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Sample records for adult sexual behavior

  1. Sexual Behavior in Adults with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Bourgondien, Mary E.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A survey of the sexual behavior of 89 adults with autism living in group homes found that the majority of individuals were engaging in some form of sexual behavior. Masturbation was the most common sexual behavior; however, person-oriented sexual behaviors with obvious signs of arousal were also found. Information regarding group home sexuality…

  2. Sexual Behaviors and AIDS Concerns among Young Adult Heterosexual Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Sherry C.; Vergare, Michael J.

    As the human immunodeficiency virus spreads beyond homosexuals and intravenous drug users into the heterosexual community, there is heightened interest in the sexual behavior of sexually active young adults. There is little information on young adult black males, who may be at increased risk, since blacks in this country are contracting Acquired…

  3. Prescription Drug Misuse and Sexual Behavior among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Brooke E.; Kelly, Brian C.; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Though research indicates a complex link between substance use and sexual risk behavior, there is limited research on the association between sexual risk behavior and prescription drug misuse. In light of the alarming increases in prescription drug misuse and the role of demographic characteristics in sexual risk behavior and outcomes, the current study examines demographic differences (gender, sexual identity, age, relationship status, parental class background, and race/ethnicity) in sexual risk behavior, sexual behavior under the influence of prescription drugs, and sexual risk behavior under the influence of prescription drugs in a sample of 402 young adults (18–29) who misuse prescription drugs. Nearly half of the sexually active young adult prescription drug misusers in this sample reported recent sex under the influence of prescription drugs, more than three quarters reported recent sex without a condom, and more than one-third reported recent sex without a condom after using prescription drugs. Zero-inflated Poisson regression models indicated that white race, younger age, higher parental class, and being a heterosexual man were all associated with sexual risk behavior, sex under the influence of prescription drugs, and sexual risk under the influence of prescription drugs. Findings have implications for the targeting of prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:25569204

  4. Sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Benotsch, Eric G.; Snipes, Daniel J.; Martin, Aaron M.; Bull, Sheana S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Cell phone use has become more widespread over the past decade. Young adults are frequently early adopters of new technologies, including cell phones. Most prior research examining sexting, the act of sending sexually explicit or suggestive images via text message, has focused on the legal or social consequences of this behavior. The current study focused on the public health implications of sexting by examining associations between sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in youth. Methods Young adults (N=763) completed online questionnaires assessing demographics, cell phone use (e.g., texting, sexting), substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Results Sexting was reported by a substantial minority of participants (44%). Compared to their non-sexting counterparts, participants who engaged in sexting were more likely to report recent substance use and high-risk sexual behaviors, including unprotected sex and sex with multiple partners. Of those who engaged in sexting, a considerable percentage (31.8%) reported having sex with a new partner for the first time after sexting with that person. In multivariate analyses, sexting was associated with high-risk sexual behavior after accounting for demographic factors, total texting behaviors, and substance use. Conclusions Results suggest that sexting is robustly associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Many individuals exchange explicit or provocative photos with long-term sexual partners, but at least some participants in this study were incurring new sexual risks subsequent to sexting. Additional research is needed to understand the contexts in which sexting occurs, motivations for sexting, and relationship of sexting to risk behavior. PMID:23299017

  5. Sexual and Physical Abuse History and Adult Sexual Risk Behaviors: Relationships among Women and Potential Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleton, Heather; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Berenson, Abbey

    2007-01-01

    Objective: While research has supported associations between experiencing abuse and engaging in risky sexual behaviors during adolescence, research regarding these associations among adult women is much more equivocal. In addition, few studies have attempted to identify potential pathways from abuse experiences to sexual risk behaviors. The…

  6. The influence of sexually explicit Internet material on sexual risk behavior: a comparison of adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M

    2011-08-01

    This study had three goals: first, to investigate whether sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) affects sexual risk behavior; second, to study whether these effects differ between adolescents and adults; and third, to analyze, separately for adolescents and adults, whether gender and age moderate an influence of SEIM on sexual risk behavior. The authors conducted a 2-wave panel survey among nationally representative random samples of 1,445 Dutch adolescents and 833 Dutch adults. SEIM use increased sexual risk behavior among adults, but not among adolescents. More specifically, moderator analyses showed that SEIM use increased sexual risk behavior only among male adults, but not among female adults. In the adolescent sample, no moderating gender effect occurred. Neither among adolescents nor among adults did age moderate the effects. Our study shows that SEIM may influence outcomes related to people's sexual health. It also suggests that male adults may present a potential risk group for adverse effects of SEIM. PMID:21476164

  7. Associations between young adults' use of sexually explicit materials and their sexual preferences, behaviors, and satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Elizabeth M

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how levels of sexually explicit material (SEM) use during adolescence and young adulthood were associated with sexual preferences, sexual behaviors, and sexual and relationship satisfaction. Participants included 782 heterosexual college students (326 men and 456 women; M(age) = 19.9) who completed a questionnaire online. Results revealed high frequencies and multiple types and contexts of SEM use, with men's usage rates systematically higher than women's. Regression analyses revealed that both the frequency of SEM use and number of SEM types viewed were uniquely associated with more sexual experience (a higher number of overall and casual sexual intercourse partners, as well as a lower age at first intercourse). Higher frequencies of SEM use were associated with less sexual and relationship satisfaction. The frequency of SEM use and number of SEM types viewed were both associated with higher sexual preferences for the types of sexual practices typically presented in SEM. These findings suggest that SEM use can play a significant role in a variety of aspects of young adults' sexual development processes. PMID:21259151

  8. Sexual Behavior in High-Functioning Male Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellemans, Hans; Colson, Kathy; Verbraeken, Christine; Vermeiren, Robert; Deboutte, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    Group home caregivers of 24 institutionalized, male, high-functioning adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder, were interviewed with the Interview Sexuality Autism. Most subjects were reported to express sexual interest and to display some kind of sexual behavior. Knowledge of socio-sexual skills existed, but practical use was…

  9. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Dissociation, and Adult Self-Destructive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Srednicki, Ofelia

    2001-01-01

    Female college students reporting a history of childhood sexual abuse and not reporting a history of childhood sexual abuse were compared on indices of six self-destructive behaviors, including drug use, alcohol abuse, binge eating, self-mutilation, risky sex, and suicidality. The CSA group had significantly higher mean scores on all the indices…

  10. The Effects of Early Sexual Abuse on Adult Risky Sexual Behaviors among Persons with Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dorn, Richard A.; Mustillo, Sarah; Elbogen, Eric B.; Dorsey, Shannon; Swanson, Jeffrey W.; Swartz, Marvin S.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: There were two aims: first, to examine the relationship between prior sexual abuse and three types of adult risky sexual behaviors [(1) ever traded sex for drugs or money, (2) had unprotected sex in the past 6 months, and (3) frequency of unprotected sex in the past 6 months] among persons with severe mental illness (SMI), and second,…

  11. Mediators of the Relation Between Community Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Adults Attending a Public Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic.

    PubMed

    Senn, Theresa E; Walsh, Jennifer L; Carey, Michael P

    2016-07-01

    Prior research shows that violence is associated with sexual risk behavior, but little is known about the relation between community violence (i.e., violence that is witnessed or experienced in one's neighborhood) and sexual risk behavior. To better understand contextual influences on HIV risk behavior, we asked 508 adult patients attending a publicly funded STI clinic in the U.S. (54 % male, M age = 27.93, 68 % African American) who were participating in a larger trial to complete a survey assessing exposure to community violence, sexual risk behavior, and potential mediators of the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation (i.e., mental health, substance use, and experiencing intimate partner violence). A separate sample of participants from the same trial completed measures of sexual behavior norms, which were aggregated to create measures of census tract sexual behavior norms. Data analyses controlling for socioeconomic status revealed that higher levels of community violence were associated with more sexual partners for men and with more episodes of unprotected sex with non-steady partners for women. For both men and women, substance use and mental health mediated the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation; in addition, for men only, experiencing intimate partner violence also mediated this relation. These results confirm that, for individuals living in communities with high levels of violence, sexual risk reduction interventions need to address intimate partner violence, substance use, and mental health to be optimally effective. PMID:27000155

  12. Emotional, behavioral, and HIV risks associated with sexual abuse among adult homosexual and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Bartholow, B N; Doll, L S; Joy, D; Douglas, J M; Bolan, G; Harrison, J S; Moss, P M; McKirnan, D

    1994-09-01

    From May 1989 through April 1990, 1,001 adult homosexual and bisexual men attending urban sexually transmitted disease clinics were interviewed regarding abusive sexual contacts during childhood and adolescence. Sexual abuse was found to be significantly associated with mental health counseling and hospitalization, psychoactive substance use, depression, suicidal thought or actions, social support, sexual identity development, HIV risk behavior including unprotected and intercourse and injecting drug use, and risk of sexually transmitted diseases including HIV infection. Data suggest that sexual abuse may have a wide-ranging influence on the quality of life and health risk behavior of homosexual men. Increased awareness as to the potential outcomes of male sexual abuse is critically important to the design and implementation of medical and psychological services for sexually abused men. PMID:8000905

  13. Emotional, Behavioral, and HIV Risks Associated with Sexual Abuse among Adult Homosexual and Bisexual Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholow, Bradford N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Interviews with 1,001 adult homosexual and bisexual men found that sexual abuse in childhood was significantly associated with mental health counseling and hospitalization, psychoactive substance use, depression, suicidal thought or actions, social support, sexual identity development, HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) risk behavior, and risk of…

  14. Same-Sex Behavior and Health Indicators of Sexually Experienced Filipino Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chia-Hsin Emily; Perez, Tita Lorna; Cochran, Susan D.

    2015-01-01

    The Philippines is one of seven countries in which HIV incidence has recently increased—much of this increase has been among men who have sex with men. Despite this trend, knowledge on sexuality and same-sex behaviors in the Philippines is limited. This study examines same-sex behavior, sexual outcomes, substance use, and psychological distress among young adults participating in the 2005 Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS). We use gender-stratified, multivariate models to compare young adults who reported same-sex behaviors and those who did not. Among a cohort of 1,912 Filipino young adults (ages 20–22), 58.2% were sexually experienced and 15.1% of them reported same-sex sexual contacts or romantic relationships. Compared to females, more males reported same-sex sexual contact (19.4 vs. 2.3 %) or same-sex romantic relationships (9.2 vs. 4.1 %). Young adults reporting same-sex behavior had higher odds of smoking, drug use, perceived stress, and more sexual partners as compared to their peers. Males who reported same-sex behavior initiated sex earlier than those males who did not report same-sex behaviors. There were no significant differences in depressive distress. Earlier sexual initiation and higher levels of substance use among Filipino young adults engaging in same-sex behavior highlight the need to address unique health issues within this population. Mixed findings for depressive distress and perceived stress indicate that further investigation is needed to explore the potential impacts of same-sex status on mental health outcomes, particularly in lower- and middle-income countries such as the Philippines. PMID:25416159

  15. Same-Sex Behavior and Health Indicators of Sexually Experienced Filipino Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chia-Hsin Emily; Gipson, Jessica D; Perez, Tita Lorna; Cochran, Susan D

    2016-08-01

    The Philippines is one of seven countries in which HIV incidence has recently increased-much of this increase has been among men who have sex with men. Despite this trend, knowledge on sexuality and same-sex behaviors in the Philippines is limited. This study examines same-sex behavior, sexual outcomes, substance use, and psychological distress among young adults participating in the 2005 Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS). We use gender-stratified, multivariate models to compare young adults who reported same-sex behaviors and those who did not. Among a cohort of 1,912 Filipino young adults (ages 20-22), 58.2 % were sexually experienced and 15.1 % of them reported same-sex sexual contacts or romantic relationships. Compared to females, more males reported same-sex sexual contact (19.4 vs. 2.3 %) or same-sex romantic relationships (9.2 vs. 4.1 %). Young adults reporting same-sex behavior had higher odds of smoking, drug use, perceived stress, and more sexual partners as compared to their peers. Males who reported same-sex behavior initiated sex earlier than those males who did not report same-sex behaviors. There were no significant differences in depressive distress. Earlier sexual initiation and higher levels of substance use among Filipino young adults engaging in same-sex behavior highlight the need to address unique health issues within this population. Mixed findings for depressive distress and perceived stress indicate that further investigation is needed to explore the potential impacts of same-sex status on mental health outcomes, particularly in lower- and middle-income countries such as the Philippines. PMID:25416159

  16. Use of the Internet to Meet Sexual Partners, Sexual Risk Behavior, and Mental Health in Transgender Adults.

    PubMed

    Benotsch, Eric G; Zimmerman, Rick S; Cathers, Laurie; Heck, Ted; McNulty, Shawn; Pierce, Juan; Perrin, Paul B; Snipes, Daniel J

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of the internet to meet sexual partners among transgender individuals and examine correlates of this use, including sexual risk behavior, discrimination experiences, and mental health. A sample of 166 transgender adults (112 male-to-female transgender women and 54 female-to-male transgender men) were recruited in community venues and anonymously completed measures assessing these variables. Most participants (64.5 %) were HIV-negative, 25.2 % were HIV-positive, and 10.3 % did not know their HIV status. Overall, 33.7 % of participants reported having met a sexual partner over the internet, which did not differ significantly between transgender women and men. Among these individuals, transgender women reported significantly more lifetime internet sexual partners (median = 3) than transgender men (median = 1). Use of the internet to meet sexual partners was associated with lower self-esteem but not with depression, anxiety, somatic distress or discrimination experiences. Among transgender women, use of the internet to meet sexual partners was associated with each of the 11 sexual risk behaviors examined, including having multiple partners, sex under the influence of drugs, number of unprotected anal or vaginal sex acts, and history of commercial sex work. The use of the internet to meet partners was not associated with sexual risk behavior among transgender men (0/11 variables assessed). Although the internet is a common mode of meeting sexual partners among some transgender adults, it may also be a potential venue for prevention interventions targeting transgender individuals at particularly high risk for HIV acquisition. PMID:25428577

  17. [Sexual and contraceptive behavior of teenagers and young adults. Selected results of the BZgA study "Youth Sexuality 2010"].

    PubMed

    Heßling, A; Bode, H

    2013-02-01

    The BZgA study "Youth Sexuality 2010" clarifies the changes that have occurred in the sexual and contraceptive behavior of teenagers and young adults over the last 30 years. Among young Germans, there is now more gender similarity regarding both the age at which intercourse first takes place and contraceptive behavior. The proportion of German teenagers who take no contraceptive precautions when they have intercourse for the first time is now 8%, a lower figure than ever previously recorded. Communication about contraception, both at home and between the partners, is making a substantial contribution to responsible contraceptive behavior on the part of teenagers and young adults. Alongside education about sexuality in the family and at school, there are also structural influences on the positive developments witnessed in Germany. And yet there are still target groups that are inadequately reached. Many migrants are less well informed about bodily processes, their contraceptive practice is not as good, and their religious background tends to exclude them from access to information. Disabled teenagers and young adults constitute a target group about which to date we have insufficient knowledge. Education and social deprivation continue to be important factors in the differences seen in sexual and contraceptive behavior. In this area, proactive efforts are necessary. PMID:23361202

  18. Social Capital and Sexual Risk-Taking Behaviors Among Older Adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Amin, Iftekhar

    2016-09-01

    Using the General Social Survey (GSS) 2012, a national household-based probability sample of non-institutionalized U.S. adults, this study examined the association of social capital and sexual risk behaviors among older adults aged 55 years and older. Of the 547 respondents, 87% reported not using condoms during their last intercourse, and nearly 15% reported engaging in sexual risk behaviors, such as casual sex, paid sex, male to male sex, and drug use. Binary logistic regression results showed that age, gender, marital status, education, race, sexual orientation, and sexual frequencies were significant predictors of older adults' unprotected sex. Social capital was not a predictor of unprotected sex but was positively associated with other human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted disease (HIV/STD) risk behaviors such as sex with strangers, having multiple sex partners, injecting drugs, and having male to male sex. Findings of this study highlight the importance of HIV/STD prevention programs for older adults. PMID:25245384

  19. Sexual Behavior of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Hilmar

    1978-01-01

    Confined to discussion of heterosexual activities, this article examines adolescent sexual behavior in terms of promiscuity; the search for a sexual behavior code; the impact of the media; and the influence of peer groups, religious identification, and the adult double standard. (JC)

  20. Sexuality Education and HIV Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kniss, Darrel Dean; Akagi, Cynthia G.

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study measured the sexuality education and HIV knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors of young adults (n = 410), ages 18-21, who recently graduated from public high schools in a midwestern state. Based on the participants' responses to specific questions, students were placed into one of three groups: students who received no…

  1. Prediction of HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Disadvantaged African American Adults Using a Syndemic Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    Nehl, Eric J; Klein, Hugh; Sterk, Claire E; Elifson, Kirk W

    2016-02-01

    The focus of this paper is on HIV sexual risk taking among a community-based sample of disadvantaged African American adults. The objective is to examine multiple factors associated with sexual HIV risk behaviors within a syndemic conceptual framework. Face-to-face, computer-assisted, structured interviews were conducted with 1535 individuals in Atlanta, Georgia. Bivariate analyses indicated a high level of relationships among the HIV sexual risks and other factors. Results from multivariate models indicated that gender, sexual orientation, relationship status, self-esteem, condom use self-efficacy, sex while the respondent was high, and sex while the partner was high were significant predictors of condomless sex. Additionally, a multivariate additive model of risk behaviors indicated that the number of health risks significantly increased the risk of condomless sex. This intersection of HIV sexual risk behaviors and their associations with various other behavioral, socio-demographic, and psychological functioning factors help explain HIV risk-taking among this sample of African American adults and highlights the need for research and practice that accounts for multiple health behaviors and problems. PMID:26188618

  2. Association between History of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult HIV-Risk Sexual Behavior in Puerto Rican Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Dolezal, Curtis

    1995-01-01

    This study with 182 homosexually active adult men of Puerto Rican ancestry in New York City found that men who had been sexually abused by an older sexual partner before the age of 13 were significantly more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behavior without protection than other homosexually active men. (Author/DB)

  3. Non-medical use of prescription drugs and sexual risk behavior in young adults.

    PubMed

    Benotsch, Eric G; Koester, Stephen; Luckman, Diana; Martin, Aaron M; Cejka, Anna

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the non-medical use of prescription drugs (without a doctor's prescription) has increased dramatically, particularly in young adults. Previous work has noted associations between the non-medical use of prescription drugs and the use of illicit drugs, and associations between the use of illicit drugs and sexual risk behavior. Investigations examining associations between the non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) and sexual risk behavior are sparse. In the present study, undergraduate students (n=435) ages 18-25 completed an instrument assessing these behaviors. Overall, 35.6% of participants reported NMUPD. Individuals who reported NMUPD were more likely to also report the use of alcohol, marijuana, ecstasy, cocaine, methamphetamine, and poppers. Participants who indicated they had used prescription medications without a doctor's consent had significantly higher rates of sexual risk behavior, including more sexual partners and more instances of unprotected sex in the previous 3 months. Results suggest that a significant minority of young adults are using prescription medication recreationally and are risking negative consequences, including the potential for addiction, dangerous interactions between prescription and recreational drugs, and greater risk for contracting sexually transmitted infections. PMID:20863626

  4. Association between pornography use and sexual risk behaviors in adult consumers: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Harkness, Emily L; Mullan, Barbara; Mullan, Barbara M; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this review was to determine whether an association exists between sexual risk behaviors and pornography consumption. Consumption of pornography is common, yet research examining its link with sexual risk behaviors is in its infancy. Indicators of sexual risk behavior, including unsafe sex practices and a higher number of sexual partners, have been linked to poor health outcomes. A systematic literature search was performed using Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge, Pubmed, and CINAHL. Studies were included if they assessed the association between pornography use and indicators of sexual risk behaviors in an adult population. A total of 17 were included in the review, and all were assessed for research standards using the Quality Index Scale. For both Internet pornography and general pornography, links with greater unsafe sex practices and number of sexual partners were identified. Limitations of the literature, including low external validity and poor study design, restrict the generalizability of the findings. Accordingly, replication and more rigorous methods are recommended for future research. PMID:25587721

  5. Mediators of sexual revictimization risk in adult sexual assault victims.

    PubMed

    Ullman, Sarah E; Vasquez, Amanda L

    2015-01-01

    This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse, emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which child sexual abuse severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to child sexual abuse severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the child sexual abuse severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women. PMID:25942287

  6. High Adult Sex Ratios and Risky Sexual Behaviors: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bien, Cedric H.; Cai, Yong; Emch, Michael E.; Parish, William; Tucker, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Thirty-four countries worldwide have abnormally high sex ratios (>102 men per 100 women), resulting in over 100 million missing women. Widespread sex selective abortion, neglect of young girls leading to premature mortality, and gendered migration have contributed to these persistent and increasing distortions. Abnormally high adult sex ratios in communities may drive sexually transmitted disease (STD) spread where women are missing and men cannot find stable partners. We systematically reviewed evidence on the association between high community sex ratios and individual sexual behaviors. Methods and Findings Seven databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Sociological Abstracts, and PopLINE) were searched without restrictions on time or location. We followed PRISMA guidelines and evaluated quality according to STROBE criteria. 1093 citations were identified and six studies describing 57,054 individuals were included for review. All six studies showed an association between high community sex ratios and individual sexual risk behaviors. In high sex ratio communities, women were more likely to have multiple sex partners and men were more likely to delay first sexual intercourse and purchase sex. Only two studies included STD outcomes. Conclusions High community sex ratios were associated with increased individual sexual risk behavior among both men and women. However, none of the studies examined unprotected sex or appropriately adjusted for gendered migration. Further studies are needed to understand the effect of community sex ratios on sexual health and to inform comprehensive STD control interventions. PMID:23967223

  7. Does sexual coercion play a role in the high-risk sexual behavior of adolescent and young adult women?

    PubMed

    Biglan, A; Noell, J; Ochs, L; Smolkowski, K; Metzler, C

    1995-12-01

    Sexual coercion and its relationship to high-risk sexual behavior were examined in five samples of young women. Sample 1 (N = 22) consisted of sexually active adolescents aged 15 to 19. Samples 2 (N = 206) and 3 (N = 70) were recruited from among patients at three sexually transmitted disease clinics. Sample 4 (N = 51) consisted of young homeless women living on the street in a large city. Sample 5 (N = 51) was recruited from among young women on a college campus. Across all samples, 44.4% of women indicated that they had been forced into some form of sexual activity against their will. Self-reports of sexually coercive experiences were consistently related to risky sexual behavior. It appears that many young women are coerced into engaging in high-risk sexual behavior. This implies the need for greater attention to male coercive sexual behavior and women's skills for coping with such behavior. PMID:8749985

  8. Male rat sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Agmo, A

    1997-05-01

    The male rat's sexual behavior constitutes a highly ordered sequence of motor acts involving both striate and smooth muscles. It is spontaneously displayed by most adult made rats in the presence of a sexually receptive female. Although the behavior is important for the survival of the species it is not necessary for survival of the individual. In that way it is different from other spontaneous behaviors such as eating, drinking, avoidance of pain, respiration or thermoregulation. Among other things, this means that it is difficult to talk about sexual deprivation or need. Nevertheless, studies of male sex behavior distinguish sexual motivation (the ease by which behavior is activated, "libido") from the execution of copulatory acts (performance, "potency") (Meisel, R.L. and Sachs, B.D., The physiology of male sexual behavior. In: E. Knobil and J.D. Neill (Eds.), The Physiology of Reproduction, 2nd Edn., Vol. 2, Raven Press, New York, 1994, pp. 3-105 [13]). The hormonal control of male sexual behavior has been extensively studied. It is clear that steroid hormones, androgens and estrogens, act within the central nervous system, modifying neuronal excitability. The exact mechanism by which these hormones activate sex behavior remains largely unknown. However, there exists a considerable amount of knowledge concerning the brain structures important for sexual motivation and for the execution of sex behavior. The modulatory role of some non-steroid hormones is partly known, as well as the consequences of manipulations of several neurotransmitter systems. PMID:9385085

  9. Mediators of Sexual Revictimization Risk in Adult Sexual Assault Victims

    PubMed Central

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Vasquez, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse (CSA), emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior, and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which CSA severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to CSA severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the CSA severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women. PMID:25942287

  10. Sexual Orientation and Behavior of Adult Jews in Israel and the Association With Risk Behavior.

    PubMed

    Mor, Zohar; Davidovich, Udi

    2016-08-01

    Estimating the size of key risk groups susceptible to HIV/sexually transmitted diseases (STI) is necessary for establishment of interventions and budget allocation. This study aimed to identify various dimensions of sexual orientation and practices in Israel, and correlate the findings with sexual risk behavior (SRB). It used a random representative sample of the Jewish population aged 18-44 years who completed online questionnaires regarding their self-identified sexual orientation, attraction and practices, and SRB. Concordant heterosexuals were those who self-reported heterosexual identity, were attracted and had sex only with the opposite gender. National estimates regarding prevalence of gay, lesbian, and bisexual men and women were based on the civil census. The sample included 997 men and 1005 women, of whom 11.3 and 15.2 % were attracted to the same-gender, 10.2 and 8.7 % reported lifetime same-gender encounters, while 8.2 and 4.8 % self-identified as gay or bisexual men and lesbian or bisexual women, respectively. The estimated population of self-identified Jewish gay or bisexual men and lesbian or bisexual women aged 18-44 in Israel was 94,176, and 57,671, respectively. SRB was more common among self-identified gays or bisexual men and among discordant heterosexual men and women. Those who reported same-gender sexual practices reported greater SRB than those who only had opposite-gender encounters. Interestingly, SRB among discordant heterosexuals was associated with same-sex behavior rather than attraction. Health practitioners should increase their awareness of sexual diversity among their clientele, and should recognize that risk for HIV/STI may exist among self-identified heterosexuals, who may not disclose their actual sexual attraction or practices. PMID:26754157

  11. Dissociative experiences during sexual behavior among a sample of adults living with HIV infection and a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Nathan B; Brown, Lauren J; Tsatkin, Elizabeth; Zelgowski, Brittany; Nightingale, Vienna

    2012-01-01

    Little attention has been given to the occurrence of dissociative symptoms during sexual behavior in adults who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). For this study, 57 adults living with HIV infection who had experienced CSA and were entering a treatment study for traumatic stress completed study assessments and clinical interviews, including a 15-item scale of dissociative experiences during sexual behavior. Predictor variables included Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision diagnoses of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative disorders, rape by an intimate partner, duration of CSA, number of perpetrators of CSA, and current sexual satisfaction. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify significant associations between predictors and dissociation during sex. Mean differences by clinical diagnosis were also examined. Results indicated that PTSD, dissociative disorders, rape by an intimate partner, duration of CSA, and number of perpetrators of CSA were associated with increased dissociation during sexual behavior. Dissociation during sex likely increases vulnerability to sexual revictimization and risky sexual behavior. Standard behavioral prevention interventions may be ineffective for sexual situations when dissociation occurs, and prevention efforts should be integrated with mental health care for those who have experienced CSA. PMID:22545567

  12. Dissociative Experiences during Sexual Behavior among a Sample of Adults Living with HIV Infection and a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Nathan B.; Brown, Lauren J.; Tsatkin, Elizabeth; Zelgowski, Brittany; Nightingale, Vienna

    2012-01-01

    Little attention has been given to the occurrence of dissociative symptoms during sexual behavior in adults who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). For this study, 57 adults living with HIV infection who had experienced CSA and were entering a treatment study for traumatic stress completed study assessments and clinical interviews, including a 15-item scale of Dissociative Experiences during Sexual Behavior. Predictor variables included DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of PTSD and Dissociative Disorders, Rape by an Intimate Partner, Duration of CSA, Number of Perpetrators of CSA, and Current Sexual Satisfaction. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify significant associations between predictors and dissociation during sex. Mean differences by clinical diagnosis were also examined. Results indicated that PTSD, Dissociative Disorders, Rape by an Intimate Partner, Duration of CSA, and Number of Perpetrators of CSA were associated with increased dissociation during sexual behavior. Dissociation during sex likely increases vulnerability to sexual revictimization and risky sexual behavior. Standard behavioral prevention interventions may be ineffective for sexual situations when dissociation occurs, and prevention efforts should be integrated with mental health care for those who have experienced CSA. PMID:22545567

  13. Young adult sexual health: current and prior sexual behaviors among non-Hispanic white U.S. college students

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Jenny A.; Trussell, James; Moore, Nelwyn B.; Davidson, J. Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Objective Less is known about the sexual health of young adults compared to adolescents, despite 20-24 year olds' greater risk of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This paper provides information on college students' prior and current sexual practices, including oral sex, vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, and masturbation. Methods We analyzed data from a cross-sectional sexuality survey of students from two university campuses in the USA, one Midwestern and one Southwestern (N=1504). The sample consisted of non-Hispanic white, never-married students who identified as heterosexual. Results Of 16 possible combinations of four sexual activities (solitary masturbation, oral sex, vaginal intercourse, and anal intercourse), only four contained more than 5% of respondents: masturbation, oral sex, and vaginal intercourse (37%); oral sex and vaginal intercourse only (20%); all four (14%); and none (8%). Twenty percent had ever engaged in anal intercourse. Women were significantly less likely than men to have ever masturbated (48% versus 92%). Analyses exhibited several sexual health challenges, including lack of verbal sexual consent, alcohol use proximal to sex, and lack of contraceptive use. Conclusions Although few young adults are substituting it for vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse is increasingly common, and safer sex efforts should encourage condom use during both sexual activities. Masturbation should be encouraged as an alternative to higher risk sexual practices and an essential aspect of sexual well-being. Finally, practitioners should continue to address specific threats to college students' sexual health, including alcohol use and nonverbal consent. PMID:20152094

  14. "It Felt Good but Weird at the Same Time": Emerging Adults' First Experiences of Six Different Sexual Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasilenko, Sara A.; Maas, Megan K.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2015-01-01

    Although sexual behavior is multidimensional, little research has focused on the experience of nonintercourse behaviors for adolescents and emerging adults. This article uses open-ended coded data from a longitudinal study of college students (N = 346; M age = 18.5, 52% female, 27% Hispanic/Latino [HL], 25% non-HL European American, 23% non-HL…

  15. Sexually explicit media on the internet: a content analysis of sexual behaviors, risk, and media characteristics in gay male adult videos.

    PubMed

    Downing, Martin J; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Antebi, Nadav; Siegel, Karolynn

    2014-05-01

    Recent research suggests that viewing sexually explicit media (SEM), i.e., adult videos, may influence sexual risk taking among men who have sex with men. Despite this evidence, very little is known about the content of gay male SEM on the Internet, including the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors and their relation to video- and performer-characteristics, viewing frequency, and favorability. The current study content analyzed 302 sexually explicit videos featuring male same-sex performers that were posted to five highly trafficked adult-oriented websites. Findings revealed that gay male SEM on the Internet features a variety of conventional and nonconventional sexual behaviors. There was a substantial prevalence of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) (34 %) and was virtually the same as the prevalence of anal sex with a condom (36 %). The presence of UAI was not associated with video length, amateur production, number of video views, favorability, or website source. However, the presence of other potentially high-risk behaviors (e.g., ejaculation in the mouth, and ejaculation on/in/rubbed into the anus) was associated with longer videos, more views, and group sex videos (three or more performers). The findings of high levels of sexual risk behavior and the fact that there was virtually no difference in the prevalence of anal sex with and without a condom in gay male SEM have important implications for HIV prevention efforts, future research on the role of SEM on sexual risk taking, and public health policy. PMID:23733156

  16. Sexually Explicit Media on the Internet: A Content Analysis of Sexual Behaviors, Risk, and Media Characteristics in Gay Male Adult Videos

    PubMed Central

    Downing, Martin J.; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Antebi, Nadav; Siegel, Karolynn

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that viewing sexually explicit media (SEM), i.e., adult videos, may influence sexual risk taking among men who have sex with men (MSM). Despite this evidence, very little is known about the content of gay male SEM on the Internet, including the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors and their relation to video- and performer-characteristics, viewing frequency, and favorability. The current study content analyzed 302 sexually explicit videos featuring male same-sex performers that were posted to five highly trafficked adult-oriented websites. Findings revealed that gay male SEM on the Internet features a variety of conventional and nonconventional sexual behaviors. There was a substantial prevalence of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) (34%) and was virtually the same as the prevalence of anal sex with a condom (36%). The presence of UAI was not associated with video length, amateur production, number of video views, favorability, or website source. However, the presence of other potentially high-risk behaviors (e.g., ejaculation in the mouth, and ejaculation on/in/rubbed into the anus) was associated with longer videos, more views, and group sex videos (three or more performers). The findings of high levels of sexual risk behavior and the fact that there was virtually no difference in the prevalence of anal sex with and without a condom in gay male SEM have important implications for HIV prevention efforts, future research on the role of SEM on sexual risk taking, and public health policy. PMID:23733156

  17. Long-term correlates of childhood abuse among adults with severe mental illness: Adult victimization, substance abuse, and HIV sexual risk behavior

    PubMed Central

    Meade, Christina S.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood sexual and physical abuse among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) is disproportionately high. Adults with SMI also engage in high rates of HIV risk behaviors. This study examined the association between childhood abuse and adult victimization, substance abuse, and lifetime HIV sexual risk in a sample of 152 adults with SMI receiving community mental health services. Structured interviews assessed psychiatric, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors. Seventy percent reported childhood physical and/or sexual abuse, and 32% reported both types of abuse. Participants with childhood abuse were more likely to report adult victimization and greater HIV risk. A structural equation model found that childhood abuse was directly and indirectly associated with HIV risk through drug abuse and adult vicitimization. Integrated treatment approaches that address interpersonal violence and substance abuse may be necessary for HIV risk reduction in this population. PMID:17968646

  18. Prevalence of Heavy Drinking and Risky Sexual Behaviors in Adult Emergency Department Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Operario, Don; Barnett, Nancy P.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Monti, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The study aim was to assess the prevalence and co-occurrence of alcohol and sexual risk behaviors among emergency department (ED) patients in community hospitals. Methods Systematic screening of ED patients (N = 6,486; 56.5% female) was conducted in 2 community hospitals in the northeast during times with high patient volume, generally between the hours of 10 AM to 8 PM, Monday through Saturday. Screening occurred from May 2011 through November 2013. Assessment included validated measures of alcohol use and sexual risk behavior. Results Overall results identified high rates of alcohol use, sexual risk behaviors, and their co-occurrence in this sample of ED patients. Specifically, ED patients in between the ages of 18 and 35 were consistently highest in hazardous alcohol use (positive on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test or endorsing heavy episodic drinking [HED]), sexual risk behaviors, and the co-occurrence of alcohol and sex-risk behaviors. Conclusions Findings show a high co-occurrence of hazardous drinking and unprotected sex among ED patients and highlight the role of HED as a factor associated with sexual risk behavior. Efforts to integrate universal screening for the co-occurrence of alcohol and sexual risk behavior in ED settings are warranted; brief interventions delivered to ED patients addressing the co-occurrence of alcohol and sexual risk behaviors have the potential to decrease the risk of sexually transmitted infections and HIV among a large number of patients. PMID:26332359

  19. A test of an adapted multiple domain model in predicting sexual behaviors among unmarried young adults in India.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Purnima; Zimmerman, Rick S; Noar, Seth M; Dumenci, Levant

    2013-01-01

    Theory-based, scientific research examining sexual behaviors of young adults is sparse in India, even though pre-marital sex among unmarried young people has been rising in recent years. At the same time, young people aged 15 to 24 are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. This has been attributed in part to rising pre-marital sexual behaviors, coupled with a lack of sex education. The objective of this study was to advance an understanding of the determinants of sexual behavior among unmarried young adults in northern India. An adaptation of a comprehensive model of health behavior, the Multiple Domain Model, was employed to study the effects of environmental/cultural influences (parental and media), structural determinants (sex, socioeconomic status, age, caste, and place of residence), personality factors (sensation-seeking and impulsive decision making), gender role identity, psychosocial variables (attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy), contextual influences (relationship status and alcohol/drug use) and preparatory behaviors (frequency of being in sexual situations) on adolescents' sexual behaviors. Results of path analysis indicated that key predictors of ever having had vaginal sex included preparatory behaviors, masculine gender role identity, attitudes toward having sex and peer norms regarding sex. Implications of these findings for future research and intervention are discussed. PMID:22206501

  20. Cross-Cultural Differences and Sexual Risk Behavior of Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Tami L.; Yarandi, Hossein N.; Dalmida, Safiya George; Frados, Andrew; Klienert, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study examined population-specific risk factors that increase emerging adults’ risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including the human papillomavirus (HPV). Design and Method A cross-sectional sample of 335 diverse, emerging adults ages 18 to 24 years was recruited from a health center at a large university in the Southeastern United States. The mean age was 20.6 ± 1.9 years, majority were females (74.0%), and 61.0% were Hispanic. Results Findings revealed inconsistent condom use, reasons for not using condoms, and a need for more culturally-specific intervention strategies. Discussion and Conclusions Healthcare providers should identify culturally-specific reasons for inconsistent condom use, examine cultural and geographic differences in sexual risk behaviors among groups and communities, and modify communication, educational programs, and interventions accordingly. Implications for Practice By adopting a multi-cultural approach to the control of STIs, nurses can address specific cultural attitudes and behaviors that may influence exposure to STIs, including HPV. PMID:24692340

  1. An Exploration of the Sexual Behaviors of Emerging Adult Men Attending a Historically Black College/University

    PubMed Central

    Younge, Sinead N.; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Geter, Angelica; Barker, Judith C.; Corneille, Maya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide formative data on the sexual behaviors of emerging adult Black men who attended a historically Black college/university. A convenience sample of 19 participants completed a demographic questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. This study utilized a phenomenological qualitative approach to explore the role of the developmental stage that emerging adulthood has on sexual health. Some of the major themes that emerged included maturation, sexual decision-making, respectability, a future orientation, and masculinity. Despite sexual initiation beginning prior to entering college, participants discussed how the college environment presented them with new information, experiences, and attitudes. This study provides useful information for the future investigation of emerging adult Black men who attend HBCUs. PMID:26146649

  2. Sexual dimorphisms in swimming behavior, cerebral metabolic activity and adrenoceptors in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Ampatzis, Konstantinos; Dermon, Catherine R

    2016-10-01

    Sexually dimorphic behaviors and brain sex differences, not only restricted to reproduction, are considered to be evolutionary preserved. Specifically, anxiety related behavioral repertoire is suggested to exhibit sex-specific characteristics in rodents and primates. The present study investigated whether behavioral responses to novelty, have sex-specific characteristics in the neurogenetic model organism zebrafish (Danio rerio), lacking chromosomal sex determination. For this, aspects of anxiety-like behavior (including reduced exploration, increased freezing behavior and erratic movement) of male and female adult zebrafish were tested in a novel tank paradigm and after habituation. Male and female zebrafish showed significant differences in their swimming activity in response to novelty, with females showing less anxiety spending more time in the upper tank level. When fish have habituated, regional cerebral glucose uptake, an index of neuronal activity, and brain adrenoceptors' (ARs) expression (α2-ARs and β-ARs) were determined using in vivo 2-[(14)C]-deoxyglucose methodology and in vitro neurotransmitter receptors quantitative autoradiography, respectively. Intriguingly, females exhibited higher glucose utilization than males in hypothalamic brain areas. Adrenoceptor's expression pattern was dimorphic in zebrafish telencephalic, preoptic, hypothalamic nuclei, central gray, and cerebellum, similarly to birds and mammals. Specifically, the lateral zone of dorsal telencephalon (Dl), an area related to spatial cognition, homologous to the mammalian hippocampus, showed higher α2-AR densities in females. In contrast, male cerebellum included higher densities of β-ARs in comparison to female. Taken together, our data demonstrate a well-defined sex discriminant cerebral metabolic activity and ARs' pattern in zebrafish, possibly contributing to male-female differences in the swimming behavior. PMID:27363927

  3. Antenatal Glucocorticoid Treatment Induces Adaptations in Adult Midbrain Dopamine Neurons, which Underpin Sexually Dimorphic Behavioral Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Virdee, Kanwar; McArthur, Simon; Brischoux, Frédéric; Caprioli, Daniele; Ungless, Mark A; Robbins, Trevor W; Dalley, Jeffrey W; Gillies, Glenda E

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrated previously that antenatal glucocorticoid treatment (AGT, gestational days 16–19) altered the size and organization of the adult rat midbrain dopaminergic (DA) populations. Here we investigated the consequences of these AGT-induced cytoarchitectural disturbances on indices of DA function in adult rats. We show that in adulthood, enrichment of striatal DA fiber density paralleled AGT-induced increases in the numbers of midbrain DA neurons, which retained normal basal electrophysiological properties. This was co-incident with changes in (i) striatal D2-type receptor levels (increased, both sexes); (ii) D1-type receptor levels (males decreased; females increased); (iii) DA transporter levels (males increased; females decreased) in striatal regions; and (iv) amphetamine-induced mesolimbic DA release (males increased; females decreased). However, despite these profound, sexually dimorphic changes in markers of DA neurotransmission, in-utero glucocorticoid overexposure had a modest or no effect on a range of conditioned and unconditioned appetitive behaviors known to depend on mesolimbic DA activity. These findings provide empirical evidence for enduring AGT-induced adaptive mechanisms within the midbrain DA circuitry, which preserve some, but not all, functions, thereby casting further light on the vulnerability of these systems to environmental perturbations. Furthermore, they demonstrate these effects are achieved by different, often opponent, adaptive mechanisms in males and females, with translational implications for sex biases commonly found in midbrain DA-associated disorders. PMID:23929547

  4. Normative sexual behavior in children.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, W N; Grambsch, P; Broughton, D; Kuiper, J; Beilke, R L

    1991-09-01

    A large-scale, community-based survey was done to assess the frequency of a wide variety of sexual behaviors in normal preadolescent children and to measure the relationship of these behaviors to age, gender, and socioeconomic and family variables. A sample of 880 2- through 12-year-old children screened to exclude those with a history of sexual abuse were rated by their mothers using several questionnaire measures. The frequency of different behaviors varied widely, with more aggressive sexual behaviors and behaviors imitative of adults being rare. Older children (both boys and girls) were less sexual than younger children. Sexuality was found to be related to the level of general behavior problems, as measured by the Achenbach Internalizing and Externalizing T scores and to a measure of family nudity. It was not related to socioeconomic variables. PMID:1881723

  5. Effects of testosterone on sexual behavior and morphology in adult female leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius.

