critics raise questions about the extent to which the laws advance their stated goals. Considering the growing expense of these programs, evaluation efforts based on an empirical foundation are imperative. This study collected data on all 116 men committed under Minnesota's program during the period 1975-1996. The authors report descriptive summary data on admission rates and population trends, demographic characteristics of detainees and victims, pre-commitment criminal and mental health histories, and current status of detainees. The article also compares the committed group with sex offenders in the state's correctional system. The article describes the history and functioning of sex offender commitment programs, and draws implications for policy-makers from the data presented. PMID:10874293

  12. A consumer satisfaction survey of civilly committed sex offenders in Illinois.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Prescott, David S; Jumper, Shan

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain feedback from civilly committed sex offenders (N = 113) about the components of treatment that they believed to be most important and helpful in preventing reoffense. Participants were also asked to rate their satisfaction with the treatment process and therapists. Victim empathy and accountability were rated as the most important elements of treatment, along with skills for preventing relapse and methods for controlling sexual arousal. There was a fairly robust correlation between client perceptions of importance and satisfaction on most treatment components. Some clients expressed concerns about respect, confidentiality, and judgmental attitudes of some therapists. Because civilly committed sex offenders are considered to be among the most likely to reoffend, strategies are discussed for engagement of this population in a meaningful process of change. PMID:23362339

  13. Treatment experiences of civilly committed sex offenders: a consumer satisfaction survey.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Prescott, David S

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to elicit feedback from sex offenders about the components of treatment that they believed to be most helpful in preventing reoffense. A sample of civilly committed sex offenders from the Sand Ridge Civil Commitment Center in Wisconsin (n = 44) was surveyed about their perceptions of treatment, including content, process, therapists, rules, and completion requirements. Clients were asked to rate the importance of treatment components to their recovery and to rate their satisfaction with the treatment they received for each component. Participants expressed fairly positive sentiments about their treatment experiences, though specific concerns were noted. There was an overall positive correlation between importance of and satisfaction with treatment, but ratings of importance were consistently higher than ratings of satisfaction. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. PMID:18840899

  14. Risk and Criminogenic Needs of Youth Who Sexually Offended in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Gerald; Chu, Chi Meng; Koh, Li Lian; Teoh, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    An increasing amount of research has been carried out to understand the characteristics of subgroups of adult sex offenders, but there is limited research into the risk factors and criminogenic needs of subgroups of youth who sexually offended. The current study investigated if there were differences in the risk and criminogenic needs of 167 Singaporean youth who sexually offended based on two typologies - youth who offended both sexually and nonsexually versus youth who offended only sexually, and youth who offended against child victims versus youth who offended against nonchild victims. Results show that youth who offended both sexually and nonsexually were found to have higher risk and criminogenic needs as compared to youth who only sexually offended. In addition, youth who offended against child victims were found to have higher numbers of previous sexual assaults as compared to youth who offended against nonchild victims. These differences have implications for the management and intervention of youth who sexually offended. PMID:24503949

  15. Risk and Criminogenic Needs of Youth Who Sexually Offended in Singapore: An Examination of Two Typologies.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Gerald; Chu, Chi Meng; Koh, Li Lian; Teoh, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    An increasing amount of research has been carried out to understand the characteristics of subgroups of adult sex offenders, but there is limited research into the risk factors and criminogenic needs of subgroups of youth who sexually offended. The current study investigated if there were differences in the risk and criminogenic needs of 167 Singaporean youth who sexually offended based on two typologies - youth who offended both sexually and nonsexually versus youth who offended only sexually, and youth who offended against child victims versus youth who offended against nonchild victims. Results show that youth who offended both sexually and nonsexually were found to have higher risk and criminogenic needs as compared to youth who only sexually offended. In addition, youth who offended against child victims were found to have higher numbers of previous sexual assaults as compared to youth who offended against nonchild victims. These differences have implications for the management and intervention of youth who sexually offended. PMID:24503949

  16. A Systematic Review of Behavioral Health Interventions for Sex Offenders With Intellectual Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Marotta, Phillip L.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews evaluation studies of programs designed to treat sex offenders with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) published in peer-reviewed journals between 1994 and 2014. The design of this study is mirrored after PRISMA (Preferred Reporting of Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) recommendations for conducting a systematic literature review. The study design, study setting, characteristics of participants, type of treatment, and intervention procedures comprise areas of focus for evaluating the implementation of treatment programs. Therapeutic outcomes include changes in attitudes consistent with sex offending, victim empathy, sexual knowledge, cognitive distortions, and problem sexual behaviors. Eighteen treatment evaluation studies were identified from the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand. Cognitive-behavioral treatments were the most commonly delivered treatment modality to sex offenders with IDD. Other less common treatments were dialectical behavioral therapy, problem solving therapy, mindfulness, and relapse prevention. No randomized controlled trials were identified. The most common designs were multiple case studies and pre- and post-treatment assessments with no control and repeated measures follow-up. Small sample sizes, no control groups, and wide variation in treatment length and follow-up time complicate the qualitative synthesis of study findings. Short follow-up times introduce the potential for bias in conclusions surrounding treatment efficacy for many of the studies reviewed in this analysis. The overall quality of studies examining treatments for sex offenders with IDD is poor and requires further development before rendering firm conclusions about the effectiveness of interventions for this population. PMID:25667227

  17. Sex offenders' response to treatment and its association with recidivism as a function of psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Langton, Calvin M; Barbaree, Howard E; Harkins, Leigh; Peacock, Edward J

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between recidivism and ratings of response to specialized cognitive behavioral treatment conducted in a prison setting among 418 sex offenders released to the community for an average follow-up period of over 5 years. As well as testing for a main effect for treatment ratings, the potential role of psychopathy assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist--Revised (PCL-R) as a moderator of response to treatment was investigated. Ratings of response to treatment failed to predict either serious (violent including sexual) or sexual recidivism. For the more inclusive outcome of serious recidivism, there was no significant interaction between psychopathy and treatment ratings; however, the ubiquitous effect of psychopathy on recidivism was found to be significant. For sexual recidivism, psychopathy was not significant as a main effect, but a significant interaction between psychopathy and treatment ratings was found. Among sex offenders with PCL-R scores of 25 or higher, those with ratings reflecting a more negative response to treatment recidivated sexually at a faster rate than others. This interaction effect was not significant when treatment noncompleters were removed from the data set. The results were discussed in terms of the methodology involved in the assessment of response to treatment among sex offenders. PMID:16598661

  18. A community service for high-risk mentally disordered sex offenders: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Craissati, Jackie; Blundell, Rachel

    2013-04-01

    There is sparse literature on mentally disordered sex offenders, and little is published on treatment participation and outcomes for this group. This article aims to describe the characteristics of a cohort of high-risk mentally disordered-largely personality disordered-sex offenders at risk in the community in southeast London. Drawing on various measures of personality dysfunction-including key developmental variables, a self-report personality disorder questionnaire Millon Clinical Multi-axial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) and psychopathy as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV)-the researchers describe the characteristics of a cohort of mentally disordered sex offenders referred to the Challenge project. Follow-up data for those placed in treatment are reported and include consideration of treatment completion and reconviction: the relationship between personality dysfunction and a dynamic measure of risk are also explored. Of the 137 participants, 53% were placed in the community treatment project. Seventy five percent completed treatment, and were followed up for an average of 40 months. Eleven percent were sexually reconvicted, 3% violently reconvicted. Community failure was best predicted by a combination of static risk and personality-related variables. PMID:23315709

  19. Child sex tourism: extending the borders of sexual offender legislation.

    PubMed

    Newman, William J; Holt, Ben W; Rabun, John S; Phillips, Gary; Scott, Charles L

    2011-01-01

    Child sex tourism, the act of traveling to engage in sexual acts with minors, plagues developing nations worldwide. Several laws have been passed internationally in recent years designed to curtail this practice. Government entities and human rights organizations have driven these efforts. United States citizens represent a significant proportion of participants in child sex tourism. The PROTECT Act of 2003 prohibits United States citizens from participating in sexual acts with minors while traveling, and establishes extraterritorial jurisdiction. The case of Michael Lewis Clark, the first United States citizen convicted under this legislation, is highlighted. Child sex tourism poses unique issues to courts that will require ongoing clarification as challenges arise. This article discusses potential future challenges, describes strategies to address this problem, and relates this issue to psychiatry. Mental health providers may have the role of evaluating both the victims and perpetrators of child sex tourism. The authors propose a classification system for offenses and an initial list of topics to discuss with victims. The authors also describe the proper mechanism for reporting United States citizens suspected of participating in child sex tourism. PMID:21420172

  20. Appeals panel vacates sentence of HIV-positive sex offender.

    PubMed

    1998-02-20

    The Ohio Court of Appeals rejected [name removed]'s arguments for a lighter sentence, but remanded the case for resentencing on other grounds. [Name removed] pleaded guilty to one count of corrupting a minor, a plea bargain with prosecutors in which they dropped rape and kidnapping charges. The case involved oral sex with a 13-year-old boy in which [name removed] did not disclose his HIV-positive status. The lower court erred in neglecting to explain its reason for giving [name removed] the maximum allowable sentence, and should not have raised Megan's Law concerns, as the crime took place before that statute was enacted. This was [name removed]'s first offense for a sex crime. PMID:11365098

  1. Evaluation of a community-based sex offender treatment program using a good lives model approach.

    PubMed

    Harkins, Leigh; Flak, Vanja E; Beech, Anthony R; Woodhams, Jessica

    2012-12-01

    In this study the authors assessed a Good Lives model (GLM) approach to sex offender treatment and compare it to a standard Relapse Prevention program. The comparisons examined (a) attrition rates, (b) treatment change in areas targeted in treatment and achievement of a posttreatment treated profile, and (c) views of offenders and facilitators. There were no differences in the attrition rates or the rates of treatment change between the two programs, indicating that they were equally effective at retaining participants and achieving change on areas targeted within treatment. Both facilitators and program participants reported the Good Lives approach module's impact in a positive, future-focused manner. In contrast, those who attended the Relapse Prevention module did not report their perceptions and motivations in a manner that was focused on the positives in their future as frequently as those who attended the module with the Good Lives model approach. PMID:22291046

  2. Sex offender modus operandi stability and relationship with actuarial risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Lasher, Michael P; McGrath, Robert J; Cumming, Georgia F

    2015-03-01

    Three studies conducted in Vermont yielded data on 82 sexual recidivists' index offenses (Time 1) and sexual reoffenses (Time 2) across 16 modus operandi (MO) characteristics. The current study examines the stability of these 16 characteristics between Time 1 and Time 2 offenses. Probabilities of Time 1-Time 2 characteristic combinations are reported, including when controlling for static risk as measured by the Static-99R and Vermont Assessment of Sex Offender Risk-2 (VASOR-2). Overall, considerable stability of offenders' MO was evident between Time 1 and Time 2 offenses. Victim characteristics and offense behaviors were the most stable MO characteristics, and degree of force used and victim injury were less stable and trended toward less forceful and less injurious reoffenses. Controlling for static risk had little impact on the patterns of MO stability. PMID:24958134

  3. 75 FR 81849 - Office of the Attorney General; Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... sex offense occurred prior to the enactment of SORNA.'' 72 FR at 8896. The rule noted that this issue... sexual nature. See 42 U.S.C. 16911(5)-(8); 73 FR at 38037, 38051-52. Within the class of ``sex offender... is considered. See 72 FR at 8896-97 (noting frustration of SORNA's public safety objectives if...

  4. The consumption of Internet child pornography and violent and sex offending

    PubMed Central

    Endrass, Jérôme; Urbaniok, Frank; Hammermeister, Lea C; Benz, Christian; Elbert, Thomas; Laubacher, Arja; Rossegger, Astrid

    2009-01-01

    Background There is an ongoing debate on whether consumers of child pornography pose a risk for hands-on sex offenses. Up until now, there have been very few studies which have analyzed the association between the consumption of child pornography and the subsequent perpetration of hands-on sex offenses. The aim of this study was to examine the recidivism rates for hands-on and hands-off sex offenses in a sample of child pornography users using a 6 year follow-up design. Methods The current study population consisted of 231 men, who were subsequently charged with consumption of illegal pornographic material after being detected by a special operation against Internet child pornography, conducted by the Swiss police in 2002. Criminal history, as well as recidivism, was assessed using the criminal records from 2008. Results 4.8% (n = 11) of the study sample had a prior conviction for a sexual and/or violent offense, 1% (n = 2) for a hands-on sex offense, involving child sexual abuse, 3.3% (n = 8) for a hands-off sex offense and one for a nonsexual violent offense. When applying a broad definition of recidivism, which included ongoing investigations, charges and convictions, 3% (n = 7) of the study sample recidivated with a violent and/or sex offense, 3.9% (n = 9) with a hands-off sex offense and 0.8% (n = 2) with a hands-on sex offense. Conclusion Consuming child pornography alone is not a risk factor for committing hands-on sex offenses – at least not for those subjects who had never committed a hands-on sex offense. The majority of the investigated consumers had no previous convictions for hands-on sex offenses. For those offenders, the prognosis for hands-on sex offenses, as well as for recidivism with child pornography, is favorable. PMID:19602221

  5. 110 Teachers: Adult Education and Mentally Disordered Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Recommendations of British reports on education for mentally disordered prisoners include (1) financial flexibility to purchase educational services; (2) core teams of teachers, social service providers, and solicitors; and (3) 1 full-time teacher for every 15 offenders. (SK)

  6. Examining the substance use patterns and treatment needs of incarcerated sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Peugh, J; Belenko, S

    2001-07-01

    Using data from a Bureau of Justice Statistics' national prison inmate survey, this paper analyzes alcohol and drug use and abuse patterns among men incarcerated in state prison for sex crimes. Of the 13,986 inmates in the sample, 11.5% were incarcerated for a sex offense. Two thirds were substance-involved, meaning that they were under the influence of alcohol or drugs at the time of their crime, had committed a crime to get money for drugs, had histories of regular illegal drug use, had received treatment for alcoholism, or shared some combination of these characteristics. The level and type of substance-involvement was related to age and race, to history of victimization, and to victim characteristics. We discuss the implications of these findings for correctional program interventions, including assessing drug and alcohol problems, availability of substance abuse treatment for sex offenders, and the conjunction of such treatment with other programs. PMID:11486712

  7. A comparison of the predictive properties of nine sex offender risk assessment instruments.

    PubMed

    Smid, Wineke J; Kamphuis, Jan H; Wever, Edwin C; Van Beek, Daniël J

    2014-09-01

    Sex offender treatment is most effective when tailored to risk-need-responsivity principles, which dictate that treatment levels should match risk levels as assessed by structured risk assessment instruments. The predictive properties, missing values, and interrater agreement of the scores of 9 structured risk assessment instruments were compared in a national sample of 397 Dutch convicted sex offenders. The instruments included the Rapid Risk Assessment for Sexual Offense Recidivism, Static-99, Static-99R, a slightly modified version of Static-2002 and Static-2002R, Structured Anchored Clinical Judgments Minimum, Risk Matrix 2000, Sexual Violence Risk 20, and a modified version of the Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide; sexual and violent (including sexual) recidivism was assessed over 5- and 10-year fixed and variable follow-up periods. In general, the instrument scores showed moderate to large predictive accuracy for the occurrence of reoffending and the number of reoffenses in this sample. Predictive accuracy regarding latency showed more variability across instrument scores. Static-2002R and Static-99R scores showed a slight but consistent advantage in predictive properties over the other instrument scores across outcome measures and follow-up periods in this sample. The results of Sexual Violence Risk 20 and Rapid Risk Assessment for Sexual Offense Recidivism scores were the least positive. A positive association between predictive accuracy and interrater agreement at the item level was found for both sexual recidivism (r = .28, p = .01) and violent (including sexual) recidivism (r = .45, p < .001); no significant association was found between predictive accuracy and missing values at the item level. Results underscore the feasibility and utility of these instruments for informing treatment selection according to the risk-need-responsivity principles. PMID:24773035

  8. Exploring sex disparity in sentencing outcomes: a focus on narcotics offenders in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Richard D; Kwak, Dae-Hoon; Park, Mirang; Lee, Min-Sik

    2011-04-01

    Most research on sentencing outcomes reveals that legally relevant factors such as the seriousness of the offense and prior criminal record are primary determinants. There is, however, a substantial body of research that finds that extralegal factors such as a defendant's sex also influence these outcomes. Most of these latter studies conclude that female defendants receive less severe outcomes compared to their male counterparts. Most of this research, however, is limited to Western societies. To extend this body of research, the current study examines sex differences in sentencing practices for a sample of narcotics offenders in South Korea. Results support previous research; female drug offenders in South Korea are generally treated more leniently than their male counterparts. Tests for interaction effects reveal that the defendant's sex also interacts with other constellations of factors to produce lenient treatment for certain female defendants. These tests, however, also reveal that lenient sentence outcomes are not extended to all female defendants; those with prior drug convictions do not fare better than their male counterparts at the incarceration decision. PMID:20142625

  9. Does Recent Physical and Sexual Victimization Affect Further Substance Use for Adult Drug-Involved Offenders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweig, Janine M.; Yahner, Jennifer; Rossman, Shelli B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether physical and sexual victimization experiences were related to further substance use for a sample of drug-involved adult offenders and whether this increase could be attributed to depression experienced after the victimization occurred. A total of 674 men and 284 women from the longitudinal Multisite Adult Drug Court…

  10. Assessing Violence Risk and Psychopathy in Juvenile and Adult Offenders: A Survey of Clinical Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viljoen, Jodi L.; McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Vincent, Gina M.

    2010-01-01

    This study surveyed 199 forensic clinicians about the practices that they use in assessing violence risk in juvenile and adult offenders. Results indicated that the use of risk assessment and psychopathy tools was common. Although clinicians reported more routine use of psychopathy measures in adult risk assessments compared with juvenile risks…

  11. An Exploratory Evaluation of the Ward and Hudson Offending Pathways Model with Sex Offenders Who Have Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langdon, Peter E.; Maxted, Helen; Murphy, Glynis H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: It was predicted that offenders with intellectual disability (ID) categorised according to Ward & Hudson's (1998b) self-regulation theory as having an "Approach" goal would have higher levels of distorted cognitions, less victim empathy, and a history of more prolific offending compared to those with an "Avoidant" goal. Offenders…

  12. Sex offender polygraph examination: an evidence-based case management tool for social workers.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S

    2009-10-01

    This article will review the use of polygraphy in the assessment and treatment of sexual perpetrators. Such information can be utilized by social workers who are involved in the treatment and case management of child sexual abuse cases. First, the controversial literature regarding the validity and reliability of polygraph examination in general will be reviewed. Next, an emerging body of evidence supporting the utility of polygraph testing with sex offenders will be discussed. Finally, ways that social workers can incorporate this knowledge into their case management and clinical roles will be offered. PMID:20183683

  13. Evaluating outpatient behavior therapy of sex offenders. A pretest-posttest study.

    PubMed

    Crolley, J; Roys, D; Thyer, B A; Bordnick, P S

    1998-10-01

    This study compared the entrance and exit scores of 16 patients completing treatment at the Highland Institute for Behavioral Change (HIBC), an outpatient program specializing in the behavioral treatment of sex offenders. Outcome measures included the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), the Multiphasic Sexual Inventory, and recidivism (rearrest record) posttreatment. Statistically significant and clinical improvements were obtained on a number of these measures. One of the 16 graduates reoffended during the average follow-up period of 26 months (he is now incarcerated). These data are supportive of the contention that outpatient behavior therapy can be effective in reducing deviant sexual arousal and in enhancing appropriate consensual sexual behavior. PMID:9755648

  14. "It's Intense, to an Extent": A Qualitative Study of the Emotional Challenges Faced by Staff Working on a Treatment Programme for Intellectually Disabled Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandhu, Daljit K.; Rose, John; Rostill-Brookes, Helen J.; Thrift, Su

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study explores the emotional challenges faced by staff working on a sex offender treatment programme for people with an intellectual disability. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with eight participants working on a treatment programme for sex offenders with an intellectual disability. Interviews were analysed…

  15. Exploring clinical and personality characteristics of adult male internet-only child pornography offenders.

    PubMed

    Magaletta, Philip R; Faust, Erik; Bickart, William; McLearen, Alix M

    2014-02-01

    Despite the dramatic increase in the number of convicted child pornography offenders, little is known about their potential clinical needs. The few studies that do explore this subgroup of sex offenders suggest clinical heterogeneity compared with other sex offender subgroups. However, research designs used in many studies have limited generalizability, have examined primarily treated or treatment samples, and have not included comparisons with nontreatment, community samples of men. The current study addresses such limitations by using nontreatment samples and multiple comparison groups to examine mean scales score differences on a commonly used clinical and personality assessment, the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). The sample, drawn from an admissions cohort of federal offenders, those Internet-only Child Pornography Offenders (ICPOs; n = 35) and those with a history of child molesting exclusively (child molesters, n = 26). They were compared with each other and the male normative sample from the PAI. Results indicate that interpersonal deficits and depression featured most prominently in the profiles of the ICPOs. Consistent with prior research, they also obtained lower scores on aggression and dominance compared with the child molesters and the male normative sample. Implications for future research, training, and clinical practice with incarcerated ICPOs are offered. PMID:23174820

  16. Civil commitment of sex offenders to mental institutions: should the standard be based on serious mental illness or mental disorder?

