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Sample records for adult sex offender

  1. Sexual Abuse History among Adult Sex Offenders and Non-Sex Offenders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jespersen, Ashley F.; Lalumiere, Martin L.; Seto, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The sexually abused-sexual abuser hypothesis states there is a specific relationship between sexual abuse history and sexual offending, such that individuals who experience sexual abuse are significantly more likely to later engage in sexual offenses. Therefore, samples of adult sex offenders should contain a disproportionate number of…

  2. Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Eileen P

    2016-01-01

    Public policy has tended to treat juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) as adult sex offenders in waiting, despite research that contradicts this notion. Although as a group, JSOs are more similar to general delinquents than to adult sex offenders, atypical sexual interests and sexual victimization during childhood may be a pathway for sexual offending that differentiates some JSOs from their nonsexually delinquent peers. Developmental considerations must be considered in risk assessment evaluations of these youth. This article reviews theories of sexual offending in youth, risk factors for juvenile offending and reoffending, psychopathology in JSOs, risk assessment, and treatment. PMID:26593121

  3. Sexual history disclosure polygraph outcomes: do juvenile and adult sex offenders differ?

    PubMed

    Jensen, Todd M; Shafer, Kevin; Roby, C Y; Roby, Jini L

    2015-03-01

    Despite the empirical and theoretical chasm between the opponents and proponents of polygraphy, its use is prominent among sex offender agencies in the United States. However, current research on polygraph examination outcomes among juvenile sex offenders, along with potential differences from their adult counterparts, is scarce and outdated. In the present study, we assess the difference between juvenile and adult sex offenders in terms of the propensity for passing a sexual history disclosure polygraph examination. A sample of 324 sex offenders (86 juveniles and 238 adults) who engaged in a sexual history disclosure polygraph examination as part of their treatment in an Intermountain West sex offender treatment agency was used for the analysis. Results from preliminary and logistic regression analyses indicate that juvenile and adult offenders do not significantly differ in the likelihood of passing a sexual history disclosure polygraph examination. Implications and limitations are discussed. PMID:25049032

  4. Sexual history disclosure polygraph outcomes: do juvenile and adult sex offenders differ?

    PubMed

    Jensen, Todd M; Shafer, Kevin; Roby, C Y; Roby, Jini L

    2015-03-01

    Despite the empirical and theoretical chasm between the opponents and proponents of polygraphy, its use is prominent among sex offender agencies in the United States. However, current research on polygraph examination outcomes among juvenile sex offenders, along with potential differences from their adult counterparts, is scarce and outdated. In the present study, we assess the difference between juvenile and adult sex offenders in terms of the propensity for passing a sexual history disclosure polygraph examination. A sample of 324 sex offenders (86 juveniles and 238 adults) who engaged in a sexual history disclosure polygraph examination as part of their treatment in an Intermountain West sex offender treatment agency was used for the analysis. Results from preliminary and logistic regression analyses indicate that juvenile and adult offenders do not significantly differ in the likelihood of passing a sexual history disclosure polygraph examination. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  5. Cognitive Distortions and Blame Attribution in Sex Offenders against Adults and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenthal, Stephen; Gudjonsson, Gisli; Burns, Jan

    1999-01-01

    This study compared sex offenders against children and adults on measures of cognitive distortions relating to sex with children and rape and a measure of blame attribution. Child sexual offenders endorsed more cognitive distortions relating to sex with children and reported more guilt-feeling attributions. (Author/DB)

  6. Family Experiences of Young Adult Sex Offender Registration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comartin, Erin B.; Kernsmith, Poco D.; Miles, Bart W.

    2010-01-01

    Since 1994, policies have been instituted throughout the United States that require sex offenders to register their personal information with law enforcement officials (Jacob Wetterling Crimes against Children and Sexually Violent Offender Registration Program, 1994). With the passage of additional laws, this information is now available to the…

  7. Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Eileen P; Otonichar, Joseph M

    2016-07-01

    Sexual offending by juveniles accounts for a sizable percentage of sexual offenses, especially against young children. In this article, recent research on female juvenile sex offenders (JSOs), risk factors for offending in juveniles, treatment, and the ways in which these youth may differ from general delinquents will be reviewed. Most JSOs do not go on to develop paraphilic disorders or to commit sex offenses during adulthood, and as a group, they are more similar to nonsexual offending juvenile delinquents than to adult sex offenders. Recent research has elucidated some differences between youth who commit sex offenses and general delinquents in the areas of atypical sexual interests, the use of pornography, and early sexual victimization during childhood. PMID:27222141

  8. Adolescent and Young Adult Male Sex Offenders: Understanding the Role of Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riser, Diana K.; Pegram, Sheri E.; Farley, Julee P.

    2013-01-01

    The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly…

  9. The Colorado Sex Offender Risk Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Kim; Retzlaff, Paul; Kleinsasser, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    Documents the development of an adult sex offender risk assessment tool. A risk scale was developed based upon criminal and therapeutic outcomes of 494 sex offenders. The final risk scale included prior juvenile felony convictions, prior adult felony convictions, victim being intoxicated, denial in therapy, sexual deviance in therapy, and…

  10. Counseling Adult Sex Offenders: Unique Challenges and Treatment Paradigms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priest, Ronnie; Smith, Annalee

    1992-01-01

    Reviews current definitions and research literature related to characteristics of adults who sexually victimize children. Presents discussion of pedophilia as a sexual deviation. Examines treatment issues that may confront counselors engaged in treating adults who sexually victimize children and discusses implications for practitioners. (Author/NB)

  11. Hypnotic Psychotherapy with Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Sullivan; Briggs, Wanda P.; Magnus, Virginia

    2005-01-01

    The authors review the literature on the prevalence of sex offenders; multiple treatment modalities; and implications of the use of hypnotic psychotherapy, coupled with cognitive behavioral treatment programs, for treating sex offenders. (Contains 2 tables.)

  12. Attachment Styles and Psychological Profiles of Child Sex Offenders in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsa, Fiona; O'Reilly, Gary; Carr, Alan; Murphy, Paul; O'Sullivan, Maura; Cotter, Anthony; Hevey, David

    2004-01-01

    When 29 child sex offenders, 30 violent offenders, 30 nonviolent offenders, and 30 community controls were compared, a secure adult attachment style was 4 times less common in the child sex offender group than in any of the other three groups. Ninety-three percent of sex offenders had an insecure adult attachment style. Compared with community…

  13. Commentary: sex offenders and insanity.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Roy J

    2007-01-01

    Sex offenders with a psychotic illness present challenges in the determination of criminal responsibility, risk assessment, and psychiatric treatment. Novak et al. present data that raise concerns regarding how forensic psychiatrists could conclude sex offenders were not responsible for their offenses in the absence of clear evidence of psychotic symptoms at the time of assessment and/or offense. They also highlight issues of risk assessment and management of psychotic sex offenders that have not been adequately studied. We require further research of psychotic sex offenders to be able to offer scientifically supported opinions on risk assessment to courts and decision-makers.

  14. Brain Dysfunction in Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galski, Thomas; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Attempted to establish the connection between disordered sexuality and brain impairment by using newly developed techniques of neuropsychological investigation with sex offenders (n=35). Results indicated a major portion of the sex offenders showed impaired brain functioning on Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery. (Author/ABL)

  15. Public Attitudes toward Sexual Offenders and Sex Offender Registration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernsmith, Poco D.; Craun, Sarah W.; Foster, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between fear of various types of sexual offenders and a belief that those sexual offenders should be subject to sex offender registration. We hypothesized that those who offend against children would elicit the most fear; consequently, the most feared offenders would be rated as most requiring registration. As…

  16. A prospective study of the impact of polygraphy on high-risk behaviors in adult sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Grubin, Don; Madsen, Lars; Parsons, Shaun; Sosnowski, Dan; Warberg, Brent

    2004-06-01

    This study examined whether polygraph testing would result in sex offenders engaging in fewer high-risk behaviors. Fifty adult male sex offenders taking part in community treatment programs were allocated into 2 groups: "Polygraph Aware" subjects were told they would receive a polygraph examination in 3 months regarding their high-risk behaviors, while "Polygraph Unaware" subjects were told their behavior would be reviewed in 3 months. Relevant behaviors for each subject were established at baseline interviews, following which both groups were polygraphed at 3 months. All subjects were polygraphed again at 6 months. The hypothesis was that subjects in the "Polygraph Aware" group would have engaged in fewer high-risk behaviors, based on their self-report during the examination. Thirty-two subjects (64%) attended the first polygraph examination, with 31 (97%) disclosing an average of 2.45 high-risk behaviors each previously unknown to supervising probation officers. There was no significant difference between the two groups. Because of the high failure rate, all subjects were told to expect a second polygraph. Twenty-one subjects (42%) completed the second polygraph test, with 71% disclosing an average of 1.57 behaviors, a significant decrease compared with the first test. Disclosures to treatment providers and probation officers also increased. It was concluded that polygraph testing resulted in offenders engaging in less high-risk behavior, although the possibility that offenders fabricated reports of high-risk behaviours to satisfy examiners is also considered; similarly, offenders seemed to be more honest with their supervisors, but this only occurred after experience of the test itself. Feedback from offenders who completed the study, taken together with the high drop out rate, suggested that those motivated not to reoffend found polygraphy useful, while those less motivated sought to avoid it. PMID:15326881

  17. A Commentary on the Michigan Sex Offender Registration Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Lucinda A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the author's comments on the Michigan sex offender registration article "Family Experiences of Young Adult Sex Offender Registration" (Comartin, Kernsmith, & Miles, 2010). The article is an important piece of research that addresses a much neglected and almost invisible population in the annals of research: the families of…

  18. 77 FR 73558 - Sex Offender Registration Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 28 CFR Part 811 RIN 3225-AA10 Sex Offender Registration... requirements relating to periodic verification of registration information for sex offenders. The proposed rule, if finalized, would permit CSOSA to verify addresses of sex offenders by conducting home visits...

  19. Sex Offender Recidivism Revisited: Review of Recent Meta-analyses on the Effects of Sex Offender Treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bitna; Benekos, Peter J; Merlo, Alida V

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of sex offender treatment programs continues to generate misinformation and disagreement. Some literature reviews conclude that treatment does not reduce recidivism while others suggest that specific types of treatment may warrant optimism. The principal purpose of this study is to update the most recent meta-analyses of sex offender treatments and to compare the findings with an earlier study that reviewed the meta-analytic studies published from 1995 to 2002. More importantly, this study examines effect sizes across different age populations and effect sizes across various sex offender treatments. Results of this review of meta-analyses suggest that sex offender treatments can be considered as "proven" or at least "promising," while age of participants and intervention type may influence the success of treatment for sex offenders. The implications of these findings include achieving a broader understanding of intervention moderators, applying such interventions to juvenile and adult offenders, and outlining future areas of research.

  20. Factors affecting attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Sahlstrom, Kimberly J; Jeglic, Elizabeth L

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment amenability were negative. No differences in attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders were found between those who had been victims of sexual abuse and those that had not. Sex offenses committed by juvenile female sex offenders were viewed to be more serious and require more intervention than those committed by juvenile male sex offenders. PMID:19042245

  1. Public attitudes toward sexual offenders and sex offender registration.

    PubMed

    Kernsmith, Poco D; Craun, Sarah W; Foster, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between fear of various types of sexual offenders and a belief that those sexual offenders should be subject to sex offender registration. We hypothesized that those who offend against children would elicit the most fear; consequently, the most feared offenders would be rated as most requiring registration. As part of a telephone survey, 733 participants answered questions about fear of sex offenders and agreement with requirements about registration for offenders convicted of incest, statutory rape, marital rape, pedophilia, date rape, and an offense committed more than 10 years prior. Results indicated that all types of sexual offenders elicited some fear from respondents, and fear was related to support of registration requirements.

  2. Neuropsychological Assessment of Adult Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marceau, Roger; Meghani, Rehana; Reddon, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This report is primarily concerned with reporting on the normative results obtained on a large sample of serious adult offenders. An expanded Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery was administered to 584 adult offenders (OF), 132 normal controls (NC), and 494 acute psychiatric patients (PP). Subjects were between 18 and 44 years of age.…

  3. Altruism, Empathy, and Sex Offender Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Tony; Durrant, Russil

    2013-01-01

    Treatment programs for serious offenders such as sex offenders typically include an empathy training component as part of a comprehensive intervention package. The reasons for doing so are partly based on research evidence indicating that social disconnection and relationship ruptures related to empathy failures often trigger offending, and also…

  4. Adult Sexual Offenders: Current Issues and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geffner, Robert; Franey, Kristina Crumpton; Falconer, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Sex offender research is still in its infancy, but our knowledge about adult sex offenders has increased in the last several decades. However, public interest in the issues of assessment, treatment, and recidivism with respect to risk and safety has increased substantially during this time. This article provides an introduction to the significant…

  5. Model underpinning treatment for sex offenders with mild intellectual disability: current theories of sex offending.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, William R

    2005-12-01

    Although many writers have provided a theoretical framework for treatment of mainstream sex offenders, this research has not been extended to sex offenders with mild intellectual disability. My purpose here is to bring together several research strands to provide a theoretical model for working in this field, including theories of sex offending, developmental theories for offending, and work on quality of life. In addition to dealing with issues of sex offending, researchers should also investigate developmental and societal issues crucial in the genesis of sex offending and offending in general. Because societal issues are also important for treatment, engagement and identification with society are suggested. Quality of life and issues directly related to sex offending are of central importance. PMID:16266211

  6. 78 FR 23835 - Sex Offender Registration Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... it can be found at 77 FR 73558. The proposed rule was published to allow CSOSA to better meet the... SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 28 CFR Part 811 RIN 3225-AA10 Sex Offender Registration... verification of registration information for sex offenders. Furthermore, the rule permits CSOSA to...

  7. Validating the Attitudes toward Sex Offenders Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Charmeka

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Attitudes Toward Sex Offenders Scale (ATS) measurement by assessing attitudes of counselors in training towards juvenile sex offenders. The specific aims of this study were to determine (a) internal consistency of the ATS, (b) construct validity of the ATS based on exploratory factor…

  8. Factors Affecting Attitudes toward Juvenile Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlstrom, Kimberly J.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment…

  9. Predictors of victim disclosure in child sexual abuse: Additional evidence from a sample of incarcerated adult sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Benoit; Wortley, Richard

    2015-05-01

    The under-reporting of child sexual abuse by victims is a serious problem that may prolong the suffering of victims and leave perpetrators free to continue offending. Yet empirical evidence indicates that victim disclosure rates are low. In this study, we perform regression analysis with a sample of 369 adult child sexual offenders to examine potential predictors of victim disclosure. Specifically, we extend the range of previously examined potential predictors of victim disclosure and investigate interaction effects in order to better capture under which circumstances victim disclosure is more likely. The current study differs from previous studies in that it examines the impact of victim and offense variables on victim disclosure from the perspective of the offender. In line with previous studies, we found that disclosure increased with the age of the victim and if penetration had occurred. In addition, we found that disclosure increased when the victim came from a non-dysfunctional family and resisted the abuse. The presence of an interaction effect highlighted the impact of the situation on victim disclosure. This effect indicated that as victims get older, they are more likely to disclose the abuse when they are not living with the offender at the time of abuse, but less likely to do so when they are living with the offender at the time of abuse. These findings are discussed in relation to previous studies and the need to facilitate victim disclosure.

  10. Evaluating Awareness of Registered Sex Offenders in the Neighborhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craun, Sarah W.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of sex offender registration is to protect residents from recidivistic sexual offenders by providing public information about local offenders. This study determines what percentage of residents living near registered sex offenders are aware of the offenders and the predictors of awareness. The investigational group includes randomly…

  11. Sex Offender Treatment: The Case for Manualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Ruth E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper sets out the case for the manualization of sex offender treatment. The movement towards evidence-based practice in psychotherapy has led to strongly voiced opposing views on the value of manualization. However, "what works" evidence, i.e. the meta-analytical research behind the Risk-Needs-Responsivity model of offender rehabilitation,…

  12. Moral Development of Solo Juvenile Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Vugt, Eveline; Stams, Geert Jan; Dekovic, Maja; Brugman, Daan; Rutten, Esther; Hendriks, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the moral development of solo juvenile male sex offenders (n = 20) and juvenile male non-offenders (n = 76), aged 13-19 years, from lower socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. The Moral Orientation Measure (MOM) was used to assess punishment- and victim-based moral orientation in sexual and non-sexual situations. Moral…

  13. Sex crime recidivism. Evaluation of a sexual offender treatment program.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Robert; Dwyer, Jonathan

    2003-11-01

    Evaluations of programs for sex offenders report mixed results, are costly, and require validation. This study examines recidivism following a sexual offender treatment program in an Australian male offender population over an average at-risk period of 5 years and 1 month in the community. The group format, cognitive-behavioral program was offered to a subgroup of adult male prisoners. Subsequent reoffense types and rates for program completers, dropouts, and controls were compared. No statistically significant recidivism reduction was observed following participation in this sexual offender treatment program, whereas recidivism appears to be related to a history of violent or sexual offenses. The initial promise of sexual offender treatment programs must be further examined by individual and meta-analytic studies. Limited follow-up, missing data, and fidelity of the program may have contributed to the null result. Monitoring treatment programs to ensure inclusion of proven interventions may enhance future program effectiveness.

  14. Sex Offenders in the Digital Age.

    PubMed

    Chan, Eric J; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renee L

    2016-09-01

    With most youths now using the Internet and social networking sites (SNSs), the public has become increasingly concerned about risks posed by online predators. In response, lawmakers have begun to pass laws that ban or limit sex offenders' use of the Internet and SNSs. At the time of this article, 12 states and the federal government have passed legislation attempting to restrict or ban the use of SNSs by registered sex offenders. These laws have been successfully challenged in 4 states. In this article, we discuss examples of case law that illustrate evolving trends regarding Internet and social networking site restrictions on sex offenders on supervised release, as well as those who have already completed their sentences. We also review constitutional questions and empirical evidence concerning Internet and social networking use by sex offenders. To our knowledge, this is the first paper in the psychiatric literature that addresses the evolving legal landscape in reference to sex offenders and their use of the Internet and SNSs. This article is intended to help inform forensic mental health professionals who work with sex offenders on current concerns in this rapidly evolving legal landscape. PMID:27644871

  15. [The Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide (SORAG)].

    PubMed

    Rossegger, A; Gerth, J; Urbaniok, F; Laubacher, A; Endrass, J

    2010-11-01

    In North America, the use of actuarial instruments is considered to be state of the art in the assessment of offender recidivism risk. One of these instruments is the "Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide" (SORAG), which was developed specifically for the use in sex offender risk assessment. The present review investigates the current state of knowledge regarding the instrument's validity specifically for its use in German-speaking countries. Overall the results speak for the instrument's good discriminatory power. However, this is not true to the same degree for all types of sex offender populations. The discriminatory power is especially good in the subpopulation of child molesters. Part of the present review is a German translation of the instrument authorised by the developers of the SORAG.

  16. Sex offenders and insanity: an examination of 42 individuals found not guilty by reason of insanity.

    PubMed

    Novak, Brad; McDermott, Barbara E; Scott, Charles L; Guillory, Stacey

    2007-01-01

    Although currently there is a large body of research on the characteristics and treatment of sex offenders, very little research has been conducted to investigate the characteristics of sex offenders who have been adjudicated insane. This study included 42 patients at Napa State Hospital who were adjudicated not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) for a sex offense. The sample was further divided into offenders whose victims were children and those whose victims were adults. Data were collected with a structured chart review instrument. A large percentage of the sex offenders received a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, and many had a comorbid substance use disorder. The high percentage of sex offenders in the current study with diagnosed schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder may represent a previously unstudied subgroup of sex offenders. An alternative explanation is that the experts did not evaluate substance use and intoxication adequately, assess for malingering, or apply the proper legal standard for insanity.

  17. Female Sex Offenders' Relationship Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Louanne

    2010-01-01

    Interventions for child sexual abusers should take into account their perspectives on the context of their offenses, but no descriptions of everyday life from the offender's point of view have been published. This study therefore explored female offenders' views of their strengths and challenges. Documented risk assessments of 20 female offenders were analyzed using inductive content analysis (Cavanagh, 1997; Priest, Roberts & Woods, 2002; Woods, Priest & Roberts, 2002). The Good Lives Model provided the initial coding framework and Atlas/ti software (Muhr, 1997) was used for simultaneous data collection and analysis. The content analysis yielded 999 coding decisions organized in three themes. The global theme was relationship experiences. Offenders described the quality of their relationship experiences, including their personal perspectives, intimate relationships and social lives. These descriptions have implications for treatment planning and future research with women who have molested children. PMID:18624098

  18. Adverse childhood experiences in the lives of female sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Willis, Gwenda M; Prescott, David S

    2015-06-01

    This study explored the prevalence of early trauma in a sample of U.S. female sexual offenders (N = 47) using the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale. Compared with females in the general population, sex offenders had more than three times the odds of child sexual abuse, four times the odds of verbal abuse, and more than three times the odds of emotional neglect and having an incarcerated family member. Half of the female sex offenders had been sexually abused as a child. Only 20% endorsed zero adverse childhood experiences (compared with 35% of the general female population) and 41% endorsed four or more (compared with 15% of the general female population). Higher ACE scores were associated with having younger victims. Multiple maltreatments often co-occurred in households with other types of dysfunction, suggesting that many female sex offenders were raised within a disordered social environment by adults with problems of their own who were ill-equipped to protect their daughters from harm. By enhancing our understanding of the frequency and correlates of early adverse experiences, we can better devise trauma-informed interventions that respond to the clinical needs of female sex offender clients.

  19. The characteristics of online sex offenders: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Babchishin, Kelly M; Hanson, R Karl; Hermann, Chantal A

    2011-03-01

    There is much debate as to whether online offenders are a distinct group of sex offenders or if they are simply typical sex offenders using a new technology. A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the extent to which online and offline offenders differ on demographic and psychological variables. Online offenders were more likely to be Caucasian and were slightly younger than offline offenders. In terms of psychological variables, online offenders had greater victim empathy, greater sexual deviancy, and lower impression management than offline offenders. Both online and offline offenders reported greater rates of childhood physical and sexual abuse than the general population. Additionally, online offenders were more likely to be Caucasian, younger, single, and unemployed compared with the general population. Many of the observed differences can be explained by assuming that online offenders, compared with offline offenders, have greater self-control and more psychological barriers to acting on their deviant interests.

  20. Enhancing Victim Empathy for Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carich, Mark S.; Metzger, Carole K.; Baig, Mirza S. A.; Harper, Joseph J.

    2003-01-01

    Victim empathy is a widely used component of sex offender treatment throughout North America and Great Britain. Yet, it has been controversial over the past few years. One of the complications involves giving empathy a solid definition. Empathy was defined as the capacity to express compassion for victims. A multi-level system was developed to…

  1. Further Investigation of Findings Reported for the Minnesota Sex Offender Screening Tool--Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langton, Calvin M.; Barbaree, Howard E.; Harkins, Leigh; Peacock, Edward J.; Arenovich, Tamara

    2008-01-01

    Among a number of widely used risk assessment instruments with adult sexual offenders, the Minnesota Sex Offender Screening Tool-Revised (MnSOST-R) has been subject to relatively few evaluation studies. Only two independent research groups have published replication studies in the peer-reviewed literature with data not provided by the MnSOST-R's…

  2. The proportions of heterosexual and homosexual pedophiles among sex offenders against children: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Freund, K; Watson, R J

    1992-01-01

    Previous investigations have indicated that the ratio of sex offenders against female children vs. offenders against male children is approximately 2:1, while the ratio of gynephiles to androphiles among the general population is approximately 20:1. The present study investigated whether the etiology of preferred partner sex among pedophiles is related to the etiology of preferred partner sex among males preferring adult partners. Using phallometric test sensitivities to calculate the proportion of true pedophiles among various groups of sex offenders against children, and taking into consideration previously reported mean numbers of victims per offender group, the ratio of heterosexual to homosexual pedophiles was calculated to be approximately 11:1. This suggests that the resulting proportion of true pedophiles among persons with a homosexual erotic development is greater than that in persons who develop heterosexually. This, of course, would not indicate that androphilic males have a greater propensity to offend against children. PMID:1556756

  3. A comparison of sex offenders against female and male minors.

    PubMed

    Freund, K; Watson, R; Rienzo, D

    1987-01-01

    Male sex offenders against minors were grouped according to age and sex of victims, and according to whether they had offended against one or more than one minor. Cases of incest or courtship disorder were not included in the study. Among offenders against female children, the number of one-case offenders was substantially larger than that of multicase offenders. The opposite was true of offenders against male children, and there was no significant difference between one-case and multicase offenders against female or male early adolescents. If these counts reflect corresponding prevalences within sex offenders against minors in a Western cultural setting, some inferences can be made from these comparisons. PMID:3694689

  4. Offending Behaviour in Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David; Evans, Carys; Hider, Andrew; Hawkins, Sarah; Peckett, Helen; Morgan, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    Considerable speculation is evident both within the scientific literature and popular media regarding possible links between Asperger syndrome and offending. A survey methodology that utilised quantitative data collection was employed to investigate the prevalence of offending behaviour amongst adults with Asperger Syndrome in a large geographical…

  5. Interpreting multiple risk scales for sex offenders: evidence for averaging.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Robert J B; Hanson, R Karl; Babchishin, Kelly M; Gallasch-Nemitz, Franziska; Biedermann, Jürgen; Dahle, Klaus-Peter

    2013-09-01

    This study tested 3 decision rules for combining actuarial risk instruments for sex offenders into an overall evaluation of risk. Based on a 9-year follow-up of 940 adult male sex offenders, we found that Rapid Risk Assessment for Sex Offender Recidivism (RRASOR), Static-99R, and Static-2002R predicted sexual, violent, and general recidivism and provided incremental information for the prediction of all 3 outcomes. Consistent with previous findings, the incremental effect of RRASOR was positive for sexual recidivism but negative for violent and general recidivism. Averaging risk ratios was a promising approach to combining these risk scales, showing good calibration between predicted (E) and observed (O) recidivism rates (E/O index = 0.93, 95% CI [0.79, 1.09]) and good discrimination (area under the curve = 0.73, 95% CI [0.69, 0.77]) for sexual recidivism. As expected, choosing the lowest (least risky) risk tool resulted in underestimated sexual recidivism rates (E/O = 0.67, 95% CI [0.57, 0.79]) and choosing the highest (riskiest) resulted in overestimated risk (E/O = 1.37, 95% CI [1.17, 1.60]). For the prediction of violent and general recidivism, the combination rules provided similar or lower discrimination compared with relying solely on the Static-99R or Static-2002R. The current results support an averaging approach and underscore the importance of understanding the constructs assessed by violence risk measures. PMID:23730829

  6. The Current Role of Post-Conviction Sex Offender Polygraph Testing in Sex Offender Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokish, Ron

    2003-01-01

    Polygraph testing is becoming increasingly important in sex offender treatment. Polygraph advocates cite dramatic increases in historical disclosures that presumably allow more precise targeting of treatment interventions, earlier detection of risky behaviors that often lead to new offenses, and improved treatment and supervision compliance. Based…

  7. The Experiences of Registered Sex Offenders with Internet Offender Registries in Three States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Alissa R.; Sacks, Meghan; Osier, Lindsay N.

    2013-01-01

    For over two decades, U.S. state and federal governments have enacted broad legislation in an effort to keep communities aware about and safe from sex offenders living nearby. The current study qualitatively analyzes unsolicited responses from sex offenders regarding their feelings, attitudes, and experiences living under the auspices of such…

  8. Sex offenders and sex crime recidivism: investigating the role of sentence length and time served.

    PubMed

    Budd, Kristen; Desmond, Scott A

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between criminal justice sanctions and sex crime recidivism remains largely unexplored. Therefore, using a sample of 8,461 previously incarcerated male sex offenders from 13 states in the United States, we focus on the sentence meted out for the sex crime conviction and the amount of time sex offenders served as a result of their conviction. Sex offenders were grouped into four categories: rapists, sexual assaulters, child molesters, and all sex offenders combined. Recidivism was operationalized as rearrest and reconviction. Findings suggest how recidivism is operationalized matters. When recidivism is measured as rearrest for another sex offense, sentence length and time served are unrelated to sex crime recidivism. On the other hand, when recidivism is operationalized as reconviction for another sex offense, sentence length is positively related to recidivism for rapists, sexual assaulters, child molesters, and all sex offenders combined, while time served is negatively related to recidivism for child molesters and all sex offenders combined.

  9. An Investigation into the Effect of Respondent Gender, Victim Age, and Perpetrator Treatment on Public Attitudes towards Sex Offenders, Sex Offender Treatment, and Sex Offender Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Paul; Hirst, Lindsay; Davies, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    In this study the authors examine the effect respondent gender, victim age, and offender treatment programs have upon public attitudes towards sex offenders. A community sample of 235 participants were asked to read a hypothetical vignette involving the sexual assault of a 10-, 15-, or 20-year-old female by a 35-year-old male who subsequently…

  10. 32 CFR 635.7 - Registration of sex offenders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Registration of sex offenders. 635.7 Section 635.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW... of sex offenders. Soldiers who are convicted by court-martial for certain sexual offenses must...

  11. 32 CFR 635.7 - Registration of sex offenders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Registration of sex offenders. 635.7 Section 635.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW... of sex offenders. Soldiers who are convicted by court-martial for certain sexual offenses must...

  12. 32 CFR 635.7 - Registration of sex offenders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Registration of sex offenders. 635.7 Section 635.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW... of sex offenders. Soldiers who are convicted by court-martial for certain sexual offenses must...

  13. 32 CFR 635.7 - Registration of sex offenders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Registration of sex offenders. 635.7 Section 635.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW... of sex offenders. Soldiers who are convicted by court-martial for certain sexual offenses must...

  14. 32 CFR 635.7 - Registration of sex offenders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Registration of sex offenders. 635.7 Section 635.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW... of sex offenders. Soldiers who are convicted by court-martial for certain sexual offenses must...

  15. Electronic Monitoring of Sex Offenders: Identifying Unanticipated Consequences and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demichele, Matthew; Payne, Brian K.; Button, Deeanna M.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, increased legislative attention has been given to strategies to supervise sex offenders in the community. Among other policies, several states have passed laws calling for the use of electronic monitoring technologies to supervise sex offenders in the community. When initially developed, this community-based sanction was designed…

  16. Working with Parents to Reduce Juvenile Sex Offender Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zankman, Scott; Bonomo, Josephine

    2004-01-01

    Although there is very little research in the area of including parents in juvenile sex offender treatment, one of the factors that might be worth exploring is how the parental relationship may aid in successful relapse prevention. Since the family environment is a potential risk factor for adolescent sex offenders, integration of relapse…

  17. How to Answer the Question "Does Sex Offender Treatment Work?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques, Janice K.

    1999-01-01

    States evidence regarding effectiveness of sex offender treatment programs has been limited. Article uses California's Sex Offender Treatment and Evaluation Project to address problems that are inherent in this research, and to illustrate that well designed studies make only limited contributions to the database on treatment effectiveness.…

  18. Young Female Sex Offenders: Assessment and Treatment Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, Jennifer; McRoy, Ruth; Matthews, Bobbie M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the literature on female sex offenders and presents the results of a nationwide survey of mental health providers on approaches to diagnosing prior sexual abuse history and/or perpetration among juvenile females. Key findings include the lack of research, tools, and literature on young female sex offenders and perceived differences between…

  19. Transference and Counter-Transference in Treating Incarcerated Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Brad; Brekke, Karl E.

    1996-01-01

    Explores the processes involved in treating sex offenders. Focuses on how therapists can feel traumatized by this patient population, the dynamism of transference, and tactics used by sex offender patients, such as seduction, imitation, intimidation, and invalidation. Describes ways for therapists to maintain objectivity and use transference…

  20. Assessment of Risk Manageability of Intellectually Disabled Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boer, Douglas P.; Tough, Susan; Haaven, James

    2004-01-01

    Background: There are no validated risk assessment tools for intellectually disabled (ID) sex offenders, with the exception of the work of Lindsay et al. ["Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities" (2004) 17: 267] regarding the prediction of risk for aggressive behaviour of ID offenders in residential settings. ID sex offenders…

  1. Treating sexual dysfunction in sex offenders: a case example.

    PubMed

    Metz, Michael E; Sawyer, Steven P

    2004-01-01

    Sex offender treatment as a specialized procedure is maturing, and more comprehensive approaches that treat co-morbid patient problems (e.g., mood and anxiety disorders, relationship conflicts, social skills deficits) have emerged. However, little attention has been given to the role of sexual dysfunction in the assessment and treatment of sex offenders. We propose that: (a) sexual dysfunction is a prevalent co-occurring sexual disorder in sex offenders; (b) sexual dysfunction is, by definition, a lack of sexual health, which diminishes overall life satisfaction; and (c) sexual dysfunction can be a contributing factor for some in maintaining offense-related arousal patterns and therefore is a potential contributor to sex-offense risk. This article describes the importance of treating sex dysfunction in selected cases when it is present among men in sex offender treatment, in order to improve the men's quality of life and to deter sex offense recidivism. A brief case example illustrates this benefit. PMID:15205074

  2. Empathy and recognition of facial expressions of emotion in sex offenders, non-sex offenders and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Gery, Isabelle; Miljkovitch, Raphaële; Berthoz, Sylvie; Soussignan, Robert

    2009-02-28

    Research conducted on empathy and emotional recognition in sex offenders is contradictory. The present study was aimed to clarify this issue by controlling for some affective and social variables (depression, anxiety, and social desirability) that are presumed to influence emotional and empathic measures, using a staged multicomponent model of empathy. Incarcerated sex offenders (child molesters), incarcerated non-sex offenders, and non-offender controls (matched for age, gender, and education level) performed a recognition task of facial expressions of basic emotions that varied in intensity, and completed various self-rating scales designed to assess distinct components of empathy (perspective taking, affective empathy, empathy concern, and personal distress), as well as depression, anxiety, and social desirability. Sex offenders were less accurate than the other participants in recognizing facial expressions of anger, disgust, surprise and fear, with problems in confusing fear with surprise, and disgust with anger. Affective empathy was the only component that discriminated sex offenders from non-sex offenders and was correlated with accuracy recognition of emotional expressions. Although our findings must be replicated with a larger number of participants, they support the view that sex offenders might have impairments in the decoding of some emotional cues conveyed by the conspecifics' face, which could have an impact on affective empathy.

  3. 28 CFR 72.3 - Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability of the Sex Offender...) SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION AND NOTIFICATION § 72.3 Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act. The requirements of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act apply to all...

  4. 28 CFR 72.3 - Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability of the Sex Offender...) SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION AND NOTIFICATION § 72.3 Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act. The requirements of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act apply to all...

  5. 28 CFR 72.3 - Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability of the Sex Offender...) SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION AND NOTIFICATION § 72.3 Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act. The requirements of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act apply to all...

  6. 28 CFR 72.3 - Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability of the Sex Offender...) SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION AND NOTIFICATION § 72.3 Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act. The requirements of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act apply to all...

  7. 28 CFR 72.3 - Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability of the Sex Offender...) SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION AND NOTIFICATION § 72.3 Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act. The requirements of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act apply to all...

  8. Some Essential Environmental Ingredients for Sex Offender Reintegration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boer, Douglas P.

    2013-01-01

    Until the systematic work on the Good Lives Model (GLM) produced by Tony Ward, not a great deal of conceptual structure existed to provide sex offender treatment specialists with a theoretical underpinning for their work in helping offenders develop a better life as a way to prevent reoffending. However, the work of Ward and colleagues initially…

  9. Can We Distinguish Juvenile Violent Sex Offenders, Violent Non-Sex Offenders, and Versatile Violent Sex Offenders Based on Childhood Risk Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanklyn, Sonya G.; Ward, Ashley K.; Cormier, Nicole S.; Day, David M.; Newman, Jennifer E.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the developmental precursors of juvenile violent sex offending can contribute to the promotion of effective early intervention and prevention programs for high-risk children and youth. However, there is currently a lack of research on the early characteristics of adolescents who commit violent sex offenses. Drawing on the literature…

  10. Reinforcement sensitivity of sex offenders and non-offenders: an experimental and psychometric study of reinforcement sensitivity theory.

    PubMed

    Leue, Anja; Brocke, Burkhard; Hoyer, Jürgen

    2008-08-01

    This study tested predictions of Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) in subgroups of sex offenders and male non-offenders using an experimental choice task consisting of a reward and a non-reward phase. In addition, RST-related psychometric measures were used. Both experimental and psychometric data were of interest to determine whether sex offenders could be reliably differentiated from non-offenders. Paraphilic (N=50) and impulse control-disordered (N=48) sex offenders showed greater sensitivity to continuous reward than male non-offenders (N=51). Impulse control-disordered sex offenders showed less behavioural adaptation under non-reward than both paraphilic sex offenders and male non-offenders. In addition, reward sensitivity, rash-spontaneous impulsivity, and anxiety measures discriminated sex offenders from male non-offenders. The results suggest that reinforcement sensitivity is a promising personality trait for differentiating subgroups of sex offenders from non-offenders. The experimental and psychometric results illustrate that predictive accuracy in forensic settings could be improved by combining several types of data.

  11. Sex offender management using the polygraph: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Ewout H; Verschuere, Bruno; Merckelbach, Harald L G J; Crombez, Geert

    2008-01-01

    Reducing recidivism is a central goal in the treatment of sex offenders. In Europe, there is an increased interest in using the polygraph ("lie detector") as a tool in the treatment and risk assessment of convicted sex offenders. This interest originated from optimistic reports by American clinicians who argued that polygraph testing in the treatment of sex offenders is akin to urine analysis in the treatment of drug addiction. In this article, we critically examine the validity and utility of post-conviction sex offender polygraph testing. Our review shows that the available evidence for the claims about the clinical potential of polygraph tests is weak, if not absent. We conclude that portraying post-conviction polygraph testing as analogous to urine analysis is inaccurate, misleading, and ultimately, risky.

  12. Sex offender management using the polygraph: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Ewout H; Verschuere, Bruno; Merckelbach, Harald L G J; Crombez, Geert

    2008-01-01

    Reducing recidivism is a central goal in the treatment of sex offenders. In Europe, there is an increased interest in using the polygraph ("lie detector") as a tool in the treatment and risk assessment of convicted sex offenders. This interest originated from optimistic reports by American clinicians who argued that polygraph testing in the treatment of sex offenders is akin to urine analysis in the treatment of drug addiction. In this article, we critically examine the validity and utility of post-conviction sex offender polygraph testing. Our review shows that the available evidence for the claims about the clinical potential of polygraph tests is weak, if not absent. We conclude that portraying post-conviction polygraph testing as analogous to urine analysis is inaccurate, misleading, and ultimately, risky. PMID:18789528

  13. Sex Offender Registration: Balancing the Rights of the Individual with the Public Good--A Commentary on Comartin, Kernsmith, and Miles (2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Carol D.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's comments on the article "Family Experiences of Young Adult Sex Offender Registration" by E. B. Comartin, P. D. Kernsmith, & P. W. Miles (2010). In the article "Family Experiences of Young Adult Sex Offender Registration", Comartin, Kernsmith, and Miles (2010) put forth a telling argument about the impact of the…

  14. Sex Offender Populations and Clinical Efficacy: A Response to Rosky.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Todd M; Shafer, Kevin; Roby, C Y; Roby, Jini L

    2016-06-01

    We provide a brief response to a commentary submitted by Rosky in which he questions the rationale and methodological merits of our original study about full-disclosure polygraph outcome differences between juvenile and adult sex offenders. At the heart of Rosky's substantive concerns is the premise that only research tying polygraphy outcomes to actual recidivism is useful or worthwhile. He also questions the overall utility and validity of polygraphy. We acknowledge and challenge these two points. Furthermore, many of the methodological concerns expressed by Rosky represent either a misunderstanding of our research question, study design, and sample, or a disregard for the explicit declarations we made with respect to our study limitations. Overall, it appears Rosky has accused us of not answering well a question we were not trying to ask. Our response addresses the key substantive and methodological concerns extended by Rosky and clarifies the actual aims and scope of our original study. We also argue that a calm, rational, and scientific discussion is the best approach to understanding how to improve clinical methods used in sex offender treatment. PMID:25670743

  15. Collaboration among sex offender treatment providers and probation and parole officers: the beliefs and behaviors of treatment providers.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Robert J; Cumming, Georgia; Holt, John

    2002-01-01

    New and emerging collaborative responses to sex offender management are challenging traditional notions about how treatment providers and probation and parole officers (POs) deliver services to this difficult population. Typically, sex offender treatment professionals provide community-based services to offenders who are supervised by POs. Yet, no comprehensive survey has investigated how treatment providers and POs collaborate and view their relationships with each other. This national random survey examined the beliefs and behaviors of community-based adult sex-offender treatment providers concerning various types of provider and PO interactions and collaborative models. Overall, treatment providers reported that they value frequent and substantive communication with POs concerning mutual clients. There was, however, considerable diversity in practice and opinion among providers with regard to POs leading, coleading, and observing sex offender treatment groups. Treatment providers' opinions about various clinical, ethical, and legal issues evident in these collaborative approaches are examined.

  16. The medico-legal status of young sex offenders: forensic psychiatric evaluations in Sweden 1988-1995.

    PubMed

    Långström, N; Grann, M

    1999-01-01

    Young sex offenders (YSOs) attract significant public and professional concern. YSOs might be perceived as more psychologically deviant or dangerous than other offenders. This study focused on how often YSOs subjected to forensic psychiatric investigation (FPI) were declared medico-legally insane as compared to young non-sex offenders and adult sex offenders. Logistic regression models were applied to data from all major FPIs performed in Sweden between 1988 and 1995 (N=4354) to explore factors affecting the likelihood of receiving a medico-legal insanity declaration. When we adjusted for the statistical effects of age, sex offender status, and psychopathology, YSOs (n=47) were three to four times more likely to be declared insane in the medico-legal sense. The results indicate that YSOs in Sweden constitute a medico-legally distinct subgroup of forensic psychiatric examinees.

  17. Risk Assessment with Adolescent Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christodoulides, T. E.; Richardson, G.; Graham, F.; Kennedy, P. J.; Kelly, T. P.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes an evaluation of a risk assessment tool's effectiveness in distinguishing adolescent sexual offenders who had committed further sexual offences from those who had not. The sample consisted of 50 male adolescent sexual offenders referred to a forensic outpatient service within a healthcare setting. The adolescents within the…

  18. Juvenile Sex Offenders: Development and Correction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Gail; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Three case histories elucidate a discussion of the developmental nature of the behaviors of juvenile male sexual offenders. The sexual assault cycle is defined in the stages of negative self-image, predicting rejection, isolation, fantasies, planning the offense, and committing the offense. Tools for treating the offender are outlined. (Author/JDD)

  19. Sentencing Outcomes of Convicted Child Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Steven; Marsh, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the sentencing outcomes of convicted child sexual offenders from data collected over an eight year period. Multiple regression and nominal log linear regression are used to examine length of prison sentence, length of probation sentence, and whether the convicted offender is actually sent to prison or to probation. While…

  20. Replications and Extensions in Arousal Assessment for Sex Offenders with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Jorge R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Hall, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in phallometric assessments that involved repeated measures of arousal when exposed to various stimuli. Arousal assessment outcomes were similar to those obtained by Reyes et al. (2006). Additional data-analysis methods provided further information about sexual…

  1. Knowledge of Juvenile Sex Offender Registration Laws Predicts Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Margaret C.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Wiley, Tisha R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Because juveniles can now be registered as sex offenders, we conducted a pilot study to investigate awareness of these policies and sexual behavior histories in a convenience sample of 53 young adults (ages 18 to 23, 79% women). These preliminary data revealed that 42% percent of participants were unaware that youth under the age of 18 can be…

  2. Unraveling sexual associations in contact and noncontact child sex offenders using the single category - implicit association test.

    PubMed

    Hempel, I S; Buck, N M L; Goethals, K R; van Marle, H J C

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies found associations between children and sex in child sex offenders (CSOs) using the Implicit Association Test (IAT). We used a modification of this task, the Single Category-Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT) to unravel child-sex associations in CSOs. Using the SC-IAT, we were able to test whether CSOs indeed hold stronger child-sex associations relative to adult-sex associations, compared to adult sex offenders and nonoffenders. Furthermore, we examined whether contact CSOs differed from noncontact CSOs in their child-sex associations. The hypothesis that CSOs would have stronger child-sex associations, relative to their adult-sex associations, than adult sex offenders and nonoffenders was confirmed. No difference between contact CSOs and noncontact CSOs was found. Although the Sex SC-IAT was able to distinguish CSOs from nonoffenders, the sensitivity and specificity of the test was poor (AUC of .65) and needs refinement. The results of this study support the existence of a child-sex association as a distinctive characteristic of CSOs. These findings are discussed in the context of theories on deviant cognitions in CSOs and risk for sexual offending.

  3. A comparison of modified versions of the Static-99 and the Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Kevin L; Firestone, Philip; Bradford, John M; Greenberg, David M; Broom, Ian

    2002-07-01

    The predictive validity of 2 risk assessment instruments for sex offenders, modified versions of the Static-99 and the Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide, was examined and compared in a sample of 258 adult male sex offenders. In addition, the independent contributions to the prediction of recidivism made by each instrument and by various phallometric indices were explored. Both instruments demonstrated moderate levels of predictive accuracy for sexual and violent (including sexual) recidivism. They were not significantly different in terms of their predictive accuracy for sexual or violent recidivism, nor did they contribute independently to the prediction of sexual or violent recidivism. Of the phallometric indices examined, only the pedophile index added significantly to the prediction of sexual recidivism, but not violent recidivism, above the Static-99 alone.

  4. Criminal Profiles of Violent Juvenile Sex and Violent Juvenile Non-Sex Offenders: An Explorative Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wijk, Anton Ph.; Mali, Bas R. F.; Bullens, Ruud A. R.; Vermeiren, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have longitudinally investigated the criminal profiles of violent juvenile sex and violent juvenile non-sex offenders. To make up for this lack, this study used police records of juveniles to determine the nature of the criminal profiles of violent sex offenders (n = 226) and violent non-sex offenders (n = 4,130). All offenders…

  5. Sex Differences in Trajectories of Offending Among Puerto Rican Youth

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Wesley G.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Bird, Hector; Canino, Glorisa

    2011-01-01

    Although sex is one of the strongest correlates of crime, contentions remain regarding the necessity of sex-specific theories of crime. The current study examines delinquent trajectories across sex among Puerto Rican youth socialized in two different cultural contexts (Bronx, United States and San Juan, Puerto Rico). Results indicate: similar substantive offending trajectories across males and females within each cultural context; that males exhibit a higher frequency of offending and higher levels of risk factors for delinquency; and there more similarities than differences in how risk/protective factors relate to patterns of offending across male versus female youth. Study limitations and implications for sex-specific criminological theories are also discussed. PMID:21701603

  6. Psychodiagnostic testing of sex offenders: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Bonheur, H H

    1983-01-01

    Two groups of offenders, one charged with sex crimes as well as with crimes of larceny, and the other charged with sex crimes only, are compared with respect to their demographic characteristics and their intelligence and diagnostic classification as determined via psychological testing.

  7. The current role of post-conviction sex offender polygraph testing in sex offender treatment.

    PubMed

    Kokish, Ron

    2003-01-01

    Polygraph testing is becoming increasingly important in sex offender treatment. Polygraph advocates cite dramatic increases in historical disclosures that presumably allow more precise targeting of treatment interventions, earlier detection of risky behaviors that often lead to new offenses, and improved treatment and supervision compliance. Based on this, they believe the procedure supports desirable behavior that continues to various degrees after treatment and supervision end. Opponents cite ethical problems related to inaccurate results, unproven accuracy rates, and the risk that examinees may be coerced into making false admissions. To counter these criticisms, proponents have developed standards, best practices, and examiner training and certification programs intended to reduce error rates and address ethical issues. Opponents argue that these measures have not been tested and that empirically established error rates and best practices may not be possible for a variety of reasons. This article reviews the current situation, leaving readers to decide the wisdom and ethics of using polygraph testing in their own practices.