    PubMed

    Rhen, T; Ross, J; Crews, D

    1999-10-01

    The leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius, is a species in which testosterone (T) is the primary circulating sex hormone in adults of both sexes. There are, however, sex differences in T physiology. Whereas males have prolonged periods with high T levels, T levels cycle in accord with follicular development in females. Specifically, T concentration increases during vitellogenesis, drops after ovulation, and then remains at previtellogenic levels until eggs are laid and the next follicular cycle begins. To determine the function of T in females, we manipulated both the level and the duration of T elevation using Silastic implants in intact, adult female leopard geckos. Females had low ( approximately 1 ng/ml), medium ( approximately 100 ng/ml), or high ( approximately 200 ng/ml) T levels for either a short (8 days) or a long (35 days) duration. Behavior tests with males were conducted on days 1-5 in the short-duration group or on days 29-33 in the long-duration group. For both short- and long-duration groups, T treatment decreased attractivity in females with medium and high T levels compared to females with low T levels. In contrast, females with a medium T level were more receptive than females with a low T level in the short-duration group. Females in the long-duration group were unreceptive regardless of T level. Females treated for a long duration also displayed more aggression toward and evoked more aggression from males than short duration females. Short-duration T treatment had no masculinizing effect on female morphology, whereas medium and high T levels for a long duration induced development of hemipenes. Overall, these results suggest that T can both increase and decrease sexual behaviors in the female leopard gecko. PMID:10506536

  6. Prescription Drug Misuse and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bonar, Erin E; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Chermack, Stephen T; Blow, Frederic C; Barry, Kristen L; Booth, Brenda M; Walton, Maureen A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate associations between prescription drug misuse (PDM) and sexual risk behaviors (SRBs) among adolescents and emerging adults. Method: In a hospital emergency department, 2,127 sexually active 14- to 20-year-olds (61% female) reported on past-year alcohol use severity (using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test–consumption [AUDIT-C]), cannabis use, PDM (n = 422), and SRBs (inconsistent condom use, multiple partners, intercourse following alcohol/other drug use). Results: Bivariately, AUDIT-C score, cannabis use, and PDM of stimulants, opioids, and sedatives were positively associated with each SRB. Because many participants reported PDM for multiple drug classes (i.e., sedatives, stimulants, opioids), participants were categorized as (a) no PDM (n = 1,705), (b) PDM of one class (n = 251), (c) PDM of two classes (n = 90), or (d) PDM of three classes (n = 81). Three hierarchical logistic regression models evaluated the associations of number of classes of PDM with SRBs separately, after accounting for demographics (age, gender, race), AUDIT-C score, and cannabis use. Adding PDM statistically improved each model beyond what was accounted for by demographics, alcohol, and cannabis use. For inconsistent condom use and substance use before sex, PDM of one, two, or three classes was significantly associated with increased odds of these SRBs. PDM of two or three classes was associated with increased odds of reporting multiple partners. Conclusions: Findings suggest that PDM, especially poly-PDM, may be a pertinent risk factor for SRBs among youth. Event-based research could further evaluate how PDM, as well as other substance use, is related to SRBs at the event level in order to inform interventions. PMID:24650820

  7. Media’s Contribution to Sexual Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors for Adolescents and Young Adults in Three Asian Cities

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Chaohua; Cheng, Yan; Gao, Ersheng; Zuo, Xiayun; Emerson, Mark R.; Zabin, Laurie S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence in western countries indicates that the media have associations with adolescents’ and young people’ sexual behavior that may be as important as family, school and peers. In this new study of Asian adolescents and young adults in the three cities of Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei, the associations between exposure to sexual content in the media and adolescents’ and young adults’ sex-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors are explored in societies with traditional Confucian culture, but at different stages in the process of modernization. Method The data are from a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study conducted from 2006 to 2007 where a sample of 17,016 adolescents and young adults aged 15–24 years from Shanghai, Hanoi and Taipei completed face-to-face interviews coupled with computer-assisted self-interviews (CASI) for sensitive questions. For the objectives of this paper, analysis was restricted to the 16,554 unmarried respondents. Exposure to sexual content in the mass media (including the Internet and traditional media), pornographic videos, and a preference for western/Asian movies/videos were the main media influence measures. Sex-related knowledge, premarital sexual permissiveness, and sex-related behaviors were the main outcome measures. The impact of each of four contexts including family, peer, school and media on sex-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors were assessed using multiple linear regression stratified by gender and city, controlling for age, urban/rural residence, education and economic status. The change in adjusted R2 from the multiple linear regression analysis was adopted to indicate the contribution of family, peer, school and media variables to respondents’ sex-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. Results The contextual factors, including family, peer, school and media, explained 30–50% of the variance in sex-related knowledge, 8–22% of the variance in premarital sexual permissiveness and

  8. Receipt of clinical and prevention services, clinical outcomes, and sexual risk behaviors among HIV-infected young adults in care in the United States.

    PubMed

    Beer, Linda; Mattson, Christine L; Shouse, R Luke; Prejean, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    We describe receipt of clinical and prevention services, clinical outcomes, and sexual risk behaviors among young adult HIV patients in the United States during 2009-2013, using a sample designed to produce nationally representative estimates. Compared with older HIV patients, proportionately more young adults received provider-delivered prevention services and reported sexual risk behaviors. Young adults had similar care patterns as older HIV patients, but were less likely to have or adhere to an antiretroviral therapy prescription and achieve viral suppression. These estimates establish a national baseline from which to monitor changes in clinical outcomes and transmission behaviors among young HIV-infected adults. PMID:27011102

  9. Correlates of Cutting Behavior among Sexual Minority Youths and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, N. Eugene; Laser, Julie; Nickels, Sarah J.; Wisneski, Hope

    2010-01-01

    Using secondary analyses of data from a sample of 265 sexual minority youths, the authors examined correlates of cutting behavior to determine whether patterns are similar to those found in studies of self-injury with community samples of predominately heterosexual youths. The sample consisted of youths who received services at an urban social…

  10. Sensation Seeking and Impulsivity: Combined Associations with Risky Sexual Behavior in a Large Sample of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Charnigo, Richard; Noar, Seth M.; Garnett, Christopher; Crosby, Richard; Palmgreen, Philip; Zimmerman, Rick S.

    2015-01-01

    Although prior studies have shown that sensation seeking and impulsive decision-making are related to sexual risk-taking, it is still unclear whether these personality traits operate independently or synergistically. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the joint contribution of these personality traits to HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk behaviors using data from a large sample of sexually active young adults (N = 2,386). Regression modeling indicated that both sensation seeking and impulsive decision-making were consistently associated with sexual risk behaviors across 11 risk-related outcomes. Results further indicated that sensation seeking and impulsive decision-making operated synergistically with respect to the outcome variables of sex acts using drugs, acts with a partner using alcohol, and acts with a partner using drugs. In contrast to this, sensation seeking and impulsive decision-making operated independently with respect to the other sexual risk outcomes. Theoretical implications, as well as implications for HIV/STD prevention among high sensation seekers and impulsive decision-makers, are discussed. PMID:22456443

  11. Sensation seeking and impulsivity: combined associations with risky sexual behavior in a large sample of young adults.

    PubMed

    Charnigo, Richard; Noar, Seth M; Garnett, Christopher; Crosby, Richard; Palmgreen, Philip; Zimmerman, Rick S

    2013-01-01

    Although prior studies have shown that sensation seeking and impulsive decision-making are related to sexual risk-taking, it is still unclear whether these personality traits operate independently or synergistically. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the joint contribution of these personality traits to HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk behaviors using data from a large sample of sexually active young adults (N = 2,386). Regression modeling indicated that both sensation seeking and impulsive decision-making were consistently associated with sexual risk behaviors across 11 risk-related outcomes. Results further indicated that sensation seeking and impulsive decision-making operated synergistically with respect to the outcome variables of sex acts using drugs, acts with a partner using alcohol, and acts with a partner using drugs. In contrast to this, sensation seeking and impulsive decision-making operated independently with respect to the other sexual risk outcomes. Theoretical implications, as well as implications for HIV/STD prevention among high sensation seekers and impulsive decision-makers, are discussed. PMID:22456443

  12. Exploring the relationship of conspiracy beliefs about HIV/AIDS to sexual behaviors and attitudes among African-American adults.

    PubMed

    Bogart, Laura M; Bird, Sheryl Thorburn

    2003-11-01

    Conspiracy beliefs about HIV/AIDS have been endorsed by significant percentages of African Americans in prior research. However, almost no research has investigated the relationship of such beliefs to behaviors and attitudes relevant to HIV risk. In the present exploratory study, 71 African-American adults (aged 18-45; 61% female) in the United States participated in a national, cross-sectional telephone survey examining the relationship of HIV/AIDS conspiracy beliefs to sexual attitudes and behaviors. Results indicated significant associations between endorsement of a general HIV/AIDS government conspiracy and negative beliefs regarding condoms and greater numbers of sexual partners. Endorsement of HIV/AIDS treatment conspiracies was related to positive attitudes about condoms and greater condom use intentions. Findings suggest that conspiracy beliefs have implications for HIV prevention in African-American communities. PMID:14651372

  13. Changes in American Adults' Sexual Behavior and Attitudes, 1972-2012.

    PubMed

    Twenge, Jean M; Sherman, Ryne A; Wells, Brooke E

    2015-11-01

    In the nationally representative General Social Survey, U.S. Adults (N = 33,380) in 2000-2012 (vs. the 1970s and 1980s) had more sexual partners, were more likely to have had sex with a casual date or pickup or an acquaintance, and were more accepting of most non-marital sex (premarital sex, teen sex, and same-sex sexual activity, but not extramarital sex). The percentage who believed premarital sex among adults was "not wrong at all" was 29 % in the early 1970s, 42 % in the 1980s and 1990s, 49 % in the 2000s, and 58 % between 2010 and 2012. Mixed effects (hierarchical linear modeling) analyses separating time period, generation/birth cohort, and age showed that the trend toward greater sexual permissiveness was primarily due to generation. Acceptance of non-marital sex rose steadily between the G.I. generation (born 1901-1924) and Boomers (born 1946-1964), dipped slightly among early Generation X'ers (born 1965-1981), and then rose so that Millennials (also known as Gen Y or Generation Me, born 1982-1999) were the most accepting of non-marital sex. Number of sexual partners increased steadily between the G.I.s and 1960s-born GenX'ers and then dipped among Millennials to return to Boomer levels. The largest changes appeared among White men, with few changes among Black Americans. The results were discussed in the context of growing cultural individualism and rejection of traditional social rules in the U.S. PMID:25940736

  14. Drugs and sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Antonio; Scimeca, Giuseppe; Marino, Antonio G; Mento, Carmela; Micò, Umberto; Romeo, Vincenzo M; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco; Muscatello, Maria R A

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the association between drugs and sexual behavior in a sample of polydrug substance abusers recruited from several Italian therapeutic communities; participants were 90 polydrug substance abusers (opiates, cocaine, amphetamine, inhalants, marijuana/sedatives or hallucinogens abusers) who were compared with 90 nonsubstance-abusing individuals. Sexual behavior was measured by the Italian version of the Sex and the Average Woman (or Man; SAWM), a questionnaire that assesses different kind of sexual attitudes. Results showed that drug-abusing individuals are particularly inclined to search for sexual intercourse and are open to different kinds of sexual experiences; however, they have difficulties in establishing committed and deep relationships with their partners, showing signs of inhibition, affective detachment or anger. Their sexual lives are also surrounded by negative emotions, disturbing thoughts and maladjusted behaviors. The importance of integrating sexual problems into therapeutic strategies is discussed. PMID:23457886

  15. Non-Parental Adults in the Social and Risk Behavior Networks of Sexual Minority Male Youth

    PubMed Central

    Sterrett, Emma M.; Birkett, Michelle; Kuhns, Lisa; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The presence of non-parental adults (NPAs), or adults outside of caregivers (e.g., extended family, natural mentors), in the lives of adolescents and emerging adults has received a rapidly expanding amount of empirical attention in the last decade. Sexual minority male youth (SMMY) face disproportionate risks of abuse and victimization in relationships with parents and peers. Yet, despite the fact that this group, therefore, may be both potentially vulnerable to negative interpersonal influences but also poised to benefit from additional relationships, NPA involvement in the lives of SMMY is currently not well understood in the extant literature. This study sought to examine and characterize the involvement of NPAs in the social and risk networks of SMMY (n = 175; 54% African American, 21% Hispanic/Latino, 14% Caucasian; ages 17–23). Most SMMY identified at least one NPA, such as friends and grandparents, in their networks. Three categories of relationships were identified, Strictly Social, which only involved social interactions; Complex, which were both social and involved substance use and/or sexual activity; and Risky, which purely consisted of substance use or sexual activity. Relationships were rated as emotionally “closer” among ethnic minority SMMY, although, racial/ethnic similarity between SMMY and NPAs was not associated with relationship closeness. In addition, relationships involving female and heterosexual NPAs were also rated as stronger. These findings suggest the potential usefulness of considering multiple types of relationships between SMMY and NPAs when designing intervention and prevention efforts. Moreover, African American and Latino SMMY, who represent the most vulnerable sub-groups of SMMY in terms of HIV-risk, may be particularly poised to benefit from positive NPA relationships. PMID:26074655

  16. Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Sexual Risk Behavior in Adults with HIV/AIDS Receiving HIV Care: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Raag, Mait; Rosenthal, Marika; Uusküla, Anneli

    2015-05-01

    Regular interactions with people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) who are receiving care provide caregivers opportunities to deliver interventions to reduce HIV-related risks. We conducted a systematic review of behavioral interventions for PLWHA (provided at individual level by caregivers at HIV care settings) to determine their efficacy in reducing sexual risk behavior. Conference websites and biomedical literature databases were searched for studies from 1981 to 2013. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials (with standard-of-care control groups), considering at least one of a list of HIV-related behavioral or biological outcomes in PLWHA aged ≥18 receiving HIV care with at least 3-month follow-up were included. No language or publication status restrictions were set. Standardized search, data abstraction, and evaluation methods were used. Five randomized controlled trials were included in the review. We found limited evidence that sexual risk reduction interventions increase condom use consistency in HIV transmission risk acts, and reduce the number of (casual) sexual partners. We still believe that regular interactions between HIV care providers and PLWHA provide valuable opportunities for theory-based sexual risk reduction interventions to restrain the spread of HIV. PMID:25844941

  17. Sexual Prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, José A.; Morales, Mercedes M.; Seda, Gretchen; González-Rivera, Milagritos

    2014-01-01

    Sexual prejudice is linked to hate crimes, mental health, risk behaviors, and stigma. Few studies have examined sexual prejudice among Latinos. We surveyed 382 college students in Puerto Rico. A structural model tested whether contact and positive experiences with homosexuals, perceived similarities with peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, and religiosity were predictive of sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults. Sex differences in the structural model were explored. With the exception of peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, all study variables predict sexual prejudice. No sex differences were found. Implications for decreasing sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican youth in a college setting are discussed. PMID:18689195

  18. Sex-related alcohol expectancies and high-risk sexual behavior among drinking adults in Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Scott D.; Katamba, Achilles; Mafigiri, David Kaawa; Mbulaiteye, Sam M.; Sethi, Ajay K

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption, a risk factor for HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa, is considered high in Uganda. The study was conducted to determine whether sex-related expectations about the effects of alcohol help explain the association between alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors in a population-based sample of adults in Kampala. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to identify residents in one division of Kampala for a cross-sectional study. Associations between alcohol use (current and higher-risk drinking) and high-risk sexual behaviors (multiple regular partners and casual sex) were tested. Final models included a sex-related alcohol outcome expectancy (AOE) summary score. In age-sex-adjusted models, having multiple regular partners was associated with current drinking (Odds Ratio (OR)=2.76, 95% Confidence Intervals (CI)=1.15, 6.63) and higher-risk drinking (OR=3.35, 95%CI=1.28,8.71). Associations were similar but not statistically significant for having a causal sex partner. Sex-related AOE were associated with both alcohol use and high-risk sexual behavior and attenuated relationships between multiple regular partners and both current drinking (OR=1.94, 95%CI=0.57,6.73) and higher-risk drinking (OR=2.44, 95%CI=0.68,8.80). In this setting sexual behaviors related with alcohol consumption were explained, in part, by sex-related expectations about the effects of alcohol. These expectations could be an important component to target in HIV education campaigns. PMID:26315308

  19. Universal family-focused intervention with young adolescents: effects on health-risking sexual behaviors and STDs among young adults.

    PubMed

    Spoth, Richard; Clair, Scott; Trudeau, Linda

    2014-02-01

    Considering the prevalence and consequences of health-risking sexual behaviors (HRSBs) and STDs among young adults, their prevention is a public health priority. Emerging etiological and prevention outcome literatures suggested study of the long-term effects of universal family-focused interventions on young adult HRSBs and STDs. Although earlier studies have demonstrated intervention impact on adolescent substance misuse, no study has examined universal family-focused intervention effects on young adult HRSBs and STDs via reductions in adolescent misuse. Sixth grade students and their families enrolled in 33 rural Midwestern schools were randomly assigned to experimental conditions. Self-report questionnaires provided data at pretest (Ns = 238, 221, and 208 for the Iowa Strengthening Families Program [ISFP], Preparing for the Drug Free Years [PDFY], and control groups, respectively), with seven data points through young adulthood (age 21). In latent growth modeling, three young adult HRSB measures (number of sexual partners, condom use, substance use with sex) and lifetime STDs were specified as distal outcomes mediated by adolescent substance initiation growth factors (average level and rate of change). Results showed that the models fit the data and, except for condom use, there were significant indirect effects, with a higher frequency of significant findings for ISFP. The model additions of direct intervention effects on young adult outcomes generally were not supported, consistent with a model positing that long-term intervention effects on young adult HRSBs and STDs outcomes are indirect. As an indication of the practical significance of long-term effects, analyses revealed relative reduction rates ranging from 6% to 46% for significant outcomes. PMID:23408278

  20. Concurrency and Other Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Black Young Adults in a Southeastern City.

    PubMed

    Jolly, David H; Mueller, Monique P; Chen, Mario; Alston, Le'Marus; Hawley, Marcus; Okumu, Eunice; Eley, Natalie T; Stancil, Tonya; MacQueen, Kathleen M

    2016-02-01

    Black Americans continue to have higher rates of HIV disease than other races/ethnicities. Conventional individual-level risk behaviors do not fully account for these racial/ethnic disparities. Sexual concurrency may help explain them. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to enroll 508 sexually active 18- to 30-year-old Black men and women in Durham, North Carolina in a cross-sectional survey on HIV-related topics. Consistent condom use was low for all participants, especially with steady partners. Concurrent partnerships in the past 6 months were relatively common for both men (38%) and women (25%). In general, men involved in concurrent relationships engaged in more risk behaviors than other men (e.g., inconsistent condom use and alcohol and drug use). A majority of concurrent partnerships involved steady partners. HIV-prevention programs should address the risks of concurrency and factors that discourage condom use, especially with steady partners with whom condom use is particularly low. PMID:26829257

  1. Self-Defining as Sexually Abused and Adult Sexual Risk Behavior: Results from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Women Attending an STD Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with increased sexual risk behavior in adulthood, and this association may be mediated by traumagenic dynamics constructs (i.e., traumatic sexualization, trust, guilt, and powerlessness). However, few studies have investigated whether such relationships hold for women who do not identify as…

  2. Modular genetic control of sexually dimorphic behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaohong; Coats, Jennifer K.; Yang, Cindy F.; Wang, Amy; Ahmed, Osama M.; Alvarado, Maricruz; Izumi, Tetsuro; Shah, Nirao M.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Sex hormones such as estrogen and testosterone are essential for sexually dimorphic behaviors in vertebrates. However, the hormone-activated molecular mechanisms that control the development and function of the underlying neural circuits remain poorly defined. We have identified numerous sexually dimorphic gene expression patterns in the adult mouse hypothalamus and amygdala. We find that adult sex hormones regulate these expression patterns in a sex-specific, regionally-restricted manner, suggesting that these genes regulate sex typical behaviors. Indeed, we find that mice with targeted disruptions of each of four of these genes (Brs3, Cckar, Irs4, Sytl4) exhibit extremely specific deficits in sex specific behaviors, with single genes controlling the pattern or extent of male sexual behavior, male aggression, maternal behavior, or female sexual behavior. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that various components of sexually dimorphic behaviors are governed by separable genetic programs. PMID:22304924

  3. Laboratory-confirmed HIV and sexually transmitted infection seropositivity and risk behavior among sexually active transgender patients at an adolescent and young adult urban community health center.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Sari L; Vetters, Ralph; White, Jaclyn M; Cohen, Elijah L; LeClerc, M; Zaslow, Shayne; Wolfrum, Sarah; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    The sexual health of transgender adolescents and young adults who present for health care in urban community health centers is understudied. A retrospective review of electronic health record (EHR) data was conducted from 180 transgender patients aged 12-29 years seen for one or more health-care visits between 2001 and 2010 at an urban community health center serving youth in Boston, MA. Analyses were restricted to 145 sexually active transgender youth (87.3% of the sample). Laboratory-confirmed HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) seroprevalence, demographics, sexual risk behavior, and structural and psychosocial risk indicators were extracted from the EHR. Analyses were descriptively focused for HIV and STIs. Stratified multivariable logistic regression models were fit for male-to-female (MTF) and female-to-male (FTM) patients separately to examine factors associated with any unprotected anal and/or vaginal sex (UAVS). The mean age was 20.0 (SD=2.9); 21.7% people of color, 46.9% white (non-Hispanic), 21.4% race/ethnicity unknown; 43.4% MTF, and 56.6% FTM; and 68.3% were on cross-sex hormones. Prevalence of STIs: 4.8% HIV, 2.8% herpes simplex virus, 2.8% syphilis, 2.1% chlamydia, 2.1% gonorrhea, 2.8% hepatitis C, 1.4% human papilloma virus. Only gonorrhea prevalence significantly differed by gender identity (MTF 2.1% vs. 0.0% FTM; p=0.046). Nearly half (47.6%) of the sample engaged in UAVS (52.4% MTF, 43.9% FTM, p=0.311). FTM more frequently had a primary sex partner compared to MTF (48.8% vs. 25.4%; p=0.004); MTF more frequently had a casual sex partner than FTM (69.8% vs. 42.7% p=0.001). In multivariable models, MTF youth who were younger in age, white non-Hispanic, and reported a primary sex partner had increased odds of UAVS; whereas, FTM youth reporting a casual sex partner and current alcohol use had increased odds of UAVS (all p<0.05). Factors associated with sexual risk differ for MTF and FTM youth. Partner type appears pivotal to understanding

  4. Laboratory-confirmed HIV and sexually transmitted infection seropositivity and risk behavior among sexually active transgender patients at an adolescent and young adult urban community health center

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; Vetters, Ralph; White, Jaclyn M.; Cohen, Elijah L.; LeClerc, M.; Zaslow, Shayne; Wolfrum, Sarah; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    The sexual health of transgender adolescents and young adults who present for health care in urban community health centers is understudied. A retrospective review of electronic health record (EHR) data was conducted from 180 transgender patients aged 12–29 years seen for one or more health-care visits between 2001 and 2010 at an urban community health center serving youth in Boston, MA. Analyses were restricted to 145 sexually active transgender youth (87.3% of the sample). Laboratory-confirmed HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) seroprevalence, demographics, sexual risk behavior, and structural and psychosocial risk indicators were extracted from the EHR. Analyses were descriptively focused for HIV and STIs. Stratified multivariable logistic regression models were fit for male-to-female (MTF) and female-to-male (FTM) patients separately to examine factors associated with any unprotected anal and/or vaginal sex (UAVS). The mean age was 20.0 (SD = 2.9); 21.7% people of color, 46.9% white (non-Hispanic), 21.4% race/ethnicity unknown; 43.4% MTF, and 56.6% FTM; and 68.3% were on cross-sex hormones. Prevalence of STIs: 4.8% HIV, 2.8% herpes simplex virus, 2.8% syphilis, 2.1% chlamydia, 2.1% gonorrhea, 2.8% hepatitis C, 1.4% human papilloma virus. Only gonorrhea prevalence significantly differed by gender identity (MTF 2.1% vs. 0.0% FTM; p = 0.046). Nearly half (47.6%) of the sample engaged in UAVS (52.4% MTF, 43.9% FTM, p = 0.311). FTM more frequently had a primary sex partner compared to MTF (48.8% vs. 25.4%; p = 0.004); MTF more frequently had a casual sex partner than FTM (69.8% vs. 42.7% p = 0.001). In multivariable models, MTF youth who were younger in age, white non-Hispanic, and reported a primary sex partner had increased odds of UAVS; whereas, FTM youth reporting a casual sex partner and current alcohol use had increased odds of UAVS (all p < 0.05). Factors associated with sexual risk differ for MTF and FTM youth. Partner type appears pivotal to

  5. The Effects of Lead Acetate on Sexual Behavior and the Level of Testosterone in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtari, Mokhtar; Zanboori, Maryam

    2011-01-01

    Background In the present study, the oral effect of lead acetate on the parameters related to sexual behavior as well as changes in the level of testosterone hormone in adult male rats have been investigated. Materials and Methods Forty adult male Wistar rats were allocated into five equal groups. The control group received nothing, the sham group received distilled water and the experimental groups received 25, 50 and 100mg/kg lead acetate orally, respectively for 28 days. The changes in testosterone hormone level and following sexual behavior parameters were investigated: mount latency (ML), intromission latency (IL), post ejaculatory interval (PEI), mount frequency (MF), ejaculatory latency (EL), intromission frequency (IF), copulatory efficacy (CE) and intercopulatory interval (ICI). Results The levels of testosterone hormone in the groups that received 50 and 100 mg/kg lead acetate showed significant decreases in compared to the control group. Additionally, the same doses of lead acetate caused significant increases in ML, IL, PEI and EL compared to the control group. No significant change was observed in MF, but a significant decrease was detected in IF and CE in the experimental group that received 100 mg/kg lead acetate when compared with the control group. ICI showed significant decreases in the experimental groups that received 50 and 100 mg/kg lead acetate compared to the control group. Conclusion It can be concluded that ingestion of lead acetate affects some behavioral activities and the testosterone level of male rats. These effects might be conducted via the alteration of leydig cells following lead acetate poisoning. PMID:24917919

  6. Evidence that the deficit in sexual behavior in adult rats neonatally exposed to citalopram is a consequence of 5-HT1 receptor stimulation during development

    PubMed Central

    Maciag, Dorota; Coppinger, David; Paul, Ian A.

    2006-01-01

    Neonatal (postnatal days 8-21) exposure of rats to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), citalopram, results in persistent changes in behavior including decreased sexual activity in adult animals. We hypothesized that this effect was a consequence of abnormal stimulation of serotonergic receptors 5- HT1A or/and 5-HT1B as a result of increased synaptic availability of serotonin during a critical period of development. We examined whether neonatal exposure to a 5-HT1A (8OH-DPAT) and/or a 5-HT1B (CGS 12066B) receptor agonist can mimic the effect of neonatal exposure to citalopram on adult sexual behavior. Results showed that neonatal treatment with 5-HT1B receptor agonist robustly impaired sexual behavior similar to the effect of citalopram whereas exposure to 5-HT1A receptor agonist only moderately influenced male sexual activity in adult animals. These data support the hypothesis that stimulation of serotonin autoreceptors during development contributes to the adult sexual deficit in rats neonatally exposed to citalopram. PMID:17101120

  7. [Adolescents engaging in sexually offending behavior].

    PubMed

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Työläjärvi, Marja; Eronen, Markku

    2015-01-01

    Sexually offending behavior by adolescents may be directed towards children, age-mates and adults. Neurocognitive and psychiatric disorders and the associated inability to age-related interpersonal relationships and inability to control the sexual desires activated during adolescence may lead a young person to seek inappropriate sexual satisfaction from children. Sometimes the offenses are part of antisocial development. Interventions should be focused on the distorted cognitions and attitudes maintaining the injurious sexual behavior, and on the risk of criminal behavior in general. Pharmacological therapy, mainly with SSRI drugs, has also been tested in adolescents. PMID:26233982

  8. Child Sexual Abuse and Its Relationship With Health Risk Behaviors Among Adolescents and Young Adults in Taipei.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qianqian; Gao, Ersheng; Cheng, Yan; Chuang, Yi-Li; Zabin, Laurie S; Emerson, Mark R; Lou, Chaohua

    2015-09-01

    This study explores the association of child sexual abuse (CSA) with subsequent health risk behaviors among a cross-section of 4354 adolescents and young adults surveyed in urban and rural Taipei. Descriptive analysis and logistic regressions were employed. The overall proportion of CSA was 5.15%, with more females (6.14%) than males (4.16%) likely to experience CSA. CSA was differently associated with multiple adverse health outcomes, after adjusting other factors, such as age, residence, economic status, education, employment status, and household instability. Both males and females with CSA experience were more likely to report drinking, gambling, and suicidal ideation compared with those who had no history of CSA. However, the significant association between CSA and smoking, fighting, and suicidal attempt was not observed among females. Effective interventions are needed to reduce CSA and its adverse effects on adolescent well-being. PMID:25720535

  9. Emotion Dysregulation and Risky Sexual Behavior in Revictimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messman-Moore, Terri L.; Walsh, Kate L.; DiLillo, David

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined emotion dysregulation as a mechanism underlying risky sexual behavior and sexual revictimization among adult victims of child sexual abuse (CSA) and child physical abuse (CPA). Methods: Participants were 752 college women. Victimization history, emotion dysregulation, and risky sexual behavior were assessed…

  10. Gender, Alcohol Consumption Patterns, and Engagement in Sexually Intimate Behaviors Among Adolescents and Young Adults in Nha Trang, Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Kaljee, Linda M.; Green, Mackenzie S.; Zhan, Min; Riel, Rosemary; Lerdboon, Porntip; Lostutter, Ty W.; Tho, Le Huu; Van Luong, Vo; Minh, Truong Tan

    2010-01-01

    A randomly selected cross-sectional survey was conducted with 880 youth (16 to 24 years) in Nha Trang City to assess relationships between alcohol consumption and sexual behaviors. A timeline followback method was employed. Chi-square, generalized logit modeling and logistic regression analyses were performed. Of the sample, 78.2% male and 56.1% female respondents ever consumed alcohol. Males reporting sexual behaviors (vaginal, anal, oral sex) had a significantly higher calculated peak BAC of 0.151 compared to 0.082 for males reporting no sexual intimacy (p < .0001). Females reporting sexual behaviors had a peak BAC of 0.072 compared to 0.027 for those reporting no sexual intimacy (p = .016). Fifty percent of (33/66) males and 30.4% (7/23) females report event specific drinking and engagement in sexual behaviors. Males reporting 11+ drinks in 30 days had more sexual partners than those reporting 1 to 10 drinks (p = .037). Data suggest different physical and psychosocial mediators between alcohol consumption and sexual behaviors by gender. PMID:21373363

  11. Sexual Assault of Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stermac, Lana; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines the circumstances and characteristics of sexual assaults against adult males presenting to a crisis unit in a large metropolitan area. Most victims were young gay men, many of whom had physical or cognitive disabilities making them particularly vulnerable. Results suggest a need for increased awareness of acquaintance sexual assault in…

  12. The association of sexual interest and sexual behaviors among adolescent women: A daily diary perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Hensel, Devon J.

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical linkages of adult women’s sexual interest and sexual behaviors are relatively well-established, but few data address similar issues in adolescent women. This paper reviews data from published reports of associations of adolescent women’s sexual interest and various sexual behaviors. All of the papers reported data collected from a single longitudinal cohort of young women. The primary source of data collection was daily diaries, allowing close temporal pairing of sexual interest with sexual behaviors. Young women’s sexual interest on a given day was consistently and independently associated with sexual activity on that day, whether the behavior was first lifetime coitus, coitus, fellatio, cunnilingus, anal intercourse, or coitus during menses. We also found no evidence of influence of hormonal contraceptives on young women’s sexual interest. Taken together, these data demonstrate the relevance of sexual interest as a key factor in young women’s sexuality and sexual behavior. PMID:21397605

  13. Variations in Sexual Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhasz, Anne McCreary

    1983-01-01

    Questions are raised about the difficulty of defining normal and atypical sexual behavior. Variations from normalcy that students, parents, and educators are most likely to encounter are discussed. The importance of dealing with variations in ways that are best for the individual and the group is emphasized. (PP)

  14. Reliability, Validity, and Associations with Sexual Behavior among Ghanaian Teenagers of Scales Measuring Four Dimensions Relationships with Parents and Other Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bingenheimer, Jeffrey B.; Asante, Elizabeth; Ahiadeke, Clement

    2013-01-01

    Little research has been done on the social contexts of adolescent sexual behaviors in sub-Saharan Africa. As part of a longitudinal cohort study (N=1275) of teenage girls and boys in two Ghanaian towns, interviewers administered a 26 item questionnaire module intended to assess four dimensions of youth-adult relationships: monitoring conflict, emotional support, and financial support. Confirmatory factor and traditional psychometric analyses showed the four scales to be reliable. Known-groups comparisons provided evidence of their validity. All four scales had strong bivariate associations with self-reported sexual behavior (odds ratios = 1.66, 0.74, 0.47, and 0.60 for conflict, support, monitoring, and financial support). The instrument is practical for use in sub-Saharan African settings and produces measures that are reliable, valid, and predictive of sexual behavior in youth. PMID:25821286

  15. Sexuality in Nigerian older adults

    PubMed Central

    Olatayo, Adeoti Adekunle; Kubwa, Ojo Osaze; Adekunle, Ajayi Ebenezer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oftentimes the older adults are assumed to be asexual as few studies explore into the sexuality of this age group worldwide and even in Nigeria. It is an important aspect of quality of life which is often neglected by people in this age group, attending physicians and the society as a whole. The study was aimed at determining the perception of older adults about sexuality, identify the factors that could militate against sexuality and fill any void in information in this regard. Methods Descriptive study conducted in one hundred older adults. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to consenting participants between 1st of September 2013 and 31st of March 2014. Results Mean age of respondents was 66.42± 5.77 years. Seventy-eight percent of the male respondents considered engaging in sexual activity as safe compared to 45.8% of the female respondents. More of the women (33.3%) regarded sexuality in the older adults as a taboo when compared to the men (5.4%). However, the men were more favourably disposed to discussing sexual problems than the women with their spouses (42% vs 20%) and Physicians (23.2% vs 0.0%). Major factors responsible for sexual inactivity were participants’ medical ailments (65%), partners’ failing health (15%) as well as anxiety about sexual performance (25%) in the men and dyspareunia (25%) in women. Conclusion There is an urgent need to correct the misconception about sexuality in this age group especially among the women and for the physicians to explore the sexual history of every patient. PMID:26977224

  16. Sexually transmitted infections and older adults.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Beverly K

    2013-11-01

    Older adults continue to be sexually active in their later years. A range of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV have been reported among older adults. Risk factors for STIs in older populations include (a) normal sexual changes associated with aging (e.g., increased time to attain an erection, decreased vaginal lubrication, decreases in sexual hormones); (b) psychosocial changes (e.g., loss of partner or spouse and re-entering the dating scene); and (c) risky sexual behaviors, including no or infrequent use of condoms. Screening of adults for STIs should occur regardless of age based on guidelines such as those from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. As discussed in this article, nurses can use assessment guides and engage in interventions such as counseling and education with older adults to reduce STI risk or refer for treatment. Numerous online resources exist for both nurses and older adults to increase knowledge of STIs. PMID:24066789

  17. Relative Efficacy of a Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Infection, or Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention--Focused Intervention on Changing Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Wynne E.; Fisher, Jeffrey D.; Amico, K. Rivet; Dovidio, John F.; Johnson, Blair T.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Despite findings suggesting that young adults are more concerned about experiencing an unplanned pregnancy or contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI) than becoming human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected, no empirical work has investigated whether the specific focus of an intervention may be more or less efficacious at…

  18. Sexuality in Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... for your partner. It also benefits your physical health by reducing stress and making you feel good about yourself. As you age, your sexual health will change. But growing older doesn’t have ...

  19. Prevalence of High-Risk Sexual Behaviors Among Monoracial and Multiracial Groups from a National Sample: Are Multiracial Young Adults at Greater Risk?

    PubMed

    Landor, Antoinette M; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2016-02-01

    The present study compared the prevalence and variation in high-risk sexual behaviors among four monoracial (i.e., White, African American, Asian, Native American) and four multiracial (i.e., White/African American, White/Asian, White/Native American, African American/Native American) young adults using Wave IV data (2008-2009) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 9724). Findings indicated differences in the sexual behavior of monoracial and multiracial young adults, but directions of differences varied depending on the monoracial group used as the referent and gender. Among males, White/African Americans had higher risk than Whites; White/Native Americans had higher risk than Native Americans. Otherwise, multiracial groups had lower risk or did not differ from the single-race groups. Among females, White/Native Americans had higher risk than Whites; White/African Americans had higher risk than African Americans. Other comparisons showed no differences or had lower risk among multiracial groups. Variations in high-risk sexual behaviors underscore the need for health research to disaggregate multiracial groups to better understand health behaviors and outcomes in the context of experiences associated with a multiracial background, and to improve prevention strategies. PMID:26585167

  20. Child Sexual Abuse and Persistence of Risky Sexual Behaviors and Negative Sexual Outcomes over Adulthood: Findings from a Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Roode, Thea; Dickson, Nigel; Herbison, Peter; Paul, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) on adult sexual behaviors and outcomes over three age periods. Methods: A longitudinal study of a birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972/1973 was used. Information on CSA was sought at age 26, and on sexual behaviors and outcomes at ages 21, 26, and 32. Comparisons were…

  1. Assessment of aggression, sexual behavior and fertility in adult male rat following long-term ingestion of four industrial metals salts.