    PubMed

    Alexander, R

    2000-01-01

    Civil commitment to mental institutions requires that an individual be both seriously mentally ill and dangerous. This principle is erroneously being applied to incarcerated sex offenders nearing release from prison under the theory that they have antisocial personalities or paraphilia disorders, which are called mental illnesses. However, the mental health and legal communities are at odds regarding the use of a diagnosis of personality disorder or paraphilia to justify civil commitment. The author reviews the differences between serious mental illness and mental disorder, the flaws with assessing sex offenders as mentally ill, and the ethical dilemma for social workers employed in mental hospitals. PMID:10557893

  17. Using logistic regression modeling to predict sexual recidivism: the Minnesota Sex Offender Screening Tool-3 (MnSOST-3).

    PubMed

    Duwe, Grant; Freske, Pamela J

    2012-08-01

    This study presents the results from efforts to revise the Minnesota Sex Offender Screening Tool-Revised (MnSOST-R), one of the most widely used sex offender risk-assessment tools. The updated instrument, the MnSOST-3, contains nine individual items, six of which are new. The population for this study consisted of the cross-validation sample for the MnSOST-R (N = 220) and a contemporary sample of 2,315 sex offenders released from Minnesota prisons between 2003 and 2006. To score and select items for the MnSOST-3, we used predicted probabilities generated from a multiple logistic regression model. We used bootstrap resampling to not only refine our selection of predictors but also internally validate the model. The results indicate the MnSOST-3 has a relatively high level of predictive discrimination, as evidenced by an apparent AUC of .821 and an optimism-corrected AUC of .796. The findings show the MnSOST-3 is well calibrated with actual recidivism rates for all but the highest risk offenders. Although estimating a penalized maximum likelihood model did not improve the overall calibration, the results suggest the MnSOST-3 may still be useful in helping identify high-risk offenders whose sexual recidivism risk exceeds 50%. Results from an interrater reliability assessment indicate the instrument, which is scored in a Microsoft Excel application, has an adequate degree of consistency across raters (ICC = .83 for both consistency and absolute agreement). PMID:22291047

  18. An empirical analysis of 30 years of U.S. juvenile and adult sexual homicide offender data: race and age differences in the victim-offender relationship.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Myers, Wade C; Heide, Kathleen M

    2010-09-01

    Little is known about the racial patterns of crimes committed by sexual homicide offenders (SHOs). This study examined race and age influences on victim-offender relationship for juvenile and adult SHOs. A large sample (N = 3868) from the Supplemental Homicide Reports (1976-2005) was used. Analyses of victim-offender patterns included examining victim age effects (child, adolescent, adult, and elderly). The findings revealed several race- and age-based differences. Black offenders were significantly overrepresented in the SHO population. This finding held for juveniles and adults independently. White SHOs were highly likely to kill within their race, "intra-racially" (range 91-100%) across four victim age categories, whereas Black SHOs killed both intra-racially (range 24-82%) and inter-racially (18-76%), with the likelihood of their killing inter-racially increasing as the age of the victim increased. This study underscores the importance of considering victim-offender racial patterns in sexual murder investigations, and it offers practical implications for offender profiling. PMID:20487160

  19. Kids Who Commit Adult Crimes: Serious Criminality by Juvenile Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, R. Barri

    The increasingly serious nature of juvenile criminal behavior has led to greater efforts to understand the roots, causes, and correlates of juvenile violence and chronic delinquency, as well as develop more effective means of identifying at-risk youth and treating serious and violent juvenile offenders. This book examines the realities and…

  20. Weapons used by juveniles and adult offenders in U.S. parricide cases.

    PubMed

    Heide, Kathleen M; Petee, Thomas A

    2007-11-01

    In recent decades, attention has focused on juveniles who kill their parents. Research has indicated that increases in juvenile homicide have been associated with the availability of firearms, but little is known about the weapons juveniles use to kill their parents and whether their weapon usage is different from that of adult children who kill their parents. This article uses Supplementary Homicide Report data for the 24-year period 1976 to 1999 to investigate weapons selected by parricide offenders to kill biological mothers and fathers. Significant differences were found in the weapons used in matricide and patricide incidents and in the weapons selected by juvenile and adult offenders. A comparison with an earlier study by Heide revealed that weapon usage in parricide events is stable. Differences found in both studies between weapons used to kill parents and offender age are consistent with a physical strength hypothesis proposed by Heide in 1993. PMID:17925289

  1. Personality and symptoms of psychological ill health among adult male offenders.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Gayle

    2011-05-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between personality and symptoms of psychological ill health in adult male offenders. Male offenders (N = 161) housed at two medium-high-risk institutions completed the Ten Item Personality Inventory and the Symptom Checklist Outpatient Rating Scale. Emotional stability emerged as the strongest individual predictor of psychological ill health and predicted each of the subscales measured (somatization, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, anger-hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism) and overall symptoms. Although agreeableness predicted depression and anger-hostility only, extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to experience did not predict any aspect of psychological ill health investigated. The findings contribute to the current literature and provide further information about the relationship between personality and symptoms of psychological ill health in adult male offenders. PMID:20798143

  2. Validation of an adaptation of Levenson's locus of control scale with adult male incarcerated sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Huntley, Fay L; Palmer, Emma J; Wakeling, Helen C

    2012-02-01

    This article examines the psychometric properties of an adaptation of Levenson's Locus of Control (LoC) measure that is used by the English and Welsh Prison Service as part of the psychometric assessment battery for sexual offenders participating in the Sex Offender Treatment Programme (SOTP). Reliability and validity analyses were conducted on a sample of 2,497 sexual offenders who had completed SOTP. Internal consistency, convergent validity, and relationship to socially desirable responding were investigated. Construct validity was assessed via exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Test-retest reliability data were collected from an additional sample of 26 sexual offenders. The scale was found to have excellent internal consistency, good test-retest reliability, and weak to moderate convergent validity with measures of self-esteem, attachment styles, emotional loneliness, and social problem solving. There was a moderate correlation between the scale and socially desirable responding. EFA and CFA suggested that a four-factor solution provided an acceptable fit to the data, with the factors relating to constructs of chance, problem solving, powerful others, and internal control. The findings of the present study suggest that the adapted LoC Scale is a useful tool for assessing sexual offenders' locus of control. PMID:21788438

  3. Predatory Online Behavior: Modus Operandi of Convicted Sex Offenders in Identifying Potential Victims and Contacting Minors over the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malesky, L. Alvin, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Sex offenders have used the Internet to identify and contact minors for sexual exploitation (Armagh, 1998; Hernandez, 2000; Lamb, 1998; Lanning, 1998). Yet little is known about how these individuals select their online victims. In order to gain a better understanding of this behavior, the online activity of 31 men who perpetrated or attempted to…

  4. The Influence of Sex Offender Registration and Notification Laws in the United States: A Time-Series Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, Bob Edward; Maddan, Sean; Walker, Jeffery T.

    2008-01-01

    Although federal legislation for the implementation of sex offender registration and notification systems is now a decade old, empirical studies on the efficacy of this policy are relatively nonextant. This article explores the impact of registration legislation on the incidence of forcible rapes. Using monthly count data of rapes aggregated at…

  5. Implementing Adlerian Sand Tray Therapy with Adult Male Substance Abuse Offenders: A Phenomenological Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monakes, Sarah; Garza, Yvonne; Wiesner, Van, III; Watts, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the perceptions of adult male substance offenders who experienced sand tray therapy as an adjunct to their cognitive behavioral rehabilitative treatment. Results indicate a positive experience for participants. Implications for counselors are discussed. (Contains 1 table.)

  6. Predicting sex offender treatment entry among individuals convicted of sexual offense crimes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nicole; Pelissier, Bernadette; Klein-Saffran, Jody

    2006-01-01

    This study examined what factors were predictive of who volunteers for sex offender treatment (self-selection) as well as who enters treatment after volunteering (administration selection). Research participants included 404 treatment volunteers and 387 nonvolunteers to treatment who were convicted of a sexual offense involving minors within the federal prison system. Maximum likelihood probit estimation procedures indicated that when compared with nonvolunteers, treatment volunteers were more likely to be recommended by a judge to receive treatment at the time of sentencing, had received prior treatment for sexually deviant behavior, reported higher levels of motivation to change their sexually deviant behavior, and had lower rates of a substance use disorder in the year prior to incarceration. Of those persons who initially volunteered, 62% were accepted and entered treatment, 16% were denied entry to treatment by program staff, and 22% refused treatment after being accepted to the waiting list. When compared with those who were accepted and entered treatment, motivation was the only predictor of being denied admission into treatment by program staff and for refusal of treatment once accepted. The findings emphasize the need to control for selection bias in treatment outcome studies and the importance of examining the role of motivation in treatment volunteerism and treatment entry for sexual offenders. PMID:16763760

  7. Child sexual abusers' views on treatment: a study of convicted and imprisoned adult male offenders.

    PubMed

    Colton, Matthew; Roberts, Susan; Vanstone, Maurice

    2009-01-01

    In spite of an increasing focus on the assessment and treatment of sexual offenders over the past two decades, much debate persists as to the effectiveness of treatment in reducing recidivism. Given the dearth of research on offenders' perspectives in this area and the potential for offenders' views to inform the development of effective treatment, we consider the views of 35 adult male child sexual abusers on the prison treatment program. Focusing on a number of key themes, namely victim empathy, strategies for desistence, group or individual treatment, motivation, and postprogram support. In doing so, the extent to which this work furthers knowledge in this area and future research directions was considered. PMID:19856736

  8. Quantifying the relative risk of sex offenders: risk ratios for static-99R.

    PubMed

    Hanson, R Karl; Babchishin, Kelly M; Helmus, Leslie; Thornton, David

    2013-10-01

    Given the widespread use of empirical actuarial risk tools in corrections and forensic mental health, it is important that evaluators and decision makers understand how scores relate to recidivism risk. In the current study, we found strong evidence for a relative risk interpretation of Static-99R scores using 8 samples from Canada, United Kingdom, and Western Europe (N = 4,037 sex offenders). Each increase in Static-99R score was associated with a stable and consistent increase in relative risk (as measured by an odds ratio or hazard ratio of approximately 1.4). Hazard ratios from Cox regression were used to calculate risk ratios that can be reported for Static-99R. We recommend that evaluators consider risk ratios as a useful, nonarbitrary metric for quantifying and communicating risk information. To avoid misinterpretation, however, risk ratios should be presented with recidivism base rates. PMID:23264543

  9. Predicting Recidivism with the Personality Assessment Inventory in a Sample of Sex Offenders Screened for Civil Commitment as Sexually Violent Predators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boccaccini, Marcus T.; Murrie, Daniel C.; Hawes, Samuel W.; Simpler, Amber; Johnson, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    We examined the ability of scores from the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) to predict postrelease (M = 4.90 years follow-up) arrests in a sample of 1,412 sex offenders. We focused on scores from 4 PAI measures conceptually relevant to offending, including the Antisocial Features (ANT), Aggression (AGG), and Dominance (DOM)…

  10. "They Treat Us Like Human Beings"--Experiencing a Therapeutic Sex Offenders Prison: Impact on Prisoners and Staff and Implications for Treatment.

    PubMed

    Blagden, Nicholas; Winder, Belinda; Hames, Charlie

    2016-03-01

    Research evidence demonstrates that sex offender treatment programmes (SOTPs) can reduce the number of sex offenders who are reconvicted. However, there has been much less empirical research exploring the experiences and perspectives of the prison environment within which treatment takes place. This is important, particularly for sexual offenders, as they often face multiple stigmas in prison. This study used a mixed-methods approach to explore the experiences of prisoners and staff at a therapeutically orientated sexual offenders' prison to understand whether the prison environment was conducive to rehabilitation. The quantitative strand of the research sampled prisoners (n = 112) and staff (n = 48) from a therapeutically orientated sex offenders prison. This strand highlighted that both prisoners and staff had positive attitudes toward offenders and high beliefs that offenders could change. Importantly, the climate was rated positively and, in particular, participants had very high ratings of "experienced safety." The qualitative strand of the research consisted of semistructured interviews with prisoners (n = 15) and a range of prison staff (n = 16). The qualitative analysis revealed positive prisoner views toward staff relationships, with most participants articulating that the prison and its staff had contributed to positive change in prisoners. Crucially, the environment was perceived as safe and allowed prisoners "headspace" to work through problems and contemplate change. This research offers some support to the notion that context is important for sex offender rehabilitation. PMID:25305193

  11. Sentencing Male Sex Offenders Under the Age of 14: A Law Reform Advocacy Journey in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Ng, Wai-Ching Irene; Cheung, Monit; Ma, Anny Kit-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The common law presumption that a boy under the age of 14 is incapable of sexual intercourse has provoked controversial debates in Hong Kong. This article describes a 6-step advocacy journey to examine how community efforts have helped modify this law so that juvenile male sexual offenders under the age of 14 who have committed the crime of having sexual intercourse with underage females can be sentenced to receive appropriate treatment. Seven court cases provided by the magistrates' courts in Hong Kong were used in this advocacy effort for the removal of the presumption in July 2012. Although this effort has yet to reveal signs of effectiveness, it represents greater public awareness about providing rehabilitation appropriate for juvenile sex offenders through a formal sentence. Restorative justice, as opposed to retributive or punitive justice, places an emphasis on rehabilitation of the offender and restoration of victims to a place of wholeness. PMID:26061020

  12. Developmental trajectories of offending: validation and prediction to young adult alcohol use, drug use, and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Wiesner, Margit; Kim, Hyoun K; Capaldi, Deborah M

    2005-01-01

    This longitudinal study extended previous work of Wiesner and Capaldi by examining the validity of differing offending pathways and the prediction from the pathways to substance use and depressive symptoms for 204 young men. Findings from this study indicated good external validity of the offending trajectories. Further, substance use and depressive symptoms in young adulthood (i.e., ages 23-24 through 25-26 years) varied depending on different trajectories of offending from early adolescence to young adulthood (i.e., ages 12-13 through 23-24 years), even after controlling for antisocial propensity, parental criminality, demographic factors, and prior levels of each outcome. Specifically, chronic high-level offenders had higher levels of depressive symptoms and engaged more often in drug use compared with very rare, decreasing low-level, and decreasing high-level offenders. Chronic low-level offenders, in contrast, displayed fewer systematic differences compared with the two decreasing offender groups and the chronic high-level offenders. The findings supported the contention that varying courses of offending may have plausible causal effects on young adult outcomes beyond the effects of an underlying propensity for crime. PMID:15971769

  13. Do PCL-R scores from state or defense experts best predict future misconduct among civilly committed sex offenders?

    PubMed

    Boccaccini, Marcus T; Turner, Darrel B; Murrie, Daniel C; Rufino, Katrina A

    2012-06-01

    In a recent study of sex offender civil commitment proceedings, Murrie et al. (Psychol Public Policy Law 15:19-53, 2009) found that state-retained experts consistently assigned higher PCL-R total scores than defense-retained experts for the same offenders (Cohen's d > .83). This finding raises an important question about the validity of these discrepant scores: Which type of score, state or defense evaluator, provides the most useful information about risk? We examined the ability of PCL-R total scores from state and defense evaluators to predict future misconduct among civilly committed sex offenders (N = 38). For comparison, we also examined predictive validity when two state experts evaluated the same offender (N = 32). Agreement between evaluators was low for cases with opposing experts (ICCA,1 = .43 to .52) and for cases with two state experts (ICCA,1 = .40). Nevertheless, scores from state and defense experts demonstrated similar levels of predictive validity (AUC values in the .70 range), although scores from different types of state evaluators (corrections-contracted vs. prosecution-retained) did not. The finding of mean differences between opposing evaluator scores, but similar levels of predictive validity, suggests that scores from opposing experts in SVP cases may need to be interpreted differently depending on who assigned them. Findings have important implications for understanding how rater disagreement may relate to predictive validity. PMID:22667805

  14. An exploration of crossover sexual offending.

    PubMed

    Kleban, Holly; Chesin, Megan S; Jeglic, Elizabeth L; Mercado, Cynthia Calkins

    2013-10-01

    Studies have produced equivocal findings regarding whether sex offenders are stable in their choice of victims. Indeed, it remains unclear whether a sex offender's subsequent victims are typically of the same gender, age range, and victim-perpetrator relationship as that of the initial victim. Although some differences may be attributed to methodological disparities, others are not. This study sought to clarify this question by examining the tendency of sex offenders to switch from one type of victim to another, both within an index offense and across offenses and all victims. Archival records of 789 incarcerated sex offenders were examined. Of those offenders who had multiple victims at the index offense (n = 279), 13% had victims of both genders, 14% had victims in different age categories (child, adolescent, and adult), and 13% had varying relationships with the victims (i.e., family member, acquaintance, or stranger). When the records of those with past sexual convictions were examined (n = 208), 20% of offenders had a prior victim of a different gender; 40% crossed over across age categories, and 48% of the repeat offenders had varying relationships with the victim across convictions. Offenders who had both male and female victims and offenders who had victims of varied relationship status across crimes had higher Static-99 risk scores than offenders who were more stable with regard to victim selection. These findings are compared to those of previous studies, focusing on how these results add clarity to a previous literature whose conclusions were challenged by the use of disparate sampling and research methodologies. PMID:23144168

  15. The psychological profiles of internet, contact, and mixed internet/contact sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Ian A; Beech, Anthony R; Mandeville-Norden, Rebecca

    2013-02-01

    A sample of 526 contact offenders, 459 internet offenders, and 143 mixed contact/internet offenders was compared on a range of self-report psychological measures assessing offense-supportive beliefs, socioaffective functioning, emotional management, and socially desirable responding. A multivariate general linear model found a mixed offender profile that was similar to internet offenders rather than contact offenders. The contact group demonstrated lower victim empathy, a greater level of pro-offending attitudes, an externalized locus of control, more assertiveness, a diminished ability to relate to fictional characters, and greater impulsivity than the internet and mixed offender groups. The mixed offender group demonstrated a higher level of empathic concern than the other two groups. The mixed offender group could also be distinguished from the internet group by increased personal distress and perspective-taking ability. A discriminant function analysis highlighted the key linear factor distinguishing between the groups to be one relating to offense-supportive attitudes and identification with fictional characters. A second factor was related to higher levels of empathic concern and poor self-management. These findings are discussed in the context of the potential pathways between internet and contact sexual offenses. PMID:22434344

  16. A female sex offender with multiple paraphilias: a psychologic, physiologic (laboratory sexual arousal) and endocrine case study.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A J; Swaminath, S; Baxter, D; Poulin, C

    1990-05-01

    A 20 year old female pedophile exhibiting multiple paraphilias and who had been both a victim of incest and an active participant, undertook extensive clinical, psychometric, endocrine and laboratory sexual arousal studies. Her psychiatric, psychometric and physiologic arousal profiles showed similarities to those of a sizable proportion of male child molesters, especially incestors. It is suggested that laboratory arousal tests (using the vaginal photoplethysmograph) may have a role in the assessment of some female sex offenders. PMID:2346901

  17. Sex Differences in Adults' Motivation to Achieve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sluis, Sophie; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Posthuma, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    Achievement motivation is considered a prerequisite for success in academic as well as non-academic settings. We studied sex differences in academic and general achievement motivation in an adult sample of 338 men and 497 women (ages 18-70 years). Multi-group covariance and means structure analysis (MG-CMSA) for ordered categorical data was used…

  18. Online solicitation offenders are different from child pornography offenders and lower risk contact sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Wood, J Michael; Babchishin, Kelly M; Flynn, Sheri

    2012-08-01

    The current study compared 38 lower risk (based on actuarial risk assessments) men convicted of contact sexual offenses against children, 38 child pornography offenders, and 70 solicitation offenders (also known as luring or traveler offenders). Solicitation and child pornography offenders were better educated than contact offenders but did not differ on other sociodemographic variables. In comparison to child pornography offenders, solicitation offenders had lower capacity for relationship stability and lower levels of sex drive/preoccupation and deviant sexual preference. Solicitation offenders were also more problematic than lower risk contact offenders on sex drive/preoccupation and capacity for relationship stability and had greater self-reported use of child pornography. Differences between groups on two actuarial risk measures, the Static-99 and the VASOR, were inconsistent. This study suggests that solicitation offenders differ in meaningful ways from lower risk contact offenders and child pornography offenders and, consequently, in risk, treatment, and supervision needs. PMID:22849417

  19. Predatory online behavior: modus operandi of convicted sex offenders in identifying potential victims and contacting minors over the internet.