  8. The current role of post-conviction sex offender polygraph testing in sex offender treatment.

    PubMed

    Kokish, Ron

    2003-01-01

    Polygraph testing is becoming increasingly important in sex offender treatment. Polygraph advocates cite dramatic increases in historical disclosures that presumably allow more precise targeting of treatment interventions, earlier detection of risky behaviors that often lead to new offenses, and improved treatment and supervision compliance. Based on this, they believe the procedure supports desirable behavior that continues to various degrees after treatment and supervision end. Opponents cite ethical problems related to inaccurate results, unproven accuracy rates, and the risk that examinees may be coerced into making false admissions. To counter these criticisms, proponents have developed standards, best practices, and examiner training and certification programs intended to reduce error rates and address ethical issues. Opponents argue that these measures have not been tested and that empirically established error rates and best practices may not be possible for a variety of reasons. This article reviews the current situation, leaving readers to decide the wisdom and ethics of using polygraph testing in their own practices. PMID:15308451

  9. Outcomes in a community sex offender treatment program: a comparison between polygraphed and matched non-polygraphed offenders.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Robert J; Cumming, Georgia F; Hoke, Stephen E; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2007-12-01

    This study compared a group of 104 adult male sex offenders who received community cognitive-behavioral treatment, correctional supervision, and periodic polygraph compliance exams with a matched group of 104 sex offenders who received the same type of treatment and supervision services but no polygraph exams. Polygraph exams focused on whether participants were following their conditions of community supervision and treatment and had avoided committing new sexual offenses. The two groups were exact pair-wise matched on three variables: (1) Static-99 risk score (Hanson & Thornton 2000, Law and Human Behavior, 24, 119-136), (2) status as a completer of prison sex offender treatment, and (3) date placed in the community. At fixed 5-year follow-up periods, the number of individuals in the polygraph group charged with committing a new non-sexual violent offense was significantly lower than in the no polygraph group (2.9% versus 11.5%). However, there were no significant between-group differences for the number of individuals charged for new sexual (5.8% versus 6.7%), any sexual or violent (8.7% versus 16.3%), or any criminal offense (39.4% versus 34.6%). The results are discussed in terms of their clinical and research implications. PMID:17914673

  10. Post-conviction sex offender polygraph examination: client-reported perceptions of utility and accuracy.

    PubMed

    Kokish, Ron; Levenson, Jill S; Blasingame, Gerry D

    2005-04-01

    Post-conviction polygraph testing of adult sex offenders in treatment has been a somewhat controversial subject. This study (n = 95 participants who took 333 polygraph tests) explored how sexual offenders enrolled in outpatient treatment programs perceived their polygraph experience. Participants reported a relatively low incidence of false indications of both deception (22 of 333 tests) and truthfulness (11 of 333) tests, suggesting that clients agreed with examiners' opinions 90% of the time. The majority of clients reported that polygraph testing was a helpful part of treatment. Finally, about 5% of participants reported that they responded to allegedly inaccurate accusations of deception by admitting to things they had not done. The data offer encouragement for continued but cautious use of polygraphs by sex offender treatment programs. Implications for practice and research are identified.

  11. Post-conviction sex offender polygraph examination: client-reported perceptions of utility and accuracy.

    PubMed

    Kokish, Ron; Levenson, Jill S; Blasingame, Gerry D

    2005-04-01

    Post-conviction polygraph testing of adult sex offenders in treatment has been a somewhat controversial subject. This study (n = 95 participants who took 333 polygraph tests) explored how sexual offenders enrolled in outpatient treatment programs perceived their polygraph experience. Participants reported a relatively low incidence of false indications of both deception (22 of 333 tests) and truthfulness (11 of 333) tests, suggesting that clients agreed with examiners' opinions 90% of the time. The majority of clients reported that polygraph testing was a helpful part of treatment. Finally, about 5% of participants reported that they responded to allegedly inaccurate accusations of deception by admitting to things they had not done. The data offer encouragement for continued but cautious use of polygraphs by sex offender treatment programs. Implications for practice and research are identified. PMID:15974426

  12. Community reintegration of sex offenders of children in new zealand.

    PubMed

    Russell, Gemma; Seymour, Fred; Lambie, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Reintegration of offenders following incarceration is most successful if matched to the needs of offenders, victims, and the community. This study explored child sex offenders' expectations for and experiences of reintegration into the community. A longitudinal design was used in which semistructured interviews covered issues identified in the literature as being related to reintegration. Nine offenders were interviewed within 1 week prior to release, 3 months post release, and 6 months post release. Interviews were analysed using thematic analyses producing six key themes. The interviews revealed that most of the participants feared their release from prison into the community and once released struggled to live in society. Overall, reintegration planning was simplistic and aimed primarily to manage risk factors rather than promote reintegration. Those participants who reported most satisfaction with their adjustment following release had more comprehensive reintegration plans, which enabled them to visualise what life would be like after release.

  13. 28 CFR Appendix A to Part 811 - Listing of Sex Offender Registration Offenses by Class

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Listing of Sex Offender Registration... AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION Pt. 811, App. A Appendix A to Part 811—Listing of Sex Offender Registration Offenses by Class Class A Offenders—All Lifetime Registrants...

  14. 24 CFR 5.856 - When must I prohibit admission of sex offenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sex offenders? 5.856 Section 5.856 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department... Denying Admissions § 5.856 When must I prohibit admission of sex offenders? You must establish standards... lifetime registration requirement under a State sex offender registration program. In the screening...

  15. 28 CFR Appendix A to Part 811 - Listing of Sex Offender Registration Offenses by Class

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Listing of Sex Offender Registration... AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION Pt. 811, App. A Appendix A to Part 811—Listing of Sex Offender Registration Offenses by Class Class A Offenders—All Lifetime Registrants...

  16. 24 CFR 5.856 - When must I prohibit admission of sex offenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sex offenders? 5.856 Section 5.856 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department... Denying Admissions § 5.856 When must I prohibit admission of sex offenders? You must establish standards... lifetime registration requirement under a State sex offender registration program. In the screening...

  17. 28 CFR Appendix A to Part 811 - Listing of Sex Offender Registration Offenses by Class

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Listing of Sex Offender Registration... AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION Pt. 811, App. A Appendix A to Part 811—Listing of Sex Offender Registration Offenses by Class Class A Offenders—All Lifetime Registrants...

  18. 28 CFR Appendix A to Part 811 - Listing of Sex Offender Registration Offenses by Class

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Listing of Sex Offender Registration... AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION Pt. 811, App. A Appendix A to Part 811—Listing of Sex Offender Registration Offenses by Class Class A Offenders—All Lifetime Registrants...

  19. 28 CFR Appendix A to Part 811 - Listing of Sex Offender Registration Offenses by Class

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Listing of Sex Offender Registration... AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION Pt. 811, App. A Appendix A to Part 811—Listing of Sex Offender Registration Offenses by Class Class A Offenders—All Lifetime Registrants...

  20. 24 CFR 5.856 - When must I prohibit admission of sex offenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... sex offenders? 5.856 Section 5.856 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department... Denying Admissions § 5.856 When must I prohibit admission of sex offenders? You must establish standards... lifetime registration requirement under a State sex offender registration program. In the screening...

  1. 24 CFR 5.856 - When must I prohibit admission of sex offenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sex offenders? 5.856 Section 5.856 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department... Denying Admissions § 5.856 When must I prohibit admission of sex offenders? You must establish standards... lifetime registration requirement under a State sex offender registration program. In the screening...

  2. 24 CFR 5.856 - When must I prohibit admission of sex offenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sex offenders? 5.856 Section 5.856 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department... Denying Admissions § 5.856 When must I prohibit admission of sex offenders? You must establish standards... lifetime registration requirement under a State sex offender registration program. In the screening...

  3. 75 FR 27362 - Supplemental Guidelines for Sex Offender Registration and Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... included in their public Web site postings. See 73 FR at 38059. A sex offender's use of his name or an... tracking sex offenders who enter or leave the United States. See 42 U.S.C. 16928; 73 FR at 38066- 67. To... sex offender's registration information in the national databases. See 73 FR at 38067. (Regarding...

  4. Development and Refinement of a Measure of Attitudes toward Sex Offender Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wnuk, Dorota; Chapman, Jason E; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years public attitudes toward sex offenders have become increasingly punitive. Consequently, new legislation pertaining to the sentencing and treatment of convicted sex offenders has been focused on containment and monitoring rather than rehabilitation. However, research suggests that treatment programs for sex offenders are effective in…

  5. Online child pornography offenders are different: a meta-analysis of the characteristics of online and offline sex offenders against children.

    PubMed

    Babchishin, Kelly M; Hanson, R Karl; VanZuylen, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The current meta-analysis compared the characteristics of online child pornography-only offenders, typical (offline) sex offenders against children, and offenders with both child pornography and contact sex offences against children (mixed). Based on 30 unique samples (comparison ns ranging from 98 to 2,702), the meta-analysis found key differences between groups. Offenders who committed contact sex offences were more likely to have access to children than those with only child pornography offences. In contrast, offenders who used the internet to commit sexual offences had greater access to the internet than those with contact sex offenders. Differences between the groups, however, were not limited to differential opportunities. Sex offenders against children and mixed offenders were found to score higher on indicators of antisociality than online child pornography offenders (CPOs). CPOs were also more likely to have psychological barriers to sexual offending than sex offenders against children and mixed offenders (e.g., greater victim empathy). Mixed offenders were found to be the most pedophilic, even more than CPOs. The findings suggest that offenders who restricted their offending behavior to online child pornography offences were different from mixed offenders and offline sex offenders against children, and that mixed offenders were a particularly high risk group. PMID:24627189

  6. Online child pornography offenders are different: a meta-analysis of the characteristics of online and offline sex offenders against children.

    PubMed

    Babchishin, Kelly M; Hanson, R Karl; VanZuylen, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The current meta-analysis compared the characteristics of online child pornography-only offenders, typical (offline) sex offenders against children, and offenders with both child pornography and contact sex offences against children (mixed). Based on 30 unique samples (comparison ns ranging from 98 to 2,702), the meta-analysis found key differences between groups. Offenders who committed contact sex offences were more likely to have access to children than those with only child pornography offences. In contrast, offenders who used the internet to commit sexual offences had greater access to the internet than those with contact sex offenders. Differences between the groups, however, were not limited to differential opportunities. Sex offenders against children and mixed offenders were found to score higher on indicators of antisociality than online child pornography offenders (CPOs). CPOs were also more likely to have psychological barriers to sexual offending than sex offenders against children and mixed offenders (e.g., greater victim empathy). Mixed offenders were found to be the most pedophilic, even more than CPOs. The findings suggest that offenders who restricted their offending behavior to online child pornography offences were different from mixed offenders and offline sex offenders against children, and that mixed offenders were a particularly high risk group.

  7. A multimodal examination of sexual interest in children: a comparison of sex offenders and nonsex offenders.

    PubMed

    Babchishin, Kelly M; Nunes, Kevin L; Kessous, Nicolas

    2014-08-01

    Research and theoretical models have consistently identified sexual interest in children as a key factor involved in child sexual offending. However, there is only moderate agreement in the diagnosis of pedophilia and different assessment methods identify different offenders as pedophiles. The current study examined the discriminative and convergent validity of three different measures of sexual interest in children. Participants included sex offenders and nonsex offenders recruited from federal prisons (i.e., offenders serving sentences of more than 2 years) in Ontario, Canada. Child molesters' responses (n = 35) were not significantly different from nonsex offenders (n = 21) on an implicit measure of sexual interest in children (Sexual Attraction to Children Implicit Association Test [SAC-IAT] d = 0.44, 95% CI [-0.11, 0.99]), but differed on the self-report (Sexual Interest Profiling System; d = 0.83, 95% CI [0.27, 1.39]) and viewing time (d = 1.15, 95% CI [0.54, 1.75]) measures. Findings did not provide clear support for the superiority of a multimodal approach, possibly due to the relatively small sample. More often than not, convergence between the three measures was observed (n = 74). Findings from the present study are an important step toward understanding the relationship between different measures of sexual interest in children and establishing their validity.

  8. Sex offender treatment: consumer satisfaction and engagement in therapy.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Prescott, David S; D'Amora, David A

    2010-06-01

    Convicted sex offenders attending an outpatient treatment program in Connecticut were surveyed about their experiences in therapy, their perceived importance of treatment content, their satisfaction with the help they receive, and their engagement in therapeutic services. There were strong correlations between perceived importance of content items and satisfaction with services. A robust correlation was also found between engagement and satisfaction. Clients rated accountability and victim empathy as the most important components of treatment. Other popular content areas were thinking errors, relapse prevention concepts, uncovering motivations to offend, and controlling deviant arousal. Most sex offenders valued the peer support and confrontation offered by group therapy. Though reduced recidivism is clearly the crucial measure of treatment success, clients who are engaged in the treatment process and develop healthy interpersonal skills by participating in therapy may be less likely to engage in abusive behavior. Implications for practitioners are discussed.

  9. Student Attitudes toward Sex Offender Policies and Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiersma, Beth A.; Siedschlaw, Kurt D.

    2016-01-01

    Beginning with the passage of The Jacob Wetterling Crimes Against Children and Sexually Violent Offender Registration Act in 1994 and Megan's Law in 1996, the federal government and states have passed numerous pieces of legislation to control and restrict those convicted of sex offenses. This study surveyed the attitudes of undergraduate students…

  10. Sanctions for Sex Offenders: Fear and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comartin, Erin B.; Kernsmith, Poco D.; Kernsmith, Roger M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated public attitudes regarding sex offender sanctions through telephone surveys (n = 703). The greatest support was for residency and work restrictions. There was less support for publication of names in a newspaper, curfews, life in prison, and castration. Support for nonsevere sanctions correlated with socioeconomic status,…

  11. Intrapsychic Conflict and Deviant Sexual Behavior in Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garos, Sheila; Bleckley, M. Kathryn; Beggan, James K.; Frizzell, Jason

    2004-01-01

    Sex offenders have been shown to possess a number of consistent characteristics such as lack of empathic responding, distorted cognitions, a sense of entitlement, and lack of self-esteem. Though these constructs have been given considerable attention in the literature, little attention has been paid to what role intrapsychic conflict may play in…

  12. What Happens to Therapists Who Work with Sex Offenders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrenkopf, Toni

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 24 experienced therapists working with sex offenders regarding personal impact of work. Most reported shift in perspective, becoming discouraged about client change. Several adjustment phases were reported. One-quarter experienced burnout. Alternative to burnout was adaptation: lowering of expectations, objective detachment, acceptance of…

  13. An Investigation of Successfully Treated Adolescent Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franey, Kristina Crumpton; Viglione, Donald J.; Wayson, Peter; Clipson, Clark; Brager, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the characteristics of adolescent sex offenders who do not reoffend. Most studies emphasize reoffense rates, recidivism and those who reoffend. Moreover, these studies provide quantitative summaries without describing the individual, his behavior, and challenges after treatment. The present study seeks to provide novel…

  14. Assessing Juvenile Sex Offenders to Determine Adequate Levels of Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Karen E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories used by Utah probation officers to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. Three factors accounted for 41.2 percent of variance (custodian's and juvenile's attitude toward intervention, offense characteristics, and historical…

  15. The Impact of Training on Attitudes towards Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Leam A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to measure attitudes towards sex offenders held by professionals and paraprofessionals and to evaluate an introductory training workshop aimed at increasing knowledge and improving attitudes to this client group. Eighty-five residential hostel workers and probation officers attended an intensive two-day…

  16. Police posing as juveniles online to catch sex offenders: is it working?

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Wolak, Janis; Finkelhor, David

    2005-07-01

    This paper explores the extent and effectiveness of proactive investigations in which investigators pose as minors on the Internet to catch potential sex offenders. It utilizes a subsample of cases from the National Juvenile Online Victimization Survey, which concerned persons arrested for Internet sex crimes against minors in the year beginning July 1, 2000. Results suggest proactive investigations represented a significant proportion (25%) of all arrests for Internet sex crimes against minors. Such investigations were being conducted at all levels of law enforcement. The online personas assumed by investigators paralleled the ages and genders of real youth victimized in sex crimes that started as online encounters. These proactive investigations accessed an offender group that appeared somewhat less deviant in terms of adult sexual behavior and arrest history but equally deviant as other online offenders in terms of possession of child pornography. Prosecution of these cases produced high rates of guilty pleas and low rates of dismissed or dropped cases. The entrapment, fantasy or role-playing, and factual impossibility defenses were used but not successfully. Findings suggest that the Internet sometimes allows law enforcement to interdict before a youth is victimized, gather solid evidence of offenses, and find and track some offenders. PMID:16121838

  17. Young Offenders' Diagnoses as Predictors of Subsequent Adult Criminal Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevc, Irene; Duchesne, Thierry; Rosenthal, Jeffrey; Rossman, Lianne; Theodor, Frances; Sowa, Edward

    This longitudinal study of 248 male offenders examined the relationship between psychiatric disorders, diagnosed in adolescence, and subsequent adult criminal activity. Criminal offences were tracked for an average of 8.7 years from age 18-33. Cox Proportional Intensity regression analyses were conducted to predict the rates of adult offending of…

  18. Sex Offender Situational Competency Test (SOSCT) Pretreatment and Posttreatment Effects for Inpatient Sex Offenders in Hypothetical High-Risk Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddon, John R.; Takacs, Shelly; Hogan, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate relapse prevention skill acquisition within the context of a comprehensive treatment program involving group psychotherapy, relapse prevention programming, and other essential psychoeducational components. The Sex Offender Situational Competency Test (SOSCT) was administered pretreatment and posttreatment…

  19. The insanity defense for sex offenders: jury decisions after repeal of Wisconsin's Sex Crimes Law.

    PubMed

    Miller, R D; Stava, L J; Miller, R K

    1988-02-01

    After repeal of a Wisconsin statute permitting hospitalization of defendants convicted of sexual crimes, the authors noted an increase in the percentage of sex offenders among persons hospitalized after being found not guilty by reason of insanity. They also found that a greater proportion of hospitalized sex offenders than of other kinds of offenders were diagnosed as nonpsychotic. Illustrating with three case studies, the authors argue that despite trends away from the therapeutic model of corrections, juries continue to make decisions that provide treatment for defendants perceived to need it, even if the legal criteria for those decisions do not appear to be met.

  20. Assessing Components of Empathy in Sex-Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralfs, Sonya; Beail, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    Background: Because of a lack of research investigating empathy in sex offenders with intellectual disabilities, this study explored empathy in sex offenders and non-offenders with intellectual disabilities. Specific aims were to explore differences between these groups on measures of the components of empathy. Methods: The scores of 21…

  1. Physiological and Psychosocial Assessment and Treatment of Sex Offenders: A Comprehensive Victim-Oriented Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    Attempts to define the optimal sex offender treatment program based on a review of the empirical literature and on personal clinical experience with sex offenders. Discusses the use of the penile plethysmograph and the polygraph as methods of psychosocial assessment used in conjunction with antiandrogen medication to dampen the offender's libido…

  2. Juvenile sex offenders: Personality profile, coping styles and parental care.

    PubMed

    Margari, Francesco; Lecce, Paola Alessandra; Craig, Francesco; Lafortezza, Elena; Lisi, Andrea; Pinto, Floriana; Stallone, Valentina; Pierri, Grazia; Pisani, Rossella; Zagaria, Giuseppina; Margari, Lucia; Grattagliano, Ignazio

    2015-09-30

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in juvenile sex offenders showing that this population is highly heterogeneous. The aim of the present study was to identify possible different profiles that could help understand the motivation behind offending, comparing 31 Juvenile Sexual Offenders (JSOs), 31 Juvenile Sexual Non Offenders (JSNOs) and 31 Juvenile Non Offenders (Control Group). A data collection form, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) or Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) and the Parental Bonding Inventory (PBI) were administered to all participants. The results show that JSOs differs from JNSOs in some domains, such as living in single-parent homes, while maintain some common aspects such as academic failure and previous sexual intercourse. Moreover, JNSOs showed more abnormal personality traits, such as Authority Problems, MacAndrew Alcoholism, Acknowledgement and Alcohol-Drug Problem Proneness compared to JSOs and the Control Group, while JSOs and JNSOs use a coping strategy more oriented to Avoidance and Distraction compared to the Control group. Finally, JSOs described the relationships with fathers characterized by higher care and protection than JNSOs. These findings provide additional evidence with respect the prevention and treatment of criminal sexual behavior in adolescent.

  3. Response Patterns on the Questionnaire on Attitudes Consistent with Sexual Offending in Groups of Sex Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, William R.; Michie, Amanda M.; Whitefield, Elaine; Martin, Victoria; Grieve, Alan; Carson, Derek

    2006-01-01

    Background: This report employs a recently developed assessment on attitudes consistent with sexual offending [Questionnaire on Attitudes Consistent with Sexual Offences (QACSO)] to compare different groups of sex offenders with intellectual disability. Method: Two studies are reported each from a different region and each conducted by different…

  4. Case report: a convicted sex offender with dissociative identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Ross, Colin A

    2008-01-01

    A case history is presented of a man with dissociative identity disorder who was convicted of aggravated sexual assault and sentenced to 99 years in prison. According to the assailant's host personality, the rape was committed by an alter personality who wanted to punish the host by getting caught and thereby causing the host to lose his family. The rape also appeared to be an undoing of an abduction at gunpoint the man had experienced at age 11. It is important to understand the psychology of sex offenders with dissociative disorders because many will be released from prison. If even a minority of sex offenders have treatable dissociative disorders, future crimes could potentially be prevented with correct diagnosis and treatment.

  5. Refusers, dropouts, and completers: measuring sex offender treatment efficacy.

    PubMed

    Seager, James A; Jellicoe, Debra; Dhaliwal, Gurmeet K

    2004-10-01

    A sex offender program delivered in a medium-security prison followed 109 treatment completers and 37 noncompleters for 2 years after release. Noncompleters, those who refused treatment or dropped out, had 6 times the rate of sexual and violent reoffending relative to completers. Among those who completed the program, however, positive evaluations of treatment change, such as quality of disclosure and enhanced victim empathy, found in posttreatment assessments did not correlate with recidivism. Furthermore, completers did not differ in their rates of recidivism from pretreatment rates predicted by the Static 99, an actuarial measure of anticipated sexual and violent recidivism. We conclude that the program did not influence propensities for sexual and violent recidivism but rather served as a prolonged screening instrument for sex offenders whose failure to comply with treatment attendance predicted higher rates of recidivism.

  6. Comparing Offenders against Women and Offenders against Children on Treatment Outcome in Offenders with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, William R.; Michie, Amanda M.; Steptoe, Lesley; Moore, Fhionna; Haut, Fabian

    2011-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown the positive effects of sex offender treatment for men with intellectual disabilities who have perpetrated sex offences or inappropriate sexual behaviour. The present study investigates the process of treatment change and compares two groups of offenders against adults and offenders against children. Method:…

  7. Adult interpersonal features of subtypes of sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2015-08-01

    Although the role of interpersonal factors on sexual offending is already recognized, there is a need for further investigation on the psychosocial correlates of pedophilic behavior. This study aimed to examine the relationship between adult interpersonal features and subtypes of sexual offending. The study involved the participation of a total of 164 male convicted offenders namely 50 rapists, 63 child molesters (20 pedophilic and 43 nonpedophilic), and 51 nonsexual offenders. All participants were assessed using the Adult Attachment Scale, the Interpersonal Behavior Survey, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure. Results from sets of multinomial logistic regression analyses showed that pedophilic offenders were more likely to present anxiety in adult relationships compared to nonsex offenders. Likewise, nonpedophilic child molesters were less likely to be generally aggressive compared to rapists and nonsex offenders, as well as less generally assertive than rapists. Overall, findings indicated that certain interpersonal features characterized subtypes of offenders, thus providing some insight on their particular therapeutic needs. Further replications with larger samples particularly of pedophilic child molesters are required.

  8. "Brothers Under the Bridge": Factors Influencing the Transience of Registered Sex Offenders in Florida.

    PubMed

    Socia, Kelly M; Levenson, Jill S; Ackerman, Alissa R; Harris, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    The transience of registered sex offenders (RSOs) is a major impediment to reentry success, particularly because it has been linked to increased absconding and recidivism, and thus decreased community safety. Unfortunately, there is limited existing research on what factors most influence this transience. The purpose of this study was to identify and explore the relative influence of factors predicting transience for RSOs. Using data gathered from the Florida sex offender registry and multiple supplemental state and federal data sources, the analysis revealed a number of county- and individual-level characteristics that are associated with the likelihood of RSO transience. At the county level, these include residence restriction coverage, housing affordability, and population density. At the individual level, these include age, minority status, victim type (minor vs. adult), risk level, supervision status, and prior failure to register convictions. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. PMID:24501210

  9. What's in a Name? Evaluating the Effects of the "Sex Offender" Label on Public Opinions and Beliefs.

    PubMed

    Harris, Andrew J; Socia, Kelly M

    2016-10-01

    Particularly over the past two decades, the terms sex offender and juvenile sex offender (JSO) have attained increasingly common usage in media and public policy discourse. Although often applied as factual descriptors, the labels may evoke strong subconscious associations with a population commonly presumed to be compulsive, at high risk of re-offense, and resistant to rehabilitation. Such associations, in turn, may exert considerable impact on expressions of support for certain policies as well as public beliefs and opinions about adults and youth who have perpetrated sexual offenses. The current study systematically evaluated the impact of the "sex offender" and "JSO" labels through series of items administered to a nationally stratified and matched sample from across the United States. The study employed an experimental design, in which one group of participants (n = 498) ranked their levels of agreement with a series of statements utilizing these labels, and a control group (n = 502) responded to a matched set of statements substituting the labels with more neutral descriptive language. Findings support the hypothesis that use of the "sex offender" label strengthens public support for policies directed at those who have perpetrated sexual crimes, including public Internet disclosure, residency restrictions, and social networking bans. The "JSO" label is demonstrated to produce particularly robust effects, enhancing support for policies that subject youth to public Internet notification and affecting beliefs about youths' propensity to re-offend as adults. Implications for public policy, media communication, and research are explored and discussed.

  10. Cognitive distortions in child sex offenders: an overview of theory, research & practice.

    PubMed

    Navathe, Shruti; Ward, Tony; Gannon, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    A great deal of clinical and research attention has been paid to understanding and explaining child sex offenders' social cognition. Cognitive distortions have been implicated as a core feature of child sex offenders' offense supportive cognition. The primary aim of this paper is to critically evaluate the phenomenon of cognitive distortions as currently understood with respect to child sex offenders: it reviews the theoretical and research literature and highlights the implications for clinical practice.

  11. The Effect of Offenders' Sex on Reporting Crimes to the Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Thessa M. L.; Van de Schoot, Rens

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the difference in victims' reporting behavior regarding crimes committed by males and by females. The authors expect that victims of female offenders are less likely to report to the police than victims of male offenders because of differences in the victim-offender relationship as well as in the victim's sex. With recent…

  12. Female Sex Offenders: Exploring Issues of Personality, Trauma, and Cognitive Distortions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the characteristics of female sex offenders and factors and/or causes of female deviance. Research to date has been descriptive in nature, with few comparison studies. Using a correlational design and three valid instruments, female sexual offenders and a matched group of female nonsexual offenders are compared in the…

  13. Rape against Brazilian Women: Characteristics of Victims and Sex Offenders

    PubMed Central

    SOUTO, Rafaella Q.; ARAÚJO, Francisco K. C. D.; XAVIER, Alidianne F. C.; CAVALCANTI, Alessandro L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Violence against women is a serious social problem and affects mainly young women. This study aimed to evaluate sexual violence against women in Campina Grande, Brazil. Methods: A retrospective study with analysis of 886 forensic medical reports of sexual violence from the Institute of Legal Medicine of Campina Grande, Brazil, was conducted between January 2005 and December 2009. Sociodemographic variables related to victims, offenders and aggressions were analyzed. Significance level of 5% was adopted. Results: Two hundred and ninety-one cases of rape (32.8%) were confirmed, the majority of victims aged between 0 and 19 years (89.9%), were single (98.8%) and had low educational level (86.9%), with association with marital status (P = 0.02). The sex offender was known to the victim in 84.2% of cases and in 93.8% of cases, he acted alone. There was an association between rape and the relationship with the offenders (P = 0.01) and the age of the offenders (P = 0.03). The rape occurred in most cases at the home of victims (49.3%), with the use of violence in 72.3% of cases, but only 5.7% of the victims exhibited physical injuries. There was an association between rape and variables date of occurrence (P = 0.001), previous virginity (P = 0.001) and violence during practice (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Over one third of women were victims of rape, predominantly adolescents, unmarried and with low educational level. The offenders were known to the victims, and acted alone in most situations, making use of physical violence. PMID:26811812

  14. Predictive validity of adult risk assessment tools with juveniles who offended sexually.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Christopher A; Epperson, Douglas L

    2013-09-01

    An often-held assumption in the area of sexual recidivism risk assessment is that different tools should be used for adults and juveniles. This assumption is driven either by the observation that adolescents tend to be in a constant state of flux in the areas of development, education, and social structure or by the fact that the judicial system recognizes that juveniles and adults are different. Though the assumption is plausible, it is largely untested. The present study addressed this issue by scoring 2 adult sexual offender risk assessment tools, the Minnesota Sex Offender Screening Tool-Revised and the Static-99, on an exhaustive sample (N = 636) of juveniles who had sexually offended (JSOs) in Utah. For comparison, 2 tools designed for JSOs were also scored: the Juvenile-Sex Offender Assessment Protocol-II and the Juvenile Risk Assessment Scale. Recidivism data were collected for 2 time periods: before age 18 (sexual, violent, any recidivism) and from age 18 to the year 2004 (sexual). The adult actuarial risk assessment tools predicted all types of juvenile recidivism significantly and at approximately the same level of accuracy as juvenile-specific tools. However, the accuracy of longer term predictions of adult sexual recidivism across all 4 tools was substantially lower than the accuracy achieved in predicting juvenile sexual recidivism, with 2 of the tools producing nonsignificant results, documenting the greater difficulty in making longer term predictions on the basis of adolescent behavior.

  15. 24 CFR 5.905 - What special authority is there to obtain access to sex offender registration information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... obtain access to sex offender registration information? 5.905 Section 5.905 Housing and Urban Development... access to sex offender registration information? (a) PHA obligation to obtain sex offender registration... applying for admission to any federally assisted housing program is subject to a lifetime sex...

  16. 24 CFR 5.905 - What special authority is there to obtain access to sex offender registration information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... obtain access to sex offender registration information? 5.905 Section 5.905 Housing and Urban Development... access to sex offender registration information? (a) PHA obligation to obtain sex offender registration... applying for admission to any federally assisted housing program is subject to a lifetime sex...

  17. 24 CFR 5.905 - What special authority is there to obtain access to sex offender registration information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... obtain access to sex offender registration information? 5.905 Section 5.905 Housing and Urban Development... access to sex offender registration information? (a) PHA obligation to obtain sex offender registration... applying for admission to any federally assisted housing program is subject to a lifetime sex...

  18. 24 CFR 5.905 - What special authority is there to obtain access to sex offender registration information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... obtain access to sex offender registration information? 5.905 Section 5.905 Housing and Urban Development... access to sex offender registration information? (a) PHA obligation to obtain sex offender registration... applying for admission to any federally assisted housing program is subject to a lifetime sex...

  19. 24 CFR 5.905 - What special authority is there to obtain access to sex offender registration information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... obtain access to sex offender registration information? 5.905 Section 5.905 Housing and Urban Development... access to sex offender registration information? (a) PHA obligation to obtain sex offender registration... applying for admission to any federally assisted housing program is subject to a lifetime sex...

  20. Sex Education for Male Adolescent Sex Offenders in a Group Setting Led by General Psychiatry Residents: A Literature Review and Example in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, R. Gregg; Boyd, Mary S.

    2009-01-01

    Male adolescents have been credited with a significant percentage of sex crimes in recent years. They are a heterogeneous population with offenses spanning the same range found among adult offenders. A lack of interpersonal social skills relevant to intimate relationships and inaccurate knowledge regarding appropriate sexual behaviors contribute…

  1. Moral judgment of young sex offenders with and without intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    van Vugt, Eveline; Asscher, Jessica; Stams, Geert Jan; Hendriks, Jan; Bijleveld, Catrien; van der Laan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This study examined differences in moral judgment between juvenile sex offenders with and without intellectual disabilities. The Sociomoral Reflection Measure-Short Form (SRM-SF) was used to assess moral judgment, and was extended with questions referring to general sexual situations and to the offenders' abuse victim(s). Juvenile sex offenders with and without ID significantly differed in moral judgment stage regarding general life, sexual and own abuse victim situations. Juvenile sex offenders with ID generally showed stage 2 moral reasoning, which indicated that their justifications for moral decisions were dominated by instrumental and pragmatic reciprocity, whereas juvenile sex offenders without ID used reasons and justifications representing transitional moral stage 2/3 moral judgment, indicating that the maintenance of interpersonal relationships was considered to a certain extent in their justifications for moral decisions. Future research should examine to what extent moral judgment of offenders with ID should be targeted in treatment.

  2. Psychosocial and developmental characteristics of civilly committed sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Hulme, Polly A; Middleton, Monte R

    2013-03-01

    A convenience sample of 38 civilly committed sex offenders completed questionnaires on selected psychosocial and developmental characteristics. More than half (61%) demonstrated an external locus of control. They had higher levels of empathy compared to normative data for the general population, and their levels of anger, aggression, and hostility were similar to male college students. Somatization was comparable to psychiatric outpatients. A high proportion reported at least one form of childhood trauma (87%), with 66% reporting childhood sexual abuse. Issues related to the use of self-report instruments with this patient population are discussed and recommendations for future studies are suggested.

  3. Psychosocial and developmental characteristics of civilly committed sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Hulme, Polly A; Middleton, Monte R

    2013-03-01

    A convenience sample of 38 civilly committed sex offenders completed questionnaires on selected psychosocial and developmental characteristics. More than half (61%) demonstrated an external locus of control. They had higher levels of empathy compared to normative data for the general population, and their levels of anger, aggression, and hostility were similar to male college students. Somatization was comparable to psychiatric outpatients. A high proportion reported at least one form of childhood trauma (87%), with 66% reporting childhood sexual abuse. Issues related to the use of self-report instruments with this patient population are discussed and recommendations for future studies are suggested. PMID:23477434

  4. Predictors of treatment attrition as indicators for program improvement not offender shortcomings: a study of sex offender treatment attrition.

    PubMed

    Beyko, Michelle J; Wong, Stephen C P

    2005-10-01

    This study classified potential attrition predictors under the domains of risk, need and responsivity (D. Andrews & J. Bonta, 2003). Non-sexual criminogenic needs (e.g. aggression, rule violating behaviors) and responsivity factors (e.g. lack of motivation and denial) were the two main clusters of predictors that correctly classified 95.3% of program completers and non-completers using discriminant function analysis in a sample of high-risk male sexual offenders treated in an accredited inpatient sex offender treatment program. Rapists were more aggressive than other types of sex offenders and were more likely to drop out of treatment. Some studies of predictors of treatment attrition have used offender problem behaviors or psychopathologies to predict attrition and then use the information to exclude offenders from treatment. Others have argued, and we concur, that results of attrition research should not be used to develop an "attrition profile" to exclude offenders from treatment. Predictors of attrition should be seen as markers for program improvement, rather than shortcomings of the offender. Suggestions for program improvements to reduce the rate of attrition, based on results of research, are presented.

  5. Dispelling the Myths: Can Psychoeducation Change Public Attitudes towards Sex Offenders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleban, Holly; Jeglic, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The public desires more punitive sentencing for sex offenders; however, treatment has been shown to be most effective in increasing public safety. It has been suggested that public education about the benefits of sex offender treatment could influence public policy. The purpose of this study was to determine if a brief psychoeducational…

  6. Moral Judgment of Young Sex Offenders with and without Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Vugt, Eveline; Asscher, Jessica; Stams, Geert Jan; Hendriks, Jan; Bijleveld, Catrien; van der Laan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This study examined differences in moral judgment between juvenile sex offenders with and without intellectual disabilities. The Sociomoral Reflection Measure-Short Form (SRM-SF) was used to assess moral judgment, and was extended with questions referring to general sexual situations and to the offenders' abuse victim(s). Juvenile sex offenders…

  7. The Social Construction of the Child Sex Offender Explored by Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, Helen

    2005-01-01

    The notion of "child sex offender" provokes aversion, but it may be that it is a social construction. We suggest that a Dominant narrative, in which child sex offenders are constructed as irredeemable, persists, despite the emergence of assumption challenging Alternative narratives. A story completion method was used to elicit themes of Dominant…

  8. An Empirical Study of the Personality Characteristics of Internet Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomak, Sheri; Weschler, Frederick S.; Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan; Virden, Thomas; Nademin, Mahsaw Elicia

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated the personality characteristics and psychopathology of internet sex offenders (ISOs) using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, Second Edition (MMPI-2) to determine whether ISO personality profiles are different to those of general sex offenders (GSOs; e.g. child molesters and rapists). The ISOs consisted of…

  9. Prolonged Exposure Treatment of Chronic PTSD in Juvenile Sex Offenders: Promising Results from Two Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged exposure (PE) was used to treat chronic PTSD secondary to severe developmental trauma in two adolescent male sex offenders referred for residential sex offender treatment. Both youth were treatment resistant prior to initiation of PE and showed evidence of long-standing irritability and depression/anxiety. Clinical observation and…

  10. Recidivism Risk Assessment for Adult Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    Holoyda, Brian J; Newman, William J

    2016-02-01

    Sexual offending is a significant public health problem in the USA due to its prevalence and the substantial impact it has on victims, victims' families, and the legal and mental health systems. The assessment of sexual offender recidivism risk is an important aspect of developing effective management strategies for sexual offenders in terms of placement, treatment, and other interventions. Researchers have developed numerous tools to aid in the assessment of sexual violence recidivism risk, including actuarial measures, structured professional judgment methods, and psychophysiologic assessment of sexual interests. The Static-99R and Sexual Violence Risk-20 are two instruments that have received substantial research attention for their ability to accurately compare offenders' risk of recidivism to normative group data. Penile plethysmography and visual reaction time are used to evaluate subjects' responses to sexual stimuli in an effort to characterize offenders' sexual arousal and interest, respectively. Though current research has focused on risk assessment tools' predictive utility, future research will need to examine the impact that actuarial and structured professional judgment tools have on reducing recidivism if they are to have relevance in the management of sexual offenders. PMID:26781555

  11. 76 FR 68509 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Reintegration of Ex-Offenders-Adult Reporting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... Request for Information Collection for Reintegration of Ex-Offenders-Adult Reporting System, Extension... support the Reintegration of Ex-Offenders-Adult (RExO-Adult) grants, which expires on March 31, 2012. A... Reintegration of Ex-Offender-Adult (formerly Prisoner Reentry Initiative) grants, faith-based and...

  12. Sex offender community notification: examining the importance of neighborhood meetings.

    PubMed

    Zevitz, R G; Farkas, M A

    2000-01-01

    Within the last decade, federal and state laws have been passed authorizing or requiring the notification of local residents that a convicted sex offender will be released and living in their neighborhood. The community meeting method of notifying neighborhood residents, although the subject of extensive news media attention, has been largely overlooked by empirical researchers. This study focuses on the experience of residents who attend such meetings and how that experience factors into a collective response on the part of the community. Data are derived from attendee surveys and recorded observations taken at all community notification meetings held throughout Wisconsin during a nine month period. The findings suggest that community notification meetings, if properly conducted, can perform an important role in managing the behavior of known sex offenders in the community. However the decision to notify and involve the public in an informal network of neighborhood surveillance may come at the cost of increased community anxiety. This anxiety is related to how the attendees were notified of the meeting, how clearly the purpose of the meeting was conveyed, and how organized the meeting appeared to the audience. Suggestions on how to more effectively utilize the community meeting method of notification are presented.

  13. No Time To Play: Youthful Offenders in Adult Correctional Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Barry; Sturgeon, William

    The number of juveniles tried as adults increased by 71 percent from 1985 through 1994. A comprehensive look at the growing population of youthful offenders housed in adult facilities and guidance in managing this special needs population is provided. Section 1, "History and Current Realities," includes a brief review of the history of the…

  14. Characterization and prediction of sexual and nonsexual recidivism among adjudicated juvenile sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Ashley K; Vincent, John P

    2013-01-01

    Estimating the risk of sexual recidivism for a juvenile sex offender is essential in order to protect public safety by identifying and evaluating high risk adolescents and to ensure the rights and welfare of juvenile offenders who will not likely reoffend. Empirically validated risk assessment methods are needed to aid in the classification and treatment of juvenile sex offenders. The present study utilized a dataset collected by Maricopa County, AZ, and aggregated by the National Juvenile Court Data Archive. The purpose of the study was to evaluate and characterize risk factors for juveniles who have been charged with a sexual offense in order to determine the predictive utility of these factors for subsequent offending, as well as offense trajectory, and to evaluate risk factors for nonsexual offenders who have committed crimes of various severities. The results of the present study show the strongest individual predictors of sexual recidivism to be prior nonsexual offending, prior sexual offending, hands-off offending, offending against a child, younger school grade/age at time of initial offense, Asian or Hispanic ethnicity, and not attending school. A preliminary screening measure was developed from the seven positive risk factors, and ROC analysis produced an AUC indicating moderate predictive utility in discriminating between juvenile sex offenders who would sexually reoffend and those who would not. PMID:23703937

  15. Contingent negative variation (CNV) and erotic preference in self-declared homosexuals and in child sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Howard, R C; Longmore, F J; Mason, P A; Martin, J L

    1994-10-01

    Contingent negative variation (CNV) was recorded bilaterally from central electrodes using a "match/mismatch" paradigm in (Study 1) samples of heterosexual men (N = 6), gay men (N = 10) and lesbian women (N = 14) and (Study 2) in samples of child sex offenders (N = 34) and heterosexual control men (N = 19). Sexual orientation was assessed using the Multidimensional Scale of Sexuality (MSS) and the Human Sexuality Questionnaire (HSQ). Separate CNV averages were formed for each condition of stimulation: for Study 1, slides of adult male and female nudes; for Study 2, slides of child, pubescent and adult male and female nudes. Penile plethysmographic (PPG) data were also obtained from 15 of the child sex offender sample while they viewed stimuli of the same categories as were used in the CNV recording. On the basis of their PPG responses to children, child sex offenders were classified as either "pedophiles" or "non-pedophiles". In Study 1 significant Group x Sex (of slide) and Group x Electrode interactions indicated that: (i) heterosexual men (but neither homosexual group) showed significantly larger CNVs to female than to male slides; (ii) both homosexual groups showed significantly asymmetrical (R > L) CNVs. In Study 2, controls showed significantly greater CNVs to adult females than to both adult males and female children. Child sex offenders showed no significant differences in CNV to male and female slides for any age. "Non-pedophiles" showed significantly larger CNVs to female adults than to female children, but "pedophiles" did not. It is concluded that CNV has promise as a measure of both deviant and non-deviant sexual preference. PMID:7873701

  16. An exploratory study of Internet-initiated sexual offenses and the chat room sex offender: has the Internet enabled a new typology of sex offender?

    PubMed

    Briggs, Peter; Simon, Walter T; Simonsen, Stacy

    2011-03-01

    This exploratory study examined 51 participants convicted of an Internet-initiated sex offense in which they attempted to entice an adolescent into a sexual relationship using an Internet chat room. All participants were convicted of a sex offense and subject to an evaluation as a part of sentencing requirements in Colorado. Clinical and behavioral data were obtained from each subject's offense-specific evaluation and chat room transcripts. The results of the study found that 90% of the participants were apprehended as a result of an Internet sex sting. The authors conclude that Internet chat room sex offenders constitute a separate group characterized by less severe criminogenic factors than other sex offenders (rapists, child molesters). It can be hypothesized that chat room sex offenders avoid relationships and spend a significant amount of time in online chat rooms as a primary social and sexual outlet, and engage in other sexually compulsive behaviors. Within this offender group, it was discovered that two subgroups exist: a contact-driven group motivated to engage in offline sexual behavior with an adolescent and a fantasy-driven group motivated to engage an adolescent in online cybersex without an express intent to meet offline. The chat room sex offender presents a significant clinical issue to treatment providers as a live victim does not exist. Thus, it is unclear if Internet sex stings prevent incidents of child sexual exploitation and may result in convictions of individuals who may never have abused a child. The data suggest a tentative sex offender typology, including subtypes, which need to be replicated in future studies.

  17. An exploratory study of Internet-initiated sexual offenses and the chat room sex offender: has the Internet enabled a new typology of sex offender?

    PubMed

    Briggs, Peter; Simon, Walter T; Simonsen, Stacy

    2011-03-01

    This exploratory study examined 51 participants convicted of an Internet-initiated sex offense in which they attempted to entice an adolescent into a sexual relationship using an Internet chat room. All participants were convicted of a sex offense and subject to an evaluation as a part of sentencing requirements in Colorado. Clinical and behavioral data were obtained from each subject's offense-specific evaluation and chat room transcripts. The results of the study found that 90% of the participants were apprehended as a result of an Internet sex sting. The authors conclude that Internet chat room sex offenders constitute a separate group characterized by less severe criminogenic factors than other sex offenders (rapists, child molesters). It can be hypothesized that chat room sex offenders avoid relationships and spend a significant amount of time in online chat rooms as a primary social and sexual outlet, and engage in other sexually compulsive behaviors. Within this offender group, it was discovered that two subgroups exist: a contact-driven group motivated to engage in offline sexual behavior with an adolescent and a fantasy-driven group motivated to engage an adolescent in online cybersex without an express intent to meet offline. The chat room sex offender presents a significant clinical issue to treatment providers as a live victim does not exist. Thus, it is unclear if Internet sex stings prevent incidents of child sexual exploitation and may result in convictions of individuals who may never have abused a child. The data suggest a tentative sex offender typology, including subtypes, which need to be replicated in future studies. PMID:20947699

  18. An ecological process model of female sex offending: the role of victimization, psychological distress, and life stressors.

    PubMed

    DeCou, Christopher R; Cole, Trevor T; Rowland, Sarah E; Kaplan, Stephanie P; Lynch, Shannon M

    2015-06-01

    Female sex offenders may be implicated in up to one fifth of all sex crimes committed in the United States. Despite previous research findings that suggest unique patterns of offending among female sex offenders, limited empirical research has investigated the motivations and processes involved. The present study qualitatively examined female sex offenders' offense-related experiences and characterized the internal and external factors that contributed to offending. Semi-structured interviews with 24 female sex offenders were analyzed by a team of coders with limited exposure to the existing literature using grounded theory analysis. A conceptual framework emerged representing distinctive processes for solo- and co-offending, contextualized within ecological layers of social and environmental influence. This model extends previous work by offering an example of nested vulnerabilities proximal to female sexual offending. Implications for future research, prevention, and treatment are discussed. PMID:25413945

  19. What makes sex offenders confess? An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Faller, K C; Birdsall, W C; Henry, J; Vandervort, F; Silverschanz, P

    2001-01-01

    This study examines correlates of offender confession in criminal sexual conduct cases involving children. The cases consist of all closed court files (N=318), spanning the last 10 years from a single jurisdiction. This jurisdiction has a community-wide protocol for handling child sexual abuse cases, a high rate of charging (69%), a high rate of confession (64%), and high rates of pleas to sex crimes (77%). To determine what factors were associated with suspect confession before adjudication, we examined characteristics of the suspect, the child, the abuse, and the system using bi-variate and multi-variate analysis. The following four variables are associated with suspect confession: (1) having the state police conducting the law enforcement part of the investigation, (2) more serious abuse, (3) younger age of the suspect, and (4) having a court appointed (as opposed to a retained) attorney. PMID:16221625

  20. Clinical Assessment of Adult Sexual Offenders with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudway, Jeremy A.; Darmoody, Malcolm

    2005-01-01

    Assessment and treatment of adults with learning disabilities who commit sexual offences presents a number of challenges. Much of the professional forensic and psychiatric literature on work with this group concentrates on the development of interventions based on theoretical models of sexual offending originating from the mainstream criminal…

  1. The Relationship between Childhood Abuse, Psychological Symptoms and Subsequent Sex Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Childhood sexual and physical abuse has been related to subsequent offending behaviour in non-disabled individuals as well as people with intellectual disabilities, but there is a dearth of research examining the link between these two characteristics and psychological, behavioural and psychiatric symptoms amongst sex offenders with…

  2. The Public Safety Impact of Community Notification Laws: Rearrest of Convicted Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Naomi J.

    2012-01-01

    Sex offender management is one of the highest-profile issues in public safety today. Although states have enacted community notification laws as a means to protect communities from sexual offending, limited research has been conducted to examine the impact of these laws on public safety. As such, this study used a quasi-experimental design to…

  3. Predictors of the sex offender civil commitment trial outcomes in New York State.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yunmei; Freeman, Naomi J; Sandler, Jeffrey C

    2015-10-01

    The present study analyzed sex offender civil management (i.e., civil commitment) legal proceedings in New York State and identified factors that predict trial results. Specifically, the current study compared a sample of 38 sex offenders who were released to the community after winning their civil management trials to 183 sex offenders who lost their civil management trials. Additionally, for the 183 sex offenders who lost their civil management trials, the current study compared 146 offenders who were ordered to inpatient civil commitment to 37 offenders who were deemed fit for civil management in the community. Results of the analyses indicated that sexual criminality, sexual deviance, and criminality involving child victims increased the likelihood of offenders both losing their civil management trial and being found to be in need of inpatient care, while the presence of variables associated with nonsexual criminality increased the likelihood of offenders both winning their civil management trials and being deemed fit for management in the community. The findings of this study provide guidance for psychiatric examiners who testify in civil management legal proceedings, as well as for legal professionals specializing in civil management cases.

  4. Comparisons of Sex Offenders with Non-Offenders on Attitudes Toward Masturbation and Female Fantasy as Related to Participation in Human Sexuality Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotten-Hustan, Annie L.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the effects of sexuality classes on 23 sex offenders and 28 college students. Results showed that compared to controls, participants had more positive attitudes toward masturbation and a disgust of perverse fantasies about women, suggesting human sexuality education may be useful in preventing sex offenses and rehabilitating offenders.…

  5. Sex offender punishment and the persistence of penal harm in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Leon, Chrysanthi S

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. has dramatically revised its approach to punishment in the last several decades. In particular, people convicted of sex crimes have experienced a remarkable expansion in social control through a wide-range of post-conviction interventions. While this expansion may be largely explained by general punishment trends, there appear to be unique factors that have prevented other penal reforms from similarly modulating sex offender punishment. In part, this continuation of a "penal harm" approach to sex offenders relates to the past under-valuing of sexual victimization. In the "bad old days," the law and its agents sent mixed messages about sexual violence and sexual offending. Some sexual offending was mere nuisance, some was treatable, and a fraction "deserved" punishment equivalent to other serious criminal offending. In contrast, today's sex offender punishment schemes rarely distinguish formally among gradations of harm or dangerousness. After examining incarceration trends, this article explores the historical context of the current broad brush approach and reviews the unintended consequences. Altogether, this article reinforces the need to return to differentiation among sex offenders, but differentiation based on science and on the experience-based, guided discretion of experts in law enforcement, corrections, and treatment.