    PubMed

    Bataineh, H; Al-Hamood, M H; Elbetieha, A M

    1998-10-01

    1. The effect of long-term ingestion of the industrial metals salts, manganese sulfate, aluminum chloride, lead acetate and copper chloride was investigated on aggression, sexual behavior and fertility in male rat. Adult male rats ingested solutions of these salts along with drinking water at a concentration of 1000 p.p.m. for 12 weeks. 2. Male rat sexual behavior was suppressed after the ingestion of manganese sulfate, aluminum chloride, lead acetate and copper chloride. The ingestion of solutions of these salts markedly prolonged the intromission and ejaculation latencies. Aluminum chloride and copper chloride reduced the copulatory efficiency. 3. Male rat aggression was also abolished after the ingestion of manganese sulfate, aluminum chloride, lead acetate and copper chloride. The ingestion of solutions of these salts markedly suppressed lateralizations, boxing bouts, fight with stud male and ventral presenting postures. 4. Fertility was reduced in male rats ingested with lead acetate. The total number of resorptions was increased in female rats impregnated by males ingested with manganese sulfate and lead acetate. 5. Body, absolute or relative testes, seminal vesicles weights were dropped in adult male rats ingested with manganese sulfate, aluminum chloride, lead acetate and copper chloride. However, the absolute or relative preputial gland weights were not affected. Collectively, these results suggest that the long-term ingestion of manganese sulfate, aluminum chloride, lead acetate and copper chloride would have adverse effects on sexual behavior, territorial aggression, fertility and the reproductive system of the adult male rat. PMID:9821021

  2. Sexuality in Older Adults: A Deconstructionist Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffstetler, Beverly

    2006-01-01

    Societal myths argue against active expression of sexuality in older adults, but these prejudices are unfounded. Using a deconstructionist framework, this article addresses issues surrounding sexuality in older adults. Implications for clinical practice are given.

  3. Randomized Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Adult Female Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonagh, Annmarie; Friedman, Matthew; McHugo, Gregory; Ford, Julian; Sengupta, Anjana; Mueser, Kim; Demment, Christine Carney; Fournier, Debra; Schnurr, Paula P.

    2005-01-01

    The authors conducted a randomized clinical trial of individual psychotherapy for women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood sexual abuse (n = 74), comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with a problem-solving therapy (present-centered therapy; PCT) and to a wait-list (WL). The authors hypothesized that CBT would be…

  4. Gender, Alcohol Consumption Patterns, and Engagement in Sexually Intimate Behaviors among Adolescents and Young Adults in Nha Trang, Viet Nam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaljee, Linda M.; Green, Mackenzie S.; Zhan, Min; Riel, Rosemary; Lerdboon, Porntip; Lostutter, Ty W.; Tho, Le Huu; Luong, Vo Van; Minh, Truong Tan

    2011-01-01

    A randomly selected cross-sectional survey was conducted with 880 youth (16 to 24 years) in Nha Trang City to assess relationships between alcohol consumption and sexual behaviors. A timeline followback method was employed. Chi-square, generalized logit modeling and logistic regression analyses were performed. Of the sample, 78.2% male and 56.1%…

  5. The impact of health education transmitted via social media or text messaging on adolescent and young adult risky sexual behavior: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jones, Krista; Eathington, Patricia; Baldwin, Kathleen; Sipsma, Heather

    2014-07-01

    Despite the increased use of social media and text messaging among adolescents, it is unclear how effective education transmitted via these mechanisms is for reducing sexual risk behavior. Accordingly, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to examine the effectiveness of social media and text messaging interventions designed to increase sexually transmitted disease (STD) knowledge, increase screening/testing, decrease risky sexual behaviors, and reduce the incidence of STDs among young adults aged 15 through 24 years. Eleven studies met our inclusion criteria. Most of the included studies used a control group to explore intervention effects and included both young men and women. Sample sizes ranged from 32 to 7606 participants, and follow-up periods ranged between 4 weeks and 12 months. These studies provide preliminary evidence indicating that social media and text messaging can increase knowledge regarding the prevention of STDs. These interventions may also affect behavior, such as screening/testing for STDs, sexual risk behaviors, and STD acquisition, but the evidence for effect is weak. Many of these studies had several limitations that future research should address, including a reliance on self-reported data, small sample sizes, poor retention, low generalizability, and low analytic rigor. Additional research is needed to determine the most effective and engaging approaches for young men and women. PMID:24922099

  6. Sexually coercive behavior following childhood maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Forsman, Mats; Johansson, Ada; Santtila, Pekka; Sandnabba, Kenneth; Långström, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Child maltreatment is associated with adult sexually coercive behavior. The association may be causal or confounders that increase the risk of both childhood victimization and sexually coercive behavior might explain the observed links. We examined if childhood maltreatment was related to sexual coercion independently of familial (genetic or common family environment) risk factors, thereby addressing potential causality. Participants were 6,255 18 to 33-year-old twins from the Finnish population-based study "Genetics of Sex and Aggression" who responded to self-report questionnaires of child maltreatment and sexually coercive behavior. We used generalized estimating equations to elucidate risk of sexual coercion in maltreated compared to unrelated, non-maltreated individuals. To adjust for unmeasured familial factors, we used the co-twin control method and compared sexual coercion risk within maltreatment-discordant twin pairs. Further, we examined possible differential effects of maltreatment subtypes and compared mean differences in maltreatment summary scores between sexually coercive individuals and controls. Sexual coercion was moderately more common among individuals maltreated as children versus unrelated controls (38.3 vs. 22.8 %; age- and gender-adjusted odds ratio, aOR = 2.31, 95 % CI 1.75-3.05) and the risk increase remained similar within maltreatment-discordant twins (OR = 2.82, 95 % CI 1.42-5.61). Moreover, different maltreatment subtypes predicted sexual coercion equally well and effect sizes remained similar within discordant twin pairs. We conclude that associations between child maltreatment and sexual coercion are largely independent of shared familial confounds, consistent with a causal inference. Importantly, detection and targeted interventions for maltreated children should remain a priority to reduce societal sexually coercive behavior. PMID:24752790

  7. Sexual and Reproductive Health Behaviors among Teen and Young Adult Men: A Descriptive Portrait. Research Brief. Publication #2008-34

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manlove, Jennifer; Terry-Humen, Elizabeth; Ikramullah, Erum; Holcombe, Emily

    2008-01-01

    When it comes to the reproductive health behaviors of teens and young adults, far more public attention has focused on women than on men. That's not surprising. After all, men don't actually have the babies. Yet the importance of understanding men's reproductive health behaviors should not be overlooked, given their potential implications for men…

  8. An Evidence-Based Education Program for Adults about Child Sexual Abuse ("Prevent It!") That Significantly Improves Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Martin, Erin K; Silverstone, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe the development of an evidence-based education program for adults about childhood sexual abuse (CSA), called Prevent It! Uniquely, the primary goal of this program was to change the behavior of participants, as well as to increase knowledge about CSA and positive attitudes toward it. A comprehensive review shows no previous similar approach. The program includes a detailed manual to allow standardized administration by trained facilitators, as well as multiple video segments from CSA survivors and professionals. A total of 23 program workshops were run, with 366 adults participating. Of these, 312 (85%) agreed to take part in the study. All completed baseline ratings prior to the program and 195 (63% of study sample) completed follow-up assessments at 3-months. There were no significant differences between the demographic make-up of the baseline group and the follow-up group. Assessments included demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and several measures of behavior (our primary outcome variable). Behavioral questions asked individuals to select behaviors used in the previous 3-months from a list of options. Questions also included asking "how many times in the previous 3-months" have you "talked about healthy sexual development or Child sexual abuse (CSA) with a child you know"; "suspected a child was sexually abused"; "taken steps to protect a child"; or "reported suspected sexual abuse to police or child welfare"? The majority of attendees were women, with the commonest age group being between 30 and 39 years old. Approximately 33% had experienced CSA themselves. At 3-month follow-up there were highly statistically significant improvements in several aspects of behavior and knowledge, and attitudes regarding CSA. For example, the number of subjects actively looking for evidence of CSA increased from 46% at baseline to 81% at follow-up, while the number of subjects who actively took steps to protect children increased from 25% at baseline to 48

  9. An Evidence-Based Education Program for Adults about Child Sexual Abuse (“Prevent It!”) That Significantly Improves Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Erin K.; Silverstone, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe the development of an evidence-based education program for adults about childhood sexual abuse (CSA), called Prevent It! Uniquely, the primary goal of this program was to change the behavior of participants, as well as to increase knowledge about CSA and positive attitudes toward it. A comprehensive review shows no previous similar approach. The program includes a detailed manual to allow standardized administration by trained facilitators, as well as multiple video segments from CSA survivors and professionals. A total of 23 program workshops were run, with 366 adults participating. Of these, 312 (85%) agreed to take part in the study. All completed baseline ratings prior to the program and 195 (63% of study sample) completed follow-up assessments at 3-months. There were no significant differences between the demographic make-up of the baseline group and the follow-up group. Assessments included demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and several measures of behavior (our primary outcome variable). Behavioral questions asked individuals to select behaviors used in the previous 3-months from a list of options. Questions also included asking “how many times in the previous 3-months” have you “talked about healthy sexual development or Child sexual abuse (CSA) with a child you know”; “suspected a child was sexually abused”; “taken steps to protect a child”; or “reported suspected sexual abuse to police or child welfare”? The majority of attendees were women, with the commonest age group being between 30 and 39 years old. Approximately 33% had experienced CSA themselves. At 3-month follow-up there were highly statistically significant improvements in several aspects of behavior and knowledge, and attitudes regarding CSA. For example, the number of subjects actively looking for evidence of CSA increased from 46% at baseline to 81% at follow-up, while the number of subjects who actively took steps to protect children increased from

  10. The parvocellular vasotocin system of Japanese quail: a developmental and adult model for the study of influences of gonadal hormones on sexually differentiated and behaviorally relevant neural circuits.

    PubMed Central

    Panzica, Gian Carlo; Bakthazart, Jacques; Pessatti, Marzia; Viglietti-Panzica, Carla

    2002-01-01

    Vasotocin (VT; the antidiuretic hormone of birds) is synthesized by diencephalic magnocellular neurons projecting to the neurohypophysis. A sexually dimorphic system of VT-immunoreactive (ir) parvocellular elements has been described within the male medial preoptic nucleus (POM) and the nucleus of the stria terminalis, pars medialis (BSTm). VT-ir fibers are present in many diencephalic and extradiencephalic locations, and quantitative morphometric analyses demonstrated their sexually dimorphic distribution in regions involved in the control of different aspects of reproduction. Moreover, systemic or intracerebroventricular injections of VT markedly inhibit the expression of some aspects of male sexual behavior. In adult animals, circulating levels of testosterone (T) have a profound influence on the VT immunoreactivity within BSTm, POM, and lateral septum. Castration markedly decreases the immunoreaction, whereas T-replacement therapy restores a situation similar to the intact birds. We observed no changes in gonadectomized females treated with T. These changes parallel similar changes in male copulatory behavior (not present in castrated male quail, fully expressed in castrated, T-treated males). The restoration by T of the VT immunoreactivity in castrated male quail could be fully mimicked by a treatment with estradiol (E(2)), suggesting that the aromatization of T into E(2) may play a key limiting role in both the activation of male sexual behavior and the induction of VT synthesis. This dimorphism has an organizational nature: administration of E(2) to quail embryos (a treatment that abolishes male sexual behavior) results in a dramatic decrease of the VT immunoreactivity in sexually dimorphic regions. Conversely, the inhibition of E(2) synthesis during embryonic life (a treatment that stimulates the expression of male copulatory behavior in treated females exposed in adulthood to T) results in a malelike distribution of VT immunoreactivity. The VT

  11. Pharmacology of sexually compulsive behavior.

    PubMed

    Codispoti, Victoria L

    2008-12-01

    In a meta-analysis on controlled outcomes evaluations of 22,000 sex offenders, Losel and Schmucker found 80 comparisons between treatment and control groups. The recidivism rate averaged 19% in treated groups, and 27% in controls. Most other reviews reported a lower rate of sexual recidivism in treated sexual offenders. Of 2039 citations in this study (including literature in five languages), 60 studies held independent comparisons. Problematic issues included the control groups; various hormonal, surgical, cognitive behavioral, and psychotherapeutic treatments; and sample sizes. In the 80 studies compared after the year 2000, 32% were reported after 2000, 45% originated in the United States, 45% were reported in journals, and 36% were unpublished. Treatment characteristics showed a significant lack of pharmacologic treatment (7.5%), whereas use cognitive and classical behavioral therapy was 64%. In 68% of the studies, no information was available on the integrity of the treatment implementation; 36% of the treatment settings were outpatient only, 31% were prison settings, and 12% were mixed settings (prison, hospital, and outpatient). Integrating research interpretations is complicated by the heterogeneity of sex offenders, with only 56% being adult men and 17.5% adolescents. Offense types reported included 74% child molestation, 48% incest, and 30% exhibitionism. Pedophilia was not singled out. Follow-up periods varied from 12 months to greater than 84 months. The definition of recidivism ran the gamut from arrest (24%), conviction (30%), charges (19%), and no indication (16%). Results were difficult to interpret because of the methodological problems with this type of study. Overall, a positive outcome was noted with sex offender treatment. Cognitive-behavioral and hormonal treatment were the most promising. Voluntary treatment led to a slightly better outcome than mandatory participation. When accounting for a low base rate of sexual recidivism, the reduction

  12. Relating sexual sadism and psychopathy to one another, non-sexual violence, and sexual crime behaviors.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Carrie A; Knight, Raymond A

    2014-01-01

    Sexual sadism and psychopathy have been theoretically, clinically, and empirically linked to violence. Although both constructs are linked to predatory violence, few studies have sought to explore the covariation of the two constructs, and even fewer have sought to conceptualize the similarities of violence prediction in each. The current study considered all four Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) facets and employed well-defined, validated measures of sadism to elucidate the relation between sadism and psychopathy, as well as to determine the role of each in the prediction of non-sexual violence and sexual crime behaviors. Study 1 assessed 314 adult, male sex offenders using archival ratings, as well as the self-report Multidimensional Inventory of Development, Sex, and Aggression (the MIDSA). Study 2 used archival ratings to assess 599 adult, male sex offenders. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of crime scene descriptions yielded four sexual crime behavior factors: Violence, Physical Control, Sexual Behavior, and Paraphilic. Sadism and psychopathy covaried, but were not coextensive; sadism correlated with Total PCL-R, Facet 1, and Facet 4 scores. The constructs predicted all non-sexual violence measures, but predicted different sexual crime behavior factors. The PCL-R facets collectively predicted the Violence and Paraphilic factors, whereas sadism only predicted the Violence factor. PMID:24019144

  13. Relating Sexual Sadism and Psychopathy to One Another, Non-Sexual Violence, and Sexual Crime Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Carrie A.; Knight, Raymond A.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual sadism and psychopathy have been theoretically, clinically, and empirically linked to violence. Although both constructs are linked to predatory violence, few studies have sought to explore the covariation of the two constructs, and even fewer have sought to conceptualize the similarities of violence prediction in each. The current study considered all four Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) facets and employed well-defined, validated measures of sadism to elucidate the relation between sadism and psychopathy, as well as to determine the role of each in the prediction of non-sexual violence and sexual crime behaviors. Study 1 assessed 314 adult, male sex offenders using archival ratings, as well as the self-report Multidimensional Inventory of Development, Sex, and Aggression (the MIDSA). Study 2 used archival ratings to assess 599 adult, male sex offenders. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of crime scene descriptions yielded four sexual crime behavior factors: Violence, Physical Control, Sexual Behavior, and Paraphilic. Sadism and psychopathy covaried, but were not coextensive; sadism correlated with Total PCL-R, Facet 1, and Facet 4 scores. The constructs predicted all non-sexual violence measures, but predicted different sexual crime behavior factors. The PCL-R facets collectively predicted the Violence and Paraphilic factors, whereas sadism only predicted the Violence factor. PMID:24019144

  14. Progesterone-dependent sexual behavior and protein patterns in the ventromedial hypothalamus of the adult female rat

    SciTech Connect

    Montemayor, M.E.; Roy, E.J.; Giometti, C.S.; Taylor, J.

    1994-09-01

    Controversy exists concerning mechanisms by which progesterone exerts central nervous system effects on behavior. Progesterone may affect behavior by genomic regulation of protein synthesis. Alternatively, it may work through non-genomic mechanisms, consistent with its short latency to act. Recent work suggests that progesterone may elicit its effects on sexual behavior by more than one mechanism in a tissue specific manner. In the present study, we have examined whether progesterone facilitation of sexual behavior is correlated with modification of protein synthesis patterns in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH). Ovariectomized rats were divided into three groups: estradiol (4 ug/ka at 0 and 18 hrs), estradiol (at 0 and 18 hrs) plus progesterone (2 mg/kg at 37 hrs), and vehicle only. {sup 35}S-labeled cysteine and methionine were bilaterally infused into the VMH at 37 hrs (the time of progesterone administration). Following 4 hrs of infusion, animals were tested for sexual behavior and sacrificed. Newly synthesized VMH proteins were separated by two dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by fluorography. Analysis of approximately 660 spots/fluorogram in two independent replications indicated that no protein was completely induced or lost as a result of being treated with progesterone. The abundances of several proteins were significantly altered in response to progesterone treatment in each replication; however, none were changed in abundance in both replications. These findings present no evidence that progesterone causes detectable alterations in VIMH protein patterns between 10-100 kDa in the 4.8-6.7 apparent pI range.

  15. The role of ethnicity, sexual attitudes, and sexual behavior in sexual revictimization during the transition to emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Rinehart, Jenny K; Yeater, Elizabeth A; Musci, Rashelle J; Letourneau, Elizabeth J; Lenberg, Kathryn L

    2014-01-01

    An experience of child sexual abuse (CSA) substantially increases women's risk of adult sexual assault (ASA), but the mechanisms underlying this relationship are unclear. Previous research often has not examined the full range of ASA experiences or included the influence of ethnicity, sexual behavior, and sexual attitudes on CSA and severity of ASA. The current study utilized path analysis to explore the relationships among ethnicity, sexual attitudes, number of lifetime sexual partners, CSA, and severity of ASA in emerging adult women. Results indicated a significant relationship between CSA and more severe ASA that was partially explained by having more lifetime sexual partners. Additionally, European American women, relative to Hispanic women, reported more severe victimization, which was fully explained by more positive attitudes toward casual sex and having more lifetime sexual partners. These results have implications in the design and implementation of universal and selective prevention programs aimed at reducing ASA and revictimization among emerging adult women. PMID:25258422

  16. Sexual dysfunction within an adult developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Fagan, P J; Meyer, J K; Schmidt, C W

    1986-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the adult who has adequately mastered the oedipal stage of psychosexual development and who presents with a sexual dysfunction. Drawing on the developmental sequence of Erik Erikson, the authors suggest that failure to address adequately an adult psychosocial crisis may result in sexual dysfunction. There may be both adult developmental deficits and regression to adolescent and adult stages previously negotiated. Both may be symptomatically represented by sexual dysfunction. The authors urge that the sexual and marital problems be evaluated within an adult developmental framework and that the therapy address the psychosocial issues which are appropriate to the developmental stage of the patient. PMID:3820320

  17. Freshman Sexual Attitudes and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutt, Roberta L.; Sedlacek, William E.

    At the University of Maryland, 758 randomly selected incoming freshman students were administered an anonymous poll regarding their sexual attitudes and behavior. Results showed that the Maryland freshman generally resembled other U.S. college students in their sexual experience. Approximately half (52% of males, 46% of females) reported that they…

  18. Sexual At-Risk Behaviors of Sexually Abused Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinq-Mars, Caroline; Wright, John; Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated sexual at-risk behaviors of sexually abused adolescent girls. Variables of interest were presence of consensual sexual activity, age at first consensual intercourse, number of sexual partners, condom use, and pregnancies. Participants were 125 sexually abused adolescent girls aged 12 to 17 years. Results showed that…

  19. Schizophrenia and Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Bernard H.

    1971-01-01

    Generally, the schizophrenic is far less active sexually than the rest of the population, and gets less satisfaction out of such activity. Just as he gives up in other areas he eventually abdicates his sexual role, withdrawing from temptations that seem to promise torment. (Author)

  20. Sexual Functioning in Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zebrack, Brad J.; Foley, Sallie; Wittmann, Daniela; Leonard, Marcia

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies of sexuality or sexual behavior in childhood cancer survivors tend to examine relationships or achievement of developmental milestones but not physiological response to cancer or treatment. The purpose of this study is to (1) identify prevalence and risk factors for sexual dysfunction in childhood cancer survivors, and (2) examine the extent to which sexual dysfunction may be associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and psychosocial outcomes. Methods Five hundred ninety-nine survivors age 18-39 years completed standardized measures of sexual functioning, HRQOL, psychological distress and life satisfaction. Descriptive statistics assessed prevalence of sexual symptoms. Bivariate analyses identified correlates of sexual symptoms and examined associations between symptoms and HRQOL/psychosocial outcomes. Results Most survivors appear to be doing well, although 52% of female survivors and 32% of male survivors reported at least “a little of a problem” in one or more areas of sexual functioning. Mean symptom score for females was more than twice that of males. Sexual symptoms were associated with reporting health problems. Significant associations between sexual functioning and HRQOL outcomes were observed, with gender differences in strengths of association suggesting that males find sexual symptoms more distressing than do females. Conclusions While most survivors appear to be doing well in this important life domain, some young adult survivors report sexual concerns. While female survivors may report more sexual symptoms than male survivors, males may experience more distress associated with sexual difficulties. Better specified measures of sexual function, behavior and outcomes are needed for this young adult population. PMID:19862693

  1. Gender roles, sociosexuality, and sexual behavior among US Black women

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Naomi M.; Pichon, Latrice C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between gender roles and sociosexuality (an individual difference variable describing attitudes about sexual permissiveness and promiscuity), and their predictive pattern of HIV-related sexual risk behaviors. A geographically diverse sample of 275 adult, heterosexual Black women (mean age = 33.60 years), participated in a self-administered survey. Significant relationships were found between feminine traits and sociosexuality, and between sociosexuality and four of the five risky sexual behavior variables. Neither masculine nor feminine gender roles were related to any risky sexual behavior variables. Sociosexuality emerged as an important correlate that requires further exploration of its relationship to the attitudes and behaviors of Black women, and its potential relationship to HIV risk-related sexual behavior. The need for more attention to psychosocial variables, and consideration of context, cultural norms, and values is discussed as an important undertaking in order to garner an accurate picture of sexual risk behavior. PMID:25614852

  2. Two-year follow-up of sexual behavior among HIV-uninfected household members of adults taking antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: no evidence of disinhibition.

    PubMed

    Bechange, Stevens; Bunnell, Rebecca; Awor, Anna; Moore, David; King, Rachel; Mermin, Jonathan; Tappero, Jordan; Khana, Kenneth; Bartholow, Bradford

    2010-08-01

    This paper examines HIV risk behavior among HIV-uninfected adults living with people taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Uganda. A prospective cohort of 455 HIV-uninfected non-spousal household members of ART patients receiving home-based AIDS care was enrolled. Sexual behavior, HIV risk perceptions, AIDS-related anxiety, and the perception that AIDS is curable were assessed at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 months. Generalized linear mixture models were used to model risk behavior over time and to identify behavioral correlates. Overall, risky sex decreased from 29% at baseline to 15% at 24-months. Among women, risky sex decreased from 31% at baseline to 10% at 6 months and 15% at 24 months. Among men, risky sex decreased from 30% at baseline to 8% at 6 months and 13% at 24 months. Perceiving HIV/AIDS as curable and lower AIDS-related anxiety were independently associated with risky sex. No evidence of behavioral disinhibition was observed. Concerns regarding behavioral disinhibition should not slow down efforts to increase ART access in Africa. PMID:18949550

  3. Changes in Women's Sexual Behavior Following Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deliramich, Aimee N.; Gray, Matt J.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines changes in women's sexual activity and behavior following sexual assault and the relationship between alcohol abuse and postassault promiscuity. Although many researchers have focused on avoidance of sexual activity following an assault, some have suggested that women may exhibit an increase in sexual activity…

  4. Perceived Sexual Control, Sex-Related Alcohol Expectancies and Behavior Predict Substance-Related Sexual Revictimization

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kate; Messman-Moore, Terri; Zerubavel, Noga; Chandley, Rachel B.; DeNardi, Kathleen A.; Walker, Dave P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Although numerous studies have documented linkages between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and later sexual revictimization, mechanisms underlying revictimization, particularly assaults occurring in the context of substance use, are not well-understood. Consistent with Traumagenic Dynamics theory, the present study tested a path model positing that lowered perceptions of sexual control resulting from CSA may be associated with increased sex-related alcohol expectancies and heightened likelihood of risky sexual behavior, which in turn, may predict adult substance-related rape. Methods Participants were 546 female college students who completed anonymous surveys regarding CSA and adult rape, perceptions of sexual control, sex-related alcohol expectancies, and likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior. Results The data fit the hypothesized model well and all hypothesized path coefficients were significant and in the expected directions. As expected, sex-related alcohol expectancies and likelihood of risky sexual behavior only predicted substance-related rape, not forcible rape. Conclusions Findings suggested that low perceived sexual control stemming from CSA is associated with increased sex-related alcohol expectancies and a higher likelihood of engaging in sexual behavior in the context of alcohol use. In turn these proximal risk factors heighten vulnerability to substance-related rape. Programs which aim to reduce risk for substance-related rape could be improved by addressing expectancies and motivations for risky sexual behavior in the context of substance use. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:23312991

  5. Unwanted Online Sexual Solicitation and Risky Sexual Online Behavior across the Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Susanne E.; Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    There are widespread concerns that on the internet, adolescents are especially vulnerable and take more risks than adults. However, research supporting this concern is still missing. The aim of this study was to explore whether (a) unwanted online sexual solicitation, (b) risky sexual online behavior, and (c) the perception of risks and benefits…

  6. Prostitution, sexual behavior and STDs.

    PubMed

    Gaspari, V; D'Antuono, A; Bellavista, S; Trimarco, R; Patrizi, A

    2012-08-01

    Prostitution involves the exchange of sexual services for economic compensation. As sexual behaviour is an important determinant in transmitting HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), sex workers (SWs), transgenders and clients are often labeled as a "high risk group" in the context of HIV and STDs. It has been documented that female sex workers in particular have an increased prevalence of untreated STDs and have been hypothesized to affect the health and HIV incidence of the general population. People involved in prostitution are a cause for concern from both public health and economic perspectives. However, little is known about why they remain in this type of activity given the risks prostitution presents, and even less is known about how to intervene and interrupt the complex cycle of prostitution. The aim of this paper is to provide a clinical and epidemiological analysis of the relationship between prostitution, sexual behavior and outbreaks of STDs; to assess the role that migrants, transgenders and clients of SWs have in prostitution and in the outbreaks of STDs. In addition, we also want to highlight how new sexual networks, like the Internet, have become an increasingly important vehicle to sharing information about prostitution, sexual behavior and STDs. Finally we present what may be the prevention strategies and the goals in order to stem the spread of STDs among these hard-to-access groups. PMID:23007210

  7. Paraphilic Sexual Interests and Sexually Coercive Behavior: A Population-Based Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Baur, Elena; Forsman, Mats; Santtila, Pekka; Johansson, Ada; Sandnabba, Kenneth; Långström, Niklas

    2016-07-01

    Prior research with selected clinical and forensic samples suggests associations between paraphilic sexual interests (e.g., exhibitionism and sexual sadism) and sexually coercive behavior. However, no study to date used a large, representative and genetically informative population sample to address the potential causal nature of this association. We used self-report data on paraphilic and sexually coercive behavior from 5990 18- to 32-year-old male and female twins from a contemporary Finnish population cohort. Logistic regression and co-twin control models were employed to examine if paraphilic behaviors were causally related to coercive behavior or if suggested links were confounded by familial (genetic or common family environment) risk factors. Results indicated that associations between four out of five tested paraphilic behaviors (exhibitionism, masochism, sadism, and voyeurism, respectively) and sexually coercive behavior were moderate to strong. Transvestic fetishism was not independently associated with sexual coercion. Comparisons of twins reporting paraphilic behavior with their paraphilic behavior-discordant twin further suggested that associations were largely independent of shared genetic and environmental confounds, consistent with a causal association. In conclusion, similar to previously reported predictive effects of paraphilias on sexual crime recidivism, paraphilic behavior among young adults in the general population increases sexual offending risk. Further, early identification of paraphilic interest and preventive interventions with at-risk individuals might also reduce perpetration of first-time sexual violence. PMID:26754158

  8. Sexual Esteem in Emerging Adulthood: Associations with Sexual Behavior, Contraception Use, and Romantic Relationships.

    PubMed

    Maas, Megan K; Lefkowitz, Eva S

    2015-01-01

    Sexual esteem is an integral psychological aspect of sexual health (Snell & Papini, 1989 ), yet it is unclear whether sexual esteem is associated with sexual health behavior among heterosexual men and women. The current analysis used a normative framework for sexual development (Lefkowitz & Gillen, 2006 ; Tolman & McClelland, 2011 ) by examining the association of sexual esteem with sexual behavior, contraception use, and romantic relationship characteristics. Participants (N = 518; 56.0% female; mean age = 20.43 years; 26.8% identified as Hispanic/Latino; among non-Hispanic/Latinos, 27.2% of the full sample identified as European American, 22.4% Asian American, 14.9% African American, and 8.7% multiracial) completed Web-based surveys at a large Northeastern university. Participants who had oral sex more frequently, recently had more oral and penetrative sex partners (particularly for male participants), and spent more college semesters in romantic relationships tended to have higher sexual esteem than those who had sex less frequently, with fewer partners, or spent more semesters without romantic partners. Sexually active male emerging adults who never used contraception during recent penetrative sex tended to have higher sexual esteem than those who did use it, whereas female emerging adults who never used contraception tended to have lower sexual esteem than those who did use it. Implications of these results for the development of a healthy sexual self-concept in emerging adulthood are discussed. PMID:25210789

  9. HIV testing experience and risk behavior among sexually active Black young adults: a CBPR-based study using respondent-driven sampling in Durham, North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    MacQueen, Kathleen M.; Chen, Mario; Jolly, David; Mueller, Monique P.; Okumu, Eunice; Eley, Natalie T.; Laws, Michelle; Isler, Malika Roman; Kalloo, Allison; Rogers, Randy C.

    2015-01-01

    African Americans are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic inclusive of men who have sex with men, heterosexual men, and women. As part of a community-based participatory research study we assessed HIV testing experience among sexually active 18 to 30 year old Black men and women in Durham, North Carolina. Of 508 participants, 173 (74%) men and 236 (86%; p=.0008) women reported ever being tested. Barriers to testing (e.g., perceived risk and stigma) were the same for men and women, but men fell behind mainly because a primary facilitator of testing---routine screening in clinical settings---was more effective at reaching women. Structural and behavioral risk factors associated with HIV infection were prevalent but did not predict HIV testing experience. Reduced access to health care services for low income Black young adults may exacerbate HIV testing barriers that already exist for men and undermine previous success rates in reaching women. PMID:25893817

  10. HIV Testing Experience and Risk Behavior Among Sexually Active Black Young Adults: A CBPR-Based Study Using Respondent-Driven Sampling in Durham, North Carolina.

    PubMed

    MacQueen, Kathleen M; Chen, Mario; Jolly, David; Mueller, Monique P; Okumu, Eunice; Eley, Natalie T; Laws, Michelle; Isler, Malika Roman; Kalloo, Allison; Rogers, Randy C

    2015-06-01

    African Americans are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic inclusive of men who have sex with men, heterosexual men, and women. As part of a community-based participatory research study we assessed HIV testing experience among sexually active 18-30 year old Black men and women in Durham, NC. Of 508 participants, 173 (74 %) men and 236 (86 %; p = 0.0008) women reported ever being tested. Barriers to testing (e.g., perceived risk and stigma) were the same for men and women, but men fell behind mainly because a primary facilitator of testing-routine screening in clinical settings-was more effective at reaching women. Structural and behavioral risk factors associated with HIV infection were prevalent but did not predict HIV testing experience. Reduced access to health care services for low income Black young adults may exacerbate HIV testing barriers that already exist for men and undermine previous success rates in reaching women. PMID:25893817

  11. YOUNG ADULT DATING RELATIONSHIPS AND THE MANAGEMENT OF SEXUAL RISK.

    PubMed

    Manning, Wendy D; Giordano, Peggy C; Longmore, Monica A; Flanigan, Christine M

    2012-04-01

    Young adult involvement in sexual behavior typically occurs within a relationship context, but we know little about the ways in which specific features of romantic relationships influence sexual decision-making. Prior work on sexual risk taking focuses attention on health issues rather than relationship dynamics. We draw on data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) (n = 475) to examine the association between qualities and dynamics of current/most recent romantic relationships such as communication and emotional processes, conflict, demographic asymmetries, and duration and the management of sexual risk. We conceptualize 'risk management' as encompassing multiple domains, including (1) questioning the partner about previous sexual behaviors/risks, (2) using condoms consistently, and (3) maintaining sexual exclusivity within the relationship. We identify distinct patterns of risk management among dating young adults and find that specific qualities and dynamics of these relationships are linked to variations in risk management. Results from this paper suggest the need to consider relational dynamics in efforts to target and influence young adult sexual risk-taking and reduce STIs, including HIV. PMID:23805015

  12. Longitudinal Effects of Perceived Maternal Approval on Sexual Behaviors of Asian and Pacific Islander (API) Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahm, Hyeouk; Lee, Jieha; Zerden, Lisa; Ozonoff, Al; Amodeo, Maryann; Adkins, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the longitudinal association between Asian and Pacific Islander (API) adolescents' perceptions of maternal approval of their sexual activity and contraception use, and four sexual outcomes during young adulthood. The study includes a nationally representative…

  13. Genes for sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, D; Nakano, Y

    1998-05-01

    The mating behavior of Drosophila melanogaster is a stereotyped sequence of fixed action patterns, composed of orientation, tapping, singing, licking, attempted copulation and copulation. Mutations that block a unique aspect of mating behavior were isolated and analyzed at the cellular and molecular levels. The wild-type counterparts of the mutated genes were shown to rescue the phenotypes by their ubiquitous or targeted expression in some of the mutants. This strategy of artificial control of fly behavior opens up an avenue for studies to identify the neural center for individual behavioral actions. PMID:9600058

  14. Self-harmful sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Hucker, S J

    1985-06-01

    This article reviews the types of sexual anomaly that are especially likely to result in the physical harm or even death of the affected individual. Detailed descriptions based on the literature and the author's clinical material are given. Despite widespread awareness of masochistic behavior, our knowledge of its causation and the most effective method of treatment are still incomplete. PMID:3895195

  15. Sexual Orientation and Involvement in Nonviolent and Violent Delinquent Behaviors: Findings From the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Kevin M; Connolly, Eric J; Schwartz, Joseph A; Boutwell, Brian B; Barnes, J C; Nedelec, Joseph L

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the association between sexual orientation and nonviolent and violent delinquency across the life course. We analyzed self-reported nonviolent and violent delinquency in a sample of heterosexual males (N = 5220-7023) and females (N = 5984-7875), bisexuals (N = 34-73), gay males (N = 145-189), and lesbians (N = 115-150) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). The analyses revealed, in general, that bisexuals were the most delinquent of the sexual orientation categories for both males and females. Additional analyses revealed that heterosexual males reported significantly higher levels of both violent and nonviolent delinquency than gay males, whereas lesbians reported more involvement in nonviolent delinquency and, to a lesser extent, violent delinquency relative to heterosexual females. Analyses also revealed that lesbians reported significantly more delinquent behavior, particularly for nonviolent delinquency, than gay males. Future research should explore the mechanisms that account for these observed patterns and how they can be used to more fully understand the etiology of delinquency. PMID:27056045

  16. Sexual orientation and sexual behavior: results from the Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2002-2006.

    PubMed

    Keyes, Susan M; Rothman, Emily F; Zhang, Zi

    2007-01-01

    Few population-based surveys in the United States include sexual orientation as a demographic variable. As a result, estimating the proportion of the U.S. population that is gay, lesbian, or bisexual (GLB) is a substantial challenge. Prior estimates vary widely, from 1-21%. In 2001, questions on sexual orientation and sexual behavior were added to the Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (MA BRFSS) and have been asked continually since that time. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of adults in Massachusetts identifying as GLB and providing a demographic description of this group. The study also examined the correlation of reported sexual behavior and sexual identity within this group. Overall, 1.9% of Massachusetts adults identified as gay or lesbian and 1.0% of Massachusetts adults identified as bisexual. Of those identifying as gay or lesbian, 95.4% reported sexual behavior concordant with this identification, and 99.4% of respondents identifying as heterosexual reported behavior concordant with heterosexual sexual orientation. Among those reporting a GLB sexual orientation, men were more likely than women to identify as gay, and women were more likely than men to identify as bisexual. Younger adults (18-25 years old) were more likely than people in other age groups to identify as bisexual. Respondents with 4 or more years of education were more likely to identify as gay or lesbian than those in all other education categories. The addition of sexual orientation to population-based surveys will allow for research on the health of GLB adults and provide critical information for those charged with the creation of public policy regarding sexual orientation. PMID:19042901

  17. Sexuality in the child, teen, and young adult: concepts for the clinician.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Helena; Greydanus, Donald E

    2007-06-01

    This article discusses basic concepts of sexuality in children, adolescents, and young adults based on development stages. Sexual behavior of adolescents is a common phenomenon, leading to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and unwanted pregnancy. Clinicians should provide anticipatory guidance to help with healthy sexuality development while reducing negative aspects of human sexuality. Comprehensive sexuality education should be provided, with emphasis on avoiding unwanted sexual advances (including Internet dangers), bullying, pregnancy, and STDs. Clinicians can teach sexually active patients to use effective contraception and condoms for STD protection. Ensuring full immunization with the hepatitis B vaccine and the human papillomavirus vaccine also is important. PMID:17666227

  18. High-risk sexual behaviors.

    PubMed

    Troussier, Thierry; Benghozi, Pierre; Ganem, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of life characterized by danger because of the many changes that occur, the many ties that are severed: ties to childhood, ties to the child's body as it begins to take on an adult appearance, ties to a once-familiar body image and psyche as hormones complete the transformation to adulthood, ties to an unconscious that is struggling to restructure itself anew. The creation of the romantic couple is a danger inherent in any human society. This text was written from the professional practices of each author in a multidisciplinary approach combining the approaches of public health, risk reduction, and sexual, psychological and clinical care of adolescents. How to help anticipate the dangers is to use preventive insurance verifying that security is guaranteed before committing. Risk-taking is accepting all the challenges that boost the self with oneself and with others. The risk is therefore also the commitment in love. It is still the risk to speak, to feel, to express feelings, choices, and refusal of unwanted sex. The ability of adolescents to play and defeat the risk by learning the ethical value not only to protect themselves from contracting AIDS, but also to protect others is part of the pedagogy of risk. This pedagogy of risk, as we have seen, includes three areas: information, care and initiation into love. Adolescents must be supported in their emergence by responsible people to protect them from the dangers ahead. The support is not only to prevent them from engaging in risky behavior, but to help them better manage their anxieties and support the fragility of their families in a network approach. Not knowing how to confront the risk stifles the chance of allowing the child to grow up to be independent and helps reassure parents who may resent being removed from the empowerment of their children. PMID:22846539

  19. Tobacco Product Use Among Sexual Minority Adults

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sarah E.; Holder-Hayes, Enver; Tessman, Greta K.; King, Brian A.; Alexander, Tesfa; Zhao, Xiaoquan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A growing body of evidence reveals higher rates of tobacco use among sexual minority populations relative to non-minority (“straight”) populations. This study seeks to more fully characterize this disparity by examining tobacco use by distinct sexual identities and gender to better understand patterns of: (1) cigarette smoking and smoking history; and (2) use of other tobacco products including cigars, pipes, hookah, e-cigarettes, and smokeless tobacco. Methods Data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a random-digit dialed landline and cellular telephone survey of U.S. adults aged ≥18 years, were analyzed in 2014. A sexual minority category was created by combining gay, lesbian, and bisexual responses, along with those who selected an option for other non-heterosexual identities. Results Smoking prevalence was higher among sexual minority adults (27.4%) than straight adults (17.3%). Cigarette smoking was particularly high among bisexual women (36.0%). Sexual minority women started smoking and transitioned to daily smoking earlier than their straight peers. Use of other tobacco products was higher among sexual minority women: prevalence of e-cigarette (12.4%), hookah (10.3%), and cigar use (7.2%) was more than triple that of their straight female peers (3.4%, 2.5%, and 1.3%, respectively). Likewise, prevalence of sexual minority men’s e-cigarette (7.9%) and hookah (12.8%) use exceeded that of straight men (4.7% and 4.5%, respectively). Conclusions Tobacco use is significantly higher among sexual minority than straight adults, particularly among sexual minority women. These findings underscore the importance of tobacco control efforts designed to reach sexual minorities and highlight the heterogeneity of tobacco use within this population. PMID:26526162

  20. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Sexual Revictimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Lynskey, Michael T.