    PubMed

    Malesky, L Alvin

    2007-01-01

    Sex offenders have used the Internet to identify and contact minors for sexual exploitation (Armagh, 1998; Hernandez, 2000; Lamb, 1998; Lanning, 1998). Yet little is known about how these individuals select their online victims. In order to gain a better understanding of this behavior, the online activity of 31 men who perpetrated or attempted to perpetrate contact sex offenses against minors they communicated with via the Internet, was examined. Three-fourths of the participants monitored chat room dialogue and almost one-half reviewed online profiles of minors in an attempt to identify potential victims. Recommendations to increase the online safety of children and adolescents are discussed. PMID:17895230

  20. Sexual and general offending trajectories of men referred for civil commitment.

    PubMed

    Francis, Brian; Harris, Danielle Arlanda; Wallace, Stephanie; Knight, Raymond A; Soothill, Keith

    2014-08-01

    Policies aimed at managing high-risk offenders, which include sex offenders, often assume they are a homogeneous population. These policies also tend to assume the pattern of offending is the same for all sex offenders, and is stable. This study challenges these assumptions by examining the life course offending trajectories of 780 convicted adult male sexual offenders. The men were referred to the Massachusetts Treatment Center for civil commitment between 1959 and 1984. The changing number of both sexual and any offenses were examined by age using Group-Based Trajectory Modeling. We identified a four-trajectory model for all offending and a four-trajectory model for sexual offending. The identified groups varied in several offending patterns including criminal onset, length of criminal careers, age of peak offending, and time of entry into the treatment center. Late adult onset of sex offending was found to be associated with child molestation, whereas early-onset trajectories were associated with rape. Implications for future research and policy are discussed. PMID:23835741

  1. The incidence of depressive symptomatology in juvenile sex offenders with a history of abuse.

    PubMed

    Becker, J V; Kaplan, M S; Tenke, C E; Tartaglini, A

    1991-01-01

    Depressive symptomatology was assessed in a sample of 246 male juvenile sex offenders using the Beck Depression Inventory. Of these participants, the racial composition was black = 147, Hispanic = 62, Caucasian = 34. Three adolescents elected not to identify their racial origin. Subjects were divided according to their self-reports of having been sexually or physically abused. The mean Beck score across all subjects was 14.3, a value markedly higher than published norms and indicative of mild depression. Forty-two percent of subjects attained scores indicative of appreciable depressive symptomatology. A history of sexual or physical abuse was significantly related to high Beck scores; abused subjects had a mean Beck score of 16.4, as contrasted to 12.3 for nonabused subjects (Wilcoxon test: z = 2.82; p less than .005). This relationship was apparent across all racial groups. While Hispanic subjects tended to have higher Beck scores and Caucasians lower scores, racial differences were not statistically significant. Results indicate that juveniles who have committed sexual crimes, particularly those with a history of abuse, should be evaluated for depression. PMID:1959085

  2. [Sadistic fetishism--deadly passion. Forensic psychiatric assessment of sex offenders].

    PubMed

    Nedopil, N; Blümcke, I; Bock, H; Bogerts, B; Born, C; Stübner, S

    2008-11-01

    This article reviews current developments in psychiatric assessment of sex offenders for criminal courts. These developments are characterized by constantly changing laws and increasing neurobiological findings about paraphilias. Psychiatrists must prepare their reports taking into account the tension between psychopathological, neurobiological, and normative aspects of their judgement. The complexity of such assessments can best be demonstrated by narratives. This narrative concerns a 47-year-old patient who killed eight women after strangling them and masturbating or having intercourse with the unconscious victims. He explained in detail six of these crimes and gave ample information about his history, sexual development, fantasies, and a number of other sexual crimes he had committed. From this information a plausible explanation of his development to sexual fetishism and from there to sadism could be derived. Brain MRI displayed gliotic scars in the frontal lobe and right hippocampus. Consequences of the various findings on psychiatric assessment of legal culpability are discussed in this paper, concluding that a differentiated approach to the assessment is possible only from a psychopathological point of view in which behaviour, clinical features, and motivations are analysed. PMID:18806981

  3. Underreporting of bestiality among juvenile sex offenders: polygraph versus self-report.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Allison M; Cooper-Lehki, Christi; Keelan, Colleen M; Fremouw, William J

    2014-03-01

    Juvenile sex offenders (JSO) are a specific subset of delinquent adolescents that are receiving more attention because of the crimes they commit and the issues surrounding how to successfully treat their deviant behaviors. Given JSO are such predominant treatment concerns in society, it is essential to identify and target key risk factors. One sexual behavior, bestiality, may be of particular importance to address in treatment. In a meta-analysis conducted by Seto and Lalumiere, a 14% rate of bestiality among JSO was reported. This current study examined the differences in JSO (n = 32) who admitted bestiality based upon a self-report measure, the Multiphasic Sexual Inventory-II (MSI-II), compared to information elicited by polygraphs. The results indicated extensive underreporting of bestiality behaviors between these two sources of information (MSI-II = 37.5%; polygraph = 81.25%). These findings are important given the reliance treatment programs place on information elicited from self-report tools. PMID:24502368

  4. Assessment and treatment of Spanish-speaking sex offenders: special considerations.

    PubMed

    Cullen, K; Travin, S

    1990-01-01

    While there is an expanding body of literature pertaining to the special considerations related to the treatment of Hispanic patients whose primary language is Spanish, there is virtually no information reported to aid in the assessment and treatment of Hispanic and primarily Spanish-speaking sex offenders. Beyond the obvious problems posed by differences in language, there are a host of transcultural factors that may impact on the evaluation and engagement of this patient population when they are also largely psychologically unsophisticated and from a low socioeconomic level. The experiences in modifying and implementing a special program to accommodate the needs of this patient group is presented. Reticence to discuss sexuality in a group setting, the relationship between therapists and patients as effected by rules of social etiquette, and the reluctance to criticize other members in the group were prominent features attributed to religious and cultural factors. The authors consider it a necessity to be sensitive to these subtle nuances in order to provide adequate treatment. PMID:2103007

  5. The Differences between Sex Offending and Challenging Behaviour in People with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, David Michael

    2004-01-01

    This paper differentiates between sexual offending behaviour and challenging behaviour in people with an intellectual disability. There is growing awareness that people with an intellectual disability can perform both classes of behaviour. The definitions of sexual offending and challenging behaviour are almost interchangeable, due to the poor…

  6. Embedding Psychodrama in a Wilderness Group Program for Adolescent Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambie, Ian; Robson, Marlyn; Simmonds, Les

    1997-01-01

    Describes the technique of psychodrama to facilitate victim empathy with adolescent sexual offenders. Discusses other psychodramatic methods of role training, sociodrama, mirroring, and modeling, and their applications to working with adolescent sexual offenders. Outlines the history of the psychodrama technique's implementation in a…

  7. Recent research (N = 9,305) underscores the importance of using age-stratified actuarial tables in sex offender risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Wollert, Richard; Cramer, Elliot; Waggoner, Jacqueline; Skelton, Alex; Vess, James

    2010-12-01

    A useful understanding of the relationship between age, actuarial scores, and sexual recidivism can be obtained by comparing the entries in equivalent cells from "age-stratified" actuarial tables. This article reports the compilation of the first multisample age-stratified table of sexual recidivism rates, referred to as the "multisample age-stratified table of sexual recidivism rates (MATS-1)," from recent research on Static-99 and another actuarial known as the Automated Sexual Recidivism Scale. The MATS-1 validates the "age invariance effect" that the risk of sexual recidivism declines with advancing age and shows that age-restricted tables underestimate risk for younger offenders and overestimate risk for older offenders. Based on data from more than 9,000 sex offenders, our conclusion is that evaluators should report recidivism estimates from age-stratified tables when they are assessing sexual recidivism risk, particularly when evaluating the aging sex offender. PMID:21098823

  8. Delinquent Girls Grown Up: Young Adult Offending Patterns and Their Relation to Early Legal, Individual, and Family Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colman, Rebecca A.; Kim, Do Han; Mitchell-Herzfeld, Susan; Shady, Therese A.

    2009-01-01

    Although the number of girls served by the juvenile justice system has grown dramatically, little is known about the adult offending patterns of delinquent girls and the factors associated with their persistence and desistance from adult crime. To address this gap, we prospectively track 499 girls (62% Black, 16% Hispanic) discharged from juvenile…

  9. Comparing recidivism rates of treatment responders/nonresponders in a sample of 413 child molesters who had completed community-based sex offender treatment in the United kingdom.

    PubMed

    Beech, Anthony R; Mandeville-Norden, Rebecca; Goodwill, Alasdair

    2012-02-01

    Analysis of psychometric data from a sample of 413 child molesters who had completed a U.K. probation-based sex offender treatment program was carried out to assess (a) the effectiveness of therapy in the short term and (b) the longer term implications of treatment in relation to sexual recidivism. It was found that 12% (51 offenders) of the sample had recidivated within 2 to 4 years. Of these recidivists, 86% (44 offenders) had been reconvicted for a sexually related offense. One hundred thirty-five offenders (33%) demonstrated a treated profile (i.e., demonstrated no offense-specific problems and few, or no, socioaffective problems at the posttreatment stage). This group was compared with a sample of offenders deemed as not responding to treatment, matched by their levels of pretreatment risk/need. It was found that a significantly smaller proportion (n = 12, 9%) of treatment responders had recidivated, compared to the treatment nonresponders (n = 20, 15%), indicating a 40% reduction in recidivism in those who had responded to treatment (effect size = .18). Matching length of treatment to the offenders' level of pretreatment risk/need (i.e., higher risk/treatment-need offenders typically undertook longer treatment) reduced the rate of recidivism among this group to the level of recidivism observed among the lower risk/need offenders. PMID:21187301

  10. Psychopathic traits are associated with reduced attention to the eyes of emotional faces among adult male non-offenders

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Steven M.; Rotshtein, Pia; Wells, Laura J.; Beech, Anthony R.; Mitchell, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Psychopathic traits are linked with impairments in emotional facial expression recognition. These impairments may, in part, reflect reduced attention to the eyes of emotional faces. Although reduced attention to the eyes has been noted among children with conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits, similar findings are yet to be found in relation to psychopathic traits among adult male participants. Here we investigated the relationship of primary (selfish, uncaring) and secondary (impulsive, antisocial) psychopathic traits with attention to the eyes among adult male non-offenders during an emotion recognition task. We measured the number of fixations, and overall dwell time, on the eyes, and the mouth of male and female faces showing the six basic emotions at varying levels of intensity. We found no relationship of primary or secondary psychopathic traits with recognition accuracy. However, primary psychopathic traits were associated with a reduced number of fixations, and lower overall dwell time, on the eyes relative to the mouth across expressions, intensity, and sex. Furthermore, the relationship of primary psychopathic traits with attention to the eyes of angry and fearful faces was influenced by the sex and intensity of the expression. We also showed that a greater number of fixations on the eyes, relative to the mouth, were associated with increased accuracy for angry and fearful expression recognition. These results are the first to show effects of psychopathic traits on attention to the eyes of emotional faces in an adult male sample, and may support amygdala based accounts of psychopathy. These findings may also have methodological implications for clinical studies of emotion recognition. PMID:26500524

  11. Psychopathic traits are associated with reduced attention to the eyes of emotional faces among adult male non-offenders.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Steven M; Rotshtein, Pia; Wells, Laura J; Beech, Anthony R; Mitchell, Ian J

    2015-01-01

    Psychopathic traits are linked with impairments in emotional facial expression recognition. These impairments may, in part, reflect reduced attention to the eyes of emotional faces. Although reduced attention to the eyes has been noted among children with conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits, similar findings are yet to be found in relation to psychopathic traits among adult male participants. Here we investigated the relationship of primary (selfish, uncaring) and secondary (impulsive, antisocial) psychopathic traits with attention to the eyes among adult male non-offenders during an emotion recognition task. We measured the number of fixations, and overall dwell time, on the eyes, and the mouth of male and female faces showing the six basic emotions at varying levels of intensity. We found no relationship of primary or secondary psychopathic traits with recognition accuracy. However, primary psychopathic traits were associated with a reduced number of fixations, and lower overall dwell time, on the eyes relative to the mouth across expressions, intensity, and sex. Furthermore, the relationship of primary psychopathic traits with attention to the eyes of angry and fearful faces was influenced by the sex and intensity of the expression. We also showed that a greater number of fixations on the eyes, relative to the mouth, were associated with increased accuracy for angry and fearful expression recognition. These results are the first to show effects of psychopathic traits on attention to the eyes of emotional faces in an adult male sample, and may support amygdala based accounts of psychopathy. These findings may also have methodological implications for clinical studies of emotion recognition. PMID:26500524

  12. Assessing Youth Who Sexually Offended

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Kynaston; Fong, June; Teoh, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Recent research suggested that the predictive validity of adult sexual offender risk assessment measures can be affected when used cross-culturally, but there is no published study on the predictive validity of risk assessment measures for youth who sexually offended in a non-Western context. This study compared the predictive validity of three youth risk assessment measures (i.e., the Estimate of Risk of Adolescent Sexual Offense Recidivism [ERASOR], the Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol-II [J-SOAP-II], and the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory [YLS/CMI]) for sexual and nonviolent recidivism in a sample of 104 male youth who sexually offended within a Singaporean context (Mfollow-up = 1,637 days; SD follow-up = 491). Results showed that the ERASOR overall clinical rating and total score significantly predicted sexual recidivism but only the former significantly predicted time to sexual reoffense. All of the measures (i.e., the ERASOR overall clinical rating and total score, the J-SOAP-II total score, as well as the YLS/CMI) significantly predicted nonsexual recidivism and time to nonsexual reoffense for this sample of youth who sexually offended. Overall, the results suggest that the ERASOR appears to be suited for assessing youth who sexually offended in a non-Western context, but the J-SOAP-II and the YLS/CMI have limited utility for such a purpose. PMID:21825111

  13. An Exploration of Differences Between Small Samples of Female Sex Offenders With Prepubescent Versus Postpubescent Victims.

    PubMed

    Pflugradt, Dawn M; Allen, Bradley P

    2015-01-01

    The general consensus among researchers is that the prevalence of sexual paraphilias among female sexual offenders is low relative to male sexual offenders (Cortoni & Gannon, 2013). In addition, there is very limited information about gender specific paraphilic behaviors and characteristics pertaining to females who commit sexual assaults (Pflugradt & Allen, 2014). This study examined the characteristics of female, solo sexual offenders who sexually assaulted prepubescent (n = 14) and postpubescent (n = 15) children. A content analysis was utilized to examine their psychological characteristics. Nonparametric analysis indicated that significantly more offenders with prepubescent victims had multiple paraphilias, poor cognitive problem-solving, noncompliance with supervision, and negative social influences. Limitations and future research directions are discussed. PMID:26340074

  14. A linguistic analysis of grooming strategies of online child sex offenders: Implications for our understanding of predatory sexual behavior in an increasingly computer-mediated world.

    PubMed

    Black, Pamela J; Wollis, Melissa; Woodworth, Michael; Hancock, Jeffrey T

    2015-06-01

    There is a large body of evidence to suggest that child sex offenders engage in grooming to facilitate victimization. It has been speculated that this step-by-step grooming process is also used by offenders who access their underage victims online; however, little research has been done to examine whether there are unique aspects of computer-mediated communication that impact the traditional face-to-face grooming process. This study considered the similarities and differences in the grooming process in online environments by analyzing the language used by online offenders when communicating with their victims. The transcripts of 44 convicted online offenders were analyzed to assess a proposed theory of the online grooming process (O'Connell, 2003). Using a stage-based approach, computerized text analysis examined the types of language used in each stage of the offender-victim interaction. The transcripts also were content analyzed to examine the frequency of specific techniques known to be employed by both face-to-face and online offenders, such as flattery. Results reveal that while some evidence of the strategies used by offenders throughout the grooming process are present in online environments, the order and timing of these stages appear to be different. The types (and potential underlying pattern) of strategies used in online grooming support the development of a revised model for grooming in online environments. PMID:25613089

  15. Clarifying the link between childhood abuse history and psychopathic traits in adult criminal offenders.

    PubMed

    Dargis, Monika; Newman, Joseph; Koenigs, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Childhood abuse is a risk factor for the development of externalizing characteristics and disorders, including antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy. However, the precise relationships between particular types of childhood maltreatment and subsequent antisocial and psychopathic traits remain unclear. Using a large sample of incarcerated adult male criminal offenders (n = 183), the current study confirmed that severity of overall childhood maltreatment was linked to severity of both psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder in adulthood. Moreover, this relationship was particularly strong for physical abuse and the antisocial facet of psychopathy. Sexual abuse history was uniquely related to juvenile conduct disorder severity, rather than adult psychopathy or antisocial behaviors. Additionally, there was a significantly stronger relationship between childhood maltreatment and juvenile conduct disorder than between childhood maltreatment and ASPD or psychopathy. These findings bolster and clarify the link between childhood maltreatment and antisocial behavior later in life. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26389621

  16. National Conference on Pre-Release. A Symposium on Adult Offender Programs, Halfway House, Pre-Release, and Work Release.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killinger, George G., Ed.; And Others

    Seventy-four participants attended the 4-day National Conference on Pre-Release Programs for a symposium on adult offender programs. Presentations heard included: (1) "Halfway House Programs--A National Overview" by O.J. Keller, Jr., (2) "The Evolving Program of a Privately Operated Halfway House" by Robert P. Taylor, (3) "The Employment Program…

  17. Field Validity of the Psychopathy Checklist--Revised in Sex Offender Risk Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrie, Daniel C.; Boccaccini, Marcus T.; Caperton, Jennifer; Rufino, Katrina

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have concluded that scores from Hare's (2003) Psychopathy Checklist--Revised (PCL-R) predict reoffense among sexual offenders, but most of those studies examined the predictive validity of scores from trained research staff, not clinicians in the field scoring the measure as part of actual forensic assessments. Therefore, we…

  18. Should Actuarial Risk Assessments Be Used with Sex Offenders Who Are Intellectually Disabled?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Andrew J. R.; Tough, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Background: Objective actuarial assessments are critical for making risk decisions, determining the necessary level of supervision and intensity of treatment ( Andrews & Bonta 2003). This paper reviews the history of organized risk assessment and discusses some issues in current attitudes towards sexual offenders with intellectual disabilities.…

  19. Efficacy of Nonpsychopharmacological Treatment for Male Sex Offenders: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorhead, Douglas A.