  6. Does Treatment Work with Internet Sex Offenders? Emerging Findings from the Internet Sex Offender Treatment Programme (i-SOTP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, David; Mandeville-Norden, Rebecca; Hayes, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The increase in convictions for internet-related sexual offending has led to new challenges for treatment providers. By 2005 nearly one-third of all sexual convictions in England and Wales were for internet-related sexual offending. In late 2006 a treatment programme for internet-related sexual offending (the i-SOTP) was given accreditation for…

  7. Stumbling into sexual crime: the passive perpetrator in accounts by male internet sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Winder, Belinda; Gough, Brendan; Seymour-Smith, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Public reactions to internet child offending remain ambivalent in that, while there is vocal condemnation of contact child sex offending, there is less indignation about internet child abuse. This is potentially due to a lack of recognition of this type of offence as sexual offending per se. This ambiguity is reflected by internet sex offenders themselves in their verbalizations of their offending. This article presents a qualitative analysis of the accounts offered by seven individuals convicted of internet-based sexual offences involving the downloading and viewing of images of children. In particular, this article presents an analysis of the explanations of offenders for the commencement of internet activity and the progression to more illicit online materials. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using discursive methods, paying close attention to language use and function. The analysis documented the practices that internet child abusers employed in order to manage their identities, distance themselves from the label of sex offender, and/or reduce their personal agency and accountability. Implications of this analysis are discussed with reference to the current minimization of the downloading of sexually explicit images of children as a sexual crime per se by the public and offenders alike and the risk assessment and treatment of individuals convicted of these offences.

  8. Stumbling into sexual crime: the passive perpetrator in accounts by male internet sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Winder, Belinda; Gough, Brendan; Seymour-Smith, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Public reactions to internet child offending remain ambivalent in that, while there is vocal condemnation of contact child sex offending, there is less indignation about internet child abuse. This is potentially due to a lack of recognition of this type of offence as sexual offending per se. This ambiguity is reflected by internet sex offenders themselves in their verbalizations of their offending. This article presents a qualitative analysis of the accounts offered by seven individuals convicted of internet-based sexual offences involving the downloading and viewing of images of children. In particular, this article presents an analysis of the explanations of offenders for the commencement of internet activity and the progression to more illicit online materials. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using discursive methods, paying close attention to language use and function. The analysis documented the practices that internet child abusers employed in order to manage their identities, distance themselves from the label of sex offender, and/or reduce their personal agency and accountability. Implications of this analysis are discussed with reference to the current minimization of the downloading of sexually explicit images of children as a sexual crime per se by the public and offenders alike and the risk assessment and treatment of individuals convicted of these offences. PMID:24917484

  9. Female sex offenders: exploring issues of personality, trauma, and cognitive distortions.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Susan M

    2008-04-01

    Few studies have investigated the characteristics of female sex offenders and factors and/or causes of female deviance. Research to date has been descriptive in nature, with few comparison studies. Using a correlational design and three valid instruments, female sexual offenders and a matched group of female nonsexual offenders are compared in the areas of personality disorders, chemical dependency, childhood trauma, sexual trauma, emotional neediness, cognitive distortions, and social competence. A sample of 130 incarcerated females, 60 sex offenders, and 70 nonsexual offenders is used. Significant results are found in the areas of total childhood trauma and severity of sexual abuse suffered and social and sexual adequacy. No differences are found in abuse of substances, personality disorders, emotional neediness, or cognitive distortions.

  10. Recent research related to juvenile sex offending: findings and directions for further research.

    PubMed

    Malin, H Martin; Saleh, Fabian M; Grudzinskas, Albert J

    2014-04-01

    Serious scholarly inquiry into juvenile sex offending represents a relatively new field, dating from the mid 1940s. During the next 4 decades, a mere handful of articles exploring aspects of juvenile sex offending were added to the available literature. By the 1980s, however, the literature began to increase rapidly, a trend that continues today. The purpose of this article is a focused review of the juvenile sex offender literature cited in PubMed over the last 5 years (2009-2013). The authors have chosen studies that will bring readers up to date on research they believe impacts our current understanding of best practices in the management of juvenile sex offending. For convenience, our review is organized into topical categories including research into characteristics and typologies of juvenile sex offenders, risk assessment and recidivism, assessment and treatment, the ongoing debate about mandatory registration of sex offenders as it applies to juveniles, and other thought provoking studies that do not fit neatly into the aforementioned categories. The studies included contain findings that both reinforce and challenge currently held notions about best practices concerning treatment and public policy, suggesting that our knowledge of the field continues to evolve in important ways. PMID:24562765

  11. An empirical assessment of the overlap between sexual victimization and sex offending.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Wesley G; Zgoba, Kristen M; Maschi, Tina; Reingle, Jennifer M

    2014-12-01

    There has been a recent proliferation in the number of studies that are investigating the phenomenon that has been coined the victim-offender overlap. There has been noticeably less attention toward examining the sexual victimization and sex offending overlap. Acknowledging this gap in the literature, the present study provides an assessment of this overlap among a large sample of male prisoners with a focus on the cycle of violence hypothesis. Bivariate results reveal a considerable degree of overlap between sexual victimization and sex offending, and multivariate results estimated from a series of bivariate probit models simultaneously assessing both outcomes suggest that experiencing emotional abuse early on in the life-course is a robust risk factor for experiencing sexual victimization and demonstrating sex offending behavior. Furthermore, being physically neglected and witnessing family violence also emerged as significant risk factors for sexual victimization. Study limitations and policy implications are also discussed.

  12. Social perception deficits, cognitive distortions, and empathy deficits in sex offenders: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Blake, Emily; Gannon, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    This literature review examines the differences between sex offenders and nonoffenders with regard to social perception skills, cognitive distortions, and empathy skills in order to investigate sex offenders' cognition. The literature on cognitive distortions is discussed, with reference to the confusion surrounding its definition, and the debate between cognitive distortions as offense-supportive beliefs or justifications is examined. In terms of social perception, particular reference is made to sex offenders' misinterpretations of women's social cues and the source of this deficit. The authors discuss possibilities for this deficit, including offense-supportive beliefs that are driven by underlying implicit theories or schemata held by offenders. The concept of empathy and its relation to both social perception skills and cognitive distortions is discussed, and the integration of these factors is represented in a new model.

  13. Cognitive distortions about sex and sexual offending: a comparison of sex offending girls, delinquent girls, and girls from the community.

    PubMed

    Kubik, Elizabeth K; Hecker, Jeffrey E

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive distortions about sexual offending were examined in 11 girls who committed sexual offenses, 12 girls who committed non-sexual criminal offenses, and 21 girls with no history of sexual of non-sexual offending. Participants responded to 12 vignettes that described sexual contact between an adolescent girl and a younger boy. The vignettes varied with respect to the sexual contact portrayed and the victim's response. Girls who had sexually offended were more likely to endorse statements reflecting the belief that the offender in a sexually aggressive vignette was not responsible for initiating the sexual contact. In addition, when the victim's response to the sexual contact was clearly negative, and the degree of contact was more serious, girls who had sexually offended demonstrated more distorted beliefs about the victim than the other two groups. Similarities and differences between the current findings and studies of distorted thinking in male sexual offenders are discussed.

  14. A geospatial analysis of the impact of sex offender residency restrictions in two New York counties.

    PubMed

    Berenson, Jacqueline A; Appelbaum, Paul S

    2011-06-01

    The efficacy of sex offender residence restriction laws in enhancing public safety is controversial and further complicated by evidence that adverse collateral effects may negate or even outweigh whatever benefits they achieve. Based on the theory of "distance decay" that postulates that offenders are more likely to recidivate closer to home, the statutes seek to distance offenders from potential child victims. However, to the extent that such statutes preclude residence in large portions of covered jurisdictions, it has been argued that they contribute to social instability, relegation of offenders to rural or undesirable locations, and even homelessness. A small number of studies have demonstrated the impact of restrictions on residential availability and compliance with the laws, but methodologic issues make it difficult to compare findings. This study uses parcel geocoding, a computerized mapping method, to examine the impact of the sex offender residency restrictions enacted in Erie and Schenectady Counties, NY. Identification and mapping of restricted locations revealed that in nonurban areas, available residential locations were drastically reduced by the restrictions (89.46% and 73.16% restricted in the two counties) and in urban areas almost completely eliminated (95.45% and 97.21%). Unexpectedly, however, when the registered sex offenders in each county were matched to their addresses in the state database, analysis revealed that residence restrictions had no demonstrable effect on where offenders live. More than 85% of offenders in each of the counties were found living in the urban centers, the vast majority of whom (91.89% and 100%) were matched to addresses in restricted locations. These findings may have important policy and procedural implications in the creation and enforcement of sex offender statutes, as well as in the evaluation of those presently in place.

  15. A Comparative Study of Two Groups of Sex Offenders Identified as High and Low Risk on the Static-99

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coxe, Ray; Holmes, William

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify possible differences between high- and low-risk sex offenders. The subjects included 285 sex offenders on probation. They were evaluated with the Static-99, Abel Assessment, Raven's, and MMPI-2. A criminal history review identified the number of prior offenses and the age/sex category in the index offense.…

  16. The Remodeling Process: A Grounded Theory Study of Perceptions of Treatment among Adult Male Incest Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheela, Rochelle A.

    1992-01-01

    Conducted grounded theory study to explore incest offender perceptions of treatment to generate explanatory theory of sexual abuse treatment process. Findings from theoretical sampling of 20 adult male incest offenders revealed that offenders felt remodeling process occurred as they faced discovery of their abuse and went through treatment.…

  17. Beyond Static and Dynamic Risk Factors: The Incremental Validity of Release Planning for Predicting Sex Offender Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scoones, Carwyn D.; Willis, Gwenda M.; Grace, Randolph C.

    2012-01-01

    Both desistance research and strengths-based approaches to offender rehabilitation suggest that attempts to reduce sex offender recidivism should attend to an offender's release environment. Recent research has demonstrated that better quality release planning is associated with reduced recidivism; however, whether release planning contributes…

  18. Interpreting Child Sexual Abuse: Empathy and Offense-Supportive Cognitions among Child Sex Offenders.

    PubMed

    Hempel, Inge Sarah; Buck, Nicole Maria Leonarda; van Vugt, Eveline Stefanie; van Marle, Hjalmar Johan Carel

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that child sex offenders hold distorted views on social interactions with children. Misinterpreting children's behavior and intentions could lead to sexually abusive behavior toward children. It is further suggested that the interpretation process is influenced by offenders' offense-supportive cognitions and levels of empathy. To examine the relationships between these three concepts, 47 contact offenders completed self-reports on offense-supportive cognitions and empathy. Vignettes were developed to assess the extent to which offenders attributed responsibility, benefit, and complicity to children in hypothetical child molestation incidents. This study showed that cognitions that justify sexual offending against children seem to diminish the threshold for sexual assault by assigning more cooperation and willingness of the victim in a child molestation incident.

  19. Cognitive Distortions about Sex and Sexual Offending: A Comparison of Sex Offending Girls, Delinquent Girls, and Girls from the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubik, Elizabeth K.; Hecker, Jeffrey E.

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive distortions about sexual offending were examined in 11 girls who committed sexual offenses, 12 girls who committed non-sexual criminal offenses, and 21 girls with no history of sexual or non-sexual offending. Participants responded to 12 vignettes that described sexual contact between an adolescent girl and a younger boy. The vignettes…

  20. Family or Caregiver Instability, Parental Attachment, and the Relationship to Juvenile Sex Offending.

    PubMed

    Felizzi, Marc V

    2015-01-01

    A violent or unstable home life-characterized by caregivers physically or sexually abusing children, physical violence in the home, homelessness, and other factors-and disrupted parental attachment are examined in this secondary data analysis for their possible relationship to juvenile sex offending. Parent or caregiver instability is measured by a demographic questionnaire administered to participants. Parental attachment is measured by the Inventory of Peer and Personal Attachment. The population included 502 adjudicated juvenile male sexual and nonsexual offenders in a Midwest state who responded to questionnaires in order to examine juvenile offending antecedents. The highest correlated parent or caregiver instability variables to juvenile sex offending status were multiple relocations or homelessness, children placed out of the home, slapping or punching in the home, and sexual abuse victimization. The quality of parental attachment had little impact on the respondents' offense status. PMID:26340072

  1. Do adolescent child abusers, peer abusers, and non-sex offenders have different personality profiles?

    PubMed

    Glowacz, Fabienne; Born, Michel

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify two sub-populations of sex offenders based on the age of the victims and on the age difference between the abuser and the victim (child sexual abusers vs. peer sexual abusers), and to compare the personality characteristics of these two subgroups with those of juvenile non-sex offenders. The group was composed of 67 adolescent offenders aged 13-18 years who were adjudicated for sexual offenses or non-sexual offenses: 20 non-sex offenders (JNSOs), 26 child sexual abusers (CAs), and 21 peer sexual abusers (PAs). The Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) was administered to all participants. The mean scores and clinical cutoffs on the MACI scales were compared across the three samples. Compared with PAs, CAs were more submissive and conforming, and they experienced more anxious feelings. Peer sexual abusers scored higher on the unruly and forceful personality scales, on social insensitivity, and on delinquent predisposition. Peer sexual abusers also reported higher scores on substance-abuse proneness, impulsive propensities, and antisocial functioning than CAs, but their scores were similar to those of JNSOs. Our results show clear similarities between PAs and JNSOs in terms of personality and clinical characteristics, especially with regard to antisocial personality traits. Child sexual abusers did not display the personality characteristics typical of PAs and JNSOs which predisposed them to delinquent activities. These results raise questions as to whether juvenile sex offenders should be treated within the same institutions as non-sex offenders and whether the same treatment programs should be implemented for all types of juvenile sex offenders.

  2. Medroxyprogesterone acetate antiandrogen treatment of hypersexuality in a pedophiliac sex offender.

    PubMed

    Cordoba, O A; Chapel, J L

    1983-08-01

    A hypersexual pedophiliac sex offender was treated with the antiandrogen medroxyprogesterone acetate for 500 days. During the treatment, his testosterone blood levels significantly decreased, nearly to female values. Pituitary gonadotropin and urinary steroid metabolite levels diminished initially. Medroxyprogesterone therapy resulted in decreased libido, few side effects, and no recurrence of sex offenses, but there was no change in the patient's sexual orientation.

  3. Juvenile Group Sex Offenders: A Comparison of Group Leaders and Followers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    't Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette A.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; Jansen, Lucres M. C.; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate group sex offenses with regard to the role of leaders versus followers and to compare both groups on levels of psychopathology, intelligence, and psychosocial and offense-related characteristics. Eighty-nine adolescent group sex offenders (mean age = 14.9, SD = 1.4) referred by the police to the Dutch child…

  4. It's all about me: a brief report of incarcerated adolescent sex offenders' generic and sex-specific cognitive distortions.

    PubMed

    McCrady, Fara; Kaufman, Keith; Vasey, Michael W; Barriga, Alvaro Q; Devlin, Renee S; Gibbs, John C

    2008-09-01

    This study investigated the scope of cognitive distortions and their relationship to empathy among adolescent sex offenders. Self-report measures of sex-specific and generic self-serving cognitive distortions as well as empathy were administered to 175 male sex offenders aged 12 to 20 incarcerated at a juvenile correctional facility. Generic distortions (e.g., attribution of carelessness to theft victims) were elevated and correlated with sex-specific distortions (e.g., attribution of promiscuity to rape victims). Sex-specific and generic distortions were each inversely associated with unique variance in empathy. Relationships of the distortions to particular contexts of victimization and empathic distress (i.e., for their own sexual abuse victim, another offender's sexual abuse victim, or an accident victim) were also explored. Results suggested that adolescent sex offenders' self-serving cognitive distortions may pervasively neutralize concerns for victims and, therefore, that treatment programs should aim to remediate not only their sex-specific but also their generic self-serving cognitive distortions.

  5. Polish project of a Sex Offenders Registry - a mental health professionals' perspective.

    PubMed

    Szumski, Filip; Kasparek, Krzysztof; Gierowski, Józef Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses the governmental draft of the Act on counteracting threats of sexual offences. It assumes the creation of the Registry of Sex Offenders in a version with a limited access and a version available to the public. The registry is supplemented with a publically available map of sexual crime threats, which includes the places of sexual offences and the places of residence of offenders. Criticising the proposed solutions, the authors point out the lack of integration with other interventions conducted in Poland against sex offenders, noncompliance with the recommendations of the most important expert circles in the field, as well as the research results showing the lack of effectiveness of the planned measures to reduce sexual offences. Anumber of negative consequences of making the sex offenders'data available to the public was also highlighted in the form of a clear deterioration of social rehabilitation prognoses, additional stigmatisation, as well as social exclusion of the offenders themselves and the victims of sexual violence. The summary emphasises the need to counteract the problem of sexual offences in a systematic way and the need to diversify the interventions undertaken against the offenders, depending on the level of risk of sexual recidivism. PMID:27556108

  6. Predicting recidivism among adult male child pornography offenders: Development of the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT).

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we developed a structured risk checklist, the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT), to predict any sexual recidivism among adult male offenders with a conviction for child pornography offenses. We identified predictors of sexual recidivism using a 5-year fixed follow-up analysis from a police case file sample of 266 adult male child pornography offenders in the community after their index offense. In our 5-year follow-up, 29% committed a new offense, and 11% committed a new sexual offense, with 3% committing a new contact sexual offense against a child and 9% committing a new child pornography offense. The CPORT items comprised younger offender age, any prior criminal history, any contact sexual offending, any failure on conditional release, indication of sexual interest in child pornography material or prepubescent or pubescent children, more boy than girl content in child pornography, and more boy than girl content in other child depictions. The CPORT was significantly associated with any sexual recidivism, with moderate predictive accuracy, and thus has promise in the risk assessment of adult male child pornography offenders with further cross-validation. PMID:25844514

  7. Predicting recidivism among adult male child pornography offenders: Development of the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT).

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we developed a structured risk checklist, the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT), to predict any sexual recidivism among adult male offenders with a conviction for child pornography offenses. We identified predictors of sexual recidivism using a 5-year fixed follow-up analysis from a police case file sample of 266 adult male child pornography offenders in the community after their index offense. In our 5-year follow-up, 29% committed a new offense, and 11% committed a new sexual offense, with 3% committing a new contact sexual offense against a child and 9% committing a new child pornography offense. The CPORT items comprised younger offender age, any prior criminal history, any contact sexual offending, any failure on conditional release, indication of sexual interest in child pornography material or prepubescent or pubescent children, more boy than girl content in child pornography, and more boy than girl content in other child depictions. The CPORT was significantly associated with any sexual recidivism, with moderate predictive accuracy, and thus has promise in the risk assessment of adult male child pornography offenders with further cross-validation.

  8. What does it mean when age is related to recidivism among sex offenders?

    PubMed

    Rice, Marnie E; Harris, Grant T

    2014-04-01

    Age is a robust predictor of recidivism and an item on actuarial tools commonly used to predict sexual violent recidivism among sex offenders. However, little is known about whether or how much offenders' risk diminishes as a result of aging. In the first of two studies, we examined the sexual and violent recidivism of 533 sex offenders who were over age 50 on release. Age at index offense was at least as good at predicting both outcomes as was age at release, and age at index offense provided at least as much incremental validity in the prediction of violent recidivism to scores on a brief static actuarial tool. Neither age added incrementally to static score in the prediction of sexual recidivism. The second study examined how well age at first offense, age at index offense, and age at release predicted violent recidivism among 527 sex offenders aged 13 to 79 at release. Age at first offense predicted best. When age was removed from score on the Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide, all ages added incrementally but age at release least to SORAG score. When participants were divided into quartiles based on age at index offense, there was no evidence from any quartile that age at release predicted violent recidivism better than age at first offense. The authors concluded that age at release is a poor index of within-subject changes in risk of sexual or violent recidivism. No adjustment to a sex offender's score on a comprehensive actuarial tool that includes age at first or index offense should be made simply because the offender is older.

  9. An exploration of psychopathy in self-report measures among juvenile sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Morrell, Laura M; Burton, David L

    2014-05-01

    Researchers have indicated that adult psychopathy often originates in childhood or adolescence. It has also been established that psychopathic traits are linked to disruptive behavior, criminality, and violence. As knowledge about psychopathy and its manifestations in juvenile sex offender populations remains limited, several instruments have been developed in an effort to measure the construct. In this study, we assessed how the relationship of diverse scales of psychopathy related to characteristics of sexual aggression, and determined which scales were most correlated to sexual and nonsexual delinquency. We utilized four measures of juvenile psychopathy: the Modified Childhood Psychopathy Scale (mCPS; Lynam, 1997), the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick & Hare, 2001; Frick, O'Brien, Wootton, & McBurnett, 1994), the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI; Millon & Davis, 1993; using two derived psychopathy scales), and the Inventory of Callous and Unemotional (ICU) Traits (Frick, 2003), in a sample of 191 incarcerated adolescent sex offenders located in juvenile detention facilities across a Midwestern state. We found that of the four instruments and seven subscales, only the APSD Narcissism and Impulsivity Scale was significantly correlated to a characteristic of sexual crime (i.e., number of victims, level of crime severity). No subscales were found to predict sexual crime at a significant level. However, several scales were correlated to the total delinquency score as measured by the Self-Reported Delinquency Measure. In a series of multiple regressions, the MACI Factor 2 and ICU total score were determined as the best fit to total nonsexual delinquency. Implications are offered.

  10. The Empathy Index: An Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of a New Empathy Measure for Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Melissa D.; Rose, Roderick A.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the analysis of the psychometric properties, including the validity and reliability, of the Empathy Index (EI), a new instrument designed to measure empathy deficits of sex offenders. The EI was tested with a sample of 158 sex offenders incarcerated in North Carolina prisons. An exploratory factor analysis yielded three…

  11. 45 CFR 2540.203 - When must I conduct a State criminal registry check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? 2540.203... National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? (a) The State criminal... enrolls in, or is hired by, your program on or after October 1, 2009. (b) The National Sex Offender...

  12. 45 CFR 2540.203 - When must I conduct a State criminal registry check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? 2540.203... National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? (a) The State criminal... enrolls in, or is hired by, your program on or after October 1, 2009. (b) The National Sex Offender...

  13. 45 CFR 2540.203 - When must I conduct a State criminal registry check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? 2540.203... National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? (a) The State criminal... enrolls in, or is hired by, your program on or after October 1, 2009. (b) The National Sex Offender...

  14. Formulating a Serious-Games Design Project for Adult Offenders with the Probation Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Matthew Ian; Brown, David; Cranton, Wayne; Lewis, James

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents an investigation evaluating if adult offenders can benefit from a facilitated serious-games design project as part of their probation program. Research has observed a participatory design group of adult offenders working with their probation managers and a PhD researcher to create a new serious-game for use by the probation…

  15. An application of the rational choice approach to the offending process of sex offenders: a closer look at the decision-making.

    PubMed

    Beauregard, Eric; Leclerc, Benoît

    2007-06-01

    Although the study of both offense processes and implicit theories provides in-depth knowledge about the decision-making of sex offenders, these studies focus solely on the internal psychological processes of the offender leading to the commission of a sexual assault. These studies neglect to look specifically at the offender's decision-making during the offense in interaction with the immediate situations encountered at the offense scene, such as the choices of behavior while interacting with the victim in a specific context. Based on a rational choice approach, this study investigates the decision-making involved in the offending process of 69 serial sexual offenders who have committed their crimes against stranger victims. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with offenders in order to identify the rationale behind their actions during the pre-crime phase (premeditation of the crime, estimation of risk of apprehension by the offender, and forensic awareness of the offender), crime phase (use of a weapon, use of restraints, use of a vehicle, and level of force used), and the post-crime phase (event leading to the end of crime and victim release site location choice). Results show that sex offenders, even if traditionally described as "irrational" and impulsive individuals, are capable, up to a certain point, of an analysis of the costs/benefits related to their actions. Moreover, results emphasize the important role of situational factors, such as victim resistance, on the decision-making process of sex offenders. Implications of the results are briefly discussed in regard of clinical practice and crime prevention.

  16. Perceptions of sex offenders about treatment: satisfaction and engagement in group therapy.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Macgowan, Mark J; Morin, John W; Cotter, Leo P

    2009-03-01

    Surveying the views of sex offender clients can help ensure that treatment is relevant and responsive to client needs. The purpose of this exploratory study is to elicit sex offender clients' perceptions of their experiences in treatment in order to better understand the components of treatment perceived to be helpful in preventing reoffense. Samples (N = 338) of male sex offenders in outpatient group therapy are found to be generally satisfied with treatment services and have positive perceptions of treatment effectiveness. Offenders in treatment value the role of group therapy, and they find accountability, victim empathy, relapse prevention, and "good lives" concepts to be most helpful in managing their behavior. Their engagement in group therapy is assessed using the Group Engagement Measure, and a positive correlation is found between engagement and treatment satisfaction. Eliciting client opinions about the helpfulness of program content and process, and adjusting treatment protocols accordingly, is consistant with the principles of risk, need, and responsivity, a model recommended for therapeutic interventions with criminal offenders.

  17. An Integrated Groupwork Methodology for Working with Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Andrew; Ware, Jayson; Boer, Douglas P.

    2009-01-01

    There is now a considerable literature on the assessment and treatment of sexual offenders. There exists another substantial literature on therapeutic groupwork and its relevance to a range of clinical populations. These bodies of work have made reference to the other in terms of their mutual relevance. However, there has been no comprehensive…

  18. Variables Associated with Treatment Failure among Adolescent Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Brenda J.

    2005-01-01

    While an adolescent sexual offender's response to treatment is thought to be impacted by both static and dynamic factors, there is no objective method of assessing the likelihood of success or failure in treatment. The assessment of amenability to treatment is generally a subjective process completed by clinicians in the field. Using descriptive…

  19. The impact of polygraphy on admissions of victims and offenses in adult sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Ahlmeyer, S; Heil, P; McKee, B; English, K

    2000-04-01

    Sexual offenders are extremely reluctant to disclose their offending histories for a variety of psychosocial and legal reasons. The polygraph has shown promise as a intervention for eliciting admissions of past sexual offending behaviors. For 60 adult male sexual offender (35 inmates and 25 parolees), the number of victims and offenses were recorded from the Presentence Investigative Report, Sexual History Disclosure form, and 2 consecutive polygraph examination reports. Dramatic increases in the number of admitted victims and offenses were found for inmates, but not for parolees, across each source. However, there was a substantial decline in the number of victim and offense admissions by the second polygraph examination for both groups, even though 80% of the examination results reveled deception about sexual offending behaviors. Standardized use of sanctions and privileges for deceptive and nondeceptive polygraph results, respectively, are proposed as a way of eliciting full disclosure of offending histories for these offenders. PMID:10872241

  20. Assessment and treatment of sex offenders: the Prince of Wales Programme.

    PubMed

    McConaghy, N

    1990-06-01

    The treatment programme for sex offenders at the Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, is described. Penile circumference assessment is not used as there is no evidence it provides a valid measure of individuals' paedophile or rapist tendencies. Sex offenders' self-reports remain the major source of information in their assessment. The development of the two major techniques used--imaginal desensitization and short-term medroxyprogesterone--is outlined. About 80% of subjects can be expected to show a good response to one or other of these therapies. Of those who do not, most respond to the alternative or aversive therapy. Adolescent offenders appear to require more intensive treatment. Results appear comparable with those of more intensive programmes in use overseas.

  1. Masturbation prohibition in sex offenders: a crossover study.

    PubMed

    Brown, C M; Traverso, G; Fedoroff, J P

    1996-08-01

    Some self-help groups for individuals with aberrant sexual interests (e.g., Sexaholics Anonymous and Sex and Love Addicts Anonymous) maintain that a period of "sexual sobriety" is necessary for treatment. The hypothesis was tested that sexual urges during a 30-day period of voluntary abstinence from masturbation would be less frequent and intense than during a period when masturbation was not avoided. Outpatient pedophiles were randomly assigned to either refrain from masturbating or make no attempt to alter their masturbation frequency for a period of 30 days. All participants were crossed over to the other treatment condition at the start of the 2nd month. Sexual urges and behavior were measured using weekly self-reports. A repeated measures ANOVA failed to show a difference in reported intensity of sexual urges, F(7, 91) = 1.15, p = 0.34; masturbation urges, F(7, 91) = 1.73, p = 0.11; adult sex urges, F(7, 91) = 1.82, p = 0.09; or child sex urges, F(7, 91) = 1.58, p = 0.15, in Masturbation Allowed vs. Masturbation Not Allowed conditions. Of 17 participants, 3 (18%) were able to retain completely from masturbating for 1 month, 4 participants (25%) thought it was helpful not to masturbate; 1 participant (7%) thought therapists should recommend avoidance of masturbation. This study suggests that sexual sobriety from masturbation does not aid in the control of pedophilic fantasies. This may be because the technique is ineffective, or because so few participants are willing to engage in it.

  2. Child Pornography Possessors and Child Contact Sex Offenders: A Multilevel Comparison of Demographic Characteristics and Rates of Recidivism.

    PubMed

    Faust, Erik; Bickart, William; Renaud, Cheryl; Camp, Scott

    2015-10-01

    Considerable debate surrounds the topic of whether possessing or distributing online images of child pornography (CP) represents a new type of crime perpetrated by conventional sex offenders (e.g., child contact [CC] sex offenders), or whether individuals who commit these crimes differ from contact sex offenders in meaningful ways. The current study compares groups of Internet (CP) and CC sexual offenders, with each group's sexual offending history exclusively confined to its offense category. T tests were used to conduct bivariate comparisons of group demographics and criminal histories. Rates of recidivism were examined using survival curves and Cox proportional hazard regression models. Results showed significant differences on demographic and criminal history variables, with CP offenders demonstrating a lower frequency of prior criminal offending and substance abuse, and higher rates of pre-incarceration employment and level of education. Rates of recidivism were significantly different between the two groups, with CP offenders showing lower rates of re-offense for most measures of recidivism. When controlling for background characteristics and the timing of the event, CC offenders were at much greater risk for having an arrest for a new crime or a non-sexual violent crime than CP offenders. Treatment and policy implications are discussed, along with suggestions for future research. PMID:24556314

  3. Child Pornography Possessors and Child Contact Sex Offenders: A Multilevel Comparison of Demographic Characteristics and Rates of Recidivism.

    PubMed

    Faust, Erik; Bickart, William; Renaud, Cheryl; Camp, Scott

    2015-10-01

    Considerable debate surrounds the topic of whether possessing or distributing online images of child pornography (CP) represents a new type of crime perpetrated by conventional sex offenders (e.g., child contact [CC] sex offenders), or whether individuals who commit these crimes differ from contact sex offenders in meaningful ways. The current study compares groups of Internet (CP) and CC sexual offenders, with each group's sexual offending history exclusively confined to its offense category. T tests were used to conduct bivariate comparisons of group demographics and criminal histories. Rates of recidivism were examined using survival curves and Cox proportional hazard regression models. Results showed significant differences on demographic and criminal history variables, with CP offenders demonstrating a lower frequency of prior criminal offending and substance abuse, and higher rates of pre-incarceration employment and level of education. Rates of recidivism were significantly different between the two groups, with CP offenders showing lower rates of re-offense for most measures of recidivism. When controlling for background characteristics and the timing of the event, CC offenders were at much greater risk for having an arrest for a new crime or a non-sexual violent crime than CP offenders. Treatment and policy implications are discussed, along with suggestions for future research.

  4. Dissociation and variability of adult attachment dimensions and early maladaptive schemas in sexual and violent offenders.

    PubMed

    Baker, Elina; Beech, Anthony R

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of constructs that may indicate the presence of disorganized attachment style in sexual and violent offenders. Constructs measured were dissociation, variability on self-report measures of attachment style and early maladaptive schemas, and variability in observed behavior. Data on variability was collected at four time intervals, approximately 3 weeks apart. No differences between the groups were found in variability of self-reported attachment style. Both offending groups showed greater variability in early schemas and higher levels of dissociation than the nonoffending group. Sex offenders showed greater variability than violent offenders in behaviors related to distress.

  5. The American Bar Association and Legislatively Mandated Treatment for Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallone, Nathanial J.

    1991-01-01

    Offers historical overview of "criminal sexual psychopath" legislation, which customarily prescribes confinement for treatment (rather than incarceration for punishment) for offenders whose sex crimes are attributed to sexual psychopathology. Discusses desire of American Bar Association and Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry to repeal extant…

  6. Supporting Every Child: School Counselors' Perceptions of Juvenile Sex Offenders in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Leann Wyrick; McClendon, Levi S.; McCarty, Jenna; Zinck, Kirk

    2016-01-01

    Researchers explored the attitudes and concerns of professional school counselors in their roles in working with juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) who attend school. Little empirical data exist regarding school counselors' roles in effectively engaging and supporting JSOs toward school success. Focus groups contributed to the consensual qualitative…

  7. 76 FR 1630 - Supplemental Guidelines for Sex Offender Registration and Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... Notification, 73 FR 38030, on July 2, 2008. The SORNA standards are administered by the Office of Sex Offender... completed these efforts. See 42 U.S.C. 16945; 73 FR at 38044, 38047-48. Since the publication of the SORNA..., at 75 FR 27362. The public comment period closed on July 13, 2010. Following consideration of...

  8. Web Systems Help Schools Screen Visitors: Officials Responding to Increased Fears About Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports, that in a growing number of districts, school leaders are ranking the threat of sex offenders-some of them the parents of enrolled students--as one of their chief student-safety concerns. That threat, they say, is a primary reason for investing thousands of dollars in a Web-based tracking system that tells school officials if…

  9. Predicting recidivism in sex offenders with the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS).

    PubMed

    Walters, Glenn D; Deming, Adam; Casbon, Todd

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) was capable of predicting recidivism in 322 male sex offenders released from prison-based sex offender programs in a Midwestern state. The Static-99R and PICTS General Criminal Thinking (GCT), Reactive (R), and Entitlement (En) scores all correlated significantly with general recidivism, the Static-99R correlated significantly with violent recidivism, and the Static-99R score and PICTS GCT, Proactive (P), and En scores correlated significantly with failure to register as a sex offender (FTR) recidivism. Area under the curve effect size estimates varied from small to large, and Cox regression analyses revealed that the PICTS En score achieved incremental validity relative to the Static-99R in predicting general recidivism and the PICTS GCT, P, and En scores achieved incremental validity relative to the Static-99R in predicting FTR recidivism. It is speculated that the PICTS in general and the En scale in particular may have utility in risk management and treatment planning for sex offenders by virtue of their focus on antisocial thinking.

  10. Concept Mapping Professionals' Perceptions of Reward and Motive in Providing Sex Offender Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadambi, Michaela; Truscott, Derek

    2006-01-01

    Concept mapping (a combined qualitative/quantitative approach) was used to clarify the domain, composition, and underlying structure of 82 Canadian professionals' experiences of reward in their work with sex offenders. Seven thematic clusters were identified: Protection of Potential Victims, Socially Meaningful Curiosity, Enjoyment of Counselling,…

  11. Effectively Utilizing the "Behavioral" in Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy of Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Jerry L.; Deming, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is touted as the predominant approach in sex offender-specific group treatment, a review of the field shows that the "behavioral" part of CBT has become minimal in relation to that which is cognitive. The authors show how a revitalized "behavioral sensibility" may help to enhance…

  12. Ethical practice in sex offender assessment: consideration of actuarial and polygraph methods.

    PubMed

    Vess, James

    2011-09-01

    The current generation of community protection laws represents a shift in priorities that may see the individual rights of sex offenders compromised for the goal of public safety. At the center of many judicial decisions under these laws are the risk assessment reports provided by mental health practitioners. The widespread enactment of laws allowing for additional sanctions for sex offenders, and a burgeoning research literature regarding the methods used to assess risk have served to heighten rather than resolve the ethical concerns associated with professional practice in this area. This article examines ethical issues inherent in the use of two assessment methods commonly used with sex offenders in the correctional context, focusing on actuarial measures and polygraph tests. Properly conducted and adequately reported actuarial findings are considered to provide useful information of sufficient accuracy to inform rather than mislead judicial decision makers, although careful consideration must be given to the limitations of current measures in each individual case. Despite its increasing use, polygraph testing is considered controversial, with little consensus regarding its accuracy or appropriate applications. On the basis of the current state of the professional literature regarding the polygraph, its use with sex offenders raises unresolved ethical concerns.

  13. Even Highly Correlated Measures Can Add Incrementally to Predicting Recidivism among Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babchishin, Kelly M.; Hanson, R. Karl; Helmus, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    Criterion-referenced measures, such as those used in the assessment of crime and violence, prioritize predictive accuracy (discrimination) at the expense of construct validity. In this article, we compared the discrimination and incremental validity of three commonly used criterion-referenced measures for sex offenders (Rapid Risk Assessment for…

  14. Sex Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities and Their Academic Observers: Popular Methodologies and Research Interests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollomotz, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over the past two decades, disability activists and scholars have developed research paradigms that aim to place (some of the) control over the research process in the hands of disabled people. This paper discusses the appropriateness of applying such paradigms to sex offenders with intellectual disabilities (ID). It exposes to what…

  15. Treating Juveniles in a Sex Offender Program Using Adventure-Based Programming: A Matched Group Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, H. L.; Gass, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Ninety-five male juvenile sex offenders in an adventure-based behavior management program (LEGACY) were matched with male juveniles in state treatment-as-usual and other specialized programs in the same state to determine program effectiveness (as measured by rearrest rates). The LEGACY program demonstrated significant treatment effectiveness on…

  16. The Incidence of Depressive Symptomatology in Juvenile Sex Offenders with a History of Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Judith V.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Depressive symptomatology was assessed in 246 male juvenile sex offenders. Scores on the Beck Depression Inventory indicated 42 percent showed appreciable depressive symptomatology. A history of sexual or physical abuse was related to high Beck scores. Racial differences were not statistically significant. (Author/DB)

  17. The Efficacy of County-Level Sex Offender Residence Restrictions in New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Socia, Kelly M.

    2012-01-01

    Residence restrictions seek to protect community members from registered sex offenders (RSOs) reentering society following incarceration. These policies, first passed in 1995 at the state level and in 2005 at the county and local levels, have become extremely popular throughout the United States but without proof that they are effective. To date,…

  18. The North Carolina Online Sex Offender Registry: Awareness and Utilization by Childcare Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Jennifer L.; Malesky, L. Alvin, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined childcare providers' usage of the North Carolina Sex Offender and Public Protection Registry. One hundred twenty three childcare providers in 76 counties in North Carolina were surveyed via telephone interview about their utilization of the registry Web site. Responses revealed that most providers knew about the registry…

  19. Conceptualizing Sex Offender Denial from a Multifaceted Framework: Investigating the Psychometric Qualities of a New Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Sandy; Daniels, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the psychometric properties of a clinician-rated measure of sex offender denial. Convergent and discriminant validity for the measure was supported, and given its relationship to treatment attitudes, the measure demonstrated utility for assessing treatment change and readiness. (Contains 3 tables.)

  20. Predictors of Support for Juvenile Sex Offender Registration: Educated Individuals Recognize the Flaws of Juvenile Registration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Margaret C.; Smith, Amy C.; Sekely, Ady; Farnum, Katlyn S.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated demographic predictors of support for juvenile sex offender registration policies, including education level, gender, political orientation, and age. Participants were 168 individuals recruited from public places in a Midwest community (45% women; M age = 42). In line with hypotheses, as education level increased, support for…

  1. Ethical practice in sex offender assessment: consideration of actuarial and polygraph methods.

    PubMed

    Vess, James

    2011-09-01

    The current generation of community protection laws represents a shift in priorities that may see the individual rights of sex offenders compromised for the goal of public safety. At the center of many judicial decisions under these laws are the risk assessment reports provided by mental health practitioners. The widespread enactment of laws allowing for additional sanctions for sex offenders, and a burgeoning research literature regarding the methods used to assess risk have served to heighten rather than resolve the ethical concerns associated with professional practice in this area. This article examines ethical issues inherent in the use of two assessment methods commonly used with sex offenders in the correctional context, focusing on actuarial measures and polygraph tests. Properly conducted and adequately reported actuarial findings are considered to provide useful information of sufficient accuracy to inform rather than mislead judicial decision makers, although careful consideration must be given to the limitations of current measures in each individual case. Despite its increasing use, polygraph testing is considered controversial, with little consensus regarding its accuracy or appropriate applications. On the basis of the current state of the professional literature regarding the polygraph, its use with sex offenders raises unresolved ethical concerns. PMID:20944058

  2. Doing cognitive distortions: a discursive psychology analysis of sex offender treatment talk.

    PubMed

    Auburn, Timothy; Lea, Susan

    2003-06-01

    Theories of sex offending have for several years relied upon the notion of cognitive distortions as an important cause of sexual offending. In this study we critique this notion and suggest that the sort of phenomenon addressed by cognitive distortions is better understood by adopting a discursive psychology approach. In this approach, talk is regarded as occasioned and action oriented. Thus 'cognitive distortions' are conceptualized as something people do rather than something that people have. Sessions from a prison-based sex offender treatment programme were taped and transcribed. A discursive psychology analysis was conducted on those sessions relating to offenders' first accounts of their offences. Our analysis suggests that offenders utilize a particular narrative organization to manage their blame and responsibility for the offence. This organization is based on a first part which is oriented to quotidian precursors to the offence and an immediately following second which is oriented to a sudden shift in the definition of the situation. The implications of this analysis are discussed, in relation to the status of cognitive distortions and treatment. PMID:12869249

  3. Doing cognitive distortions: a discursive psychology analysis of sex offender treatment talk.

    PubMed

    Auburn, Timothy; Lea, Susan

    2003-06-01

    Theories of sex offending have for several years relied upon the notion of cognitive distortions as an important cause of sexual offending. In this study we critique this notion and suggest that the sort of phenomenon addressed by cognitive distortions is better understood by adopting a discursive psychology approach. In this approach, talk is regarded as occasioned and action oriented. Thus 'cognitive distortions' are conceptualized as something people do rather than something that people have. Sessions from a prison-based sex offender treatment programme were taped and transcribed. A discursive psychology analysis was conducted on those sessions relating to offenders' first accounts of their offences. Our analysis suggests that offenders utilize a particular narrative organization to manage their blame and responsibility for the offence. This organization is based on a first part which is oriented to quotidian precursors to the offence and an immediately following second which is oriented to a sudden shift in the definition of the situation. The implications of this analysis are discussed, in relation to the status of cognitive distortions and treatment.

  4. Treatment of sex offenders with Depo-Provera.

    PubMed

    Kiersch, T A

    1990-01-01

    Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) is capable of reducing male testosterone blood levels with a corresponding reduction in sexual interest and activity. An attempt to evaluate its effectiveness with court committed sexual offenders was made with eight subjects each serving as his own control by alternating Depo-Provera injections for 16 weeks with saline injections for a corresponding 16 weeks. This paper reports the results of this study and the conclusions that appear to be appropriate.

  5. The Influence of a Juvenile’s Abuse History on Support for Sex Offender Registration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether and how a juvenile’s history of experiencing sexual abuse affects public perceptions of juvenile sex offenders in a series of 5 studies. When asked about juvenile sex offenders in an abstract manner (Studies 1 and 2), the more participants (community members and undergraduates) believed that a history of being sexually abused as a child causes later sexually abusive behavior, the less likely they were to support sex offender registration for juveniles. Yet when participants considered specific sexual offenses, a juvenile’s history of sexual abuse was not considered to be a mitigating factor. This was true when participants considered a severe sexual offense (forced rape; Study 3 and Study 4) and a case involving less severe sexual offenses (i.e., statutory rape), when a juvenile’s history of sexual abuse backfired and was used as an aggravating factor, increasing support for registering the offender (Study 3 and Study 5). Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:26074717

  6. Public attitudes toward sex offenders and their relationship to personality traits and demographic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Olver, Mark E; Barlow, Ashley A

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined public attitudes toward the sentencing, treatment, management, and perceived dangerousness of sex offenders. Seventy-eight university undergraduates completed a 25-item attitude toward sex offenders survey developed for the present study, along with a five-factor measure of personality (NEO Personality Inventory - Revised), a demographic questionnaire, and the Paulhus Deception Scale, to control for social desirability. While participants most frequently endorsed the belief that sentences were not sufficiently severe, they tended to espouse treatment and risk management alternatives to longer sentences and eschewed exceptionally severe punishments (e.g., surgical castration). Participants estimated high rates of sexual recidivism (59%), although they also estimated significantly lower recidivism rates for treated offenders. Results of a principle components analysis suggested that participant attitudes comprised two broad domains: systems attitudes (e.g., law enforcement, corrections, justice) and rehabilitative attitudes. Although few demographic differences emerged in participant attitudes, 'openness to experience' and 'agreeableness' each significantly predicted more rehabilitative attitudes, while contrary to expectations, 'extraversion' was significantly associated with more negative systems-related attitudes. The results provide support that personality traits may be linked to important social attitudes, including those toward sex offenders.

  7. Sex Differences in Trajectories of Offending among Puerto Rican Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Wesley G.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Bird, Hector; Canino, Glorisa

    2010-01-01

    Although sex is one of the strongest correlates of crime, contentions remain regarding the necessity of sex-specific theories of crime. The current study examines delinquent trajectories across sex among Puerto Rican youth socialized in two different cultural contexts (Bronx, United States; and San Juan, Puerto Rico). Results indicate similar…

  8. Vocational Education and Training for Adult Prisoners and Offenders in Australia. Research Readings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawe, Susan, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book of research readings provides clear evidence that adult prisoners and offenders who participate in vocational education and training (VET) during their sentence are less likely to re-offend. A reduction in recidivism represents significant cost savings to the community. The book highlights recent improvements in the delivery of VET for…

  9. Vocational Education and Training for Adult Prisoners and Offenders in Australia: Research Readings. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Justice

    2007-01-01

    This book of research readings provides clear evidence that adult prisoners and offenders who participate in vocational education and training (VET) during their sentence are less likely to re-offend. A reduction in recidivism represents significant cost savings to the community. The book highlights recent improvements in the delivery of VET for…

  10. Relationship between Parenting and Cognitive Schemas in a Group of Male Adult Offenders.

    PubMed

    Pellerone, Monica; Craparo, Giuseppe; Tornabuoni, Ylenia

    2016-01-01

    This work analyzes the correlation of retrospective ratings on parental binding with cognitive patterns in the inmates for property crimes. The participant group comprehended 248 adults men, including 130 marked out as offenders (the target group), aged between 19 and 70, currently serving sentences in the Cavadonna prison in Siracusa, and 118 marked out as non-offenders (the control group), aged between 20 and 70, living in Siracusa (Sicily). The instruments used were the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), and the Young Schema Questionnaire-3 (YSQ). The preliminary analysis showed a high percentage of offenders who experienced an affectionate constraint parenting. Offenders scored significantly higher than the non-offenders on the level of paternal control and the YSQ subscales. The study underlines the influence of maternal care on most of the cognitive schemas, and the role of father's control on the tendency to social isolation and defectiveness in the offenders. PMID:27014121

  11. Relationship between Parenting and Cognitive Schemas in a Group of Male Adult Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Pellerone, Monica; Craparo, Giuseppe; Tornabuoni, Ylenia

    2016-01-01

    This work analyzes the correlation of retrospective ratings on parental binding with cognitive patterns in the inmates for property crimes. The participant group comprehended 248 adults men, including 130 marked out as offenders (the target group), aged between 19 and 70, currently serving sentences in the Cavadonna prison in Siracusa, and 118 marked out as non-offenders (the control group), aged between 20 and 70, living in Siracusa (Sicily). The instruments used were the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), and the Young Schema Questionnaire-3 (YSQ). The preliminary analysis showed a high percentage of offenders who experienced an affectionate constraint parenting. Offenders scored significantly higher than the non-offenders on the level of paternal control and the YSQ subscales. The study underlines the influence of maternal care on most of the cognitive schemas, and the role of father's control on the tendency to social isolation and defectiveness in the offenders. PMID:27014121

  12. The Effectiveness of Aftercare for Juvenile and Young Adult Offenders.

    PubMed

    James, Chrissy; Asscher, Jessica J; Stams, Geert Jan J M; van der Laan, Peter H

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the New Perspectives Aftercare Program (NPAP) for serious juvenile and young adult offenders in The Netherlands. Participants (n = 127) were randomly assigned to NPAP (n = 66) or existing aftercare services ("treatment as usual" [TAU], n = 61). The aim was to determine whether NPAP was effective in decreasing cognitive distortions and criminal thinking patterns and increasing prosocial skills of the juveniles compared with TAU. No direct intervention effects were found on any of the outcome measures. Moderator analyses, however, showed several interaction effects of ethnicity and coping skills for both NPAP and TAU youths. Furthermore, NPAP dropouts displayed significantly more indirect aggression at posttest compared with youths dropping out from TAU. Possible explanations for the mostly null effects are discussed, including implications for further research, policy, and practice.