    1997-01-01

    An 18-year longitudinal study of 520 New Zealand women found that those reporting childhood sexual abuse, particularly severe abuse involving intercourse, had significantly higher rates of early onset consensual sexual activity, teenage pregnancy, multiple sexual partners, unprotected intercourse, sexually transmitted disease, and sexual assault…

  1. Health Disparities Among Young Adult Sexual Minorities in the US

    PubMed Central

    Strutz, Kelly L.; Herring, Amy H.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2014-01-01

    Background Emerging research suggests that young adult sexual minorities (identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual or engaging in same-sex attractions or behaviors) experience poorer health than their majority counterparts, but many measures of health inequity remain unexamined in population-based research. Purpose To describe a wide range of health status and healthcare access characteristics of sexual minorities in comparison with those of the majority population in a national sample of U.S. young adults. Methods Binary and multinomial logistic regression analyses of Wave IV data (2008) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (participants aged 24–32 years, n=13,088) were conducted. Health measures were self-rated health; diagnosis of any of several physical or mental illnesses or sexually transmitted infections; measured body mass index; depression classified from self-reported symptoms; use of antidepressant and anxiolytic medication; uninsured; forgone care; and receipt of physical, dental, and psychological services. Analyses were conducted in 2012–2013. Results Sexual minority women had elevated odds of most adverse health conditions and lower odds of receiving a physical or dental examination. Sexual minority men had elevated odds of fewer adverse health conditions. Conclusions Young adult sexual minorities are at higher risk of poor physical and mental health. The results highlight the multidimensionality of sexual minority status and respond to calls for greater understanding of the health of this population. PMID:25241194

  2. Junior high school students' perceptions regarding nonconsensual sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Jordan, T R; Price, J H; Telljohann, S K; Chesney, B K

    1998-09-01

    This study assessed early adolescents' attitudes and perceptions regarding nonconsensual sexual activity. A total of 371 surveys (94% return rate) was completed. More than one-third of respondents (35%) reported they had engaged in sexual intercourse; 17% reported having been sexually coerced by a teen-ager; 19% reported feeling pressure from their friends to have intercourse; 7% reported having been sexually coerced by an adult; and 6% reported having sexually coerced someone else. Students also demonstrated lack of knowledge regarding nonconsensual sexual behaviors. Analysis of variance tests determined if knowledge (KN), attitudes (AT), behavioral intentions (BI), and locus of control (LC) changed across specific background and demographic variables. One background variable (having been sexually coerced by a teen-ager) was associated with high risk orientation (lower scores) on all four subscales. Lower scores also were associated with being male (KN, AT, BI), having sexually coerced someone else (KN, AT, BI), having been sexually coerced by an adult (AT, BI), and having engaged in sexual intercourse (AT, BI). PMID:9779404

  3. Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Young Adults: Prevalence, Perceived Risk, and Risk-Taking Behaviors. Research Brief. Publication #2010-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildsmith, Elizabeth; Schelar, Erin; Peterson, Kristen; Manlove, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the United States is among the highest in the western industrialized world. Nearly 19 million new STDs are diagnosed each year, and more than 65 million Americans live with an incurable STD, such as herpes and human papillomavirus (HPV). Young people, in particular, are at a heightened risk…

  4. Sexuality Attitudes of Black Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timberlake, Constance A.; Carpenter, Wayne D.

    1990-01-01

    Assessed sexuality attitudes of black middle-class sample (N=124) concerning communication regarding sexuality information, adolescent contraception, adolescent pregnancy, nonmarital intercourse, responsibility for contraception and pregnancy, abortion, pornography, and masturbation. Results suggest that participants were well-informed, moderate,…

  5. Measuring Iranian women's sexual behaviors: Expert opinion.

    PubMed

    Ghorashi, Zohreh; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Yousefy, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    The cultural compatibility of sexually related instruments is problematic because the contexts from which the concepts and meanings were extracted may be significantly different from related contexts in a different society. This paper describes the instruments that have been used to assess sexual behaviors, primarily in Western contexts. Then, based on the instruments' working definition of 'sexual behavior' and their theoretical frameworks, we will (1) discuss the applicability or cultural compatibility of existing instruments targeting women's sexual behaviors within an Iranian context, and (2) suggest criteria for sexually related tools applicable in Iranian settings. Iranian women's sexual scripts may compromise the existing instruments' compatibility. Suggested criteria are as follows: understanding, language of sexuality, ethics and morality. Therefore, developing a culturally comprehensive measure that can adequately examine Iranian women's sexual behaviors is needed. PMID:25250346

  6. Measuring Iranian women's sexual behaviors: Expert opinion

    PubMed Central

    Ghorashi, Zohreh; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Yousefy, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    The cultural compatibility of sexually related instruments is problematic because the contexts from which the concepts and meanings were extracted may be significantly different from related contexts in a different society. This paper describes the instruments that have been used to assess sexual behaviors, primarily in Western contexts. Then, based on the instruments’ working definition of ‘sexual behavior’ and their theoretical frameworks, we will (1) discuss the applicability or cultural compatibility of existing instruments targeting women's sexual behaviors within an Iranian context, and (2) suggest criteria for sexually related tools applicable in Iranian settings. Iranian women's sexual scripts may compromise the existing instruments’ compatibility. Suggested criteria are as follows: understanding, language of sexuality, ethics and morality. Therefore, developing a culturally comprehensive measure that can adequately examine Iranian women's sexual behaviors is needed. PMID:25250346

  7. A gender discrepancy analysis of heterosexual sexual behaviors in two university samples.

    PubMed

    Jozkowski, Kristen N; Satinsky, Sonya A

    2013-12-01

    The current study aimed to (1) offer a large-scale enumeration of college students' lifetime sexual behaviors and sexual behaviors at last event, and (2) apply a gender discrepancy lens to college students' sexual behaviors in order to examine potential gender differences in heterosexual college students' experiences. Nine-hundred and seventy college students between the ages of 18 and 27 from two large universities in the United States participated in the current study. Participants filled out a paper-pencil questionnaire during the last 30 min of class. Measures of lifetime sexual behaviors and engagement in behaviors at last sexual event were replicated from the National Survey of Sexual Health Behavior. Most college students engaged in some form of sexual behavior (manual, oral, vaginal-penile, anal). Men more frequently reported engaging in receptive sexual behaviors (e.g., receiving oral sex) where as women were more likely to engage in performative sexual behaviors (e.g., performing oral sex). At most recent sexual event, men were more likely than women to report being the sexual initiator. Findings highlight gender differences in sexual behavior and provide a foundation for social norms interventions. Holistic sexual health promotion for young adults includes acknowledging and discouraging sites of disparity in equity and pleasure. Therefore, college-level sexual health educators should pay attention to the potential pleasure gap between men and women in heterosexual encounters, and to see pleasure as an important part of sexual health that should be included in social norms campaigns. PMID:23873260

  8. Gender, Internet use, and sexual behavior orientation among young Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Adebayo, D O; Udegbe, I B; Sunmola, A M

    2006-12-01

    This study examined the influence of gender and Internet use on the sexual behavior orientation of young adults in Nigeria. Using an ex-post-facto design, data were collected from a total of 231 participants. Results of the hierarchical regression model provided support for the influence of gender and Internet use on sexual behavior orientation among young Nigerians. Further, results also revealed an interaction effect; as the use of the Internet increased, male participants reported a greater extent of risky sexual behavior orientation than their female counterparts. The findings were explained in the context of the theoretical foundations of the study, while practical implications for combating youths' risky sexual behavior orientation were highlighted. PMID:17201600

  9. Sexually transmitted infection risk behaviors in rural Thai adolescents and young adults: Support for gender- and age-specific interventions

    PubMed Central

    Latimore, Amanda D.; Aramrattana, Apinun; Sherman, Susan G.; Galai, Noya; Srirojn, Bangorn; Thompson, Nick; Ellen, Jonathan M.; Willard, Nancy; Celentano, David D.

    2012-01-01

    STI prevalence and risks in a sample of rural Thai adolescents and young adults (14–29 years old) were examined. Unprotected sex with a casual partner conferred the greatest risk for prevalent STIs, particularly for younger adolescents and alcohol use increased the STI risk for women but not for men. PMID:23403603

  10. Sexual Values and Risky Sexual Behaviors Among Latino Youths

    PubMed Central

    Deardorff, Julianna; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Flores, Elena; Ozer, Emily J.

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT Understanding Latino youths’ sexual values is key to informing HIV prevention efforts. Few studies have examined associations between culturally based sexual values and behaviors among Latinos. METHODS A sample of 839 sexually active Latinos aged 16–22 residing in San Francisco were interviewed in 2003–2006. Multiple regression and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between sexual values and behaviors, while adjusting for language use (a proxy for acculturation) and other covariates. RESULTS The importance attached to female virginity was negatively associated with the number of sexual partners women had had in their lifetime (odds ratio, 0.8) and in the past year (0.9), and was positively associated with women’s nonuse of condoms, rather than consistent use, during the first month of their current relationships (1.8). For men, the importance of satisfying sexual needs increased with the numbers of lifetime and recent sexual partners (1.4 and 1.1, respectively), and with inconsistent condom use in the first month of their relationships (1.9). Comfort with sexual communication was positively associated with inconsistent use or nonuse of condoms in the last month of both men’s and women’s current relationships (2.0–2.2). For women, considering satisfaction of sexual needs important was associated with more sexual partners only among those who attached little value to female virginity. CONCLUSIONS It is important to integrate themes of virginity and sexual desire into intervention curricula so youth can better understand how these sexual norms influence their developing sexual identities and behaviors. PMID:20415881

  11. Female Adolescents of Alcohol Misusers: Sexual Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandy, Joseph M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Impact of parent alcohol misuse on the sexual behavior of female adolescents was studied with 1,134 teenagers of alcohol-misusing parents. Index adolescents were more likely to report sexual intercourse and greater frequency of intercourse. Gender of the drinking parent was related to a number of factors related to sexuality. (SLD)

  12. Sexual Behavior of Colombian High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Useche, Bernardo; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Surveyed sexual behavior of Colombian high school students. Found that prostitutes were playing decreasing role in sexual lives of males as result of trend toward premarital coital permissiveness among females. Findings revealed intrinsic gender differences in intensity and frequency of sexual desires. (Author/NB)

  13. Effect of Early Antiretroviral Therapy on Sexual Behaviors and HIV-1 Transmission Risk Among Adults With Diverse Heterosexual Partnership Statuses in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Jean, Kévin; Gabillard, Delphine; Moh, Raoul; Danel, Christine; Fassassi, Raïmi; Desgrées-du-Loû, Annabel; Eholié, Serge; Lert, France; Anglaret, Xavier; Dray-Spira, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Background. The effect of early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART; ie, at CD4+ T-cell counts >350 cells/mm3) on sexual behaviors and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) transmission risk has not been documented in populations other than HIV-serodiscordant couples in stable relationships. Methods. On the basis of data from a behavioral study nested in a randomized, controlled trial (Temprano-ANRS12136) of early ART, we compared proportions of risky sex (ie, unprotected sex with a partner of negative/unknown HIV status) reported 12 months after inclusion between participants randomly assigned to initiate ART immediately (hereafter, “early ART”) or according to ongoing World Health Organization criteria. Group-specific HIV transmission rates were estimated on the basis of sexual behaviors and viral load–specific per-act HIV transmission probabilities. The ratio of transmission rates was computed to estimate the protective effect of early ART. Results. Among 957 participants (baseline median CD4+ T-cell count, 478 cells/mm3), 46.0% reported sexual activity in the past month; of these 46.0%, sexual activity for 41.5% involved noncohabiting partners. The proportion of subjects who engaged in risky sex was 10.0% in the early ART group, compared with 12.8% in the standard ART group (P = .17). After accounting for sexual behaviors and viral load, we estimated that the protective effect of early ART was 90% (95% confidence interval, 81%–95%). Conclusion. Twelve months after inclusion, patients in the early and standard ART groups reported similar sexual behaviors. Early ART decreased the estimated risk of HIV transmission by 90%, suggesting a major prevention benefit among seronegative sex partners in stable or casual relationships with seropositive individuals. PMID:23990567

  14. U.S. population estimates and correlates of sexual abuse of community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Cannell, Michael B; Manini, Todd; Spence-Almaguer, Emily; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred; Andresen, Elena M

    2014-01-01

    We describe the annual prevalence of sexual abuse among community-dwelling older adults in the United States. We also describe factors associated with experiencing sexual abuse. We used data from 24,343 older adults from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System pooled across 18 states. We estimated prevalence of sexual abuse, bivariate distributions, and odds ratio associations across demographic, health, and contextual factors. Our results show that 0.9% of older adults reported experiencing sexual abuse in the previous year. This represents approximately 90,289 community-dwelling older adults. We also report on factors associated with experiencing recent sexual abuse. There was a significant gender by binge drinking interaction, with a stronger association among women. There is a need for health promotion efforts targeted specifically toward older adults, encouraging them to seek services, if possible, after exposure to sexual abuse. PMID:24410194

  15. Reckless Behaviour and Sexual Practices of Emerging Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ronald L.; Byno, Lucy H.; Shriner, Michael; Mullis, Ann K.

    2009-01-01

    Relations between reckless behaviour and sexual practices of emerging adult women (ages 18-25) within a social cognitive theoretical perspective were examined. In addition, relations between self esteem, sexual attitudes and sexual behaviour were also examined. The Sexual Experience Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Hendrick Sexual Attitude…

  16. Young Adult Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking. PMID:19269128

  17. Spider behaviors include oral sexual encounters.

    PubMed

    Gregorič, Matjaž; Šuen, Klavdija; Cheng, Ren-Chung; Kralj-Fišer, Simona; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2016-01-01

    Several clades of spiders whose females evolved giant sizes are known for extreme sexual behaviors such as sexual cannibalism, opportunistic mating, mate-binding, genital mutilation, plugging, and emasculation. However, these behaviors have only been tested in a handful of size dimorphic spiders. Here, we bring another lineage into the picture by reporting on sexual behavior of Darwin's bark spider, Caerostris darwini. This sexually size dimorphic Madagascan species is known for extreme web gigantism and for producing the world's toughest biomaterial. Our field and laboratory study uncovers a rich sexual repertoire that predictably involves cannibalism, genital mutilation, male preference for teneral females, and emasculation. Surprisingly, C. darwini males engage in oral sexual encounters, rarely reported outside mammals. Irrespective of female's age or mating status males salivate onto female genitalia pre-, during, and post-copulation. While its adaptive significance is elusive, oral sexual contact in spiders may signal male quality or reduce sperm competition. PMID:27126507

  18. Spider behaviors include oral sexual encounters

    PubMed Central

    Gregorič, Matjaž; Šuen, Klavdija; Cheng, Ren-Chung; Kralj-Fišer, Simona; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2016-01-01

    Several clades of spiders whose females evolved giant sizes are known for extreme sexual behaviors such as sexual cannibalism, opportunistic mating, mate-binding, genital mutilation, plugging, and emasculation. However, these behaviors have only been tested in a handful of size dimorphic spiders. Here, we bring another lineage into the picture by reporting on sexual behavior of Darwin’s bark spider, Caerostris darwini. This sexually size dimorphic Madagascan species is known for extreme web gigantism and for producing the world’s toughest biomaterial. Our field and laboratory study uncovers a rich sexual repertoire that predictably involves cannibalism, genital mutilation, male preference for teneral females, and emasculation. Surprisingly, C. darwini males engage in oral sexual encounters, rarely reported outside mammals. Irrespective of female’s age or mating status males salivate onto female genitalia pre-, during, and post-copulation. While its adaptive significance is elusive, oral sexual contact in spiders may signal male quality or reduce sperm competition. PMID:27126507

  19. Sexual Scripts and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Black Heterosexual Men: Development of the Sexual Scripts Scale

    PubMed Central

    Bowleg, Lisa; Burkholder, Gary J.; Noar, Seth M.; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J.; Tschann, Jeanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual scripts are widely shared gender and culture-specific guides for sexual behavior with important implications for HIV prevention. Although several qualitative studies document how sexual scripts may influence sexual risk behaviors, quantitative investigations of sexual scripts in the context of sexual risk are rare. This mixed methods study involved the qualitative development and quantitative testing of the Sexual Scripts Scale (SSS). Study 1 included qualitative semi-structured interviews with 30 Black heterosexual men about sexual experiences with main and casual sex partners to develop the SSS. Study 2 included a quantitative test of the SSS with 526 predominantly low-income Black heterosexual men. A factor analysis of the SSS resulted in a 34-item, seven-factor solution that explained 68% of the variance. The subscales and coefficient alphas were: Romantic Intimacy Scripts (α = .86), Condom Scripts (α = .82), Alcohol Scripts (α = .83), Sexual Initiation Scripts (α = .79), Media Sexual Socialization Scripts (α = .84), Marijuana Scripts (α = .85), and Sexual Experimentation Scripts (α = .84). Among men who reported a main partner (n = 401), higher Alcohol Scripts, Media Sexual Socialization Scripts, and Marijuana Scripts scores, and lower Condom Scripts scores were related to more sexual risk behavior. Among men who reported at least one casual partner (n = 238), higher Romantic Intimacy Scripts, Sexual Initiation Scripts, and Media Sexual Socialization Scripts, and lower Condom Scripts scores were related to higher sexual risk. The SSS may have considerable utility for future research on Black heterosexual men’s HIV risk. PMID:24311105

  20. Evaluating HIV Prevention Programs: Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Antibodies as Biomarker for Sexual Risk Behavior in Young Adults in Resource-Poor Countries

    PubMed Central

    Behling, Juliane; Chan, Adrienne K.; Zeh, Clement; Nekesa, Carolyne; Heinzerling, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Background Measuring effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions is challenged by bias when using self-reported knowledge, attitude or behavior change. HIV incidence is an objective marker to measure effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions, however, because new infection rates are relatively low, prevention studies require large sample sizes. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is similarly transmitted and more prevalent and could thus serve as a proxy marker for sexual risk behavior and therefore HIV infection. Methods HSV-2 antibodies were assessed in a sub-study of 70,000 students participating in an education intervention in Western Province, Kenya. Feasibility of testing for HSV-2 antibodies was assessed comparing two methods using Fisher’s exact test. Three hundred and ninety four students (aged 18 to 22 years) were randomly chosen from the cohort and tested for HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis. Out of these, 139 students were tested for HSV-2 with ELISA and surveyed for sexual risk behavior and 89 students were additionally tested for HSV-2 with a point-of-contact (POC) test. Results Prevalence rates were 0.5%, 1.8%, 0.3% and 2.3% for HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis, respectively. Prevalence of HSV-2 antibodies was 3.4 % as measured by POC test (n=89) and 14.4 % by ELISA (n=139). Specificity of the POC test compared with ELISA was 100%, and the sensitivity only 23.1%. Associations between self-reported sexual behavior and HSV-2 serostatus could not be shown. Conclusions Associations between self-reported sexual risk behavior and HSV-2 serostatus could not be shown, probably due to social bias in interviews since its transmission is clearly linked. HSV-2 antibody testing is feasible in resource-poor settings and shows higher prevalence rates than other sexually transmitted diseases thus representing a potential biomarker for evaluation of HIV prevention

  1. Sexual Touching and Difficulties with Sexual Arousal and Orgasm Among U.S. Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the non-genitally-focused sexual behavior of those experiencing sexual difficulties. The objective of this study was to review the theory supporting a link between sexual touching and difficulties with sexual arousal and orgasm, and to examine associations between these constructs among older adults in the United States. The data were from the 2005–2006 National Social Life Health and Aging Project, which surveyed 3,005 community-dwelling men and women ages 57–85 years. The 1,352 participants who had had sex in the past year reported on their frequency of sexual touching and whether there had been a period of several months or more in the past year when they were unable to climax, had trouble getting or maintaining an erection (men) or had trouble lubricating (women). Women also reported how of ten they felt sexually aroused during partner sex in the last 12 months. The odds of being unable to climax were greater by 2.4 times (95% CI 1.2–4.8) among men and 2.8 times (95% CI 1.4–5.5) among women who sometimes, rarely or never engaged in sexual touching, compared to those who always engaged in sexual touching, controlling for demographic factors and physical health. These results were attenuated but persisted after controlling for emotional relationship satisfaction and psychological factors. Similar results were obtained for erectile difficulties among men and subjective arousal difficulties among women, but not lubrication difficulties among women. Infrequent sexual touching is associated with arousal and orgasm difficulties among older adults in the United States. PMID:22160881

  2. Consistency of Self-Reported Sexual Behavior in Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Deven T.; Morris, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Accurate data on sexual behavior have become increasingly important for demographers and epidemiologists, but self-reported data are widely regarded as unreliable. We examined the consistency in the number of sexual partners reported by participants in seven population-based surveys of adults in the U.S. Differences between studies were quite modest and much smaller than those associated with demographic attributes. Surprisingly, the mode of survey administration did not appear to influence disclosure when the questions were similar. We conclude that there is more consistency in sexual partnership reporting than is commonly believed. PMID:19588240

  3. Associations between youth homelessness, sexual offenses, sexual victimization, and sexual risk behaviors: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A

    2015-01-01

    Homeless youth commonly report engaging in sexual risk behaviors. These vulnerable young people also frequently report being sexually victimized. This systematic review collates, summarizes, and appraises published studies of youth investigating relationships between homelessness, perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior. A systematic search of seventeen psychology, health, and social science electronic databases was conducted. Search terms included "homeless*," "youth," "offend*," "victimization," "crime," "rape," "victim*," and "sex crimes." Thirty-eight studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Findings showed homeless youth commonly report being raped and sexually assaulted, fear being sexually victimized, and engage in street prostitution and survival sex. Rates of victimization and sexual risk behavior were generally higher for females. Given the paucity of longitudinal studies and limitations of current studies, it is unclear whether homelessness is prospectively associated with sexual victimization or engagement in sexual risk behavior, and whether such associations vary cross nationally and as a function of time and place. Future prospective research examining the influence of the situational context of homelessness is necessary to develop a better understanding of how homelessness influences the perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior among homeless youth. PMID:25411128

  4. Parental Sexual Attitudes, Family Sexual Communication, and Adolescent Sexual Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Terri D.

    Some researchers have reported that when parents are the main source of sex education, their adolescent children are less likely to engage in premarital sexual activity and are more likely to use effective contraception. This study used the variables of gender and parental sexual attitudes (liberal or conservative) to categorize 349 college…

  5. Parental mediation of media messages does matter: more interaction about objectionable content is associated with emerging adults' sexual attitudes and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Radanielina-Hita, Marie Louise

    2015-01-01

    An online survey of undergraduates explored the effects of recalled parent-child interaction regarding media on their critical thinking skills, beliefs about alcohol and sex, and current reports of attitudes and risky sexual behaviors. Students from a northwestern university completed the questionnaire three times during the fall of 2011. Effective parental mediation was found to be a protective factor against the negative effects of objectionable content on sexual attitudes and behaviors through its effect on critical thinking toward media content and expectancies. Participants whose parents critiqued media portrayals reported a higher level of critical thinking. More critical orientation toward media decreased the effects of objectionable content on expectancies and sexual behaviors. On the other hand, participants whose parents endorsed media portrayals reported lower levels of critical thinking. Developing critical thinking toward media is an effective approach to helping young people make good decisions about their health. Although viewers' understanding of media content may be biased by the emotional aspect of decision making, critical thinking was shown to decrease the appeal of mediated messages on behaviors. Parents play an important role in developing children's critical thinking skills, and those who mediate their children's media use can establish behaviors that will prove beneficial to their children later in life. PMID:25174979

  6. A Comparison by Sexual Orientation of Sexual Health and Sexual Behaviors among Hispanic Men

    PubMed Central

    De Santis, Joseph P.; Valdes, Beatriz; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias; Gattamorta, Karina A.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Significance High rates of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) related to high risk sexual behaviors are a public health problem in the U.S. Hispanics have the second highest rates of HIV infection among racial/ethnic minorities. Previous research with Hispanic men has identified a number of factors that influence sexual risk and render Hispanic men at risk for HIV/STIs. These factors vary by sexual orientation. Despite these differences in sexual risk by sexual orientation, no study to date has compared the sexual behaviors of Hispanic men by sexual orientation. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the sexual behaviors of a sample of Hispanic men by sexual orientation. Method A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used to collect data from 163 Hispanic men in South Florida, 80 heterosexual and 83 MSM. Participants completed measures of sexual health, sexual behaviors, and demographics. Results No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups of men in terms of age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners during the previous 3 months, condom usage during the previous 3 months, HIV testing history, and substance use during sex. Statistically significant differences were found between the two groups of men in terms of certain STIs. Implications Hispanic men as a population may engage in high risk sexual behaviors that place them at risk for HIV/STIs. More research is needed to develop both culturally tailored and sexual orientation appropriate interventions to assist Hispanic men reduce high risk sexual behaviors. PMID:25663832

  7. Hormonal influences on sexually differentiated behavior in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Wallen, Kim

    2005-04-01

    Sexually dimorphic behavior in nonhuman primates results from behavioral predispositions organized by prenatal androgens. The rhesus monkey has been the primary primate model for understanding the hormonal organization of sexually dimorphic behavior. Historically, female fetuses have received high prenatal androgen doses to investigate the masculinizing and defeminizing effects of androgens. Such treatments masculinized juvenile and adult copulatory behavior and defeminized female-typical sexual initiation to adult estrogen treatment. Testosterone and the nonaromatizable androgen, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone, produced similar effects suggesting that estrogenic metabolites of androgens are not critical for masculinization and defeminization in rhesus monkeys. Long duration androgen treatments masculinized both behavior and genitalia suggesting that socializing responses to the females' male-like appearance may have produced the behavioral changes. Treatments limited to 35 days early or late in gestation differentially affected behavioral and genital masculinization demonstrating direct organizing actions of prenatal androgens. Recent studies exposed fetal females to smaller doses of androgens and interfered with endogenous androgens using the anti-androgen flutamide. Low dose androgen treatment only significantly masculinized infant vocalizations and produced no behavioral defeminization. Females receiving late gestation flutamide showed masculinized infant vocalizations and defeminized interest in infants. Both late androgen and flutamide treatment hypermasculinized some male juvenile behaviors. Early flutamide treatment blocked full male genital masculinization, but did not alter their juvenile or adult behavior. The role of neuroendocrine feedback mechanisms in the flutamide effects is discussed. Sexually differentiated behavior ultimately reflects both hormonally organized behavioral predispositions and the social experience that converts these predispositions

  8. Understanding and Managing Compulsive Sexual Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Compulsive sexual behavior, otherwise known as sexual addiction, is an emerging psychiatric disorder that has significant medical and psychiatric consequences. Until recently, very little empirical data existed to explain the biological, psychological, and social risk factors that contribute to this condition. In addition, clinical issues, such as the natural course and best practices on treating sexual addictions, have not been formalized. Despite this absence, the number of patients and communities requesting assistance with this problem remains significant. This article will review the clinical features of compulsive sexual behavior and will summarize the current evidence for psychological and pharmacological treatment. PMID:20877518

  9. Sexual self-schemas of female child sexual abuse survivors: relationships with risky sexual behavior and sexual assault in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Niehaus, Ashley F; Jackson, Joan; Davies, Stephanie

    2010-12-01

    Childhood sexual trauma has been demonstrated to increase survivors' risk for engaging in unrestricted sexual behaviors and experiencing adolescent sexual assault. The current study used the sexual self-schema construct to examine cognitive representations of sexuality that might drive these behavioral patterns. In Study 1 (N = 774), we attempted to improve the content validity of the Sexual Self Schema Scale for child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, introducing a fourth sexual self-schema factor titled the "immoral/irresponsible" factor. In Study 2 (N = 1150), the potential differences in sexual self-views, as assessed by the four sexual self-schema factors, between CSA survivors and non-victims were explored. In addition, Study 2 evaluated how these sexual self-schema differences may contribute to participation in unrestricted sexual behaviors and risk for sexual assault in adolescence. Results indicated that a history of CSA impacted the way women viewed themselves as a sexual person on each of the four factors. CSA survivors were found to view themselves as more open and possessing more immoral/irresponsible cognitions about sexuality as compared to women who did not have a CSA history. In addition, the CSA survivors endorsed less embarrassment and passionate/romantic views of their sexual selves. The interaction of CSA severity and the sexual self-schemas explained variance in adolescent sexual assault experiences above and beyond the severity of CSA history and participation in risky sexual behaviors. The findings suggest that sexual self-views may serve to moderate the relationship between CSA and adolescent sexual assault. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:20229148

  10. Sexual Behavior Disorders in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, William D.

    The paper reviews the literature on sexual delinquency in male and female adolescents and considers guidelines for effective intervention in nonspecialized treatment programs. A section on sexual delinquency in females touches on prostitution and incest, while a section on males notes the changing composition of the sexually delinquent population.…

  11. Experience of sexual coercion and risky sexual behavior among Ugandan university students

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    of this study suggest that the experience of sexual coercion is common among youth/young adults in Uganda and is subsequently associated with risky sexual behavior in both sexes. The existence of individual and contextual factors that buffer the effects mentioned was also demonstrated. In the Ugandan context, this has implications for policy formulation and the implementation of preventive strategies for combating HIV/AIDS. PMID:21726433

  12. Sexual behavior among truck drivers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajiv Kumar; Joshi, Hari Shankar

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on Lucknow highway in Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh to study the knowledge of truck drivers about HIV transmission and prevention and to study the sexual behaviour of these drivers with reference to HIV/AIDS. Age, marital status, education, income, drinking alcohol, length of stay away from home, knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV, and HIV-prone behavior of truck drivers were studied. Chi-square, mean, and SD were calculated. In all, 289 (97.6%) drivers had heard about HIV/AIDS. Only 242 (81.8%) were aware of HIV transmission by heterosexual route. Misconceptions such as HIV transmission by mosquito bites, living in same room, shaking hands, and sharing food were found. Out of 174 (58.8%) who visited Commercial Sex Workers (CSW), 146 (83.9%) used a condom. 38 (12.8%) visited more than 5 CSW in the last 3 months. Time away from home on the road, marital status, alcohol use, and income class were associated with visiting CSW. High-risk behavior was established in the study population. Safe sex and use of condoms need to be promoted among the truck drivers and better condom availability needs to be assured on highways. PMID:22684174

  13. [Sexual behavior in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Macchione, C; Tamietti, E

    1993-10-01

    With the improvement of quality life in the elderly of technologically developed countries, sexuality has become an important aspect of aging. In the elderly there is a progressive decline of organic functions; the decrease of sexual and procreating activity is linked with the impaired male hormonal production. The four stages of sexual function are modified: 1. delayed erection; 2. plateau prolongation; 3. orgasm modifications; 4. fast penis detumescence. In addition to organic impairment, aesthetic, social, environmental and psychological factors can restrict sexual activity, as well as past sexual experiences and co-morbidity. There are specific aspects concerning sexuality in the elderly, such as the increased chances of public relations and emotional involvement, the more intense psychic activity and the stronger process of removal and sublimation of impulses. In conclusion the best way to deal with sexuality in the elderly is the multidimensional assessment. PMID:8252083

  14. Sexual Knowledge and Victimization in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown-Lavoie, S. M.; Viecili, M. A.; Weiss, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    There is a significant gap in understanding the risk of sexual victimization in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and the variables that contribute to risk. Age appropriate sexual interest, limited sexual knowledge and experiences, and social deficits, may place adults with ASD at increased risk. Ninety-five adults with ASD and 117…

  15. Assisting sexually abused adults. Practical guide to interviewing patients.

    PubMed Central

    Leach, M. M.; Bethune, C.

    1996-01-01

    Millions of adults have been sexually abused. Patients often confide in their family physicians concerning their abuse. Physicians must understand their own issues surrounding sexual abuse and its sequelae before they attempt to treat sexually abused patients. The PLISSIT model offers a practical guide for assisting abused adult patients. PMID:8924817

  16. Childhood Sexual Abuse. A Booklet for First Nations Adult Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Alana; And Others

    This booklet offers information about sources of help for First Nations adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse, particularly in Canada. It explains the definition of sexual abuse and describes the specifics of the law regarding such abuse. Descriptions of common aspects of childhood sexual abuse include quotes from adult survivors. Long-term…

  17. Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Reznik, Yana

    2009-01-01

    Understanding adolescents' attitudes regarding sexual behavior is key to understanding why they choose to engage or not engage in sex, which sexual behavior(s) they initiate and continue, and the outcomes experienced during and following sexual behavior. This article briefly explores adolescent sexual behavior, positive and negative outcomes…

  18. Cell Phone Internet Access, Online Sexual Solicitation, Partner Seeking, and Sexual Risk Behavior among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Eric; Winetrobe, Hailey; Holloway, Ian W.; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Online partner seeking is associated with sexual risk behavior among young adults (specifically men who have sex with men), but this association has yet to be explored among a probability sample of adolescents. Moreover, cell phone internet access and sexual risk taking online and offline have not been explored. A probability sample (N = 1,831) of Los Angeles Unified School District high school students was collected in 2011. Logistic regression models assessed relationships between specific sexual risk behaviors (online sexual solicitation, seeking partners online, sex with internet-met partners, condom use) and frequency of internet use, internet access points, and demographics. Students with cell phone internet access were more likely to report being solicited online for sex, being sexually active, and having sex with an internet-met partner. Bisexual-identifying students reported higher rates of being approached online for sex, being sexually active, and not using condoms at last sex. Gay, lesbian, and questioning (GLQ) students were more likely to report online partner seeking and unprotected sex at last sex with an internet-met partner. Additionally, having sex with an internet-met partner was associated with being male, online sexual solicitation, and online partner seeking. Internet- and school-based sexual health programs should incorporate safety messages regarding online sexual solicitation, seeking sex partners online, and engaging in safer sex practices with all partners. Programs must target adolescents of all sexual identities, as adolescents may not yet be “out,” and bisexual and GLQ adolescents are more likely to engage in risky sex behaviors. PMID:25344027

  19. Comparing Indicators of Sexual Sadism as Predictors of Recidivism among Adult Male Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Drew A.; Seto, Michael C.; Firestone, Philip; Bradford, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In this longitudinal study, the predictive validity of a psychiatric diagnosis of sexual sadism was compared with three behavioral indicators of sadism: index sexual offense violence, sexual intrusiveness, and phallometrically assessed sexual arousal to depictions of sexual or nonsexual violence. Method: Five hundred and eighty six…

  20. Developmental Trajectories of Religiosity, Sexual Conservatism and Sexual Behavior among Female Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Aalsma, Matthew C.; Woodrome, Stacy E.; Downs, Sarah M.; Hensel, Devon; Zimet, Gregory D.; Orr, Don P.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the role of socio-sexual cognitions and religiosity on adolescent sexual behavior could guide adolescent sexual health efforts. The present study utilized longitudinal data from 328 young women to assess the role of religion and socio-sexual cognitions on sexual behavior accrual (measuring both coital and non-coital sexual behavior). In the final triple conditional trajectory structural equation model, religiosity declined over time and then increased to baseline levels. Additionally, religiosity predicted decreased sexual conservatism and decreased sexual conservatism predicted increased sexual behavior. The final models are indicative of young women's increasing accrual of sexual experience, decreasing sexual conservatism and initial decreasing religiosity. The results of this study suggest that decreased religiosity affects the accrual of sexual experience through decreased sexual conservatism. Effective strategies of sexual health promotion should include an understanding of the complex role of socio-sexual attitudes with religiosity. PMID:24215966

  1. Measures of sexual minority status and suicide risk among young adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Almazan, Elbert P; Roettger, Michael E; Acosta, Pauline S

    2014-01-01

    Multiple measures of sexual minority status are necessary to accurately describe the diversity of attractions, identities, and behaviors in sexual minority populations. We investigated whether four measures of sexual minority status (sexual minority attraction, sexual minority identity, sexual minority lifetime behavior, and sexual minority recent 12-month behavior) were associated with suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts among young adults ages 24 to 34 in the United States. We analyzed data from Wave IV (2007-2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We employed logistic regression models in the analysis. Multiple sexual minority status measures had significant associations with increased suicidal thoughts among women and men. Multiple sexual minority status measures had significant associations with increased suicide attempts among women, but not among men. Diverse sexual minority populations are at increased risk for suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts. Multiple measures of sexual minority status should be utilized in future studies of sexual minority status and suicide risk. Suicide prevention programs should ensure intervention is available across diverse sexual minority populations. PMID:24611686

  2. Behavioral Manifestations of Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, William N.

    1998-01-01

    This paper on the behavioral manifestations of child sexual abuse first reviews previous research concerning child variables, parent/family variables, sexual abuse in combination with other maltreatment, and physiological outcomes. Criteria for future research are offered and specific research needs in the areas of developmental progression,…

  3. Anxiety and Related Disorders and Concealment in Sexual Minority Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jeffrey M; Blasey, Christine; Barr Taylor, C; Weiss, Brandon J; Newman, Michelle G

    2016-01-01

    Sexual minorities face greater exposure to discrimination and rejection than heterosexuals. Given these threats, sexual minorities may engage in sexual orientation concealment in order to avoid danger. This social stigma and minority stress places sexual minorities at risk for anxiety and related disorders. Given that three fourths of anxiety disorder onset occurs before the age of 24, the current study investigated the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression in sexual minority young adults relative to their heterosexual peers. Secondarily, the study investigated sexual orientation concealment as a predictor of anxiety and related disorders. A sample of 157 sexual minority and 157 heterosexual young adults matched on age and gender completed self-report measures of the aforementioned disorders, and indicated their level of sexual orientation concealment. Results revealed that sexual minority young adults reported greater symptoms relative to heterosexuals across all outcome measures. There were no interactions between sexual minority status and gender, however, women had higher symptoms across all disorders. Sexual minority young women appeared to be at the most risk for clinical levels of anxiety and related disorders. In addition, concealment of sexual orientation significantly predicted symptoms of social phobia. Implications are offered for the cognitive and behavioral treatment of anxiety and related disorders in this population. PMID:26763500

  4. Sexual esteem, sexual satisfaction, and sexual behavior among people with physical disability.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Taleporos, George

    2003-08-01

    This study investigated the association between the severity and duration of physical disability and sexual esteem, sexual depression, sexual satisfaction, and the frequency of sexual behavior. A total of 1,196 participants completed the study. There were 748 participants (367 males, 381 females) who had a physical disability and 448 participants (171 males, 277 females) who were able-bodied. The age range of participants was 18-69 years, with a mean age of 36.39 years (SD = 10.41). The results demonstrated that people with more severe physical impairments experienced significantly lower levels of sexual esteem and sexual satisfaction and significantly higher levels of sexual depression than people who had mild impairments or who did not report having a physical impairment. The study also found that people with more severe physical disabilities engaged in mutual sexual activity significantly less frequently. Women with physical disabilities had significantly more positive feelings about their sexuality and significantly more frequent mutual sexual experiences than their male counterparts. For people with physical disabilities, the frequency of oral sex and nude cuddling were significant predictors of sexual satisfaction in men, while the frequency of deep kissing predicted sexual satisfaction in women. Furthermore, the viewing of erotica was significantly related to sexual dissatisfaction in men. Finally, it was found that people who had experienced their physical impairment for a longer period of time reported significantly more positive feelings about their sexuality. Implications of these findings are discussed and suggestions are made for future research. PMID:12856897

  5. Identifying Mediators of the Influence of Family Factors on Risky Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Burt, Callie Harbin; Tambling, Rachel Blyskal

    2013-01-01

    Participation in risky sexual behaviors has many deleterious consequences and is a source of concern for parents as well as practitioners, researchers, and public policy makers. Past research has examined the effect of family structure and supportive parenting on risky sexual behaviors among emerging adults. In the present study, we attempt to…

  6. Subjective Sexual Experiences of Behaviorally Bisexual Men in the Midwestern United States: Sexual Attraction, Sexual Behaviors, & Condom Use

    PubMed Central

    Schnarrs, Phillip W.; Dodge, Brian; Reece, Michael; Goncalves, Gabriel; Martinez, Omar; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Malebranche, David; Murray, Maresa; Nix, Ryan; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Studies concerning behaviorally bisexual men continue to focus on understanding sexual risk in according to a narrow range of sexual behaviors. Few studies have explored the subjective meanings and experiences related to bisexual men’s sexual behaviors with both male and female partners. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 75 men who engaged in bisexual behavior within the past six months. Participants were asked about their subjective sexual experiences with male and female partners. Findings suggest adherence to normative gender roles, with attraction to men and women conforming to these stereotypes, as well as a segregation of sexual behaviors along gendered lines. Overall, condom use was influenced by perceptions of potential negative consequences. Based on these findings, it remains critical that public health and other social and behavioral sciences continue to study bisexual men’s sexual health issues as separate and distinct from their exclusively homosexual and heterosexual counterparts. PMID:22745592