    Sexual offenses have a serious impact on individuals and society at large. Most victims know the offender; few victims report the offense; not all reports result in arrests; not all arrests result in conviction; and not all convictions result in incarceration. This paper reviews the literature related to psychotherapeutic treatment of male sex…

  20. Sex Suffers for Younger Adults After Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160722.html Sex Suffers for Younger Adults After Heart Attack Lack of interest a complaint of many women ... WEDNESDAY, Aug. 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- After a heart attack, many younger adults experience sexual difficulties -- and women ...

  1. Treatment of Adult Sexual Offenders: A Therapeutic Cognitive-Behavioural Model of Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Pamela M.

    2003-01-01

    Recent research indicates that, of the various forms of treatment available to sexual offenders, cognitive-behavioural methods are likely to have the greatest impact in reducing rates of sexual re-offending. Cognitive-behavioural treatment typically targets attitudes that support sexual offending, anger management, victim empathy, deviant sexual…

  2. The Validity and Reliability of the Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offender Version: Assessing Sex Offender Risk and Evaluating Therapeutic Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.; Nicholaichuk, Terry; Gordon, Audrey

    2007-01-01

    The Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offender version (VRS-SO) is a rating scale designed to assess risk and predict sexual recidivism, to measure and link treatment changes to sexual recidivism, and to inform the delivery of sexual offender treatment. The VRS-SO comprises 7 static and 17 dynamic items empirically or conceptually linked to sexual…

  3. Aftercare programs for reducing recidivism among juvenile and young adult offenders: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    James, Chrissy; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Asscher, Jessica J; De Roo, Anne Katrien; der Laan, Peter H van

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this meta-analytic study, including 22 studies and 5764 participants, was to examine the effects of aftercare programs on recidivism in juvenile and young adult offenders released from correctional institutions. The studies had to be (quasi-)experimental, with the control group receiving 'care as usual' or no treatment. Recidivism was measured by re-arrests and/or reconvictions and was based on official reports. Although the overall effect size for aftercare programs was generally small (d=.12), moderator analyses indicated more substantial effects and showed that aftercare is most effective if it is well-implemented and consists of individual instead of group treatment, and if it is aimed at older and high-risk youth. Whereas the treatment duration and moment of starting the aftercare program were not related to the program's effectiveness, more intensive aftercare programs were associated with lower recidivism rates. PMID:23313763

  4. How useful are psychometric scores in predicting recidivism for treated sex offenders?

    PubMed

    Barnett, Georgia D; Wakeling, Helen C; Mandeville-Norden, Rebecca; Rakestrow, Janine

    2012-05-01

    This study examined the relationship between psychometric test scores, psychometric test profiles, and sexual and/or violent reconviction. A sample of 3,402 convicted sexual offenders who attended a probation service-run sexual offender treatment programme in the community completed a battery of psychometric tests pre- and posttreatment. Using Cox regression, posttreatment scores on measures of self-esteem, an ability to relate to fictional characters, and recognition of risk factors were, individually, predictive of recidivism. When psychometric tests were grouped into dynamic risk domains, only the pretreatment scores of the domain labelled socioaffective functioning (SAF) predicted recidivism and added predictive power to a static risk assessment. The number of risk domains that were dysfunctional pretreatment also predicted recidivism outcome; however, this did not add predictive power to a static risk assessment tool. Possible explanations for the superiority of pre- over posttreatment scores in predicting reconviction are discussed, and directions for further research considered. PMID:21518697

  5. Field validity of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised in sex offender risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Murrie, Daniel C; Boccaccini, Marcus T; Caperton, Jennifer; Rufino, Katrina

    2012-06-01

    Several studies have concluded that scores from Hare's (2003) Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) predict reoffense among sexual offenders, but most of those studies examined the predictive validity of scores from trained research staff, not clinicians in the field scoring the measure as part of actual forensic assessments. Therefore, we examined the field validity of PCL-R scores that forensic evaluators assigned to 333 male sexual offenders who underwent evaluations during a civil commitment selection process. Overall, no PCL-R score was a significant predictor of sexually violent recidivism. Facet 4 was the only PCL-R score with an area under the curve (AUC) greater than .50 (AUC = .53, p = .85) and the only PCL-R score that approached statistical significance for predicting the combined category of violent or sexually violent offending (AUC = .63, p = .08). However, scores from a subset of evaluators revealed stronger predictive effects, indicating that predictive validity was higher for scores from some evaluators than others. Overall, these results suggest that the stronger predictive validity values in controlled research studies may not apply to all evaluators when the PCL-R is administered in the field. PMID:22023560

  6. Variants of psychopathy in adult male offenders: A latent profile analysis.

    PubMed

    Mokros, Andreas; Hare, Robert D; Neumann, Craig S; Santtila, Pekka; Habermeyer, Elmar; Nitschke, Joachim

    2015-05-01

    As measured with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), psychopathy is a dimensional construct underpinned by 4 correlated factors: Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle, and Antisocial. Theorists and clinicians (e.g., Karpman and Arieti) have posited 2 variants of "primary" or "true" psychopathy, both distinct from so-called "secondary" or "pseudopsychopathy." We used latent profile analysis to determine if homogeneous classes exist within a sample of 1,451 male offenders with high PCL-R scores (≥ 27). The 4 PCL-R factors were the dependent variables for clustering. A solution with 3 latent classes showed a better fit to the data than did a unitary model without latent classes. Tentative labels for the latent classes are Manipulative (Latent Class 1 [LC1]), Aggressive (Latent Class 2 [LC2]), and Sociopathic (Latent Class 3 [LC3]). The latter class represented an antisocial group that lacked the emotional detachment observed in the other 2 groups. We propose that LC1 and LC2 reflect phenotypic variations on a theme of the traditional construct of psychopathy, and that LC3 is consistent with conceptions of antisocial personality disorder and sociopathy. Replication and external classification with an independent data set of 497 adult male offenders again yielded clearly separable clusters, as well as meaningful differences or trends among latent classes on education, intelligence, symptoms of antisocial personality disorder, and self-reported psychopathic traits and negative affect. The conceptualization of psychopathy in terms of manipulative and aggressive variants is consistent with clinical theory and is empirically grounded. PMID:25643206

  7. Risk/benefit ratio of androgen deprivation treatment for sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Fred S

    2009-01-01

    Androgen deprivation treatment (ADT) significantly lowers testosterone. That, in turn, can decrease sexual drive, facilitating better self-control and lower recidivism rates among sexually disordered offenders. Potential side effects can include: decreases in bone density; development of a metabolic syndrome involving weight gain, accompanied by changes in glucose and lipid metabolism; and rarely, depression. In the presence of a proper treatment protocol designed either to prevent or to minimize side effects, particularly the development of osteoporosis, the risks associated with ADT are generally within the same range as those associated with many other commonly prescribed psychotropic interventions. PMID:19297635

  8. Identifying Male Sexual Offender Subtypes Using Cluster Analysis and the Static-2002R.

    PubMed

    Ennis, Liam; Buro, Karen; Jung, Sandy

    2016-08-01

    This study examines whether clinically meaningful subgroups could be identified within a large, undifferentiated group of convicted adult male sex offenders. Of eight cluster analyses, a reliable three-cluster solution emerged based on the subscores of the Static-2002R with 345 sex offenders. To establish the validity of the emergent clusters, the three groups of offenders were compared on four domains: criminal history, psychosexual development, sexual attitudes and interests, and recidivism. The findings revealed meaningful differences among the group, and the implications of subgroup membership is discussed in terms of risk, treatment, and supervision. PMID:24659274

  9. The influence of risk and psychopathy on the therapeutic climate in sex offender treatment.

    PubMed

    Harkins, Leigh; Beech, Anthony R; Thornton, David

    2013-04-01

    The current study examines the relationship between therapeutic climate of sexual offender treatment groups, risk level, psychopathy and phase (i.e., early/later) of treatment. The participants were 137 sexual offenders detained indefinitely under Wisconsin's Sexually Violent Person's Law who attended a treatment group based on their level of psychopathy: higher levels of psychopathy (i.e., PCL-R scores of 25 or above) or lower levels of psychopathy (i.e., PCL-R scores of less than 25). Using MANOVA with aspects of the therapeutic climate as the dependent variables, the therapeutic climate did not differ as a function of the risk level of the participants. However, the overall therapeutic climate of the two treatment tracks (Lower vs. Higher PCL-R) differed significantly. The mean therapeutic climate scores for both treatment tracks were in the medium to high range (with exception of group cohesion, which was low in the Higher PCL-R track), indicating a fairly positive therapeutic climate in both treatment tracks overall. The therapeutic climate also differed as a function of phase of treatment for each of the treatment tracks, with some aspects being rated more positively early in treatment and others in more positively in later phases. In particular, group cohesion was viewed more positively for the Higher PCL-R group in later phases of treatment. PMID:22565197

  10. Psychosocial profile of Swiss sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Curtin, F; Niveau, G

    1998-07-01

    Background data on psychosocial characteristics of sexual offenders are sparse in Europe. From 67 experts' reports done between 1982 and 1995 in Geneva, Switzerland, demographic, criminological and psychiatric characteristics were collected for three groups of sexual offenders: offenders against adults, offenders against non-relative minors (< 18 yr), and offenders against minors with incest. The results showed that the offenders against adults were younger (p = 0.02), more frequently single (p = 0.0007) and with a lower educational level (p = 0.05) than the offenders against minors. Incest offenders had no prior conviction compared with 50% of the other offenders. Violence was more often used by offenders against adults (86%) than by offenders against minors (45%) (p = 0.005). About two-thirds of the sexual offenders had no psychiatric history, but a personality disorder (mainly borderline) was diagnosed in half of the offenders. A history of sexual abuse during childhood was reported by a third of the offenders against minors and by 5% of the offenders against adults (p = 0.04). It is concluded that a low socio-economic status and social isolation characterized offenders against adults, whereas offenders against minors had a relatively normal psychosocial profile. PMID:9670495

  11. Administering the Test of Adult Basic Education at Intake: A Biased Marker of Offender Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piccone, Jason E.

    2006-01-01

    Incarceration is an anxiety- and depression-inducing experience. These states are maximal at prison intake, when the offender is struggling to adjust to dramatic changes in daily life. At intake, offenders undergo a wide array of assessments, many of which determine the services and treatment that they will receive. In the Commonwealth of…

  12. Bullying in Childhood, Externalizing Behaviors, and Adult Offending: Evidence from a 30-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David M.; Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the developmental processes linking childhood bullying to criminal offending in adulthood, using data from a 30-year longitudinal study. The linkages between bullying in childhood and three criminal offending outcomes in adulthood were estimated both before and after control for a range of confounding factors. A series of…

  13. Victim Age and the Generalist Versus Specialist Distinction in Adolescent Sexual Offending.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Elisabeth J; Pullman, Lesleigh E; Motayne, Gregory; Seto, Michael C

    2016-03-01

    More knowledge is needed about the etiology and treatment needs of adolescent sex offenders. The current study compared adolescents who had offended against children (defined as below the age of 12 and at least 5 years younger than the adolescent), adolescents who have offended against peers or adults, and adolescents who had victims in both age groups. Based on Seto and Lalumière's meta-analytic findings, participants were compared on theoretically derived factors, including childhood sexual abuse, atypical sexual interests, sexual experience, social competence, psychiatric history, and general delinquency factors (past criminal history, substance abuse history, and offense characteristics). The study sample consisted of 162 court-referred male adolescent sexual offenders aged 12 to 17 years. Of the six identified domains, groups significantly differed on five of them; the exceptions were variables reflecting social competence. The results further support the validity of distinguishing adolescent sex offenders by victim age. PMID:24906363

  14. Evidence of primary, secondary, and collateral paraphilias left at serial murder and sex offender crime scenes.

    PubMed

    White, John H

    2007-09-01

    This paper is a descriptive review of the phenomenon of paraphilias, the relationship of possessing multiple paraphilias with the commission of sexual crimes and serial murder and the recognition of evidence related to sexual crimes committed by offenders with paraphilias. Several case studies are presented and the manifestations of multiple paraphilias, such as those experienced by Jeffrey Dahmer, Albert Fish, and others, are conceptualized and divided into three types: (i) replacement--no overlap; (ii) replacement with overlap; and (iii) cumulative. The categories are further divided into primary, secondary, and collateral paraphilias. Primary and secondary paraphilias are mutually exclusive and one does not build upon the other. Collateral paraphilias may serve to enhance the overall sexual experience of the primary and secondary paraphilias, including the sexualization of props or weapons. Implications for criminalists and criminal investigators are explained, particularly the value in discerning hidden as well as salient evidence of paraphilic behaviors left at crime scenes. PMID:17681002

  15. Sex Differences in the Longitudinal Prediction of Adult Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton-Smith, B.; Rosenberg, B. G.

    This paper deals with two sets of data-one that fails to find any long-term sex differences in adults, and another which seems to find such differences. The Berkeley Guidance Study offers longitudinal data in which no variables differentiate between the two sexes at all age levels. From these results, the authors conclude that the normal course of…

  16. Preventing sexual violence: can examination of offense location inform sex crime policy?

    PubMed

    Colombino, Nicole; Mercado, Cynthia Calkins; Levenson, Jill; Jeglic, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Recently, legislative initiatives to prevent sex crime recidivism include the passage of child safety zones (also called loitering zones) that prohibit sex offenders from lingering near places where children congregate. The ability of policies such as these or residence restrictions to curb sexual recidivism depends on the empirical reality of sex offender perpetration patterns. As such, the current study sought to examine locations where sex offenders first come into contact with their victims and whether sex crime locations differ among those who perpetrate offenses against children as compared to those who perpetrate offenses against adults. Further, this study examined actuarial risk scores and recidivism rates among offenders who met victims in child-dense public locations to determine if these offenders are more at risk of re-offense. Descriptive analyses, based on archival sex offender file review (N=1557), revealed that offenders primarily cultivated their offenses in private residential locations (67.0%); relatively few offenders (4.4%) met their victims in child-dense public locations. Further, offenders who perpetrated crimes against children were more likely to meet victims within a residence, while those who perpetrate crimes against adults were more likely to encounter victims in a more public type of location (e.g., bar, workplace). Though only 3.7% of all offenders in this sample sexually recidivated, those who recidivated were more likely to have met their victim in a child-dense public location than those who did not recidivate. Current sex crime policies that focus only on where offenders live may fail to focus on where offenders go and, further, may misdirect efforts away from the place where sex crimes most often occur, namely, in the home. PMID:21531024

  17. Sex Education for Deaf-Blind Youths and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingraham, Cynthia L.; Vernon, McCay; Clemente, Brenda; Olney, Linda

    2000-01-01

    This article describes a model sex education program developed for youths and adults who are deafblind by the Helen Keller National Center for Deaf-Blind Youths and Adults. In addition, it also discusses major related issues and presents general recommendations and a resource for further information. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/CR)

  18. The identification and management of ADHD offenders within the criminal justice system: a consensus statement from the UK Adult ADHD Network and criminal justice agencies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The UK Adult ADHD Network (UKAAN) was founded by a group of mental health specialists who have experience delivering clinical services for adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) within the National Health Service (NHS). UKAAN aims to support mental health professionals in the development of services for adults with ADHD by the promotion of assessment and treatment protocols. One method of achieving these aims has been to sponsor conferences and workshops on adult ADHD. This consensus statement is the result of a Forensic Meeting held in November 2009, attended by senior representatives of the Department of Health (DoH), Forensic Mental Health, Prison, Probation, Courts and Metropolitan Police services. The objectives of the meeting were to discuss ways of raising awareness about adult ADHD, and its recognition, assessment, treatment and management within these respective services. Whilst the document draws on the UK experience, with some adaptations it can be used as a template for similar local actions in other countries. It was concluded that bringing together experts in adult ADHD and the Criminal Justice System (CJS) will be vital to raising awareness of the needs of ADHD offenders at every stage of the offender pathway. Joint working and commissioning within the CJS is needed to improve awareness and understanding of ADHD offenders to ensure that individuals are directed to appropriate care and rehabilitation. General Practitioners (GPs), whilst ideally placed for early intervention, should not be relied upon to provide this service as vulnerable offenders often have difficulty accessing primary care services. Moreover once this hurdle has been overcome and ADHD in offenders has been identified, a second challenge will be to provide treatment and ensure continuity of care. Future research must focus on proof of principle studies to demonstrate that identification and treatment confers health gain, safeguards individual's rights, improves

  19. The Lived Experience of the Adolescent Sex Offender: A Phenomenological Case Study.

    PubMed

    Gerhard-Burnham, Beth; Underwood, Lee A; Speck, Kathryn; Williams, Cyrus; Merino, Carrie; Crump, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Treatment for adolescents with sexually maladaptive behaviors is a continuing intervention that is changing and developing as greater understanding about this population of adolescents is obtained. The majority of treatment programs for adolescent sexually maladaptive behavior contain programming components that include cognitive distortions/thinking errors. Interviews including a conceptual mapping exercise were conducted with four adolescents adjudicated to a secure care program for sexual behaviors. All four boys completed an interview and a conceptual map of their perceived experiences as an adolescent with sexual maladaptive behaviors. All interviews were audio recorded. Analysis of the interviews and conceptual mappings yielded five themes present in the boys' experience as well as a consideration of the role early trauma may have in the establishment of cognitive distortion development. Contributing environmental and familial factors also play an important part in sustaining cognitive distortion. Main themes include: loss of responsible father or father figure, inability to regulate emotion, lack of personal and parental boundaries, and early exposure to pornography. The contributing influence of responsible male father figures may play an even greater role in the lives of young males than originally thought. How the adolescent inaccurately perceives his environment--in essence what he tells himself and continues to tell himself to make sense of his world--are building blocks in the development and continuation of thinking errors/cognitive distortions used to commit and justify sexual offending behaviors. PMID:26828129

  20. Treatment of adult sexual offenders: a therapeutic cognitive-behavioural model of intervention.

    PubMed

    Yates, Pamela M

    2003-01-01

    Recent research indicates that, of the various forms of treatment available to sexual offenders, cognitive-behavioural methods are likely to have the greatest impact in reducing rates of sexual re-offending. Cognitive-behavioural treatment typically targets attitudes that support sexual offending, anger management, victim empathy, deviant sexual arousal, and relapse prevention. More recently, treatment has targeted cognitive processes more generally, management of other emotional states in addition to anger, intimacy deficits, and risk self-management (Marshall, Anderson, & Fernandez, 1999; Yates, Goguen, Nicholaichuk, Williams, & Long, 2000). This article describes the components of cognitive-behavioural treatment with sexual offenders, including recent developments, assessment, treatment methods, and the importance of therapist characteristics on the therapeutic process and on treatment outcome. PMID:15308452

  1. Using behavior-analytic implicit tests to assess sexual interests among normal and sex-offender populations

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Bryan; O’Reilly, Anthony; Gavin, Amanda; Ruiz, Maria R.; Arancibia, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    Background The development of implicit tests for measuring biases and behavioral predispositions is a recent development within psychology. While such tests are usually researched within a social-cognitive paradigm, behavioral researchers have also begun to view these tests as potential tests of conditioning histories, including in the sexual domain. Objective The objective of this paper is to illustrate the utility of a behavioral approach to implicit testing and means by which implicit tests can be built to the standards of behavioral psychologists. Design Research findings illustrating the short history of implicit testing within the experimental analysis of behavior are reviewed. Relevant parallel and overlapping research findings from the field of social cognition and on the Implicit Association Test are also outlined. Results New preliminary data obtained with both normal and sex offender populations are described in order to illustrate how behavior-analytically conceived implicit tests may have potential as investigative tools for assessing histories of sexual arousal conditioning and derived stimulus associations. Conclusion It is concluded that popular implicit tests are likely sensitive to conditioned and derived stimulus associations in the history of the test-taker rather than ‘unconscious cognitions’, per se. PMID:24693346

  2. A Psychometric Comparison of Internet and Non-Internet Sex Offenders from a Community Treatment Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Andrew; Metcalf, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares psychometric test assessments of 39 men convicted of internet sex offences with 39 convicted of contact offences against a specific victim. Higher rates of socially desirable responding were identified in the internet group, as well as higher rates of emotional loneliness and under assertiveness, although the latter two…

  3. Recognition and Sex Categorization of Adults' and Children's Faces: Examining Performance in the Absence of Sex-Stereotyped Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Heather A.; Barett, Susan E.; Spence, Melanie J.; O'Toole, Alice J.; Cheng, Yi D.; Brooke, Jessica

    2000-01-01

    Investigated 7-year-olds', 9-year-olds', and adults' ability to classify children's and adults' faces by sex using only biological based internal facial structure. Found that participants categorized adult faces by sex at accuracy levels varying from just above chance (7-year-olds) to nearly perfect (adults). All groups were less accurate for…

  4. Integrating Theory and Research: The Development of a Research-Based Treatment Program for Juvenile Male Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calley, Nancy G.