  13. Sadistic personality disorder in sex offenders: relationship to antisocial personality disorder and sexual sadism.

    PubMed

    Berger, P; Berner, W; Bolterauer, J; Gutierrez, K; Berger, K

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the relationship of sadistic personality disorder (SPD), as defined in the appendix of DSM-III-R, to other personality disorders and to sexual sadism, 70 sex offenders (27 child molesters, 33 rapists, and 10 murderers) were assessed by the International Personality Disorder Examination. In 19 subjects (27.2%) from the total sample, SPD was diagnosed. The highest overlap appeared with borderline personality disorder (31.6%) and antisocial personality disorder (42.1%). However, in four cases SPD was the only personality disorder diagnosed. Factor analysis of the antisocial and sadistic criteria resulted in four major factors--one factor with high loadings on the sadistic criteria and the violent criteria of antisocial personality disorder, two factors with different forms of adult and juvenile aggression, and a fourth factor with high loadings on the antisocial criteria covering exploitative behavior. The results do not support SPD as a discrete disorder. Nevertheless, SPD may be seen as an important subdimension of antisocial personality disorder, distinct from more exploitative forms of antisocial behavior with less violence. Of those patients with SPD, 42.1% also had a DSM-III-R diagnosis of sexual sadism, which may be the most dangerous configuration.

  14. Unguided clinical and actuarial assessment of re-offending risk: a direct comparison with sex offenders in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Bengtson, Susanne; Långström, Niklas

    2007-06-01

    Meta-analyses suggest that actuarial risk assessments outperform unguided clinical judgment for prediction of recidivism in criminal offenders. However, there is a lack of direct comparisons of the predictive accuracy of clinical judgment and actuarial risk scales for sexual offenders. We followed up 121 male sex offenders (> or =18 years) subjected to pre-trial forensic psychiatric assessment in Denmark in 1978-1992 (mean post-detainment time = 16.4 years) to compare the predictive validity of unstructured clinical judgment of recidivism risk with that of the well-established Static-99 (Hanson and Thornton, Law and Human Behavior 24:119-136, 2000) and an extension of the Static-99, the Static-2002 (Hanson and Thornton, Notes on the development of Static-2002 (Rep. No. 2003-01), Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 2003). The predictive accuracy of unguided judgment did not exceed chance for any sexual, severe sexual or any violent (sexual or non-sexual) reconviction (AUCs of the ROC curve = 0.52, 95%CI = 0.41-0.63; 0.50, 95%CI = 0.34-0.67; and 0.57, 95%CI = 0.40-0.73, respectively). In contrast, all three outcomes were predicted significantly better than chance by the Static-99 (AUC = 0.62, 95%CI = 0.52-0.72; 0.72, 95%CI = 0.59-0.84; and 0.71, 95%CI = 0.56-0.86) and the Static-2002 (AUC = 0.67, 95%CI = 0.57-0.77; 0.69, 95%CI = 0.56-0.83; and 0.70, 95%CI = 0.55-0.86). Static-99 outperformed clinical judgment for sexual recidivision (chi(2) = 5.11, df = 1, p < .05). The Static-2002 was significantly more accurate for the prediction of any sexual recidivism as compared to unguided clinical judgment but its advantage fell just short of statistical significance for severe sexual recidivism (chi(2) = 3.56, df = 1, p = 0.06). When tested for recidivism within 2 years, none of the three prediction methods yielded results significantly better than chance for any outcome. This direct trial of the unguided clinical method argues against its

  15. Predicting relapse for Catholic clergy sex offenders: the use of the static-99.

    PubMed

    Montana, Stephen; Thompson, Gary; Ellsworth, Peter; Lagan, Hugh; Helmus, Leslie; Rhoades, Colin J

    2012-12-01

    The Static-99 is an instrument commonly used to measure the likelihood of recidivism among sex offenders. The current study explores whether the Static-99 is an effective predictor of relapse among Catholic clergy who have had sexual contact with minors. Static-99 scores were compiled for 337 treated clergy who had offended against minors, including 21 who were known to have relapsed after treatment. Clergy were followed up for 5 to 25 years posttreatment (M = 16.05; SD = 5.12) after their completion of treatment. Post release, they were closely supervised, with explicit rules limiting their contacts with minors and church officials monitoring their compliance with posttreatment plans. Descriptive information on the victims of clergy sex offenders is provided. Although all clergy offenders had the same score on 4 of the 10 Static-99 items, Static-99 total scores still significantly predicted relapse with a moderate to large effect size (area under the curve [AUC] = .672; Cohen's d = .808). Predictive accuracy of each item is also reported. Issues concerning the use of the Static-99 with this population are discussed. PMID:22593148

  16. Female Juvenile Sexual Offenders: Understanding Who They Are and Possible Steps That May Prevent Some Girls From Offending.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Brian E; Holmes, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been accumulating evidence that sexual abuse committed by females is not rare and can be just as traumatic as sexual abuse committed by males. Despite the increased recognition given to sex offending by adult women, however, very little attention has been given to sex offenses committed by juvenile females. There has further been very little published material that has focused specifically on intervening with female children and adolescents before they offend. In an attempt to fill this gap, this article describes common characteristics of juvenile female sex offenders, ways in which juvenile female sex offenders are similar to and different from juvenile male sex offenders, and the limitations that exist related to our knowledge about these offenders. Based on this information, suggestions are given for possible ways to intervene in the lives of at-risk female youth before they offend. PMID:26340075

  17. Treatment retention in a prison-based residential sex offender treatment program.

    PubMed

    Pelissier, Bernadette

    2007-12-01

    This study assessed the role of static factors, a dynamic factor (motivation to change sexually deviant behavior), and an administrative factor in predicting treatment retention within a prison-based sex offender treatment program. The analyses also included assessing differences in initial levels of motivation and differences in beginning-versus end-of-treatment motivation scores for various types of program discharges. The sample consisted of 251 individuals who were admitted to a residential prison-based sex offender treatment program where 46% completed the program. Paired comparison t-tests showed higher motivation scores at the end of treatment only among treatment completers. Multivariate analyses showed that treatment retention was associated with higher initial motivation scores, higher levels of education and admission to treatment within 3 months of initial commitment to prison. Implications for motivational enhancement programming as well as for changes in admission criteria are discussed.

  18. A consumer satisfaction survey of civilly committed sex offenders in Illinois.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Prescott, David S; Jumper, Shan

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain feedback from civilly committed sex offenders (N = 113) about the components of treatment that they believed to be most important and helpful in preventing reoffense. Participants were also asked to rate their satisfaction with the treatment process and therapists. Victim empathy and accountability were rated as the most important elements of treatment, along with skills for preventing relapse and methods for controlling sexual arousal. There was a fairly robust correlation between client perceptions of importance and satisfaction on most treatment components. Some clients expressed concerns about respect, confidentiality, and judgmental attitudes of some therapists. Because civilly committed sex offenders are considered to be among the most likely to reoffend, strategies are discussed for engagement of this population in a meaningful process of change.

  19. Sex offender registration and community notification challenges: the Supreme Court continues its trend.

    PubMed

    Scott, Charles L; Gerbasi, Joan B

    2003-01-01

    All states and the District of Columbia have passed sex offender registration and community notification laws. While the specific provisions of these statutes vary, all have public safety as a primary goal. The authors discuss two recent cases heard by the United States Supreme Court that challenged the constitutionality of Alaska's and Connecticut's statutes. The laws were challenged as violations of the United States Constitution's prohibition on ex post facto laws and its Fourteenth Amendment guarantee of procedural due process. In both cases, the statutes were upheld. As it has found in challenges to sexually violent predator statutes, the Court emphasized that the registration and community notification schemes are civil and not criminal in nature. The article concludes with a discussion of possible implications for clinicians involved in evaluating or treating sex offenders. PMID:14974805

  20. A descriptive profile of high-risk sex offenders under intensive supervision in the province of British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lussier, Patrick; Deslauriers-Varin, Nadine; Râtel, Tricia

    2010-02-01

    This study provides a preliminary descriptive profile of individuals having been issued an 810 recognizance order (i.e., peace bond). This preventive order is issued to individuals in the community considered by the court to be high-risk sex offenders. In total, 88 offenders were issued an 810.1 (at risk of sexual offence against a child) or an 810.2 (at risk of a personal injury offence) recognizance order between April 2006 and February 2008, among whom 59 sex offenders were included. The sociodemographics, risk profiles, and recidivism of offenders under the orders were analyzed. Two risk assessment tools, the Static-99 and the Stable, were used to describe this population. Comparisons were made between sex offenders under 810.1 and 810.2 orders. Preliminary analyses suggest that these men are heterogeneous in terms of their level of risk of reoffending. Only one offender sexually reoffended while under the order. On the other hand, the general recidivism rate was about 30%, with many breaching the conditions of their order. The findings are discussed in light of the community risk management of high-risk sex offenders. PMID:18923153

  1. A Systematic Review of Behavioral Health Interventions for Sex Offenders With Intellectual Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Marotta, Phillip L.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews evaluation studies of programs designed to treat sex offenders with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) published in peer-reviewed journals between 1994 and 2014. The design of this study is mirrored after PRISMA (Preferred Reporting of Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) recommendations for conducting a systematic literature review. The study design, study setting, characteristics of participants, type of treatment, and intervention procedures comprise areas of focus for evaluating the implementation of treatment programs. Therapeutic outcomes include changes in attitudes consistent with sex offending, victim empathy, sexual knowledge, cognitive distortions, and problem sexual behaviors. Eighteen treatment evaluation studies were identified from the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand. Cognitive-behavioral treatments were the most commonly delivered treatment modality to sex offenders with IDD. Other less common treatments were dialectical behavioral therapy, problem solving therapy, mindfulness, and relapse prevention. No randomized controlled trials were identified. The most common designs were multiple case studies and pre- and post-treatment assessments with no control and repeated measures follow-up. Small sample sizes, no control groups, and wide variation in treatment length and follow-up time complicate the qualitative synthesis of study findings. Short follow-up times introduce the potential for bias in conclusions surrounding treatment efficacy for many of the studies reviewed in this analysis. The overall quality of studies examining treatments for sex offenders with IDD is poor and requires further development before rendering firm conclusions about the effectiveness of interventions for this population. PMID:25667227

  2. Risk and Criminogenic Needs of Youth Who Sexually Offended in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Gerald; Chu, Chi Meng; Koh, Li Lian; Teoh, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    An increasing amount of research has been carried out to understand the characteristics of subgroups of adult sex offenders, but there is limited research into the risk factors and criminogenic needs of subgroups of youth who sexually offended. The current study investigated if there were differences in the risk and criminogenic needs of 167 Singaporean youth who sexually offended based on two typologies - youth who offended both sexually and nonsexually versus youth who offended only sexually, and youth who offended against child victims versus youth who offended against nonchild victims. Results show that youth who offended both sexually and nonsexually were found to have higher risk and criminogenic needs as compared to youth who only sexually offended. In addition, youth who offended against child victims were found to have higher numbers of previous sexual assaults as compared to youth who offended against nonchild victims. These differences have implications for the management and intervention of youth who sexually offended. PMID:24503949

  3. Risk and Criminogenic Needs of Youth Who Sexually Offended in Singapore: An Examination of Two Typologies.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Gerald; Chu, Chi Meng; Koh, Li Lian; Teoh, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    An increasing amount of research has been carried out to understand the characteristics of subgroups of adult sex offenders, but there is limited research into the risk factors and criminogenic needs of subgroups of youth who sexually offended. The current study investigated if there were differences in the risk and criminogenic needs of 167 Singaporean youth who sexually offended based on two typologies - youth who offended both sexually and nonsexually versus youth who offended only sexually, and youth who offended against child victims versus youth who offended against nonchild victims. Results show that youth who offended both sexually and nonsexually were found to have higher risk and criminogenic needs as compared to youth who only sexually offended. In addition, youth who offended against child victims were found to have higher numbers of previous sexual assaults as compared to youth who offended against nonchild victims. These differences have implications for the management and intervention of youth who sexually offended. PMID:24503949

  4. Parole officers' experiences of the symptoms of secondary trauma in the supervision of sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Severson, Margaret; Pettus-Davis, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    The work of parole officers who supervise sex offenders rarely comes to the public's attention unless something goes wrong. Research suggests that those providing postrelease supervision of convicted sex offenders likely experience trauma as a result of their work and that little support is available to respond to their emotional needs. This manuscript explores parole officers' and parole officer supervisors' experiences of the symptoms of secondary trauma, defined as the emotional and cognitive experiences of hearing stories that recount one or more traumatic events. The qualitative study described here builds on existing literature by providing a detailed exploration, presented in their own words, of the experiences of specialist parole officers, about how they cope with the symptoms of secondary trauma, and about what they need to help them continue to do the job that the public and the politic want done well. Recognizing and understanding the symptoms of secondary trauma among supervising officers have important implications for maintaining a healthy workforce and for providing effective management of sex offenders in the community.

  5. Juvenile group sex offenders: a comparison of group leaders and followers.

    PubMed

    't Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette A; Vermeiren, Robert R J M; Jansen, Lucres M C; Doreleijers, Theo A H

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate group sex offenses with regard to the role of leaders versus followers and to compare both groups on levels of psychopathology, intelligence, and psychosocial and offense-related characteristics. Eighty-nine adolescent group sex offenders (mean age = 14.9, SD = 1.4) referred by the police to the Dutch child protection agency were examined. Psychopathology, intelligence, and psychosocial and offense-related characteristics were assessed by means of standardized instruments, and criminal careers of the participants were ascertained from official judicial records. Although leaders and followers were similar on many characteristics, some remarkable differences were found. During their sexual acts, followers reported using excessive force more frequently than leaders. Furthermore, leaders reported more emotional problems, whereas followers were characterized by higher levels of problems in the social relational domain. As the findings indicate that juvenile group sex offenders constitute a group with specific mental health needs, diagnostic investigation is important to recognize risk factors and (treatable) problems. The absence of some expected differences between leaders and followers could be due to the method of classification or because group offending constitutes a dynamic process without clearly defined roles for individuals.

  6. Child sex tourism: extending the borders of sexual offender legislation.

    PubMed

    Newman, William J; Holt, Ben W; Rabun, John S; Phillips, Gary; Scott, Charles L

    2011-01-01

    Child sex tourism, the act of traveling to engage in sexual acts with minors, plagues developing nations worldwide. Several laws have been passed internationally in recent years designed to curtail this practice. Government entities and human rights organizations have driven these efforts. United States citizens represent a significant proportion of participants in child sex tourism. The PROTECT Act of 2003 prohibits United States citizens from participating in sexual acts with minors while traveling, and establishes extraterritorial jurisdiction. The case of Michael Lewis Clark, the first United States citizen convicted under this legislation, is highlighted. Child sex tourism poses unique issues to courts that will require ongoing clarification as challenges arise. This article discusses potential future challenges, describes strategies to address this problem, and relates this issue to psychiatry. Mental health providers may have the role of evaluating both the victims and perpetrators of child sex tourism. The authors propose a classification system for offenses and an initial list of topics to discuss with victims. The authors also describe the proper mechanism for reporting United States citizens suspected of participating in child sex tourism.

  7. Child sex tourism: extending the borders of sexual offender legislation.

    PubMed

    Newman, William J; Holt, Ben W; Rabun, John S; Phillips, Gary; Scott, Charles L

    2011-01-01

    Child sex tourism, the act of traveling to engage in sexual acts with minors, plagues developing nations worldwide. Several laws have been passed internationally in recent years designed to curtail this practice. Government entities and human rights organizations have driven these efforts. United States citizens represent a significant proportion of participants in child sex tourism. The PROTECT Act of 2003 prohibits United States citizens from participating in sexual acts with minors while traveling, and establishes extraterritorial jurisdiction. The case of Michael Lewis Clark, the first United States citizen convicted under this legislation, is highlighted. Child sex tourism poses unique issues to courts that will require ongoing clarification as challenges arise. This article discusses potential future challenges, describes strategies to address this problem, and relates this issue to psychiatry. Mental health providers may have the role of evaluating both the victims and perpetrators of child sex tourism. The authors propose a classification system for offenses and an initial list of topics to discuss with victims. The authors also describe the proper mechanism for reporting United States citizens suspected of participating in child sex tourism. PMID:21420172

  8. Interactions between factors related to the decision of sex offenders to confess during police interrogation: a classification-tree approach.

    PubMed

    Beauregard, Eric; Deslauriers-Varin, Nadine; St-Yves, Michel

    2010-09-01

    Most studies of confessions have looked at the influence of individual factors, neglecting the potential interactions between these factors and their impact on the decision to confess or not during an interrogation. Classification and regression tree analyses conducted on a sample of 624 convicted sex offenders showed that certain factors related to the offenders (e.g., personality, criminal career), victims (e.g., sex, relationship to offender), and case (e.g., time of day of the crime) were related to the decision to confess or not during the police interrogation. Several interactions were also observed between these factors. Results will be discussed in light of previous findings and interrogation strategies for sex offenders.

  9. Comparison of intellectually disabled offenders with a combined history of sexual offenses and other offenses versus intellectually disabled offenders without a history of sexual offenses on dynamic client and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    van den Bogaard, K J H M; Embregts, P J C M; Hendriks, A H C; Heestermans, M

    2013-10-01

    Sexually offensive behavior is prevalent among individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) and many sex offenders also commit other offenses such as vandalism or assault. We examined the differences between sex offenders with ID and a history of combined sex and other types of offenses (mixed sex offenders) versus offenders with no history of sexual offenses (non-sex offenders). Dynamic client and environmental factors were measured using the Adult Behaviour Checklist (ABCL) and the Risk Inventarization Scale on Sexually Offensive Behavior of Clients with intellectual disabilities (RISC-V). Item, subscale, and total scores were then compared for the two groups. Most of the comparisons did not reveal significant differences between the two groups. The findings call for a general theory of offending behavior to explain the absence of differences between the mixed sex offenders and non-sex offenders with ID.

  10. 110 Teachers: Adult Education and Mentally Disordered Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Recommendations of British reports on education for mentally disordered prisoners include (1) financial flexibility to purchase educational services; (2) core teams of teachers, social service providers, and solicitors; and (3) 1 full-time teacher for every 15 offenders. (SK)

  11. 75 FR 81849 - Office of the Attorney General; Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... sex offense occurred prior to the enactment of SORNA.'' 72 FR at 8896. The rule noted that this issue... sexual nature. See 42 U.S.C. 16911(5)-(8); 73 FR at 38037, 38051-52. Within the class of ``sex offender... is considered. See 72 FR at 8896-97 (noting frustration of SORNA's public safety objectives if...

  12. An Exploratory Evaluation of the Ward and Hudson Offending Pathways Model with Sex Offenders Who Have Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langdon, Peter E.; Maxted, Helen; Murphy, Glynis H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: It was predicted that offenders with intellectual disability (ID) categorised according to Ward & Hudson's (1998b) self-regulation theory as having an "Approach" goal would have higher levels of distorted cognitions, less victim empathy, and a history of more prolific offending compared to those with an "Avoidant" goal. Offenders…

  13. The consumption of Internet child pornography and violent and sex offending

    PubMed Central

    Endrass, Jérôme; Urbaniok, Frank; Hammermeister, Lea C; Benz, Christian; Elbert, Thomas; Laubacher, Arja; Rossegger, Astrid

    2009-01-01

    Background There is an ongoing debate on whether consumers of child pornography pose a risk for hands-on sex offenses. Up until now, there have been very few studies which have analyzed the association between the consumption of child pornography and the subsequent perpetration of hands-on sex offenses. The aim of this study was to examine the recidivism rates for hands-on and hands-off sex offenses in a sample of child pornography users using a 6 year follow-up design. Methods The current study population consisted of 231 men, who were subsequently charged with consumption of illegal pornographic material after being detected by a special operation against Internet child pornography, conducted by the Swiss police in 2002. Criminal history, as well as recidivism, was assessed using the criminal records from 2008. Results 4.8% (n = 11) of the study sample had a prior conviction for a sexual and/or violent offense, 1% (n = 2) for a hands-on sex offense, involving child sexual abuse, 3.3% (n = 8) for a hands-off sex offense and one for a nonsexual violent offense. When applying a broad definition of recidivism, which included ongoing investigations, charges and convictions, 3% (n = 7) of the study sample recidivated with a violent and/or sex offense, 3.9% (n = 9) with a hands-off sex offense and 0.8% (n = 2) with a hands-on sex offense. Conclusion Consuming child pornography alone is not a risk factor for committing hands-on sex offenses – at least not for those subjects who had never committed a hands-on sex offense. The majority of the investigated consumers had no previous convictions for hands-on sex offenses. For those offenders, the prognosis for hands-on sex offenses, as well as for recidivism with child pornography, is favorable. PMID:19602221

  14. Does Recent Physical and Sexual Victimization Affect Further Substance Use for Adult Drug-Involved Offenders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweig, Janine M.; Yahner, Jennifer; Rossman, Shelli B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether physical and sexual victimization experiences were related to further substance use for a sample of drug-involved adult offenders and whether this increase could be attributed to depression experienced after the victimization occurred. A total of 674 men and 284 women from the longitudinal Multisite Adult Drug Court…

  15. Assessing Violence Risk and Psychopathy in Juvenile and Adult Offenders: A Survey of Clinical Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viljoen, Jodi L.; McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Vincent, Gina M.

    2010-01-01

    This study surveyed 199 forensic clinicians about the practices that they use in assessing violence risk in juvenile and adult offenders. Results indicated that the use of risk assessment and psychopathy tools was common. Although clinicians reported more routine use of psychopathy measures in adult risk assessments compared with juvenile risks…

  16. Sex offender polygraph examination: an evidence-based case management tool for social workers.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S

    2009-10-01

    This article will review the use of polygraphy in the assessment and treatment of sexual perpetrators. Such information can be utilized by social workers who are involved in the treatment and case management of child sexual abuse cases. First, the controversial literature regarding the validity and reliability of polygraph examination in general will be reviewed. Next, an emerging body of evidence supporting the utility of polygraph testing with sex offenders will be discussed. Finally, ways that social workers can incorporate this knowledge into their case management and clinical roles will be offered.

  17. Predicting sex offender institutional adjustment and treatment compliance using the personality assessment inventory.

    PubMed

    Caperton, Jennifer D; Edens, John F; Johnson, Judy K

    2004-06-01

    This study examined the utility of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) to identify prison inmates in a mandatory sex offender treatment program prone to engage in institutional misconduct. Archival PAI and institutional disciplinary data were coded for 137 inmates in treatment for an average of 1.59 years. The Antisocial Features scale predicted various forms of general and major infractions (e.g., verbal aggression), with no other scales providing any incremental validity beyond this measure. The Treatment Rejection scale was uniquely but modestly correlated (r=.14) with treatment noncompliance, even though such infractions were rare in this sample.

  18. Treating juveniles in a sex offender program using adventure-based programming: a matched group design.

    PubMed

    Gillis, H L; Gass, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    Ninety-five male juvenile sex offenders in an adventure-based behavior management program (LEGACY) were matched with male juveniles in state treatment-as-usual and other specialized programs in the same state to determine program effectiveness (as measured by rearrest rates). The LEGACY program demonstrated significant treatment effectiveness on rearrest rates when compared with youth development centers and other specialized programs two and three years later. Overall, three-year rearrest rates for the most serious reoffenses for each of the placements were as follows: 34.8% for YDC, 32.6% for OSP, and 19% for LEGACY.

  19. Sex offender polygraph examination: an evidence-based case management tool for social workers.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S

    2009-10-01

    This article will review the use of polygraphy in the assessment and treatment of sexual perpetrators. Such information can be utilized by social workers who are involved in the treatment and case management of child sexual abuse cases. First, the controversial literature regarding the validity and reliability of polygraph examination in general will be reviewed. Next, an emerging body of evidence supporting the utility of polygraph testing with sex offenders will be discussed. Finally, ways that social workers can incorporate this knowledge into their case management and clinical roles will be offered. PMID:20183683

  20. Exploring clinical and personality characteristics of adult male internet-only child pornography offenders.

    PubMed

    Magaletta, Philip R; Faust, Erik; Bickart, William; McLearen, Alix M

    2014-02-01

    Despite the dramatic increase in the number of convicted child pornography offenders, little is known about their potential clinical needs. The few studies that do explore this subgroup of sex offenders suggest clinical heterogeneity compared with other sex offender subgroups. However, research designs used in many studies have limited generalizability, have examined primarily treated or treatment samples, and have not included comparisons with nontreatment, community samples of men. The current study addresses such limitations by using nontreatment samples and multiple comparison groups to examine mean scales score differences on a commonly used clinical and personality assessment, the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). The sample, drawn from an admissions cohort of federal offenders, those Internet-only Child Pornography Offenders (ICPOs; n = 35) and those with a history of child molesting exclusively (child molesters, n = 26). They were compared with each other and the male normative sample from the PAI. Results indicate that interpersonal deficits and depression featured most prominently in the profiles of the ICPOs. Consistent with prior research, they also obtained lower scores on aggression and dominance compared with the child molesters and the male normative sample. Implications for future research, training, and clinical practice with incarcerated ICPOs are offered. PMID:23174820

  1. Exploring clinical and personality characteristics of adult male internet-only child pornography offenders.

    PubMed

    Magaletta, Philip R; Faust, Erik; Bickart, William; McLearen, Alix M

    2014-02-01

    Despite the dramatic increase in the number of convicted child pornography offenders, little is known about their potential clinical needs. The few studies that do explore this subgroup of sex offenders suggest clinical heterogeneity compared with other sex offender subgroups. However, research designs used in many studies have limited generalizability, have examined primarily treated or treatment samples, and have not included comparisons with nontreatment, community samples of men. The current study addresses such limitations by using nontreatment samples and multiple comparison groups to examine mean scales score differences on a commonly used clinical and personality assessment, the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). The sample, drawn from an admissions cohort of federal offenders, those Internet-only Child Pornography Offenders (ICPOs; n = 35) and those with a history of child molesting exclusively (child molesters, n = 26). They were compared with each other and the male normative sample from the PAI. Results indicate that interpersonal deficits and depression featured most prominently in the profiles of the ICPOs. Consistent with prior research, they also obtained lower scores on aggression and dominance compared with the child molesters and the male normative sample. Implications for future research, training, and clinical practice with incarcerated ICPOs are offered.

  2. Treatment Provider Awareness of the Possible Impact of the Internet on the Treatment of Sex Offenders: An Alert to a Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttell, Frederick P.; Carney, Michelle M.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluates treatment providers' perceptions of the impact of the Internet on the treatment of sex offenders. Analysis indicated that most treatment providers were unaware of the potential negative impact of the Internet on their treatment efforts with clients. Implications of the findings for improving treatment services for sex offenders were…

  3. Sex hormones and biogenic amine turnover of sex offenders in relation to their temperament and character dimensions.

    PubMed

    Giotakos, Orestis; Markianos, Manolis; Vaidakis, Nikos; Christodoulou, George N

    2004-07-15

    Relationships between Cloninger's temperament and character dimensions and plasma sex hormone levels and biogenic amine turnover were studied in male prison inmates convicted of rape (n=61) or child molestation (n=24) and normal male controls (n=25). The participants completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), which includes the temperament dimensions Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence and Persistence as well as the character dimensions Self-Directedness, Cooperativeness and Self-Transcendence. Plasma levels of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone were estimated in plasma samples and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) in urine samples. Both sex offender groups had higher Novelty, Seeking and lower Reward Dependence, Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness scores compared with the controls. Plasma levels of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone were significantly higher in rapists than in controls. Novelty Seeking scores were positively correlated with LH levels in rapists, and with testosterone levels in child molesters. Harm Avoidance scores were negatively correlated with 5-HIAA levels in rapists and with HVA levels in child molesters. In rapists, the calculated free androgen index showed a negative correlation with 5-HIAA. For the sex offender sample as a whole, the subgroup with high testosterone levels had higher Harm Avoidance scores, the subgroup with low HVA levels had lower Cooperativeness scores, and the subgroups with high 5HIAA or MHPG levels had lower Persistence scores. The results indicate that Novelty Seeking behavior in the group of rapists is associated with a hyperactive hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. In addition, low serotonin turnover and low dopamine turnover seem to be associated with a passive-avoidant behavioral style in rapists and child molesters

  4. An empirical analysis of 30 years of U.S. juvenile and adult sexual homicide offender data: race and age differences in the victim-offender relationship.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Myers, Wade C; Heide, Kathleen M

    2010-09-01

    Little is known about the racial patterns of crimes committed by sexual homicide offenders (SHOs). This study examined race and age influences on victim-offender relationship for juvenile and adult SHOs. A large sample (N = 3868) from the Supplemental Homicide Reports (1976-2005) was used. Analyses of victim-offender patterns included examining victim age effects (child, adolescent, adult, and elderly). The findings revealed several race- and age-based differences. Black offenders were significantly overrepresented in the SHO population. This finding held for juveniles and adults independently. White SHOs were highly likely to kill within their race, "intra-racially" (range 91-100%) across four victim age categories, whereas Black SHOs killed both intra-racially (range 24-82%) and inter-racially (18-76%), with the likelihood of their killing inter-racially increasing as the age of the victim increased. This study underscores the importance of considering victim-offender racial patterns in sexual murder investigations, and it offers practical implications for offender profiling.

  5. Are cognitive distortions associated with denial and minimization among sex offenders?

    PubMed

    Nunes, Kevin L; Jung, Sandy

    2013-04-01

    Although there has been much speculation about the relationship between cognitive distortions and denial/minimization, little research on the subject is available. The authors conducted secondary analyses on existing data sets to further examine the degree of association between various measures of cognitive distortions and denial/minimization among child molesters (Sample 1, n = 73; Sample 2, n = 42; Sample 3, n = 38) and rapists (Sample 1, n = 41; Sample 3, n = 14). Meta-analysis of the findings from Samples 1, 2, and 3 indicated that greater endorsement of cognitive distortions about sex offending in general was significantly associated with greater denial/minimization of one's own guilt and deviance (r = .24), harm to one's own victims (r = .32), one's need for treatment (r = .21), and responsibility for one's sex offenses (r = .16). Although correlated, cognitive distortions and denial/minimization, at least as typically measured, are distinct constructs.

  6. Weapons used by juveniles and adult offenders in U.S. parricide cases.

    PubMed

    Heide, Kathleen M; Petee, Thomas A

    2007-11-01

    In recent decades, attention has focused on juveniles who kill their parents. Research has indicated that increases in juvenile homicide have been associated with the availability of firearms, but little is known about the weapons juveniles use to kill their parents and whether their weapon usage is different from that of adult children who kill their parents. This article uses Supplementary Homicide Report data for the 24-year period 1976 to 1999 to investigate weapons selected by parricide offenders to kill biological mothers and fathers. Significant differences were found in the weapons used in matricide and patricide incidents and in the weapons selected by juvenile and adult offenders. A comparison with an earlier study by Heide revealed that weapon usage in parricide events is stable. Differences found in both studies between weapons used to kill parents and offender age are consistent with a physical strength hypothesis proposed by Heide in 1993.

  7. Interpersonal Skills Training: Evaluation of a Program with Adult Male Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Philip H.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of an interpersonal skill training program, adult offenders were randomly assigned to either interpersonal effectiveness training or waiting-list control. Results indicated interpersonal effectiveness training group superiority on Interpersonal Behavior Role-Play Test training and generalization assessment items. Findings…

  8. Implementing Adlerian Sand Tray Therapy with Adult Male Substance Abuse Offenders: A Phenomenological Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monakes, Sarah; Garza, Yvonne; Wiesner, Van, III; Watts, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the perceptions of adult male substance offenders who experienced sand tray therapy as an adjunct to their cognitive behavioral rehabilitative treatment. Results indicate a positive experience for participants. Implications for counselors are discussed. (Contains 1 table.)

  9. Program Completion and Recidivism Outcomes among Adult Offenders Ordered to Complete a Community Service Sentence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouffard, Jeffrey A.; Muftic, Lisa R.

    2006-01-01

    Relatively little research has examined the outcomes (either program completion or recidivism) of community service (CS) sentences among adult offenders in the United States, despite the fact that this form of alternative sanction has been employed in the United States for nearly 40 years. What little research exists, primarily from Europe,…

  10. The Influence of Sex Offender Registration and Notification Laws in the United States: A Time-Series Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, Bob Edward; Maddan, Sean; Walker, Jeffery T.

    2008-01-01

    Although federal legislation for the implementation of sex offender registration and notification systems is now a decade old, empirical studies on the efficacy of this policy are relatively nonextant. This article explores the impact of registration legislation on the incidence of forcible rapes. Using monthly count data of rapes aggregated at…

  11. Predatory Online Behavior: Modus Operandi of Convicted Sex Offenders in Identifying Potential Victims and Contacting Minors over the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malesky, L. Alvin, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Sex offenders have used the Internet to identify and contact minors for sexual exploitation (Armagh, 1998; Hernandez, 2000; Lamb, 1998; Lanning, 1998). Yet little is known about how these individuals select their online victims. In order to gain a better understanding of this behavior, the online activity of 31 men who perpetrated or attempted to…

  12. Predicting sex offender treatment entry among individuals convicted of sexual offense crimes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nicole; Pelissier, Bernadette; Klein-Saffran, Jody

    2006-01-01

    This study examined what factors were predictive of who volunteers for sex offender treatment (self-selection) as well as who enters treatment after volunteering (administration selection). Research participants included 404 treatment volunteers and 387 nonvolunteers to treatment who were convicted of a sexual offense involving minors within the federal prison system. Maximum likelihood probit estimation procedures indicated that when compared with nonvolunteers, treatment volunteers were more likely to be recommended by a judge to receive treatment at the time of sentencing, had received prior treatment for sexually deviant behavior, reported higher levels of motivation to change their sexually deviant behavior, and had lower rates of a substance use disorder in the year prior to incarceration. Of those persons who initially volunteered, 62% were accepted and entered treatment, 16% were denied entry to treatment by program staff, and 22% refused treatment after being accepted to the waiting list. When compared with those who were accepted and entered treatment, motivation was the only predictor of being denied admission into treatment by program staff and for refusal of treatment once accepted. The findings emphasize the need to control for selection bias in treatment outcome studies and the importance of examining the role of motivation in treatment volunteerism and treatment entry for sexual offenders. PMID:16763760

  13. Predicting Recidivism with the Personality Assessment Inventory in a Sample of Sex Offenders Screened for Civil Commitment as Sexually Violent Predators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boccaccini, Marcus T.; Murrie, Daniel C.; Hawes, Samuel W.; Simpler, Amber; Johnson, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    We examined the ability of scores from the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) to predict postrelease (M = 4.90 years follow-up) arrests in a sample of 1,412 sex offenders. We focused on scores from 4 PAI measures conceptually relevant to offending, including the Antisocial Features (ANT), Aggression (AGG), and Dominance (DOM)…

  14. "They Treat Us Like Human Beings"--Experiencing a Therapeutic Sex Offenders Prison: Impact on Prisoners and Staff and Implications for Treatment.

    PubMed

    Blagden, Nicholas; Winder, Belinda; Hames, Charlie

    2016-03-01

    Research evidence demonstrates that sex offender treatment programmes (SOTPs) can reduce the number of sex offenders who are reconvicted. However, there has been much less empirical research exploring the experiences and perspectives of the prison environment within which treatment takes place. This is important, particularly for sexual offenders, as they often face multiple stigmas in prison. This study used a mixed-methods approach to explore the experiences of prisoners and staff at a therapeutically orientated sexual offenders' prison to understand whether the prison environment was conducive to rehabilitation. The quantitative strand of the research sampled prisoners (n = 112) and staff (n = 48) from a therapeutically orientated sex offenders prison. This strand highlighted that both prisoners and staff had positive attitudes toward offenders and high beliefs that offenders could change. Importantly, the climate was rated positively and, in particular, participants had very high ratings of "experienced safety." The qualitative strand of the research consisted of semistructured interviews with prisoners (n = 15) and a range of prison staff (n = 16). The qualitative analysis revealed positive prisoner views toward staff relationships, with most participants articulating that the prison and its staff had contributed to positive change in prisoners. Crucially, the environment was perceived as safe and allowed prisoners "headspace" to work through problems and contemplate change. This research offers some support to the notion that context is important for sex offender rehabilitation.

  15. Sentencing Male Sex Offenders Under the Age of 14: A Law Reform Advocacy Journey in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Ng, Wai-Ching Irene; Cheung, Monit; Ma, Anny Kit-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The common law presumption that a boy under the age of 14 is incapable of sexual intercourse has provoked controversial debates in Hong Kong. This article describes a 6-step advocacy journey to examine how community efforts have helped modify this law so that juvenile male sexual offenders under the age of 14 who have committed the crime of having sexual intercourse with underage females can be sentenced to receive appropriate treatment. Seven court cases provided by the magistrates' courts in Hong Kong were used in this advocacy effort for the removal of the presumption in July 2012. Although this effort has yet to reveal signs of effectiveness, it represents greater public awareness about providing rehabilitation appropriate for juvenile sex offenders through a formal sentence. Restorative justice, as opposed to retributive or punitive justice, places an emphasis on rehabilitation of the offender and restoration of victims to a place of wholeness.

  16. Factors contributing to perceptions about policies regarding the electronic monitoring of sex offenders: the role of demographic characteristics, victimization experiences, and social disorganization.

    PubMed

    Button, Deeanna M; Tewksbury, Richard; Mustaine, Elizabeth E; Payne, Brian K

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore factors contributing to perceptions about electronic monitoring policies governing sex offenders. Guided by Tannenbaum's theory of attribution and Shaw and McKay's theory of social disorganization, the authors examine the influence of demographic characteristics, victimization experiences, and neighborhood characteristics on perceptions about policies regarding the electronic monitoring of sex offenders. Ordinary least squares regression and logistic regression analyses of stratified telephone survey data reveal that factors associated with favorable views on the use of global positioning satellite monitoring for registered sex offenders appear to stem primarily from individuals' demographic characteristics. Experiential and neighborhood factors do provide some influence over individuals' views of electronic monitoring policies for sex offenders. Theoretical and policy implications are discussed.

  17. The psychological profiles of internet, contact, and mixed internet/contact sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Ian A; Beech, Anthony R; Mandeville-Norden, Rebecca

    2013-02-01

    A sample of 526 contact offenders, 459 internet offenders, and 143 mixed contact/internet offenders was compared on a range of self-report psychological measures assessing offense-supportive beliefs, socioaffective functioning, emotional management, and socially desirable responding. A multivariate general linear model found a mixed offender profile that was similar to internet offenders rather than contact offenders. The contact group demonstrated lower victim empathy, a greater level of pro-offending attitudes, an externalized locus of control, more assertiveness, a diminished ability to relate to fictional characters, and greater impulsivity than the internet and mixed offender groups. The mixed offender group demonstrated a higher level of empathic concern than the other two groups. The mixed offender group could also be distinguished from the internet group by increased personal distress and perspective-taking ability. A discriminant function analysis highlighted the key linear factor distinguishing between the groups to be one relating to offense-supportive attitudes and identification with fictional characters. A second factor was related to higher levels of empathic concern and poor self-management. These findings are discussed in the context of the potential pathways between internet and contact sexual offenses.

  18. A female sex offender with multiple paraphilias: a psychologic, physiologic (laboratory sexual arousal) and endocrine case study.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A J; Swaminath, S; Baxter, D; Poulin, C

    1990-05-01

    A 20 year old female pedophile exhibiting multiple paraphilias and who had been both a victim of incest and an active participant, undertook extensive clinical, psychometric, endocrine and laboratory sexual arousal studies. Her psychiatric, psychometric and physiologic arousal profiles showed similarities to those of a sizable proportion of male child molesters, especially incestors. It is suggested that laboratory arousal tests (using the vaginal photoplethysmograph) may have a role in the assessment of some female sex offenders.

  19. Online solicitation offenders are different from child pornography offenders and lower risk contact sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Wood, J Michael; Babchishin, Kelly M; Flynn, Sheri

    2012-08-01

    The current study compared 38 lower risk (based on actuarial risk assessments) men convicted of contact sexual offenses against children, 38 child pornography offenders, and 70 solicitation offenders (also known as luring or traveler offenders). Solicitation and child pornography offenders were better educated than contact offenders but did not differ on other sociodemographic variables. In comparison to child pornography offenders, solicitation offenders had lower capacity for relationship stability and lower levels of sex drive/preoccupation and deviant sexual preference. Solicitation offenders were also more problematic than lower risk contact offenders on sex drive/preoccupation and capacity for relationship stability and had greater self-reported use of child pornography. Differences between groups on two actuarial risk measures, the Static-99 and the VASOR, were inconsistent. This study suggests that solicitation offenders differ in meaningful ways from lower risk contact offenders and child pornography offenders and, consequently, in risk, treatment, and supervision needs.

  20. An investigation of the validity and reliability of the Criminal Sentiments Scale in a sample of treated sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Witte, Treena D; Di Placido, Chantal; Gu, Deqiang; Wong, Stephen C P

    2006-07-01

    The Criminal Sentiments Scale (CSS) purports to measure attitudes and values pertaining to and in support of criminal conduct (Andrews & Bonta, 2003). A sample of 72 sex offenders treated in a high intensity sex offender program completed the CSS pre- and post-treatment and was followed up for approximately 3 years. The CSS demonstrated high internal consistency. Correlational and ROC analyses indicated that the CSS is a robust predictor of non-sexual violent and non-violent recidivism. The CSS also correlated significantly with the General Statistical Information on Recidivism Scale which assesses non-sexual recidivism risk. Similar analyses showed that the CSS did not predict sexual recidivism nor did it correlate with a tool that assesses sexual recidivism risk-the Static 99. The CSS scores changed significantly in the predicted direction following treatment. The present results suggest that the CSS is an internally consistent tool for the assessment of criminal sentiments among sex offenders and that it predicts non-sexual but not sexual recidivism. PMID:16988891

  1. Predatory online behavior: modus operandi of convicted sex offenders in identifying potential victims and contacting minors over the internet.

    PubMed

    Malesky, L Alvin

    2007-01-01

    Sex offenders have used the Internet to identify and contact minors for sexual exploitation (Armagh, 1998; Hernandez, 2000; Lamb, 1998; Lanning, 1998). Yet little is known about how these individuals select their online victims. In order to gain a better understanding of this behavior, the online activity of 31 men who perpetrated or attempted to perpetrate contact sex offenses against minors they communicated with via the Internet, was examined. Three-fourths of the participants monitored chat room dialogue and almost one-half reviewed online profiles of minors in an attempt to identify potential victims. Recommendations to increase the online safety of children and adolescents are discussed. PMID:17895230

  2. Underreporting of bestiality among juvenile sex offenders: polygraph versus self-report.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Allison M; Cooper-Lehki, Christi; Keelan, Colleen M; Fremouw, William J

    2014-03-01

    Juvenile sex offenders (JSO) are a specific subset of delinquent adolescents that are receiving more attention because of the crimes they commit and the issues surrounding how to successfully treat their deviant behaviors. Given JSO are such predominant treatment concerns in society, it is essential to identify and target key risk factors. One sexual behavior, bestiality, may be of particular importance to address in treatment. In a meta-analysis conducted by Seto and Lalumiere, a 14% rate of bestiality among JSO was reported. This current study examined the differences in JSO (n = 32) who admitted bestiality based upon a self-report measure, the Multiphasic Sexual Inventory-II (MSI-II), compared to information elicited by polygraphs. The results indicated extensive underreporting of bestiality behaviors between these two sources of information (MSI-II = 37.5%; polygraph = 81.25%). These findings are important given the reliance treatment programs place on information elicited from self-report tools. PMID:24502368

  3. Underreporting of bestiality among juvenile sex offenders: polygraph versus self-report.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Allison M; Cooper-Lehki, Christi; Keelan, Colleen M; Fremouw, William J

    2014-03-01

    Juvenile sex offenders (JSO) are a specific subset of delinquent adolescents that are receiving more attention because of the crimes they commit and the issues surrounding how to successfully treat their deviant behaviors. Given JSO are such predominant treatment concerns in society, it is essential to identify and target key risk factors. One sexual behavior, bestiality, may be of particular importance to address in treatment. In a meta-analysis conducted by Seto and Lalumiere, a 14% rate of bestiality among JSO was reported. This current study examined the differences in JSO (n = 32) who admitted bestiality based upon a self-report measure, the Multiphasic Sexual Inventory-II (MSI-II), compared to information elicited by polygraphs. The results indicated extensive underreporting of bestiality behaviors between these two sources of information (MSI-II = 37.5%; polygraph = 81.25%). These findings are important given the reliance treatment programs place on information elicited from self-report tools.

  4. [Sadistic fetishism--deadly passion. Forensic psychiatric assessment of sex offenders].

    PubMed

    Nedopil, N; Blümcke, I; Bock, H; Bogerts, B; Born, C; Stübner, S

    2008-11-01

    This article reviews current developments in psychiatric assessment of sex offenders for criminal courts. These developments are characterized by constantly changing laws and increasing neurobiological findings about paraphilias. Psychiatrists must prepare their reports taking into account the tension between psychopathological, neurobiological, and normative aspects of their judgement. The complexity of such assessments can best be demonstrated by narratives. This narrative concerns a 47-year-old patient who killed eight women after strangling them and masturbating or having intercourse with the unconscious victims. He explained in detail six of these crimes and gave ample information about his history, sexual development, fantasies, and a number of other sexual crimes he had committed. From this information a plausible explanation of his development to sexual fetishism and from there to sadism could be derived. Brain MRI displayed gliotic scars in the frontal lobe and right hippocampus. Consequences of the various findings on psychiatric assessment of legal culpability are discussed in this paper, concluding that a differentiated approach to the assessment is possible only from a psychopathological point of view in which behaviour, clinical features, and motivations are analysed.

  5. [Sadistic fetishism--deadly passion. Forensic psychiatric assessment of sex offenders].

    PubMed

    Nedopil, N; Blümcke, I; Bock, H; Bogerts, B; Born, C; Stübner, S

    2008-11-01

    This article reviews current developments in psychiatric assessment of sex offenders for criminal courts. These developments are characterized by constantly changing laws and increasing neurobiological findings about paraphilias. Psychiatrists must prepare their reports taking into account the tension between psychopathological, neurobiological, and normative aspects of their judgement. The complexity of such assessments can best be demonstrated by narratives. This narrative concerns a 47-year-old patient who killed eight women after strangling them and masturbating or having intercourse with the unconscious victims. He explained in detail six of these crimes and gave ample information about his history, sexual development, fantasies, and a number of other sexual crimes he had committed. From this information a plausible explanation of his development to sexual fetishism and from there to sadism could be derived. Brain MRI displayed gliotic scars in the frontal lobe and right hippocampus. Consequences of the various findings on psychiatric assessment of legal culpability are discussed in this paper, concluding that a differentiated approach to the assessment is possible only from a psychopathological point of view in which behaviour, clinical features, and motivations are analysed. PMID:18806981

  6. False Positives among Adolescent Sex Offenders: Concurrent and Predictive Validity of the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Wallace A.; Licht, Mark H.; Caminez, Mary

    2004-01-01

    The ability of the "Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory"("MACI"; Millon, 1993) to identify serious adolescent, male sexual-offenders and to predict their recidivism following treatment was examined. "MACI" scores were evaluated for 381 adolescent, male sexual-offenders adjudicated delinquent for felony crimes and given maximum sentences, and, on…

  7. The Differences between Sex Offending and Challenging Behaviour in People with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, David Michael

    2004-01-01

    This paper differentiates between sexual offending behaviour and challenging behaviour in people with an intellectual disability. There is growing awareness that people with an intellectual disability can perform both classes of behaviour. The definitions of sexual offending and challenging behaviour are almost interchangeable, due to the poor…

  8. Embedding Psychodrama in a Wilderness Group Program for Adolescent Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambie, Ian; Robson, Marlyn; Simmonds, Les

    1997-01-01

    Describes the technique of psychodrama to facilitate victim empathy with adolescent sexual offenders. Discusses other psychodramatic methods of role training, sociodrama, mirroring, and modeling, and their applications to working with adolescent sexual offenders. Outlines the history of the psychodrama technique's implementation in a…

  9. Juvenile and adult offenders arrested for sexual homicide: an analysis of victim-offender relationship and weapon used by race.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Heide, Kathleen M; Myers, Wade C

    2013-01-01

    Limited information is available on racial offending patterns of sexual homicide offenders (SHOs). This study used a 30-year U.S. Supplementary Homicide Reports sample of SHOs arrested in single-victim situations (N = 3745). The analysis strength was used to determine whether the findings yielded meaningful patterns for offender profiling. Several important findings emerged for the juvenile offenders. Juvenile White SHOs were likely to target victims with whom they shared a mutual relationship. In contrast, Black juveniles were equally likely to murder strangers and those with whom they had prior and familial relationships. Notably, no juvenile Black SHOs were arrested for murdering intimate partners. Juvenile White SHOs were twice as likely to use edged weapons as their Black counterparts. Black juveniles, conversely, were more likely than White juveniles to use personal weapons. Beyond these findings, known victim-offender relationships and weapon used may not have significant utility for investigators in identifying the SHO race, even after controlling for offender age. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

  10. Program of Vocational Rehabilitation for Young Adult Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Correctional Inst., Camp Hill.

    Full development of the educational, occupational, and attitudinal abilities of young delinquents admitted to the Camp Hill State Correctional Institute was the object of this Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title I Program. Young adults 15-21 years committed to Camp Hill average 6.1 on the standard educational battery test and their…

  11. Process evaluation of a group therapy component designed to enhance sex offenders' empathy for sexual abuse survivors.