  7. Sexual Abuse of Older Adults: Aps Cases and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaster, Pamela B.; Roberto, Karen A.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a profile of sexual abuse cases among adults aged 60 and older receiving attention from Adult Protective Services units in Virginia over a 5-year period. Design and Methods: We used bivariate analysis to characterize older adults (n = 82) experiencing sexual abuse and the circumstances of the…

  8. Service Patterns of Adult Survivors of Childhood versus Adult Sexual Assault/Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Susan F.; Lundy, Marta; Bertrand, Cathy; Ortiz, Cynthia; Tomas-Tolentino, Grace; Ritzema, Kim; Matson, Julia

    2009-01-01

    This analysis compared the characteristics and service patterns of adult survivors of childhood sexual assault/abuse and adult survivors of adult sexual assault/abuse. Utilizing data from sexual assault crisis centers serving survivors in a Midwestern state over a six year period and controlling for revictimization, we describe and compare the…

  9. The developmental association of sexual self-concept with sexual behavior among adolescent women.

    PubMed

    Hensel, Devon J; Fortenberry, J Dennis; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Orr, Donald P

    2011-08-01

    Developing a sexual self-concept is an important developmental task of adolescence; however, little empirical evidence describes this development, nor how these changes are related to development in sexual behavior. Using longitudinal cohort data from adolescent women, we invoked latent growth curve analysis to: (1) examine reciprocal development in sexual self-concept (sexual openness, sexual esteem and sexual anxiety) over a four year time frame; (2) describe the relationship of these trajectories with changes in sexual behavior. We found significant transactional effects between these dimensions and behavior: sexual self-concept evolved during adolescence in a manner consistent with less reserve, less anxiety and greater personal comfort with sexuality and sexual behavior. Moreover, we found that sexual self-concept results from sexual behavior, as well as regulates future behavior. PMID:20970178

  10. A systematic review of sexual health interventions for adults: narrative evidence.

    PubMed

    Hogben, Matthew; Ford, Jessie; Becasen, Jeffrey S; Brown, Kathryn F

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has explored the intersection between sexual health (as construed by the World Health Organization and others) and public health domains of action in the United States of America. This article reports the narrative results of a systematic review of sexual health intervention effects on public health-relevant outcomes. To qualify, interventions had to be based on the principles (1) that sexual health is intrinsic to individuals and their overall health and (2) that relationships reflecting sexual health must be positive for all parties concerned. Outcomes were classed in domains: knowledge, attitudes, communication, health care use, sexual behavior, and adverse events. We summarized data from 58 studies (English language, adult populations, 1996-2011) by population (adults, parents, sexual minorities, vulnerable populations) across domains. Interventions were predominantly individual and small-group designs that addressed sexual behaviors (72%) and attitudes/norms (55%). They yielded positive effects in that 98% reported a positive finding in at least one domain; 50% also reported null effects. The most consistently positive effects on behaviors and adverse events were found for sexual minorities, vulnerable populations, and parental communication. Whether via direct action or through partnerships, incorporating principles from existing sexual health definitions in public health efforts may help improve sexual health. PMID:25406027

  11. A Systematic Review of Sexual Health Interventions for Adults: Narrative Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Hogben, Matthew; Ford, Jessie; Becasen, Jeffrey S; Brown, Kathryn F

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has explored the intersection between sexual health (as construed by the World Health Organization and others) and public health domains of action in the United States of America. This paper reports the narrative results of a systematic review of sexual health intervention effects on public health-relevant outcomes. To qualify, interventions had to be based on the principles: (1) that sexual health is intrinsic to individuals and their overall health and (2) that relationships reflecting sexual health must be positive for all parties concerned. Outcomes were classed in domains: knowledge, attitudes, communication, healthcare use, sexual behavior and adverse events. We summarized data from 58 studies (English language, adult populations, 1996–2011) by population (adults, parents, sexual minorities, vulnerable populations) across domains. Interventions were predominantly individual and small-group designs that addressed sexual behaviors (72%) and attitudes/norms (55%). They yielded positive effects in that 98% reported a positive finding in at least one domain: 50% also reported null effects. The most consistently positive effects on behaviors and adverse events were found for sexual minorities, vulnerable populations, and parental communication. Whether via direct action or through partnerships, incorporating principles from existing sexual health definitions in public health efforts may help improve sexual health. PMID:25406027

  12. Complexity of childhood sexual abuse: predictors of current post-traumatic stress disorder, mood disorders, substance use, and sexual risk behavior among adult men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Boroughs, Michael S; Valentine, Sarah E; Ironson, Gail H; Shipherd, Jillian C; Safren, Steven A; Taylor, S Wade; Dale, Sannisha K; Baker, Joshua S; Wilner, Julianne G; O'Cleirigh, Conall

    2015-10-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are the group most at risk for HIV and represent the majority of new infections in the United States. Rates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among MSM have been estimated as high as 46 %. CSA is associated with increased risk of HIV and greater likelihood of HIV sexual risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationships between CSA complexity indicators and mental health, substance use, sexually transmitted infections, and HIV sexual risk among MSM. MSM with CSA histories (n = 162) who were screened for an HIV prevention efficacy trial completed comprehensive psychosocial assessments. Five indicators of complex CSA experiences were created: CSA by family member, CSA with penetration, CSA with physical injury, CSA with intense fear, and first CSA in adolescence. Adjusted regression models were used to identify relationships between CSA complexity and outcomes. Participants reporting CSA by family member were at 2.6 odds of current alcohol use disorder (OR 2.64: CI 1.24-5.63), two times higher odds of substance use disorder (OR 2.1: CI 1.02-2.36), and 2.7 times higher odds of reporting an STI in the past year (OR 2.7: CI 1.04-7.1). CSA with penetration was associated with increased likelihood of current PTSD (OR 3.17: CI 1.56-6.43), recent HIV sexual risk behavior (OR 2.7: CI 1.16-6.36), and a greater number of casual sexual partners (p = 0.02). Both CSA with Physical Injury (OR 4.05: CI 1.9-8.7) and CSA with Intense Fear (OR 5.16: CI 2.5-10.7) were related to increased odds for current PTSD. First CSA in adolescence was related to increased odds of major depressive disorder. These findings suggest that CSA, with one or more complexities, creates patterns of vulnerabilities for MSM, including post-traumatic stress disorder, substance use, and sexual risk taking, and suggests the need for detailed assessment of CSA and the development of integrated HIV prevention programs that address mental health and

  13. Sexual communication among young adult heterosexual Latinos: a qualitative descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Carmen Paula; Villarruel, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    Sexual communication between sexual partners is an important component in prevention efforts against unintended consequences of sex. The purpose of this study was to describe sexual communication among young adult Latinos. Four semistructured, sex-segregated focus groups were used for this study. Participants (N = 20) were 18-30 years old self-identified Latinos who were in heterosexual and sexually active relationships (more than 3 months). Participants revealed that initial sexual communication with their partners was avoided related to a lack of interest in a partner's sexual history, feeling embarrassed about the topic, or concern for offending one's partner or partner's family. As a result of these beliefs and attitudes, initial sexual communication was nonverbal and focused on sexual pleasure. After the initiation of sexual activity, verbal sexual communication expanded to include sexual history. These findings highlight the importance of attitudes and subjective norms toward verbal sexual communication. Attitudes and subjective norms toward sexual communication in the context of a romantic relationship and how it may impact sexual behavior in the relationship should be further explored. PMID:24830911

  14. The Association of HIV Stigma and HIV/STD Knowledge With Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Adolescent and Adult Men Who Have Sex With Men in Ghana, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Nelson, LaRon E; Wilton, Leo; Agyarko-Poku, Thomas; Zhang, Nanhua; Aluoch, Marilyn; Thach, Chia T; Owiredu Hanson, Samuel; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw

    2015-06-01

    Ghanaian men who have sex with men (MSM) have a high HIV seroprevalence, but despite a critical need to address this public health concern, research evidence has been extremely limited on influences on sexual risk behavior among MSM in Ghana. To investigate associations between HIV/STD knowledge, HIV stigma, and sexual behaviors in a sample of MSM in Ghana, we conducted a secondary data analysis of cross-sectional survey data from a non-probability sample of Ghanaian MSM (N = 137). Nearly all the men (93%) had more than one current sex partner (M = 5.11, SD = 7.4). Of those reported partners, the average number of current female sexual partners was 1.1 (SD = 2.6). Overall, knowledge levels about HIV and STDs were low, and HIV stigma was high. There was no age-related difference in HIV stigma. Younger MSM (≤25 years) used condoms less often for anal and vaginal sex than did those over 25. Relative frequency of condom use for oral sex was lower in younger men who had higher STD knowledge and also was lower in older men who reported high HIV stigma. Knowledge and stigma were not associated with condom use for anal or vaginal sex in either age group. These descriptive data highlight the need for the development of intervention programs that address HIV/STD prevention knowledge gaps and reduce HIV stigma in Ghanaian communities. Intervention research in Ghana should address age-group-specific HIV prevention needs of MSM youth. PMID:25809638

  15. Amelioration of sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues in an adult survivor of childhood sexual abuse: a case study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jane E; Wilson, Keith M

    2008-12-01

    Although sexual dysfunction of childhood sexual abuse survivors has received considerable attention, other sexual difficulties experienced by survivors of CSA, such as sexual fantasies to cues of sexual abuse, have received less attention. In this A-B design case study, a young adult female survivor of childhood sexual abuse presented for treatment at a Midwest rape crisis center. After successful treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, she complained of unwanted sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues and concomitant guilt and shame. Following baseline data collection, treatment consisted of self-applied aversion therapy to unwanted sexual arousal to sexual abuse cues. Decrease in sexual arousal to these cues was concurrent with the introduction of treatment. A concomitant decrease in guilt and shame occurred while self-ratings of control increased. PMID:18355799

  16. Injection and Sexual HIV/HCV Risk Behaviors Associated with Nonmedical Use of Prescription Opioids among Young Adults in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Guarino, Honoria; Jessell, Lauren; Teper, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of nonmedical prescription opioid (PO) use has increased markedly in the U.S. This qualitative study explores the drug-use and sexual experiences of nonmedical PO users as they relate to risk for HIV and HCV transmission. Forty-six New York City young adult nonmedical PO users (ages 18–32) completed in-depth, semi-structured interviews. Despite initial perceptions of POs as less addictive and safer than illegal drugs, PO misuse often led to long-term opioid dependence and transition to heroin use and drug injection. Injectors in the sample reported sporadic syringe-sharing, frequent sharing of non-syringe injection paraphernalia and selective sharing with fellow injectors who are presumed “clean” (uninfected). Participants reported little knowledge of HCV injection-related risks and safer injection practices. They also reported engaging in unprotected sex with casual partners, exchange sex and group sex, and that PO misuse increases the risk of sexual violence. Prevention efforts addressing HIV/HCV risk should be targeted to young nonmedical PO users. PMID:25124258

  17. Injection and sexual HIV/HCV risk behaviors associated with nonmedical use of prescription opioids among young adults in New York City.

    PubMed

    Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Guarino, Honoria; Jessell, Lauren; Teper, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Prevalence of nonmedical prescription opioid (PO) use has increased markedly in the U.S. This qualitative study explores the drug-use and sexual experiences of nonmedical PO users as they relate to risk for HIV and HCV transmission. Forty-six New York City young adult nonmedical PO users (ages 18-32) completed in-depth, semi-structured interviews. Despite initial perceptions of POs as less addictive and safer than illegal drugs, PO misuse often led to long-term opioid dependence and transition to heroin use and drug injection. Injectors in the sample reported sporadic syringe-sharing, frequent sharing of non-syringe injection paraphernalia and selective sharing with fellow injectors who are presumed "clean" (uninfected). Participants reported little knowledge of HCV injection-related risks and safer injection practices. They also reported engaging in unprotected sex with casual partners, exchange sex and group sex, and that PO misuse increases the risk of sexual violence. Prevention efforts addressing HIV/HCV risk should be targeted to young nonmedical PO users. PMID:25124258

  18. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females reduce hippocampal neurogenesis among adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Spritzer, M D; Curtis, M G; DeLoach, J P; Maher, J; Shulman, L M

    2016-03-24

    Recent experiments have shown that sexual interactions prior to cell proliferation cause an increase in neurogenesis in adult male rats. Because adult neurogenesis is critical for some forms of memory, we hypothesized that sexually induced changes in neurogenesis may be involved in mate recognition. Sexually naive adult male rats were either exposed repeatedly to the same sexual partner (familiar group) or to a series of novel sexual partners (unfamiliar group), while control males never engaged in sexual interactions. Ovariectomized female rats were induced into estrus every four days. Males were given two injections of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) (200mg/kg) to label proliferating cells, and the first sexual interactions occurred three days later. Males in the familiar and unfamiliar groups engaged in four, 30-min sexual interactions at four-day intervals, and brain tissue was collected the day after the last sexual interaction. Immunohistochemistry followed by microscopy was used to quantify BrdU-labeled cells. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females caused a significant reduction in neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus compared to males that interacted with familiar females and compared to the control group. The familiar group showed no difference in neurogenesis compared to the control group. Males in the familiar group engaged in significantly more sexual behavior (ejaculations and intromissions) than did males in the unfamiliar group, suggesting that level of sexual activity may influence neurogenesis levels. In a second experiment, we tested whether this effect was unique to sexual interactions by replicating the entire procedure using anestrus females. We found that interactions with unfamiliar anestrus females reduced neurogenesis relative to the other groups, but this effect was not statistically significant. In combination, these results indicate that interactions with unfamiliar females reduce adult neurogenesis and the effect is stronger for sexual

  19. Behavioral Decision Research Intervention Reduces Risky Sexual Behavior.

    PubMed

    Downs, Julie S; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch; Murray, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    Although adolescents are at disproportionate risk for sexually transmitted infections, most sex education programs have shown little effect on sexual behavior. An interactive video intervention developed by our team has been identified as one of a few programs that have been documented to reduce sexually transmitted infections in this population. Building on behavioral decision research, we used a mental models approach to interview young women about their sexual decisions, finding, among other things, the strong role of perceived social norms. We based our intervention on these results, aiming to help young women identify and implement personally and socially acceptable decision strategies. A randomized controlled trial found that the video reduced risky sexual behavior and the acquisition of chlamydia infection. We recently revised the video to suit more diverse audiences, and upgraded it to modern standards of cinematography and interactivity. It is now in field trial. PMID:26149165

  20. Adult interpersonal features of subtypes of sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2015-08-01

    Although the role of interpersonal factors on sexual offending is already recognized, there is a need for further investigation on the psychosocial correlates of pedophilic behavior. This study aimed to examine the relationship between adult interpersonal features and subtypes of sexual offending. The study involved the participation of a total of 164 male convicted offenders namely 50 rapists, 63 child molesters (20 pedophilic and 43 nonpedophilic), and 51 nonsexual offenders. All participants were assessed using the Adult Attachment Scale, the Interpersonal Behavior Survey, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure. Results from sets of multinomial logistic regression analyses showed that pedophilic offenders were more likely to present anxiety in adult relationships compared to nonsex offenders. Likewise, nonpedophilic child molesters were less likely to be generally aggressive compared to rapists and nonsex offenders, as well as less generally assertive than rapists. Overall, findings indicated that certain interpersonal features characterized subtypes of offenders, thus providing some insight on their particular therapeutic needs. Further replications with larger samples particularly of pedophilic child molesters are required. PMID:26165651

  1. Sexual experience affects reproductive behavior and preoptic androgen receptors in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Swaney, William T.; Dubose, Brittany N.; Curley, James P.; Champagne, Frances A.

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive behavior in male rodents is made up of anticipatory and consummatory elements which are regulated in the brain by sensory systems, reward circuits and hormone signaling. Gonadal steroids play a key role in the regulation of male sexual behavior via steroid receptors in the hypothalamus and preoptic area. Typical patterns of male reproductive behavior have been characterized, however these are not fixed but are modulated by adult experience. We assessed the effects of repeated sexual experience on male reproductive behavior of C57BL/6 mice; including measures of olfactory investigation of females, mounting, intromission and ejaculation. The effects of sexual experience on the number of cells expressing either androgen receptor (AR) or estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in the primary brain nuclei regulating male sexual behavior was also measured. Sexually experienced male mice engaged in less sniffing of females before initiating sexual behavior and exhibited shorter latencies to mount and intromit, increased frequency of intromission, and increased duration of intromission relative to mounting. No changes in numbers of ERα-positive cells were observed, however sexually experienced males had increased numbers of AR-positive cells in the medial preoptic area (MPOA); the primary regulatory nucleus for male sexual behavior. These results indicate that sexual experience results in a qualitative change in male reproductive behavior in mice that is associated with increased testosterone sensitivity in the MPOA and that this nucleus may play a key integrative role in mediating the effects of sexual experience on male behavior. PMID:22266118

  2. The relation between sexual behavior and religiosity subtypes: a test of the secularization hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Melissa A; Trapnell, Paul D; Meston, Cindy M

    2009-10-01

    Previous literature on religion and sexual behavior has focused on narrow definitions of religiosity, including religious affiliation, religious participation, or forms of religiousness (e.g., intrinsic religiosity). Trends toward more permissive premarital sexual activity in the North American Christian-Judeo religion support the secularization hypothesis of religion, which posits an increasing gap between religious doctrine and behavior. However, the recent rise of fundamentalist and new age religious movements calls for a reexamination of the current link between religion and sexual behavior. The use of dual definitions of religiosity, including religious affiliation and dimensional subtypes, may further characterize this link. The present cross-sectional study evaluated patterns of sexual behavior in a young adult sample (N = 1302, M age = 18.77 years) in the context of the secularization hypothesis using religious affiliation and a liberal-conservative continuum of religious subtypes: paranormal belief, spirituality, intrinsic religiosity, and fundamentalism. Results indicated few affiliation differences in sexual behavior in men or women. Sexual behaviors were statistically predicted by spirituality, fundamentalism, and paranormal belief, and the endorsement of fundamentalism in particular was correlated with lower levels of female sexual behavior. The secularization hypothesis was supported by consistent levels of sexual activity across affiliations and is contradicted by the differential impact of religiosity subtypes on sexual behavior. Findings suggested that the use of religious subtypes to evaluate religious differences, rather than solely affiliation, may yield useful insights into the link between religion and sexual behavior. PMID:18839301

  3. A brain sexual dimorphism controlled by adult circulating androgens.

    PubMed

    Cooke, B M; Tabibnia, G; Breedlove, S M

    1999-06-22

    Reports of structural differences between the brains of men and women, heterosexual and homosexual men, and male-to-female transsexuals and other men have been offered as evidence that the behavioral differences between these groups are likely caused by differences in the early development of the brain. However, a possible confounding variable is the concentration of circulating hormones seen in these groups in adulthood. Evaluation of this possibility hinges on the extent to which circulating hormones can alter the size of mammalian brain regions as revealed by Nissl stains. We now report a sexual dimorphism in the volume of a brain nucleus in rats that can be completely accounted for by adult sex differences in circulating androgen. The posterodorsal nucleus of the medial amygdala (MePD) has a greater volume in male rats than in females, but adult castration of males causes the volume to shrink to female values within four weeks, whereas androgen treatment of adult females for that period enlarges the MePD to levels equivalent to normal males. This report demonstrates that adult hormone manipulations can completely reverse a sexual dimorphism in brain regional volume in a mammalian species. The sex difference and androgen responsiveness of MePD volume is reflected in the soma size of neurons there. PMID:10377450

  4. Risky Sex Behavior and Substance Use among Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staton, Michele; Leukefeld, Carl; Logan, T. K.; Zimmerman, Rick; Lynam, Donald; Milich, Richard; Martin, Catherine; McClanahan, Karen; Clayton, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Examines the relationship between substance use during adolescence and HIV risk behavior among young adults ages 19 to 21 with and without a college education. Results indicate that increased use of alcohol and marijuana at younger ages is related to riskier sexual activity as well as increased use of alcohol and marijuana as young adults.…

  5. Sexuality Education for Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullis, Christopher A.; Zangrillo, Amanda N.

    2013-01-01

    As people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) mature from adolescents into adults, social deficits may become more pronounced and apparent in new areas (e.g., social functioning and sexuality). Like neurotypicals, sexuality may be directly related to quality of life for people with ASD. Current practice for addressing sexuality in the ASD…

  6. Sexual Relationships in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Understanding the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Callaghan, A. C.; Murphy, G. H.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) are known to be very vulnerable to sexual abuse. This may result partly from their lack of sexual knowledge and their powerless position in society. It could also be exacerbated by an ignorance of the law. This study investigates their understanding of the law relating to sexuality. Method:…

  7. Sexual Orientation, Adult Connectedness, Substance Use, and Mental Health Outcomes Among Adolescents: Findings From the 2009 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    PubMed Central

    Seil, Kacie S.; Desai, Mayur M.; Smith, Megan V.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined associations between identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) and lacking a connection with an adult at school on adolescent substance use and mental health outcomes including suicidality. Methods We analyzed data from the 2009 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 8910). Outcomes of interest included alcohol use, marijuana use, illicit drug use, depressive symptomatology, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt. Results The prevalence of each outcome was significantly higher among LGB adolescents than heterosexual adolescents and among those who lacked an adult connection at school than among those who did have such a connection. Even when LGB adolescents had an adult connection at school, their odds of most outcomes were significantly higher than for heterosexual adolescents. Those LGB adolescents who lacked a school adult connection had the poorest outcomes (about 45% reported suicide ideation; 31% suicide attempt). Conclusions Adolescents who are LGB, particularly those who lack a connection with school adults, are at high risk for substance use and poorer mental health outcomes. Interventions should focus on boosting social support and improving outcomes for this vulnerable group. PMID:25121812

  8. Sexually dimorphic effects of prenatal exposure to propionic acid and lipopolysaccharide on social behavior in neonatal, adolescent, and adult rats: implications for autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Foley, Kelly A; MacFabe, Derrick F; Vaz, Alisha; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter; Kavaliers, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that the gut microbiome plays an important role in immune functioning, behavioral regulation and neurodevelopment. Altered microbiome composition, including altered short chain fatty acids, and/or immune system dysfunction, may contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD), with some children with ASD exhibiting both abnormal gut bacterial metabolite composition and immune system dysfunction. This study describes the effects of prenatal propionic acid (PPA), a short chain fatty acid and metabolic product of many antibiotic resistant enteric bacteria, and of prenatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial mimetic and microbiome component, on social behavior in male and female neonatal, adolescent and adult rats. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were injected once a day with either a low level of PPA (500 mg/kg SC) on gestation days G12-16, LPS (50 μg/kg SC) on G12, or vehicle control on G12 or G12-16. Sex- and age-specific, subtle effects on behavior were observed. Both male and female PPA treated pups were impaired in a test of their nest seeking response, suggesting impairment in olfactory-mediated neonatal social recognition. As well, adolescent males, born to PPA treated dams, approached a novel object more than control animals and showed increased levels of locomotor activity compared to prenatal PPA females. Prenatal LPS produced subtle impairments in social behavior in adult male and female rats. These findings raise the possibility that brief prenatal exposure to elevated levels of microbiome products, such as PPA or LPS, can subtly influence neonatal, adolescent and adult social behavior. PMID:24747144

  9. Childhood and Adult Sexual Abuse, Rumination on Sadness, and Dysphoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Michael; Mendelson, Morris; Giannopoulos, Constantina; Csank, Patricia A. R.; Holm, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The study addressed the hypothesis that adults reporting sexual abuse are more likely to exhibit a general tendency to ruminate on sadness. The relations between reported abuse, rumination on sadness, and dysphoria were also examined. Method: Undergraduate students (101 women and 100 men) reported on childhood and adult sexual abuse and…

  10. Sexual Orientation Prototypicality and Well-Being Among Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Adults.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Brian A; Meuwly, Nathalie; Davila, Joanne; Eaton, Nicholas R; Yoneda, Athena

    2015-07-01

    The current study examined the associations between sexual orientation prototypicality--or the extent to which an individual's attractions or sexual behaviors are similar to others in the same sexual orientation category--and several indicators of well-being (depressive symptoms, loneliness, and self-esteem). Data were analyzed from a sample of 586 self-identified heterosexual and sexual minority (lesbian/gay and bisexual) men and women who completed an online survey. We used k-means cluster analysis to assign individuals to sexual orientation clusters (resulting in heterosexual and sexual minority clusters) based on dimensions of same-sex and other-sex attractions (emotional, romantic, and sexual) and sexual behavior. Sexual orientation prototypicality was operationalized as the Euclidean distance between an individual's position in the cluster and their cluster centroid. Lower sexual orientation prototypicality (i.e., greater Euclidean distance from one's cluster centroid) was significantly associated with higher depressive symptoms, higher loneliness, and lower self-esteem for men and women; results did not significantly differ for self-identified heterosexuals versus sexual minorities. Although self-identified sexual orientation and sexual orientation prototypicality were both associated with well-being for women, only sexual orientation prototypicality was associated with well-being for men. Findings suggest that sexual orientation prototypicality may be a better indicator of well-being than sexual orientation for men. Further, sexual orientation prototypicality appears to play a significant role in well-being for women. PMID:25257258

  11. Behavior Theory and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLagan, Patricia A.

    The paper proposes that when behavior change is the major target of an adult education program, the designer must consider three factors: (1) the four basic targets for behavior change efforts (behavior goals and plans, basic knowledge and skills needed for successful performance, physical environment, reinforcers of behavior); (2) individual…

  12. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Risk Behavior among Men and Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite A.

    2006-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes. The authors investigated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in 827 patients recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Overall, CSA was reported by 53% of women and 49% of men and was associated with greater sexual risk behavior,…

  13. Parental Influence on Their Adult Children's Sexual Values: A Multi-National Comparison Between the United States, Spain, Costa Rica, and Peru.

    PubMed

    Negy, Charles; Velezmoro, Rodrigo; Reig-Ferrer, Abilio; Smith-Castro, Vanessa; Livia, Jose

    2016-02-01

    We examined the influence of perceived parental sexual values, religiosity, and family environment on young adults' sexual values from the United States (n = 218), Spain (n = 240), Costa Rica (n = 172), and Peru (n = 105). On average, and across the four national groups, the messages young adults received from their parents about broad domains of sexual behaviors (masturbation, non-intercourse types of heterosexual sexual activity, premarital sex, same-sex activity, and cohabiting) were unequivocally restrictive. By contrast, across the four groups, young adults on average held rather permissive sexual values and their values differed significantly from those of their parents. Moreover, the nature of perceived parental sexual values (restrictive vs. permissive) was not associated significantly with young adults' sexual values, age of sexual debut, or number of sexual partners. Comparatively, Spanish young adults held the most permissive sexual values, whereas US young adults held the most restrictive sexual values. Religiosity was the strongest predictor of young adults' sexual values, followed by perceived parental sexual values and influence. In conclusion, it appears that despite having perceived restrictive parental messages about sex, these young adults currently hold permissive sexual attitudes, thus calling into question the influence parents actually have on their adult children's sexual values. PMID:26198747

  14. The Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Dysfunction in Jamaican Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaby, Antoneal N.; Morgan, Kai A. D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the associations between early traumatic sexualization and later sexual dysfunction in a sample of 100 Jamaican adults while identifying the linkages between age, frequency of abuse, and gender on sexual functioning. Participants were selected via purposive and convenience sampling and divided equally into comparison and…

  15. Gene-environment contributions to young adult sexual partnering.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Carolyn T; Kaestle, Christine E; Guo, Guang; Hallfors, Denise D

    2007-08-01

    To date, there has been relatively little work on gene-environment contributions to human sexuality, especially molecular analyses examining the potential contributions of specific polymorphisms in conjunction with life experiences. Using Wave III data from 717 heterozygous young adult sibling pairs included in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this article examined the combined contributions of attendance at religious services and three genetic polymorphisms (in the dopamine D4 receptor [DRD4]), dopamine D2 receptor [DRD2]), and the serotonin transporter promoter [5HTT]) to sensation seeking, a personality construct related to sexual behavior, and the number of vaginal sex partners participants had in the year before interview. Data analyses used an Allison mixed model approach to account for population stratification and correlated observations. DRD4 was unrelated to sensation seeking and to the number of sex partners in tests of both main effects and in interaction with religious attendance. Contrary to hypothesis, presence of the A1 DRD2 allele was associated with having had fewer sex partners in the past year. Associations between the 5HTT allele and sex partners varied by religious attendance, but again the patterns of associations were contrary to hypothesized relationships and were small in magnitude. These findings underscore the necessity of using more comprehensive multiple gene-multiple life experience approaches to investigations of complex behaviors such as sexual patterns. PMID:17186131

  16. Women's Social Behavior when Meeting New Men: The Influence of Alcohol and Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Kathleen A.; Hequembourg, Amy L.; Dearing, Ronda L.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption (Testa & Parks, 1996) and childhood sexual abuse (CSA; Messman-Moore & Long, 2003) have been associated with adult sexual victimization. We examined the social behavior of 42 women under two alcohol conditions (high dose and low dose) in a bar laboratory. Women were videotaped interacting with a man they had just met.…

  17. Nonresident Fatherhood and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: A Comparison of Siblings Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Rebecca M.

    2015-01-01

    Although voluminous research has linked nonresident fatherhood to riskier sexual behavior in adolescence, including earlier sexual debut, neither the causality of that link nor the mechanism accounting for it has been well-established. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979--the Young Adult Survey (CNLSY-YA), the present…

  18. Sources and Timing of Sex Education: Relations with American Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Cheryl L.; Surmann, Amy T.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the comparative contribution that (a) multiple sources of education about sexual topics (peers, media, school and other adults), and (b) the timing of this sex education, make on American adolescent sexual attitudes and behavior. Participants were 672 ethnically and economically diverse male and female,…

  19. Criminal Behavior as a Function of Clinical and Actuarial Variables in a Sexual Offender Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Gordon C. Nagayama

    1988-01-01

    Investigated ability of clinical and actuarial variables to predict criminal behavior of 342 sexual offenders previously studied in 1987. Results suggested linear combination of actuarial variables was significantly predictive of sexual reoffenses against adults and of nonsexual reoffending. Clinical judgment was not significantly predictive of…

  20. College Student Knowledge, Attitudes, and Risk Tolerance toward Safe and Unsafe Sexual Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, Richard W.; And Others

    Preventing the spread of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) among sexually active adolescents and adults has become a primary social concern. This study was designed to investigate the following areas relevant to safer and unsafe sexual behavior among college students: knowledge and practice; personal risk assessment; and risk…

  1. Does Body Image Play a Role in Risky Sexual Behavior and Attitudes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillen, Meghan M.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Shearer, Cindy L.

    2006-01-01

    Body image and sexuality, both physically-oriented domains of the self, are likely linked, but few studies have examined their associations. In the present investigation, we studied emerging adult undergraduates (ages 17-19), focusing specifically on risky sexual behaviors and attitudes. Participants (N=434) completed a survey on body image,…

  2. Social isolation during puberty affects female sexual behavior in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kercmar, Jasmina; Tobet, Stuart A.; Majdic, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to stress during puberty can lead to long-term behavioral alterations in adult rodents coincident with sex steroid hormone-dependent brain remodeling and reorganization. Social isolation is a stress for social animals like mice, but little is known about the effects of such stress during adolescence on later reproductive behaviors. The present study examined sexual behavior of ovariectomized, estradiol and progesterone primed female mice that were individually housed from 25 days of age until testing at approximately 95 days, or individually housed from day 25 until day 60 (during puberty), followed by housing in social groups. Mice in these isolated groups were compared to females that were group housed throughout the experiment. Receptive sexual behaviors of females and behaviors of stimulus males were recorded. Females housed in social groups displayed greater levels of receptive behaviors in comparison to both socially isolated groups. Namely, social females had higher lordosis quotients (LQs) and more often displayed stronger lordosis postures in comparison to isolated females. No differences between female groups were observed in stimulus male sexual behavior suggesting that female “attractiveness” was not affected by their social isolation. Females housed in social groups had fewer cells containing immunoreactive estrogen receptor (ER) α in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) than both isolated groups. These results suggest that isolation during adolescence affects female sexual behavior and re-socialization for 1 month in adulthood is insufficient to rescue lordosis behavior from the effects of social isolation during the pubertal period. PMID:25324747

  3. Gender and the organization of sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Tiefer, L; Kring, B

    1995-03-01

    Gender socialization seems important in every culture although the precise nature of gender categories and the specifics of gender roles differ across societies. Gender socialization produces in most people a compulsion to behave according to appropriate rules and expectations, and a grave anxiety about not being considered by others, or by themselves, truly male or female. Sexual performance is tightly tied to appropriate gender role behavior, and the need to conform to conventional scripts probably inhibits most people from expressing individual desires and interests. The gratification obtained from gender affirmation, however, may compensate for any lost erotic or intimate rewards. Our society is in the throes of major changes in gender roles, and many of the frequent public debates about sexual issues (e.g., impact of pornography, prevalence of sexual abuse and harassment, advisability of public sex education, propriety of homosexuals in the military) reflect insecurities about the effect of these new roles on sexual behavior. Present knowledge suggests that any change in gender roles is bound to have a major effect on sexual behavior, both within the life of an individual and within a society. Insecurities and adjustment difficulties are likely to remain normative, and to be part of the problems brought to every mental health clinician. PMID:7761305

  4. Adolescents Engaging in Risky Sexual Behavior: Sexual Activity and Associated Behavioral Risk Factors in Bolivian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novilla, M. Lelinneth B.; Dearden, Kirk A.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; De La Cruz, Natalie; Hill, Susan; Torres, Scott B.

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence of risky sexual activities among Bolivian adolescents within the context of other behavioral factors that contribute to compromised health outcomes, unintended pregnancies, and sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Data was collected from 576 adolescents, 13-18 years of age, from six schools in La…

  5. The Relationship between Sexual Behavior and Non-sexual Risk Behaviors among Unmarried Youth in Three Asian Cities

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Xiaowen; Lou, Chaohua; Gao, Ersheng; Li, Nan; Zabin, Laurie S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Health risk behaviors in adolescents and youth such as smoking, alcohol, drug use, violence, suicide, and unprotected sexual behavior are issues of major public health concern. Addressing the relationship between sexual behavior and non-sexual risk behaviors will make a significant contribution to the design of effective intervention programs for this population of adolescents and unmarried youth. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in three Asian cities with a common heritage of Confucian values: Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei. Data were collected in 2006 from 17,016 youth aged 15-24 years residing in both urban and rural districts of the three settings. The relationships between sexual behavior and seven non-sexual risk behaviors among unmarried adolescents were examined using χ2 tests, logistic regression models, Cox regression models, and cluster analysis. Results: Sexual behavior was associated with seven non-sexual risk behaviors, especially with smoking, drinking, drug use and running away from home. In terms of the age at initiation of risk behaviors, smoking and drinking were usually initiated before sexual intercourse. Sexual behavior and non-sexual risk behaviors co-occurred in the high risk group in all three cities. Youth having the highest risk of sexual behavior were more likely to have the highest risk of nearly all non-sexual risk behaviors, with the exception of fighting in Hanoi, and gambling in Shanghai and Taipei. Conclusion: Sexual behavior among unmarried youth is correlated with non-sexual risk behaviors but with different patterns across the three settings. Interventions aimed at reducing unprotected sex generally focus only on the sexual behavior; however, considering the correlations found here between sexual and non-sexual risk behaviors, they should target multiple risk behaviors. PMID:22340860

  6. Sexual Orientation and Substance Use Among Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tillman, Kathryn Harker

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined interrelationships among the 3 dimensions of sexual orientation—self-identity, sexual attraction, and sexual experience—and their associations with substance use among adolescents and young adults. Methods. To estimate total and net associations of sexual identity, attraction, and experience with use of tobacco, drugs, and alcohol, we applied logistic regression to cross-sectional data from the National Survey of Family Growth Cycle 6. Results. We found a lack of concordance among the different dimensions of sexual orientation. More youths reported same-gender sexual attraction and same-gender sexual experiences than identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Estimates of substance use prevalence differed significantly by gender and across dimensions of sexual orientation. Sexual experience was the most consistent predictor of substance use. Women and men with no sexual experience had the lowest odds of all forms of substance use; those reporting sexual experience with partners of both genders had the highest odds. Conclusions. Our findings indicate that sexual identity was less strongly associated with substance use than sexual experience and attraction were, pointing to the need for more nuanced indicators of sexual orientation in public health studies. PMID:22021322

  7. Sexual coercion among young street-involved adults: perpetrators' and victims' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Strike, C; Myers, T; Calzavara, L; Haubrich, D

    2001-10-01

    This study explored sexual coercion in dating situations among young adults ages 18-25. Focus group discussions were conducted with a mostly street-involved and sexually diverse (straight, gay, lesbian and bisexual) sample of young adults. While aware of the risks of unsafe sex, getting sex whenever possible or getting sex over with outweighed considerations of safer sex and disease transmission. Participants noted that partners could be manipulated or coerced into sex, using alcohol and drugs; obligations, expectations, and guilt; and exploitation of emotional and economic vulnerability. Overall, participants revealed that these factors led to an increase in total number of sexual events and particularly to unsafe sex. While sexual education and safer sex programs often address sexual negotiation, a focus on changing the behaviors of those who coerce partners into sex is also needed to reduce the risk of HIV transmission. PMID:11688928

  8. Race, Drug Use and Risky Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broman, Clifford L.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines drug use, including alcohol, as a factor in risky sexual behavior while considering patterns across sex and race. Both factors have been given insufficient attention in prior research. The data for this study come from a survey of 1,052 college students from a Midwestern state. Findings indicate that drug use is associated with…

  9. Adolescents' Sexual Behavior and Academic Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisco, Michelle L.

    2008-01-01

    High school students have high ambitions but do not always make choices that maximize their likelihood of educational success. This was the motivation for investigating the relationships between high school sexual behavior and two important milestones in academic attainment: earning a high school diploma and enrolling in distinct postsecondary…

  10. Persistence of Problematic Sexual Behaviors in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levesque, Mireille; Bigras, Marc; Pauze, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify personal and family predictors and correlates of persistence of problematic sexual behaviors (PSB) in children. Participants were the families of 49 children (ages 4-11 years) referred by Child Protective Services in 4 administrative districts of Quebec. Caregivers completed interviews and questionnaires…

  11. Sexual development and behavior in black preadolescents.

    PubMed

    Westney, O E; Jenkins, R R; Butts, J D; Williams, I

    1984-01-01

    As part of a longitudinal study of the sociosexual development of black preadolescents, sexual maturation and sociosexual behaviors were assessed and the relationships between these variables determined in a sample of 101 nine- to eleven-year-old middle- and low-income boys and girls. Sexual maturation was measured by Tanner's staging criteria of specific secondary sex characteristics. Involvement in heterosexual behaviors was elicited via self reports and was classified on a five-point heterosexual physical activity scale (HPA). The data corroborate other studies in demonstrating that girls were more advanced than boys in the process of sexual maturation. Considerable variation in stages of maturation for chronological age existed in both boys and girls, but was more pronounced for girls. In girls, there was no significant association between HPA and degree of biologic maturation. However, genital development in boys was significantly related to their sexual behavior. Income level was not significantly associated with the HPA score. A baseline from which to chart the progress of sociosexual behaviors in these developing preadolescents was established. PMID:6507146

  12. Television Use, Sexual Behavior, and Relationship Status at Last Oral Sex and Vaginal Intercourse

    PubMed Central

    Bourdeau, Beth; Fisher, Deborah A.; Grube, Joel W.