    2007-01-01

    A research-based treatment model designed to effectively address identified factors related to juvenile sexual offending behaviors is presented. Current research, theory, and national standards related to juvenile sexual offending are each explored with the treatment model reflecting an integration of these 3 components. The use of counseling…

  5. Juveniles who sexually offend: recommending a treatment program and level of care.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, R Gregg; Letourneau, Elizabeth J

    2011-07-01

    Specialized interventions for juveniles who have committed sex offenses have been widely available for 25 years. These interventions initially were based largely on adult sex offender interventions, with little consideration of developmental and other differences that distinguish juveniles from adult offenders. More recently, interventions have been developed that address youth-specific factors associated with problem sexual behaviors and that include a stronger family focus. This article reviews the history of intervention approaches, summarizes specialized evaluation methods and addresses the assessment of juvenile recidivism risk. PMID:21683910

  6. Sexualization and lifestyle impulsivity: clinically valid discriminators in sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Eher, Reinhard; Neuwirth, Wolfgang; Fruehwald, Stefan; Frottier, Patrick

    2003-08-01

    Following clinical observations in this study a comparison was undertaken between nonsexualized rapists, sexualized rapists, and pedophilic child molesters in terms of psychometric measures, criminological data, and DSM-IV diagnoses following the authors' hypotheses that nonsexualized and sexualized rapists differ in respect of psychiatric comorbidity and criminal history and sexualized rapists and pedophilic child molesters are more similar as regards to psychiatric comorbidity (anxiety, depression, and aggression) and criminal history variables than nonsexualized and sexualized rapists are. Preliminary findings confirmed the hypotheses: the authors found significant differences between paraphilic and sexualized sex offenders on one hand--regardless whether they had offended against minors or adults--and a group of sex offenders exhibiting a history of high lifestyle impulsivity on the other hand. From a psychiatric clinical point of view, paraphilic or sexualized rapists could be shown to resemble more the pedophilic child molesters. Therapeutic approaches should take these findings into account. PMID:12971185

  7. Treatment for Juveniles Who Sexually Offend in a Southwestern State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikomi, Philip A.; Harris-Wyatt, Georgetta; Doucet, Geraldine; Rodney, H. Elaine

    2009-01-01

    A 25-item questionnaire was mailed to sex offender treatment providers from counties with 60 or more reported juvenile sex offenders in a Southwestern state to determine the most effective treatment for juvenile sex offenders. Results indicated that cognitive behavioral therapy was the most successful reported approach to treatment with an average…

  8. Children with Disabilities in Poor Households: Association with Juvenile and Adult Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matta Oshima, Karen M.; Huang, Jin; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Drake, Brett

    2010-01-01

    Disabled youths are arrested, adjudicated, and recidivate at higher rates than their nondisabled peers. Although multiple theories have been offered to explain the relationship between disability and delinquency, the empirical evidence is limited and contradictory. Little is known about how disability may be associated with offending once poverty…

  9. Sex Differences in the Manifestation of ADHD in Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedele, David A.; Lefler, Elizabeth K.; Hartung, Cynthia M.; Canu, Will H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Given the mixed literature in the area, the aim of the current study was to determine whether sex differences exist in inattention, hyperactivity, and impairment in college adults with ADHD. Method: Individuals from three universities were recruited for the study. Participants with (n = 164) and without ADHD (n = 710) completed on-line…

  10. Student Sex: More or Less Risky than Other Young Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lorraine; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Young, Honor

    2015-01-01

    Sexually active young adults are at an increased risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or experiencing an unplanned pregnancy. Sexual behaviours such as inconsistent condom use, multiple partners and casual sex are known risk factors for negative sexual health outcomes. Sexually active higher education students are classified as…

  11. [The predictive quality of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) for violent and sex offenders in Switzerland. A validation study].

    PubMed

    Urbaniok, F; Noll, T; Rossegger, A; Endrass, J

    2007-03-01

    In Switzerland, the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) is administered rather restrictively for risk assessment of recidivism among violent and sexual offenders. The aim of the present study was a first-time evaluation of the predictive validity of the PCL-R for violent and sexual recidivism in Switzerland. The PCL-R scores of 96 violent and sex offenders were evaluated by collecting the data in their psychiatric expert opinions. The scores were then compared to the rates of recidivism as shown in the criminal records. Consistent with previous studies in North America and Europe, the determined predictive accuracy was satisfying. This degree of precision supports the use of the PCL-R for risk assessment of sexual and violent recidivism in Switzerland, as long as the instrument does not constitute the sole criterion to determine future recidivism, but is applied only in combination with a thorough clinical evaluation. The use of precise cut-off scores did not prove to be a valid criterion for the prognosis of recidivism and can therefore not be recommended for Swiss offenders. PMID:17031774

  12. Youth Who Sexual Offended

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Li Lian; Zeng, Gerald; Teoh, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increased focus on understanding youth sexual offending in recent years, but there has been limited empirical research on the causes, pathways, and treatment of youth who have sexually offended—especially within a non-Western context. The Good Lives and Self-Regulation Models have often been used to understand and rehabilitate adult sexual offenders, but (unfortunately) there is scant research on youth who sexually offended using these models. The present study aims to describe the different primary goods that are associated with youth sexual offending behaviors in an Asian context. In addition, the study sought to explore whether the age of victim (child vs. nonchild) and nature of sexual offense (penetrative vs. nonpenetrative) influenced the youth’s engagement in offense pathways. The results suggest that pleasure, relatedness, and inner peace were the primary human goods that were most sought after by a sample of 168 youth who sexually offended in Singapore. In addition, offender classification (in relation to the age of victim and nature of sexual offense) influenced the pathways to sexual offending. Therefore, these findings have important clinical implications for assessment, management, and intervention planning for youth who sexually offended. PMID:24048701

  13. The genetic sex-determination system predicts adult sex ratios in tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Pipoly, Ivett; Bókony, Veronika; Kirkpatrick, Mark; Donald, Paul F; Székely, Tamás; Liker, András

    2015-11-01

    The adult sex ratio (ASR) has critical effects on behaviour, ecology and population dynamics, but the causes of variation in ASRs are unclear. Here we assess whether the type of genetic sex determination influences the ASR using data from 344 species in 117 families of tetrapods. We show that taxa with female heterogamety have a significantly more male-biased ASR (proportion of males: 0.55 ± 0.01 (mean ± s.e.m.)) than taxa with male heterogamety (0.43 ± 0.01). The genetic sex-determination system explains 24% of interspecific variation in ASRs in amphibians and 36% in reptiles. We consider several genetic factors that could contribute to this pattern, including meiotic drive and sex-linked deleterious mutations, but further work is needed to quantify their effects. Regardless of the mechanism, the effects of the genetic sex-determination system on the adult sex ratio are likely to have profound effects on the demography and social behaviour of tetrapods. PMID:26444239

  14. Sex-biased survival predicts adult sex ratio variation in wild birds

    PubMed Central

    Székely, Tamás; Liker, András; Freckleton, Robert P.; Fichtel, Claudia; Kappeler, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Adult sex ratio (ASR) is a central concept in population demography and breeding system evolution, and has implications for population viability and biodiversity conservation. ASR exhibits immense interspecific variation in wild populations, although the causes of this variation have remained elusive. Using phylogenetic analyses of 187 avian species from 59 families, we show that neither hatching sex ratios nor fledging sex ratios correlate with ASR. However, sex-biased adult mortality is a significant predictor of ASR, and this relationship is robust to 100 alternative phylogenetic hypotheses, and potential ecological and life-history confounds. A significant component of adult mortality bias is sexual selection acting on males, whereas increased reproductive output predicts higher mortality in females. These results provide the most comprehensive insights into ASR variation to date, and suggest that ASR is an outcome of selective processes operating differentially on adult males and females. Therefore, revealing the causes of ASR variation in wild populations is essential for understanding breeding systems and population dynamics. PMID:24966308

  15. Sex-biased survival predicts adult sex ratio variation in wild birds.

    PubMed

    Székely, Tamás; Liker, András; Freckleton, Robert P; Fichtel, Claudia; Kappeler, Peter M

    2014-08-01

    Adult sex ratio (ASR) is a central concept in population demography and breeding system evolution, and has implications for population viability and biodiversity conservation. ASR exhibits immense interspecific variation in wild populations, although the causes of this variation have remained elusive. Using phylogenetic analyses of 187 avian species from 59 families, we show that neither hatching sex ratios nor fledging sex ratios correlate with ASR. However, sex-biased adult mortality is a significant predictor of ASR, and this relationship is robust to 100 alternative phylogenetic hypotheses, and potential ecological and life-history confounds. A significant component of adult mortality bias is sexual selection acting on males, whereas increased reproductive output predicts higher mortality in females. These results provide the most comprehensive insights into ASR variation to date, and suggest that ASR is an outcome of selective processes operating differentially on adult males and females. Therefore, revealing the causes of ASR variation in wild populations is essential for understanding breeding systems and population dynamics. PMID:24966308

  16. A Comparison of the Adult Performance Levels of Women Offenders in the Texas Department of Corrections and Free-World Women in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitson, Karin Stork

    The functional competencies of 131 women offenders incarcerated in Texas were assessed and than compared to the functional competencies of 868 free-world women in Texas surveyed during the Adult Performance Level (APL) Project. The findings support the following conclusions: (1) women in the free-world are more functionally competent than women…

  17. Report on Employment and Training Programs for Adult Offenders in Washington State. Volume II: Resources Directory and Program Descriptions. Washington State Employment and Training Council Staff Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowdey, Christine E.; Turnbull, George C., Jr.

    This second of two volumes reporting a study of employment and training programs for adult felony offenders is divided into two sections: (1) an inventory of employment and training resources and (2) program descriptions. Section 1, Inventory of Employment and Training Assistance Resources, is an annotated list of resources and organizations in…

  18. Drugs and Disparity: The Racial Impact of Illinois' Practice of Transferring Young Drug Offenders to Adult Court. Building Blocks for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziedenberg, Jason

    This report describes the racial impact of Illinois' practice of transferring young drug offenders to adult court. The state's Safe School Zone Act of 1986 and subsequent bills enacted by the legislature provide that youth age 15-16 years charged with drug sales within 1,000 feet of a school or public housing development are automatically…

  19. Treatment of Juveniles Who Sexually Offend: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efta-Breitbach, Jill; Freeman, Kurt A.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile sexual offending is increasingly being recognized as a serious crime among youth. The prevalence of sexual offending and sexual reoffending suggests that many juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) may repeat their offending behaviors if not treated. However, clinical trials evaluating specific interventions are virtually nonexistent. Instead, the…

  20. The relationship between burnout and coping in adult and young offender center correctional officers: an exploratory investigation.

    PubMed

    Gould, Drew D; Watson, Shelley L; Price, Stephanie R; Valliant, Paul M

    2013-02-01

    High levels of occupational stress and burnout are costly for correctional services and their employees. Correctional officers report high levels of burnout, absenteeism, turnover, and poor physical health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of burnout and the coping mechanisms used to buffer the effects of burnout within correctional centers. In the current study, 208 correctional officers from adult and young offender centers completed an online survey measuring burnout and coping strategies. Results from the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) and the Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) Scale indicated that even though correctional center officers mostly used adaptive coping strategies, they still reported high levels of burnout. The results of this study suggest that there are variables other than coping strategies, such as gender and length of experience, that lead to the level of burnout as observed in correctional officers. PMID:22924799

  1. Queering Sex Education: Young Adult Literature with LGBT Content as Complementary Sources of Sex and Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bittner, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the nature of young adult texts as complementary sources of informal queer sex and sexuality education, along with a close reading of a sample of this young adult (YA) literature. LGBT teens are often left out of discussions in sex education classrooms in the United States because of discriminatory curricula, ignorance on the…

  2. Accuracy of actuarial procedures for assessment of sexual offender recidivism risk may vary across ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Långström, Niklas

    2004-04-01

    Little is known about whether the accuracy of tools for assessment of sexual offender recidivism risk holds across ethnic minority offenders. I investigated the predictive validity across ethnicity for the RRASOR and the Static-99 actuarial risk assessment procedures in a national cohort of all adult male sex offenders released from prison in Sweden 1993-1997. Subjects ordered out of Sweden upon release from prison were excluded and remaining subjects (N = 1303) divided into three subgroups based on citizenship. Eighty-three percent of the subjects were of Nordic ethnicity, and non-Nordic citizens were either of non-Nordic European (n = 49, hereafter called European) or African Asian descent (n = 128). The two tools were equally accurate among Nordic and European sexual offenders for the prediction of any sexual and any violent nonsexual recidivism. In contrast, neither measure could differentiate African Asian sexual or violent recidivists from nonrecidivists. Compared to European offenders, AfricanAsian offenders had more often sexually victimized a nonrelative or stranger, had higher Static-99 scores, were younger, more often single, and more often homeless. The results require replication, but suggest that the promising predictive validity seen with some risk assessment tools may not generalize across offender ethnicity or migration status. More speculatively, different risk factors or causal chains might be involved in the development or persistence of offending among minority or immigrant sexual abusers. PMID:15208896

  3. To Resist or Not to Resist? The Effect of Context and Crime Characteristics on Sex Offenders' Reaction to Victim Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balemba, Samantha; Beauregard, Eric; Mieczkowski, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Circumstances under which a sexual assault takes place and how these circumstances affect offenders' reactions to victim resistance are not well understood. Previous studies have not thoroughly examined the interactions that take place between situational factors and resistance. Using a combination of logistic regression and Chi-square Automatic…

  4. Effects of a relapse prevention program on sexual recidivism: final results from California's sex offender treatment and evaluation project (SOTEP).

    PubMed

    Marques, Janice K; Wiederanders, Mark; Day, David M; Nelson, Craig; van Ommeren, Alice

    2005-01-01

    Final results from a longitudinal investigation of the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral treatment with sexual offenders are presented. The study was a randomized clinical trial that compared the reoffense rates of offenders treated in an inpatient relapse prevention (RP) program with the rates of offenders in two (untreated) prison control groups. No significant differences were found among the three groups in their rates of sexual or violent reoffending over an 8-year follow-up period. This null result was found for both rapists and child molesters, and was confirmed in analyses using time to reoffense as the outcome and those controlling for static risk differences across the groups. Closer examination of the RP group's performance revealed that individuals who met the program's treatment goals had lower reoffense rates than those who did not. Although our results do not generally support the efficacy of the RP model, they do suggest a number of ways in which this kind of treatment program can be improved. This study also emphasizes the importance of including appropriate control groups in treatment outcome research. Additional controlled investigations are needed to address the many questions that remain about when and how treatment works for sexual offenders. PMID:15757007

  5. Understanding the female offender.

    PubMed

    Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Although boys engage in more delinquent and criminal acts than do girls, female delinquency is on the rise. In 1980, boys were four times as likely as girls to be arrested; today they are only twice as likely to be arrested. In this article, Elizabeth Cauffman explores how the juvenile justice system is and should be responding to the adolescent female offender. Cauffman begins by reviewing historical trends in arrest rates, processing, and juvenile justice system experiences of female offenders. She also describes the adult outcomes commonly observed for female offenders and points out that the long-term consequences of offending for females are often more pronounced than those for males, with effects that extend to the next generation. She also considers common patterns of offending in girls, as well as factors that may increase or decrease the likelihood of offending. She then reviews what is known about effective treatment strategies for female offenders. Female delinquents have a high frequency of mental health problems, suggesting that effective prevention efforts should target the mental health needs of at-risk females before they lead to chronic behavior problems. Once girls with mental health problems come into the juvenile justice system, says Cauffman, diverting them to community-based treatment programs would not only improve their individual outcomes, but allow the juvenile justice system to focus on cases that present the greatest risk to public safety. Evidence is emerging that gender-specific treatment methods can be effective for female offenders, especially when treatment targets multiple aspects of offenders' lives, including family and peer environments. But it is also becoming clear that female offenders are not a homogeneous group and that treatment ultimately should be tailored to suit individual needs defined more specifically than by gender alone. Despite myriad differences between male and female offending, many of the primary causes of

  6. Developmental Risk Factors for Sexual Offending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…

  7. Characteristics of females who sexually offend: a comparison of solo and co-offenders.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Steven M; Williams, Rebecca; Elliott, Ian A; Eldridge, Hilary J; Ashfield, Sherry; Beech, Anthony R

    2015-06-01

    Although recent typologies of female sexual offenders have recognized the importance of having a co-offender, the clinical characteristics of solo and co-female sexual offenders remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to compare solo (n = 20) and co- (n = 20) female sexual offenders on a variety of clinical characteristics. It was found that although solo and co-offenders reported similar developmental experiences and psychological dispositions, differences were found in environmental niche, offense preceding, and positive factors. Specifically, solo offenders demonstrated a greater presence of personal vulnerabilities including mental health and substance abuse difficulties. Co-offenders reported a greater presence of environmentally based factors, including a current partner who was a known sex offender and involvement with antisocial peers. It is suggested that these results have implications for understanding assessment and intervention needs for these groups of sexual offenders. PMID:25404275

  8. Predicting the likelihood of future sexual recidivism: pilot study findings from a California sex offender risk project and cross-validation of the Static-99.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, Shoba; Garrick, Thomas; Norris, Randall; Cusworth-Walker, Sarah; Weinberger, Linda E; Essres, Garrett; Turner, Susan; Fain, Terry

    2007-01-01

    Pilot findings on 137 California sex offenders followed up over 10 years after release from custody (excluding cases in which legal jurisdiction expired) are presented. The sexual recidivism rate, very likely inflated by sample selection, was 31 percent at five years and 40 percent at 10 years. Cumulatively, markers of sexual deviance (multiple victim types) and criminality (prior parole violations and prison terms) led to improved prediction of sexual recidivism (receiver operating characteristic [ROC] = .71, r = .46) than singly (multiple victim types: ROC = .60, r = .31; prior parole violations and prison terms: ROC = .66, r = .37). Long-term Static-99 statistical predictive accuracy for sexual recidivism was lower in our sample (ROC = .62, r =.24) than the values presented in the developmental norms. Sexual recidivism rates were higher in our study for Static-99 scores of 2 and 3 than in the developmental sample, and lower for scores of 4 and 6. Given failures to replicate developmental norms, the Static-99 method of ranking sexual recidivism risk warrants caution when applied to individual offenders. PMID:18086738

  9. Does volunteering for sex offender treatment matter? Using propensity score analysis to understand the effects of volunteerism and treatment on recidivism.