    PubMed

    Pithers, W D

    1994-06-01

    A process evaluation was conducted to assess the extent to which a specialized treatment group might enhance the offenders' empathy for sexual abuse survivors. Therapeutic efficacy was assessed through pre- and post-treatment administration of a battery of paper-and-pencil inventories. Pedophiles demonstrated greater empathy at pre-treatment and post-treatment than rapists. Surprisingly, pedophiles and rapists did not differ in pre-treatment endorsement of cognitive distortions hypothetically related to rape. Post-treatment psychological inventories revealed significant changes on a variety of empathetic qualities. The results suggests that highly-specialized interventions can enhance sex offenders' empathy for sexual abuse victims and decrease endorsement of distortions justifying sexualized violence. Follow-up is underway to determine if these changes are associated with long-term reductions in recidivism.

  12. Delinquent Girls Grown Up: Young Adult Offending Patterns and Their Relation to Early Legal, Individual, and Family Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colman, Rebecca A.; Kim, Do Han; Mitchell-Herzfeld, Susan; Shady, Therese A.

    2009-01-01

    Although the number of girls served by the juvenile justice system has grown dramatically, little is known about the adult offending patterns of delinquent girls and the factors associated with their persistence and desistance from adult crime. To address this gap, we prospectively track 499 girls (62% Black, 16% Hispanic) discharged from juvenile…

  13. Comparing recidivism rates of treatment responders/nonresponders in a sample of 413 child molesters who had completed community-based sex offender treatment in the United kingdom.

    PubMed

    Beech, Anthony R; Mandeville-Norden, Rebecca; Goodwill, Alasdair

    2012-02-01

    Analysis of psychometric data from a sample of 413 child molesters who had completed a U.K. probation-based sex offender treatment program was carried out to assess (a) the effectiveness of therapy in the short term and (b) the longer term implications of treatment in relation to sexual recidivism. It was found that 12% (51 offenders) of the sample had recidivated within 2 to 4 years. Of these recidivists, 86% (44 offenders) had been reconvicted for a sexually related offense. One hundred thirty-five offenders (33%) demonstrated a treated profile (i.e., demonstrated no offense-specific problems and few, or no, socioaffective problems at the posttreatment stage). This group was compared with a sample of offenders deemed as not responding to treatment, matched by their levels of pretreatment risk/need. It was found that a significantly smaller proportion (n = 12, 9%) of treatment responders had recidivated, compared to the treatment nonresponders (n = 20, 15%), indicating a 40% reduction in recidivism in those who had responded to treatment (effect size = .18). Matching length of treatment to the offenders' level of pretreatment risk/need (i.e., higher risk/treatment-need offenders typically undertook longer treatment) reduced the rate of recidivism among this group to the level of recidivism observed among the lower risk/need offenders.

  14. Psychopathic traits are associated with reduced attention to the eyes of emotional faces among adult male non-offenders

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Steven M.; Rotshtein, Pia; Wells, Laura J.; Beech, Anthony R.; Mitchell, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Psychopathic traits are linked with impairments in emotional facial expression recognition. These impairments may, in part, reflect reduced attention to the eyes of emotional faces. Although reduced attention to the eyes has been noted among children with conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits, similar findings are yet to be found in relation to psychopathic traits among adult male participants. Here we investigated the relationship of primary (selfish, uncaring) and secondary (impulsive, antisocial) psychopathic traits with attention to the eyes among adult male non-offenders during an emotion recognition task. We measured the number of fixations, and overall dwell time, on the eyes, and the mouth of male and female faces showing the six basic emotions at varying levels of intensity. We found no relationship of primary or secondary psychopathic traits with recognition accuracy. However, primary psychopathic traits were associated with a reduced number of fixations, and lower overall dwell time, on the eyes relative to the mouth across expressions, intensity, and sex. Furthermore, the relationship of primary psychopathic traits with attention to the eyes of angry and fearful faces was influenced by the sex and intensity of the expression. We also showed that a greater number of fixations on the eyes, relative to the mouth, were associated with increased accuracy for angry and fearful expression recognition. These results are the first to show effects of psychopathic traits on attention to the eyes of emotional faces in an adult male sample, and may support amygdala based accounts of psychopathy. These findings may also have methodological implications for clinical studies of emotion recognition. PMID:26500524

  15. Psychopathic traits are associated with reduced attention to the eyes of emotional faces among adult male non-offenders.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Steven M; Rotshtein, Pia; Wells, Laura J; Beech, Anthony R; Mitchell, Ian J

    2015-01-01

    Psychopathic traits are linked with impairments in emotional facial expression recognition. These impairments may, in part, reflect reduced attention to the eyes of emotional faces. Although reduced attention to the eyes has been noted among children with conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits, similar findings are yet to be found in relation to psychopathic traits among adult male participants. Here we investigated the relationship of primary (selfish, uncaring) and secondary (impulsive, antisocial) psychopathic traits with attention to the eyes among adult male non-offenders during an emotion recognition task. We measured the number of fixations, and overall dwell time, on the eyes, and the mouth of male and female faces showing the six basic emotions at varying levels of intensity. We found no relationship of primary or secondary psychopathic traits with recognition accuracy. However, primary psychopathic traits were associated with a reduced number of fixations, and lower overall dwell time, on the eyes relative to the mouth across expressions, intensity, and sex. Furthermore, the relationship of primary psychopathic traits with attention to the eyes of angry and fearful faces was influenced by the sex and intensity of the expression. We also showed that a greater number of fixations on the eyes, relative to the mouth, were associated with increased accuracy for angry and fearful expression recognition. These results are the first to show effects of psychopathic traits on attention to the eyes of emotional faces in an adult male sample, and may support amygdala based accounts of psychopathy. These findings may also have methodological implications for clinical studies of emotion recognition.

  16. Sex Differences in Adults' Motivation to Achieve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sluis, Sophie; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Posthuma, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    Achievement motivation is considered a prerequisite for success in academic as well as non-academic settings. We studied sex differences in academic and general achievement motivation in an adult sample of 338 men and 497 women (ages 18-70 years). Multi-group covariance and means structure analysis (MG-CMSA) for ordered categorical data was used…

  17. An Exploration of Differences Between Small Samples of Female Sex Offenders With Prepubescent Versus Postpubescent Victims.

    PubMed

    Pflugradt, Dawn M; Allen, Bradley P

    2015-01-01

    The general consensus among researchers is that the prevalence of sexual paraphilias among female sexual offenders is low relative to male sexual offenders (Cortoni & Gannon, 2013). In addition, there is very limited information about gender specific paraphilic behaviors and characteristics pertaining to females who commit sexual assaults (Pflugradt & Allen, 2014). This study examined the characteristics of female, solo sexual offenders who sexually assaulted prepubescent (n = 14) and postpubescent (n = 15) children. A content analysis was utilized to examine their psychological characteristics. Nonparametric analysis indicated that significantly more offenders with prepubescent victims had multiple paraphilias, poor cognitive problem-solving, noncompliance with supervision, and negative social influences. Limitations and future research directions are discussed. PMID:26340074

  18. Intimacy, loneliness and sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Marshall, W L

    1989-01-01

    As part of a general theory of sexual offending, it is suggested that the failure to achieve intimacy in relations with adults produces emotional loneliness, which leads to an aggressive disposition, and a tendency to pursue sex with diverse partners in the hope of finding intimacy through sexuality or through less threatening partners. The development of intimacy and its benefits are described, as are the consequences that befall those who fail to achieve it. The history of sexual offenders illustrates why they fail to develop the attitudes and skills necessary to attain intimacy, and why this failure leads to sexual abuse. Finally, suggestions are made for the modification of programs for the assessment and treatment of sexual offenders, in order to include problems of intimacy and loneliness.

  19. A linguistic analysis of grooming strategies of online child sex offenders: Implications for our understanding of predatory sexual behavior in an increasingly computer-mediated world.

    PubMed

    Black, Pamela J; Wollis, Melissa; Woodworth, Michael; Hancock, Jeffrey T

    2015-06-01

    There is a large body of evidence to suggest that child sex offenders engage in grooming to facilitate victimization. It has been speculated that this step-by-step grooming process is also used by offenders who access their underage victims online; however, little research has been done to examine whether there are unique aspects of computer-mediated communication that impact the traditional face-to-face grooming process. This study considered the similarities and differences in the grooming process in online environments by analyzing the language used by online offenders when communicating with their victims. The transcripts of 44 convicted online offenders were analyzed to assess a proposed theory of the online grooming process (O'Connell, 2003). Using a stage-based approach, computerized text analysis examined the types of language used in each stage of the offender-victim interaction. The transcripts also were content analyzed to examine the frequency of specific techniques known to be employed by both face-to-face and online offenders, such as flattery. Results reveal that while some evidence of the strategies used by offenders throughout the grooming process are present in online environments, the order and timing of these stages appear to be different. The types (and potential underlying pattern) of strategies used in online grooming support the development of a revised model for grooming in online environments.

  20. The case for mandatory HIV testing of active duty sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Lott, C M

    1994-05-01

    As of May 1993, at least 23 states had passed laws permitting, or requiring, human immunodeficiency virus testing of sexual offenders. Several others have recently passed, or are considering, such legislation. At present, no such specific requirement exists under the Uniform Code of Military Justice. This paper presents an overview of the competing Fourth Amendment privacy rights of accused/convicted offenders, victims' rights, the usefulness and validity of such testing, and the public health mission of the military medical services. In addition, potential tort liability of the armed services is discussed. The author presents arguments supporting mandatory testing of accused offenders meeting minimal "probable cause" requirements, and sharing test results with the physician of complainants/ victims.

  1. Field Validity of the Psychopathy Checklist--Revised in Sex Offender Risk Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrie, Daniel C.; Boccaccini, Marcus T.; Caperton, Jennifer; Rufino, Katrina

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have concluded that scores from Hare's (2003) Psychopathy Checklist--Revised (PCL-R) predict reoffense among sexual offenders, but most of those studies examined the predictive validity of scores from trained research staff, not clinicians in the field scoring the measure as part of actual forensic assessments. Therefore, we…

  2. Child Sexual Abusers' Views on Treatment: A Study of Convicted and Imprisoned Adult Male Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colton, Matthew; Roberts, Susan; Vanstone, Maurice

    2009-01-01

    In spite of an increasing focus on the assessment and treatment of sexual offenders over the past two decades, much debate persists as to the effectiveness of treatment in reducing recidivism. Given the dearth of research on offenders' perspectives in this area and the potential for offenders' views to inform the development of effective…

  3. The Validity and Reliability of the Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offender Version: Assessing Sex Offender Risk and Evaluating Therapeutic Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.; Nicholaichuk, Terry; Gordon, Audrey

    2007-01-01

    The Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offender version (VRS-SO) is a rating scale designed to assess risk and predict sexual recidivism, to measure and link treatment changes to sexual recidivism, and to inform the delivery of sexual offender treatment. The VRS-SO comprises 7 static and 17 dynamic items empirically or conceptually linked to sexual…

  4. Aftercare programs for reducing recidivism among juvenile and young adult offenders: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    James, Chrissy; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Asscher, Jessica J; De Roo, Anne Katrien; der Laan, Peter H van

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this meta-analytic study, including 22 studies and 5764 participants, was to examine the effects of aftercare programs on recidivism in juvenile and young adult offenders released from correctional institutions. The studies had to be (quasi-)experimental, with the control group receiving 'care as usual' or no treatment. Recidivism was measured by re-arrests and/or reconvictions and was based on official reports. Although the overall effect size for aftercare programs was generally small (d=.12), moderator analyses indicated more substantial effects and showed that aftercare is most effective if it is well-implemented and consists of individual instead of group treatment, and if it is aimed at older and high-risk youth. Whereas the treatment duration and moment of starting the aftercare program were not related to the program's effectiveness, more intensive aftercare programs were associated with lower recidivism rates.

  5. Comment on "Review of the Role of Two Antilibidinal Drugs in the Treatment of Sex Offenders with Mental Retardation" and Response to Waterman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterman, Laura J.; Cooper, A. J.

    1995-01-01

    This comment on an article by A. J. Cooper rejects the suggestion that a mentally retarded youth's playing of a "sexual game" with a child may be innocuous. Cooper reaffirms that such "sex offending" is usually merely a crude attempt to fulfill normal sexual impulses in the context of poor adaptive behavior skills, sexual naivety, and social…

  6. The effects of age, authority, and gender on perceptions of statutory rape offenders.

    PubMed

    Sahl, Daniel; Keene, Jennifer Reid

    2012-12-01

    Using a sample of 2,838 students from a Southwestern university in the United States, the authors examine the effect of respondent's gender, the adult's gender, the age gap between the adult and teen, and the adult's authority, on students' perceptions of vignettes describing adult-teen sexual relationships. Specifically, the authors investigate four dependent variables related to perceptions of the crime: the adult offender's emotional motivation, whether the adult is a sexual predator, whether the adult should have limited interactions with children, and whether the adult should be included on a sex offender registry. ANOVA analysis revealed that a large age gap between the adult and teen, the presence of authority in the relationship, and respondent's gender were significant predictors of perceptions of the offender as a predator and sex offender. The offender's gender significantly predicted respondents' perceived motivations but had no effect on opinions regarding sex offender registration. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for perceptions of statutory rape.

  7. How useful are psychometric scores in predicting recidivism for treated sex offenders?

    PubMed

    Barnett, Georgia D; Wakeling, Helen C; Mandeville-Norden, Rebecca; Rakestrow, Janine

    2012-05-01

    This study examined the relationship between psychometric test scores, psychometric test profiles, and sexual and/or violent reconviction. A sample of 3,402 convicted sexual offenders who attended a probation service-run sexual offender treatment programme in the community completed a battery of psychometric tests pre- and posttreatment. Using Cox regression, posttreatment scores on measures of self-esteem, an ability to relate to fictional characters, and recognition of risk factors were, individually, predictive of recidivism. When psychometric tests were grouped into dynamic risk domains, only the pretreatment scores of the domain labelled socioaffective functioning (SAF) predicted recidivism and added predictive power to a static risk assessment. The number of risk domains that were dysfunctional pretreatment also predicted recidivism outcome; however, this did not add predictive power to a static risk assessment tool. Possible explanations for the superiority of pre- over posttreatment scores in predicting reconviction are discussed, and directions for further research considered.

  8. Recidivism risk factors are correlated with a history of psychiatric hospitalization among sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung C; Hanson, R Karl

    2016-08-01

    Sexual offenders are more likely to have a history of psychiatric hospitalization compared with the general population. This finding suggests that a history of psychiatric hospitalization is a plausible risk factor for the initiation of sexual crimes. It is less clear, however, whether psychiatric hospitalization is associated with risk factors for criminal recidivism. Consequently, the current study examined the correlates of psychiatric hospitalization and its relevance for risk assessment in a sample of sexual offenders on community supervision (N = 947). In this sample, a history of psychiatric hospitalization significantly increased the rate of sexual recidivism (hazard ratio = 1.95). After controlling for well-established risk factors, however, the association was no longer statistically significant. Consequently, this study supported an indirect effect of a history of psychiatric hospitalization, such that the association between psychiatric symptoms and recidivism was mediated by criminogenic needs (e.g., poor general self-regulation, loneliness, and social rejection). Replication studies are needed to confirm this association, and to further understand the link between mental illness and recidivism for sexual offenders. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27504645

  9. Recidivism risk factors are correlated with a history of psychiatric hospitalization among sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung C; Hanson, R Karl

    2016-08-01

    Sexual offenders are more likely to have a history of psychiatric hospitalization compared with the general population. This finding suggests that a history of psychiatric hospitalization is a plausible risk factor for the initiation of sexual crimes. It is less clear, however, whether psychiatric hospitalization is associated with risk factors for criminal recidivism. Consequently, the current study examined the correlates of psychiatric hospitalization and its relevance for risk assessment in a sample of sexual offenders on community supervision (N = 947). In this sample, a history of psychiatric hospitalization significantly increased the rate of sexual recidivism (hazard ratio = 1.95). After controlling for well-established risk factors, however, the association was no longer statistically significant. Consequently, this study supported an indirect effect of a history of psychiatric hospitalization, such that the association between psychiatric symptoms and recidivism was mediated by criminogenic needs (e.g., poor general self-regulation, loneliness, and social rejection). Replication studies are needed to confirm this association, and to further understand the link between mental illness and recidivism for sexual offenders. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. How likely is "likely to reoffend" in sex offender civil commitment trials?

    PubMed

    Knighton, Jefferson C; Murrie, Daniel C; Boccaccini, Marcus T; Turner, Darrel B

    2014-06-01

    Many sexually violent predator (SVP) laws are ambiguous regarding the degree of reoffense risk that would indicate that an offender is sufficiently "likely to reoffend" to justify civil commitment. We review how SVP statutes operationalize likelihood of reoffending. We then examine what likelihood of recidivism actual SVP jurors considered to indicate that an offender was likely to reoffend. Real jurors (N = 153) from 14 actual SVP hearings completed a questionnaire after deliberating to a verdict. Most jurors (81.7%) considered a 15% estimated chance of recidivism to mean that the respondent was "likely" to reoffend, and many (53.6%) even considered a 1% chance to indicate likely reoffense. Jurors who heard lower risk estimates in trials were more likely to report that a low chance of recidivism (as low as 1%) indicated an offender was likely to reoffend. Results suggest that jurors view risk more in terms of the severity of potential harm than in terms of strict statistical probability. Results also suggest that when laws give jurors discretion to define tolerable risk, jurors consider even a statistically low degree of risk intolerable.

  11. Sex Suffers for Younger Adults After Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160722.html Sex Suffers for Younger Adults After Heart Attack Lack ... who don't talk to their doctors about sex in the first few weeks after a heart ...

  12. Effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate on subjective arousal, arousal to erotic stimulation, and nocturnal penile tumescence in male sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Wincze, J P; Bansal, S; Malamud, M

    1986-08-01

    Three chronic pedophiliac sex offenders were treated individually with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) over a minimum of 3 months. Genital and subjective response to erotic stimulation, nocturnal penile tumescence, self-reporting of sexual urges, and testosterone levels were recorded repeatedly throughout the study. A single-subject reversal design was used and medication was administered through a double-blind procedure. The results showed that self-report of arousal outside of a laboratory setting was unreliable as a measure of the drug effect. In a laboratory setting, however, there appeared to be a significant reduction in the report of arousal to erotic stimuli while genital arousal decreased only slightly. Reversal of these responses occurred in only one subject during a final placebo phase. Nocturnal penile tumescence was significantly decreased during MPA administration and appeared to be related to decreases in total testosterone.

  13. Variants of psychopathy in adult male offenders: A latent profile analysis.

    PubMed

    Mokros, Andreas; Hare, Robert D; Neumann, Craig S; Santtila, Pekka; Habermeyer, Elmar; Nitschke, Joachim

    2015-05-01

    As measured with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), psychopathy is a dimensional construct underpinned by 4 correlated factors: Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle, and Antisocial. Theorists and clinicians (e.g., Karpman and Arieti) have posited 2 variants of "primary" or "true" psychopathy, both distinct from so-called "secondary" or "pseudopsychopathy." We used latent profile analysis to determine if homogeneous classes exist within a sample of 1,451 male offenders with high PCL-R scores (≥ 27). The 4 PCL-R factors were the dependent variables for clustering. A solution with 3 latent classes showed a better fit to the data than did a unitary model without latent classes. Tentative labels for the latent classes are Manipulative (Latent Class 1 [LC1]), Aggressive (Latent Class 2 [LC2]), and Sociopathic (Latent Class 3 [LC3]). The latter class represented an antisocial group that lacked the emotional detachment observed in the other 2 groups. We propose that LC1 and LC2 reflect phenotypic variations on a theme of the traditional construct of psychopathy, and that LC3 is consistent with conceptions of antisocial personality disorder and sociopathy. Replication and external classification with an independent data set of 497 adult male offenders again yielded clearly separable clusters, as well as meaningful differences or trends among latent classes on education, intelligence, symptoms of antisocial personality disorder, and self-reported psychopathic traits and negative affect. The conceptualization of psychopathy in terms of manipulative and aggressive variants is consistent with clinical theory and is empirically grounded. PMID:25643206

  14. Psychosocial profile of Swiss sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Curtin, F; Niveau, G

    1998-07-01

    Background data on psychosocial characteristics of sexual offenders are sparse in Europe. From 67 experts' reports done between 1982 and 1995 in Geneva, Switzerland, demographic, criminological and psychiatric characteristics were collected for three groups of sexual offenders: offenders against adults, offenders against non-relative minors (< 18 yr), and offenders against minors with incest. The results showed that the offenders against adults were younger (p = 0.02), more frequently single (p = 0.0007) and with a lower educational level (p = 0.05) than the offenders against minors. Incest offenders had no prior conviction compared with 50% of the other offenders. Violence was more often used by offenders against adults (86%) than by offenders against minors (45%) (p = 0.005). About two-thirds of the sexual offenders had no psychiatric history, but a personality disorder (mainly borderline) was diagnosed in half of the offenders. A history of sexual abuse during childhood was reported by a third of the offenders against minors and by 5% of the offenders against adults (p = 0.04). It is concluded that a low socio-economic status and social isolation characterized offenders against adults, whereas offenders against minors had a relatively normal psychosocial profile. PMID:9670495

  15. Ethics and the treatment of sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Mela, Mansfield; Ahmed, A G

    2014-06-01

    Clinicians in sex offender treatment programs always encounter the need to balance the best interests of sex offenders and the safety needs of the community. The protection of the community often takes primacy, resulting in violation of traditional mental health codes of ethics. These ethical dilemmas have generated debates in the academic community. To minimize ethical dilemmas, clinicians in sex offender treatment programs need to acknowledge the conflicts, adhere to safeguards, and thoughtfully address the challenges with profession-specific ethical values and codes. This article reviews ethical principles in relation to conceptualization of sex offenders and their assessment and treatment and research involving sex offenders.

  16. Bullying in Childhood, Externalizing Behaviors, and Adult Offending: Evidence from a 30-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David M.; Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the developmental processes linking childhood bullying to criminal offending in adulthood, using data from a 30-year longitudinal study. The linkages between bullying in childhood and three criminal offending outcomes in adulthood were estimated both before and after control for a range of confounding factors. A series of…

  17. Clinical and benefit--cost outcomes of teaching a mindfulness-based procedure to adult offenders with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nirbhay N; Lancioni, Giulio E; Winton, Alan S W; Singh, Ashvind N; Adkins, Angela D; Singh, Judy

    2008-09-01

    The effects of a mindfulness-based procedure, called Meditation on the Soles of the Feet, were evaluated as a cognitive-behavioral intervention for physical aggression in 6 offenders with mild intellectual disabilities. They were taught a simple meditation technique that required them to shift their attention and awareness from the precursors of aggression to the soles of their feet, a neutral point on their body. Results showed that physical and verbal aggression decreased substantially, no Stat medication or physical restraint was required, and there were no staff or peer injuries. Benefit-cost analysis of lost days of work and cost of medical and rehabilitation because of injury caused by these individuals in both the 12 months prior to and following mindfulness-based training showed a 95.7% reduction in costs. This study suggests that this procedure may be a clinically effective and cost-effective method of enabling adult offenders with intellectual disabilities to control their aggression.

  18. Reasons for Non-Suicidal Self-Harm in Adult Male Offenders With and Without Borderline Personality Traits.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Kathryn Jane; Dodsworth, Jo; Klonsky, E David

    2016-01-01

    The presented study aimed to advance understanding of the reasons for non-suicidal self-harm (NSSH) in adult male offenders, with and without borderline personality traits. 179 offenders completed self-report measures of NSSH and other clinical constructs, with 42 being identified as having self-harmed. Results were consistent with past research and supported the relative importance of intrapersonal over interpersonal functions, but also highlight that self-harm is performed rarely for one type of reason. The results also show that the presence of borderline personality traits increases the likelihood of endorsing a range of interpersonal reasons. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the range of reasons for engaging in NSSH to help manage the behaviour within the prison.

  19. Demographic and Motivation Differences Among Online Sex Offenders by Type of Offense: An Exploration of Routine Activities Theories.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Jordana N; Jasinski, Jana L

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the relationship between online sexual offenders' demographic background and characteristics indicative of motivation and offense type. Specifically, we investigate whether these characteristics can distinguish different online sexual offender groups from one another as well as inform routine activity theorists on what potentially motivates perpetrators. Using multinomial logistic regression, this study found that online sexual offenders' demographic backgrounds and characteristics indicative of motivation do vary by offense types. Two important implications of this study are that the term "online sexual offender" encompasses different types of offenders, including some who do not align with mainstream media's characterization of "predators," and that the potential offender within routine activity theory can be the focus of empirical investigation rather than taken as a given in research.

  20. The Lived Experience of the Adolescent Sex Offender: A Phenomenological Case Study.

    PubMed

    Gerhard-Burnham, Beth; Underwood, Lee A; Speck, Kathryn; Williams, Cyrus; Merino, Carrie; Crump, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Treatment for adolescents with sexually maladaptive behaviors is a continuing intervention that is changing and developing as greater understanding about this population of adolescents is obtained. The majority of treatment programs for adolescent sexually maladaptive behavior contain programming components that include cognitive distortions/thinking errors. Interviews including a conceptual mapping exercise were conducted with four adolescents adjudicated to a secure care program for sexual behaviors. All four boys completed an interview and a conceptual map of their perceived experiences as an adolescent with sexual maladaptive behaviors. All interviews were audio recorded. Analysis of the interviews and conceptual mappings yielded five themes present in the boys' experience as well as a consideration of the role early trauma may have in the establishment of cognitive distortion development. Contributing environmental and familial factors also play an important part in sustaining cognitive distortion. Main themes include: loss of responsible father or father figure, inability to regulate emotion, lack of personal and parental boundaries, and early exposure to pornography. The contributing influence of responsible male father figures may play an even greater role in the lives of young males than originally thought. How the adolescent inaccurately perceives his environment--in essence what he tells himself and continues to tell himself to make sense of his world--are building blocks in the development and continuation of thinking errors/cognitive distortions used to commit and justify sexual offending behaviors. PMID:26828129

  1. The identification and management of ADHD offenders within the criminal justice system: a consensus statement from the UK Adult ADHD Network and criminal justice agencies.

    PubMed

    Young, Susan J; Adamou, Marios; Bolea, Blanca; Gudjonsson, Gisli; Müller, Ulrich; Pitts, Mark; Thome, Johannes; Asherson, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The UK Adult ADHD Network (UKAAN) was founded by a group of mental health specialists who have experience delivering clinical services for adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) within the National Health Service (NHS). UKAAN aims to support mental health professionals in the development of services for adults with ADHD by the promotion of assessment and treatment protocols. One method of achieving these aims has been to sponsor conferences and workshops on adult ADHD.This consensus statement is the result of a Forensic Meeting held in November 2009, attended by senior representatives of the Department of Health (DoH), Forensic Mental Health, Prison, Probation, Courts and Metropolitan Police services. The objectives of the meeting were to discuss ways of raising awareness about adult ADHD, and its recognition, assessment, treatment and management within these respective services. Whilst the document draws on the UK experience, with some adaptations it can be used as a template for similar local actions in other countries. It was concluded that bringing together experts in adult ADHD and the Criminal Justice System (CJS) will be vital to raising awareness of the needs of ADHD offenders at every stage of the offender pathway. Joint working and commissioning within the CJS is needed to improve awareness and understanding of ADHD offenders to ensure that individuals are directed to appropriate care and rehabilitation. General Practitioners (GPs), whilst ideally placed for early intervention, should not be relied upon to provide this service as vulnerable offenders often have difficulty accessing primary care services. Moreover once this hurdle has been overcome and ADHD in offenders has been identified, a second challenge will be to provide treatment and ensure continuity of care. Future research must focus on proof of principle studies to demonstrate that identification and treatment confers health gain, safeguards individual's rights, improves

  2. Using behavior-analytic implicit tests to assess sexual interests among normal and sex-offender populations

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Bryan; O’Reilly, Anthony; Gavin, Amanda; Ruiz, Maria R.; Arancibia, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    Background The development of implicit tests for measuring biases and behavioral predispositions is a recent development within psychology. While such tests are usually researched within a social-cognitive paradigm, behavioral researchers have also begun to view these tests as potential tests of conditioning histories, including in the sexual domain. Objective The objective of this paper is to illustrate the utility of a behavioral approach to implicit testing and means by which implicit tests can be built to the standards of behavioral psychologists. Design Research findings illustrating the short history of implicit testing within the experimental analysis of behavior are reviewed. Relevant parallel and overlapping research findings from the field of social cognition and on the Implicit Association Test are also outlined. Results New preliminary data obtained with both normal and sex offender populations are described in order to illustrate how behavior-analytically conceived implicit tests may have potential as investigative tools for assessing histories of sexual arousal conditioning and derived stimulus associations. Conclusion It is concluded that popular implicit tests are likely sensitive to conditioned and derived stimulus associations in the history of the test-taker rather than ‘unconscious cognitions’, per se. PMID:24693346

  3. Integrating Theory and Research: The Development of a Research-Based Treatment Program for Juvenile Male Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calley, Nancy G.

    2007-01-01

    A research-based treatment model designed to effectively address identified factors related to juvenile sexual offending behaviors is presented. Current research, theory, and national standards related to juvenile sexual offending are each explored with the treatment model reflecting an integration of these 3 components. The use of counseling…

  4. Criminal offenders residing in long-term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Bledsoe, Wes

    2006-01-01

    As a result of its investigative analysis, A Perfect Cause is attempting to heighten awareness of this significant issue confronting the disabled and elderly living in America's long-term facilities. This includes confronting the many related myths such as the belief that elderly offenders and disabled and incapacitated offenders do not pose a threat, that child molesters do not pose a threat to disabled adults or elderly residents, that only sex offenders pose a threat, and that nursing homes are not capable of housing criminal offenders with nonoffenders. Additional awareness and investigation is urgently needed to facilitate policy changes at all levels. Such action will help ensure the safety of facility residents who are currently at ongoing risk.

  5. Sex Differences in the Longitudinal Prediction of Adult Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton-Smith, B.; Rosenberg, B. G.

    This paper deals with two sets of data-one that fails to find any long-term sex differences in adults, and another which seems to find such differences. The Berkeley Guidance Study offers longitudinal data in which no variables differentiate between the two sexes at all age levels. From these results, the authors conclude that the normal course of…

  6. Treatment of sex offenders with antiandrogenic medication: conceptualization, review of treatment modalities, and preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Berlin, F S; Meinecke, C F

    1981-05-01

    Sexual deviation disorders, or paraphilias, are diagnosable psychiatric syndromes manifested by 1) recurrent fantasies about deviant sex, 2) intense associated cravings, and 3) stereotypic behavioral responses. Pedophiles seek out children in response to their erotic thoughts and urges, whereas exhibitionists expose themselves. Paraphiliac syndromes ordinarily follow a chronic course and may be associated with biological pathology, but etiological factors are poorly understood. Treatment becomes a consideration when the well-being or rights of others are compromised. Proposed treatments have included psychotherapy, behavior therapy, surgery, and medication. Medroxyprogesterone acetate, which reduces testosterone, may diminish sexual preoccupation and urges, making self-control easier.

  7. Predictors of Heterosexual Casual Sex Among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Wendy; Giordano, Peggy; Longmore, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Casual sex is often associated with the young adult stage in the life course. Most recent research on the prevalence, motives, and consequences of heterosexual casual sex has relied on samples of college students, yet students are only a small and advantaged subset of the young adult population. The current study drew on the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, which was collected in 2006–2007 and included young adults (ages 18–24 years) whose trajectories reflected a wider spectrum of educational experiences (N = 1,023). We moved beyond prior work by examining both frequency and type of heterosexual casual sex: lifetime vaginal, lifetime oral, and recent vaginal sex. We found that young adults enrolled or who graduated from 4-year educational institutions reported fewer casual sex partners on all three measures compared to participants with-out a high school degree and those with some college experience. Sexual attitudes were key factors mediating the association between educational status and casual sex behavior. These results indicate that programs aimed at encouraging healthy sexual behavior should target individuals who are at risk of not graduating high school because they are at greatest risk of frequent casual sex partners. PMID:23297151

  8. Dissociation and Variability of Adult Attachment Dimensions and Early Maladaptive Schemas in Sexual and Violent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Elina; Beech, Anthony R.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of constructs that may indicate the presence of disorganized attachment style in sexual and violent offenders. Constructs measured were dissociation, variability on self-report measures of attachment style and early maladaptive schemas, and variability in observed behavior. Data on variability…

  9. Sexualization and lifestyle impulsivity: clinically valid discriminators in sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Eher, Reinhard; Neuwirth, Wolfgang; Fruehwald, Stefan; Frottier, Patrick

    2003-08-01

    Following clinical observations in this study a comparison was undertaken between nonsexualized rapists, sexualized rapists, and pedophilic child molesters in terms of psychometric measures, criminological data, and DSM-IV diagnoses following the authors' hypotheses that nonsexualized and sexualized rapists differ in respect of psychiatric comorbidity and criminal history and sexualized rapists and pedophilic child molesters are more similar as regards to psychiatric comorbidity (anxiety, depression, and aggression) and criminal history variables than nonsexualized and sexualized rapists are. Preliminary findings confirmed the hypotheses: the authors found significant differences between paraphilic and sexualized sex offenders on one hand--regardless whether they had offended against minors or adults--and a group of sex offenders exhibiting a history of high lifestyle impulsivity on the other hand. From a psychiatric clinical point of view, paraphilic or sexualized rapists could be shown to resemble more the pedophilic child molesters. Therapeutic approaches should take these findings into account. PMID:12971185

  10. Sex Education for Deaf-Blind Youths and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingraham, Cynthia L.; Vernon, McCay; Clemente, Brenda; Olney, Linda

    2000-01-01

    This article describes a model sex education program developed for youths and adults who are deafblind by the Helen Keller National Center for Deaf-Blind Youths and Adults. In addition, it also discusses major related issues and presents general recommendations and a resource for further information. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/CR)

  11. Youth Who Sexual Offended

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Li Lian; Zeng, Gerald; Teoh, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increased focus on understanding youth sexual offending in recent years, but there has been limited empirical research on the causes, pathways, and treatment of youth who have sexually offended—especially within a non-Western context. The Good Lives and Self-Regulation Models have often been used to understand and rehabilitate adult sexual offenders, but (unfortunately) there is scant research on youth who sexually offended using these models. The present study aims to describe the different primary goods that are associated with youth sexual offending behaviors in an Asian context. In addition, the study sought to explore whether the age of victim (child vs. nonchild) and nature of sexual offense (penetrative vs. nonpenetrative) influenced the youth’s engagement in offense pathways. The results suggest that pleasure, relatedness, and inner peace were the primary human goods that were most sought after by a sample of 168 youth who sexually offended in Singapore. In addition, offender classification (in relation to the age of victim and nature of sexual offense) influenced the pathways to sexual offending. Therefore, these findings have important clinical implications for assessment, management, and intervention planning for youth who sexually offended. PMID:24048701

  12. Juveniles who sexually offend: recommending a treatment program and level of care.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, R Gregg; Letourneau, Elizabeth J

    2011-07-01

    Specialized interventions for juveniles who have committed sex offenses have been widely available for 25 years. These interventions initially were based largely on adult sex offender interventions, with little consideration of developmental and other differences that distinguish juveniles from adult offenders. More recently, interventions have been developed that address youth-specific factors associated with problem sexual behaviors and that include a stronger family focus. This article reviews the history of intervention approaches, summarizes specialized evaluation methods and addresses the assessment of juvenile recidivism risk. PMID:21683910

  13. Sex offending and sexual appetite: the clinical and theoretical relevance of hypersexual desire.

    PubMed

    Kafka, Martin P

    2003-08-01

    Disinhibited sexual desire, clinically manifested as hypersexual desire disorders, can be operationally defined by considering three behavioral domains associated with sexual motivation or appetitive behavior: (a) sexual preoccupation (time/day consumed by fantasies, urges, and activities), (b) the repetitive frequency of enacted sexual behavior (total sexual outlet/week), and (c) adverse consequences associated with repetitive sexual behavior: Data are presented suggesting that clinical samples of males with paraphilias, paraphilia-related disorders, and sexual coercion may be associated with disinhibited sexual appetite. These conditions need to be addressed by an integrated combination of psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacologic interventions that specifically target disinhibited sexual appetitive behaviors, their antecedents, and consequences. Although combination therapies (empirically based specific psychotherapies in conjunction with psychopharmacological treatments) have demonstrated superior efficacy in many Axis I psychiatric disorders, such combination therapies to reduce paraphilias, paraphilia-related disorders, and adult sexual coercion are currently underutilized in both North and South America and Europe.

  14. Using tax parcels to select a location-based sample: an illustration that examines residents' awareness of sex offenders in neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Craun, Sarah W; Freisthler, Bridget

    2008-08-01

    Social science research is increasingly considering place when examining social programs and policies with a spatial component. A specific research challenge involving spatial policies is how to select a sample of individuals based on their geographic locations. This article illustrates the use of geographic information systems, tax parcels, and mail surveys to target residents in varied geographic areas. A provided example demonstrates how researchers obtained a sample of respondents living within one tenth of a mile of multiple registered sex offenders. The challenges of using tax parcels to obtain addresses for apartments and mobile home parks are also explored.

  15. Recognition and Sex Categorization of Adults' and Children's Faces: Examining Performance in the Absence of Sex-Stereotyped Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Heather A.; Barett, Susan E.; Spence, Melanie J.; O'Toole, Alice J.; Cheng, Yi D.; Brooke, Jessica

    2000-01-01

    Investigated 7-year-olds', 9-year-olds', and adults' ability to classify children's and adults' faces by sex using only biological based internal facial structure. Found that participants categorized adult faces by sex at accuracy levels varying from just above chance (7-year-olds) to nearly perfect (adults). All groups were less accurate for…

  16. A Comparison of the Adult Performance Levels of Women Offenders in the Texas Department of Corrections and Free-World Women in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitson, Karin Stork

    The functional competencies of 131 women offenders incarcerated in Texas were assessed and than compared to the functional competencies of 868 free-world women in Texas surveyed during the Adult Performance Level (APL) Project. The findings support the following conclusions: (1) women in the free-world are more functionally competent than women…

  17. Student Sex: More or Less Risky than Other Young Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lorraine; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Young, Honor

    2015-01-01

    Sexually active young adults are at an increased risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or experiencing an unplanned pregnancy. Sexual behaviours such as inconsistent condom use, multiple partners and casual sex are known risk factors for negative sexual health outcomes. Sexually active higher education students are classified as…

  18. Sex Differences in the Manifestation of ADHD in Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedele, David A.; Lefler, Elizabeth K.; Hartung, Cynthia M.; Canu, Will H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Given the mixed literature in the area, the aim of the current study was to determine whether sex differences exist in inattention, hyperactivity, and impairment in college adults with ADHD. Method: Individuals from three universities were recruited for the study. Participants with (n = 164) and without ADHD (n = 710) completed on-line…

  19. Attractiveness in Young Children: Sex-Differentiated Reactions of Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leinbach, Mary Driver; Fagot, Beverly I.

    1991-01-01

    Attractiveness ratings of 50 children (26 males and 24 females) aged 12-38 months are studied in relation to adults' socializing behavior and attitude toward them. Correlations between attractiveness scores and child behavior reflect sex differences. A greater impact of attractiveness on girls' development than boys is noted. (SLD)

  20. Developmental Risk Factors for Sexual Offending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…

  1. Characteristics of females who sexually offend: a comparison of solo and co-offenders.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Steven M; Williams, Rebecca; Elliott, Ian A; Eldridge, Hilary J; Ashfield, Sherry; Beech, Anthony R

    2015-06-01

    Although recent typologies of female sexual offenders have recognized the importance of having a co-offender, the clinical characteristics of solo and co-female sexual offenders remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to compare solo (n = 20) and co- (n = 20) female sexual offenders on a variety of clinical characteristics. It was found that although solo and co-offenders reported similar developmental experiences and psychological dispositions, differences were found in environmental niche, offense preceding, and positive factors. Specifically, solo offenders demonstrated a greater presence of personal vulnerabilities including mental health and substance abuse difficulties. Co-offenders reported a greater presence of environmentally based factors, including a current partner who was a known sex offender and involvement with antisocial peers. It is suggested that these results have implications for understanding assessment and intervention needs for these groups of sexual offenders.

  2. Effects of offender motivation, victim gender, and participant gender on perceptions of rape victims and offenders.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Damon; Angelone, D J; Kohlberger, Brittany; Hirschman, Richard

    2009-09-01

    The primary purpose of the present study was to examine whether knowledge of the motivation of an offender can influence participant perceptions of victim and perpetrator responsibility for a sexual assault. In addition, the synergistic influence of victim gender and participant gender with offender motivation was explored. Participants were 171 men and women from a small Northeastern college exposed to a stimulus in which a rapist's motivation was varied as either sexual or violent. Participants were more certain that the stimulus described a rape, recommended a longer prison sentence for the offender, and assigned less blame to the victim when exposed to an offender motivated by violence as opposed to an offender motivated by sex. Offender motivation also interacted with participant gender and victim gender on participants' perceptions of victim blame and offender responsibility. The results suggest that an offender's motivation for rape can influence perceptions of the offender's and victim's responsibility for the assault.

  3. Sex-biased survival predicts adult sex ratio variation in wild birds

    PubMed Central

    Székely, Tamás; Liker, András; Freckleton, Robert P.; Fichtel, Claudia; Kappeler, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Adult sex ratio (ASR) is a central concept in population demography and breeding system evolution, and has implications for population viability and biodiversity conservation. ASR exhibits immense interspecific variation in wild populations, although the causes of this variation have remained elusive. Using phylogenetic analyses of 187 avian species from 59 families, we show that neither hatching sex ratios nor fledging sex ratios correlate with ASR. However, sex-biased adult mortality is a significant predictor of ASR, and this relationship is robust to 100 alternative phylogenetic hypotheses, and potential ecological and life-history confounds. A significant component of adult mortality bias is sexual selection acting on males, whereas increased reproductive output predicts higher mortality in females. These results provide the most comprehensive insights into ASR variation to date, and suggest that ASR is an outcome of selective processes operating differentially on adult males and females. Therefore, revealing the causes of ASR variation in wild populations is essential for understanding breeding systems and population dynamics. PMID:24966308

  4. Does volunteering for sex offender treatment matter? Using propensity score analysis to understand the effects of volunteerism and treatment on recidivism.

    PubMed

    Grady, Melissa D; Edwards, Daniel; Pettus-Davis, Carrie; Abramson, Jennifer

    2013-08-01

    A common critique of program evaluations of prison-based sex offender treatment holds that the samples inherently show selection bias because the participants typically volunteer for treatment. To address this critique, we used propensity score analysis to assess the influence of volunteerism on treatment effects. We examined recidivism outcomes for a sample of participants who volunteered for treatment, of whom some participated in treatment (n = 161) and some did not (n = 282) and compared these outcomes to the recidivism rate of a matched sample of nonvolunteers for treatment (n = 443). The primary finding is that offenders who volunteered for treatment did not demonstrate any differences in recidivism rates when matched with and compared to inmates who did not volunteer to participate in treatment. Furthermore, our results revealed that there were a number of significant differences between unmatched volunteers and unmatched nonvolunteers, perhaps most importantly in their risk for future recidivism as measured by the STATIC-99 risk assessment. We discuss study strengths and limitations and present the implications of the findings for policy, practice, and research.

  5. Brief Report: The Sexual and Physical Abuse Histories of Offenders with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, W.; Steptoe, L.; Haut, F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Some studies have found higher rates of childhood sexual abuse in sex offenders while others have failed to find such relationships. Method: This study reviews the sexual and physical abuse histories of 156 male sex offenders with intellectual disability (ID), 126 non-sexual male offenders with ID and 27 female offenders with ID.…

  6. A 14- to 24-year longitudinal study of a comprehensive sexual health model treatment program for adolescent sex offenders: predictors of successful completion and subsequent criminal recidivism.

    PubMed

    Seabloom, William; Seabloom, Mary E; Seabloom, Eric; Barron, Robert; Hendrickson, Sharon

    2003-08-01

    The study determines the effectiveness of a sexuality-positive adolescent sexual offender treatment program and examines subsequent criminal recidivism in the three outcome groups (completed, withdrawn, referred). The sample consists of 122 adolescent males and their families (491 individuals). Of the demographic variables, only living situation was significant, such that patients living with parents were more likely to graduate. None of the behavioral variables were found to be significant. Of the treatment variables, length of time in the program and participation in the Family Journey Seminar were included in the final model. When they were included in the model, no other treatment variable were significantly related to probability of graduation. There were no arrests or convictions for sex-related crimes in the population of participants that successfully completed the program. This group was also less likely than the other groups to be arrested (p = 0.014) or convicted (p = 0.004) across all crime categories.

  7. Our minds are made up--don't confuse us with the facts: commentary on policies concerning children with sexual behavior problems and juvenile sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Chaffin, Mark

    2008-05-01

    This commentary examines four common policy-relevant perceptions of teen and preteen sex offenders-high risk, "specialness," homogeneity, and intransigence. Each perception is contrasted with long-standing as well as more current scientific facts. It is argued that public policies for these youth have been fundamentally driven by misperceptions, resulting in a set of well-intentioned but ultimately flawed policies and practices that are unlikely to deliver either child protection or juvenile justice benefits. These include federal and state policies pertaining to public registration and notification, community management, institutional placement, treatment approaches, and treatment standards. The research evidence about these juveniles is considerably more positive than current policies or clinical practices might suggest, and reflects a sharp disconnect between popular policy-relevant perceptions and the facts as we know them about these diverse cases. PMID:18408208

  8. Queering Sex Education: Young Adult Literature with LGBT Content as Complementary Sources of Sex and Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bittner, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the nature of young adult texts as complementary sources of informal queer sex and sexuality education, along with a close reading of a sample of this young adult (YA) literature. LGBT teens are often left out of discussions in sex education classrooms in the United States because of discriminatory curricula, ignorance on the…

  9. Sex hormones and adult hippocampal neurogenesis: Regulation, implications, and potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Rand; Wainwright, Steven R; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-04-01

    Neurogenesis within the adult hippocampus is modulated by endogenous and exogenous factors. Here, we review the role of sex hormones in the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in males and females. The review is framed around the potential functional implications of sex hormone regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, with a focus on cognitive function and mood regulation, which may be related to sex differences in incidence and severity of dementia and depression. We present findings from preclinical studies of endogenous fluctuations in sex hormones relating to reproductive function and ageing, and from studies of exogenous hormone manipulations. In addition, we discuss the modulating roles of sex, age, and reproductive history on the relationship between sex hormones and neurogenesis. Because sex hormones have diverse targets in the central nervous system, we overview potential mechanisms through which sex hormones may influence hippocampal neurogenesis. Lastly, we advocate for a more systematic consideration of sex and sex hormones in studying the functional implications of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

  10. The Effects of Sex-Labelling on Adult-Infant Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Suzy; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    The influence of sex-labelling on adult-infant interactions is explored in this study. It is hypothesized that, when introduced to a single infant identified as either male or female, adults will (1) offer more masculine sex-stereotyped toys to the infant perceived to be male; (2) offer more feminine sex-stereotyped toys to the infant perceived to…

  11. Weapons Used by Juveniles and Adult Offenders in U.S. Parricide Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heide, Kathleen M.; Petee, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    In recent decades, attention has focused on juveniles who kill their parents. Research has indicated that increases in juvenile homicide have been associated with the availability of firearms, but little is known about the weapons juveniles use to kill their parents and whether their weapon usage is different from that of adult children who kill…

  12. The Use of Contingency Management to Affect Learning Performance in Adult Institutionalized Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, John M.

    A description is given of the development and application of contingency management (CM) techniques to the educational performance of a broad cross section of adult, male prison inmates. By most standards, these inmates are judged to be at the lowest rung of the motivational ladder. Draper Correctional Center experimental and demonstration…

  13. Effects of Live Adult Modeled Sex-Inappropriate Play Behavior in a Naturalistic Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Thomas M.