    2010-01-01

    The current longitudinal study explores the relationship between adolescent television use at time 1 and sexual experience and relationship status (i.e., committed/romantic versus casual) 1 year later. The sample (N = 824) comprised youth aged 14–18. Multinomial logistic regressions predicting group membership from television exposure variables were conducted controlling for socio-demographic characteristics and prior sexual behavior. Results indicate that sexually inexperienced youth watched more television overall than sexually experienced youth, but less adult, premium and music television on cable networks. Premium cable exposure predicted group membership among sexually active youth. Youth who watched more premium cable at time 1 were more likely to be in casual relationship at last intercourse than a committed one. A more complete understanding of media effects on adolescent sexual relationships can help guide policy development, media education/literacy efforts, and contribute to the design of interventions to reduce the negative consequences associated with adolescent sexual behavior. PMID:20657790

  13. Childhood sexual trauma and subsequent parenting beliefs and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Zvara, B J; Mills-Koonce, W R; Appleyard Carmody, K; Cox, M

    2015-06-01

    Using propensity-matched controls, the present study examines the long-term adjustment of women reporting childhood sexual trauma (CST) at or before the age of 14 in terms of parenting efficacy and parenting behavior. Data for these analyses were obtained from mother reports and from observational protocols from a longitudinal study of low-income, rural families. The novel use of propensity-matched controls to create a control group matched on family of origin variables provides evidence that when women with CST are compared with the matched comparison women, females who experienced CST show poorer functioning across multiple domains of parenting (sensitivity, harsh intrusiveness, boundary dissolution), but not in parenting efficacy. Follow-up moderation analyses suggest that the potential effects of trauma on parenting behaviors are not attenuated by protective factors such as higher income, higher education, or stable adult relationships. Implications for interventions with childhood sexual trauma histories and directions for future study are proposed. PMID:25680655

  14. Alcohol--a predictor of risky sexual behavior among female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lepusić, Dubravko; Radović-Radovcić, Sandra

    2013-03-01

    Alcohol use has been linked to risky sexual practices among adolescents. However, limited research on alcohol use and risky sexual behavior has been conducted among female adolescents. This study examined a high quantity of alcohol as a longitudinal predictor of risky sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among female adolescents. Three hundred ninety-three adolescent females aged 15-21 were assessed for alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors. Participants also provided 2 swab specimens that were assayed for STDs. Use of high alcohol quantity was defined as > or = 3 drinks in 1 sitting. Binary generalized estimating equation models were conducted assessing the impact of alcohol use at baseline on risky sexual behavior and STDs over a 12-month period. Age, intervention group and baseline outcome measures were entered as covariates. The results indicated that use of high alcohol quantity predicted inconsistent condom use, high sexual sensation seeking, multiple sexual partners, sex while high on alcohol or drugs, and having anal sex during 12-month follow-up period. These findings suggest that STD-related behavioral interventions for adolescents should discuss the link between alcohol and STD-risk behavior. Deeper understanding of alcohol as a predictor of risky sexual behavior among female adolescents is of paramount importance for development of efficient prevention programs at individual and community levels. The risk of acquiring an STD is higher among teenagers than among adults. PMID:23837266

  15. 20 CFR 638.512 - Sexual behavior and harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sexual behavior and harassment. 638.512... PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.512 Sexual behavior... establish rules concerning sexual behavior and harassment. See also §§ 638.539(g) and 638.813(a) of...

  16. 20 CFR 638.512 - Sexual behavior and harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sexual behavior and harassment. 638.512... PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.512 Sexual behavior... establish rules concerning sexual behavior and harassment. See also §§ 638.539(g) and 638.813(a) of...

  17. Review: neuroestrogen regulation of socio-sexual behavior of males

    PubMed Central

    Ubuka, Takayoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    It is thought that estrogen (neuroestrogen) synthesized by the action of aromatase in the brain from testosterone activates male socio-sexual behaviors, such as aggression and sexual behavior in birds. We recently found that gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), a hypothalamic neuropeptide, inhibits socio-sexual behaviors of male quail by directly activating aromatase and increasing neuroestrogen synthesis in the preoptic area (POA). The POA is thought to be the most critical site of aromatization and neuroestrogen action for the regulation of socio-sexual behavior of male birds. We concluded that GnIH inhibits socio-sexual behaviors of male quail by increasing neuroestrogen concentration beyond its optimal concentration in the brain for expression of socio-sexual behavior. On the other hand, it has been reported that dopamine and glutamate, which stimulate male socio-sexual behavior in birds and mammals, inhibit the activity of aromatase in the POA. Multiple studies also report that the activity of aromatase or neuroestrogen is negatively correlated with changes in male socio-sexual behavior in fish, birds, and mammals including humans. Here, we review previous studies that investigated the role of neuroestrogen in the regulation of male socio-sexual behavior and reconsider the hypothesis that neuroestrogen activates male socio-sexual behavior in vertebrates. It is considered that basal concentration of neuroestrogen is required for the maintenance of male socio-sexual behavior but higher concentration of neuroestrogen may inhibit male socio-sexual behavior. PMID:25352775

  18. The impact of polygraphy on admissions of victims and offenses in adult sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Ahlmeyer, S; Heil, P; McKee, B; English, K

    2000-04-01

    Sexual offenders are extremely reluctant to disclose their offending histories for a variety of psychosocial and legal reasons. The polygraph has shown promise as a intervention for eliciting admissions of past sexual offending behaviors. For 60 adult male sexual offender (35 inmates and 25 parolees), the number of victims and offenses were recorded from the Presentence Investigative Report, Sexual History Disclosure form, and 2 consecutive polygraph examination reports. Dramatic increases in the number of admitted victims and offenses were found for inmates, but not for parolees, across each source. However, there was a substantial decline in the number of victim and offense admissions by the second polygraph examination for both groups, even though 80% of the examination results reveled deception about sexual offending behaviors. Standardized use of sanctions and privileges for deceptive and nondeceptive polygraph results, respectively, are proposed as a way of eliciting full disclosure of offending histories for these offenders. PMID:10872241

  19. Looking back: the experience of first sexual intercourse and current sexual adjustment in young heterosexual adults.

    PubMed

    Reissing, Elke D; Andruff, Heather L; Wentland, Jocelyn J

    2012-01-01

    A young person's first consensual sexual intercourse experience is often a remarkable and memorable experience. However, little systematic information exists regarding contextual factors of first intercourse, the affective salience of the experience, possible effects on sexual attitudes and beliefs, and subsequent sexual development and adjustment. This retrospective study aimed to examine these in a sample of 475 young adults. Overall, young men and women experienced intercourse for the first time around age 17, were in a committed relationship, and reported positive affective responses. Affective reactions to the first sexual intercourse experience, sexual self-efficacy, sexual aversion, and age at first intercourse affected individuals' current sexual adjustment; however, only sexual self-efficacy mediated between first intercourse and current sexual adjustment in young men and women. Older age at first intercourse was associated with less sexual self-efficacy and lower current sexual adjustment for women. This study provides initial data to suggest that the first sexual intercourse experience significantly impacts current sexual adjustment by affecting beliefs about sexual self-efficacy. PMID:21161815

  20. Prevalence of Sexual Trauma History Using Behaviorally Specific Methods of Assessment in First Year College Students.

    PubMed

    Craner, Julia R; Martinson, Amber A; Sigmon, Sandra T; McGillicuddy, Morgan L

    2015-01-01

    There are several challenges associated with evaluating the prevalence of sexual trauma, including child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault. The aim of this study was to assess sexual trauma prevalence rates among first year college students (N = 954) using behaviorally specific questions and a more representative recruitment sample that did not rely on self-selection. Participants completed a list of sexual trauma questions, including general questions containing labels such as "rape" or "abuse" as well as behaviorally specific questions that describe specific behaviors that qualify as sexual trauma without labels. Results indicated that 6.7% of the sample reported at least one incident of child sexual abuse, with similar rates for men and women. Women were more likely to report a history of adult sexual assault, which was reported by 12.4% of the total sample. Participants were also more likely to endorse a history of sexual trauma when answering behaviorally specific rather than general "label" questions. Women survivors in particular were more likely than men to identify their experiences as abuse/assault (66.7% versus 21.1% for child sexual abuse), which may help explain prevalence differences between men and women in prior research. Men may be less likely than women to label their experiences as abuse and may be underidentified in sexual trauma research without the use of behaviorally specific questions. Overall, the results of this study suggest that the prevalence of sexual trauma is better assessed using behaviorally specific questions and that this is an important topic of study among both men and women. PMID:26090864

  1. Genetic Influences on Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Why Genes Matter for Environmentally-Oriented Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Harden, K. Paige

    2013-01-01

    There are dramatic individual differences among adolescents in how and when they become sexually active adults, and “early” sexual activity is frequently cited as a cause of concern for scientists, policymakers, and the general public. Understanding the causes and developmental impact of adolescent sexual activity can be furthered by considering genes as a source of individual differences. Quantitative behavioral genetics (i.e., twin and family studies) and candidate gene association studies now provide clear evidence for the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in adolescent sexual behavior and related phenotypes. Genetic influences on sexual behavior may operate through a variety of direct and indirect mechanisms, including pubertal development, testosterone levels, and dopaminergic systems. Genetic differences may be systematically associated with exposure to environments that are commonly treated as causes of sexual behavior (gene-environment correlation). Possible gene-environment correlations pose a serious challenge for interpreting the results of much behavioral research. Multivariate, genetically-informed research on adolescent sexual behavior compares twins and family members as a form of “quasi-experiment”: How do twins who differ in their sexual experiences differ in their later development? The small but growing body of genetically-informed research has already challenged dominant assumptions regarding the etiology and sequelae of adolescent sexual behavior, with some studies indicating possible positive effects of teenage sexuality. Studies of gene × environment interaction may further elucidate the mechanisms by which genes and environments combine to shape the development of sexual behavior and its psychosocial consequences. Overall, the existence of heritable variation in adolescent sexual behavior has profound implications for environmentally-oriented theory and research. PMID:23855958

  2. Sexual Identity, Attractions, and Behavior among Young Sexual-Minority Women over a 2-Year Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lisa M.

    2000-01-01

    Examined sexual identities, attractions, and behaviors of sexual-minority women in 2-year follow-up of women first interviewed at 16-23 years. Found half the participants had changed sexual-minority orientations more than once; one- third changed identities since the first interview. Found changes in sexual attractions were larger among bisexuals…

  3. Differences by Gender and Sexual Experience in Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Implications for Education and HIV Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahom, Deborah; Wells, Elizabeth; Morrison, Diane M.; Wilsdon, Anthony; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Archibald, Matthew; Graham, Laurie; Hoppe, Marilyn; Murowchick, Elise.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated individual characteristics and peer influences related to adolescents' sexual behavior, considering gender and sexual experience. Students reported on intentions to engage in sexual activity and use condoms in the next year, amount of pressure to engage in sexual activity, and perceptions about the number of their peers engaging in…

  4. Influence of sexual competition and social context on homosexual behavior in adolescent female Japanese macaques.

    PubMed

    Gunst, Noëlle; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-05-01

    We explored the role that sexual and social partners play in the expression of female homosexual behavior among adolescent female Japanese macaques at Arashiyama, Japan. Our data fully or partially supported all the predictions related to four non-mutually exclusive hypotheses, namely the "adult male disinterest in adolescent females" hypothesis, the "numerous homosexual adult females" hypothesis, the "safer homosexual interactions" hypothesis and the "same-sex sexual interactions" hypothesis. Our results show that both sexual context (e.g., lack of adolescent female attractivity toward adult males, presence of motivated same-sex sexual partners), and social context (e.g., risk of aggression) help explain the high frequency and prevalence of homosexual behavior in adolescent females in the Arashiyama group of Japanese macaques. As with adult females, whose homosexual consortships do not reflect generalized patterns of social affiliation or kinship, we found that adolescent females' same-sex sexual partners were neither kin, nor were they non-kin individuals with whom adolescent females were closely affiliated outside of a consortship context. Our study furthers the growing database of female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques and provides additional evidence that homosexual behavior as expressed by adolescent female Japanese macaques is, like heterosexual behavior, sexual in nature. We discuss the relevance of our findings to a broader comparative approach that may shed light upon the development and evolution of human homosexuality. PMID:25597406

  5. Sexuality of Deviant Females: Adolescent and Adult Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitaliano, Peter Paul; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Suggests an association between negative sexual experiences in adolescents, low self-image, and subsequent deviant adult life styles. Results of a survey of prostitutes and a corresponding sample of female offenders showed that the prostitutes reported significantly more negative sexual experiences in adolescence. (Author/JAC)

  6. Life-Course Typology of Adults Who Experienced Sexual Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draucker, Claire; Martsolf, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Two qualitative methodologies were used to develop a life-course typology of individuals who had been exposed to sexual violence. Interview narratives of 121 adult women and men who participated in qualitative study of women's and men's responses to sexual violence provided the data. The authors combined a narrative approach (holistic-content and…

  7. Clinical Assessment of Adult Sexual Offenders with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudway, Jeremy A.; Darmoody, Malcolm

    2005-01-01

    Assessment and treatment of adults with learning disabilities who commit sexual offences presents a number of challenges. Much of the professional forensic and psychiatric literature on work with this group concentrates on the development of interventions based on theoretical models of sexual offending originating from the mainstream criminal…

  8. A Coping Model for Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draucker, Claire B.

    1995-01-01

    A group of 149 adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse was tested using a causal model that identifies relationships among sexual abuse situation characteristics, the accomplishment of cognitive coping tasks, and long-term effects. Results indicated the model did not fit the data. A revised model is proposed and examined. (JBJ)

  9. Sexual Dysfunction and Sexual Behaviors in a Sample of Brazilian Male Substance Misusers.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Alessandra; Pillon, Sandra Cristina; Dos Santos, Manoel Antônio; Rassool, G Hussein; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential relationship between self-reported sexual dysfunction, sexual behavior, and severity of addiction of drug users. A cross-sectional design study was conducted at an inpatient addiction treatment unit in Sao Paulo, Brazil, with a sample of 508 male drug users. Sociodemographic data, sexual behavior, and severity of dependence were evaluated.The prevalence of sexual dysfunction was 37.2% and premature ejaculation was 63.8%. Men with sexual dysfunction presented from moderate to severe level of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs of dependence. The findings from this study are particularly relevant identifying those sociodemographic factors, severity of drug use, and sexual behavior are related to men who experience sexual dysfunction. Health promotion and motivational interventions on sexual health targeted to male drug users can contribute in reducing these at-risk behaviors. More interdisciplinary research is desirable in future in considering men's sexual health. PMID:25643586

  10. Adolescent sexual behavior and childbearing.

    PubMed

    Zabin, L S

    1994-01-01

    Low self esteem does not explain problems of adolescence, particularly unwanted pregnancy and early childbearing. This intimates that their root causes are personal rather than structural and socioeconomic, thereby allowing us to blame the victim. Contrary to popular opinion, few teens (10%) want to conceive and most teens want something other than pregnancy, indicating a need for effective intervention. Teens who were ambivalent about childbearing 2 years earlier are just as likely to have given birth as those who wanted to conceive. Teens self-concept is based on the reality of their environment, which, for most teens who have given birth, involves chronic unemployment, a culture of single parenthood in which men play no supportive role in the home, and the knowledge that teens who choose to continue to attend school despite having given birth fare the same as those who drop out of school. Structural changes (jobs and career goals), long term intervention, and continuous social support are needed to improve a teen's capacity to make choices, especially those concerning contraception. In other words, motivation must be so strong that conceptions are avoided. No family wants to go on welfare and no woman wants to have a baby while a teenager, but when teens become pregnant, they tend not to choose abortion. If welfare reform creates true opportunity for jobs, it will create the motivation to avoid pregnancy but not reduce the childbearing rate among teens that conceive. Very early maturation is correlated with very early onset of sexual activity. The very best sex education and services are unlikely to be offered at a young enough age in schools. US society is obsessed with and unwilling to talk about sex. The notion of choice is not part of poor America. Interactive interventions providing continuing support are needed to make a difference in adolescent pregnancy. PMID:8086816

  11. Disgust and Sexual Arousal in Young Adult Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Grauvogl, Andrea; de Jong, Peter; Peters, Madelon; Evers, Silvia; van Overveld, Mark; van Lankveld, Jacques

    2015-08-01

    Previous research suggested that disgust may interfere with healthy sexual functioning by demonstrating that women with sexual pain disorders are characterized by heightened disgust propensity, relatively strong (physiological and subjective) disgust responses when exposed to sexual stimuli, and relatively strong automatic sex-disgust memory associations. To broaden the understanding of the relationship between sex and disgust, Study 1 tested the relationship between trait disgust and sexual functioning in both men (N = 109) and women (N = 187), and showed that specifically for women both relatively high disgust propensity and high sensitivity were related to lower sexual functioning. Study 2 focused on healthy young adults (N = 19 men and N = 24 women), and tested the relationship between trait disgust and automatic sex-disgust associations as well as the predictive value of trait disgust propensity for participants' level of sexual arousal while watching an erotic video. Participants completed a single-target Implicit Association Task and self-report measures of trait disgust propensity, disgust sensitivity, and sexual functioning. Furthermore, genital and subjective sexual arousal was measured, while participants were watching neutral and erotic video clips. Women showed stronger sex-disgust associations and reported higher disgust propensity than men. Overall, indices of trait disgust and sex-disgust associations were not strongly associated with sexual functioning or sexual arousability. Unexpectedly, specifically in men, high levels of trait disgust sensitivity predicted higher levels of genital and subjective sexual arousal. Overall, no strong evidence was found to support the view that, among young adults without sexual difficulties, high trait disgust or relatively strong automatic sex-disgust associations are associated with low sexual functioning and low sexual arousal. PMID:25231820

  12. Sexual dimorphism and mating behavior in Anomala testaceipennis.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Sérgio Roberto; Gomes, Elias Soares; Bento, José Maurício Simões

    2014-01-01

    The beetle, Anomala testaceipennis Blanchard (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), occurs in central-western Brazil where larvae feed on the roots of plants causing damage. This research aimed to study sexual dimorphism and mating behavior of A. testaceipennis. Adults of A. testaceipennis were collected with light traps in the experimental area of the State University of Mato Grosso do Sul, in Aquidauana. Laboratory experiments were performed to describe copulation behavior and adult morphology of males and females. In males the last abdominal segment has a pronounced constriction, which is absent in females, and the male's last segment of the first pair of legs has a ventral projection, which is poorly developed in females. The mating activities of adults begin soon after sunset, when adults leave the soil and fly. When the male encounters a female, he touches her with antennae and tarsi. If accepted, the male climbs on the female and remains on her back, and soon after the copulation begins. When the female does not accept the male for mating, she moves rapidly and can roll on the ground, and by so removing the male. In the field, adults feed and mate on bloomed trees of Oiti, Licania tomentosa Benth (Malpighiales: Chrysobalanaceae) and Louro, Cordia glabrata Martius (Boraginaceae). In trees without inflorescences no adults of this species were found. PMID:25502043

  13. Effects of the environmental estrogenic contaminants bisphenol A and 17α-ethinyl estradiol on sexual development and adult behaviors in aquatic wildlife species.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Ramji K; Deem, Sharon L; Holliday, Dawn K; Jandegian, Caitlin M; Kassotis, Christopher D; Nagel, Susan C; Tillitt, Donald E; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2015-04-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including the mass-produced component of plastics, bisphenol A (BPA) are widely prevalent in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Many aquatic species, such as fish, amphibians, aquatic reptiles and mammals, are exposed daily to high concentrations of BPA and ethinyl estradiol (EE2), estrogen in birth control pills. In this review, we will predominantly focus on BPA and EE2, well-described estrogenic EDCs. First, the evidence that BPA and EE2 are detectable in almost all bodies of water will be discussed. We will consider how BPA affects sexual and neural development in these species, as these effects have been the best characterized across taxa. For instance, such chemicals have been in many cases reported to cause sex-reversal of males to females. Even if these chemicals do not overtly alter the gonadal sex, there are indications that several EDCs might demasculinize male-specific behaviors that are essential for attracting a mate. In so doing, these chemicals may reduce the likelihood that these males reproduce. If exposed males do reproduce, the concern is that they will then be passing on compromised genetic fitness to their offspring and transmitting potential transgenerational effects through their sperm epigenome. We will thus consider how diverse epigenetic changes might be a unifying mechanism of how BPA and EE2 disrupt several processes across species. Such changes might also serve as universal species diagnostic biomarkers of BPA and other EDCs exposure. Lastly, the evidence that estrogenic EDCs-induced effects in aquatic species might translate to humans will be considered. PMID:25277515

  14. Effects of the environmental estrogenic contaminants bisphenol A and 17α-ethinyl estradiol on sexual development and adult behaviors in aquatic wildlife species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bhandari, Ramji K.; Deem, Sharon L.; Holliday, Dawn K.; Jandegian, Caitlin M.; Kassotis, Christopher D.; Nagel, Susan C.; Tillitt, Donald E.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including the mass-produced component of plastics, bisphenol A (BPA) are widely prevalent in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Many aquatic species, such as fish, amphibians, aquatic reptiles and mammals, are exposed daily to high concentrations of BPA and ethinyl estradiol (EE2), estrogen in birth control pills. In this review, we will predominantly focus on BPA and EE2, well-described estrogenic EDCs. First, the evidence that BPA and EE2 are detectable in almost all bodies of water will be discussed. We will consider how BPA affects sexual and neural development in these species, as these effects have been the best characterized across taxa. For instance, such chemicals have been in many cases reported to cause sex-reversal of males to females. Even if these chemicals do not overtly alter the gonadal sex, there are indications that several EDCs might demasculinize male-specific behaviors that are essential for attracting a mate. In so doing, these chemicals may reduce the likelihood that these males reproduce. If exposed males do reproduce, the concern is that they will then be passing on compromised genetic fitness to their offspring and transmitting potential transgenerational effects through their sperm epigenome. We will thus consider how diverse epigenetic changes might be a unifying mechanism of how BPA and EE2 disrupt several processes across species. Such changes might also serve as universal species diagnostic biomarkers of BPA and other EDCs exposure. Lastly, the evidence that estrogenic EDCs-induced effects in aquatic species might translate to humans will be considered.

  15. Factors Influencing the Relationship between Sexual Trauma and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nicole L.; Johnson, Dawn M.

    2013-01-01

    While the relationship between sexual trauma and risky sexual behavior (RSB) has received much attention, only a handful of studies have investigated the factors that protect victims of sexual trauma from developing this maladaptive pattern of behavior. The current study investigated the protective role of social support, quality and quantity, in…

  16. Students Enrolled in an Introductory Gerontology Course: Their Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Sexual Expression in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewen, Heidi H.; Brown, Pamela S.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about younger adults' attitudes towards age-related sexual changes and behaviors. Research using the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale (ASKAS) (White, 1982) has been effective in determining knowledge and attitudes among the staff of long-term care facilities, nurses, undergraduate nursing students, health care…

  17. Relationships between Maternal Adult Attachment Security, Child Perceptions of Maternal Support, and Maternal Perceptions of Child Responses to Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leifer, Myra; Kilbane, Teresa; Skolnick, Linda I.

    2002-01-01

    Study assessed the relationships between maternal adult attachment style, children's perceptions of maternal support following disclosure of sexual abuse, and maternal perceptions of children's behavioral and emotional responses to sexual abuse. Findings indicate that fostering parent-child attachment is important in order to decrease the risk for…

  18. Contributions of divergent peer and parent sexual messages to Asian American college students' sexual behaviors.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Sarah L; Ward, L Monique; Day, Kyla; Thomas, Khia; Levin, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Receiving more parent sexual communication is generally linked to a later age of first sexual intercourse and less sexual risk taking. However, Asian American youth report minimal parent sexual communication, later sexual initiation, and fewer sexual risks than their counterparts. What contributes to this unexpected pattern of sexual communication and sexual behaviors? To answer this question, we surveyed 312 Asian American college students ages 17 to 22 on their sexual behaviors, parent sexual communication, and peer sexual communication. Assessment of parent and peer sexual communication was completed via a measure in which participants rated the frequency with which they had received each of 22 sexual messages from each source. Young women generally received more messages promoting abstinence, traditional sex roles, and sex within a relational context than their male counterparts. Young men, however, reported greater parent and peer communications that were accepting of casual sex. Exposure to peer messages that were accepting of casual sex was associated with more sexual partners, casual sex encounters, and sexual experience. Being older, being raised outside the United States, being less religious, and being homosexual was each predictive of more sexual experience. Implications regarding the role of culture and gender on sexual socialization are discussed. PMID:23305521

  19. 14 and Younger: The Sexual Behavior of Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Bill, Ed.; Brown, Sarah, Ed.; Flanigan, Christine M., Ed.

    This collection of papers on early adolescent sexual behavior includes seven papers in two parts. Part 1, "Papers from Nationally Representative Data Sets," includes (1) "Dating and Sexual Experiences among Middle School Youth: Analyses of the NLSY97" (Elizabeth Terry-Humen and Jennifer Manlove); "(2) "Dating Behavior and Sexual Activity of Young…

  20. Adolescent Sexual Behaviors at Varying Levels of Substance Use Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Leah J.; Latimer, William

    2010-01-01

    Combining substance use and sex compounds the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. However, the association between substance use and sexual behaviors may vary by substance and sexual behavior. The current study sought to examine the relationship between alcohol and marijuana use frequency and specific sexual…

  1. Self-Reported Sexual Behavior in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Annette; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to determine the actual behaviors or problems which college students are experiencing, as opposed to their general attitudes concerning sexuality. The study surveys sexual behavior in college students, including usage of sexual enhancements (such as pornography, provocative dress, and sadomasochism), "safe sex"…

  2. Associations among Childhood Sexual Abuse, Language Use, and Adult Sexual Functioning and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To better understand the link between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction, we examined cognitive differences between women with (N = 128) and without (NSA, N = 99) CSA histories. Methods: We used the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count, a computerized text analysis program, to investigate language…

  3. Child Sexual Abuse, Coping Responses, Self-Blame, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Adult Sexual Revictimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filipas, Henrietta H.; Ullman, Sarah E

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the psychological sequelae of child sexual abuse (CSA) and the factors that contributed to revictimization in the form of adult sexual assault (ASA) using a survey of 577 female college students. CSA characteristics, maladaptive coping in response to CSA, degree of self-blame at the time of the abuse and currently, and…

  4. Associations among childhood sexual abuse, language use and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May

    2012-01-01

    To better understand the link between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction, we examined cognitive differences between women with (N = 128) and without (NSA, N = 99) CSA histories. We used the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count, a computerized text analysis program, to investigate language differences between women with and without CSA histories when writing about their daily life (neutral essay) and their beliefs about sexuality and their sexual experiences (sexual essay). Compared to NSA women, women with CSA histories used fewer first person pronouns in the neutral essay but more in the sexual essay, suggesting women with CSA histories have greater self-focus when thinking about sexuality. Women who reported CSA used more intimacy words and more language consistent with psychological distancing in the sexual essay than did NSA women. Use of positive emotion words in the sexual essay predicted sexual functioning and satisfaction in both groups. These findings support the view that language use differs in significant ways between women with and without sexual abuse histories, and that these differences relate to sexual functioning and satisfaction. PMID:22387124

  5. Young Adult Relationship Values at the Intersection of Gender and Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Ann; Hull, Kathleen E.; Ortyl, Timothy A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent decades have brought significant social changes in the industrialized West that may influence young adults' attitudes about intimate relationships, including changes in gender expectations and behaviors and changes in sexual attitudes and practices. We used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 14,121) to…

  6. Young Adult Relationship Values at the Intersection of Gender and Sexuality.

    PubMed

    Meier, Ann; Hull, Kathleen E; Ortyl, Timothy A

    2009-08-01

    Recent decades have brought significant social changes in the industrialized West that may influence young adults' attitudes about intimate relationships, including changes in gender expectations and behaviors and changes in sexual attitudes and practices. We used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (N=14,121) to compare men to women, and sexual minorities to heterosexuals, on ratings of the importance of love, faithfulness, commitment, financial security, and racial homogamy for successful relationships. We found that nearly all young adults adhere to dominant relationship values inherent in the romantic love ideology; however, we found modest but significant differences by gender and sexual identity in relationship values. Significant interactions demonstrated that gender and sexual identity intersect to uniquely influence relationship views. PMID:23710079

  7. Associations between nonverbal behaviors and subsequent sexual attitudes and behaviors of sexually abused and comparison girls.

    PubMed

    Negriff, Sonya; Noll, Jennie G; Shenk, Chad E; Putnam, Frank W; Trickett, Penelope K

    2010-05-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study examined a sample of sexually abused and comparison girls to determine (a) whether there were patterns of behavior that differed between the groups and (b) whether nonverbal behaviors assessed at the initial visit (n = 147; M = 11.11 years; SD = 3.02) might predict sexual attitudes and behaviors at a later point in development (n = 144; M = 18.52 years; SD = 3.52). At the initial assessment, nonverbal behaviors during an interaction with an unknown male interviewer were factor analyzed revealing 3 factors: wary (e.g., pouting), affiliative (e.g., chin resting on hand), and coy (e.g., tongue show). Abused girls scored higher on the coy factor that was related to earlier age at first voluntary intercourse later in development (approximately 7 years later). High scores on the affiliative factor were related to higher sexual permissiveness and less negative attitudes toward sex. Results indicate that sexually abused girls showed early maladaptive patterns in interpersonal interactions, which were subsequently related to risky sexual attitudes and behaviors. PMID:20410025

  8. Sexual fatalities: behavioral reconstruction in equivocal cases.

    PubMed

    Hazelwood, R R; Dietz, P E; Burgess, A W

    1982-10-01

    A few sexual fatalities show ambiguous or conflicting evidence of manner of death or, in cases involving partners, of the partner's intent. In such equivocal cases, postmortem behavioral analysis and reconstruction aid in understanding what happened and provide an explainable basis for expert judgment and opinion, even though some cases can never be resolved with certainty. Behavioral analysis and reconstruction are enhanced by experience with related cases that have been solved, detailed investigation of the death scene and other relevant settings, and interviews with survivors. PMID:7175460

  9. Recidivism Risk Assessment for Adult Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    Holoyda, Brian J; Newman, William J

    2016-02-01

    Sexual offending is a significant public health problem in the USA due to its prevalence and the substantial impact it has on victims, victims' families, and the legal and mental health systems. The assessment of sexual offender recidivism risk is an important aspect of developing effective management strategies for sexual offenders in terms of placement, treatment, and other interventions. Researchers have developed numerous tools to aid in the assessment of sexual violence recidivism risk, including actuarial measures, structured professional judgment methods, and psychophysiologic assessment of sexual interests. The Static-99R and Sexual Violence Risk-20 are two instruments that have received substantial research attention for their ability to accurately compare offenders' risk of recidivism to normative group data. Penile plethysmography and visual reaction time are used to evaluate subjects' responses to sexual stimuli in an effort to characterize offenders' sexual arousal and interest, respectively. Though current research has focused on risk assessment tools' predictive utility, future research will need to examine the impact that actuarial and structured professional judgment tools have on reducing recidivism if they are to have relevance in the management of sexual offenders. PMID:26781555

  10. Association of gender norms, relationship and intrapersonal variables, and acculturation with sexual communication among young adult Latinos.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Carmen; Villarruel, Antonia

    2015-04-01

    Sexual communication is an important strategy in promoting safer sex behavior, but few investigators have explored sexual communication among young adult Latinos. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the role of traditional gender norms, relationship factors (relationship characteristics and relationship power), intrapersonal factors (attitudes and subjective norms), and acculturation as statistical predictors of three different types of sexual communication (sexual health, pleasure discussions, and physical sexual communication) in Latino women and men. The sample was 220 Latinos (111 women and 109 men) ages 18-30 years who were sexually active in heterosexual relationships. In multiple regression, after controlling for relationship power, intrapersonal factors, and acculturation, traditional gender norms did not predict sexual communication for either women or men. For both women and men, pleasure-focused communication (pleasure discussions and physical sexual communication) increased with acculturation. For women, the strongest predictor of all types of sexual communication was their attitudes toward sexual communication. Greater relationship power and lower acculturation were associated with women's sexual health communication. For men, no variables explained sexual health communication or physical sexual communication, and acculturation and attitude toward pleasure discussions predicted pleasure communication. Women who believed they had power in their relationships and had positive attitudes toward pleasure discussions and a high level of acculturation reported more physical sexual communication. Findings suggest the importance of relationship power, attitudes, and acculturation in young adult Latinos' sexual communication. Sexual risk prevention strategies among young adult Latinos should include encouraging sexual communication by supporting positive attitudes toward pleasure-focused communication. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25648718

  11. A Multidimensional Model of Sexual Health and Sexual and Prevention Behavior Among Adolescent Women

    PubMed Central

    Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Sexual health refers a state of lifespan well-being related to sexuality. Among young people, sexual health has multiple dimensions, including the positive developmental contributions of sexuality, as well as the acquisition of skills pertinent to avoiding adverse sexual outcomes such as unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Existing efforts to understand sexual health, however, have yet to empirically operationalize a multi-dimensional model of sexual health and to evaluate its association to different sexual/prevention behaviors. Methods Sexual health dimensions and sexual/prevention behaviors were drawn from a larger longitudinal cohort study of sexual relationships among adolescent women (N =387, 14–17 years). Second order latent variable modeling (AMOS/19.0) evaluated the relationship between sexual health and dimensions and analyzed the effect of sexual health to sexual/prevention outcomes. Results All first order latent variables were significant indicators of sexual health (β: 0.192 – 0.874, all p < .001). Greater sexual health was significantly associated with sexual abstinence, as well as with more frequent non-coital and vaginal sex, condom use at last sex, a higher proportion of condom-protected events, use of hormonal or other methods of pregnancy control and absence of STI. All models showed good fit. Conclusions Sexual health is an empirically coherent structure, in which the totality of its dimensions is significantly linked to a wide range of outcomes, including sexual abstinence, condom use and absence of STI. This means that, regardless of a young person’s experiences, sexual health is an important construct for promoting positive sexual development and for primary prevention. PMID:23332488

  12. Midlife sexuality among Thai adults: Adjustment to aging in the Thai family context

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Kathleen; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study is to assess views of age related changes in sexual behavior among married Thai adults age 53 to 57. Results are viewed in the context of life course theory. In-depth interviews were conducted with 44 Thai adults in Bangkok and the four regions of Thailand. Topics covered include changing sexual behavior with age, adjustment to this change, gender differences in behavior, attitudes toward commercial sex and other non-marital sexual partners, and condom use. Most respondents were aware of this change and saw a decrease in sexual activity and desire more often among women compared to men. At the same time, many respondents viewed sexuality as important to a marriage. Some respondents accepted the decrease in sexual activity and focused more on work, family and temple activities. Thai Buddhism was seen as an important resource for people who were dealing with changes due to aging. Other persons turned to other partners including both commercial and non-commercial partners. The influence of the HIV epidemic that began in the 1990s was seen in concerns about disease transmission with extramarital partners and consequent attitudes toward condom use. The acceptability of extramarital partners in the family and community ranged from acceptance to strong disapproval of extramarital relationships PMID:22582023

  13. Alternate Routes of Administration among Prescription Opioid Misusers and Associations with Sexual HIV Transmission Risk Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Buttram, Mance E; Kurtz, Steven P

    2016-01-01

    Literature suggests that young adult prescription opioid misusers who are using alternate routes of administration (e.g., snorting, injecting) may be engaging in sexual and non-sexual HIV risk behaviors. This study examines demographics, substance use, sexual risk behavior, and health and social problems associated with alternate routes of administration of prescription opioids among a sample of young adult prescription opioid misusers. Data are drawn from baseline assessments from a behavioral intervention trial. Eligible participants were ages 18-39, and reported recent (past 90 days) heterosexual sex, and recent and regular substance use and attendance at large, recognized local nightclubs. The analyses include 446 racially/ethnically diverse participants. In bivariate regression models, compared to those who did not, participants reporting alternate routes of administration (n = 209) were more likely to be White (p < 0.025) and report group sex participation history (p = 0.002), sex with an injection drug user (p = 0.003), sexual victimization history (p = 0.003), and severe mental distress (p < 0.000). White race, group sex participation history, and severe mental distress remained significant in the multivariate model. Alternate routes of administration of prescription opioids are associated with sexual HIV transmission risk behaviors. Early prevention and intervention efforts that address sexual and non-sexual HIV risk behaviors are warranted. PMID:27224253

  14. Androgen induction of male sexual behaviors in female goldfish.

    PubMed

    Stacey, N; Kobayashi, M

    1996-12-01

    The effectiveness of testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (K) in inducing male-typical sex behaviors in goldfish was examined by implanting intact adult females with one empty (blank) Silastic implant (B females), one implant containing T or K, or one T and one K implant (T + K females). Behavior of the four female groups was compared to that of untreated males and males containing a blank implant. Male-typical behaviors (coutship, spawning) and associated behavioral changes (increased activity, reduced spontaneous feeding) were assessed 3.5 and 4.5 months after implant in 30-min tests in which the test female or male was allowed to interact with a stimulus female in which sexual receptivity and attractivity had been induced by acute prostaglandin F2alpha injection. Prostaglandin-induced female-typical spawning behavior in the test females and males was also assessed 4.5 months after implant in a 60-min test for female-typical behavior in which the test fish was injected with prostaglandin and placed immediately with a sexually active male. Blood samples 5 months postimplant showed that implants generated physiological levels of T and K. In both tests for male-typical behaviors, K and T + K females exhibited the full suite of behaviors shown by spawning males, e.g., male-typical courtship and spawning, increased swimming activity, and reduced spontaneous feeding. Although behaviors of K and T + K females did not differ, those of T + K females were more often equivalent to those of males and significantly different from those of B females. T females exhibited marginal male-typical behaviors which never differed significantly from those of B females. Androgen-treated females exhibited female-typical; spawning behaviors equivalent to that of males and B females. The results show that adult female goldfish can be behaviorally masculinzed without behavioral defeminization, and suggest that male-typical sex behaviors in goldfish are dependent on K, although other

  15. Characteristics of sexual violence against adolescent girls and adult women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexual violence is considered a serious violation of human rights which affects mainly young women and adolescents. There is little information about the conditions under which sexual offences occur. We evaluated characteristics of sexual violence against adolescent girls and adult women. Method This is a quantitative, retrospective, descriptive study of sexual violence against adolescent girls and adult women. Analyses were carried out on data collected from 1118 women, 546 adolescents (10-19 years) and 572 adults (≥ 20 years), with a complaint of rape treated at Hospital Pérola Byington, São Paulo, between 1994 and 1999. The age limit of the adolescent sample met the World Health Organization’s (WHO) criteria. We analyzed the type of sexual contact, degree of intimidation, perpetrator and activity of the victim during the approach. Results Crimes without penetration were five times more frequent in adolescents and use of threats of death or intimidation was common in both groups. Mental illness was more prevalent in adult victims and the majority of adolescent victims were aged <14 years. Uncle and stepfather perpetrators were more frequent among adolescents and partners or former intimate partners in adult women. In most cases the approach occurred in public places, although sex crimes at the perpetrator’s residence were more frequent amongst adolescents. Conclusions Although children and adolescents require the same intervention measures and legal protection, a considerable proportion of adolescent sex offenders can face conditions similar to those of adult women. PMID:24450307

  16. Sexual behavior problems in preteen children: developmental, ecological, and behavioral correlates.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, W N; Davies, W Hobart; Feher, Eleonora; Wright, John

    2003-06-01

    A large sample of 2-12 year old children (N = 2311) was studied to determine the relationship between three sexually intrusive behavior items (SIBs) measured by the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI) and a range of developmental, ecological, and behavioral correlates. The variables studied included age, gender, race, family income, single parent status, maternal education, family sexual behaviors, physical abuse, sexual abuse, domestic violence, social competence of the child, and three scales from the CBCL (Internalizing, Externalizing, and PTSD). Sexual abuse was not the primary predictor of SIB, but a model incorporating family adversity, modeling of coercive behavior, child behavior, and modeling of sexuality predicted a significant amount of variance. PMID:12839889

  17. Sexual Abuse History among Adult Sex Offenders and Non-Sex Offenders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jespersen, Ashley F.; Lalumiere, Martin L.; Seto, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The sexually abused-sexual abuser hypothesis states there is a specific relationship between sexual abuse history and sexual offending, such that individuals who experience sexual abuse are significantly more likely to later engage in sexual offenses. Therefore, samples of adult sex offenders should contain a disproportionate number of…

  18. The Sexual Functioning of Adult Women Molested as Children: A Review of Empirical Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Julie Lynn

    This paper reviews the research literature from 1978 to 1991 that addresses long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse on adult women's sexual functioning. Frequently reported long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse are noted, including both sexual dissatisfaction and sexual dysfunction. In terms of sexual dysfunction, it is noted that adult…

  19. Sexual and Reproductive Health for Young Adults in Colombia: Teleconsultation Using Mobile Devices

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Daniel Camilo; Valenzuela, Jose Ignacio; Arguello, Arturo; Saenz, Juan Pablo; Trujillo, Stephanie; Correal, Dario Ernesto; Fajardo, Roosevelt; Dominguez, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexual risk behaviors associated with poor information on sexuality have contributed to major public health problems in the area of sexual and reproductive health in teenagers and young adults in Colombia. Objective To report our experience with the use of DoctorChat Mobile to provide sexual education and information among university students in Bogota, Colombia, and knowledge about the sexual risk factors detected among them. Methods A mobile app that allows patients to ask about sexual and reproductive health issues was developed. Sexual and reproductive risk behaviors in a sample of young adults were measured before and after the use of the app through the validated survey Family Health International (FHI) Behavioral Surveillance Survey (BSS) for Use With Adults Between 15 and 49 Years. A nonprobabilistic convenience recruitment was undertaken through the study´s webpage. After completing the first survey, participants were allowed to download and use the app for a 6-month period (intervention), followed by completion of the same survey once again. For the inferential analysis, data was divided into 3 groups (dichotomous data, discrete quantitative data, and ordinal data) to compare the results of the questions between the first and the second survey. The study was carried out with a sample of university students between 18 and 29 years with access to mobile phones. Participation in the study was voluntary and anonymous. Results A total of 257 subjects met the selection criteria. The preintervention survey was answered by 232 subjects, and 127 of them fully answered the postintervention survey. In total, 54.3% (69/127) of the subjects completed the survey but did not use the app, leaving an effective population of 58 subjects for analysis. Of these subjects, 53% (31/58) were women and 47% (27/58) were men. The mean age was 21 years, ranging between 18 and 29 years. The differences between the answers from both surveys were not statistically

  20. A prospective study of young females' sexual subjectivity: associations with age, sexual behavior, and dating.

    PubMed

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Ducat, Wendy H; Boislard-Pepin, Marie-Aude

    2011-10-01

    Sexual self-perceptions are important aspects of sexuality, which can undergo significant change during adolescence and early adulthood. The purpose of this study was to describe these changes among girls (N = 251; ages 16-25) over one year, and to examine associations of sexual self-perceptions (sexual subjectivity) with age, sexual behavior, and romantic status. Sexual body-esteem, perceptions of entitlement to desire and pleasure, sexual efficacy, and sexual self-reflection were investigated as elements of sexual subjectivity. All sexual subjectivity elements were higher among girls who had more sexual experience and/or had steady romantic partners during the study. Perception of entitlement to desire and pleasure increased over time, whereas sexual body-esteem showed the most stability and had minimal associations with sexual or romantic experiences. The greatest increases in sexual subjectivity were found among girls who began the study with the least sociosexual experience and self-reflection also increased for girls who had first coitus after the start of the study. Overall, girls who had sexual intercourse the earliest (before age 16) had the highest sexual subjectivity, but sexual subjectivity increased the most among girls without coital experience or who had more recent first coitus. PMID:21491139

  1. Antiretroviral Treatment and Sexual Risk Behavior in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Risher, Kathryn; Rehle, Thomas; Simbayi, Leickness; Shisana, Olive; Celentano, David D

    2016-04-01

    The sexual behavior of individuals living with HIV determines the onward transmission of HIV. With the understanding that antiretroviral therapy (ART) prevents transmission of HIV, the sexual behaviors of the individuals not on ART with unsuppressed viral loads becomes of the greatest importance in elucidating transmission. We assessed the association between being on ART and sexual risk behavior among those living with HIV in a nationally representative population-based cross-sectional survey of households in South Africa that was conducted in 2012. Of 2237 adults (aged 15-49) who tested HIV-seropositive, 667 (29.8 %) had detectable antiretroviral drugs in their blood specimens. Among males, 77.7 % of those on ART reported having had sex in the past year contrasted with 88.4 % of those not on ART (p = 0.001); among females, 72.2 % of those on ART reported having had sex in the past year while 80.3 % of those not on ART did (p < 0.001). For males and females, the odds of reporting consistent condom use and condom use at last sex were statistically significantly higher for individuals on ART compared to those not on ART (males: consistent condom use aOR 2.8, 95 % CI 1.6-4.9, condom use at last sex aOR 2.6, 95 % CI 1.5-4.6; females: consistent condom use aOR 2.3, 95 % CI 1.7-3.1, condom use at last sex aOR 2.3, 95 % CI 1.7-3.1), while there were no statistically significant differences in odds of reporting multiple sexual partners in the past year. In this nationally representative population-based survey of South African adults, we found evidence of less risky sexual risk behavior among people living with HIV on ART compared to those not on ART. PMID:26194426

  2. Differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers: developmental antecedents and behavioral comparisons.

    PubMed

    Burton, David L; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S

    2011-01-01

    This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually victimized sexual abusers have more severe developmental antecedents (trauma, family characteristics, early exposure to pornography and personality) and recent behavioral difficulties (characteristics of sexual aggression, sexual arousal, use of pornography, and nonsexual criminal behavior) than the nonsexually victimized group. Results are contrasted with recent typological research, which found no relationship between sexual victimization and subtype membership. Treatment, research, and theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:21259148

  3. Dealing with Disruptive Behavior of Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobmeier, Robert; Moran, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    The adult education literature on disruptive behavior of adult learners was reviewed and a survey on disruptive behavior of adult learners was conducted with adult educators. The findings are synthesized in a conceptual framework for understanding the types and causes of disruptive behavior, which fall into the categories of inattention,…

  4. Sexual risk behaviors among women with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Marengo, Eliana; Martino, Diego J; Igoa, Ana; Fassi, Guillermo; Scápola, María; Urtueta Baamonde, Mariana; Strejilevich, Sergio A

    2015-12-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate sexual health and sexual risk behaviors for sexually transmitted infections (STI) among women with bipolar disorder (BDW). Sixty-three euthymic women diagnosed with bipolar disorder type I, II or not otherwise specified were included and matched with a control group of 63 healthy women. Demographic and clinical data, structured sexual health measures and extensive assessment of sexual risk behavior were obtained and compared between groups. BDW had casual partners, were in non-monogamous sexual partnerships and had sex with partners with unknown HIV condition more frequently than healthy control women. History of two or more STI was more frequent among BDW. Inclusion of sexual behavior risk assessment among BDW in treatment is necessary to better identify those women with higher risk for STI and to take measures to improve their sexual health. PMID:26564549

  5. Trauma and Sexuality: The Effects of Childhood Sexual, Physical, and Emotional Abuse on Sexual Identity and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, James A., Ed.; Bowman, Elizabeth S., Ed.