    PubMed

    Grady, Melissa D; Edwards, Daniel; Pettus-Davis, Carrie; Abramson, Jennifer

    2013-08-01

    A common critique of program evaluations of prison-based sex offender treatment holds that the samples inherently show selection bias because the participants typically volunteer for treatment. To address this critique, we used propensity score analysis to assess the influence of volunteerism on treatment effects. We examined recidivism outcomes for a sample of participants who volunteered for treatment, of whom some participated in treatment (n = 161) and some did not (n = 282) and compared these outcomes to the recidivism rate of a matched sample of nonvolunteers for treatment (n = 443). The primary finding is that offenders who volunteered for treatment did not demonstrate any differences in recidivism rates when matched with and compared to inmates who did not volunteer to participate in treatment. Furthermore, our results revealed that there were a number of significant differences between unmatched volunteers and unmatched nonvolunteers, perhaps most importantly in their risk for future recidivism as measured by the STATIC-99 risk assessment. We discuss study strengths and limitations and present the implications of the findings for policy, practice, and research. PMID:23008337

  10. The Effects of Sex-Labelling on Adult-Infant Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Suzy; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    The influence of sex-labelling on adult-infant interactions is explored in this study. It is hypothesized that, when introduced to a single infant identified as either male or female, adults will (1) offer more masculine sex-stereotyped toys to the infant perceived to be male; (2) offer more feminine sex-stereotyped toys to the infant perceived to…

  11. Brief Report: The Sexual and Physical Abuse Histories of Offenders with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, W.; Steptoe, L.; Haut, F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Some studies have found higher rates of childhood sexual abuse in sex offenders while others have failed to find such relationships. Method: This study reviews the sexual and physical abuse histories of 156 male sex offenders with intellectual disability (ID), 126 non-sexual male offenders with ID and 27 female offenders with ID.…

  12. Our minds are made up--don't confuse us with the facts: commentary on policies concerning children with sexual behavior problems and juvenile sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Chaffin, Mark

    2008-05-01

    This commentary examines four common policy-relevant perceptions of teen and preteen sex offenders-high risk, "specialness," homogeneity, and intransigence. Each perception is contrasted with long-standing as well as more current scientific facts. It is argued that public policies for these youth have been fundamentally driven by misperceptions, resulting in a set of well-intentioned but ultimately flawed policies and practices that are unlikely to deliver either child protection or juvenile justice benefits. These include federal and state policies pertaining to public registration and notification, community management, institutional placement, treatment approaches, and treatment standards. The research evidence about these juveniles is considerably more positive than current policies or clinical practices might suggest, and reflects a sharp disconnect between popular policy-relevant perceptions and the facts as we know them about these diverse cases. PMID:18408208

  13. Sex Differences in Facial Scanning: Similarities and Dissimilarities between Infants and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennels, Jennifer L.; Cummings, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    When face processing studies find sex differences, male infants appear better at face recognition than female infants, whereas female adults appear better at face recognition than male adults. Both female infants and adults, however, discriminate emotional expressions better than males. To investigate if sex and age differences in facial scanning…

  14. Sex role strain among kibbutz adolescents and adults: A developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Snarey, J; Friedman, K; Blasi, J

    1986-06-01

    In spite of a commitment to equality, the kibbutz is a male-dominated society with highly differentiated sex roles. Has this gap between ideals and reality created sex role strain for kibbutz-born adolescents and adults? Previous kibbutz studies have suggested that sex role strain may be the most intense among adult kibbutz women. Based on Erik Erikson's developmental model, however, we hypothesized that adolescent females would experience significantly greater sex role strain than other kibbutz members, including adult women. Adolescent and adult males and females were tested using Loevinger's ego development test. The sex role items of the test were used to construct a new measure of sex role strain. The global index included the following submeasures: avoidance of sex role issues; expression of intellectual, emotional, or behavioral sex role conflict; and evaluative attitudes toward male roles and female roles. Significant cohort or sex differences were found on the global index and on all submeasures of sex role strain. The findings indicate that sex role strain is greatest among adolescent females, followed by adolescent males. Adult kibbutz women, however, are significantly more likely to focus their dissatisfaction in the area of actual role behavior rather than in terms of how they intellectually conceptualize kibbutz sex roles, as is the case for adolescents and adult males. PMID:24301699

  15. Managing risk: a qualitative study of community-based professionals working with learning-disabled sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, J; Lovell, A; Mason, T

    2012-02-01

    This study reports on research conducted to examine how community practitioners manage the difficulties of risk assessment in relation to people with a learning disability and a history of sexually offensive or abusive behaviour. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a number of key professionals from various disciplines, all currently involved in the assessment process with the aim of determining potential referral to community settings. Data analysis revolved around a thematic exposition of factors influencing the relationship between the objective science of psychiatric investigation and the subjective interpretation of real-world practicalities in working with this group. Findings surrounded three major themes, frame conflict, relating to the difficulties of decision making in this area, therapeutic performance, whereby professionals were expected to engage in some form of active intervention, and safety outcomes, involving consideration of the problematic nature of judging the likelihood of re-offending. PMID:22070414

  16. Children's and Adults' Recall of Sex-Stereotyped Toy Pictures: Effects of Presentation and Memory Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherney, Isabelle D.

    2005-01-01

    Gender schema theories predict a memory bias toward sex-congruent information. The present study examined how presentation of stimuli and encoding conditions influence gender schematic processing in children and adults. One hundred and sixty 5- to 13-year olds and adult males and females viewed 36 sex-stereotyped toy pictures that were presented…

  17. A Review of "Older, Wiser, Sexually Smarter: 30 Sex Ed Lessons for Adults Only"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrity, Joan Mogul

    2010-01-01

    While virtually all sex ed curricula are designed to be used with children, teens and young adults, "Older, Wiser, Sexually Smarter: 30 Sex Ed Lessons for Adults Only" ([C] 2009, Planned Parenthood of Greater Northern New Jersey) offers lessons to help participants fully embrace the possibility of sexual pleasure and intimacy from mid-life through…

  18. The Use of Contingency Management to Affect Learning Performance in Adult Institutionalized Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, John M.

    A description is given of the development and application of contingency management (CM) techniques to the educational performance of a broad cross section of adult, male prison inmates. By most standards, these inmates are judged to be at the lowest rung of the motivational ladder. Draper Correctional Center experimental and demonstration…

  19. Weapons Used by Juveniles and Adult Offenders in U.S. Parricide Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heide, Kathleen M.; Petee, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    In recent decades, attention has focused on juveniles who kill their parents. Research has indicated that increases in juvenile homicide have been associated with the availability of firearms, but little is known about the weapons juveniles use to kill their parents and whether their weapon usage is different from that of adult children who kill…

  20. Comparison of Measures of Risk for Recidivism in Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looman, Jan; Abracen, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Data for both sexual and violent recidivism for the Static-99, Risk Matrix 2000 (RM 2000), Rapid Risk Assessment for Sex Offense Recidivism (RRASOR), and Static-2002 are reported for 419 released sexual offenders assessed at the Regional Treatment Centre Sexual Offender Treatment Program. Data are analyzed by offender type as well as the group as…

  1. Sexual Offenders with Learning Disabilities: Risk, Recidivism and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Leam A.; Hutchinson, Roger B.

    2005-01-01

    While the literature on the assessment, treatment and management of non-learning disabled sexual offenders is well established, it is only in recent years that researchers and clinicians have focused on sexual offenders with learning disabilities. In contrast to mainstream sex offender treatment programmes, there are few evaluated community-based…

  2. Discriminating among incarcerated sexual offenders by their perception of interpersonal problems and experience-related anxiety.

    PubMed

    Eher, R; Fruehwald, S; Aigner, M; Schmidl-Mohl, B; Frottier, P; Dwyer, M; Gutierrez-Lobos, K

    1999-06-01

    Fifty-seven (57) incarcerated sex offenders were assessed for their capacity to perceive interpersonal difficulties and experience related anxiety. The findings suggest that the men who have sexually transgressed against minors view themselves as easily exploitable and nurturant, and those who have sexually aggressed against adult females demonstrated minimal regard for external negative views of them. These two groups did not differ significantly from each other along social avoidance and non assertiveness dimensions. Assertiveness was found to decrease as a consequence of multiple incarcerations in both groups. Furthermore, perception of interpersonal difficulties and experience related anxiety in our study correctly classified 72% of high and low violent sexual offenders. PMID:10489086

  3. Past experiences of adults with disorders of sex development.

    PubMed

    Audí, Laura

    2014-01-01

    When a human being born with any disorder/difference of sex development (DSD) reaches adulthood, the experience lived may be quite varied, depending partly on the age at diagnosis, the underlying cause, physical and health involvement, family circle, health system care received, societal culture and psychological ability to face the process, etc. As affected persons may suffer not only from diverse types of physical differences, but also difficulties in adapting their lives to the most common social mores, international consensus has long advocated a pluridisciplinary care involving different medical specialities. Although healthcare systems have progressively improved, the physical and psychological experiences of these adults may often have been stressful or traumatic, partly due to the 'rarity or low frequency' of their condition, and also to the fact that the person's sexual life is involved. The creation of support groups by affected individuals and their activities have proved extremely rewarding by improving individual well-being and pushing healthcare systems towards higher standards. In this chapter, we present the work of a patient support group in Spain (objectives, activities and opinions) and reflect present views and past experiences of a number of its adult members. PMID:25247651

  4. The Role Healthy Sexuality Plays in Modifying Abusive Behaviours of Adolescent Sex Offenders: Practical Considerations for Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Garry P.; Ohm, Phyllis

    1999-01-01

    Highlights an approach that guides adolescents who have committed sexual offenses to learn healthy/prosocial ways to meet their sexual needs. Article is divided into an overview of literature, review of the sex education component of an intervention program for these adolescents, and discussion of practical considerations for professionals.…

  5. A method for estimating fall adult sex ratios from production and survival data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wight, H.M.; Heath, R.G.; Geis, A.D.

    1965-01-01

    This paper presents a method of utilizing data relating to the production and survival of a bird population to estimate a basic fall adult sex ratio. This basic adult sex ratio is an average value derived from average production and survival rates. It is an estimate of the average sex ratio about which the fall adult ratios will fluctuate according to annual variations in production and survival. The basic fall adult sex ratio has been calculated as an asymptotic value which is the limit of an infinite series wherein average population characteristics are used as constants. Graphs are provided that allow the determination of basic sex ratios from production and survival data of a population. Where the respective asymptote has been determined, it may be possible to estimate various production and survival rates by use of variations of the formula for estimating the asymptote.

  6. Sex hormones and adult hippocampal neurogenesis: Regulation, implications, and potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Rand; Wainwright, Steven R; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-04-01

    Neurogenesis within the adult hippocampus is modulated by endogenous and exogenous factors. Here, we review the role of sex hormones in the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in males and females. The review is framed around the potential functional implications of sex hormone regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, with a focus on cognitive function and mood regulation, which may be related to sex differences in incidence and severity of dementia and depression. We present findings from preclinical studies of endogenous fluctuations in sex hormones relating to reproductive function and ageing, and from studies of exogenous hormone manipulations. In addition, we discuss the modulating roles of sex, age, and reproductive history on the relationship between sex hormones and neurogenesis. Because sex hormones have diverse targets in the central nervous system, we overview potential mechanisms through which sex hormones may influence hippocampal neurogenesis. Lastly, we advocate for a more systematic consideration of sex and sex hormones in studying the functional implications of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. PMID:26988999

  7. Same-Sex Behavior and Health Indicators of Sexually Experienced Filipino Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chia-Hsin Emily; Perez, Tita Lorna; Cochran, Susan D.

    2015-01-01

    The Philippines is one of seven countries in which HIV incidence has recently increased—much of this increase has been among men who have sex with men. Despite this trend, knowledge on sexuality and same-sex behaviors in the Philippines is limited. This study examines same-sex behavior, sexual outcomes, substance use, and psychological distress among young adults participating in the 2005 Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS). We use gender-stratified, multivariate models to compare young adults who reported same-sex behaviors and those who did not. Among a cohort of 1,912 Filipino young adults (ages 20–22), 58.2% were sexually experienced and 15.1% of them reported same-sex sexual contacts or romantic relationships. Compared to females, more males reported same-sex sexual contact (19.4 vs. 2.3 %) or same-sex romantic relationships (9.2 vs. 4.1 %). Young adults reporting same-sex behavior had higher odds of smoking, drug use, perceived stress, and more sexual partners as compared to their peers. Males who reported same-sex behavior initiated sex earlier than those males who did not report same-sex behaviors. There were no significant differences in depressive distress. Earlier sexual initiation and higher levels of substance use among Filipino young adults engaging in same-sex behavior highlight the need to address unique health issues within this population. Mixed findings for depressive distress and perceived stress indicate that further investigation is needed to explore the potential impacts of same-sex status on mental health outcomes, particularly in lower- and middle-income countries such as the Philippines. PMID:25416159

  8. Same-Sex Behavior and Health Indicators of Sexually Experienced Filipino Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chia-Hsin Emily; Gipson, Jessica D; Perez, Tita Lorna; Cochran, Susan D

    2016-08-01

    The Philippines is one of seven countries in which HIV incidence has recently increased-much of this increase has been among men who have sex with men. Despite this trend, knowledge on sexuality and same-sex behaviors in the Philippines is limited. This study examines same-sex behavior, sexual outcomes, substance use, and psychological distress among young adults participating in the 2005 Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS). We use gender-stratified, multivariate models to compare young adults who reported same-sex behaviors and those who did not. Among a cohort of 1,912 Filipino young adults (ages 20-22), 58.2 % were sexually experienced and 15.1 % of them reported same-sex sexual contacts or romantic relationships. Compared to females, more males reported same-sex sexual contact (19.4 vs. 2.3 %) or same-sex romantic relationships (9.2 vs. 4.1 %). Young adults reporting same-sex behavior had higher odds of smoking, drug use, perceived stress, and more sexual partners as compared to their peers. Males who reported same-sex behavior initiated sex earlier than those males who did not report same-sex behaviors. There were no significant differences in depressive distress. Earlier sexual initiation and higher levels of substance use among Filipino young adults engaging in same-sex behavior highlight the need to address unique health issues within this population. Mixed findings for depressive distress and perceived stress indicate that further investigation is needed to explore the potential impacts of same-sex status on mental health outcomes, particularly in lower- and middle-income countries such as the Philippines. PMID:25416159

  9. National and State-Specific Health Insurance Disparities for Adults in Same-Sex Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Blewett, Lynn A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined national and state-specific disparities in health insurance coverage, specifically employer-sponsored insurance (ESI) coverage, for adults in same-sex relationships. Methods. We used data from the American Community Survey to identify adults (aged 25–64 years) in same-sex relationships (n = 31 947), married opposite-sex relationships (n = 3 060 711), and unmarried opposite-sex relationships (n = 259 147). We estimated multinomial logistic regression models and state-specific relative differences in ESI coverage with predictive margins. Results. Men and women in same-sex relationships were less likely to have ESI than were their married counterparts in opposite-sex relationships. We found ESI disparities among adults in same-sex relationships in every region, but we found the largest ESI gaps for men in the South and for women in the Midwest. ESI disparities were narrower in states that had extended legal same-sex marriage, civil unions, and broad domestic partnerships. Conclusions. Men and women in same-sex relationships experience disparities in health insurance coverage across the country, but residing in a state that recognizes legal same-sex marriage, civil unions, or broad domestic partnerships may improve access to ESI for same-sex spouses and domestic partners. PMID:24328616

  10. The criminal histories and later offending of child pornography offenders.

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W

    2005-04-01

    The likelihood that child pornography offenders will later commit a contact sexual offense is unknown. In the present study, we identified a sample of 201 adult male child pornography offenders using police databases and examined their charges or convictions after the index child pornography offense(s). We also examined their criminal records to identify potential predictors of later offenses: 56% of the sample had a prior criminal record, 24% had prior contact sexual offenses, and 15% had prior child pornography offenses. One-third were concurrently charged with other crimes at the time they were charged for child pornography offenses. The average time at risk was 2.5 years; 17% of the sample offended again in some way during this time, and 4% committed a new contact sexual offense. Child pornography offenders with prior criminal records were significantly more likely to offend again in any way during the follow-up period. Child pornography offenders who had committed a prior or concurrent contact sexual offense were the most likely to offend again, either generally or sexually. PMID:15974425

  11. Learning About Sex: The Contemporary Guide for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Gary F.

    This book provides information about sex to help readers, particularly teenagers, clarify their needs and values relating to sex--to understand sex, to deal with their own sexuality constructively and responsibly, and to deal with the sexuality of others in ways that are considerate and helpful. It is designed for either classroom or individual…

  12. Specialization in and within sexual offending in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Howard, Philip D; Barnett, Georgia D; Mann, Ruth E

    2014-06-01

    Existing evidence suggests that offenders tend not to specialize in sexual offending in general but that there is some specialization in particular types of sexual offending. This study examined the sexual histories and reoffending of a large, national data set of offenders convicted of a sexual offense and managed in England and Wales by the National Offender Management Service (N = 14,804). The study found that specialization in sexual offending compared to nonsexual offending was most evident for offenders with convictions for accessing indecent images. We also found considerable evidence of specialization within sexual offending, most notably for noncontact offenders, especially again indecent images offenders. Crossover between sexual offense types was very rare for those with contact adult offenses and for noncontact offenders although those with child contact offenses sometimes crossed over to indecent images reoffending. If specialization within sexual offending exists, the use of single risk assessment instruments to predict all types of sexual recidivism may be less effective than previously assumed. A comparison of different prediction models indicated that some items presently used in one-size-fits-all risk tools to predict any sexual reoffending only effectively predict certain subtypes of sexual offending. Statistically there appear to be some potential benefits to creating specialist risk predictors for different subtypes of offending, but further work is needed to justify the implementation demands that would be caused by abandoning one-size-fits-all tools. PMID:23835742

  13. Mental health assessment of rape offenders

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Jaydip

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need for development of methods of assessment and management of sex offenders (rapists, child sex offenders, other sexual offenders, and murderers) to mount a society-wide battle against the scourge of sexual offences in India. This paper provides an overview of theories, models, and assessment methods of rapists. It draws upon literature from psychiatry, psychology, criminology, probation, and ethics to provide a framework for understanding reasons behind rape, how mental health issues are implicated, what mental health professionals can do to contribute to crime management, and why this is ethically right and proper. PMID:24082243

  14. Clinical and Benefit-Cost Outcomes of Teaching a Mindfulness-Based Procedure to Adult Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Ashvind N.; Adkins, Angela D.; Singh, Judy

    2008-01-01

    The effects of a mindfulness-based procedure, called "Meditation on the Soles of the Feet", were evaluated as a cognitive-behavioral intervention for physical aggression in 6 offenders with mild intellectual disabilities. They were taught a simple meditation technique that required them to shift their attention and awareness from the precursors of…

  15. An Offender Typology Based upon Psychoeducational Needs: A Collaborative Climate for Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Mindy; Schafer, Mary Ann

    This study developed a classification model for matching appropriate psychoeducational interventions with specific groups of adolescent sexual offenders. Participants were male juvenile sex offenders incarcerated as wards in the Continuum of Care Sex Offender Treatment Program of the California Department of Corrections. The treatment provided…

  16. Drug consumption among sexual offenders against females.

    PubMed

    Baltieri, Danilo Antonio; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra

    2008-02-01

    This article aims to evaluate the role of drug consumption among sexual offenders against females. Three groups of participants (N = 133) comprising sexual offenders against girls, pubertal females, and women were examined with reference to history of drug and/or alcohol use, impulsivity level, sexual addiction, and recidivism risk. Sexual offenders against women were found to have significantly more difficulties with drug use, higher impulsivity level, and to be younger than the sexual offenders against girls and pubertal females. The combination of drug consumption and higher level of impulsivity may contribute to sexual aggression against adult females. PMID:17615431