    1976-01-01

    In a naturalistic setting, boys and girls were exposed to a same- or opposite-sex live adult model who played with sex inappropriate toys. The results are explained in terms of the inappropriateness of toy playing for adults and the theoretical importance of adult vs. peer influences. (GO)

  14. Sex Differences in Facial Scanning: Similarities and Dissimilarities between Infants and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennels, Jennifer L.; Cummings, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    When face processing studies find sex differences, male infants appear better at face recognition than female infants, whereas female adults appear better at face recognition than male adults. Both female infants and adults, however, discriminate emotional expressions better than males. To investigate if sex and age differences in facial scanning…

  15. Comparison of Measures of Risk for Recidivism in Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looman, Jan; Abracen, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Data for both sexual and violent recidivism for the Static-99, Risk Matrix 2000 (RM 2000), Rapid Risk Assessment for Sex Offense Recidivism (RRASOR), and Static-2002 are reported for 419 released sexual offenders assessed at the Regional Treatment Centre Sexual Offender Treatment Program. Data are analyzed by offender type as well as the group as…

  16. The criminal histories and later offending of child pornography offenders.

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W

    2005-04-01

    The likelihood that child pornography offenders will later commit a contact sexual offense is unknown. In the present study, we identified a sample of 201 adult male child pornography offenders using police databases and examined their charges or convictions after the index child pornography offense(s). We also examined their criminal records to identify potential predictors of later offenses: 56% of the sample had a prior criminal record, 24% had prior contact sexual offenses, and 15% had prior child pornography offenses. One-third were concurrently charged with other crimes at the time they were charged for child pornography offenses. The average time at risk was 2.5 years; 17% of the sample offended again in some way during this time, and 4% committed a new contact sexual offense. Child pornography offenders with prior criminal records were significantly more likely to offend again in any way during the follow-up period. Child pornography offenders who had committed a prior or concurrent contact sexual offense were the most likely to offend again, either generally or sexually. PMID:15974425

  17. The criminal histories and later offending of child pornography offenders.

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W

    2005-04-01

    The likelihood that child pornography offenders will later commit a contact sexual offense is unknown. In the present study, we identified a sample of 201 adult male child pornography offenders using police databases and examined their charges or convictions after the index child pornography offense(s). We also examined their criminal records to identify potential predictors of later offenses: 56% of the sample had a prior criminal record, 24% had prior contact sexual offenses, and 15% had prior child pornography offenses. One-third were concurrently charged with other crimes at the time they were charged for child pornography offenses. The average time at risk was 2.5 years; 17% of the sample offended again in some way during this time, and 4% committed a new contact sexual offense. Child pornography offenders with prior criminal records were significantly more likely to offend again in any way during the follow-up period. Child pornography offenders who had committed a prior or concurrent contact sexual offense were the most likely to offend again, either generally or sexually.

  18. The Role Healthy Sexuality Plays in Modifying Abusive Behaviours of Adolescent Sex Offenders: Practical Considerations for Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Garry P.; Ohm, Phyllis

    1999-01-01

    Highlights an approach that guides adolescents who have committed sexual offenses to learn healthy/prosocial ways to meet their sexual needs. Article is divided into an overview of literature, review of the sex education component of an intervention program for these adolescents, and discussion of practical considerations for professionals.…

  19. Handedness, criminality, and sexual offending.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, A F

    2001-01-01

    A very large database was used to investigate whether men with a history of criminality and/or sexual offending have a higher incidence of nonright-handedness (NRH) relative to a control sample of nonoffender men. The sample (N>8000) comprised interviews by investigators at the Kinsey Institute for Sex and Reproduction in Indiana. The general offender group and a subsample of sex offenders (e.g. pedophiles) had a significantly higher rate of NRH relative to the control (nonoffender) men. In addition, evidence was found that the general criminality/NRH relationship might result from increased educational difficulties that some nonright-handers experience. In contrast, education was unrelated to the handedness/pedophilia relationship, suggesting that there may be a different mechanism underlying the handedness/pedophile relationship than the handedness/(general) criminality relationship. Finally, as a cautionary note, it is stressed that the effects are small and that NRH should not be used as a marker of criminality.

  20. Mental health assessment of rape offenders

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Jaydip

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need for development of methods of assessment and management of sex offenders (rapists, child sex offenders, other sexual offenders, and murderers) to mount a society-wide battle against the scourge of sexual offences in India. This paper provides an overview of theories, models, and assessment methods of rapists. It draws upon literature from psychiatry, psychology, criminology, probation, and ethics to provide a framework for understanding reasons behind rape, how mental health issues are implicated, what mental health professionals can do to contribute to crime management, and why this is ethically right and proper. PMID:24082243

  1. Clinical and Benefit-Cost Outcomes of Teaching a Mindfulness-Based Procedure to Adult Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Ashvind N.; Adkins, Angela D.; Singh, Judy

    2008-01-01

    The effects of a mindfulness-based procedure, called "Meditation on the Soles of the Feet", were evaluated as a cognitive-behavioral intervention for physical aggression in 6 offenders with mild intellectual disabilities. They were taught a simple meditation technique that required them to shift their attention and awareness from the precursors of…

  2. Does Sex Influence the Diagnostic Evaluation of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, C. Ellie; Murphy, Clodagh M.; McAlonan, Grainne; Robertson, Dene M.; Spain, Debbie; Hayward, Hannah; Woodhouse, Emma; Deeley, P. Quinton; Gillan, Nicola; Ohlsen, J. Chris; Zinkstok, Janneke; Stoencheva, Vladimira; Faulkner, Jessica; Yildiran, Hatice; Bell, Vaughan; Hammond, Neil; Craig, Michael C.; Murphy, Declan G. M.

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether sex influences the diagnostic evaluation of autism spectrum disorder, or whether male and female adults within the spectrum have different symptom profiles. This study reports sex differences in clinical outcomes for 1,244 adults (935 males and 309 females) referred for autism spectrum disorder assessment. Significantly, more…

  3. Children's and Adults' Recall of Sex-Stereotyped Toy Pictures: Effects of Presentation and Memory Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherney, Isabelle D.

    2005-01-01

    Gender schema theories predict a memory bias toward sex-congruent information. The present study examined how presentation of stimuli and encoding conditions influence gender schematic processing in children and adults. One hundred and sixty 5- to 13-year olds and adult males and females viewed 36 sex-stereotyped toy pictures that were presented…

  4. A Review of "Older, Wiser, Sexually Smarter: 30 Sex Ed Lessons for Adults Only"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrity, Joan Mogul

    2010-01-01

    While virtually all sex ed curricula are designed to be used with children, teens and young adults, "Older, Wiser, Sexually Smarter: 30 Sex Ed Lessons for Adults Only" ([C] 2009, Planned Parenthood of Greater Northern New Jersey) offers lessons to help participants fully embrace the possibility of sexual pleasure and intimacy from mid-life through…

  5. Past experiences of adults with disorders of sex development.

    PubMed

    Audí, Laura

    2014-01-01

    When a human being born with any disorder/difference of sex development (DSD) reaches adulthood, the experience lived may be quite varied, depending partly on the age at diagnosis, the underlying cause, physical and health involvement, family circle, health system care received, societal culture and psychological ability to face the process, etc. As affected persons may suffer not only from diverse types of physical differences, but also difficulties in adapting their lives to the most common social mores, international consensus has long advocated a pluridisciplinary care involving different medical specialities. Although healthcare systems have progressively improved, the physical and psychological experiences of these adults may often have been stressful or traumatic, partly due to the 'rarity or low frequency' of their condition, and also to the fact that the person's sexual life is involved. The creation of support groups by affected individuals and their activities have proved extremely rewarding by improving individual well-being and pushing healthcare systems towards higher standards. In this chapter, we present the work of a patient support group in Spain (objectives, activities and opinions) and reflect present views and past experiences of a number of its adult members.

  6. An Offender Typology Based upon Psychoeducational Needs: A Collaborative Climate for Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Mindy; Schafer, Mary Ann

    This study developed a classification model for matching appropriate psychoeducational interventions with specific groups of adolescent sexual offenders. Participants were male juvenile sex offenders incarcerated as wards in the Continuum of Care Sex Offender Treatment Program of the California Department of Corrections. The treatment provided…

  7. Examining the developmental trajectories of adolescent sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Pullman, Lesleigh E; Leroux, Elisabeth J; Motayne, Gregory; Seto, Michael C

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the validity of the sex-plus versus sex-only categorization method for distinguishing between different types of adolescent sex offenders (ASOs; Butler & Seto, 2002). It is hypothesized that this categorization method has utility when attempting to distinguish between generalist and specialist ASOs (Seto & Pullman, 2014). Additionally, further classification of ASOs was attempted using a well known juvenile delinquency classification scheme, early-onset versus late-onset offenders (Moffitt, 1993). The current study was an archival analysis of clinical files from a sample of 158 male ASOs seen for clinical assessment at a Metropolitan Family Court Clinic. Results indicate that sex-plus offenders are more antisocial, exhibit more psychiatric issues, and have greater deficits in general social skills compared to sex-only offenders. Conversely, sex-only offenders were found to have more atypical sexual interests, and were more likely to have greater deficits in romantic relationships compared to sex-plus offenders. Due to a power related limitation, little support was found for the use of the early-onset versus late-onset classification scheme with ASOs. Overall, these results provide further support to the validity of a sex-only versus sex-plus distinction. Given these results mirror those found in the generalist/specialist literature regarding the etiology of ASOs, sex-only and sex-plus offenders may indeed have different etiological pathways: sex-plus offenders are more driven by general antisociality factors, as the generalist perspective suggests, and sex-only offenders are more driven by special factors, as the specialist explanations suggest. PMID:24695320

  8. A method for estimating fall adult sex ratios from production and survival data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wight, H.M.; Heath, R.G.; Geis, A.D.

    1965-01-01

    This paper presents a method of utilizing data relating to the production and survival of a bird population to estimate a basic fall adult sex ratio. This basic adult sex ratio is an average value derived from average production and survival rates. It is an estimate of the average sex ratio about which the fall adult ratios will fluctuate according to annual variations in production and survival. The basic fall adult sex ratio has been calculated as an asymptotic value which is the limit of an infinite series wherein average population characteristics are used as constants. Graphs are provided that allow the determination of basic sex ratios from production and survival data of a population. Where the respective asymptote has been determined, it may be possible to estimate various production and survival rates by use of variations of the formula for estimating the asymptote.

  9. Same-Sex Behavior and Health Indicators of Sexually Experienced Filipino Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chia-Hsin Emily; Gipson, Jessica D; Perez, Tita Lorna; Cochran, Susan D

    2016-08-01

    The Philippines is one of seven countries in which HIV incidence has recently increased-much of this increase has been among men who have sex with men. Despite this trend, knowledge on sexuality and same-sex behaviors in the Philippines is limited. This study examines same-sex behavior, sexual outcomes, substance use, and psychological distress among young adults participating in the 2005 Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS). We use gender-stratified, multivariate models to compare young adults who reported same-sex behaviors and those who did not. Among a cohort of 1,912 Filipino young adults (ages 20-22), 58.2 % were sexually experienced and 15.1 % of them reported same-sex sexual contacts or romantic relationships. Compared to females, more males reported same-sex sexual contact (19.4 vs. 2.3 %) or same-sex romantic relationships (9.2 vs. 4.1 %). Young adults reporting same-sex behavior had higher odds of smoking, drug use, perceived stress, and more sexual partners as compared to their peers. Males who reported same-sex behavior initiated sex earlier than those males who did not report same-sex behaviors. There were no significant differences in depressive distress. Earlier sexual initiation and higher levels of substance use among Filipino young adults engaging in same-sex behavior highlight the need to address unique health issues within this population. Mixed findings for depressive distress and perceived stress indicate that further investigation is needed to explore the potential impacts of same-sex status on mental health outcomes, particularly in lower- and middle-income countries such as the Philippines.

  10. Learning About Sex: The Contemporary Guide for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Gary F.

    This book provides information about sex to help readers, particularly teenagers, clarify their needs and values relating to sex--to understand sex, to deal with their own sexuality constructively and responsibly, and to deal with the sexuality of others in ways that are considerate and helpful. It is designed for either classroom or individual…

  11. Violent offenders in a deaf prison population.

    PubMed

    Miller, Katrina R; Vernon, McCay; Capella, Michele E

    2005-01-01

    Previous research suggested an unexplained difference in the patterns of offending behaviors among deaf people when compared to hearing people. This study, conducted in Texas, compares the incidence and types of violent offenses of a deaf prison population in comparison to the hearing prison population. Sixty-four percent of deaf prisoners were incarcerated for violent offenses in comparison to 49% of the overall state prison offender population. This finding is consistent with previous research. The most significant difference between the populations was found in the category of sexual assault, which represented 32.3% of deaf offenders in contrast to 12.3% of hearing state prison inmates overall. Factors potentially impacting violent offending by deaf persons are their vulnerability to child sexual abuse, use of chemicals, educational histories, and development of language and communication skills. Additionally, there is a widespread lack of accessible intervention and treatment services available to deaf sex offenders across the nation.

  12. Does sex influence the diagnostic evaluation of autism spectrum disorder in adults?

    PubMed

    Wilson, C Ellie; Murphy, Clodagh M; McAlonan, Grainne; Robertson, Dene M; Spain, Debbie; Hayward, Hannah; Woodhouse, Emma; Deeley, P Quinton; Gillan, Nicola; Ohlsen, J Chris; Zinkstok, Janneke; Stoencheva, Vladimira; Faulkner, Jessica; Yildiran, Hatice; Bell, Vaughan; Hammond, Neil; Craig, Michael C; Murphy, Declan Gm

    2016-10-01

    It is unknown whether sex influences the diagnostic evaluation of autism spectrum disorder, or whether male and female adults within the spectrum have different symptom profiles. This study reports sex differences in clinical outcomes for 1244 adults (935 males and 309 females) referred for autism spectrum disorder assessment. Significantly, more males (72%) than females (66%) were diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder of any subtype (x(2) = 4.09; p = 0.04). In high-functioning autism spectrum disorder adults (IQ > 70; N = 827), there were no significant sex differences in severity of socio-communicative domain symptoms. Males had significantly more repetitive behaviours/restricted interests than females (p = 0.001, d = 0.3). A multivariate analysis of variance indicated a significant interaction between autism spectrum disorder subtype (full-autism spectrum disorder/partial-autism spectrum disorder) and sex: in full-autism spectrum disorder, males had more severe socio-communicative symptoms than females; for partial-autism spectrum disorder, the reverse was true. There were no sex differences in prevalence of co-morbid psychopathologies. Sex influenced diagnostic evaluation in a clinical sample of adults with suspected autism spectrum disorder. The sexes may present with different manifestations of the autism spectrum disorder phenotype and differences vary by diagnostic subtype. Understanding and awareness of adult female repetitive behaviours/restricted interests warrant attention and sex-specific diagnostic assessment tools may need to be considered.

  13. Sexual sadism in sexual offenders and sexually motivated homicide.

    PubMed

    Briken, Peer; Bourget, Dominique; Dufour, Mathieu

    2014-06-01

    This article gives a clinically oriented overview of forensically relevant forms of sexual sadism disorder and its specific relationship to sexual homicide. In sexual homicide perpetrators, peculiar patterns of sexual sadism may be a motivational pathway to kill. Sexual sadism increases the risk for reoffending in sexual offenders. Through psychotherapy and pharmacological interventions, treatment of sadistic sex offenders has to consider special characteristics that may be different from those of nonsadistic sex offenders. Many of these offenders share a combination of sexual sadistic motives and an intact self-regulation, sometimes combined with a high level of sexual preoccupation.

  14. Sexual predator civil commitment: a comparison of selected and released offenders.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S

    2004-12-01

    This study compared two groups of sex offenders who were considered for civil commitment under Florida's Jimmy Ryce Act: Two hundred twenty-nine sex offenders who were recommended by forensic evaluators to be civilly committed and 221 sex offenders who were recommended for release. It was hypothesized that selected offenders would be more likely to display risk factors for sex offense recidivism than those who did not meet criteria. Data analyses revealed that selected offenders, as a group, scored significantly higher on actuarial risk assessment instruments. There were also significant differences between the groups on other risk factors that have been empirically correlated with sexual recidivism. Selected offenders had higher frequencies of paraphilia diagnoses and antisocial personality. These findings supported the hypotheses and suggested that evaluators are correctly selecting for civil commitment those sex offenders who have a mental abnormality predisposing them to sexual violence and who are at higher risk for reoffense. PMID:15538023

  15. Less Is More: Using Static-2002R Subscales to Predict Violent and General Recidivism Among Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    Babchishin, Kelly M; Hanson, R Karl; Blais, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Given that sexual offenders are more likely to reoffend with a nonsexual offense than a sexual offense, it is useful to have risk scales that predict general recidivism among sexual offenders. In the current study, we examined the extent to which two commonly used risk scales for sexual offenders (Static-99R and Static-2002R) predict violent and general recidivism, and whether it would be possible to improve predictive accuracy for these outcomes by revising their items. Based on an aggregated sample of 3,536 adult male sex offenders from Canada, the United States, and Europe (average age of 39 years), we found that a scale created from the Age at Release item and the General Criminality subscale of Static-2002R predicted nonsexual violent, any violent, and general recidivism significantly better than Static-99R or Static-2002R total scores. The convergent validity of this new scale (Brief Assessment of Recidivism Risk-2002R [BARR-2002R]) was examined in a new, independent data set of Canadian high-risk adult male sex offenders (N = 360) where it was found to be highly correlated with other risk assessment tools for general recidivism and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), as well as demonstrated similar discrimination and calibration as in the development sample. Instead of using total scores from the Static-99R or Static-2002R, we recommend that evaluators use the BARR-2002R for predicting violent and general recidivism among sex offenders, and for screening for the psychological dimension of antisocial orientation.

  16. Early maladaptive schemas in convicted sexual offenders: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2014-01-01

    Core cognitive schemas may play a role in the vulnerability for sexual offending. Identifying these schemas could help to conceptualize sexual crimes and rehabilitate convicted sexual offenders. The aim of this preliminary study was to explore the relationship between early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) and sexual offending, as well as how rapists and child sex molesters differ in terms of these schemas. Thirty-two men convicted for rape, 33 convicted for child sexual abuse, and 30 non-offenders were evaluated using the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-S3) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Results showed that participants convicted for child sexual abuse presented significantly more schemas from the disconnection/rejection, impaired autonomy/performance, other directness, and over vigilance/inhibition domains than non-offenders, whereas rapists presented more schemas from the impaired autonomy/performance domain than non-offenders. Differences between sex offenders showed that child molesters presented more schemas of pessimism than rapists. Preliminary findings suggested that EMSs may impact sex offender's perceptions about themselves and about the world. Schema-focused therapy (Young, 1990, 1999) may thus be an acceptable approach to sex offender's psychological assessment and intervention. PMID:24268826

  17. Early maladaptive schemas in convicted sexual offenders: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2014-01-01

    Core cognitive schemas may play a role in the vulnerability for sexual offending. Identifying these schemas could help to conceptualize sexual crimes and rehabilitate convicted sexual offenders. The aim of this preliminary study was to explore the relationship between early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) and sexual offending, as well as how rapists and child sex molesters differ in terms of these schemas. Thirty-two men convicted for rape, 33 convicted for child sexual abuse, and 30 non-offenders were evaluated using the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-S3) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Results showed that participants convicted for child sexual abuse presented significantly more schemas from the disconnection/rejection, impaired autonomy/performance, other directness, and over vigilance/inhibition domains than non-offenders, whereas rapists presented more schemas from the impaired autonomy/performance domain than non-offenders. Differences between sex offenders showed that child molesters presented more schemas of pessimism than rapists. Preliminary findings suggested that EMSs may impact sex offender's perceptions about themselves and about the world. Schema-focused therapy (Young, 1990, 1999) may thus be an acceptable approach to sex offender's psychological assessment and intervention.

  18. Examining the criminal history and future offending of child pornography offenders: an extended prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Eke, Angela W; Seto, Michael C; Williams, Jennette

    2011-12-01

    We examined police occurrence and criminal records data for a sample of 201 registered male child pornography offenders originally reported by Seto and Eke (Sex Abus J Res Treat 17:201-210, 2005), extending the average follow-up time for this sample to 5.9 years. In addition, we obtained the same data for another 340 offenders, increasing our full sample to 541 men, with a total average follow-up of 4.1 years. In the extended follow-up of the original sample, 34% of offenders had new charges for any type of reoffense, with 6% charged with a contact sexual offense against a child and an additional 3% charged with historical contact sex offenses (i.e., previously undetected offenses). For the full sample, there was a 32% any recidivism rate; 4% of offenders were charged with new contact sex offences, an additional 2% of offenders were charged with historical contact sex offenses and 7% of offenders were charged with a new child pornography offense. Predictors of new violent (including sexual contact) offending were prior offense history, including violent history, and younger offender age. Approximately a quarter of the sample was sanctioned for a failure on conditional release; in half of these failures, the offenders were in contact with children or used the internet, often to access pornography again.

  19. Sex Role Orientation Across the Adult Life Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaks, Peggy M.; And Others

    It was hypothesized that four different "life lines" would affect sex role orientations, specifically intimacy, parenting, grandparenting, and work. Subjects were 74 men and 43 women, white, upper middle class with a mean education level of 14 years. Each participant completed a demographic questionnaire, the Bem Sex Role Inventory, a Life Events…

  20. Prevalence and Correlates of Sex Exchange Among a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Emilio; Salazar, Marissa; Monjaras, Lidia

    2016-07-01

    The present study examines prevalence and correlates of exchanging sex for drugs, money, food shelter, or other favors (sex exchange) among a nationally representative sample of youth and young adults. Adolescents and young adults (n = 11,620, 53% female, 47% male) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used for the current sample. Participants completed in-home interviews at both waves. Results revealed that sex exchange was reported by 4.9% (n = 569) of the population in wave 2 or wave 3, and 4.6% (n = 26) of those who exchanged sex did so at both waves. More males reported exchanging sex than females (n = 332 versus n = 237). Respondents who reported child sexual abuse were more likely to exchange sex (95% CI 2.51-4.28, p < .05) than respondents who reported any other form of child abuse. Both males and females who engaged in sex exchange were at greater risk for sexually transmitted infections; however, the odds of ever exchanging sex were highest among males who ever had gonorrhea (OR = 6.2; 95% CI 3.75-10.3). Although sex exchange has been studied extensively among homeless and runaway youth, the current study reveals sex exchange also occurs in the general population. PMID:27266400

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of Sex Exchange Among a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Emilio; Salazar, Marissa; Monjaras, Lidia

    2016-07-01

    The present study examines prevalence and correlates of exchanging sex for drugs, money, food shelter, or other favors (sex exchange) among a nationally representative sample of youth and young adults. Adolescents and young adults (n = 11,620, 53% female, 47% male) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used for the current sample. Participants completed in-home interviews at both waves. Results revealed that sex exchange was reported by 4.9% (n = 569) of the population in wave 2 or wave 3, and 4.6% (n = 26) of those who exchanged sex did so at both waves. More males reported exchanging sex than females (n = 332 versus n = 237). Respondents who reported child sexual abuse were more likely to exchange sex (95% CI 2.51-4.28, p < .05) than respondents who reported any other form of child abuse. Both males and females who engaged in sex exchange were at greater risk for sexually transmitted infections; however, the odds of ever exchanging sex were highest among males who ever had gonorrhea (OR = 6.2; 95% CI 3.75-10.3). Although sex exchange has been studied extensively among homeless and runaway youth, the current study reveals sex exchange also occurs in the general population.

  2. Breeding Sex Ratios in Adult Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) May Compensate for Female-Biased Hatchling Sex Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Kelly R.; Dutton, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    For vertebrates with temperature-dependent sex determination, primary (or hatchling) sex ratios are often skewed, an issue of particular relevance to concerns over effects of climate change on populations. However, the ratio of breeding males to females, or the operational sex ratio (OSR), is important to understand because it has consequences for population demographics and determines the capacity of a species to persist. The OSR also affects mating behaviors and mate choice, depending on the more abundant sex. For sea turtles, hatchling and juvenile sex ratios are generally female-biased, and with warming nesting beach temperatures, there is concern that populations may become feminized. Our purpose was to evaluate the breeding sex ratio for leatherback turtles at a nesting beach in St. Croix, USVI. In 2010, we sampled nesting females and later sampled their hatchlings as they emerged from nests. Total genomic DNA was extracted and all individuals were genotyped using 6 polymorphic microsatellite markers. We genotyped 662 hatchlings from 58 females, matching 55 females conclusively to their nests. Of the 55, 42 females mated with one male each, 9 mated with 2 males each and 4 mated with at least 3 males each, for a multiple paternity rate of 23.6%. Using GERUD1.0, we reconstructed parental genotypes, identifying 47 different males and 46 females for an estimated breeding sex ratio of 1.02 males for every female. Thus we demonstrate that there are as many actively breeding males as females in this population. Concerns about female-biased adult sex ratios may be premature, and mate choice or competition may play more of a role in sea turtle reproduction than previously thought. We recommend monitoring breeding sex ratios in the future to allow the integration of this demographic parameter in population models. PMID:24505403

  3. Breeding sex ratios in adult leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) may compensate for female-biased hatchling sex ratios.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Kelly R; Dutton, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    For vertebrates with temperature-dependent sex determination, primary (or hatchling) sex ratios are often skewed, an issue of particular relevance to concerns over effects of climate change on populations. However, the ratio of breeding males to females, or the operational sex ratio (OSR), is important to understand because it has consequences for population demographics and determines the capacity of a species to persist. The OSR also affects mating behaviors and mate choice, depending on the more abundant sex. For sea turtles, hatchling and juvenile sex ratios are generally female-biased, and with warming nesting beach temperatures, there is concern that populations may become feminized. Our purpose was to evaluate the breeding sex ratio for leatherback turtles at a nesting beach in St. Croix, USVI. In 2010, we sampled nesting females and later sampled their hatchlings as they emerged from nests. Total genomic DNA was extracted and all individuals were genotyped using 6 polymorphic microsatellite markers. We genotyped 662 hatchlings from 58 females, matching 55 females conclusively to their nests. Of the 55, 42 females mated with one male each, 9 mated with 2 males each and 4 mated with at least 3 males each, for a multiple paternity rate of 23.6%. Using GERUD1.0, we reconstructed parental genotypes, identifying 47 different males and 46 females for an estimated breeding sex ratio of 1.02 males for every female. Thus we demonstrate that there are as many actively breeding males as females in this population. Concerns about female-biased adult sex ratios may be premature, and mate choice or competition may play more of a role in sea turtle reproduction than previously thought. We recommend monitoring breeding sex ratios in the future to allow the integration of this demographic parameter in population models. PMID:24505403

  4. Changes in American Adults' Reported Same-Sex Sexual Experiences and Attitudes, 1973-2014.

    PubMed

    Twenge, Jean M; Sherman, Ryne A; Wells, Brooke E

    2016-10-01

    We examined change over time in the reported prevalence of men having sex with men and women having sex with women and acceptance of those behaviors in the nationally representative General Social Survey of U.S. adults (n's = 28,161-33,728, ages 18-96 years), 1972-2014. The number of U.S. adults who had at least one same-sex partner since age 18 doubled between the early 1990s and early 2010s (from 3.6 to 8.7 % for women and from 4.5 to 8.2 % for men). Bisexual behavior (having sex with both male and female partners) increased from 3.1 to 7.7 %, accounting for much of the rise, with little consistent change in those having sex exclusively with same-sex partners. The increase in same-sex partners was larger for women than for men, consistent with erotic plasticity theory. Attitudes toward same-sex sexual behavior also became substantially more accepting, d = .75, between the early 1970s and early 2010s. By 2014, 49 % of American adults believed that same-sex sexual activity was "not wrong at all," up from 11 % in 1973 and 13 % in 1990. Controlling for acceptance reduced, but did not eliminate, the increase in same-sex behavior over time. Mixed effects (hierarchical linear modeling) analyses separating age, time period, and cohort showed that the trends were primarily due to time period. Increases in same-sex sexual behavior were largest in the South and Midwest and among Whites, were mostly absent among Blacks, and were smaller among the religious. Overall, same-sex sexual behavior has become both more common (or at least more commonly reported) and more accepted. PMID:27251639

  5. Changes in American Adults' Reported Same-Sex Sexual Experiences and Attitudes, 1973-2014.

    PubMed

    Twenge, Jean M; Sherman, Ryne A; Wells, Brooke E

    2016-10-01

    We examined change over time in the reported prevalence of men having sex with men and women having sex with women and acceptance of those behaviors in the nationally representative General Social Survey of U.S. adults (n's = 28,161-33,728, ages 18-96 years), 1972-2014. The number of U.S. adults who had at least one same-sex partner since age 18 doubled between the early 1990s and early 2010s (from 3.6 to 8.7 % for women and from 4.5 to 8.2 % for men). Bisexual behavior (having sex with both male and female partners) increased from 3.1 to 7.7 %, accounting for much of the rise, with little consistent change in those having sex exclusively with same-sex partners. The increase in same-sex partners was larger for women than for men, consistent with erotic plasticity theory. Attitudes toward same-sex sexual behavior also became substantially more accepting, d = .75, between the early 1970s and early 2010s. By 2014, 49 % of American adults believed that same-sex sexual activity was "not wrong at all," up from 11 % in 1973 and 13 % in 1990. Controlling for acceptance reduced, but did not eliminate, the increase in same-sex behavior over time. Mixed effects (hierarchical linear modeling) analyses separating age, time period, and cohort showed that the trends were primarily due to time period. Increases in same-sex sexual behavior were largest in the South and Midwest and among Whites, were mostly absent among Blacks, and were smaller among the religious. Overall, same-sex sexual behavior has become both more common (or at least more commonly reported) and more accepted.

  6. Beyond Sex Education: How Adults Relate to Children's Sensuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogel, Alan

    Current cultural attitudes toward children's sexuality resemble attitudes toward adults' sexuality; there is an emphasis on purely genital and orgasmic pleasure. Adults and children need warmth, physical contact, and a sense of belonging for which genital stimulation may be unnecessary or inappropriate. Children's sexual advances to adults, as…

  7. What Is so Special about Male Adolescent Sexual Offending? A Review and Test of Explanations through Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seto, Michael C.; Lalumiere, Martin L.

    2010-01-01

    We tested special and general explanations of male adolescent sexual offending by conducting a meta-analysis of 59 independent studies comparing male adolescent sex offenders (n = 3,855) with male adolescent non-sex offenders (n = 13,393) on theoretically derived variables reflecting general delinquency risk factors (antisocial tendencies),…

  8. Adults' Complicity in Limiting Students' Understanding of Sex, Gender and Sexuality at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, J. B., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    This article is a commentary on the seven papers in this special issue of "Sex Education." A compelling theme interwoven throughout all the articles in subtle and explicit ways is the role that adults play in the lives of students, particularly in the ways in which adults impact how students enact and respond to the multiple…

  9. Patterns of federal Internet offenders: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ann W; Carretta, Carrie M; Burgess, Allen G

    2012-09-01

    Internet-facilitated sexual offending is receiving increased forensic and clinical attention. Two issues confront this field. First, studies are equivocal as to whether (or not) the possession of Internet pornography can escalate to contact sexual offenses against a child, and second, federal judges have been questioning the length of sentences for users only of child pornography. The findings of this pilot study of 101 federal Internet offenders revealed over half of the men at the time of arrest were employed, educated, were in (or had been in) a relationship, had children, and did not have a prior criminal offense, suggesting a changing profile of a convicted sex offender. Forensic and psychiatric nurses who evaluate users of child pornography contraband need to be knowledgeable of Internet file transfer technology and the various types of contraband viewed specifically for the age of the preferred child, extreme acts to the child (e.g., bondage, S&M), and whether the user prefers images of adults with children or images of children only. PMID:22925126

  10. Correlates of recidivism among adolescents who have sexually offended.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, Julie; Proulx, Jean

    2011-12-01

    The present study investigates the recidivism rates of a sample of 351 male adolescents who sexually offended, and were assessed at an outpatient psychiatric clinic in Montreal, Canada, between 1992 and 2002. The mean age of the participants was 15.8 years (SD=1.8). Data on adolescent and adult recidivism were collected in Summer 2005 from official criminality sources in Canada. Over an 8-year follow-up period, 45% (n=158) of the participants were charged with a new criminal offense, 30% (n=104) were charged with a violent offense, and 10% (n=36) were charged with a sexual offense. Cox regression results suggest that overall, violent, and sexual recidivism can be predicted by a variety of developmental, social, and criminological factors. Paternal abandonment, childhood sexual victimization, association with significantly younger children, and having victimized a stranger were associated with a higher risk of sexual recidivism. Previous delinquency, attention deficit disorder, and childhood sexual victimization were found to increase the risk for both violent and overall recidivism. Also, the use of violence during a sex crime and victimizing a stranger were associated with violent recidivism, and school delay and association with delinquent peers were predictive of overall recidivism. The results confirm that a significant proportion of adolescents who have sexually offended pursue a criminal activity beyond adolescence, although few specialize in sexual offending.

  11. Patterns of federal Internet offenders: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ann W; Carretta, Carrie M; Burgess, Allen G

    2012-09-01

    Internet-facilitated sexual offending is receiving increased forensic and clinical attention. Two issues confront this field. First, studies are equivocal as to whether (or not) the possession of Internet pornography can escalate to contact sexual offenses against a child, and second, federal judges have been questioning the length of sentences for users only of child pornography. The findings of this pilot study of 101 federal Internet offenders revealed over half of the men at the time of arrest were employed, educated, were in (or had been in) a relationship, had children, and did not have a prior criminal offense, suggesting a changing profile of a convicted sex offender. Forensic and psychiatric nurses who evaluate users of child pornography contraband need to be knowledgeable of Internet file transfer technology and the various types of contraband viewed specifically for the age of the preferred child, extreme acts to the child (e.g., bondage, S&M), and whether the user prefers images of adults with children or images of children only.

  12. Child pornography and likelihood of contact abuse: a comparison between contact child sexual offenders and noncontact offenders.

    PubMed

    Long, Matthew L; Alison, Laurence A; McManus, Michelle A

    2013-08-01

    This study examined a sample of 120 adult males convicted of offences involving indecent images of children (IIOC); 60 had a previous contact child sexual offence (dual offenders) and 60 had no evidence of an offence against a child. Analyses explored socio-demographic characteristics, previous convictions, and access to children. Of the 120 offenders, a subsample of 60 offenders (30 dual offenders and 30 non-contact) were further examined in terms of the quantity of IIOC, types of IIOC, and offending behavior. The study found the two offender groups could be discriminated by previous convictions, access to children, the number, proportion, and type of IIOC viewed. The IIOC preferences displayed within their possession differentiated dual offenders from non-contact IIOC offenders. Within group comparisons of the dual offenders differentiated sadistic rapists from sexual penetrative and sexual touching offenders. The paper suggests there may be a homology between IIOC possession, victim selection, and offending behavior. Implications for law enforcement are discussed in terms of likelihood of contact offending and assisting in investigative prioritization. PMID:23160257

  13. Child pornography and likelihood of contact abuse: a comparison between contact child sexual offenders and noncontact offenders.

    PubMed

    Long, Matthew L; Alison, Laurence A; McManus, Michelle A

    2013-08-01

    This study examined a sample of 120 adult males convicted of offences involving indecent images of children (IIOC); 60 had a previous contact child sexual offence (dual offenders) and 60 had no evidence of an offence against a child. Analyses explored socio-demographic characteristics, previous convictions, and access to children. Of the 120 offenders, a subsample of 60 offenders (30 dual offenders and 30 non-contact) were further examined in terms of the quantity of IIOC, types of IIOC, and offending behavior. The study found the two offender groups could be discriminated by previous convictions, access to children, the number, proportion, and type of IIOC viewed. The IIOC preferences displayed within their possession differentiated dual offenders from non-contact IIOC offenders. Within group comparisons of the dual offenders differentiated sadistic rapists from sexual penetrative and sexual touching offenders. The paper suggests there may be a homology between IIOC possession, victim selection, and offending behavior. Implications for law enforcement are discussed in terms of likelihood of contact offending and assisting in investigative prioritization.

  14. Replicated origin of female-biased adult sex ratio in introduced populations of the trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    Arendt, Jeffrey D; Reznick, David N; López-Sepulcre, Andres

    2014-08-01

    There are many theoretical and empirical studies explaining variation in offspring sex ratio but relatively few that explain variation in adult sex ratio. Adult sex ratios are important because biased sex ratios can be a driver of sexual selection and will reduce effective population size, affecting population persistence and shapes how populations respond to natural selection. Previous work on guppies (Poecilia reticulata) gives mixed results, usually showing a female-biased adult sex ratio. However, a detailed analysis showed that this bias varied dramatically throughout a year and with no consistent sex bias. We used a mark-recapture approach to examine the origin and consistency of female-biased sex ratio in four replicated introductions. We show that female-biased sex ratio arises predictably and is a consequence of higher male mortality and longer female life spans with little effect of offspring sex ratio. Inconsistencies with previous studies are likely due to sampling methods and sampling design, which should be less of an issue with mark-recapture techniques. Together with other long-term mark-recapture studies, our study suggests that bias in offspring sex ratio rarely contributes to adult sex ratio in vertebrates. Rather, sex differences in adult survival rates and longevity determine vertebrate adult sex ratio.

  15. Sex role identity in young adults: its parental antecedents and relation to ego development.

    PubMed

    Costos, D

    1986-03-01

    This study, inspired by Block's (1973) work, was designed to enable one to examine how ego development and socialization experience interact in relation to sex role identity. Sex role identity was measured via the Bem Sex Role Inventory, and socialization practices were measured via the Block Child-Rearing Practices Report. Both measures were scaled so as to yield scores on agency, communion, and androgyny. Ego development was assessed via Loevinger's Sentence Completion Test of Ego Development. The sample consisted of 120 young adult men and women, married and single. Analyses revealed that the predictive power of the variables differed by sex. Ego development was predictive of sex role identity in men but not women, whereas socialization practices were predictive of sex role identity in women but not men. The results were seen as supporting Chodorow's (1974) position regarding the differing socialization experiences of men and women. PMID:3701594

  16. Sex role identity in young adults: its parental antecedents and relation to ego development.

    PubMed

    Costos, D

    1986-03-01

    This study, inspired by Block's (1973) work, was designed to enable one to examine how ego development and socialization experience interact in relation to sex role identity. Sex role identity was measured via the Bem Sex Role Inventory, and socialization practices were measured via the Block Child-Rearing Practices Report. Both measures were scaled so as to yield scores on agency, communion, and androgyny. Ego development was assessed via Loevinger's Sentence Completion Test of Ego Development. The sample consisted of 120 young adult men and women, married and single. Analyses revealed that the predictive power of the variables differed by sex. Ego development was predictive of sex role identity in men but not women, whereas socialization practices were predictive of sex role identity in women but not men. The results were seen as supporting Chodorow's (1974) position regarding the differing socialization experiences of men and women.

  17. Failure-to-register laws and public safety: an examination of risk factors and sex offense recidivism.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Sandler, Jeffrey C; Freeman, Naomi J

    2012-12-01

    The goals of this study were to describe the characteristics of a sample of sex offenders charged with failure to register (FTR) in New York State, compare the FTR and non-FTR groups on relevant risk factors, identify risk factors associated with failing to register, and investigate the relationship between registration noncompliance and both general and sexual rearrest. FTR offenders were found to be younger, more likely to be a minority race, and have more extensive and varied prior criminal histories as well as a record of supervision violations. Results also indicated that FTR was more strongly correlated with nonsexual recidivism (r = .44) than sexual recidivism (r = .09). FTR contributed to the likelihood of sexual recidivism for rapists of adult victims, but not for sex offenders with child victims, and occurred in combination with a history of prior sexual crimes and versatility in criminal offending.

  18. Cognitive schemas and sexual offending: differences between rapists, pedophilic and nonpedophilic child molesters, and nonsexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro

    2015-02-01

    Empirical research has primarily focused on the differences between rapists and child molesters. Nonetheless, a greater understanding of specific needs of specific subtypes of sex offenders is necessary. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the early maladaptive schemas and different types of sexual offending behavior. Fifty rapists, 59 child molesters (19 pedophilic and 40 nonpedophilic), and 51 nonsexual offenders answered the Young Schema Questionnaire, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure. Data were analyzed using sets of multinomial logistic regression, controlling for sociodemographic variables, psychological distress, and social desirability. Results showed that pedophilic offenders were more likely to hold the defectiveness and subjugation schemas compared to the other three groups. Likewise, nonpedophilic child molesters were more likely to hold the social isolation, enmeshment, and unrelenting standards schemas compared to rapists. Additionally, rapists were more likely to hold the vulnerability to harm, approval-seeking, and punitiveness schemas compared to nonpedophiles and/or nonsex offenders. Overall, our findings suggest that cognitive schemas may play a role in the vulnerability for sexual offending and corroborate the need to distinguish between the two subtypes of child molesters. Despite the need for further investigation, findings may have important implications for the treatment of sex offenders and for the prevention of sexual crimes. PMID:25455215

  19. Cognitive schemas and sexual offending: differences between rapists, pedophilic and nonpedophilic child molesters, and nonsexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro

    2015-02-01

    Empirical research has primarily focused on the differences between rapists and child molesters. Nonetheless, a greater understanding of specific needs of specific subtypes of sex offenders is necessary. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the early maladaptive schemas and different types of sexual offending behavior. Fifty rapists, 59 child molesters (19 pedophilic and 40 nonpedophilic), and 51 nonsexual offenders answered the Young Schema Questionnaire, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure. Data were analyzed using sets of multinomial logistic regression, controlling for sociodemographic variables, psychological distress, and social desirability. Results showed that pedophilic offenders were more likely to hold the defectiveness and subjugation schemas compared to the other three groups. Likewise, nonpedophilic child molesters were more likely to hold the social isolation, enmeshment, and unrelenting standards schemas compared to rapists. Additionally, rapists were more likely to hold the vulnerability to harm, approval-seeking, and punitiveness schemas compared to nonpedophiles and/or nonsex offenders. Overall, our findings suggest that cognitive schemas may play a role in the vulnerability for sexual offending and corroborate the need to distinguish between the two subtypes of child molesters. Despite the need for further investigation, findings may have important implications for the treatment of sex offenders and for the prevention of sexual crimes.

  20. Emotional expression recognition and attribution bias among sexual and violent offenders: a signal detection analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Steven M.; Rotshtein, Pia; Satherley, Rose-Marie; Beech, Anthony R.; Mitchell, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Research with violent offenders has consistently shown impaired recognition of other’s facial expressions of emotion. However, the extent to which similar problems can be observed among sexual offenders remains unknown. Using a computerized task, we presented sexual and violent offenders, and non-offenders, with male and female expressions of anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise, morphed with neutral expressions at varying levels of intensity (10, 55, and 90% expressive). Based on signal detection theory, we used hit rates and false alarms to calculate the sensitivity index d-prime (d′) and criterion (c) for each emotional expression. Overall, sexual offenders showed reduced sensitivity to emotional expressions across intensity, sex, and type of expression, compared with non-offenders, while both sexual and violent offenders showed particular reduced sensitivity to fearful expressions. We also observed specific effects for high (90%) intensity female faces, with sexual offenders showing reduced sensitivity to anger compared with non-offenders and violent offenders, and reduced sensitivity to disgust compared with non-offenders. Furthermore, both sexual and violent offenders showed impaired sensitivity to high intensity female fearful expressions compared with non-offenders. Violent offenders also showed a higher criterion for classifying moderate and high intensity male expressions as fearful, indicative of a more conservative response style, compared with angry, happy, or sad. These results suggest that both types of offender show problems in emotion recognition, and may have implications for understanding the inhibition of violent and sexually violent behaviors. PMID:26029137

  1. Adult Communication and Teen Sex: Changing a Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Jean Baldwin; Walker, Karen E.; Kotloff, Lauren J.; Pepper, Sarah

    The Plain Talk initiative, developed by the Annie E. Casey Foundation, was designed to increase the amount and quality of communication that parents and community adults provided youth regarding responsible sexual decision making. It offered parents and other community adults information and skills necessary to communicate more effectively with…

  2. Estimation of sex from the upper limb measurements of Sudanese adults.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Altayeb Abdalla

    2013-11-01

    Sex estimation is the first biological attribute needed for personal identification from mutilated and amputated limbs or body parts in medical-legal autopsies. Populations have different sizes and proportions that affect the anthropometric assessment of sex. Relatively few published works assess the accuracy of sex estimation from soft tissue measurements of upper limb parts, except for the hand and its components, but these studies involve a limited range of global populations. The current study aimed to assess the degree of sexual dimorphism in upper limb measurements and the accuracy of using these measurements for sex estimation in a contemporary adult Sudanese population. The upper arm length, ulnar length, wrist breadth, hand length, and hand breadth of 240 right-handed Sudanese subjects (120 males and 120 females) aged between 25 and 30 years were measured by international anthropometric standards. Demarking points, sexual dimorphism indices and discriminant functions were developed from 200 subjects (100 males and 100 females) who composed the study group. All variables were sexually dimorphic. The ulnar length, wrist breadth and hand breadth significantly contributed to sex estimation. Forearm dimensions showed a higher accuracy for sex estimation than hand dimensions. Cross-validated sex classification accuracy ranged between 78.5% and 89.5%. The reliability of these standards was assessed in a test sample of 20 males and 20 females, and the results showed accuracy between 77.5% and 90%. This study provides new forensic standards for sex estimation from upper limb measurements of Sudanese adults. PMID:24237816

  3. Mercury elimination rates for adult northern pike Esox lucius: evidence for a sex effect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Blanchfield, Paul J.; Hrenchuk, Lee E.; Van Walleghem, Jillian L. A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effect of sex on mercury elimination in fish by monitoring isotope-enriched mercury concentrations in the muscle tissue of three adult female and three adult male northern pike Esox lucius, which had accumulated the isotope-enriched mercury via a whole-lake manipulation and were subsequently moved to a clean lake. Mercury elimination rates for female and male northern pike were estimated to be 0.00034 and 0.00073 day−1, respectively. Thus, males were capable of eliminating mercury at more than double the rate than that of females. To the best of our knowledge, our study represents the first documentation of mercury elimination rates varying between the sexes of fish. This sex difference in elimination rates should be taken into account when comparing mercury accumulation between the sexes of fish from the same population. Further, our findings should eventually lead to an improved understanding of mechanisms responsible for mercury elimination in vertebrates.

  4. Hippocampal learning, memory, and neurogenesis: Effects of sex and estrogens across the lifespan in adults.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Guterman, Paula; Yagi, Shunya; Chow, Carmen; Galea, Liisa A M

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and Cognition". There are sex differences in hippocampus-dependent cognition and neurogenesis suggesting that sex hormones are involved. Estrogens modulate certain forms of spatial and contextual memory and neurogenesis in the adult female rodent, and to a lesser extent male, hippocampus. This review focuses on the effects of sex and estrogens on hippocampal learning, memory, and neurogenesis in the young and aged adult rodent. We discuss how factors such as the type of estrogen, duration and dose of treatment, timing of treatment, and type of memory influence the effects of estrogens on cognition and neurogenesis. We also address how reproductive experience (pregnancy and mothering) and aging interact with estrogens to modulate hippocampal cognition and neurogenesis in females. Given the evidence that adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays a role in long-term spatial memory and pattern separation, we also discuss the functional implications of regulating neurogenesis in the hippocampus.

  5. Estimation of sex from the lower limb measurements of Sudanese adults.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Altayeb Abdalla

    2013-06-10

    The sex estimation from mutilated and amputated limbs or body parts is one of the most vital steps in person identification in medical-legal autopsies. Sex estimation from lower limb anthropometric measurements has demonstrated a high degree of expected accuracy in a limited range of the global population. The aims of this study were to assess the degree of the sexual dimorphism in lower limb measurements and the accuracy of utilization of these measurements for estimation of sex in a contemporary adult Sudanese population. The tibial length, bimalleolar breadth, foot length, and foot breadth of 240 right-handed Sudanese Arab subjects (120 males and 120 females) aged between 25 and 30 years were measured following international anthropometric standards. Demarking points, sexual dimorphism indices and discriminant functions were developed from 200 subjects (100 males and 100 females) who comprised the study group. All variables were sexually dimorphic. The bimalleolar breadth and foot breadth significantly contributed to sex estimation. Leg dimensions showed a higher accuracy for sex estimation than foot dimensions. Cross-validated sex classification accuracy ranged between 78% and 89.5%. The reliability of these standards was assessed in a test sample of 20 males and 20 females, and the results showed accuracy between 75% and 90%. This study provides new forensic standards for sex estimation from lower limb measurements of Sudanese adults. PMID:23642728

  6. Sex-typed personality traits and gender identity as predictors of young adults' career interests.

    PubMed

    Dinella, Lisa M; Fulcher, Megan; Weisgram, Erica S

    2014-04-01

    Gender segregation of careers is still prominent in the U.S. workforce. The current study was designed to investigate the role of sex-typed personality traits and gender identity in predicting emerging adults' interests in sex-typed careers. Participants included 586 university students (185 males, 401 females). Participants reported their sex-typed personality traits (masculine and feminine traits), gender identities (gender typicality, contentment, felt pressure to conform, and intergroup bias), and interests in sex-typed careers. Results indicated both sex-typed personality traits and gender identity were important predictors of young adults' career interests, but in varying degrees and differentially for men and women. Men's sex-typed personality traits and gender typicality were predictive of their masculine career interests even more so when the interaction of their masculine traits and gender typicality were considered. When gender typicality and sex-typed personality traits were considered simultaneously, gender typicality was negatively related to men's feminine career interests and gender typicality was the only significant predictor of men's feminine career interests. For women, sex-typed personality traits and gender typicality were predictive of their sex-typed career interests. The level of pressure they felt to conform to their gender also positively predicted interest in feminine careers. The interaction of sex-typed personality traits and gender typicality did not predict women's career interests more than when these variables were considered as main effects. Results of the multidimensional assessment of gender identity confirmed that various dimensions of gender identity played different roles in predicting career interests and gender typicality was the strongest predictor of career interests.