    This book examines the effects of childhood trauma--including sexual abuse--on sexual orientation and behavior. It is directed at helping counselors expand their sensitivity and expertise in a critically important way: by providing a nonjudgmental look at the profound effects of long-standing early abuse on the sexual identities, orientation,…

  6. A Study on the Effect of a Program Teaching Healthy Sexuality Values on Adolescent Sexual Awareness and Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Sang Huy

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the effectiveness of a program teaching healthy sexuality values on adolescent sexual awareness and sexual behavior. For this study, the present researcher, along with two other professors, developed a 4-h program on 4 different subjects, and conducted the full education program through four different 4-h…

  7. Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly. PMID:20679329

  8. Child Sexual Abuse, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Substance Use: Predictors of Revictimization in Adult Sexual Assault Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Filipas, Henrietta H.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the unique effects of child sexual abuse simultaneously with post-traumatic stress disorder symptom clusters, problem drinking, and illicit drug use in relation to sexual revictimization in a community sample of female adult sexual assault victims. Participants (N = 555) completed two surveys a year apart. Child sexual abuse…

  9. Differences in Sexual Orientation Diversity and Sexual Fluidity in Attractions Among Gender Minority Adults in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Reisner, Sari L; Hughto, Jaclyn White; Keo-Meier, Colton L

    2016-01-01

    This study characterized sexual orientation identities and sexual fluidity in attractions in a community-based sample of self-identified transgender and gender-nonconforming adults in Massachusetts. Participants were recruited in 2013 using bimodel methods (online and in person) to complete a one-time, Web-based quantitative survey that included questions about sexual orientation identity and sexual fluidity. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) to examine the correlates of self-reported changes in attractions ever in lifetime among the whole sample (n = 452) and after transition among those who reported social gender transition (n = 205). The sample endorsed diverse sexual orientation identities: 42.7% queer, 19.0% other nonbinary, 15.7% bisexual, 12.2% straight, and 10.4% gay/lesbian. Overall, 58.2% reported having experienced changes in sexual attractions in their lifetime. In adjusted models, trans masculine individuals were more likely than trans feminine individuals to report sexual fluidity in their lifetime (aRR = 1.69; 95% CI = 1.34, 2.12). Among those who transitioned, 64.6% reported a change in attractions posttransition, and trans masculine individuals were less likely than trans feminine individuals to report sexual fluidity (aRR = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.28, 0.69). Heterogeneity of sexual orientation identities and sexual fluidity in attractions are the norm rather than the exception among gender minority people. PMID:26156113

  10. Sexual Assault, Drinking Norms, and Drinking Behavior among a National Sample of Lesbian and Bisexual Women

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Amanda K.; Koo, Kelly H.; Nguyen, Hong V.; Granato, Hollie F.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Kaysen, Debra L.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) are strongly associated with women’s alcohol use and the rates of both alcohol use and sexual assault history are higher among lesbian and bisexual women than heterosexual women. Although descriptive drinking norms are one of the highest predictors of alcohol use in emerging adults, this is the first study to examine the relationship between sexual assault history, drinking norms, and alcohol use in lesbian and bisexual women. We found that CSA severity was associated with a higher likelihood of experiencing more severe alcohol-involved ASA, more severe physically forced ASA, and was indirectly associated with more drinking behavior and higher drinking norms. Additionally, more severe alcohol-involved ASA was associated with higher drinking norms and more drinking behavior, but physically forced ASA was not. These findings help explain previous contradictory findings and provide information for interventions. PMID:24360780

  11. The influence of pornography on sexual scripts and hooking up among emerging adults in college.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Scott R; Coulson, Gwen; Keddington, Krista; Fincham, Frank D

    2015-01-01

    The explosive growth in access to the Internet has led to a commensurate increase in the availability, anonymity, and affordability of pornography. An emerging body of research has shown associations between pornography and certain behaviors and attitudes; yet, how pornography actually influences these outcomes has not been documented. In two studies (Study 1 N = 969; Study 2 N = 992) we examined the hypothesis that pornography influences potentially risky sexual behavior (hooking up) among emerging adults via sexual scripts. Our results demonstrate that more frequent viewing of pornography is associated with a higher incidence of hooking up and a higher number of unique hook up partners. We replicated these effects both cross-sectionally and longitudinally while accounting for the stability of hook ups over the course of an academic semester. We also demonstrated that more frequent viewing of pornography is associated with having had more previous sexual partners of all types, more one occasion sexual partners ("one night stands"), and plans to have a higher number of sexual partners in the future. Finally, we provided evidence that more permissive sexual scripts mediated the association between more frequent pornography viewing and hooking up. We discuss these findings with an eye toward mitigating potential personal and public health risks among emerging adults. PMID:25239659

  12. The social context for risky sexual behavior among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Metzler, C W; Noell, J; Biglan, A; Ary, D; Smolkowski, K

    1994-08-01

    This study supports a model of adolescents' risky sexual behavior in which this behavior is seen as a product of the same peer and family factors which influence a wide range of problem behaviors. The Patterson et al. (1992) model of peer and parental factors associated with adolescents' sexual risk-taking behavior was tested on three independent samples of adolescents, ages 14 through 18. Adolescents whose peers were reported to engage in diverse problem behaviors were more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior. Poor parental monitoring and parent-child coercive interactions were associated having deviant peers, and poor parental monitoring also had a direct relationship to risky sexual behavior. Family involvement was associated with fewer parent-child coercive interactions. Less availability of parental figures in the family was directly associated with risky sexual behavior and was also associated with poorer parental monitoring. PMID:7966262

  13. Predictors of Quality of Life, Sexual Intercourse, and Sexual Satisfaction among Active Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penhollow, Tina M.; Young, Michael; Denny, George

    2009-01-01

    Background: Relatively little is known about the sexual behaviors of older people, and the relationship between quality of life and sexuality has not been fully explored. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of sociological, cultural, and psychological factors to further explain variance beyond biological changes that…

  14. Sociosexuality, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) susceptibility, and sexual behavior among African American women

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Naomi M.

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial correlation of risky sexual behavior is important for the design and implementation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related prevention and intervention studies. Sociosexuality (individual differences in endorsement of casual sexual behavior) and perceived susceptibility to HIV were examined for their relationship to each other, and in predicting risky sexual behavior among adult, heterosexual African American women using web-based and in-person surveys. This study included 275 geographically diverse women (mean age = 33.60 years), with 81% reported having at least a college degree, and over 50% reported incomes over $45,000. Results indicate that sociosexuality was significantly associated with perceived susceptibility, and both higher levels of sociosexuality and perceived susceptibility were significantly related to engagement in riskier sexual behavior. Age at first voluntary intercourse emerged as an important covariate in predicting risky sexual behavior among the participants. The need to include psychosocial variables associated with risky sexual behavior in sexually transmitted infection (STI) and HIV-related health promotion and intervention studies was discussed. PMID:25614851

  15. Sexual coercion in men and women: similar behaviors, different predictors.

    PubMed

    Schatzel-Murphy, Elizabeth A; Harris, Danielle A; Knight, Raymond A; Milburn, Michael A

    2009-12-01

    A growing body of literature supports the contention that both women and men employ various seductive, manipulative, intoxication, and even forceful tactics of sexual coercion to obtain sexual contact from unwilling partners. Although the self-reported coercive behavior of men and women may appear similar in many respects, predictors of such behavior seem to vary in important ways across gender. In addition to examining the prevalence of coercive behaviors reported across gender, the present study examined the extent to which four variables found in models of male sexual coercion predicted self-reported use of sexual coercion in a sample (n = 186) of college men and women: prior sexual abuse, sexual dominance, sociosexuality, and sexual compulsivity. Although prior sexual abuse seemed to be part of a cycle of sexual coercion among both men and women, key predictors of sexual coercion among men were sexual dominance and sociosexuality, whereas the key predictor of sexual coercion among women was sexual compulsivity. These findings support the notion that whereas men may behave coercively to obtain or maintain an impersonal sense of power and control, women may behave coercively to achieve some level of interpersonal connection when feeling out of control. PMID:19330440

  16. The Impact of a College Course in Human Sexuality Upon Sexual Attitudes and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godow, Annette G.; LaFave, Francis

    The impact of a college human sexuality course upon sexual attitudes and behavior was examined. A questionnaire, designed by the authors, was administered to students of a human sexuality course and a social psychology course at the beginning and end of the spring semester, 1975. On six of the seven attitudinal categories measured, students from…

  17. The Effects of Childhood Sexual Messages on African-American and White Women's Adolescent Sexual Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, L. Monique; Wyatt, Gail Elizabeth

    1994-01-01

    Clarifies the relationship between sexual communication and sexual behavior by examining the multiple components of sexual messages in a community sample of 248 black and white women. Results confirmed predictions concerning differential interpretations of messages. Ethnicity emerged as a strong mediating variable. Implications of the specific…

  18. Factors Associated with Sexual Behavior Problems in Young Sexually Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Darlene Kordich; Mathews, Fred; Pearce, John

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of data from the clinical records of 100 sexually abused boys and girls, ages 3-7 years, identified five variables predictive of sexual behavior problems, including sexual arousal of the child during the abuse, perpetrator's use of sadism, a history of physical and emotional abuse, and who the child blames for the abuse. (DB)

  19. Sexual risk behavior in young adulthood: broadening the scope beyond early sexual initiation.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Marina; Bailey, Jennifer A; Manhart, Lisa E; Hill, Karl G; Hawkins, J David

    2014-01-01

    A robust link between early sexual initiation and sexual risk-taking behavior is reported in previous studies. The relationship may not be causal, however, as the effect of common risk factors is often not considered. The current study examined whether early initiation was a key predictor of risky sexual behavior in the 20s and 30s, over and above co-occurring individual and environmental factors. Data were drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project, a longitudinal panel of 808 youth. Early predictors (ages 10 to 15) and sexual risk taking (ages 21 to 24 and 30 to 33) were assessed prospectively. Early sexual initiation (before age 15) was entered into a series of probit regressions that also included family, neighborhood, peer, and individual risk factors. Although a positive bivariate relation between early sexual initiation and sexual risk taking was observed at both ages, the link did not persist when co-occurring risk factors were included. Behavioral disinhibition and antisocial peer influences emerged as the strongest predictors of sexual risk over and above early sexual initiation. These results suggest that early sexual initiation must be considered in the context of common antecedents; public health policy aimed at delaying sexual intercourse alone is unlikely to substantially reduce sexual risk behavior in young adulthood. PMID:24423058

  20. Sexual Risk Behavior in Young Adulthood: Broadening the Scope Beyond Early Sexual Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Marina; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Manhart, Lisa E.; Hill, Karl G.; Hawkins, J. David

    2013-01-01

    A robust link between early sexual initiation and sexual risk-taking behavior is reported in previous studies. The relationship may not be causal, however, as the effect of common risk factors is often not considered. The current study examined whether early initiation is a key predictor of risky sexual behavior in the 20s and 30s, over and above co-occurring individual and environmental factors. Data were drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project, a longitudinal panel of 808 youth. Early predictors (ages 10–15) and sexual risk-taking (ages 21–24 and 30–33) were assessed prospectively. Early sexual initiation (before age 15) was entered into a series of probit regressions that also included family, neighborhood, peer, and individual risk factors. Although a positive bivariate relation between early sexual initiation and sexual risk-taking was observed at both ages, the link did not persist when co-occurring risk factors were included. Behavioral disinhibition and antisocial peer influences emerged as the strongest predictors of sexual risk over and above early sexual initiation. These results suggest that early sexual initiation must be considered in the context of common antecedents; public health policy aimed at delaying sexual intercourse alone is unlikely to substantially reduce sexual risk behavior in young adulthood. PMID:24423058

  1. Nonresident fatherhood and adolescent sexual behavior: a comparison of siblings approach.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Rebecca M

    2015-02-01

    Although voluminous research has linked nonresident fatherhood to riskier sexual behavior in adolescence, including earlier sexual debut, neither the causality of that link nor the mechanism accounting for it has been well-established. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979-the Young Adult Survey (CNLSY-YA), the present study addresses both questions by comparing the sexual development of siblings discordant for age at father departure from the home and examining results across behavioral (age at first intercourse), biological (pubertal timing), and cognitive (attitudes about childbearing and marriage) sexual outcomes (N = 5,542). Findings indicate that nonresident fatherhood, beginning either at birth or during middle childhood, leads to an earlier sexual debut for girls, but not for boys, an effect likely explained by weak parental monitoring rather than an accelerated reproductive strategy. PMID:25621757

  2. School Sexuality Education and Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Cecilia Dine; Wolf, Eve M.

    1995-01-01

    Examines and critiques research that measures the effects of school sexuality education programs on adolescent sexual risk-taking behavior. Discusses common methodological problems and examines studies measuring program effectiveness. Research suggests participation in school sexuality education does not promote increased or earlier sexual…

  3. Women's Intentions Regarding, and Acceptance of, Self-Sexualizing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowatzki, Janet; Morry, Marian M.

    2009-01-01

    No known research has examined women's acceptance of self-sexualizing behaviors, which includes the use of catwalks at dance clubs, taking pole dance classes, and wearing clothing with sexually suggestive statements. Structural equation modeling assessed the links between choosing sexually objectifying media, internalized appearance ideals, and…

  4. Permissiveness and Premarital Sexual Activity: Behavioral Correlates of Attitudinal Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dignan, Mark; Anspaugh, David

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether undergraduates classified as high or low in sexual permissiveness could be differentiated using variables reflecting socioeconomic status, religious background, sexual behavior, and sexual knowledge. The derived discriminant functions were found to correctly classify 97.1 percent of the subjects.…

  5. Sexual Health Attitudes, Knowledge, and Clinical Behaviors: Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Elizabeth B.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the impact of practitioners' attitudes and knowledge of sexual health on clinical behaviors. Sexual health topics are often areas of concern for clients of any age in counseling. Thus, counselors must be trained and equipped to address sexual health across the life span. This study explored whether child and adolescent…

  6. Sexual Behavior among Employed Male Rural Migrants in Shanghai, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Na; Detels, Roger; Chen, Zheng; Jiang, Qingwu; Zhu, Jinde; Dai, Yiqun; Wu, Min; Zhong, Xing; Fu, Chaowei; Gui, Dexin

    2006-01-01

    A study of sexual behavior in migrant men was conducted in construction sites, markets, and factories in Shanghai, the largest city in China. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was completed by the migrants. Among 986 sexually active men, 14% had had more than one sexual partner in their lifetime, 31% premarital sex, 3.3% oral sex, and…

  7. Adolescent Sexual Behavior in Middle America Revisited: 1970-1973

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vener, Arthur M.; Stewart, Cyrus S.

    1974-01-01

    A resurvey shows significant increases in sexual activity for 14- and 15-year-olds of both genders. Findings indicate that the new morality is not limited to sexuality, but extends to the broader context of youthful behavior. Heavy involvement in sexual activity was also related to other delinquent acts. (Author)

  8. Population-based sexual behavior surveys in China: Liuzhou compared with other prefectural cities

    PubMed Central

    Yingying, Huang; Abler, Laurie; Suiming, Pan; Henderson, Gail E.; Xin, Wang; Xingliang, Yao; Parish, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual behaviors in China are rapidly changing; simultaneously, STI/HIV prevalence is increasing in the general population. To investigate these major shifts, we examined sexual behaviors and self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STI) in one prefectural city in southern China, Liuzhou, and compared it to other prefectural cities throughout China. We used adults age 18-39 from two sets of population-based surveys that paralleled each other in both content and method. The first set was the Liuzhou survey conducted in 2008 (n=398). The second set consisted of two national surveys collected in 2006 and 2010 (n=2186). Liuzhou respondents reported more active social and sexual behaviors than their national counterparts, including more socializing, dancing, drinking excessively, sexual activity among never married men and women, purchasing commercial sex among men, one-night stands among men, multiple sexual partnerships and self-reported STI among both men and women. Women in Liuzhou reported greater sexual risk behavior than their national counterparts, although overall they reported less than their male counterparts; they were also more likely to have had an abortion than women in other prefectural cities. Our findings provide a comprehensive overview of the sexual context of Liuzhou among the general population, which may help explain the greater STI/HIV prevalence in Liuzhou. PMID:24174289

  9. Population-based sexual behavior surveys in China: Liuzhou compared with other prefectural cities.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yingying; Abler, Laurie; Pan, Suiming; Henderson, Gail E; Wang, Xin; Yao, Xingliang; Parish, William L

    2014-02-01

    Sexual behaviors in China are rapidly changing; simultaneously, sexually transmitted infections (STI)/HIV prevalence is increasing in the general population. To investigate these major shifts, we examined sexual behaviors and self-reported STI in one prefectural city in southern China, Liuzhou, and compared it to other prefectural cities throughout China. We used adults age 18-39 from two sets of population-based surveys that paralleled each other in both content and method. The first set was the Liuzhou survey conducted in 2008 (n = 398). The second set consisted of two national surveys collected in 2006 and 2010 (n = 2,186). Liuzhou respondents reported more active social and sexual behaviors than their national counterparts, including more socializing, dancing, drinking excessively, sexual activity among never married men and women, purchasing commercial sex among men, one-night stands among men, multiple sexual partnerships and self-reported STI among both men and women. Women in Liuzhou reported greater sexual risk behavior than their national counterparts, although overall they reported less than their male counterparts; they were also more likely to have had an abortion than women in other prefectural cities. Our findings provide a comprehensive overview of the sexual context of Liuzhou among the general population, which may help explain the greater STI/HIV prevalence in Liuzhou. PMID:24174289

  10. Older lesbian sexuality: identity, sexual behavior, and the impact of aging.

    PubMed

    Averett, Paige; Yoon, Intae; Jenkins, Carol L

    2012-01-01

    In response to the very limited and mostly outdated literature on older lesbian sexuality, this exploratory study examined older lesbian sexual identity, romantic relationships, the impact of aging, and experiences of discrimination within these contexts. Utilizing an online survey that recruited via numerous online lesbian communities and snowball sampling, 456 lesbians over the age of 50 responded to closed, Likert scale, and open-ended questions that provided a preliminary understanding of older lesbian sexuality. The results indicated that older lesbians have experienced fluidity in past romantic and sexual relationships, as well as in erotic fantasies, despite strong identification with being lesbian. The findings also indicate a decreased focus on sexuality in the context of relationships, with more focus on stability and continuity. Future research is needed that provides greater specificity and detail about older lesbian conceptions of sexual behavior and sexual identity labels, as well as specific sexual behaviors. PMID:21707407

  11. Sexual behavior and autism spectrum disorders: an update and discussion.

    PubMed

    Kellaher, Denise C

    2015-04-01

    In the last few years, we have gained a deeper understanding about sexuality among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Greater interest in this subject and improvements in the empirical study of ASD populations are driving this enlightenment. The data is dispelling antiquated notions that ASD individuals are asexual, sexually unknowledgeable and inexperienced, and/or disinterested in relationships. We still have a ways to go in examining paraphilic or deviant arousal sexual behaviors among ASD individuals. This manuscript provides an update on sexuality research in ASD in the last few years. This is accompanied by a discussion of the paraphilic type sexual behaviors observed among some ASD individuals. PMID:25749749

  12. Examining links between sexual risk behaviors and dating violence involvement as a function of sexual orientation

    PubMed Central

    Hipwell, A.E.; Stepp, S.D.; Keenan, K.; Allen, A.; Hoffmann, A.; Rottingen, L.; McAloon, R.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective To examine the association between dating violence perpetration and victimization and sexually risky behaviors among sexual minority and heterosexual adolescent girls. Design Adolescent girls reported on sexual orientation, sexual behaviors and risk-taking, and their use of and experience with dating violence in the past year. Data were analyzed using multinomial regression adjusted for race, poverty, living in a single parent household, and gender of current partner to examine (1) whether sexual minority status was associated with sexual risk behaviors after sociodemographic correlates of sexual risk were controlled; and (2) whether dating violence context accounted for elevated risk. Setting Urban, population-based sample of girls interviewed in the home. Participants 1,647 adolescent girls (38% European American, 57% African American, and 5% other) aged 17 years. Over one third of the sample lived in poverty. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measure Sexual risk-taking. Results Sexual minority status differentiated girls engaging in high sexual risk-taking from those reporting none, after controlling for sociodemographic and relationship characteristics. Dating violence perpetration and victimization made unique additional contributions to this model, and did not account for the elevated risk conferred by sexual minority status. Conclusions Sexual minority girls (SMGs) were more likely than heterosexual girls to report high sexual risk-taking and teen dating violence victimization. As with heterosexual girls, sexual risk-taking among SMGs was compounded by dating violence, which was not explained by partner gender. Adolescent girls’ risky sexual behavior may be reduced by interventions for teen dating violence regardless of sexual minority status. PMID:23726138

  13. The Relationship Between Hypersexual Behavior, Sexual Excitation, Sexual Inhibition, and Personality Traits.

    PubMed

    Rettenberger, Martin; Klein, Verena; Briken, Peer

    2016-01-01

    The term hypersexuality was introduced to describe excessive sexual behavior associated with a person's inability to control his or her sexual behavior. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of different personality traits on the degree of hypersexual behavior as measured by the Hypersexual Behavior Inventory (HBI). A further aim was to evaluate the association between sexual inhibition and excitation [as described in the Dual Control Model (DCM)] and hypersexual behavior. A sample of 1,749 participants completed an internet-based survey comprised the HBI, the short form of the Sexual Inhibition/Sexual Excitation Scales (SIS/SES-SF) as well as more general personality measures: the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System-scales (BIS/BAS-scales) and a short version of the Big Five Inventory (BFI-10). Using the recommended HBI cut-off, 6.0 % (n = 105) of the present sample could be categorized as hypersexual, which is comparable to the results of previous studies about the prevalence of hypersexual behavior in the general population. The results provided strong support for the components of the DCM-sexual excitation and inhibition-to explain hypersexual behavior, irrespective of gender and sexual orientation. Some of the general personality traits also showed significant relationships with hypersexual behavior. Taken together, the results of the present study provide further support for the relevance of research about the relationships between sexual problems and disorders, the DCM, and personality variables. PMID:25559323

  14. Heterosexual anal sexuality and anal sex behaviors: a review.

    PubMed

    McBride, Kimberly R; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2010-03-01

    Little research addresses the role of anal sexuality and anal sexual behaviors as a widely practiced but relatively less frequent element of a heterosexual sexual repertoire. However, the importance of anal sex in sexual health is increasingly well-defined by epidemiological and clinical studies. This article reviews existing data on a range of heterosexual anal sex practices and provides conceptual and methodological recommendations for new research. PMID:20358456

  15. Sexual Behavior in Young Adulthood: A Population-Based Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Mustanski, Brian; Viken, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Winter, Torsten; Rose, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective With behavior genetic analyses of data from young adult twins, we evaluated theoretical perspectives that differentially emphasize biological dispositions, social/cultural factors, or universal pathways to explain individual differences in sexual behaviors. Design We fit biometric sex limitation models to three aspects of sexual behavior reported by 4,925 Finnish twins aged 23–27. The sample, from five consecutive birth cohorts, of 2,448 twin pairs (886 sister-sister, 862 brother-sister, 700 brother-brother), included 785 monozygotic and 801 same-sex dizygotic pairs. In addition to model fitting data from twin pairs, we conducted analyses on twins as individuals to test for independence of initiation of sexual behavior from onset age and number of partners. Main Outcome Measures From a postal questionnaire, we obtained self-report information on initiation/abstinence of sexual intercourse, onset age, and number of sexual partners. Results Genetic and non-shared environmental influences were significant for all three measures. There were trends for common environmental influences on initiation and, in females, age at first intercourse. Some differential effects in males and females were found. Results comparing onset age and number of partners among experienced twins from pairs concordant and discordant for initiation found genetic and environmental influences on initiation/abstinence overlapped those found for the other aspects of sexual behavior. Conclusions These results document genetic variation in individual differences in sexual behavior of young adults. Incorporating genetic dispositions into integrated models of sexual behavior will facilitate more effective health promotion and risk taking intervention. PMID:17845112

  16. Measurement and Design Issues in the Study of Adolescent Sexual Behavior and the Evaluation of Adolescent Sexual Health Behavior Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael; Palacios, Rebecca; Penhollow, Tina M.

    2012-01-01

    To improve the quality of research and commentary concerning adolescent sexuality and evaluation of both comprehensive sexuality education and abstinence education programs, this article aims to help readers (1) select appropriate measures to study adolescent sexual behavior, (2) develop appropriate study designs to evaluate adolescent sexual…

  17. Effects of Sexual Expectancies on Early Sexualized Behavior Among Urban Minority Youth.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Ian W; Traube, Dorian E; Schrager, Sheree M; Levine, Brooklyn; Alicea, Stacey; Watson, Janet L; Miranda, Ana; McKay, Mary M

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effects of different types of sexual expectancies on early sexual behavior among racial/ethnic minority young adolescents. African American and Latino participants between 11 and 13 years old were recruited through schools and community-based agencies in the South Bronx, New York (N = 223). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to predict early sexual behavior outcomes, which include engagement in sexual possibility situations, kissing, and sexual touching. The moderating effect of gender was examined using multiplicative interaction terms. Higher expectations categorized as personal/parental and romantic/peer expectancies related to the negative consequences of sexual intercourse decreased the odds of engagement in early sexual behavior; whereas higher academic/career and sexual health expectancies did not. Gender moderated the relationships between personal/parental expectancies and engagement in sexual possibility situations and romantic/peer expectancies and kissing. Social workers formulating sexual health promotion and HIV prevention programs for racial/ethnic minority young adolescents should focus on personal/parental and romantic/peer expectancies in favor of negative expectancies regarding academic/career achievement, pregnancy, and HIV. Social work interventions to delay sexual debut should include a family-based component and should be sensitive to gender differences in sexual expectancies. PMID:22461958

  18. Effects of Sexual Expectancies on Early Sexualized Behavior Among Urban Minority Youth

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Levine, Brooklyn; Alicea, Stacey; Watson, Janet L.; Miranda, Ana; McKay, Mary M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effects of different types of sexual expectancies on early sexual behavior among racial/ethnic minority young adolescents. African American and Latino participants between 11 and 13 years old were recruited through schools and community-based agencies in the South Bronx, New York (N = 223). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to predict early sexual behavior outcomes, which include engagement in sexual possibility situations, kissing, and sexual touching. The moderating effect of gender was examined using multiplicative interaction terms. Higher expectations categorized as personal/parental and romantic/peer expectancies related to the negative consequences of sexual intercourse decreased the odds of engagement in early sexual behavior; whereas higher academic/career and sexual health expectancies did not. Gender moderated the relationships between personal/parental expectancies and engagement in sexual possibility situations and romantic/peer expectancies and kissing. Social workers formulating sexual health promotion and HIV prevention programs for racial/ethnic minority young adolescents should focus on personal/parental and romantic/peer expectancies in favor of negative expectancies regarding academic/career achievement, pregnancy, and HIV. Social work interventions to delay sexual debut should include a family-based component and should be sensitive to gender differences in sexual expectancies. PMID:22461958

  19. Religiosity and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among African American Cocaine Users in the Rural South

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Brooke E.E.; Stewart, Katharine E.; Yeary, Karen H.K.; Cornell, Carol E.; Pulley, LeaVonne; Corwyn, Robert; Ounpraseuth, Songthip T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Racial and geographic disparities in human immunodeficency virus (HIV) are dramatic and drug use is a significant contributor to HIV risk. Within the rural South, African Americans who use drugs are at extremely high risk. Due to the importance of religion within African American and rural Southern communities, it can be a key element of culturally-targeted health promotion with these populations. Studies have examined religion’s relationship with sexual risk in adolescent populations, but few have examined specific religious behaviors and sexual risk behaviors among drug-using African American adults. This study examined the relationship between well-defined dimensions of religion and specific sexual behaviors among African Americans who use cocaine living in the rural southern United States. Methods Baseline data from a sexual risk reduction intervention for African Americans who use cocaine living in rural Arkansas (N = 205) were used to conduct bivariate and multivariate analyses examining the association between multiple sexual risk behaviors and key dimensions of religion including religious preference, private and public religious participation, religious coping, and God-based, congregation-based, and church leader-based religious support. Findings After adjusting individualized network estimator weights based on the recruitment strategy, different dimensions of religion had inverse relationships with sexual risk behavior, including church leadership support with number of unprotected vaginal/anal sexual encounter and positive religious coping with number of sexual partners and with total number of vaginal/anal sexual encounters. Conclusion Results suggest that specific dimensions of religion may have protective effects on certain types of sexual behavior, which may have important research implications. PMID:24575972

  20. Serotonin signaling in the brain of adult female mice is required for sexual preference

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Yan; Rao, Yi

    2013-01-01

    A role for serotonin in male sexual preference was recently uncovered by our finding that male mutant mice lacking serotonin have lost sexual preference. Here we show that female mouse mutants lacking either central serotonergic neurons or serotonin prefer female over male genital odors when given a choice, and displayed increased female–female mounting when presented either with a choice of a male and a female target or only with a female target. Pharmacological manipulations and genetic rescue experiments showed that serotonin is required in adults. Behavioral changes caused by deficient serotonergic signaling were not due to changes in plasma concentrations of sex hormones. We demonstrate that a genetic manipulation reverses sexual preference without involving sex hormones. Our results indicate that serotonin controls sexual preference. PMID:23716677

  1. Young Adult Relationship Values at the Intersection of Gender and Sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Kathleen E.; Ortyl, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent decades have brought significant social changes in the industrialized West that may influence young adults’ attitudes about intimate relationships, including changes in gender expectations and behaviors and changes in sexual attitudes and practices. We used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (N=14,121) to compare men to women, and sexual minorities to heterosexuals, on ratings of the importance of love, faithfulness, commitment, financial security, and racial homogamy for successful relationships. We found that nearly all young adults adhere to dominant relationship values inherent in the romantic love ideology; however, we found modest but significant differences by gender and sexual identity in relationship values. Significant interactions demonstrated that gender and sexual identity intersect to uniquely influence relationship views. PMID:23710079

  2. Marital Aspirations, Sexual Behaviors, and HIV/AIDS in Rural Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Shelley; Poulin, Michelle; Kohler, Hans-Peter

    2009-01-01

    We explore how marital aspirations are related to the sexual behaviors of adolescents and young adults in Malawi, where HIV/AIDS prevalence among adults exceeds 10%. We also consider whether the specter of AIDS is shaping ideals about marriage. By combining survey data (N = 1,087) and in-depth interviews (N = 133) with young Malawians from the Malawi Diffusion and Ideational Change Project, we show that looking for and finding a suitable spouse are linked to sexual behaviors and, thus, HIV risks. Moreover, concerns about contracting HIV are closely tied to the ideal characteristics of a future spouse. Our findings draw long-overdue attention to the importance of marital aspirations in understanding adolescent sexual behaviors and risks in the era of AIDS. PMID:20161389

  3. An Exploratory Study of Selected Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes of Indiana Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christina A.; Baldwin, Kathleen L.; Tanner, Amanda E.

    2007-01-01

    Although there are numerous ways to obtain accurate information about sexuality, research suggests that many American adults do not have accurate sexuality and sexual health knowledge. This research investigated selected sexual knowledge and attitudes of adults in Indiana. A representative sample of men (n = 158) and women (n = 340) aged 18 to 89…

  4. Health Risk Behavior and Sexual Assault Among Ethnically Diverse Women

    PubMed Central

    Littleton, Heather L.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Buck, Katherine S.; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among ethnic minority samples or identify the mechanisms responsible for this association. The current study examined sexual assault history and two health risk behaviors (hazardous drinking and engaging in sexual behavior to regulate negative affect) in a diverse sample of 1,620 college women. Depression and anxiety were examined as mediators of the relationship between sexual assault and health risk behaviors. There was evidence of moderated mediation, such that for European American women, but not for ethnic minority women, both forms of psychological distress were significant mediators of the sexual assault/hazardous drinking relationship. In contrast, among all ethnic groups, the relationship between sexual assault and both forms of psychological distress was mediated by the use of sexual behavior as an affect regulation strategy. Results support a need to evaluate the assault experiences of ethnically diverse women, as well as the impact of the assault on their postassault experiences including health risk behaviors and psychological adjustment. Additionally, results suggest that practitioners should carefully assess health risk behaviors among victims of sexual assault and be aware that there may be differences in the risk factors and motives for these behaviors among women of various ethnic backgrounds. PMID:24223467

  5. Childhood Trauma, Adult Sexual Assault, and Adult Gender Expression among Lesbian and Bisexual Women

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Yamile; Simoni, Jane M.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that lesbian and bisexual women are more likely than heterosexual women to report childhood abuse and adult sexual assault. It is unknown, however, which sexual minority women are most likely to experience such abuse. We recruited adult sexual minority women living in the US through electronic fliers sent to listservs and website groups inviting them to complete an online survey (N=1,243). We examined differences in both childhood abuse and adult sexual assault by women’s current gender identity (i.e., butch, femme, androgynous, or other) and a continuous measure of gender expression (from butch/masculine to femme/feminine), adjusting for sexual orientation identity, age, education, and income. Results indicated that a more butch/masculine current self-assessment of gender expression, but not gender identity, was associated with more overall reported childhood trauma. Although one aspect of gender expression, a more butch/masculine gender role, was associated with adult sexual assault, feminine appearance and a femme gender identity also significantly predicted adult sexual assault. These findings highlight the significance of gender identity and expression in identifying women at greater risk for various abuse experiences. PMID:24003263

  6. Sexual Assault and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Adults, Adolescents, and Children.

    PubMed

    Seña, Arlene C; Hsu, Katherine K; Kellogg, Nancy; Girardet, Rebecca; Christian, Cindy W; Linden, Judith; Griffith, William; Marchant, Anne; Jenny, Carole; Hammerschlag, Margaret R

    2015-12-15

    Survivors of sexual assault are at risk for acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted literature reviews and invited experts to assist in updating the sexual assault section for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sexually transmitted diseases (STD) treatment guidelines. New recommendations for STI management among adult and adolescent sexual assault survivors include use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis by vaginal swabs; NAATs for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis from pharyngeal and rectal specimens among patients with a history of exposure or suspected extragenital contact after sexual assault; empiric therapy for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis based on updated treatment regimens; vaccinations for human papillomavirus (HPV) among previously unvaccinated patients aged 9-26 years; and consideration for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis using an algorithm to assess the timing and characteristics of the exposure. For child sexual assault (CSA) survivors, recommendations include targeted diagnostic testing with increased use of NAATs when appropriate; routine follow-up visits within 6 months after the last known sexual abuse; and use of HPV vaccination in accordance with national immunization guidelines as a preventive measure in the post-sexual assault care setting. For CSA patients, NAATs are considered to be acceptable for identification of gonococcal and chlamydial infections from urine samples, but are not recommended for extragenital testing due to the potential detection of nongonococcal Neisseria species. Several research questions were identified regarding the prevalence, detection, and management of STI/HIV infections among adult, adolescent, and pediatric sexual assault survivors. PMID:26602623

  7. Heterogeneity in Patterns of Sexual Risk Behaviors among African-American Youth: Associations with General and Race-Specific Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrow, Anthony L.; Tubman, Jonathan G.; Gil, Andres G.