  17. Predicting violent infractions in a Swiss state penitentiary: A replication study of the PCL-R in a population of sex and violent offenders

    PubMed Central

    Endrass, Jérôme; Rossegger, Astrid; Urbaniok, Frank; Laubacher, Arja; Vetter, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Background Research conducted with forensic psychiatric patients found moderate correlations between violence in institutions and psychopathy. It is unclear though, whether the PCL-R is an accurate instrument for predicting aggressive behavior in prisons. Results seem to indicate that the instrument is better suited for predicting verbal rather than physical aggression of prison inmates. Methods PCL-R scores were assessed for a sample of 113 imprisoned sex and violent offenders in Switzerland. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate physical and verbal aggression as a function of the PCL-R sum score. Additionally, stratified analyses were conducted for Factor 1 and 2. Infractions were analyzed as to their motives and consequences. Results The mean score of the PCL-R was 12 points. Neither the relationship between physical aggression and the sum score of the PCL-R, nor the relationship between physical aggression and either of the two factors of the PCL-R were significant. Both the sum score and Factor 1 predicted the occurrence of verbal aggression (AUC = 0.70 and 0.69), while Factor 2 did not. Conclusion Possible explanations are discussed for the weak relationship between PCL-R scores and physically aggressive behavior during imprisonment. Some authors have discussed whether the low base rate of violent infractions can be considered an explanation for the non-significant relation between PCL-R-score and violence. The base rate in this study, however, with 27%, was not low. It is proposed that the distinction between reactive and instrumental motives of institutional violence must be considered when examining the usefulness of the PCL-R in predicting in-prison physical aggressive behavior. PMID:18778472

  18. Examining the developmental trajectories of adolescent sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Pullman, Lesleigh E; Leroux, Elisabeth J; Motayne, Gregory; Seto, Michael C

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the validity of the sex-plus versus sex-only categorization method for distinguishing between different types of adolescent sex offenders (ASOs; Butler & Seto, 2002). It is hypothesized that this categorization method has utility when attempting to distinguish between generalist and specialist ASOs (Seto & Pullman, 2014). Additionally, further classification of ASOs was attempted using a well known juvenile delinquency classification scheme, early-onset versus late-onset offenders (Moffitt, 1993). The current study was an archival analysis of clinical files from a sample of 158 male ASOs seen for clinical assessment at a Metropolitan Family Court Clinic. Results indicate that sex-plus offenders are more antisocial, exhibit more psychiatric issues, and have greater deficits in general social skills compared to sex-only offenders. Conversely, sex-only offenders were found to have more atypical sexual interests, and were more likely to have greater deficits in romantic relationships compared to sex-plus offenders. Due to a power related limitation, little support was found for the use of the early-onset versus late-onset classification scheme with ASOs. Overall, these results provide further support to the validity of a sex-only versus sex-plus distinction. Given these results mirror those found in the generalist/specialist literature regarding the etiology of ASOs, sex-only and sex-plus offenders may indeed have different etiological pathways: sex-plus offenders are more driven by general antisociality factors, as the generalist perspective suggests, and sex-only offenders are more driven by special factors, as the specialist explanations suggest. PMID:24695320

  19. Sex Role Orientation Across the Adult Life Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaks, Peggy M.; And Others

    It was hypothesized that four different "life lines" would affect sex role orientations, specifically intimacy, parenting, grandparenting, and work. Subjects were 74 men and 43 women, white, upper middle class with a mean education level of 14 years. Each participant completed a demographic questionnaire, the Bem Sex Role Inventory, a Life Events…

  20. Prevalence and Correlates of Sex Exchange Among a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Emilio; Salazar, Marissa; Monjaras, Lidia

    2016-07-01

    The present study examines prevalence and correlates of exchanging sex for drugs, money, food shelter, or other favors (sex exchange) among a nationally representative sample of youth and young adults. Adolescents and young adults (n = 11,620, 53% female, 47% male) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used for the current sample. Participants completed in-home interviews at both waves. Results revealed that sex exchange was reported by 4.9% (n = 569) of the population in wave 2 or wave 3, and 4.6% (n = 26) of those who exchanged sex did so at both waves. More males reported exchanging sex than females (n = 332 versus n = 237). Respondents who reported child sexual abuse were more likely to exchange sex (95% CI 2.51-4.28, p < .05) than respondents who reported any other form of child abuse. Both males and females who engaged in sex exchange were at greater risk for sexually transmitted infections; however, the odds of ever exchanging sex were highest among males who ever had gonorrhea (OR = 6.2; 95% CI 3.75-10.3). Although sex exchange has been studied extensively among homeless and runaway youth, the current study reveals sex exchange also occurs in the general population. PMID:27266400

  1. Sex Differences in Seoul Virus Infection Are Not Related to Adult Sex Steroid Concentrations in Norway Rats

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Sabra L.; Bird, Brian H.; Glass, Gregory E.

    2000-01-01

    Field studies of hantavirus infection in rodents report that a higher percentage of infected individuals are males than females. To determine whether males were more susceptible to hantavirus infection than females, adult male and female Long Evans rats (Rattus norvegicus) were inoculated with doses of Seoul virus ranging from 10−4 to 106 PFU. The 50% infective doses (ID50) were not significantly different for male and female rats (100.05 and 100.8 PFU, respectively). To determine whether sex differences in response to infection were related to circulating sex steroid hormones, sex steroid concentrations were manipulated and antibody responses and virus shedding were assessed following inoculation with the ID90. Regardless of hormone treatment, males had higher anti-Seoul virus immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgG2a (i.e., Th1) responses than females and IgG1 (i.e., Th2) responses similar to those of females. Males also shed virus in saliva and feces longer than females. Manipulation of sex steroids in adulthood did not alter immune responses or virus shedding, suggesting that sex steroids may organize adult responses to hantavirus earlier during ontogeny. PMID:10933735

  2. Breeding Sex Ratios in Adult Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) May Compensate for Female-Biased Hatchling Sex Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Kelly R.; Dutton, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    For vertebrates with temperature-dependent sex determination, primary (or hatchling) sex ratios are often skewed, an issue of particular relevance to concerns over effects of climate change on populations. However, the ratio of breeding males to females, or the operational sex ratio (OSR), is important to understand because it has consequences for population demographics and determines the capacity of a species to persist. The OSR also affects mating behaviors and mate choice, depending on the more abundant sex. For sea turtles, hatchling and juvenile sex ratios are generally female-biased, and with warming nesting beach temperatures, there is concern that populations may become feminized. Our purpose was to evaluate the breeding sex ratio for leatherback turtles at a nesting beach in St. Croix, USVI. In 2010, we sampled nesting females and later sampled their hatchlings as they emerged from nests. Total genomic DNA was extracted and all individuals were genotyped using 6 polymorphic microsatellite markers. We genotyped 662 hatchlings from 58 females, matching 55 females conclusively to their nests. Of the 55, 42 females mated with one male each, 9 mated with 2 males each and 4 mated with at least 3 males each, for a multiple paternity rate of 23.6%. Using GERUD1.0, we reconstructed parental genotypes, identifying 47 different males and 46 females for an estimated breeding sex ratio of 1.02 males for every female. Thus we demonstrate that there are as many actively breeding males as females in this population. Concerns about female-biased adult sex ratios may be premature, and mate choice or competition may play more of a role in sea turtle reproduction than previously thought. We recommend monitoring breeding sex ratios in the future to allow the integration of this demographic parameter in population models. PMID:24505403

  3. Individual, Family, Peer, and Academic Characteristics of Male Juvenile Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronis, Scott T.; Borduin, Charles M.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the individual functioning, interpersonal relations, and academic performance of 115 male juveniles who were divided into 5 demographically matched groups (sexual offenders with peer/adult victims, sexual offenders with child victims, violent nonsexual offenders, nonviolent nonsexual offenders, and nondelinquent youths).…

  4. Changes in American Adults' Reported Same-Sex Sexual Experiences and Attitudes, 1973-2014.

    PubMed

    Twenge, Jean M; Sherman, Ryne A; Wells, Brooke E

    2016-10-01

    We examined change over time in the reported prevalence of men having sex with men and women having sex with women and acceptance of those behaviors in the nationally representative General Social Survey of U.S. adults (n's = 28,161-33,728, ages 18-96 years), 1972-2014. The number of U.S. adults who had at least one same-sex partner since age 18 doubled between the early 1990s and early 2010s (from 3.6 to 8.7 % for women and from 4.5 to 8.2 % for men). Bisexual behavior (having sex with both male and female partners) increased from 3.1 to 7.7 %, accounting for much of the rise, with little consistent change in those having sex exclusively with same-sex partners. The increase in same-sex partners was larger for women than for men, consistent with erotic plasticity theory. Attitudes toward same-sex sexual behavior also became substantially more accepting, d = .75, between the early 1970s and early 2010s. By 2014, 49 % of American adults believed that same-sex sexual activity was "not wrong at all," up from 11 % in 1973 and 13 % in 1990. Controlling for acceptance reduced, but did not eliminate, the increase in same-sex behavior over time. Mixed effects (hierarchical linear modeling) analyses separating age, time period, and cohort showed that the trends were primarily due to time period. Increases in same-sex sexual behavior were largest in the South and Midwest and among Whites, were mostly absent among Blacks, and were smaller among the religious. Overall, same-sex sexual behavior has become both more common (or at least more commonly reported) and more accepted. PMID:27251639

  5. Adult Offender Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, John P.; Cavros, Joann

    Two of America's most serious problems--crime and illiteracy--converge in our prisons. The majority of prisoners have serious educational deficits. Although prison educational programs exist, they are often ineffective because of poor program development, lack of administrative support, or small numbers of prisoners served. One innovation in…

  6. Sex differences in the genetic and environmental influences on childhood conduct disorder and adult antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Meier, Madeline H; Slutske, Wendy S; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G

    2011-05-01

    Sex differences in the genetic and environmental influences on childhood conduct disorder and adult antisocial behavior were examined in a large community sample of 6,383 adult male, female, and opposite-sex twins. Retrospective reports of childhood conduct disorder (prior to 18 years of age) were obtained when participants were approximately 30 years old, and lifetime reports of adult antisocial behavior (antisocial behavior after 17 years of age) were obtained 8 years later. Results revealed that either the genetic or the shared environmental factors influencing childhood conduct disorder differed for males and females (i.e., a qualitative sex difference), but by adulthood, these sex-specific influences on antisocial behavior were no longer apparent. Further, genetic and environmental influences accounted for proportionally the same amount of variance in antisocial behavior for males and females in childhood and adulthood (i.e., there were no quantitative sex differences). Additionally, the stability of antisocial behavior from childhood to adulthood was slightly greater for males than females. Though familial factors accounted for more of the stability of antisocial behavior for males than females, genetic factors accounted for the majority of the covariation between childhood conduct disorder and adult antisocial behavior for both sexes. The genetic influences on adult antisocial behavior overlapped completely with the genetic influences on childhood conduct disorder for both males and females. Implications for future twin and molecular genetic studies are discussed. PMID:21319923

  7. The Effect of Sex Labels on Adults' Knowledge of Infant Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paludi, Michele, A.; Gullo, Dominic F.

    1987-01-01

    Adults indicated on questionnaires the age at which they believed infants were first able to perform various developmental skills. Some questionnaires asked about "boys," some about "girls," and some about "babies." Contrary to previous findings, sex labels did not affect adults' rating of behaviors. (Author/LHW)

  8. Poverty, Rape, Adult/Teen Sex: Why "Pregnancy Prevention" Programs Don't Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Males, Mike

    1994-01-01

    Stephen Caldas assumes that modern "teenage" sex and pregnancy are deviant, isolatable behaviors. However, teenage and adult sexual behaviors are so intertwined at the personal and societal levels that there is no distinct teenage phenomenon amenable to school intervention. Attempting to preach values contradicting the values adults practice is…

  9. Adults' Complicity in Limiting Students' Understanding of Sex, Gender and Sexuality at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, J. B., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    This article is a commentary on the seven papers in this special issue of "Sex Education." A compelling theme interwoven throughout all the articles in subtle and explicit ways is the role that adults play in the lives of students, particularly in the ways in which adults impact how students enact and respond to the multiple…

  10. Beyond Sex Education: How Adults Relate to Children's Sensuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogel, Alan

    Current cultural attitudes toward children's sexuality resemble attitudes toward adults' sexuality; there is an emphasis on purely genital and orgasmic pleasure. Adults and children need warmth, physical contact, and a sense of belonging for which genital stimulation may be unnecessary or inappropriate. Children's sexual advances to adults, as…

  11. High Adult Sex Ratios and Risky Sexual Behaviors: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bien, Cedric H.; Cai, Yong; Emch, Michael E.; Parish, William; Tucker, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Thirty-four countries worldwide have abnormally high sex ratios (>102 men per 100 women), resulting in over 100 million missing women. Widespread sex selective abortion, neglect of young girls leading to premature mortality, and gendered migration have contributed to these persistent and increasing distortions. Abnormally high adult sex ratios in communities may drive sexually transmitted disease (STD) spread where women are missing and men cannot find stable partners. We systematically reviewed evidence on the association between high community sex ratios and individual sexual behaviors. Methods and Findings Seven databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Sociological Abstracts, and PopLINE) were searched without restrictions on time or location. We followed PRISMA guidelines and evaluated quality according to STROBE criteria. 1093 citations were identified and six studies describing 57,054 individuals were included for review. All six studies showed an association between high community sex ratios and individual sexual risk behaviors. In high sex ratio communities, women were more likely to have multiple sex partners and men were more likely to delay first sexual intercourse and purchase sex. Only two studies included STD outcomes. Conclusions High community sex ratios were associated with increased individual sexual risk behavior among both men and women. However, none of the studies examined unprotected sex or appropriately adjusted for gendered migration. Further studies are needed to understand the effect of community sex ratios on sexual health and to inform comprehensive STD control interventions. PMID:23967223

  12. Less Is More: Using Static-2002R Subscales to Predict Violent and General Recidivism Among Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    Babchishin, Kelly M; Hanson, R Karl; Blais, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Given that sexual offenders are more likely to reoffend with a nonsexual offense than a sexual offense, it is useful to have risk scales that predict general recidivism among sexual offenders. In the current study, we examined the extent to which two commonly used risk scales for sexual offenders (Static-99R and Static-2002R) predict violent and general recidivism, and whether it would be possible to improve predictive accuracy for these outcomes by revising their items. Based on an aggregated sample of 3,536 adult male sex offenders from Canada, the United States, and Europe (average age of 39 years), we found that a scale created from the Age at Release item and the General Criminality subscale of Static-2002R predicted nonsexual violent, any violent, and general recidivism significantly better than Static-99R or Static-2002R total scores. The convergent validity of this new scale (Brief Assessment of Recidivism Risk-2002R [BARR-2002R]) was examined in a new, independent data set of Canadian high-risk adult male sex offenders (N = 360) where it was found to be highly correlated with other risk assessment tools for general recidivism and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), as well as demonstrated similar discrimination and calibration as in the development sample. Instead of using total scores from the Static-99R or Static-2002R, we recommend that evaluators use the BARR-2002R for predicting violent and general recidivism among sex offenders, and for screening for the psychological dimension of antisocial orientation. PMID:25667228

  13. Sexual sadism in sexual offenders and sexually motivated homicide.

    PubMed

    Briken, Peer; Bourget, Dominique; Dufour, Mathieu

    2014-06-01

    This article gives a clinically oriented overview of forensically relevant forms of sexual sadism disorder and its specific relationship to sexual homicide. In sexual homicide perpetrators, peculiar patterns of sexual sadism may be a motivational pathway to kill. Sexual sadism increases the risk for reoffending in sexual offenders. Through psychotherapy and pharmacological interventions, treatment of sadistic sex offenders has to consider special characteristics that may be different from those of nonsadistic sex offenders. Many of these offenders share a combination of sexual sadistic motives and an intact self-regulation, sometimes combined with a high level of sexual preoccupation. PMID:24877708

  14. Sex role identity in young adults: its parental antecedents and relation to ego development.

    PubMed

    Costos, D

    1986-03-01

    This study, inspired by Block's (1973) work, was designed to enable one to examine how ego development and socialization experience interact in relation to sex role identity. Sex role identity was measured via the Bem Sex Role Inventory, and socialization practices were measured via the Block Child-Rearing Practices Report. Both measures were scaled so as to yield scores on agency, communion, and androgyny. Ego development was assessed via Loevinger's Sentence Completion Test of Ego Development. The sample consisted of 120 young adult men and women, married and single. Analyses revealed that the predictive power of the variables differed by sex. Ego development was predictive of sex role identity in men but not women, whereas socialization practices were predictive of sex role identity in women but not men. The results were seen as supporting Chodorow's (1974) position regarding the differing socialization experiences of men and women. PMID:3701594

  15. [Sexual offending in schizophrenia - a comparative trial].

    PubMed

    Pitum, S V; Konrad, N

    2008-11-01

    Studies suggest a complex relationship between schizophrenia and sexually offensive behaviour. The mental disorder itself, antisocial personality traits, drug abuse and adverse childhood experiences are suggested to have an impact on sexual offending in mentally disordered offenders. Similarities in psychosexual variables for schizophrenic and sexual offenders in general are found. This study aimed to preserve first findings of sex offence features and behaviours exhibited by psychotic men in Germany. Furthermore a typology of the schizophrenic offenders was developed. Records of 64-male restricted hospital order in-patients (32 patients with and 32 patients without an ICD-10 psychotic disorder) examined at the Institute for Forensic Psychiatry or resident in the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy of the prisons in Berlin from 1980 - 2006 with an index conviction for a contact sex offence against a woman provided the material for research. A comparative trial design was used to differentiate the psychotic and non psychotic offender group. A check list which based on the method of a content analysis containing items related to the offender and the index offence was developed and applied to the records of men. A similar extent of social isolation, psychosexual variables and adverse childhood experiences are found for schizophrenic and non schizophrenic offenders. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia as well as antisocial traits had a great impact on schizophrenic sexual offending. Solely the occurrence of bizarre behaviour was influenced by positive symptoms. Different offence characteristics appeared in the four outlined schizophrenic subgroups such as bizarre behaviour of the psychotic, assaultive behaviour of the dissocial, chaotic behaviour of the substance abusive and negative childhood experiences of the sadistic schizophrenic offenders. The partly controversial findings underline the need for further studies to understand sexual offending in the

  16. Estimation of sex from the upper limb measurements of Sudanese adults.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Altayeb Abdalla

    2013-11-01

    Sex estimation is the first biological attribute needed for personal identification from mutilated and amputated limbs or body parts in medical-legal autopsies. Populations have different sizes and proportions that affect the anthropometric assessment of sex. Relatively few published works assess the accuracy of sex estimation from soft tissue measurements of upper limb parts, except for the hand and its components, but these studies involve a limited range of global populations. The current study aimed to assess the degree of sexual dimorphism in upper limb measurements and the accuracy of using these measurements for sex estimation in a contemporary adult Sudanese population. The upper arm length, ulnar length, wrist breadth, hand length, and hand breadth of 240 right-handed Sudanese subjects (120 males and 120 females) aged between 25 and 30 years were measured by international anthropometric standards. Demarking points, sexual dimorphism indices and discriminant functions were developed from 200 subjects (100 males and 100 females) who composed the study group. All variables were sexually dimorphic. The ulnar length, wrist breadth and hand breadth significantly contributed to sex estimation. Forearm dimensions showed a higher accuracy for sex estimation than hand dimensions. Cross-validated sex classification accuracy ranged between 78.5% and 89.5%. The reliability of these standards was assessed in a test sample of 20 males and 20 females, and the results showed accuracy between 77.5% and 90%. This study provides new forensic standards for sex estimation from upper limb measurements of Sudanese adults. PMID:24237816

  17. Early maladaptive schemas in convicted sexual offenders: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2014-01-01

    Core cognitive schemas may play a role in the vulnerability for sexual offending. Identifying these schemas could help to conceptualize sexual crimes and rehabilitate convicted sexual offenders. The aim of this preliminary study was to explore the relationship between early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) and sexual offending, as well as how rapists and child sex molesters differ in terms of these schemas. Thirty-two men convicted for rape, 33 convicted for child sexual abuse, and 30 non-offenders were evaluated using the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-S3) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Results showed that participants convicted for child sexual abuse presented significantly more schemas from the disconnection/rejection, impaired autonomy/performance, other directness, and over vigilance/inhibition domains than non-offenders, whereas rapists presented more schemas from the impaired autonomy/performance domain than non-offenders. Differences between sex offenders showed that child molesters presented more schemas of pessimism than rapists. Preliminary findings suggested that EMSs may impact sex offender's perceptions about themselves and about the world. Schema-focused therapy (Young, 1990, 1999) may thus be an acceptable approach to sex offender's psychological assessment and intervention. PMID:24268826

  18. Risky Sex Behavior and Substance Use among Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staton, Michele; Leukefeld, Carl; Logan, T. K.; Zimmerman, Rick; Lynam, Donald; Milich, Richard; Martin, Catherine; McClanahan, Karen; Clayton, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Examines the relationship between substance use during adolescence and HIV risk behavior among young adults ages 19 to 21 with and without a college education. Results indicate that increased use of alcohol and marijuana at younger ages is related to riskier sexual activity as well as increased use of alcohol and marijuana as young adults.…

  19. Mercury elimination rates for adult northern pike Esox lucius: evidence for a sex effect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Blanchfield, Paul J.; Hrenchuk, Lee E.; Van Walleghem, Jillian L. A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effect of sex on mercury elimination in fish by monitoring isotope-enriched mercury concentrations in the muscle tissue of three adult female and three adult male northern pike Esox lucius, which had accumulated the isotope-enriched mercury via a whole-lake manipulation and were subsequently moved to a clean lake. Mercury elimination rates for female and male northern pike were estimated to be 0.00034 and 0.00073 day−1, respectively. Thus, males were capable of eliminating mercury at more than double the rate than that of females. To the best of our knowledge, our study represents the first documentation of mercury elimination rates varying between the sexes of fish. This sex difference in elimination rates should be taken into account when comparing mercury accumulation between the sexes of fish from the same population. Further, our findings should eventually lead to an improved understanding of mechanisms responsible for mercury elimination in vertebrates.