  7. Women offenders and reentry issues.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S D

    1996-01-01

    Women parallel men in their profile of physical disease, psychosocial configuration, addictive patterns, and criminal deviance. For women offenders in particular, the prison environment reinforces a victim role that originated in childhood and adolescence. In addition, such settings discourage both emotional expression (except for aggression) and responsibility, since basic needs such as food, lodging, and clothing are provided. Incarcerated women have significant treatment issues, including the lack of social and vocational role definition, psychological dependence and psychic craving, poorly developed social skills, and conflicts in social, family, and intimate relationships. This article describes the unique psychoeducational and skills-training needs of women offenders as they adjust to community living, and outlines specific treatment interventions that have proven to effect successful patient outcomes. Case studies are used to illustrate the reentry experiences of three women offenders with distinct backgrounds. One example illustrates how a woman who had been involved in the criminal justice system for 24 years overcame her addiction and self-confidence issues. A second case study profiles an offender with three children who had experienced sexual trauma during her childhood and adult years. A third case reports on an African-American woman whose crack-cocaine addiction resulted in the birth of a drug-exposed son. The treatment model tested in all three cases emphasized the practical and often overlooked treatment issues of incarcerated women.

  8. Women offenders and reentry issues.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S D

    1996-01-01

    Women parallel men in their profile of physical disease, psychosocial configuration, addictive patterns, and criminal deviance. For women offenders in particular, the prison environment reinforces a victim role that originated in childhood and adolescence. In addition, such settings discourage both emotional expression (except for aggression) and responsibility, since basic needs such as food, lodging, and clothing are provided. Incarcerated women have significant treatment issues, including the lack of social and vocational role definition, psychological dependence and psychic craving, poorly developed social skills, and conflicts in social, family, and intimate relationships. This article describes the unique psychoeducational and skills-training needs of women offenders as they adjust to community living, and outlines specific treatment interventions that have proven to effect successful patient outcomes. Case studies are used to illustrate the reentry experiences of three women offenders with distinct backgrounds. One example illustrates how a woman who had been involved in the criminal justice system for 24 years overcame her addiction and self-confidence issues. A second case study profiles an offender with three children who had experienced sexual trauma during her childhood and adult years. A third case reports on an African-American woman whose crack-cocaine addiction resulted in the birth of a drug-exposed son. The treatment model tested in all three cases emphasized the practical and often overlooked treatment issues of incarcerated women. PMID:8714337

  9. Sex differences in cognitive trajectories in clinically normal older adults.

    PubMed

    McCarrey, Anna C; An, Yang; Kitner-Triolo, Melissa H; Ferrucci, Luigi; Resnick, Susan M

    2016-03-01

    Age effects on cognitive functioning are well-documented, but effects of sex on trajectories of cognitive aging are less clear. We examined cognitive ability across a variety of measures for 1,065 to 2,127 participants (mean baseline age 64.1 to 69.7 years) from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging who were repeatedly tested over a mean follow-up interval of 3.0 to 9.0 years with a mean of 2.3 to 4.4 assessments. Memory and other cognitive tests were administered at each visit, assessing mental status, verbal learning and memory, figural memory, language, attention, perceptuomotor speed and integration, executive function, and visuospatial ability. Importantly, participants free from cognitive impairment at all time points were used in the analyses. Results showed that for all tests, higher age at baseline was significantly associated with lower scores, and performance declined over time. In addition, advancing age was associated with accelerated longitudinal declines in performance (trend for mental status). After adjusting for age, education, and race, sex differences were observed across most tests of specific cognitive abilities examined. At baseline, males outperformed females on the 2 tasks of visuospatial ability, and females outperformed males in most other tests of cognition. Sex differences in cognitive change over time indicated steeper rates of decline for men on measures of mental status, perceptuomotor speed and integration, and visuospatial ability, but no measures on which women showed significantly steeper declines. Our results highlight greater resilience to age-related cognitive decline in older women compared with men. PMID:26796792

  10. Disparities in Health and Disability Among Older Adults in Same-Sex Cohabiting Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Gilbert; Henning-Smith, Carrie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The present study compared indicators of impaired health and disability between older adults in same-sex cohabiting relationships and their peers in opposite-sex cohabiting relationships. Methods Data were obtained on men (n=698) and women (n=630) aged 50 years and older and in self-reported same-sex relationships from the National Health Interview Survey. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to estimate differences in physical health, mental health and disability status. Results Compared to their peers in married opposite-sex relationships, older men in same-sex relationships exhibited greater odds of psychological distress, and older women in same-sex relationships experienced elevated odds of poor/fair health, needing help with ADLs and IADLs, functional limitations, and psychological distress. Discussion This study adds to the limited information on health and disability among older lesbian, gay and bisexual adults. As this population grows, gerontologists must develop a better understanding of the unique issues and challenges facing them and their families. PMID:25253727

  11. Untreated ADHD in Adults: Are There Sex Differences in Symptoms, Comorbidity, and Impairment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Kirsten; Levander, Sten

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyze sex differences among adult, never-treated patients referred for central stimulant treatment of ADHD. Method: Data for 600 consecutive patients from northern Norway referred for evaluation by an expert team during 7 years were analyzed. General background information, diagnostic and social history, and symptom profiles were…

  12. Identity Diffusion as a Function of Sex-Roles in Adult Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabury, Donald Eugene

    This study sought to demonstrate that the relative degree of adult female identity diffusion, as well as certain personality correlates, would be a function of specific sex roles and their combinations. Three groups of 32 women each were selected as married and noncareer, married and career, or unmarried and career women. They were administered a…

  13. The Individual with Intellectual Disabilities and Sex Education: Perspectives of Involved Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Randel D.

    This study examined the perceptions of involved adults concerning sex education for individuals with intellectual disabilities. Participants were 40 individuals who provided direct care or instruction to individuals with intellectual disabilities or who had administrative responsibility for them. They completed a 36-item Q-sort that examined their…

  14. Adult Development and Life Satisfaction Functions of Sex, Marital Status and Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Claire; McCall, Fran

    Quality of life in adulthood (ages 27-47) was investigated; age, marital status and sex were considered the primary variables. Attention was given to the consideration of the current crises-oriented theory of adult development. The interrelationship of the variables was of principle interest in assessing life satisfaction and personality…

  15. HIV Risk Behaviors among African American Male Violent Youth Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.; Brown, Jerry; Van Brakle, Mischelle; Godette, Dionne C.

    2010-01-01

    Bay City (pseudonym) is one of the nation's urban epicenters of the HIV epidemic. Although researchers have examined HIV risk behaviors among juvenile offenders detained in juvenile facilities, no study has examined these risk behaviors among youth offenders who have been waived to adult criminal court and detained in U.S. jails. In the present…

  16. Understanding and Working with Denial in Sexual Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laflen, Bruce; Sturm, William R., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Focuses on the recognition and treatment of denial in adult sexual offenders. The theoretical framework is based on Salter's "types" of denial in combination with the underlying theoretical constructs of object relations theory. Denial is viewed as stages through which the sexual offender will clinically progress during treatment. (JPS)

  17. Strength-Based Treatment for Juvenile Sexual Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquoit, James; Dobbins, Martha

    1998-01-01

    Describes an alternative treatment model developed at Starr Commonwealth for sexually reactive and offending children and youth. This model's strength-based interventions have been shown to be effective in fostering positive connections to adults and peers and in breaking patterns of offending. (Author/MKA)

  18. Effects of Psychoeducation for Offenders in a Community Correctional Facility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liau, Albert K.; Shively, Randy; Horn, Mary; Landau, Jennifer; Barriga, Alvaro; Gibbs, John C.

    2004-01-01

    The present study provided a randomized outcome evaluation of the psychoeducational component of the EQUIP program. The psychoeducational curriculum was implemented in a community correctional facility for adult felony offenders. The psychoeducational curriculum is designed to remedy offenders' delays in moral judgment maturity, social cognitive…

  19. Actuarial Risk Assessment and Recidivism in a Sample of UK Intellectually Disabled Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Dan; Beech, Anthony; Markall, Helena F.; Blacker, Janine

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of three risk assessment instruments: Static-99, Risk Matrix 2000 (RM2000) and the Rapid Risk of Sex Offender Recidivism (RRASOR), in predicting sexual recidivism among 27 intellectually disabled sex offenders. The overall sexual offence reconviction rate was 30%, while non-recidivists remained offence-free…

  20. Therapeutic Responses of Psychopathic Sexual Offenders: Treatment Attrition, Therapeutic Change, and Long-Term Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the therapeutic responses of psychopathic sex offenders (greater than or equal to 25 Psychopathy Checklist-Revised; PCL-R) in terms of treatment dropout and therapeutic change, as well as sexual and violent recidivism over a 10-year follow-up among 156 federally incarcerated sex offenders treated in a high-intensity inpatient…

  1. Adults' perceptions of children's independence and other sex-role characteristics as a function of child's gender label.

    PubMed

    Bell, N J; Hibbs, K; Milholland, T

    1978-12-01

    Male and female college students were presented with a photograph labeled as a 5-yr.-old boy or girl and heard statements attributed to the child. They then rated the child on sex-role traits and responded to open-ended questions about the child. The primary findings involved sex of child by sex of adult interactions on ratings of independence and leadership: in both cases, same-sex children were rated higher than opposite-sex children. There was also some evidence that women having high contact with children rated the child more extremely on opposite-sex traits than did those with little contact. PMID:740494

  2. Assessment of the effects of sex and sex hormones on spatial cognition in adult rats using the Barnes maze

    PubMed Central

    Locklear, MN; Kritzer, MF

    2014-01-01

    Although sex differences and hormone effects on spatial cognition are observed in humans and animals, consensus has not been reached regarding exact impact on spatial working or reference memory. Recent studies in rats suggest that stress and/or reward, which are often different in tasks used to assess spatial cognition, can contribute to the inconsistencies in the literature. To minimize the impact of these sex- and sex hormone-sensitive factors, we used the Barnes maze to compare spatial working memory, spatial reference memory and spatial learning strategy in adult male, female, gonadectomized (GDX) male, and GDX male rats supplemented with 17β-estradiol (E) or testosterone propionate (TP). Rats received four acquisition trials, four trials 24 h later, and a single retention trial one week after. Males and females acquired the task during the first four trials and retained the task thereafter. In contrast, GDX rats took longer to acquire the task and showed retention deficits at 1 week. All deficits were attenuated similarly by TP and E. Assessment of search patterns also showed that strategies in the males transitioned from random to spatially focused and eventually direct approaches to the goal. However, this transition was faster in control and GDX-TP than in GDX and GDX-E rats. In contrast, the females almost invariantly followed the maze edge in thigmotactic, serial searches. Thus, while Barnes maze reveals activational, in part estrogenic effects on spatial cognition in males, its amenability to animals' use of multiple strategies may limit its ability to resolve mnemonic differences across sex. PMID:24937438

  3. Risky business: Is there an association between casual sex and mental health among emerging adults?

    PubMed

    Bersamin, Melina M; Zamboanga, Byron L; Schwartz, Seth J; Donnellan, M Brent; Hudson, Monika; Weisskirch, Robert S; Kim, Su Yeong; Agocha, V Bede; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss; Caraway, S Jean

    2014-01-01

    A multiethnic sample of single, heterosexual, emerging-adult college students (N = 3,907) ages 18 to 25, from 30 institutions across the United States, participated in a study about identity, culture, psychological well-being, and risky behaviors. Given ongoing debates about the connection between casual sex and psychological adjustment, in the current study we assessed the cross-sectional association of participation in casual sex with psychological well-being and distress. A greater proportion of men (18.6%) compared to women (7.4%) reported having had casual sex in the month prior to assessment. Structural equation modeling indicated that casual sex was negatively associated with well-being (ß = .20, p < .001) and positively associated with psychological distress (ß = .16, p < .001). Gender did not moderate these associations. For emerging-adult college students, engaging in casual sex may elevate risk for negative psychological outcomes.

  4. Sexual Offenders' Perceptions of the Client-Therapist Relationship: The Role of Risk.

    PubMed

    Blasko, Brandy L; Jeglic, Elizabeth L

    2016-06-01

    The therapeutic alliance has been shown to be integral to treatment outcomes even in forensic settings. There is still a relative dearth of research examining factors related to the formation of the therapeutic alliance in sex offender treatment specifically. Using a sample of 202 incarcerated male sexual offenders participating in sex offender treatment, this study examined whether perceptions of the client-therapist relationship from the perspective of male sexual offenders varied by risk for sexual and general recidivism. Overall, we found a significant negative relationship between risk for sexual recidivism and bond formation. However, when therapist subscale scores on the Working Alliance Inventory were considered by therapist gender, higher risk sexual offenders perceived poorer bonds with their female therapists, relative to their male therapists. Findings are discussed as they pertain to therapeutic relationships and responsivity issues in sex offender treatment.

  5. Reducing the Noise in Behavioral Assays: Sex and Age in Adult Zebrafish Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Philpott, Catelyn; Donack, Corey J.; Cousin, Margot A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Many assays are used in animal model systems to measure specific human disease-related behaviors. The use of both adult and larval zebrafish as a behavioral model is gaining popularity. As this work progresses and potentially translates into new treatments, we must do our best to improve the sensitivity of these assays by reducing confounding factors. Scientists who use the mouse model system have demonstrated that sex and age can influence a number of behaviors. As a community, they have moved to report the age and sex of all animals used in their studies. Zebrafish work does not yet carry the same mandate. In this study, we evaluated sex and age differences in locomotion behavior. We found that age was a significant factor in locomotion, as was sex within a given age group. In short, as zebrafish age, they appear to show less base level locomotion. With regard to sex, younger (10 months) zebrafish showed more locomotion in males, while older zebrafish (22 months) showed more movement in females. These findings have led us to suggest that those using the zebrafish for behavioral studies control for age and sex within their experimental design and report these descriptors in their methods. PMID:23244690

  6. Reducing the noise in behavioral assays: sex and age in adult zebrafish locomotion.

    PubMed

    Philpott, Catelyn; Donack, Corey J; Cousin, Margot A; Pierret, Chris

    2012-12-01

    Many assays are used in animal model systems to measure specific human disease-related behaviors. The use of both adult and larval zebrafish as a behavioral model is gaining popularity. As this work progresses and potentially translates into new treatments, we must do our best to improve the sensitivity of these assays by reducing confounding factors. Scientists who use the mouse model system have demonstrated that sex and age can influence a number of behaviors. As a community, they have moved to report the age and sex of all animals used in their studies. Zebrafish work does not yet carry the same mandate. In this study, we evaluated sex and age differences in locomotion behavior. We found that age was a significant factor in locomotion, as was sex within a given age group. In short, as zebrafish age, they appear to show less base level locomotion. With regard to sex, younger (10 months) zebrafish showed more locomotion in males, while older zebrafish (22 months) showed more movement in females. These findings have led us to suggest that those using the zebrafish for behavioral studies control for age and sex within their experimental design and report these descriptors in their methods.

  7. Sexual offender recidivism among a population-based prison sample.

    PubMed

    Rettenberger, Martin; Briken, Peer; Turner, Daniel; Eher, Reinhard

    2015-04-01

    The present study examines recidivism rates in sexual offenders using officially registered reconvictions in a representative data set of N = 1,115 male sexual offenders from Austria. In general, results indicate that most sexual offenders do not reoffend sexually after release from prison. More detailed, within the first 5 years after release, the sexual recidivism rate was 6% for the total sample, 4% for the rapist subgroup, and 8% for the child molester subgroup. The findings confirmed previous studies about sex offender recidivism which have shown that first-time sexual offenders are significantly less likely to sexually reoffend than those with previous sexual convictions. With regard to the relationship between age and sexual recidivism, the results challenged the traditional assumption of a clear linear function between age and recidivism. Taken together, compared with previous studies, the recidivism rates found in the present investigation are substantially lower than previous research has indicated.

  8. Examining cortical thickness in male and female DWI offenders.

    PubMed

    Dedovic, Katarina; Pruessner, Jens; Tremblay, Jacques; Nadeau, Louise; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Lepage, Martin; Brown, Thomas G

    2016-04-21

    Some sex differences have been detected in driving while impaired by alcohol (DWI) offenders. However, understanding of the key factors contributing to DWI among male and female drivers remains elusive, limiting development of targeted interventions. Sex-based neurocognitive analyses could provide the much-needed insight. We examined whether male DWI offenders show cortical thickness anomalies that differ from those in female DWI offenders, when compared to their respective controls. Moderating role of sex and alcohol use on DWI status was also investigated. Sixty-one DWI offenders (29 male; 32 female) and 58 controls (29 male; 29 female) completed an anatomical brain scan and assessments on other relevant characteristics. Only male DWI offenders had reduced cortical thickness in the right dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a region involved in cognitive control. Lower cortical thickness was associated with increased odds of DWI status only among males who have not engaged in very hazardous pattern of alcohol misuse in the previous 12 months. Thus, for these male DWI drivers, interventions that could impact PCC could be most advantageous. Continued multidimensional sex analysis of the neural characteristics of male and female DWI offenders is warranted. PMID:27016386

  9. Examining cortical thickness in male and female DWI offenders.

    PubMed

    Dedovic, Katarina; Pruessner, Jens; Tremblay, Jacques; Nadeau, Louise; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Lepage, Martin; Brown, Thomas G

    2016-04-21

    Some sex differences have been detected in driving while impaired by alcohol (DWI) offenders. However, understanding of the key factors contributing to DWI among male and female drivers remains elusive, limiting development of targeted interventions. Sex-based neurocognitive analyses could provide the much-needed insight. We examined whether male DWI offenders show cortical thickness anomalies that differ from those in female DWI offenders, when compared to their respective controls. Moderating role of sex and alcohol use on DWI status was also investigated. Sixty-one DWI offenders (29 male; 32 female) and 58 controls (29 male; 29 female) completed an anatomical brain scan and assessments on other relevant characteristics. Only male DWI offenders had reduced cortical thickness in the right dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a region involved in cognitive control. Lower cortical thickness was associated with increased odds of DWI status only among males who have not engaged in very hazardous pattern of alcohol misuse in the previous 12 months. Thus, for these male DWI drivers, interventions that could impact PCC could be most advantageous. Continued multidimensional sex analysis of the neural characteristics of male and female DWI offenders is warranted.

  10. Environmental factors influencing adult sex ratio in Poecilia reticulata: laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    McKellar, A E; Hendry, A P

    2011-10-01

    The potential causes of adult sex ratio variation in guppies Poecilia reticulata were tested in laboratory experiments that evaluated the mortality rates of male and female P. reticulata exposed to potential predators (Hart's rivulus Rivulus hartii and freshwater prawns Macrobrachium crenulatum) and to different resource levels. Poecilia reticulata mortality increased in the presence of R. hartii and M. crenulatum, and low resource levels had an effect on mortality only in the presence of M. crenulatum. Rivulus hartii preyed more often on male than on female P. reticulata, and this sex-biased predation was not simply the result of males being smaller than females. In contrast, no sex-biased mortality was attributable to M. crenulatum or low resource levels.

  11. Environmental factors influencing adult sex ratio in Poecilia reticulata: laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    McKellar, A E; Hendry, A P

    2011-10-01

    The potential causes of adult sex ratio variation in guppies Poecilia reticulata were tested in laboratory experiments that evaluated the mortality rates of male and female P. reticulata exposed to potential predators (Hart's rivulus Rivulus hartii and freshwater prawns Macrobrachium crenulatum) and to different resource levels. Poecilia reticulata mortality increased in the presence of R. hartii and M. crenulatum, and low resource levels had an effect on mortality only in the presence of M. crenulatum. Rivulus hartii preyed more often on male than on female P. reticulata, and this sex-biased predation was not simply the result of males being smaller than females. In contrast, no sex-biased mortality was attributable to M. crenulatum or low resource levels. PMID:21967582

  12. Sexual offender containment: use of the postconviction polygraph.

    PubMed

    English, Kim; Jones, Linda; Patrick, Diane; Pasini-Hill, Diane

    2003-06-01

    Victims of sexual assault are unlikely to report the crime. For many sexual offenders, then, their sexually deviant behavior remains largely unknown except for crimes that result in arrest or notification to social services. Little is known about the offender's past behavior and little will be known about the offender's future abusive behavior. It is within this context that the containment approach for managing sexual offenders becomes critical to protecting future victimization by known offenders. This paper describes the need to incorporate information learned from the postconviction polygraph examination into intense treatment and criminal justice supervision. Age of onset and frequency and variety of deviant behavior are known risk factors, probably because they reflect the extent to which deviancy is part of the offender's lifestyle. Treatment and supervision plans must incorporate this information, along with the risk presented by these offenders to very specific age and gender groups. This study of data collected on disclosures made by 180 convicted sexual offenders (most were convicted of crimes against children) during the course of four different treatment/polygraph programs found that 39% had a history of sexually assaulting adults, 31% had sexually assaulted both male and female victims, 36% had engaged in bestiality, and two-thirds of the incest offenders had assaulted victims outside the family. Complete information is necessary for treatment providers and supervising officers to develop meaningful and relevant treatment and supervision plans, and for imminent, situational risk factors to be managed and contained.

  13. Youth who sexual offended: primary human goods and offense pathways.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chi Meng; Koh, Li Lian; Zeng, Gerald; Teoh, Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    There has been an increased focus on understanding youth sexual offending in recent years, but there has been limited empirical research on the causes, pathways, and treatment of youth who have sexually offended-especially within a non-Western context. The Good Lives and Self-Regulation Models have often been used to understand and rehabilitate adult sexual offenders, but (unfortunately) there is scant research on youth who sexually offended using these models. The present study aims to describe the different primary goods that are associated with youth sexual offending behaviors in an Asian context. In addition, the study sought to explore whether the age of victim (child vs. nonchild) and nature of sexual offense (penetrative vs. nonpenetrative) influenced the youth's engagement in offense pathways. The results suggest that pleasure, relatedness, and inner peace were the primary human goods that were most sought after by a sample of 168 youth who sexually offended in Singapore. In addition, offender classification (in relation to the age of victim and nature of sexual offense) influenced the pathways to sexual offending. Therefore, these findings have important clinical implications for assessment, management, and intervention planning for youth who sexually offended. PMID:24048701

  14. Youth who sexual offended: primary human goods and offense pathways.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chi Meng; Koh, Li Lian; Zeng, Gerald; Teoh, Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    There has been an increased focus on understanding youth sexual offending in recent years, but there has been limited empirical research on the causes, pathways, and treatment of youth who have sexually offended-especially within a non-Western context. The Good Lives and Self-Regulation Models have often been used to understand and rehabilitate adult sexual offenders, but (unfortunately) there is scant research on youth who sexually offended using these models. The present study aims to describe the different primary goods that are associated with youth sexual offending behaviors in an Asian context. In addition, the study sought to explore whether the age of victim (child vs. nonchild) and nature of sexual offense (penetrative vs. nonpenetrative) influenced the youth's engagement in offense pathways. The results suggest that pleasure, relatedness, and inner peace were the primary human goods that were most sought after by a sample of 168 youth who sexually offended in Singapore. In addition, offender classification (in relation to the age of victim and nature of sexual offense) influenced the pathways to sexual offending. Therefore, these findings have important clinical implications for assessment, management, and intervention planning for youth who sexually offended.

  15. Sex differences in spatial navigation and perception in human adolescents and emerging adults

    PubMed Central

    Sneider, Jennifer Tropp; Hamilton, Derek A.; Cohen-Gilbert, Julia E.; Crowley, David J.; Rosso, Isabelle M.; Silveri, Marisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Males typically outperform females on spatial tasks, beginning early in life and continuing into adulthood. This study aimed to characterize age and sex differences in human spatial ability using a virtual Water Maze Task (vWMT), which is based on the classic Morris water maze spatial navigation task used in rodents. Performance on the vWMT and on a task assessing visuospatial perception, Mental Rotations Test (MRT), was examined in 33 adolescents and 39 emerging adults. For the vWMT, significant effects of age and sex were observed for path length in the target region (narrower spatial sampling), and heading error, with emerging adults performing better than adolescents, and an overall male advantage. For the MRT, males scored higher than females, but only in emerging adulthood. Overall, sex differences in visuospatial perception (MRT) emerge differently from those observed on a classic navigation task, with age and sex-specific superior vWMT performance likely related to the use of more efficient strategies. Importantly, these results extend the developmental timeline of spatial ability characterization to include adolescent males and females performing a virtual version of the classic vWMT. PMID:25464337

  16. Sex mediates dopamine and adrenergic receptor expression in adult rats exposed prenatally to cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Mark J.; Mactutus, Charles F.; Silvers, Janelle M.; Hasselrot, Ulla; Strupp, Barbara J.; Booze, Rosemarie M.

    2010-01-01

    The extent of catecholaminergic receptor and respective behavioral alterations associated with prenatal cocaine exposure varies according to exogenous factors such as the amount, frequency, and route of maternal exposure, as well as endogenous factors such as specific brain regions under consideration and sex of the species. The goal of the current study was to use autoradiography to delineate possible moderators of dopaminergic and adrenergic receptor expression in adult rat offspring exposed to cocaine in utero. The current study demonstrated sex-dependent D1 receptor, α2, and noradrenergic transporter binding alterations in prelimbic, hippocampus, and anterior cingulate regions of adult rat brains exposed to cocaine during gestational days 8–21. Of further interest was the lack of alterations in the nucleus accumbens for nearly all receptors/transporters investigated, as well as the lack of alterations in D3 receptor binding in nearly all of the regions investigated (nucleus accumbens, prelimbic region, hippocampus, and cingulate gyrus). Thus, the current investigation demonstrated persistent receptor and transporter alterations that extend well into adulthood as a result of cocaine exposure in utero. Furthermore, the demonstration that sex played a mediating role in prenatal cocaine-induced, aberrant receptor/transporter expression is of primary importance for future studies that seek to control for sex in either design or analysis. PMID:17933484

  17. Sex differences in spatial navigation and perception in human adolescents and emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Sneider, Jennifer T; Hamilton, Derek A; Cohen-Gilbert, Julia E; Crowley, David J; Rosso, Isabelle M; Silveri, Marisa M

    2015-02-01

    Males typically outperform females on spatial tasks, beginning early in life and continuing into adulthood. This study aimed to characterize age and sex differences in human spatial ability using a virtual Water Maze Task (vWMT), which is based on the classic Morris water maze spatial navigation task used in rodents. Performance on the vWMT and on a task assessing visuospatial perception, Mental Rotations Test (MRT), was examined in 33 adolescents and 39 emerging adults. For the vWMT, significant effects of age and sex were observed for path length in the target region (narrower spatial sampling), and heading error, with emerging adults performing better than adolescents, and an overall male advantage. For the MRT, males scored higher than females, but only in emerging adulthood. Overall, sex differences in visuospatial perception (MRT) emerge differently from those observed on a classic navigation task, with age and sex-specific superior vWMT performance likely related to the use of more efficient strategies. Importantly, these results extend the developmental timeline of spatial ability characterization to include adolescent males and females performing a virtual version of the classic vWMT. PMID:25464337

  18. Six years on: a prospective cohort study of male juvenile offenders in secure care.

    PubMed

    Chitsabesan, Prathiba; Rothwell, Justine; Kenning, Cassandra; Law, Heather; Carter, Lesley- Ann; Bailey, Sue; Clark, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    Longitudinal studies are helpful in understanding developmental trajectories and recognising opportunities for early intervention. This paper describes the long-term needs and mental health of an initial sample of male juvenile offenders, now adults 6 years after their index admission to secure care. In this prospective cohort study of 97 male juvenile offenders admitted to secure, offenders were assessed initially on admission, 2 and 6 years later. Interviews were conducted with 54 offenders at the 6-year follow-up and included an assessment of psychosocial need, mental health and psychopathy. Outcome data on offending behaviour were collected on a total of 71 offenders. Persistent offenders have needs in multiple domains as they transition into adulthood. The majority of offenders were single and about a half were in neither employment nor training. Almost nine out of ten offenders had a substance misuse disorder and a similar number met the criteria for a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder. Substance misuse in adolescence was strongly correlated with later substance misuse in adulthood, emphasising the importance of early intervention. A diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder and living with friends and family were both significantly associated with persistent offending behaviour. Many offenders continued to reoffend despite receiving offence-related interventions and custodial care. Interventions currently aimed at reducing recidivism in more severe offenders appear to be ineffective. Persistent offenders would benefit from a multi-modal approach based on individual needs, rather than receiving generic interventions.

  19. The Marginally Employed Offender: A Unique Phenomenon among Released Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nally, John; Lockwood, Susan; Knutson, Katie; Ho, Taiping

    2013-01-01

    The primary focus of this study was to explore the characteristics of marginally employed (earnings less than $5,000 per year) ex-offenders. Findings from this study include the following: (1) The number of employed offenders varied from 47.7 percent of recently released offenders in 2006 to 49.8 percent of recently released offenders in 2009; (2)…

  20. Offender Rehabilitation Down Under

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Tony; Day, Andrew; Casey, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we offer an overview of reintegration policies in both Australia and New Zealand. We describe the rehabilitative practices of both countries, and their basis in the Risk-Needs-Responsivity model of offender rehabilitation, before outlining the recently developed Good Lives Model of offender rehabilitation. Our conclusion is that the…

  1. The Impact of Sex and Age on Serum Prohepcidin Concentration in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jasiniewska, Joanna; Dymek, Grazyna; Gruszka, Marzenna

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Within the last 8 years, it has become evident that hepcidin has a diagnostic and therapeutic potential. Therefore, it is a great need to establish the reference interval for hepcidin and its precursor. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of age and sex on serum prohepcidin concentration in healthy adults. Material and methods: 100 healthy volunteers were enrolled during the 18 months of the study - 56 males and 44 females, mean age 34.8±10.1 yrs. Serum prohepcidin, ferritin, soluble transferring receptor (sTfR) and plasma erythropoietin were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Serum iron and unsaturated iron binding capacity were determined on ARCHITECT ci8200 (Abbott Diagnostics) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Results Serum prohepcidin concentrations ranged from 74.9 ng/ml to 300.4 ng/ml in healthy adults of both sexes. However, prohepcidin levels were significantly higher in males (median value 145.7 ng/ml) than in females (median 127.3 ng/ml) (p=0.0016). Serum prohepcidin was not associated with age in the group of healthy adults. Conclusions Serum prohepcidin concentrations were found to be related to sex. Significantly lower prohepcidin levels were observed in females compared with males.

  2. Invisible Victims: Delayed Onset Depression among Adults with Same-Sex Parents

    PubMed Central

    Sullins, D. Paul

    2016-01-01

    The relationship of elevated depression risk recently discovered among adult persons raised by same-sex parents with possible precipitating conditions in childhood has not previously been acknowledged. This study tests whether such inattention is supportable. Logistic regression based risk ratios were estimated from longitudinal measures of mental health outcomes observed in three waves (at ages 15, 22, and 28) of the US National Survey of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 15,701). At age 28, the adults raised by same-sex parents were at over twice the risk of depression (CES-D: risk ratio 2.6, 95% CI 1.4–4.6) as persons raised by man-woman parents. These findings should be interpreted with caution. Elevated risk was associated with imbalanced parental closeness and parental child abuse in family of origin; depression, suicidality, and anxiety at age 15; and stigma and obesity. More research and policy attention to potentially problematic conditions for children with same-sex parents appears warranted. PMID:27313882

  3. Sex effect on catecholamine responses to sprint exercise in adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Botcazou, Maïtel; Jacob, Christophe; Gratas-Delamarche, Arlette; Vincent, Sophie; Bentué-Ferrer, Danièle; Delamarche, Paul; Zouhal, Hassane

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of sex on plasma catecholamine responses to sprint exercise in adolescents and adults. Thirty-six untrained participants took part in this study-9 girls and 10 boys (Tanner Stage 4) and 9 women and 8 men. Each participant performed a 6-s sprint test on a cycle ergometer. Plasma adrenaline (A) and noradrenaline (NA) concentrations were determined successively at rest (A0 and NA0), immediately after the 6-s sprint test (AEX and NAEX), and after 5 min of recovery (A5 and NA5). Peak power, expressed in absolute values or relative to body weight and fat-free mass, was significantly higher in boys than in girls and higher in men than in women (p < .001). No sex effect was observed in AEX in the adolescents, but the NA increase was significantly higher in boys in response to the 6-s sprint (p < .05). In adults, no sex difference was found in NAEX, but AEX was significantly higher in men than in women (p < .05). NAEX was significantly higher in women than in girls (p < .05), and AEX was significantly higher in men than in boys (p < .01). The results of this study suggest that male and female adolescents and young adults might exhibit different catecholamine responses to sprint exercise.

  4. Invisible Victims: Delayed Onset Depression among Adults with Same-Sex Parents.

    PubMed

    Sullins, D Paul

    2016-01-01

    The relationship of elevated depression risk recently discovered among adult persons raised by same-sex parents with possible precipitating conditions in childhood has not previously been acknowledged. This study tests whether such inattention is supportable. Logistic regression based risk ratios were estimated from longitudinal measures of mental health outcomes observed in three waves (at ages 15, 22, and 28) of the US National Survey of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 15,701). At age 28, the adults raised by same-sex parents were at over twice the risk of depression (CES-D: risk ratio 2.6, 95% CI 1.4-4.6) as persons raised by man-woman parents. These findings should be interpreted with caution. Elevated risk was associated with imbalanced parental closeness and parental child abuse in family of origin; depression, suicidality, and anxiety at age 15; and stigma and obesity. More research and policy attention to potentially problematic conditions for children with same-sex parents appears warranted. PMID:27313882

  5. The Effect of Sexual Experience on the Social Representation of Sex in Portuguese Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Alexandra; Nunes, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to observe the effect of sexual experience on the social representation of sex in Portuguese young adults. According to social representation theory, the central core of the social representation should be the same in all individuals that share a common social ground, however differences should be found in the peripheral system. It was used a free evocation task to assess the social representation of sex in Portuguese individuals aging between 18 and 25 years old. Nine hundred and sixty individuals were grouped by their sexual experience and condom use habits. A prototypical analysis was conducted to assess the structure of the social representation and statistical differences were analyzed using the qui-square independency test to search for an association between the structure and the group evoking it. The results supported the hypothesis of a common central core for all groups that shows a romanticized vision of sex. The differences found in the peripheral system suggest that sexual experience affects the representation of sex in a way that seems clearer to these individuals the necessity of protection when it comes to sex. PMID:26973936

  6. Is the Sexual Murderer a Unique Type of Offender? A Typology of Violent Sexual Offenders Using Crime Scene Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Healey, Jay; Beauregard, Eric; Beech, Anthony; Vettor, Shannon

    2016-09-01

    The empirical literature on sexual homicide has posited the sexual murderer as a unique type of offender who is qualitatively different from other types of offenders. However, recent research has suggested that sexual homicide is a dynamic crime and that sexual assaults can escalate to homicide when specific situational factors are present. This study simultaneously explored the utility of the sexual murderer as a unique type of offender hypothesis and sexual homicide as a differential outcome of sexual assaults hypothesis. This study is based on a sample of 342 males who were convicted of committing a violent sexual offense, which resulted in either physical injury or death of the victim. A series of latent class analyses were performed using crime scene indicators in an attempt to identify discrete groups of sexual offenders. In addition, the effects of modus operandi, situational factors, and offender characteristics on each group were investigated. Results suggest that both hypotheses are supported. A group of offenders was identified who almost exclusively killed their victims and demonstrated a lethal intent by the choice of their offending behavior. Moreover, three other groups of sex offenders were identified with a diverse lethality level, suggesting that these cases could end up as homicide when certain situational factors were present.

  7. Is the Sexual Murderer a Unique Type of Offender? A Typology of Violent Sexual Offenders Using Crime Scene Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Healey, Jay; Beauregard, Eric; Beech, Anthony; Vettor, Shannon

    2016-09-01

    The empirical literature on sexual homicide has posited the sexual murderer as a unique type of offender who is qualitatively different from other types of offenders. However, recent research has suggested that sexual homicide is a dynamic crime and that sexual assaults can escalate to homicide when specific situational factors are present. This study simultaneously explored the utility of the sexual murderer as a unique type of offender hypothesis and sexual homicide as a differential outcome of sexual assaults hypothesis. This study is based on a sample of 342 males who were convicted of committing a violent sexual offense, which resulted in either physical injury or death of the victim. A series of latent class analyses were performed using crime scene indicators in an attempt to identify discrete groups of sexual offenders. In addition, the effects of modus operandi, situational factors, and offender characteristics on each group were investigated. Results suggest that both hypotheses are supported. A group of offenders was identified who almost exclusively killed their victims and demonstrated a lethal intent by the choice of their offending behavior. Moreover, three other groups of sex offenders were identified with a diverse lethality level, suggesting that these cases could end up as homicide when certain situational factors were present. PMID:25179401

  8. Sex Differences in Performance over 7 Years on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised among Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittler, P.; Krinsky-McHale, S. J.; Devenny, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore changes related to sex differences on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised (WISC-R) subtest performance over a 7-year interval in middle-aged adults with intellectual disability (ID). Cognitive sex differences have been extensively studied in the general population, but there are few reports…

  9. Sex impacts the relation between body composition and physical function in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, Rudy J.; Misic, Mark M.; Rosengren, Karl S.; Woods, Jeffrey A.; Evans, Ellen M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the sex-specific relationships between physical activity, aerobic fitness, adiposity (%Fat), mineral-free lean mass (MFLM) and balance and gait performance in older adults. Design Eighty-five female and 49 male sedentary, healthy, community-dwelling older adults (M±SD; 69.6±5.4 and 70.3±4.7 years, respectively) were evaluated on habitual physical activity via questionnaire, aerobic fitness by a maximal oxygen consumption treadmill test, whole and regional body composition by DXA, and lower-extremity physical function (LEPF) using gait tasks and computerized dynamic posturography. Results As expected, males had less body fat, more lean mass and higher aerobic fitness than females, and tended to perform better on all LEPF tasks (all p≤0.1). Physical activity was not related to gait; however, fitness was related to gait in both sexes (r>0.50, all p<0.05). Body fat was related to gait in women (r=−0.38, p<0.05) but not men. Neither fitness nor body composition was related to balance in men, whereas in women leg MFLM was positively associated (r=0.27, p<0.05). Women, but not men, with a greater body weight to leg MFLM ratio performed worse on gait tasks (p<0.001). There was an interaction with sex for %Fat on gait (p=0.05), and for MFLMLEG on balance (p<0.05). Conclusions In sedentary healthy older adults the relation between body composition, aerobic fitness and balance and gait differs between sexes such that women are more strongly impacted by alterations in body composition. Lower %Fat and preservation of lower body lean mass have important implications for reducing the risk of physical disability, especially in older women. PMID:19423997

  10. Offending, Substance Use, and Cohabitation in Young Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lonardo, Robert A; Manning, Wendy D; Giordano, Peggy C; Longmore, Monica A

    2010-12-01

    Over half of young adults have cohabited, but relatively little is known about the role delinquency and substance use play in youths' odds of cohabiting as well as the implications of cohabitation for early adult offending and substance use. This study focuses on the reciprocal relationship between cohabitation during late adolescence and young adulthood and self-reported offending and substance use. Using longitudinal data, we find that net of traditional predictors delinquency involvement is associated with increased odds of cohabitation and cohabiting at younger ages while substance use is not related to cohabiting during early adulthood. Further analysis indicates that cohabitation is associated with lower reports of substance use. However, cohabitation is not associated with self-reported offending. The results help to unravel the connection between cohabitation experience, offending and substance use, and early adult outcomes.

  11. Public attitudes about the culpability and punishment of young offenders.

    PubMed

    Scott, Elizabeth S; Reppucci, N Dickon; Antonishak, Jill; DeGennaro, Jennifer T

    2006-01-01

    Opinions of 789 community adults were individually assessed, using a video-clip of an actual armed robbery and other measures, to determine whether attitudes toward the culpability and appropriate punishment of young offenders were linked to offenders' age, race, and physical appearance. Three major findings emerged: (1) community adults endorse the view that criminal choices of young offenders are influenced by their developmental immaturity and attribute more responsibility for the criminal act as the actor gets older; (2) the public has a relatively strong preference for differential treatment of juvenile and adult offenders; and (3) attitudes about culpability and punishment are not influenced by the culprit's race, physical maturity, or appearance of "toughness." Indications that punitive public opinion toward youth crime may be changing and implications for juvenile justice policy of the study's findings are discussed.

  12. Age- and sex-associated differences in isokinetic knee muscle endurance between young children and adults.

    PubMed

    De Ste Croix, Mark B A; Deighan, Martine A; Ratel, Sebastien; Armstrong, Neil

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the age- and sex-associated differences of repeated isokinetic knee extension and flexion. Fifty one participants, 30 young children (16 boys and 14 girls; aged 11 and 12 years) and 21 adults (9 males and 12 females; aged 18-35 years), agreed to participate in the study. Isokinetic concentric peak knee extension (PET) and flexion (PFT) torque were measured using a calibrated Biodex System 3. Participants performed 4 concentric extension-flexion cycles with maximum effort; after a 2 min rest, 50 continuous concentric cycles were performed at 1.56 rad.s-1. Total work of the extensors (WKEX) and flexors (WKFL) for the complete 50 repetitions was recorded. Average peak torque and average work for the first and last 3 repetitions were calculated to represent the percentage decline in torque and work. There were no significant differences between groups in the peak torque generated during the pretrial and endurance task, suggesting that participants gave a maximal effort at the start of the endurance task. There was a significant interaction effect in the total work done for both extensors and flexors, with adult males producing the greatest amount of work (6622 and 3444 J, respectively). When total work was divided by body mass, there were no significant sex effects, only main effects for group. The percentage decline for PET (40% vs. 60%), PFT (50% vs. 65%), WKET (43% vs. 61%), and WKFL (60% vs. 69%) demonstrated significant main effects for group, with greater fatigue in adults. We found no significant sex effect for fatigue. This study concludes that females do not resist fatigue from repeated isokinetic muscle actions to a greater extent than males, and that the greater fatigue in adults than in children is probably a product of greater initial torque production and work performed. PMID:19767809

  13. Sex differences in the risk of receiving potentially inappropriate prescriptions among older adults

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Steven G.; Weymann, Deirdre; Pratt, Brandy; Smolina, Kate; Gladstone, Emilie J.; Raymond, Colette; Mintzes, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: to measure sex differences in the risk of receiving potentially inappropriate prescription drugs and to examine what are the factors that contribute to these differences. Design: a retrospective cohort study. Setting: community setting of British Columbia, Canada. Participants: residents of British Columbia aged 65 and older (n = 660,679). Measurements: we measured 2013 period prevalence of prescription dispensations satisfying the American Geriatrics Society's 2012 version of the Beers Criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. We used logistic regressions to test for associations between this outcome and a number of clinical and socioeconomic factors. Results: a larger share of women (31%) than of men (26%) filled one or more potentially inappropriate prescription in the community. The odds of receiving potentially inappropriate prescriptions are associated with several clinical and socioeconomic factors. After controlling for those factors, community-dwelling women were at 16% higher odds of receiving a potentially inappropriate prescription than men (adjusted odds ratio = 1.16, 95% confidence interval = 1.12–1.21). Much of this sex difference stemmed from women's increased odds of receiving potentially inappropriate prescriptions for benzodiazepines and other hypnotics, for tertiary tricyclic antidepressants and for non-selective NSAIDs. Conclusion: there are significant sex differences in older adults' risk of receiving a potentially inappropriate prescription as a result of complex intersections between gender and other social constructs. Appropriate responses will therefore require changes in the information, norms and expectations of both prescribers and patients. PMID:27151390

  14. Adult sex ratio, sexual dimorphism and sexual selection in a Mesozoic reptile.

    PubMed

    Motani, Ryosuke; Jiang, Da-yong; Rieppel, Olivier; Xue, Yi-fan; Tintori, Andrea

    2015-09-22

    The evolutionary history of sexual selection in the geologic past is poorly documented based on quantification, largely because of difficulty in sexing fossil specimens. Even such essential ecological parameters as adult sex ratio (ASR) and sexual size dimorphism (SSD) are rarely quantified, despite their implications for sexual selection. To enable their estimation, we propose a method for unbiased sex identification based on sexual shape dimorphism, using size-independent principal components of phenotypic data. We applied the method to test sexual selection in Keichousaurus hui, a Middle Triassic (about 237 Ma) sauropterygian with an unusually large sample size for a fossil reptile. Keichousaurus hui exhibited SSD biased towards males, as in the majority of extant reptiles, to a minor degree (sexual dimorphism index -0.087). The ASR is about 60% females, suggesting higher mortality of males over females. Both values support sexual selection of males in this species. The method may be applied to other fossil species. We also used the Gompertz allometric equation to study the sexual shape dimorphism of K. hui and found that two sexes had largely homogeneous phenotypes at birth except in the humeral width, contrary to previous suggestions derived from the standard allometric equation.

  15. Adult sex ratio, sexual dimorphism and sexual selection in a Mesozoic reptile

    PubMed Central

    Motani, Ryosuke; Jiang, Da-yong; Rieppel, Olivier; Xue, Yi-fan; Tintori, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary history of sexual selection in the geologic past is poorly documented based on quantification, largely because of difficulty in sexing fossil specimens. Even such essential ecological parameters as adult sex ratio (ASR) and sexual size dimorphism (SSD) are rarely quantified, despite their implications for sexual selection. To enable their estimation, we propose a method for unbiased sex identification based on sexual shape dimorphism, using size-independent principal components of phenotypic data. We applied the method to test sexual selection in Keichousaurus hui, a Middle Triassic (about 237 Ma) sauropterygian with an unusually large sample size for a fossil reptile. Keichousaurus hui exhibited SSD biased towards males, as in the majority of extant reptiles, to a minor degree (sexual dimorphism index −0.087). The ASR is about 60% females, suggesting higher mortality of males over females. Both values support sexual selection of males in this species. The method may be applied to other fossil species. We also used the Gompertz allometric equation to study the sexual shape dimorphism of K. hui and found that two sexes had largely homogeneous phenotypes at birth except in the humeral width, contrary to previous suggestions derived from the standard allometric equation. PMID:26378218

  16. Divorce and infidelity are associated with skewed adult sex ratios in birds.

    PubMed

    Liker, András; Freckleton, Robert P; Székely, Tamás

    2014-04-14

    Adult sex ratio (ASR) is a fundamental concept in population demography, and recent theory suggests that ASR plays a central role in social behavior, mating systems, and parental care. Unbalanced ASRs are predicted to influence pair-bond and mating behavior, since the rarer sex in the population has more potential partners to mate with than the more common sex. Here we use phylogenetic comparative analyses to test whether ASR is related to three major aspects of mating behavior: divorce, social polygamy, and pair-bond infidelity. ASR is strongly correlated with long-term pair bonds, since the divorce rate is higher in species with a female-biased sex ratio, indicating that mate change by pair members and/or breaking of pair bonds by unmated individuals is more frequent when females outnumber males. Short-term pair bonds are also associated with unbalanced ASRs: males are more commonly polygamous when females outnumber males, and conversely, females are more polygamous when males outnumber females. Furthermore, infidelity increases with male-biased ASR in socially monogamous birds, suggesting that male coercion and/or female willingness to cheat the partner are facilitated by male-biased ASR. Our results provide the first comprehensive support for the proposition that ASR influences multiple aspects of pair-bond and mating behavior in wild populations. PMID:24656831

  17. Sex hormones affect neurotransmitters and shape the adult female brain during hormonal transition periods

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Sacher, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones have been implicated in neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, dendritic branching, myelination and other important mechanisms of neural plasticity. Here we review the evidence from animal experiments and human studies reporting interactions between sex hormones and the dominant neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, GABA and glutamate. We provide an overview of accumulating data during physiological and pathological conditions and discuss currently conceptualized theories on how sex hormones potentially trigger neuroplasticity changes through these four neurochemical systems. Many brain regions have been demonstrated to express high densities for estrogen- and progesterone receptors, such as the amygdala, the hypothalamus, and the hippocampus. As the hippocampus is of particular relevance in the context of mediating structural plasticity in the adult brain, we put particular emphasis on what evidence could be gathered thus far that links differences in behavior, neurochemical patterns and hippocampal structure to a changing hormonal environment. Finally, we discuss how physiologically occurring hormonal transition periods in humans can be used to model how changes in sex hormones influence functional connectivity, neurotransmission and brain structure in vivo. PMID:25750611

  18. Adult sex ratio, sexual dimorphism and sexual selection in a Mesozoic reptile.

    PubMed

    Motani, Ryosuke; Jiang, Da-yong; Rieppel, Olivier; Xue, Yi-fan; Tintori, Andrea

    2015-09-22

    The evolutionary history of sexual selection in the geologic past is poorly documented based on quantification, largely because of difficulty in sexing fossil specimens. Even such essential ecological parameters as adult sex ratio (ASR) and sexual size dimorphism (SSD) are rarely quantified, despite their implications for sexual selection. To enable their estimation, we propose a method for unbiased sex identification based on sexual shape dimorphism, using size-independent principal components of phenotypic data. We applied the method to test sexual selection in Keichousaurus hui, a Middle Triassic (about 237 Ma) sauropterygian with an unusually large sample size for a fossil reptile. Keichousaurus hui exhibited SSD biased towards males, as in the majority of extant reptiles, to a minor degree (sexual dimorphism index -0.087). The ASR is about 60% females, suggesting higher mortality of males over females. Both values support sexual selection of males in this species. The method may be applied to other fossil species. We also used the Gompertz allometric equation to study the sexual shape dimorphism of K. hui and found that two sexes had largely homogeneous phenotypes at birth except in the humeral width, contrary to previous suggestions derived from the standard allometric equation. PMID:26378218

  19. Sex hormones establish a reserve pool of adult muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Hoon; Han, Gi-Chan; Seo, Ji-Yun; Park, Inkuk; Park, Wookjin; Jeong, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Su Hyeon; Bae, Sung-Hwan; Seong, Jinwoo; Yum, Min-Kyu; Hann, Sang-Hyeon; Kwon, Young-Guen; Seo, Daekwan; Choi, Man Ho; Kong, Young-Yun

    2016-09-01

    Quiescent satellite cells, known as adult muscle stem cells, possess a remarkable ability to regenerate skeletal muscle following injury throughout life. Although they mainly originate from multipotent stem/progenitor cells of the somite, the mechanism underlying the establishment of quiescent satellite cell populations is unknown. Here, we show that sex hormones induce Mind bomb 1 (Mib1) expression in myofibres at puberty, which activates Notch signalling in cycling juvenile satellite cells and causes them to be converted into adult quiescent satellite cells. Myofibres lacking Mib1 fail to send Notch signals to juvenile satellite cells, leading to impaired cell cycle exit and depletion. Our findings reveal that the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis drives Mib1 expression in the myofibre niche. Moreover, the same axis regulates the re-establishment of quiescent satellite cell populations following injury. Our data show that sex hormones establish adult quiescent satellite cell populations by regulating the myofibre niche at puberty and re-establish them during regeneration.