  20. Examining the criminal history and future offending of child pornography offenders: an extended prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Eke, Angela W; Seto, Michael C; Williams, Jennette

    2011-12-01

    We examined police occurrence and criminal records data for a sample of 201 registered male child pornography offenders originally reported by Seto and Eke (Sex Abus J Res Treat 17:201-210, 2005), extending the average follow-up time for this sample to 5.9 years. In addition, we obtained the same data for another 340 offenders, increasing our full sample to 541 men, with a total average follow-up of 4.1 years. In the extended follow-up of the original sample, 34% of offenders had new charges for any type of reoffense, with 6% charged with a contact sexual offense against a child and an additional 3% charged with historical contact sex offenses (i.e., previously undetected offenses). For the full sample, there was a 32% any recidivism rate; 4% of offenders were charged with new contact sex offences, an additional 2% of offenders were charged with historical contact sex offenses and 7% of offenders were charged with a new child pornography offense. Predictors of new violent (including sexual contact) offending were prior offense history, including violent history, and younger offender age. Approximately a quarter of the sample was sanctioned for a failure on conditional release; in half of these failures, the offenders were in contact with children or used the internet, often to access pornography again. PMID:21088873

  1. Sex Differences in Responsiveness to Babies among Mature Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, S. Shirley; Nash, Sharon Churnin

    1979-01-01

    Interest in babies was assessed in 30 parents of adolescents, 28 parents whose grown children were no longer living at home, and 26 grandparents of an infant. Measures included responsivity to an unfamiliar baby in a waiting room situation, interest in pictures of babies, and a sex-role self-concept inventory. (JMB)

  2. A longitudinal assessment of the victim-offender overlap.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Wesley G; Higgins, George E; Tewksbury, Richard; Gover, Angela R; Piquero, Alex R

    2010-12-01

    Although research has established an offending/victimization overlap and that offenders and victims share similar characteristics, much less work has examined the longitudinal sequencing of victimization and offending in the same developmental period and whether key risk/protective factors significantly distinguish both offenders and victims.This study uses longitudinal data from a large sample of adolescents to examine these issues and does so using a novel methodological approach, the trajectory methodology, which allows for the examination of covariation between offending and victimization. Results indicate that there is a considerable degree of overlap between victims of physical violence and offenders over time and that certain covariates including school commitment, parental monitoring, low self-control, and sex significantly discriminate victim and offender groups. Furthermore, low self-control appears to be the most salient risk factor for distinguishing both victimization and delinquency trajectories.Theoretical and policy implications and directions for future research are identified. PMID:20068116

  3. Determination of sex from an autopsy sample of adult hyoid bones.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha Pratim

    2012-07-01

    Determination of sex is the first and crucial step in the process of identifying human remains in forensic casework. Sex determination from skeletal remains is well studied and an extensively documented subject. The hyoid bone, however, has drawn less attention in studies of this nature. The present study was designed to derive a model for the determination of sex from the adult hyoid in a sample of the Indian Bengali population using discriminant function analysis on 50 adult bones (38 men and 12 women). The following discriminant function was obtained: DF = 0.103W + 0.118AP + 0.130CR + 0.483AW + 0.117DR - 20.64. Overall, 90% of the cases could be correctly classified into the two sexes by means of five predictors (overall width, length of the greater cornu, anteroposterior length, width of the body of hyoid and the distance between the lesser cornua) in the model. Cross-validated results showed correct classification in 90% of the cases. The results of this preliminary study show that these variables contribute to discrimination between the two sexes in the study population. Sexing of the adult human hyoid bone is thus possible with reasonable accuracy using the discriminant function on a sample obtained from the same population. PMID:22427484

  4. What Is so Special about Male Adolescent Sexual Offending? A Review and Test of Explanations through Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seto, Michael C.; Lalumiere, Martin L.

    2010-01-01

    We tested special and general explanations of male adolescent sexual offending by conducting a meta-analysis of 59 independent studies comparing male adolescent sex offenders (n = 3,855) with male adolescent non-sex offenders (n = 13,393) on theoretically derived variables reflecting general delinquency risk factors (antisocial tendencies),…

  5. Estimation of sex from the lower limb measurements of Sudanese adults.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Altayeb Abdalla

    2013-06-10

    The sex estimation from mutilated and amputated limbs or body parts is one of the most vital steps in person identification in medical-legal autopsies. Sex estimation from lower limb anthropometric measurements has demonstrated a high degree of expected accuracy in a limited range of the global population. The aims of this study were to assess the degree of the sexual dimorphism in lower limb measurements and the accuracy of utilization of these measurements for estimation of sex in a contemporary adult Sudanese population. The tibial length, bimalleolar breadth, foot length, and foot breadth of 240 right-handed Sudanese Arab subjects (120 males and 120 females) aged between 25 and 30 years were measured following international anthropometric standards. Demarking points, sexual dimorphism indices and discriminant functions were developed from 200 subjects (100 males and 100 females) who comprised the study group. All variables were sexually dimorphic. The bimalleolar breadth and foot breadth significantly contributed to sex estimation. Leg dimensions showed a higher accuracy for sex estimation than foot dimensions. Cross-validated sex classification accuracy ranged between 78% and 89.5%. The reliability of these standards was assessed in a test sample of 20 males and 20 females, and the results showed accuracy between 75% and 90%. This study provides new forensic standards for sex estimation from lower limb measurements of Sudanese adults. PMID:23642728

  6. Treatment Programs for Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brecher, Edward M.

    This survey report presents information on 20 treatment programs in 12 states which are directly concerned with the existing sexual problems and future behavior of correctional inmates, probationers, and parolees. Three additional programs which are no longer in operation, but have considerable historical interest, are also described. The programs…

  7. Interpersonal competency in sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Hudson, S M; Ward, T

    2000-09-01

    The major theoretical frameworks all invoke, often implicitly, social competency deficits as part of their causal explanations for sexual aggression. In this article, the authors review the evidence for this general position, noting both that social competency is not best seen as being equivalent to social skill and that domain specificity is likely to be important. They argue that intimacy, empathy, and cognitive distortions are likely to be the most salient domains in the area of sexual aggression. Recent use of attachment theory to conceptualize intimacy suggests that this approach may have more utility in both classification and intervention planning. An information processing view of empathy, together with likelihood of situational constraints on deficits, has usefully advanced this area. The possible relationships between such deficits and cognitive distortions are noted. Current literature on cognitive distortions is also briefly reviewed. Finally, suggestions for a helpful research agenda are made. PMID:10992609

  8. Patterns of federal Internet offenders: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ann W; Carretta, Carrie M; Burgess, Allen G

    2012-09-01

    Internet-facilitated sexual offending is receiving increased forensic and clinical attention. Two issues confront this field. First, studies are equivocal as to whether (or not) the possession of Internet pornography can escalate to contact sexual offenses against a child, and second, federal judges have been questioning the length of sentences for users only of child pornography. The findings of this pilot study of 101 federal Internet offenders revealed over half of the men at the time of arrest were employed, educated, were in (or had been in) a relationship, had children, and did not have a prior criminal offense, suggesting a changing profile of a convicted sex offender. Forensic and psychiatric nurses who evaluate users of child pornography contraband need to be knowledgeable of Internet file transfer technology and the various types of contraband viewed specifically for the age of the preferred child, extreme acts to the child (e.g., bondage, S&M), and whether the user prefers images of adults with children or images of children only. PMID:22925126

  9. Correlates of recidivism among adolescents who have sexually offended.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, Julie; Proulx, Jean

    2011-12-01

    The present study investigates the recidivism rates of a sample of 351 male adolescents who sexually offended, and were assessed at an outpatient psychiatric clinic in Montreal, Canada, between 1992 and 2002. The mean age of the participants was 15.8 years (SD=1.8). Data on adolescent and adult recidivism were collected in Summer 2005 from official criminality sources in Canada. Over an 8-year follow-up period, 45% (n=158) of the participants were charged with a new criminal offense, 30% (n=104) were charged with a violent offense, and 10% (n=36) were charged with a sexual offense. Cox regression results suggest that overall, violent, and sexual recidivism can be predicted by a variety of developmental, social, and criminological factors. Paternal abandonment, childhood sexual victimization, association with significantly younger children, and having victimized a stranger were associated with a higher risk of sexual recidivism. Previous delinquency, attention deficit disorder, and childhood sexual victimization were found to increase the risk for both violent and overall recidivism. Also, the use of violence during a sex crime and victimizing a stranger were associated with violent recidivism, and school delay and association with delinquent peers were predictive of overall recidivism. The results confirm that a significant proportion of adolescents who have sexually offended pursue a criminal activity beyond adolescence, although few specialize in sexual offending. PMID:21960517

  10. Correlates of Unprotected Sex Among Adult Heterosexual Men Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Jean L.; Espinoza, Lilia; Stoyanoff, Sue

    2006-01-01

    The correlates of unprotected sex among a sample of heterosexual men living with HIV (n = 121) were examined to determine whether patient characteristics can be used as a basis for tailoring safer sex counseling in the clinic setting. Potential correlates of self-reported unprotected oral sex (fellatio) and vaginal sex included participant demographics (e.g., age, ethnicity), disease status (CD4 counts, viral load, years since diagnosis), safer sex beliefs (e.g., condom attitudes), substance use, psychological characteristics (depressive symptoms, dispositional optimism and pessimism), and sex partner characteristics (main/casual partner, HIV status of partner, and duration of relationship). A series of logistic regression analyses were used to determine significant relationships. Correlates of reported levels of prior 3-month unprotected fellatio (24%) and vaginal (21%) sex were not associated with the type of relationship (main or casual) or perceived HIV serostatus of the partner (positive, negative, or unknown). Unprotected fellatio was positively associated with age and CD4 count and inversely associated with optimism and positive condom attitudes (all p's < 0.05). Unprotected vaginal sex was positively associated with duration of relationship and inversely associated with positive condom attitudes. Prevention efforts among sexually active adult heterosexual men living with HIV may benefit from focusing on improving attitudes towards condom use regardless of partner relationship status. PMID:16736114

  11. Housing First Reduces Re-offending among Formerly Homeless Adults with Mental Disorders: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Somers, Julian M.; Rezansoff, Stefanie N.; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Palepu, Anita; Patterson, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Background Homelessness and mental illness have a strong association with public disorder and criminality. Experimental evidence indicates that Housing First (HF) increases housing stability and perceived choice among those experiencing chronic homelessness and mental disorders. HF is also associated with lower residential costs than common alternative approaches. Few studies have examined the effect of HF on criminal behavior. Methods Individuals meeting criteria for homelessness and a current mental disorder were randomized to one of three conditions treatment as usual (reference); scattered site HF; and congregate HF. Administrative data concerning justice system events were linked in order to study prior histories of offending and to test the relationship between housing status and offending following randomization for up to two years. Results The majority of the sample (67%) was involved with the justice system, with a mean of 8.07 convictions per person in the ten years prior to recruitment. The most common category of crime was “property offences” (mean = 4.09). Following randomization, the scattered site HF condition was associated with significantly lower numbers of sentences than treatment as usual (Adjusted IRR = 0.29; 95% CI 0.12–0.72). Congregate HF was associated with a marginally significant reduction in sentences compared to treatment as usual (Adjusted IRR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.26–1.14). Conclusions This study is the first randomized controlled trial to demonstrate benefits of HF among a homeless sample with mental illness in the domain of public safety and crime. Our sample was frequently involved with the justice system, with great personal and societal costs. Further implementation of HF is strongly indicated, particularly in the scattered site format. Research examining interdependencies between housing, health, and the justice system is indicated. Trial registration ISRCTN57595077 PMID:24023796

  12. Sex differences in cognitive trajectories in clinically normal older adults.

    PubMed

    McCarrey, Anna C; An, Yang; Kitner-Triolo, Melissa H; Ferrucci, Luigi; Resnick, Susan M

    2016-03-01

    Age effects on cognitive functioning are well-documented, but effects of sex on trajectories of cognitive aging are less clear. We examined cognitive ability across a variety of measures for 1,065 to 2,127 participants (mean baseline age 64.1 to 69.7 years) from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging who were repeatedly tested over a mean follow-up interval of 3.0 to 9.0 years with a mean of 2.3 to 4.4 assessments. Memory and other cognitive tests were administered at each visit, assessing mental status, verbal learning and memory, figural memory, language, attention, perceptuomotor speed and integration, executive function, and visuospatial ability. Importantly, participants free from cognitive impairment at all time points were used in the analyses. Results showed that for all tests, higher age at baseline was significantly associated with lower scores, and performance declined over time. In addition, advancing age was associated with accelerated longitudinal declines in performance (trend for mental status). After adjusting for age, education, and race, sex differences were observed across most tests of specific cognitive abilities examined. At baseline, males outperformed females on the 2 tasks of visuospatial ability, and females outperformed males in most other tests of cognition. Sex differences in cognitive change over time indicated steeper rates of decline for men on measures of mental status, perceptuomotor speed and integration, and visuospatial ability, but no measures on which women showed significantly steeper declines. Our results highlight greater resilience to age-related cognitive decline in older women compared with men. PMID:26796792

  13. Child pornography and likelihood of contact abuse: a comparison between contact child sexual offenders and noncontact offenders.

    PubMed

    Long, Matthew L; Alison, Laurence A; McManus, Michelle A

    2013-08-01

    This study examined a sample of 120 adult males convicted of offences involving indecent images of children (IIOC); 60 had a previous contact child sexual offence (dual offenders) and 60 had no evidence of an offence against a child. Analyses explored socio-demographic characteristics, previous convictions, and access to children. Of the 120 offenders, a subsample of 60 offenders (30 dual offenders and 30 non-contact) were further examined in terms of the quantity of IIOC, types of IIOC, and offending behavior. The study found the two offender groups could be discriminated by previous convictions, access to children, the number, proportion, and type of IIOC viewed. The IIOC preferences displayed within their possession differentiated dual offenders from non-contact IIOC offenders. Within group comparisons of the dual offenders differentiated sadistic rapists from sexual penetrative and sexual touching offenders. The paper suggests there may be a homology between IIOC possession, victim selection, and offending behavior. Implications for law enforcement are discussed in terms of likelihood of contact offending and assisting in investigative prioritization. PMID:23160257

  14. Disparities in Health and Disability Among Older Adults in Same-Sex Cohabiting Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Gilbert; Henning-Smith, Carrie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The present study compared indicators of impaired health and disability between older adults in same-sex cohabiting relationships and their peers in opposite-sex cohabiting relationships. Methods Data were obtained on men (n=698) and women (n=630) aged 50 years and older and in self-reported same-sex relationships from the National Health Interview Survey. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to estimate differences in physical health, mental health and disability status. Results Compared to their peers in married opposite-sex relationships, older men in same-sex relationships exhibited greater odds of psychological distress, and older women in same-sex relationships experienced elevated odds of poor/fair health, needing help with ADLs and IADLs, functional limitations, and psychological distress. Discussion This study adds to the limited information on health and disability among older lesbian, gay and bisexual adults. As this population grows, gerontologists must develop a better understanding of the unique issues and challenges facing them and their families. PMID:25253727

  15. Sex-Ratio and Gender Differences in Depression in an Unselected Adult Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgart, E. P.; Oliver, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    Neither sex-ratio nor gender differences in depression were found in adult sample, similar to pattern found among university students. No demographic variable was correlated significantly with depression. Suggests results may be due to the elimination of face-to-face interviews, which expose males to greater negative repercussions for exhibiting…

  16. The Individual with Intellectual Disabilities and Sex Education: Perspectives of Involved Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Randel D.

    This study examined the perceptions of involved adults concerning sex education for individuals with intellectual disabilities. Participants were 40 individuals who provided direct care or instruction to individuals with intellectual disabilities or who had administrative responsibility for them. They completed a 36-item Q-sort that examined their…

  17. Race-Sex Differences in Job Quality Returns Attributed to Education among Young Rural Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggers, Judi L.; Dunkelberger, John E.

    Using the general hypothesis that job quality returns to education are positive for all employment indicators among race and sex groupings, a sample of young adults originally from southern rural areas and small towns was queried concerning the status ranking of their current occupation, income earned, supervisory responsibility, and extent of…

  18. Sex Role Strain Among Kibbutz Adolescents and Adults: A Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snarey, John; And Others

    1986-01-01

    It was hypothesized that adolescent females experience greater sex role strain than other kibbutz members. Loevinger's ego development test was administered to 40 kibbutz members. The findings supported the hypothesis and showed that adult women are significantly more likely to focus their dissatisfaction in the area of actual role behavior. (JAZ)

  19. Adult Development and Life Satisfaction Functions of Sex, Marital Status and Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Claire; McCall, Fran

    Quality of life in adulthood (ages 27-47) was investigated; age, marital status and sex were considered the primary variables. Attention was given to the consideration of the current crises-oriented theory of adult development. The interrelationship of the variables was of principle interest in assessing life satisfaction and personality…

  20. Untreated ADHD in Adults: Are There Sex Differences in Symptoms, Comorbidity, and Impairment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Kirsten; Levander, Sten

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyze sex differences among adult, never-treated patients referred for central stimulant treatment of ADHD. Method: Data for 600 consecutive patients from northern Norway referred for evaluation by an expert team during 7 years were analyzed. General background information, diagnostic and social history, and symptom profiles were…