  20. Sex Differences in the Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine among Adults with Multiple Chronic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Alwhaibi, Monira; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To examine sex differences in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among adults with multiple chronic conditions. Methods. This study used a cross-sectional design with data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey. The participants were interviewed in 2012 and the reference period for the questions in the survey varied from 1 week to 12 months prior to the interview date. The study included adults (age > 21 years) with no missing data on CAM use variables and who had multiple chronic conditions. Multivariable regression analyses were used to examine the association between sex and CAM use. Results. A significantly higher percentage of women compared to men had ever used CAM (51.5% versus 44.3%); women were more likely to have ever used CAM (AOR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.35–1.65). Among CAM users, a higher percentage of women compared to men used CAM in the past 12 months (53.5% vs. 42.7%); women were more likely to use CAM in the past 12 months (AOR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.49–1.97). Factors associated with CAM use in the past 12 months were different for men and women; income and obesity were associated with CAM use in the past 12 months among women and not among men. Conclusion. Among adults with multiple chronic conditions, women were more likely to use CAM as compared to men. PMID:27239207

  1. Sex hormones establish a reserve pool of adult muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Hoon; Han, Gi-Chan; Seo, Ji-Yun; Park, Inkuk; Park, Wookjin; Jeong, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Su Hyeon; Bae, Sung-Hwan; Seong, Jinwoo; Yum, Min-Kyu; Hann, Sang-Hyeon; Kwon, Young-Guen; Seo, Daekwan; Choi, Man Ho; Kong, Young-Yun

    2016-09-01

    Quiescent satellite cells, known as adult muscle stem cells, possess a remarkable ability to regenerate skeletal muscle following injury throughout life. Although they mainly originate from multipotent stem/progenitor cells of the somite, the mechanism underlying the establishment of quiescent satellite cell populations is unknown. Here, we show that sex hormones induce Mind bomb 1 (Mib1) expression in myofibres at puberty, which activates Notch signalling in cycling juvenile satellite cells and causes them to be converted into adult quiescent satellite cells. Myofibres lacking Mib1 fail to send Notch signals to juvenile satellite cells, leading to impaired cell cycle exit and depletion. Our findings reveal that the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis drives Mib1 expression in the myofibre niche. Moreover, the same axis regulates the re-establishment of quiescent satellite cell populations following injury. Our data show that sex hormones establish adult quiescent satellite cell populations by regulating the myofibre niche at puberty and re-establish them during regeneration. PMID:27548913

  2. Sex, but not Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism, Differences in Spatial Performance in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Yasen, Alia L; Raber, Jacob; Miller, Jeremy K; Piper, Brian J

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how sex and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype contribute to individual differences in spatial learning and memory. The associations of APOE genotype with neurocognitive function have been well studied among the elderly but less is known at earlier ages. Young adults (n = 169, 88 females) completed three neurocognitive tasks: mental rotation, spatial span, and Memory Island, a spatial navigation test. Males outperformed females on all three tasks: finding the hidden targets more quickly on Memory Island (Cohen's d = 0.62) and obtaining higher scores on mental rotation (d = 0.54) and spatial span (d = 0.37). In contrast, no significant effects of APOE were observed. The identified sex differences elaborate upon past literature documenting sexually dimorphic performance on specific neurobehavioral tasks.

  3. Fourier analysis of human soft tissue facial shape: sex differences in normal adults.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Schmitz, J H; Miani, A; Taroni, G

    1995-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in human facial form involves both size and shape variations of the soft tissue structures. These variations are conventionally appreciated using linear and angular measurements, as well as ratios, taken from photographs or radiographs. Unfortunately this metric approach provides adequate quantitative information about size only, eluding the problems of shape definition. Mathematical methods such as the Fourier series allow a correct quantitative analysis of shape and of its changes. A method for the reconstruction of outlines starting from selected landmarks and for their Fourier analysis has been developed, and applied to analyse sex differences in shape of the soft tissue facial contour in a group of healthy young adults. When standardised for size, no sex differences were found between both cosine and sine coefficients of the Fourier series expansion. This shape similarity was largely overwhelmed by the very evident size differences and it could be measured only using the proper mathematical methods. PMID:8586558

  4. How Does Adult Attachment Affect Human Recognition of Love-related and Sex-related Stimuli: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Juan; Chen, Xin; Liu, Jinqun; Yao, Fangshu; Huang, Jiani; Ndasauka, Yamikani; Ma, Ru; Zhang, Yuting; Lan, Jing; Liu, Lu; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship among three emotion-motivation systems (adult attachment, romantic love, and sex). We recorded event-related potentials in 37 healthy volunteers who had experienced romantic love while they viewed SEX, LOVE, FRIEND, SPORT, and NEUTRAL images. We also measured adult attachment styles, level of passionate love and sexual attitudes. As expected, results showed that, firstly, response to love-related image-stimuli and sex-related image-stimuli on the electrophysiological data significantly different on N1, N2, and positive slow wave (PSW) components. Secondly, the different adult attachment styles affected individuals’ recognition processing in response to love-related and sex-related images, especially, to sex-related images. Further analysis showed that voltages elicited by fearful attachment style individuals were significantly lower than voltages elicited by secure and dismissing attachment style individuals on sex-related images at frontal sites, on N1 and N2 components. Thirdly, from behavior data, we found that adult attachment styles were not significantly related to any dimension of sexual attitudes but were significantly related to passionate love scale (PLS) total points. Thus, the behavior results were not in line with the electrophysiological results. The present study proved that adult attachment styles might mediate individuals’ lust and attraction systems. PMID:27199830

  5. How Does Adult Attachment Affect Human Recognition of Love-related and Sex-related Stimuli: An ERP Study.

    PubMed

    Hou, Juan; Chen, Xin; Liu, Jinqun; Yao, Fangshu; Huang, Jiani; Ndasauka, Yamikani; Ma, Ru; Zhang, Yuting; Lan, Jing; Liu, Lu; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship among three emotion-motivation systems (adult attachment, romantic love, and sex). We recorded event-related potentials in 37 healthy volunteers who had experienced romantic love while they viewed SEX, LOVE, FRIEND, SPORT, and NEUTRAL images. We also measured adult attachment styles, level of passionate love and sexual attitudes. As expected, results showed that, firstly, response to love-related image-stimuli and sex-related image-stimuli on the electrophysiological data significantly different on N1, N2, and positive slow wave (PSW) components. Secondly, the different adult attachment styles affected individuals' recognition processing in response to love-related and sex-related images, especially, to sex-related images. Further analysis showed that voltages elicited by fearful attachment style individuals were significantly lower than voltages elicited by secure and dismissing attachment style individuals on sex-related images at frontal sites, on N1 and N2 components. Thirdly, from behavior data, we found that adult attachment styles were not significantly related to any dimension of sexual attitudes but were significantly related to passionate love scale (PLS) total points. Thus, the behavior results were not in line with the electrophysiological results. The present study proved that adult attachment styles might mediate individuals' lust and attraction systems.

  6. How Does Adult Attachment Affect Human Recognition of Love-related and Sex-related Stimuli: An ERP Study.

    PubMed

    Hou, Juan; Chen, Xin; Liu, Jinqun; Yao, Fangshu; Huang, Jiani; Ndasauka, Yamikani; Ma, Ru; Zhang, Yuting; Lan, Jing; Liu, Lu; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship among three emotion-motivation systems (adult attachment, romantic love, and sex). We recorded event-related potentials in 37 healthy volunteers who had experienced romantic love while they viewed SEX, LOVE, FRIEND, SPORT, and NEUTRAL images. We also measured adult attachment styles, level of passionate love and sexual attitudes. As expected, results showed that, firstly, response to love-related image-stimuli and sex-related image-stimuli on the electrophysiological data significantly different on N1, N2, and positive slow wave (PSW) components. Secondly, the different adult attachment styles affected individuals' recognition processing in response to love-related and sex-related images, especially, to sex-related images. Further analysis showed that voltages elicited by fearful attachment style individuals were significantly lower than voltages elicited by secure and dismissing attachment style individuals on sex-related images at frontal sites, on N1 and N2 components. Thirdly, from behavior data, we found that adult attachment styles were not significantly related to any dimension of sexual attitudes but were significantly related to passionate love scale (PLS) total points. Thus, the behavior results were not in line with the electrophysiological results. The present study proved that adult attachment styles might mediate individuals' lust and attraction systems. PMID:27199830

  7. Treatment During Civil Commitment for Sexual Offending Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Rebecca

    2016-07-01

    The first sex offender civil commitment legislation passed in Washington State in 1990. Since that time, 21 additional jurisdictions in the USA have passed similar statutes. Although considered controversial by some, the statutes have withstood legal scrutiny at the state and federal levels. These statutes have been found constitutional in large part because they offer treatment to those individuals detained under them. In the 25 years since sex offender civil commitment became a reality, significant advances in sex offender assessment and treatment have shaped the landscape of the associated treatment programs. This article reviews current practice in programs that treat individuals detained under these laws and provides a framework in which these programs are delivered.

  8. Endogenous brain erythropoietin is a potent sex-specific respiratory stimulant in adult and newborn mice.

    PubMed

    Ballot, Orlane; Joseph, Vincent; Soliz, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that endogenous brain Epo is a respiratory stimulant. Adult (3 mo) and newborn (10 days) male and female mice received an intracisternal (cisterna magna) injection of soluble Epo receptor (sEpoR; competes with EpoR to bind Epo; 50 μg/ml) or vehicle (0.1% BSA in PBS). Twenty-four hours after injection, we used whole body plethysmography to record minute ventilation (V̇e) tidal volume (VT), respiratory frequency (fR), O2 consumption (V̇o2), and CO2 production (V̇co2) under normoxia and progressive exposure to hypoxia (12-10-6% O2; 10 min each). In adult male and female mice sEpoR decreased normoxic V̇e (-25%), due to a decrease of VT in males and fR in females. Moreover, sEpoR injection decreased the ventilatory response to 12% O2, assessed as V̇e/V̇o2 or V̇e/V̇co2, in male but not in female mice. In newborn male and female mice sEpoR decreased V̇e (-37% in males, -59% in females) and VT (-38% in males, -47% in females) in normoxia and fR in females. During hypoxia, sEpoR decreased V̇e/V̇o2 and V̇e/V̇co2 in mice of both sexes. Upon extreme hypoxia (6% O2), the newborn mice treated with sEpoR showed respiratory depression, signs of asphyxia (gasping) and a high mortality rate in males and females. We concluded that endogenous brain Epo is a potent respiratory stimulant under normoxia and hypoxia in adult and newborn mice. Because sex-specific effects are different in newborn male and female, sex steroids secreted at different ages mice appear to modulate the effects of Epo on respiratory regulation in normoxia and in response to hypoxia. PMID:25792712

  9. Youth Violence: Oversight of Federal Programs. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Youth Violence of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session on S. 1245, a Bill To Amend the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 To Identify Violent and Hardcore Juvenile Offenders and Treat Them as Adults, and for Other Purposes (May 8, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    This hearing focused on a bill to amend the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 to identify violent and hard core juvenile offenders and treat them as adults. Opening statements by four U.S. senators (the Honorable Fred Thompson, Herbert Kohl, Joseph R. Biden, Jr., and Orrin G. Hatch) present various perspectives on the role of…

  10. Day Reporting Center and Recidivism: Comparing Offender Groups in a Western Pennsylvania County Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, David R.; Harvey, Patrick J.; Schanz, Youngyol Yim

    2011-01-01

    In this study the authors report on an investigation comparing the recidivism and other variables of two similar offender populations in a western Pennsylvania county. The two groups were comparable in offense type, size (N = 63 for each) and other variables such as sex, race and age range. One group represented offenders who received a sentence…

  11. Adult-child sex and the limits of liberal sexual morality.

    PubMed

    Malón, Agustin

    2015-05-01

    This article is a critical review of the most common arguments in the specialized literature about the moral status of sexual relationships between adults and prepubescent children. The intent is to reveal how the usual ethical analysis of these experiences, done from a general sexual morality, with a Kantian and utilitarian basis, very clearly shows us the limits and contradictions of contemporary liberal morality regarding sexual matters. It leaves open the possibility that, under certain circumstances, these relationships may be morally admissible. Some shortcomings and contradictions in these liberal arguments suggest that it would be of interest to refer to other authors and ideas to value adult-child sex, approaches that are based on a specific sexual morality concerning the issue of sexual virtues and a more complex conception of human sexual desire. Some of the scientific implications of these moral issues are also discussed.

  12. Adult-child sex and the limits of liberal sexual morality.

    PubMed

    Malón, Agustin

    2015-05-01

    This article is a critical review of the most common arguments in the specialized literature about the moral status of sexual relationships between adults and prepubescent children. The intent is to reveal how the usual ethical analysis of these experiences, done from a general sexual morality, with a Kantian and utilitarian basis, very clearly shows us the limits and contradictions of contemporary liberal morality regarding sexual matters. It leaves open the possibility that, under certain circumstances, these relationships may be morally admissible. Some shortcomings and contradictions in these liberal arguments suggest that it would be of interest to refer to other authors and ideas to value adult-child sex, approaches that are based on a specific sexual morality concerning the issue of sexual virtues and a more complex conception of human sexual desire. Some of the scientific implications of these moral issues are also discussed. PMID:25677335

  13. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition in Mexican older adults: age and sex differences.

    PubMed

    López-Ortega, Mariana; Arroyo, Pedro

    2016-02-14

    Anthropometric reference data for older adults, particularly for the oldest old, are still limited, especially in developing countries. The aim of the present study was to describe sex- and age-specific distributions of anthropometric measurements and body composition in Mexican older adults. The methods included in the present study were assessment of height, weight, BMI, calf circumference (CC), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) as well as knee height in a sample of 8883 Mexican adults aged 60 years and above and the estimation of sex- and age-specific differences in these measures. Results of the study (n 7865, 54% women) showed that men are taller, have higher BMI, and larger WC than women, whereas women presented higher prevalence of obesity and adiposity. Overall prevalence of underweight was 2·3% in men and 4·0% in women, with increasing prevalence with advancing age. Significant differences were found by age group for weight, height, WC, HC, CC, BMI and knee height (P<0·001), but no significant differences in waist-hip circumference were observed. Significant differences between men and women were found in height, weight, circumferences, BMI and knee height (P<0·001). These results, which are consistent with studies of older adults in other countries, can be used for comparison with other Mexican samples including populations living in the USA and other countries with similar developmental and socio-economic conditions. This information can also be used as reference in clinical settings as a tool for detection of individuals at risk of either underweight or overweight and obesity.

  14. Examining deterrence of adult sex crimes: A semi-parametric intervention time series approach

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Hong; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Letourneau, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by recent developments on dimension reduction (DR) techniques for time series data, the association of a general deterrent effect towards South Carolina (SC)’s registration and notification (SORN) policy for preventing sex crimes was examined. Using adult sex crime arrestee data from 1990 to 2005, the the idea of Central Mean Subspace (CMS) is extended to intervention time series analysis (CMS-ITS) to model the sequential intervention effects of 1995 (the year SC’s SORN policy was initially implemented) and 1999 (the year the policy was revised to include online notification) on the time series spectrum. The CMS-ITS model estimation was achieved via kernel smoothing techniques, and compared to interrupted auto-regressive integrated time series (ARIMA) models. Simulation studies and application to the real data underscores our model’s ability towards achieving parsimony, and to detect intervention effects not earlier determined via traditional ARIMA models. From a public health perspective, findings from this study draw attention to the potential general deterrent effects of SC’s SORN policy. These findings are considered in light of the overall body of research on sex crime arrestee registration and notification policies, which remain controversial. PMID:24795489

  15. Gender Development in Indonesian Children, Adolescents, and Adults with Disorders of Sex Development.

    PubMed

    Ediati, Annastasia; Juniarto, Achmad Zulfa; Birnie, Erwin; Drop, Stenvert L S; Faradz, Sultana M H; Dessens, Arianne B

    2015-07-01

    In most Western countries, clinical management of disorders of sex development (DSD), including ambiguous genitalia, begins at diagnosis soon after birth. For many Indonesian patients born with ambiguous genitalia, limited medical treatment is available. Consequently, affected individuals are raised with ambiguous genitalia and atypical secondary sex characteristics. We investigated gender identity and gender role behavior in 118 Indonesian subjects (77 males, 41 females) with different types of DSD in comparison with 118 healthy controls matched for gender, age, and residential setting (rural, suburban, or urban). In Study 1, we report on methodological aspects of the investigation, including scale adaptation, pilot testing, and determining reliability and validity of measures. In Study 2, we report on gender development in 60 children (42 boys, 18 girls), 24 adolescents (15 boys, 9 girls), and 34 adults (19 men, 15 women) with DSD. The majority of participants with DSD never received any medical or surgical treatment prior to this study. We observed a gender change in all age groups, with the greatest incidence in adults. Among patients who changed, most changed from female to male, possessed a 46,XY karyotype, and had experienced significant masculinization during life. Gender identity confusion and cross-gender behavior was more frequently observed in children with DSD raised as girls compared to boys. Puberty and associated masculinization were related to gender problems in individuals with 46,XY DSD raised female. An integrated clinical and psychological follow-up on gender outcome is necessary prior to puberty and adulthood.

  16. Does the timing of attainment of maturity influence sexual size dimorphism and adult sex ratio in turtles?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Gibbons, J. Whitfield; Agha, Mickey

    2014-01-01

    The attainment of sexual maturity has been shown to affect measures of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and adult sex ratios in several groups of vertebrates. Using data for turtles, we tested the model that sex ratios are expected to be male-biased when females are larger than males and female-biased when males are larger than females because of the relationship of each with the attainment of maturity. Our model is based on the premise that the earlier-maturing sex remains smaller, on average throughout life, and predominates numerically unless the sexes are strongly affected by differential mortality, differential emigration, and immigration, or biased primary sex ratios. Based on data for 24 species in seven families, SSD and sex ratios were significantly negatively correlated for most analyses, even after the effect of phylogenetic bias was removed. The analyses provide support for the model that SSD and adult sex ratios are correlated in turtles as a result of simultaneous correlation of each with sexual differences in attainment of maturity (bimaturism). Environmental sex determination provides a possible mechanism for the phenomenon in turtles and some other organisms.

  17. Examining Antisocial Behavioral Antecedents of Juvenile Sexual Offenders and Juvenile Non-Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    McCuish, Evan C; Lussier, Patrick; Corrado, Raymond R

    2015-08-01

    In prospective longitudinal studies of juvenile offenders, the presence of multiple developmental pathways of antisocial behaviors has consistently been identified. An "antisocial" type of juvenile sex offender (JSO) has also been identified; however, whether antisocial JSOs follow different antisocial pathways has not been examined. In the current study, differences in antisocial pathways within JSOs and between JSOs and juvenile non-sex offenders (JNSOs) were examined. Data on Canadian male incarcerated adolescent offenders were used to identify whether behavioral antecedents differed within JSOs and between JSOs (n = 51) and JNSOs (n = 94). Using latent class analysis (LCA), three behavioral groups were identified. For both JSOs and JNSOs, there was a Low Antisocial, Overt, and Covert group. Overall, there were important within-group differences in the behavioral patterns of JSOs, but these differences resembled differences in the behavioral patterns of their JNSO counterpart. Risk factors including offense history, abuse history, and family history were more strongly associated with the Overt and Covert groups compared with the Low Antisocial group. Implications for JSO assessment practices were discussed.

  18. Examining Antisocial Behavioral Antecedents of Juvenile Sexual Offenders and Juvenile Non-Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    McCuish, Evan C; Lussier, Patrick; Corrado, Raymond R

    2015-08-01

    In prospective longitudinal studies of juvenile offenders, the presence of multiple developmental pathways of antisocial behaviors has consistently been identified. An "antisocial" type of juvenile sex offender (JSO) has also been identified; however, whether antisocial JSOs follow different antisocial pathways has not been examined. In the current study, differences in antisocial pathways within JSOs and between JSOs and juvenile non-sex offenders (JNSOs) were examined. Data on Canadian male incarcerated adolescent offenders were used to identify whether behavioral antecedents differed within JSOs and between JSOs (n = 51) and JNSOs (n = 94). Using latent class analysis (LCA), three behavioral groups were identified. For both JSOs and JNSOs, there was a Low Antisocial, Overt, and Covert group. Overall, there were important within-group differences in the behavioral patterns of JSOs, but these differences resembled differences in the behavioral patterns of their JNSO counterpart. Risk factors including offense history, abuse history, and family history were more strongly associated with the Overt and Covert groups compared with the Low Antisocial group. Implications for JSO assessment practices were discussed. PMID:24487119

  19. Neuropsychological Sex Differences Associated with Age of Initiated Use Among Young Adult Cannabis Users

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Natania A.; Schuster, Randi Melissa; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Gonzalez, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Earlier initiation of cannabis use is associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning across several domains. Given well-documented sex differences in neuromaturation during adolescence, initiation of cannabis use during this time may affect neuropsychological functioning differently for males and females. Method In the current study, we examined sex differences in the relationship between age of initiated cannabis use and neuropsychological performance after controlling for amount of lifetime cannabis use in 44 male and 25 female young adult cannabis users. Results We found that an earlier age of initiated use was related to poorer episodic memory, especially immediate recall, in females, but not in males. On the other hand, we found that, surprisingly, an earlier age of initiated use was associated with better decision-making overall. However, exploratory analyses found sex-specific factors associated with decision-making and age of initiated use, specifically that ADHD symptoms in females may drive the relationship between an earlier age of initiated use and better decision-making. Further, an earlier age of initiated use was associated with less education, a lower IQ, and fewer years of mother’s education for females, but more lifetime cannabis use for males. Conclusions Taken together, our findings suggest there are sex-differences in the associations between age of initiated cannabis use and neuropsychological functioning. The current study provides preliminary evidence that males and females may have different neuropsychological vulnerabilities that place them at risk for initiating cannabis use and continued cannabis use, highlighting the importance of examining the impact of cannabis on neuropsychological functioning separately for males and females. PMID:25832823

  20. Sex-specific differences in risk factors for sarcopenia amongst community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Tay, L; Ding, Y Y; Leung, B P; Ismail, N H; Yeo, A; Yew, S; Tay, K S; Tan, C H; Chong, M S

    2015-12-01

    With considerable variation including potential sex-specific differential rate of skeletal muscle loss, identifying modifiable factors for sarcopenia will be pivotal to guide targeted interventions. This study seeks to identify clinical and biological correlates of sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults, with emphasis on the role of anabolic and catabolic stimuli, and special reference to gender specificity. In this cross-sectional study involving 200 community-dwelling and functionally independent older adults aged ≥50 years, sarcopenia was defined using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criteria. Comorbidities, cognitive and functional performance, physical activity and nutritional status were routinely assessed. Biochemical parameters included haematological indices, lipid panel, vitamin D level, anabolic hormones [insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), free testosterone (males only)] and catabolic markers [inflammatory markers (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein) and myostatin]. Multiple logistic regression was performed to identify independent predictors for sarcopenia. Age was associated with sarcopenia in both genders. Malnutrition conferred significantly higher odds for sarcopenia in women (OR = 5.71, 95% CI 1.13-28.84.44, p = 0.035) while higher but acceptable range serum triglyceride was protective in men (OR = 0.05, 95% CI 0.00-0.52, p = 0.012). Higher serum myostatin independently associated with higher odds for sarcopenia in men (OR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.00-1.24, p = 0.041). Serum IGF-1 was significantly lower amongst female sarcopenic subjects, with demonstrable trend for protective effect against sarcopenia in multiple regression models, such that each 1 ng/ml increase in IGF-1 was associated with 1% decline in odds of sarcopenia in women (p = 0.095). Our findings support differential pathophysiological mechanisms for sarcopenia that, if corroborated, may have clinical utility in guiding sex-specific targeted

  1. Morphology of the external genitalia of the adult male and female mice as an endpoint of sex differentiation.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Dana A; Rodriguez, Esequiel; Cunha, Tristan; Menshenina, Julia; Barcellos, Dale; Chan, Lok Yun; Risbridger, Gail; Baskin, Laurence; Cunha, Gerald

    2012-05-01

    Adult external genitalia (ExG) are the endpoints of normal sex differentiation. Detailed morphometric analysis and comparison of adult mouse ExG has revealed 10 homologous features distinguishing the penis and clitoris that define masculine vs. feminine sex differentiation. These features have enabled the construction of a simple metric to evaluate various intersex conditions in mutant or hormonally manipulated mice. This review focuses on the morphology of the adult mouse penis and clitoris through detailed analysis of histologic sections, scanning electron microscopy, and three-dimensional reconstruction. We also present previous results from evaluation of "non-traditional" mammals, such as the spotted hyena and wallaby to demonstrate the complex process of sex differentiation that involves not only androgen-dependent processes, but also estrogen-dependent and hormone-independent mechanisms. PMID:21893161

  2. Morphology of the external genitalia of the adult male and female mice as an endpoint of sex differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Dana A.; Rodriguez, Esequiel; Cunha, Tristan; Menshenina, Julia; Barcellos, Dale; Chan, Lok Yun; Risbridger, Gail; Baskin, Laurence; Cunha, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Adult external genitalia (ExG) are the endpoints of normal sex differentiation. Detailed morphometric analysis and comparison of adult mouse ExG has revealed 10 homologous features distinguishing the penis and clitoris that define masculine vs. feminine sex differentiation. These features have enabled the construction of a simple metric to evaluate various intersex conditions in mutant or hormonally manipulated mice. This review focuses on the morphology of the adult mouse penis and clitoris through detailed analysis of histologic sections, scanning electron microscopy, and three-dimensional reconstruction. We also present previous results from evaluation of “non-traditional” mammals, such as the spotted hyena and wallaby to demonstrate the complex process of sex differentiation that involves not only androgen-dependent processes, but also estrogen-dependent and hormone-independent mechanisms. PMID:21893161

  3. Mentally disordered offenders in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lidberg, L; Belfrage, H

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the laws in Sweden concerning mentally disordered offenders. It also contains some figures on the relationship between mentally disordered offenders and other offenders sentenced to prison. The rules in Sweden are very different from other countries in that the responsibility concept has been abolished and thus there is no acquittal on a psychiatric basis.

  4. Wide area continuous offender monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshen, J.; Drake, G.; Spencer, D.

    1996-11-01

    The corrections system in the U.S. is supervising over five million offenders. This number is rising fast and so are the direct and indirect costs to society. To improve supervision and reduce the cost of parole and probation, first generation home arrest systems were introduced in 1987. While these systems proved to be helpful to the corrections system, their scope is rather limited because they only cover an offender at a single location and provide only a partial time coverage. To correct the limitations of first-generation systems, second-generation wide area continuous electronic offender monitoring systems, designed to monitor the offender at all times and locations, are now on the drawing board. These systems use radio frequency location technology to track the position of offenders. The challenge for this technology is the development of reliable personal locator devices that are small, lightweight, with long operational battery life, and indoors/outdoors accuracy of 100 meters or less. At the center of a second-generation system is a database that specifies the offender`s home, workplace, commute, and time the offender should be found in each. The database could also define areas from which the offender is excluded. To test compliance, the system would compare the observed coordinates of the offender with the stored location for a given time interval. Database logfiles will also enable law enforcement to determine if a monitored offender was present at a crime scene and thus include or exclude the offender as a potential suspect.

  5. Mentally disordered offenders. Patterns in the relationship between mental disorder and crime.

    PubMed

    Dietz, P E

    1992-09-01

    Five patterns among mentally disordered offenders are distinguished by the relationship between mental disorder, on the one hand, and criminality, on the other. Pattern 1 offenders are those for whom crime is a response to psychotic symptoms, most often delusions or hallucinations. Pattern 2 offenders commit crimes motivated by compulsive desires, such as sex offenses by paraphiles and offenses regarded as evidence of disorders of impulse control. Pattern 3 offenders are those with personality disorder for whom the crime is merely one example of a maladaptive pattern of voluntary and knowing behavior. Pattern 4 offenders have coincidental mental illness that is unrelated to the crime. Pattern 5 offenders are those who become mentally disordered or feign mental disorder as a result of their crimes, such as those who dissociate upon seeing what they have done, those who become depressed in prison, those who become psychotic on death row, and those who malinger mental illness. Although these categories do not determine whether offenders are responsible for their behavior, some unknown proportion of Pattern 1 offenders do meet legal criteria for insanity, depending on the facts of each case and the applicable legal standards. It is arguable whether or not Pattern 2 offenders ever meet legal criteria of insanity. Offenders evidencing only Patterns 3, 4, or 5 are not candidates for an insanity defense.

  6. The strength of sexual arousal as a function of the age of the sex offender: comparisons among pedophiles, hebephiles, and teleiophiles.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray; Barbaree, Howard E

    2005-10-01

    Previous research has shown that sexual arousability in human males declines from its peak in early adolescence until old age. This study compared the rates of decline in three groups of males: those most attracted sexually to prepubescent children (pedophiles), those most attracted to pubescent children (hebephiles), and those most attracted to physically mature persons (teleiophiles). The participants were 2,028 patients referred to Toronto's Centre for Addiction and Mental Health from 1995 to 2004 for evaluation of criminal or otherwise disturbing sexual behavior, but not for erectile or ejaculatory problems. All underwent phallometric assessment for erotic age-preference. This is a psychophysiological technique in which an individual's penile blood volume is monitored while he is presented with a standardized set of laboratory stimuli depicting male and female children, pubescents, and adults. The experimental measure of sexual arousability was the average of the participant's three greatest penile responses to any stimulus category, expressed in cubic cm of blood volume increase. The results showed that sexual arousability was an inverse function of age, and that there were no differences between the pedophiles, hebephiles, and teleiophiles in the rate at which arousability declined. PMID:16341604

  7. A structured approach to evaluating change among sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Hanson, R K; Harris, A J

    2001-04-01

    Presently, there are no established scales that evaluate change in risk among sexual offenders. The Sex Offender Need Assessment Rating (SONAR) was developed to fill this gap. The SONAR includes five relatively stable factors (intimacy deficits, negative social influences, attitudes tolerant of sex offending, sexual self-regulation, general self-regulation) and four acute factors (substance abuse, negative mood, anger, victim access). The psychometric properties of the scale were examined using data previously collected by Hanson and Harris (1998, 2000). Overall, the scale showed adequate internal consistency and moderate ability to differentiate between recidivists and nonrecidivists (r = .43; ROC area of .74). SONAR continued to distinguish between the groups after controlling for well-established risk indicators, such as age, and scores on the Static-99 (Hanson & Thornton, 2000) and the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (Quinsey, Harris, Rice, & Cormier, 1998).

  8. [Assessment and treatment of sexual offenders].

    PubMed

    Pfäfflin, Friedemann; Ross, T

    2007-01-01

    Sexual offences are a heterogeneous group of offences that entail very different diagnostic categories relevant for key issues of expert assessment. Sexual offender trials usually deal with issues related to (diminished) responsibility and the necessity of a referral to a forensic psychiatric hospital ( section sign 63 StGB, German penal code). Furthermore, risk assessment is seen as a necessary precondition for relapse prevention and consequently, it forms part of any expert assessment in sex offender trials. In terms of treatment, manualized treatment programs prevail. Usually they lend themselves to psycho-educative, cognitive-behavioral and psychodynamic concepts. Notwithstanding the focus of any individual program, core elements of all programs pertain to offence related (e.g., victim empathy, attitudes and individual values, minimizations, etc.) and more general psychotherapy modules (anger management, substance abuse, social skills training, etc.). Advantages and disadvantages of these programs are named and discussed.

  9. The sexual preferences of incest offenders.

    PubMed

    Seto, M C; Lalumière, M L; Kuban, M

    1999-05-01

    Inclusive fitness theory suggests that discriminative solicitude and inbreeding avoidance are important mechanisms regulating parent-children interactions. From an inclusive fitness perspective, sex with one's biological children is paradoxical. The authors hypothesized that incest can occur when these mechanisms are not activated (e.g., if a father is uninvolved in child rearing) or are overwhelmed by another factor, such as pedophilic interest. They predicted that biological fathers, who presumably have been the most involved in the rearing of their victims, would show greater phallometrically measured pedophilic interest than would other incest offenders against children (e.g., grandfathers, uncles, stepfathers). The prediction was not supported. A testable alternative hypothesis to explain biological father incest is presented and the importance of assessing pedophilic interest among incest offenders is discussed.

  10. Sex Differences in Substance Use Among Adult Emergency Department Patients: Prevalence, Severity, and Need for Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Beaudoin, Francesca L.; Baird, Janette; Liu, Tao; Merchant, Roland C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Substance use is prevalent among emergency department (ED) patients, and sex has been implicated as an important factor in the etiology, pathophysiology, sequelae, and treatment of substance use disorders. However, additional information is needed about the epidemiology of substance use as it relates to sex among ED patients. Objectives This study examined sex differences in the prevalence and severity of self-reported tobacco, alcohol, and drug use among adult ED patients. Methods A random sample of English- or Spanish-speaking, non–critically ill or injured, 18- to 64-year-old patients was approached at two urban EDs and asked to self-report their lifetime and past 3-month tobacco, alcohol, and drug use. Participants completed the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) using an audio computer-assisted self-interview. Participants were categorized by their substance severity (ASSIST score) and need for a brief or more intensive intervention per World Health Organization recommendations. Substance misuse prevalence, frequency, severity, and need for interventions were compared between sexes by substance category. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the association between sexes and the need for intervention after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Results Of the 6,432 participants in the study, the median age was 37 years (interquartile range = 26 to 48 years), and 56.6% were female. Overall, lifetime, and past 3-month use was higher for men across all substances (tobacco, alcohol, and drugs). Among those reporting past 3-month use, the frequency of use was similar between sexes for tobacco and all drugs, but men reported more frequent alcohol use. Men had higher mean ASSIST scores compared to women, 30.3 (standard error [SE] ± 0.8) vs. 21.1 (SE ± 0.5); mean difference 9.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.4 to 10.9). The need for any intervention (brief or intensive) was similar

  11. Association between Homocysteine and Bone Mineral Density according to Age and Sex in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Il; Moon, Ji Hyun; Chung, Hye Won; Kong, Mi Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background There are several studies about the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and bone mineral density (BMD), but the results are varied, and the studies are limited in Korea. In our study, the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and BMD by part according to age and sex is investigated. Methods From March 2012 to July 2015, the 3,337 healthy adults who took a medical examination were recruited. Subjects filled in the self-recording type questionnaire and physical examination, blood test, BMD of lumbar spine and femur were measured. After sorting by aging (≤49 year old, 50-59 year old, ≥60 year old) and sex, the results were adjusted with age and body mass index (BMI) and the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and BMD by lumbar spine and femur was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. Results As results of analysis, with the adjustment with age and BMI, all age groups of men had no significant relationship between log-converted serum homocysteine levels and BMD. In women aged under 50, there were significantly negative relationships at lumbar spine (β=-0.028, P=0.038), femur neck (β=-0.062, P=0.001), and total hip (β=-0.076, P<0.001), but there was no significant relationship in other age groups (50-59 year old and ≥60 year old). Conclusions As the serum homocysteine levels increased in women aged under 50, BMD of the lumbar spine and femur decreased, and correlations between homocysteine and BMD were different by sex and age. PMID:27622176

  12. Sex difference in substrate oxidation during low-intensity isometric exercise in young adults.

    PubMed

    Sarafian, Delphine; Schutz, Yves; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Dulloo, Abdul G; Miles-Chan, Jennifer L

    2016-09-01

    Low-intensity physical activity is increasingly promoted as an alternative to sedentary behavior. However, much research to date has focused on moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity, and in particular dynamic work, with the effect of low-intensity isometric exercise (<4 METs) on substrate utilization yet to be explored. Here we investigate the effects of such exercise on respiratory quotient (RQ) and determine the extent of intra- and inter-individual variability in response. Energy expenditure, RQ, and substrate oxidation were measured by ventilated-hood indirect calorimetry at rest and in response to standardized, intermittent, low-level isometric leg-press exercises at 5 loads (+5, +10, +15, +20, +25 kg) in 26 healthy, young adults. Nine participants repeated the experiment on 3 separate days to assess within-subject, between-day variability. There was no significant difference in energy cost and heart rate responses to low-intensity isometric exercise (<2 METs) between men and women. However, a sex difference was apparent in terms of substrate oxidation - with men increasing both fat and carbohydrate oxidation, and women only increasing fat oxidation while maintaining carbohydrate oxidation at baseline, resting levels. This sex difference was repeatable and persisted when substrate oxidation was adjusted for differences in body weight or body composition. Individual variability in RQ was relatively low, with both intra- and inter-individual coefficients of variation in the range of 3%-6% in both sexes. These results suggest that women preferentially increase fat oxidation during low-level isometric exercise. Whether such physical activity could be incorporated into treatment/prevention strategies aimed at optimizing fat oxidation in women warrants further investigation.

  13. Association between Homocysteine and Bone Mineral Density according to Age and Sex in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Il; Moon, Ji Hyun; Chung, Hye Won; Kong, Mi Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background There are several studies about the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and bone mineral density (BMD), but the results are varied, and the studies are limited in Korea. In our study, the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and BMD by part according to age and sex is investigated. Methods From March 2012 to July 2015, the 3,337 healthy adults who took a medical examination were recruited. Subjects filled in the self-recording type questionnaire and physical examination, blood test, BMD of lumbar spine and femur were measured. After sorting by aging (≤49 year old, 50-59 year old, ≥60 year old) and sex, the results were adjusted with age and body mass index (BMI) and the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and BMD by lumbar spine and femur was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. Results As results of analysis, with the adjustment with age and BMI, all age groups of men had no significant relationship between log-converted serum homocysteine levels and BMD. In women aged under 50, there were significantly negative relationships at lumbar spine (β=-0.028, P=0.038), femur neck (β=-0.062, P=0.001), and total hip (β=-0.076, P<0.001), but there was no significant relationship in other age groups (50-59 year old and ≥60 year old). Conclusions As the serum homocysteine levels increased in women aged under 50, BMD of the lumbar spine and femur decreased, and correlations between homocysteine and BMD were different by sex and age.

  14. Sex difference in substrate oxidation during low-intensity isometric exercise in young adults.

    PubMed

    Sarafian, Delphine; Schutz, Yves; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Dulloo, Abdul G; Miles-Chan, Jennifer L

    2016-09-01

    Low-intensity physical activity is increasingly promoted as an alternative to sedentary behavior. However, much research to date has focused on moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity, and in particular dynamic work, with the effect of low-intensity isometric exercise (<4 METs) on substrate utilization yet to be explored. Here we investigate the effects of such exercise on respiratory quotient (RQ) and determine the extent of intra- and inter-individual variability in response. Energy expenditure, RQ, and substrate oxidation were measured by ventilated-hood indirect calorimetry at rest and in response to standardized, intermittent, low-level isometric leg-press exercises at 5 loads (+5, +10, +15, +20, +25 kg) in 26 healthy, young adults. Nine participants repeated the experiment on 3 separate days to assess within-subject, between-day variability. There was no significant difference in energy cost and heart rate responses to low-intensity isometric exercise (<2 METs) between men and women. However, a sex difference was apparent in terms of substrate oxidation - with men increasing both fat and carbohydrate oxidation, and women only increasing fat oxidation while maintaining carbohydrate oxidation at baseline, resting levels. This sex difference was repeatable and persisted when substrate oxidation was adjusted for differences in body weight or body composition. Individual variability in RQ was relatively low, with both intra- and inter-individual coefficients of variation in the range of 3%-6% in both sexes. These results suggest that women preferentially increase fat oxidation during low-level isometric exercise. Whether such physical activity could be incorporated into treatment/prevention strategies aimed at optimizing fat oxidation in women warrants further investigation. PMID:27540628

  15. Gonadal suppressive and cross-sex hormone therapy for gender dysphoria in adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine P; Madison, Christina M; Milne, Nikki M

    2014-12-01

    Individuals with gender dysphoria experience distress associated with incongruence between their biologic sex and their identified gender. Gender dysphoric natal males receive treatment with antiandrogens and estrogens to become feminized (transsexual females), whereas natal females with gender dysphoria receive treatment with androgens to become masculinized (transsexual males). Because of the permanence associated with cross-sex hormone therapy (CSHT), adolescents diagnosed with gender dysphoria receive gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs to suppress puberty. High rates of depression and suicide are linked to social marginalization and barriers to care. Behavior, emotional problems, depressive symptoms, and global functioning improve in adolescents receiving puberty suppression therapy. Gender dysphoria, psychological symptoms, quality of life, and sexual function improve in adults who receive CSHT. Within the first 6 months of CSHT, changes in transsexual females include breast growth, decreased testicular volume, and decreased spontaneous erections, and changes in transsexual males include cessation of menses, breast atrophy, clitoral enlargement, and voice deepening. Both transsexual females and males experience changes in body fat redistribution, muscle mass, and hair growth. Desired effects from CSHT can take between 3 and 5 years; however, effects that occur during puberty, such as voice deepening and skeletal structure changes, cannot be reversed with CSHT. Decreased sexual desire is a greater concern in transsexual females than in transsexual males, with testosterone concentrations linked to sexual desire in both. Regarding CSHT safety, bone mineral density is preserved with adequate hormone supplementation, but long-term fracture risk has not been studied. The transition away from high-dose traditional regimens is tied to a lower risk of venous thromboembolism and cardiovascular disease, but data quality is poor. Breast cancer has been reported in

  16. Clerics who commit sexual offenses: offender, offense, and victim characteristics.

    PubMed

    Firestone, Philip; Moulden, Heather M; Wexler, Audrey F

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to undertake an exploratory analysis of clerics who sexually offend and the circumstances related to these offenses. Thirty-three adult male religious leaders who had been charged with a sexual offense against a child or adolescent were included in the study. This study examined descriptive information about offenders, their victims, as well as characteristics of the crimes. Notable trends included the following: religious leaders tended to offend against boys living with both parents, the offense often took place at the clergy's residence, and the offense involved fondling the victim. The study also compared offenders with single versus multiple victims on crime variables and differences were noted with respect to victim access. PMID:19842539

  17. Differential Effects of Sex Pheromone Compounds on Adult Female Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) Locomotor Patterns.

    PubMed

    Walaszczyk, Erin J; Goheen, Benjamin B; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

    2016-06-01

    Synchronization of male and female locomotor activity plays a critical role in ensuring reproductive success, especially in semelparous species. The goal of this study was to elucidate the effects of individual chemical signals, or pheromones, on the locomotor activity in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). In their native habitat, adult preovulated females (POF) and ovulated females (OF) are exposed to sex pheromone compounds that are released from spermiated males and attract females to nests during their migration and spawning periods. In this study, locomotor activity of individual POF and OF was measured hourly in controlled laboratory conditions using an automated video-tracking system. Differences in the activity between a baseline day (no treatment exposure) and a treatment day (sex pheromone compound or control exposure) were examined for daytime and nighttime periods. Results showed that different pheromone compound treatments affected both POF and OF sea lamprey (p < 0.05) but in different ways. Spermiated male washings (SMW) and one of its main components, 7α,12α,24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24 sulfate (3kPZS), decreased activity of POF during the nighttime. SMW also reduced activity in POF during the daytime. In contrast, SMW increased activity of OF during the daytime, and an additional compound found in SMW, petromyzonol sulfate (PZS), decreased the activity during the nighttime. In addition, we examined factors that allowed us to infer the overall locomotor patterns. SMW increased the maximum hourly activity during the daytime, decreased the maximum hourly activity during the nighttime, and reduced the percentage of nocturnal activity in OF. Our findings suggest that adult females have evolved to respond to different male compounds in regards to their locomotor activity before and after final maturation. This is a rare example of how species-wide chemosensory stimuli can affect not only the amounts of activity but also the overall locomotor

  18. Depression, Sex and Gender Roles in Older Adult Populations: The International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS)

    PubMed Central

    Vafaei, Afshin; Ahmed, Tamer; Freire, Aline do N. Falcão; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Guerra, Ricardo O.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the associations between gender roles and depression in older men and women and whether gender roles are independent risk factors for depression. Methods International cross-sectional study of adults between 65 and 74 years old (n = 1,967). Depression was defined by a score of 16 or over in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). A validated 12-item Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) was used to classify participants in gender roles (Masculine, Feminine, Androgynous, and Undifferentiated) using research site medians of femininity and masculinity as cut-off points. Poisson regressions were fitted to estimate the prevalence ratios (PR) of depression for each gender role compared to the masculine role, adjusting for sex, sufficiency of income, education, marital status, self-rated health, and chronic conditions. Results Among men, 31.2% were androgynous, 26% were masculine, 14.4% were feminine, and 28.4% were undifferentiated; among women, the corresponding percentages were 32.7%, 14.9%, 27%, and 25.4%. Both in men and in women, depressive symptoms (CES-D≥16) were more prevalent in those endorsing the undifferentiated type, compared to masculine, feminine or androgynous groups. However, after adjusting for potential confounders, compared to the masculine group only those endorsing the androgynous role were 28% less likely to suffer from depression: PR of 0.72 (95% CI: 0.55–0.93). In fully adjusted models, prevalence rates of depression were not different from masculine participants in the two other gender groups of feminine and undifferentiated. Conclusions Androgynous roles were associated with lower rates of depression in older adults, independently of being a man or a woman. PMID:26771828

  19. Updating UK estimates of age, sex and period specific cumulative constant tar cigarette consumption per adult

    PubMed Central

    Forey, B.; Lee, P.; Fry, J.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—In 1993 we presented age and sex specific estimates of cumulative constant tar cigarette consumption (CCTCC) per adult for five year periods to 1986-90. These were derived from annual surveys conducted for the Tobacco Manufacturers' Association (TMA) since 1946, extrapolated back to 1891 for men and to 1921 for women and corrected for the decline in average (machine smoked) tar levels. We now provide estimates for 1991-5.
METHODS—TMA surveys having ceased, 1991-5 estimates of manufactured cigarette consumption per adult (MCA) were derived from the General Household Survey (GHS) and corrected for the continuing decline in tar. These estimates were divided by 0.75 (men) and 0.80 (women), based on a comparison of GHS and TMA data for 1971-90, to allow accumulation with the TMA derived estimates prior to 1991.
RESULTS—For both sexes the GHS/TMA ratio of MCA varied little by age or five year period, justifying the use of the correction factors when adjusting GHS estimates for 1991-95. TMA estimates were higher than GHS estimates as only TMA sales-corrected their data for understatement of smoking and the surveys differed in questions on handrolled cigarette smoking. The 1991-95 data confirm the continuing decline in CCTCC at all ages in men. Women show a less steep decline for ages 30-64 and an increase for ages 65-84.
CONCLUSION—The GHS data can validly be used to update the CCTCC estimates. Some reservations about the use of CCTCC are discussed.

 PMID:10193376

  20. Sex-dependent effects of maternal deprivation and adolescent cannabinoid treatment on adult rat behaviour.

    PubMed

    Llorente-Berzal, Alvaro; Fuentes, Sílvia; Gagliano, Humberto; López-Gallardo, Meritxell; Armario, Antonio; Viveros, María-Paz; Nadal, Roser

    2011-10-01

    Early life experiences such as maternal deprivation (MD) exert long-lasting changes in adult behaviour and reactivity to stressors. Adolescent exposure to cannabinoids is a predisposing factor in developing certain psychiatric disorders. Therefore, the combination of the two factors could exacerbate the negative consequences of each factor when evaluated at adulthood. The objective of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of early MD [24 hours at postnatal day (PND) 9] and/or an adolescent chronic treatment with the cannabinoid agonist CP-55,940 (0.4 mg/kg, PND 28-42) on diverse behavioural and physiological responses of adult male and female Wistar rats. We tested them in the prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response and analysed their exploratory activity (holeboard) and anxiety (elevated plus maze, EPM). In addition, we evaluated their adrenocortical reactivity in response to stress and plasma leptin levels. Maternal behaviour was measured before and after deprivation. MD induced a transient increase of maternal behaviour on reuniting. In adulthood, maternally deprived males showed anxiolytic-like behaviour (or increased risk-taking behaviour) in the EPM. Adolescent exposure to the cannabinoid agonist induced an impairment of the PPI in females and increased adrenocortical responsiveness to the PPI test in males. Both, MD and adolescent cannabinoid exposure also induced sex-dependent changes in plasma leptin levels and body weights. The present results indicate that early MD and adolescent cannabinoid exposure exerted distinct sex-dependent long-term behavioural and physiological modifications that could predispose to the development of certain neuropsychiatric disorders, though no synergistic effects were found.