    2007-01-01

    This descriptive study employed a within-groups analytic approach to examine patterns of sexual risk behavior and co-occurring general and race/ethnicity-specific risk and protective factors in a community sample of African-American youth (n = 436). Cluster analysis was used to classify young adults by levels of self-reported past year sexual risk…

  8. A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship of Child Sexual Abuse to HIV Risk Behavior among Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arriola, K.R.J.; Louden, T.; Doldren, M.A.; Fortenberry, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: This study is a meta-analysis of the literature exploring the relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) and HIV risk behavior among women. Four outcome variables were tested: unprotected sex; sex with multiple partners; sex trading; and adult sexual revictimization. Method:: Forty-six studies met the inclusion criteria and were…

  9. Associations between Bullying and Engaging in Aggressive and Suicidal Behaviors among Sexual Minority Youth: The Moderating Role of Connectedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duong, Jeffrey; Bradshaw, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research on the extent to which cyberbullying affects sexual minority youth is limited. This study examined associations between experiencing cyber and school bullying and engaging in aggressive and suicidal behaviors among sexual minority youth. We also explored whether feeling connected to an adult at school moderated these…

  10. Men's media use, sexual cognitions, and sexual risk behavior: testing a mediational model.

    PubMed

    Ward, L Monique; Epstein, Marina; Caruthers, Allison; Merriwether, Ann

    2011-03-01

    Efforts to link media use to adolescents' sexual initiation have produced somewhat inconsistent results, perhaps as a result of the limited framing of the question. This study sought to expand current approaches by sampling college students instead of high school students, by investigating a range of sexual behaviors and media formats, and by testing a model that featured sexual cognitions as mediators. We tested our model with a sample of 796 heterosexual, male college students who reported on their regular consumption of 4 media (prime-time TV programs, music videos, movies, and men's magazines); their attitudes toward abstinence, the male sexual role, and nonrelational sex; their perceptions of peer sexual behavior; and several aspects of their sexual behavior (e.g., number of sexual partners). Findings revealed strong support for our mediated model, with exposure to men's magazines and movies contributing most strongly to their sexual cognitions, and with men's cognitions, in turn, contributing heavily to their sexual behavior. Some direct connections from media use to sexual behavior also emerged. Together, the findings provide insight into both potential mechanisms for and new approaches to addressing this issue. PMID:21381815

  11. Using the Integrative Model to Explain How Exposure to Sexual Media Content Influences Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Published research demonstrates an association between exposure to media sexual content and a variety of sex-related outcomes for adolescents. What is not known is the mechanism through which sexual content produces this "media effect" on adolescent beliefs, attitudes, and behavior. Using the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction, this…

  12. Childhood Sexual Abuse in Males and Subsequent Risky Sexual Behavior: A Potential Alcohol-Use Pathway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Norris, Jeanette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among boys has been associated with a variety of subsequent maladaptive behaviors. This study explored a potential connection between CSA and an increased likelihood of risky sexual behavior in adulthood. Further, the study examined whether or not alcohol use may contribute to this relationship. Method: As…

  13. The role of masturbation in healthy sexual development: perceptions of young adults.

    PubMed

    Kaestle, Christine E; Allen, Katherine R

    2011-10-01

    Despite efforts to identify masturbation as a strategy to improve sexual health, promote relational intimacy, and reduce unwanted pregnancy, STIs, and HIV transmission, masturbation as a context for healthy sexual development has been met with silence or trepidation in the scientific and educational communities. Relegated to the realm of commercial media, rather than rational discourse in families, schools, and the general public, young people receive mixed messages about this non-reproductive sexual behavior. In order to explore how young adults have learned about masturbation and currently perceive masturbation, we conducted a grounded theory study of 72 college students (56 females; 16 males) enrolled in a human sexuality class. Findings revealed that a young adult's perceptions of and feelings toward masturbation were the result of a developmental process that included: (1) learning about the act of masturbation and how to do it, (2) learning and internalizing the social contradiction of stigma and taboo surrounding this pleasurable act, and (3) coming to terms with this tension between stigma and pleasure. Although nearly all participants learned about masturbation through the media and peers (not parents or teachers), gender was salient in coming to terms with the contradiction of stigma and pleasure. Most of the women reported either still struggling with the contradiction or accepting it as normal. Most of the men recognized the beneficial aspects for healthy sexual development that result from masturbation. Both male and female participants identified differential sexual scripts as contributing to the double standard. PMID:21293916

  14. South African Adolescents: Pathways to Risky Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, David W.; Morojele, Neo K.; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S.

    2006-01-01

    This study tested a developmental model of pathways to risky sexual behavior among South African adolescents. Participants comprised 633 adolescents, 12-17 years old, recruited from households in Durban, South Africa. Data were collected using in-person interviews. Topics included adolescents' sexual behaviors, household poverty levels, vulnerable…

  15. Effective Resources Supporting Healthy Sexual Behavior in Formerly Incarcerated Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senteio, Charles; Collins, Summer Wright; Jackson, Rachael; Welk, Stacy; Zhang, Shun

    2010-01-01

    The sexual health behavior of formerly incarcerated persons (FIPs) not only affects the FIP, their sex partners, and their significant others, but also affects their families and the communities in which they live. Certain health conditions, which are overrepresented in incarcerated populations, are directly impacted by sexual health behavior.…

  16. 20 CFR 638.512 - Sexual behavior and harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sexual behavior and harassment. 638.512 Section 638.512 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.512 Sexual behavior and harassment. The Job Corps Director...

  17. INSTRUMENTS OF HIGH RISK SEXUAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaei, Mojtaba; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Saadat, Seyed-Hassan; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sexual behavior is a complex activity affecting all aspects of human’s life. Risky sexual behaviors impose negative outcomes on family, relationships and health. Unsafe sex is the second most leading cause of disability adjusted life years worldwide. Valid and reliable tools for assessment of risky sexual behaviors are necessary for implementing preventive measures. Methods: we searched Medline and the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews, with the keywords of “risky sexual behavior assessment”, “sexual risk assessment”, “high risk sexual behavior”, “sexual risk taking”. By reviewing references of the articles, some complementary studies were added. Results: Assessment can be performed by questionnaire or non-questionnaire instruments. Questionnaires vary depending on their target population, evaluation of risky sexual behavior as a whole or focusing on an associated risk factor. In order to avoid usual biases in self reports, objective biomarker assessment of unprotected sex are employed. These markers include prostate specific antigen, chromosome Y DNA and Seminogelin. Conclusion: Risky sexual behavior can be assessed by various subjective and objective methods. While self-reports are more feasible, objective methods offer a higher degree of reliability. Further studies for finding more feasible methods of using biomarkers are recommended. PMID:27047267

  18. Sexting and Sexual Behavior in At-Risk Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Barker, David; Rizzo, Christie; Hancock, Evan; Norton, Alicia; Brown, Larry K.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the prevalence of sexting behaviors (sexually explicit messages and/or pictures) among an at-risk sample of early adolescents as well as the associations between sexting behaviors and sexual behaviors, risk-related cognitions, and emotional regulation skills. It also aimed to determine whether differences in risk were associated with text-based versus photo-based sexts. METHODS: Seventh-grade adolescents participating in a sexual risk prevention trial for at-risk early adolescents completed a computer-based survey at baseline regarding sexting behavior (having sent sexually explicit messages and/or pictures), sexual activities, intentions to have sex, perceived approval of sexual activity, and emotional regulation skills. RESULTS: Twenty-two percent of the sample reported having sexted in the past 6 months; sexual messages were endorsed by 17% (n = 71), sexual messages and photos by 5% (n = 21). Pictures were endorsed significantly more often by females (χ2[2] = 7.33, P = .03) and Latinos (χ2[2] = 7.27, P = .03). Sexting of any kind was associated with higher rates of engaging in a variety of sexual behaviors, and sending photos was associated with higher rates of sexual activity than sending text messages only. This was true for a range of behaviors from touching genitals over clothes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.98, P = .03) to oral sex (OR = 2.66, P < .01) to vaginal sex (OR = 2.23, P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Sexting behavior (both photo and text messages) was not uncommon among middle school youth and co-occurred with sexual behavior. These data suggest that phone behaviors, even flirtatious messages, may be an indicator of risk. Clinicians, parents, and health programs should discuss sexting with early adolescents. PMID:24394678

  19. Chronic social stress in puberty alters appetitive male sexual behavior and neural metabolic activity.

    PubMed

    Bastida, Christel C; Puga, Frank; Gonzalez-Lima, Francisco; Jennings, Kimberly J; Wommack, Joel C; Delville, Yvon

    2014-07-01

    Repeated social subjugation in early puberty lowers testosterone levels. We used hamsters to investigate the effects of social subjugation on male sexual behavior and metabolic activity within neural systems controlling social and motivational behaviors. Subjugated animals were exposed daily to aggressive adult males in early puberty for postnatal days 28 to 42, while control animals were placed in empty clean cages. On postnatal day 45, they were tested for male sexual behavior in the presence of receptive female. Alternatively, they were tested for mate choice after placement at the base of a Y-maze containing a sexually receptive female in one tip of the maze and an ovariectomized one on the other. Social subjugation did not affect the capacity to mate with receptive females. Although control animals were fast to approach females and preferred ovariectomized individuals, subjugated animals stayed away from them and showed no preference. Cytochrome oxidase activity was reduced within the preoptic area and ventral tegmental area in subjugated hamsters. In addition, the correlation of metabolic activity of these areas with the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and anterior parietal cortex changed significantly from positive in controls to negative in subjugated animals. These data show that at mid-puberty, while male hamsters are capable of mating, their appetitive sexual behavior is not fully mature and this aspect of male sexual behavior is responsive to social subjugation. Furthermore, metabolic activity and coordination of activity in brain areas related to sexual behavior and motivation were altered by social subjugation. PMID:24852486

  20. Chronic Social Stress in Puberty Alters Appetitive Male Sexual Behavior and Neural Metabolic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bastida, Christel C.; Puga, Frank; Gonzalez-Lima, Francisco; Jennings, Kimberly J.; Wommack, Joel C.; Delville, Yvon

    2014-01-01

    Repeated social subjugation in early puberty lowers testosterone levels. We used hamsters to investigate the effects of social subjugation on male sexual behavior and metabolic activity within neural systems controlling social and motivational behaviors. Subjugated animals were exposed daily to aggressive adult males in early puberty for postnatal days 28 to 42, while control animals were placed in empty clean cages. On postnatal day 45, they were tested for male sexual behavior in the presence of receptive female. Alternatively, they were tested for mate choice after placement at the base of a Y-maze containing a sexually receptive female in one tip of the maze and an ovariectomized one on the other. Social subjugation did not affect the capacity to mate with receptive females. Although control animals were fast to approach females and preferred ovariectomized individuals, subjugated animals stayed away from them and showed no preference. Cytochrome oxidase activity was reduced within the preoptic area and ventral tegmental area in subjugated hamsters. In addition, the correlation of metabolic activity of these areas with the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and anterior parietal cortex changed significantly from positive in controls to negative in subjugated animals. These data show that at mid-puberty, while male hamsters are capable of mating, their appetitive sexual behavior is not fully mature and this aspect of male sexual behavior is responsive to social subjugation. Furthermore, metabolic activity and coordination of activity in brain areas related to sexual behavior and motivation was altered by social subjugation. PMID:24852486

  1. Victim Therapy with Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Thomas L.

    This paper describes a four-phase therapeutic approach that has proven useful to adult female and male survivors of child sexual abuse. The methods described are primarily used in individual therapy, although the context is within the family therapy realm and relies heavily upon Structural Family Systems Theory. The four phases which a victim…

  2. Homicide-Suicides between Adult Sexual Intimates: An Australian Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easteal, Patricia

    1994-01-01

    Examined retrospective data on homicide-suicide in Australia to determine what differentiates homicides between adult sexual intimates that include suicide of offender from those that do not. Found that, if offender was male, estranged from partner, and used gun to kill more than one victim, or was older with ailing wife, he was more apt to also…

  3. Unresolved Childhood Sexual Abuse: Are Older Adults Affected?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allers, Christopher T.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents case studies and discussions regarding 3 observed characteristics of unresolved childhood sexual abuse in adult survivors over 65 years of age. Specifically, chronic depression, elder abuse, and misdiagnosis of residual abuse trauma as dementia or mental illness are compared to parallel issues identified by researchers working with…

  4. Knowledge of Juvenile Sex Offender Registration Laws Predicts Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Margaret C.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Wiley, Tisha R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Because juveniles can now be registered as sex offenders, we conducted a pilot study to investigate awareness of these policies and sexual behavior histories in a convenience sample of 53 young adults (ages 18 to 23, 79% women). These preliminary data revealed that 42% percent of participants were unaware that youth under the age of 18 can be…

  5. Impulsivity and Its Relationship to Risky Sexual Behaviors and Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Ken C.; Botzet, Andria M.; Fahnhorst, Tamara; Baumel, Lindsey; Lee, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    We examined a mediational model of the interrelationship of drug use, sexual risk, and impulsivity in a sample of young adults (N = 89), of which almost half displayed highly disruptive behaviors as children. We chose a mediational model given the emerging evidence that impulsivity is an underlying risk factor for many youth health risk problems,…

  6. Sexual dimorphism in venom chemistry in Tetragnatha spiders is not easily explained by adult niche differences.

    PubMed

    Binford, Greta J; Gillespie, Rosemary G; Maddison, Wayne P

    2016-05-01

    Spider venom composition typically differs between sexes. This pattern is anecdotally thought to reflect differences in adult feeding biology. We used a phylogenetic approach to compare intersexual venom dimorphism between species that differ in adult niche dimorphism. Male and female venoms were compared within and between related species of Hawaiian Tetragnatha, a mainland congener, and outgroups. In some species of Hawaiian Tetragnatha adult females spin orb-webs and adult males capture prey while wandering, while in other species both males and females capture prey by wandering. We predicted that, if venom sexual dimorphism is primarily explained by differences in adult feeding biology, species in which both sexes forage by wandering would have monomorphic venoms or venoms with reduced dimorphism relative to species with different adult feeding biology. However, we found striking sexual dimorphism in venoms of both wandering and orb-weaving Tetragnatha species with males having high molecular weight components in their venoms that were absent in females, and a reduced concentration of low molecular weight components relative to females. Intersexual differences in venom composition within Tetragnatha were significantly larger than in non-Tetragnatha species. Diet composition was not different between sexes. This striking venom dimorphism is not easily explained by differences in feeding ecology or behavior. Rather, we hypothesize that the dimorphism reflects male-specific components that play a role in mating biology possibly in sexual stimulation, nuptial gifts and/or mate recognition. PMID:26908290

  7. Behavioral discriminators of sexual sadism and paraphilia nonconsent in a sample of civilly committed sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Richards, Henry; Jackson, Rebecca L

    2011-04-01

    Sexual sadism continues to be a diagnosis fraught with controversy concerning its reliability and validity. The current study examined the offense behavior of 39 civilly committed sexual offenders diagnosed with sexual sadism compared to a group of similarly committed individual diagnoses with Paraphilia Not Otherwise Specified (NOS)- Nonconsent. In addition, offense elements common across studies of sadism were identified. Specifically, offense behaviors including victim abduction and confinement, beating the victim during a sexual assault, and using restraints were indicative of sexual sadism across studies. In addition, this study found the use of noncontingent threats as well as gestures of mutuality to be more common among sadists. Results overall suggest that sadistic acts may be more characterized by humiliation of the victim through the exercise of power and control than by the use of violence. Differential diagnosis between Sexual Sadism and Paraphilia NOS-Nonconsent, may be aided by close inspection of offense behavior. PMID:20622251

  8. Estimating the Longitudinal Association Between Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Exposure to Sexual Media Content

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the association between adolescent sexual behavior and exposure to sexual media content. Methods A three wave longitudinal survey sample (N = 506) of 14-16 year olds at baseline is analyzed using growth curves. Results Growth trajectories are linear for sexual behavior but not for exposure to sexual media content. The signs of the exposure slopes are not uniformly positive: Hispanic and African-American respondents show declines of exposure to sexual media content over the age range investigated here. Conclusions While changes in exposure to sex content are highly associated with changes in sexual behavior among Whites, there is little or no association between changes in these variables among Blacks. PMID:19382030

  9. “It felt good but weird at the same time”: Emerging adults’ first experiences of six different sexual behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Vasilenko, Sara A.; Maas, Megan K.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2015-01-01

    Although sexual behavior is multidimensional, little research has focused on the experience of non-intercourse behaviors for adolescents and emerging adults. This paper uses open-ended coded data from a longitudinal study of college students (N = 346; Mean age = 18.5, 52% female, 27% Hispanic/Latino [HL], 25% non-HL European American, 23% non-HL Asian American, 16% non-HL African American, 9% non-HL Multiracial) to examine what emotional responses emerging adults report about their first experiences of six sexual behaviors. The four most common emotional reactions were happy, excited, fearful, and indifferent. Descriptions were largely positive, although mixed reactions were relatively common and emotional reactions varied by behavior. Results suggest the importance of including multiple types of sexual behaviors, as well as their possible positive and negative outcomes, in sexuality education programs. PMID:26366039

  10. Women’s Sexuality: Behaviors, Responses, and Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Barbara L.; Cyranowski, Jill M.

    2009-01-01

    Classic and contemporary approaches to the assessment of female sexuality are discussed. General approaches, assessment strategies, and models of female sexuality are organized within the conceptual domains of sexual behaviors, sexual responses (desire, excitement, orgasm, and resolution), and individual differences, including general and sex-specific personality models. Where applicable, important trends and relationships are highlighted in the literature with both existing reports and previously unpublished data. The present conceptual overview highlights areas in sexual assessment and model building that are in need of further research and theoretical clarification. PMID:8543712

  11. Pretending orgasm during sexual intercourse: correlates in a sample of young adult women.

    PubMed

    Wiederman, M W

    1997-01-01

    Although popular media have addressed the issue of women pretending orgasm during sexual intercourse, the research literature on the phenomenon is sparse. In the current study, 161 young adult women provided data regarding lifetime sexual experience, objective and subjective physical attractiveness, sexual attitudes (erotophobia-erotophilia), sexual esteem, and general tendencies toward self-monitoring of expressive behavior in social situations. Overall, more than one-half of the women reported having pretended orgasm during sexual intercourse. In univariate analyses, the "pretenders" and "non-pretenders" did not differ in experimenter-rated facial attractiveness, self-rated body attractiveness, or general self-monitoring. However, pretenders were significantly older; viewed themselves as facially more attractive, reported having had first intercourse at a younger age; reported greater numbers of lifetime intercourse, fellatio, and cunnilingus partners; and scored higher on measures of sexual esteem and erotophilia. In multivariate analyses, only sexual esteem was uniquely related to having pretended orgasm. The findings are discussed with regard to possible explanations and implications, as well as directions for future research. PMID:9230494

  12. Changes in American Adults' Reported Same-Sex Sexual Experiences and Attitudes, 1973-2014.

    PubMed

    Twenge, Jean M; Sherman, Ryne A; Wells, Brooke E

    2016-10-01

    We examined change over time in the reported prevalence of men having sex with men and women having sex with women and acceptance of those behaviors in the nationally representative General Social Survey of U.S. adults (n's = 28,161-33,728, ages 18-96 years), 1972-2014. The number of U.S. adults who had at least one same-sex partner since age 18 doubled between the early 1990s and early 2010s (from 3.6 to 8.7 % for women and from 4.5 to 8.2 % for men). Bisexual behavior (having sex with both male and female partners) increased from 3.1 to 7.7 %, accounting for much of the rise, with little consistent change in those having sex exclusively with same-sex partners. The increase in same-sex partners was larger for women than for men, consistent with erotic plasticity theory. Attitudes toward same-sex sexual behavior also became substantially more accepting, d = .75, between the early 1970s and early 2010s. By 2014, 49 % of American adults believed that same-sex sexual activity was "not wrong at all," up from 11 % in 1973 and 13 % in 1990. Controlling for acceptance reduced, but did not eliminate, the increase in same-sex behavior over time. Mixed effects (hierarchical linear modeling) analyses separating age, time period, and cohort showed that the trends were primarily due to time period. Increases in same-sex sexual behavior were largest in the South and Midwest and among Whites, were mostly absent among Blacks, and were smaller among the religious. Overall, same-sex sexual behavior has become both more common (or at least more commonly reported) and more accepted. PMID:27251639

  13. Alcohol and Sexual Risk Behaviors as Mediators of the Sexual Victimization - Revictimization Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Maria; Hoffman, Joseph H.; Livingston, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Women who experience sexual victimization, whether in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood, are at elevated risk of sexual revictimization. The mechanism responsible for this robust association is unclear, however. The present study proposed and tested a prospective, mediated model that posited that the association between adolescent and college victimization is mediated via two types of risk exposure in the first semester of college: alcohol-related and sexual risk behaviors. Method: Female adolescents (N = 469) were recruited from the community at the time of high school graduation. They completed baseline assessments as well as follow-ups at the end of the first and second semesters of college. Results: Consistent with hypotheses, adolescent sexual victimization was associated indirectly, via high school risk behaviors, with increased first semester college risk behaviors (i.e., sexual partners, hookups, heavy episodic drinking and heavy drinking contexts), which were, in turn, strongly predictive of sexual victimization experiences in the first year of college. College risk behaviors partially mediated the significant association between adolescent and first year college victimization; however, even women without prior victimization faced elevated risk of college victimization with higher levels of college risk behaviors. Conclusions: Women who have experienced adolescent sexual victimization engage in higher levels of risk-taking in college, thereby increasing vulnerability to college victimization. Intervention to reduce these primarily alcohol-related risk-taking behaviors may reduce vulnerability to college sexual victimization. PMID:20350035

  14. Women's beliefs about infertility and sexual behaviors: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Bokaie, Mahshid; Simbar, Masoumeh; Ardekani, Seyed Mojtaba Yassini; Majd, Hamid Alavi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infertility is a reproductive health problem and its prevalence is increasing in developing countries. This problem has some significant effects on the sexual behaviors of infertile women, especially during infertility treatment periods. Discovering the existing beliefs in the field of sexual and reproductive health and also determining the misconceptions would define the educational needs for providing sexual health programs for infertile women. Women should be able to distinguish risky behaviors from healthy behaviors that falsely have been marked as infertility-related behaviors. This qualitative study was conducted to determine women's beliefs about infertility and sexual behaviors among Iranian infertile women. Materials and Methods: The present study was a qualitative conventional content analysis study conducted on 15 infertile women and 8 key informants until reaching data saturation. Guba and Lincoln evaluative criteria were used for ensuring rigor of the study. Results: Data analysis defined three classes of beliefs that directly or indirectly affected sexual behaviors in infertile women: 1) Cultural, religious, or ethnic beliefs, 2) believing in the effect of diet on infertility, and 3) effect of the type of intercourse on getting pregnant. Conclusions: Three themes of religious, cultural, and ethnic beliefs, believing in the effect of diet on infertility, and the effect of the type of intercourse were the most important factors indicating sexual behaviors among infertile women. It seems that cultural and social matters are the most effective factors on sexual behaviors of infertile Iranian women. PMID:27563321

  15. Religious Orientation and Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillen, Eileen K.; Helm, Herbert W., Jr.; McBride, Duane C.

    2011-01-01

    Religion is one of the major forces of control over sexuality, and many studies have observed an inverse relationship between religiosity and sexual permissiveness. The Religious Orientation Scale has been used to study the relationship between religious orientation and sexuality. It has been found that those with intrinsic views are more…

  16. Multimodal sexual signaling and mating behavior in olive baboons (Papio anubis).

    PubMed

    Rigaill, Lucie; Higham, James P; Lee, Phyllis C; Blin, Amandine; Garcia, Cécile

    2013-07-01

    In primate species, mating decisions seem to be based on multiple signal elements with different roles in the signaling of female reproductive status. Whereas some primate signals are relatively well described (e.g., sexual swellings and copulation calls), studies that simultaneously assess visual, auditory, behavioral, and olfactory cues as signals of reproductive state are rarely undertaken. We used data on variation in sexual behaviors and sexual swellings in relation to the fertile period (estimated from the date of swelling detumescence) from a troop of semi-free ranging olive baboons (Papio anubis) to assess how different signals influence patterns of mate choice. Using an objective and quantitative measure of swelling size and color, along with detailed data on sexual behaviors from 13 cycles of nine adult females, we found that fine-scale variation in sexual swelling size, female behavior and copulation call rates could advertise the beginning of the fertile phase whereas swelling color did not. Rates of olfactory inspections by males also increased during the fertile phase, suggesting that olfactory signals were of interest to males and may contain information about ovulation. There was no relationship between female characteristics (age and rank) and the expression of sexual signals, except for proceptive behaviors which increased with female rank. Males displayed more sexual behaviors such as approaches and holding and tended to direct more ejaculatory mounts during the fertile phase. All together, we suggest that whereas all males could have information concerning the timing of ovulation through female proceptive behaviors and swelling size, consorting males may have access to additional signals (olfactory cues). Sexual communication in olive baboons is consistent with a multimodal framework for fertility signaling, potentially allowing males and females to establish different mating strategies. The possible selective pressures leading to multi

  17. Modeling effects of explicit and nonexplicit sexual stimuli on the sexual anxiety and behavior of women.

    PubMed

    Wishnoff, R

    1978-09-01

    This study focused on the specific effects of explicit and nonexplicit sexual stimuli on anxious, coitally inexperienced women. Using Bandura's social learning theory as the thoretical framework, the consequences of modeling behavior on an individual's response patterns were examined. Responses indicating sexual anxiety level, preferred sexual behavior, and manifest anxiety level were recorded. Forty-five women were selected based on their scores on the Short Manifest Anxiety Scale. The subjects were then randomly placed into three treatment groups: explicit, nonexplicit, and control. Analysis of the data revealed significant differences among the women in each of the three groups regarding sexual behavior. Sexual anxiety levels also differed between women in the explicit and control groups. Pre- and posttest manifest anxiety scores also showed a significant difference in the explicit-group women. It has been shown that anxious, coitally inexperienced women who are exposed to sexually explicit stimuli in a controlled situation will have lower sexual anxiety levels, have lowered manifest anxiety levels, and be more willing to participate in a greater variety of sexual behaviors under appropriate circumstances. The results of this study may aid those in the helping professions gain a better understanding of the effects sexual stimuli have on certain individuals. PMID:568923

  18. Adult Male Circumcision: Effects on Sexual Function and Sexual Satisfaction in Kisumu, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, John N.; Mehta, Supriya D.; Bailey, Robert C.; Agot, Kawango; Ndinya-Achola, Jeckoniah O.; Parker, Corette; Moses, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Male circumcision is being promoted for HIV prevention in high-risk heterosexual populations. However, there is a concern that circumcision may impair sexual function. Aim To assess adult male circumcision’s effect on men’s sexual function and pleasure. Methods Participants in a controlled trial of circumcision to reduce HIV incidence in Kisumu, Kenya were uncircumcised, HIV negative, sexually active men, aged 18–24 years, with a hemoglobin ≥9.0 mmol/L. Exclusion criteria included foreskin covering less than half the glans, a condition that might unduly increase surgical risks, or a medical indication for circumcision. Participants were randomized 1:1 to either immediate circumcision or delayed circumcision after 2 years (control group). Detailed evaluations occurred at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Main Outcome Measures (i) Sexual function between circumcised and uncircumcised men; and (ii) sexual satisfaction and pleasure over time following circumcision. Results Between February 2002 and September 2005, 2,784 participants were randomized, including the 100 excluded from this analysis because they crossed over, were not circumcised within 30 days of randomization, did not complete baseline interviews, or were outside the age range. For the circumcision and control groups, respectively, rates of any reported sexual dysfunction decreased from 23.6% and 25.9% at baseline to 6.2% and 5.8% at month 24. Changes over time were not associated with circumcision status. Compared to before they were circumcised, 64.0% of circumcised men reported their penis was “much more sensitive,” and 54.5% rated their ease of reaching orgasm as “much more” at month 24. Conclusions Adult male circumcision was not associated with sexual dysfunction. Circumcised men reported increased penile sensitivity and enhanced ease of reaching orgasm. These data indicate that integration of male circumcision into programs to reduce HIV risk is unlikely to adversely

  19. Longitudinal Association Between Teen Sexting and Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Choi, HyeJeong

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study examines the temporal sequencing of sexting and sexual intercourse and the role of active sexting (sending a nude picture) in mediating the relationship between passive sexting (asking or being asked for a nude picture) and sexual behaviors. METHODS: Data are from Wave 2 (spring 2011) and Wave 3 (spring 2012) of an ongoing 6-year longitudinal study of high school students in southeast Texas. Participants included 964 ethnically diverse adolescents with a mean age of 16.09 years (56% female; 31% African American, 29% Caucasian, 28% Hispanic, 12% other). Retention rate for 1-year follow-up was 93%. Participants self-reported history of sexual activity (intercourse, risky sex) and sexting (sent, asked, been asked). Using path analysis, we examined whether teen sexting at baseline predicted sexual behavior at 1-year follow-up and whether active sexting mediated the relationship between passive sexting and sexual behavior. RESULTS: The odds of being sexually active at Wave 3 were 1.32 times larger for youth who sent a sext at Wave 2, relative to counterparts. However, sexting was not temporally associated with risky sexual behaviors. Consistent with our hypothesis, active sexting at Wave 2 mediated the relationship between asking or being asked for a sext and having sex over the next year. CONCLUSIONS: This study extends cross-sectional literature and supports the notion that sexting fits within the context of adolescent sexual development and may be a viable indicator of adolescent sexual activity. PMID:25287459

  20. An Extension of the Findings of Moore, Peterson, and Furstenberg (1986) regarding Family Sexual Communication and Adolescent Sexual Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Terri D.

    1989-01-01

    Used variables of gender and parental sexual attitudes to categorize college students (N=349) and their parents to examine relationship between family communication about sexuality and adolescent sexual behavior, attitudes, knowledge and contraception use. Found sexual behavior of females correlated with parent-child communication; sexual…

  1. Family Sources of Sexual Health Information, Primary Messages, and Sexual Behavior of At-Risk, Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosengard, Cynthia; Tannis, Candace; Dove, David C.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Lopez, Rosalie; Stein, L. A. R.; Morrow, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sources of sexual health information exert strong influence on adolescents' sexual behavior. Purpose: The current study was undertaken to understand how family serve as sexual information sources, the messages adolescents recall from family, and how family learning experiences affect sexual behavior among at-risk adolescents. Methods:…

  2. Base Rates, Multiple Indicators, and Comprehensive Forensic Evaluations: Why Sexualized Behavior Still Counts in Assessments of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Mark D.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    2012-01-01

    Developmentally inappropriate sexual behavior has long been viewed as a possible indicator of child sexual abuse. In recent years, however, the utility of sexualized behavior in forensic assessments of alleged child sexual abuse has been seriously challenged. This article addresses a number of the concerns that have been raised about the…

  3. The relationships among perceived peer acceptance of sexual aggression, punishment certainty, and sexually aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Strang, Emily; Peterson, Zoë D

    2013-12-01

    Researching the correlates of men's sexually aggressive behavior (i.e., verbal coercion and rape) is critical to both understanding and preventing sexual aggression. This study examined 120 men who completed an anonymous online questionnaire. The study aimed to determine the relative importance of two potential correlates of men's self-reported use of sexual aggression: (a) perceptions that male peers use and support sexual aggression and (b) perceptions of punishment likelihood associated with sexual aggression. Results revealed that perceptions of male friends' acceptance of sexual aggression were strongly associated with individual men's reports of using verbal coercion and rape. Perceptions of punishment likelihood were negatively correlated with verbal coercion but not with rape through intoxication and force. Implications for sexual aggression prevention are discussed. PMID:24014542

  4. Religiosity and risky sexual behaviors among an African American church-based population.

    PubMed

    Hawes, Starlyn M; Berkley-Patton, Jannette Y

    2014-04-01

    African Americans are disproportionately burdened by STDs and HIV in the US. This study examined the relationships between demographics, religiosity, and sexual risk behaviors among 255 adult African American church-based participants. Although participants were highly religious, they reported an average of seven lifetime sex partners and most inconsistently used condoms. Several demographic variables and religiosity significantly predicted lifetime HIV-related risk factors. Taken together, findings indicated that this population is at risk for HIV. Future research should continue to identify correlates of risky sexual behavior among African American parishioners to facilitate the development of HIV risk reduction interventions in their church settings. PMID:23054481

  5. Religiosity and Risky Sexual Behaviors among an African American Church-based Population

    PubMed Central

    Hawes, Starlyn M.; Berkley-Patton, Jannette Y.

    2014-01-01

    African Americans are disproportionately burdened by STDs and HIV in the US. This study examined the relationships between demographics, religiosity, and sexual risk behaviors among 255 adult African American church-based participants. Although participants were highly religious, they reported an average of seven lifetime sex partners and most inconsistently used condoms. Several demographic variables and religiosity significantly predicted lifetime HIV-related risk factors. Taken together, findings indicated that this population is at risk for HIV. Future research should continue to identify correlates of risky sexual behavior among African American parishioners to facilitate the development of HIV risk reduction interventions in their church settings. PMID:23054481

  6. Sexual Behaviors and Experiences among Behaviorally Bisexual Latino Men in the Midwestern United States: Implications for Sexual Health Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Omar; Dodge, Brian; Goncalves, Gabriel; Schnarrs, Phillip; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Reece, Michael; Malebranche, David; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Kelle, Guadalupe; Nix, Ryan; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2012-01-01

    The Midwestern United States (U.S.) has a high number of recent Latino migrants, but little information is available regarding their sexual behaviors. A total of 75 behaviorally bisexual men (25 Latino, 25 Black, and 25 White) participated in an exploratory study on sexual health. The data presented in this paper are restricted to the 25 self-identified Latino men. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted and optional self-administered sexual transmitted infection (STI) screening was provided. The measures used were taken from the National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior (NSSHB), a probability study of the sexual behaviors of nearly 6000 individuals aged 14-94 in the U.S. In our sample of bisexual men, the most commonly reported sexual behaviors were masturbation, vaginal intercourse, and receiving oral sex from male and female partners. The majority of the participants were the insertive partner during anal sex with male partners. Many of the participants reported alcohol use during their most recent sexual activity. A fair number reported not using condoms during their last sexual event. Pleasure, arousal, orgasm, and erectile functioning were markedly similar despite partner gender. A small number of participants also engaged in sexual activities with transgender individuals. All of the Latino participants took part in the optional self-collection for STI specimens. The results of the study provide rich insights into the sexual behavior and related factors, as well as potential risk behaviors of bisexual Latino men that may be targeted for future sexual health promotion efforts. PMID:22685383

  7. The immunobiology of sexual behavior: gender differences in the suppression of sexual activity during illness.

    PubMed

    Avitsur, R; Yirmiya, R

    1999-12-01

    Following infection or injury, sick individuals experience profound psychological and behavioral changes, such as anorexia, depressed activity, and reduced self-care behavior. In the present review, we present evidence for a gender-difference in the behavioral response to sickness. Specifically, following immune activation, sexual activity is suppressed in female, but not in male rats. This gender difference is specific to sexually related responses, because other behaviors, such as locomotion, are equally affected by immune challenges in males and estrous females. The suppression of female sexual behavior, induced by either endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), or the cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1), are mediated by central mechanisms that are independent of alterations in ovarian hormone secretion. Furthermore, synergistic effects of the cytokines IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) are involved in modulating sexual behavior in sick females, and prostaglandins synthesis is required for the effects of IL-1 on female sexual behavior. The gender difference in the behavioral response to immune activation may be related to the findings that at the same doses and timing in which IL-1 suppressed sexual activity in female but not in male rats, females produced more prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the brain, and less corticosterone than males. Finally, we are suggesting that the suppressive effect of cytokines on female reproductive behavior may serve as a mechanism to reduce conception during infection, which exposes the mother and the fetus to dangers such as spontaneous abortions, preterm labor and maternal mortality. PMID:10593202

  8. National Prevalence of PTSD Among Sexually Revictimized Adolescent, College, and Adult Household-Residing Women

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kate; Danielson, Carla Kmett; McCauley, Jenna L.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.

    2012-01-01

    Context Despite empirical links between sexual revictimization (i.e., experiencing two or more sexual assaults) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), no epidemiological studies document the prevalence of sexual revictimization and PTSD. Establishing estimates is essential to determine the scope, public health impact, and psychiatric sequelae of sexual revictimization. Objective Estimate the prevalence of sexual revictimization and PTSD among three national female samples (adolescent, college, adult household probability). Design Surveys were used to collect data from The National Women’s Study – Replication (2006; college) as well as household probability samples from the National Survey of Adolescents-Replication (2005) and the National Women’s Study-Replication (2006; household probability). Setting Households and college campuses across the U.S. Participants 1,763 adolescent girls, 2,000 college women, and 3,001 household-residing adult women. Main Outcomes Behaviorally specific questions assessed unwanted sexual acts occurring over the lifespan due to use of force, threat of force, or incapacitation via drug or alcohol use. PTSD was assessed with a module validated against the criterion standard, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Results 52.7% of victimized adolescents, 50.0% of victimized college women, and 58.8% of victimized household-residing women reported sexual revictimization. Current PTSD was reported by 20.0% of revictimized adolescents, 40.0% of revictimized college women, and 27.2% of revictimized household-residing women. Compared to non-victims, odds of meeting past 6-month PTSD were 4.3–8.2 times higher for revictimized respondents and 2.4–3.5 times higher for single victims. Conclusions Population prevalence estimates suggest that 769,000 adolescent girls, 625,000 college women, and 13.4 million women in US households reported sexual revictimization. Further, 154,000 sexually revictimized adolescents, 250,000 sexually

  9. Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Sexual Victimization in a Representative Sample in Hong Kong Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigated the prevalence and impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on adult sexual victimization (ASV) in Hong Kong, China. This study also examines correlates of demographic characteristics, depression, suicidal ideation, and self-esteem with ASV. Methods: A total of 5,049 Chinese adult respondents were…

  10. Sexual behavior and its relationship with semen quality parameters in Sahiwal breeding bulls

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shushant; Bhakat, M.; Mohanty, T. K.; Kumar, A.; Gupta, A. K.; Chakravarty, A. K.; Singh, P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The study was conducted at Artificial Breeding Research Centre, NDRI, Karnal, to determine the sexual behavior and its relationship with semen quality parameters in Sahiwal breeding bulls. Materials and Methods: A total of 63 ejaculates were collected from six adult Sahiwal bulls (age ~47 mo and bwt ~466 kg), to study the relationship of sexual behavior and semen quality. The degree of association between different variables was estimated by Pearson’s correlation coefficient method. Results: The results depicted that, sexual aggressiveness showed significantly high positive correlation with libido score (LS) and sexual behavior score (SBS). Reaction time (RT) and total time taken in mounts (TTTM) had a significant negative correlation with LS and SBS. Penile erection score and penile protrusion score (PPS) both had a significant positive correlation with ejaculatory thrust score, mating ability score, and SBS. Results of correlation among seminal attributes and with sexual behavior depicted that ejaculate volume had positive significant correlation with initial progressive motility (IPM), sperm concentration (SCON), head abnormality, total abnormality, hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST), acrosomal integrity (AI) whereas, mass activity had positive significant correlation with IPM, SCON, non-eosinophilic spermatozoa count (NESC), HOST, AI, RT and TTTM and IPM had positive significant correlation with SCON, NESC, HOST, AI, and TTTM, whereas and HOST had positive significant correlation with AI. Among seminal attributes, SCON had a positive significant correlation with PPS where as head abnormalities had a positive significant correlation with RT and TTTM. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the relationship of sexual behavior and semen quality parameters are reflecting that the sexual behavior of individual bulls is important to harvest good quality and quantity of semen as desired type of sexual preparation can be provided. PMID:27065641

  11. Septal regulation of male sexual behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Gogate, M G; Brid, S V; Wingkar, K C; Kantak, N M

    1995-06-01

    Involvement of septal nuclei in modulation of male sexual behavior in rats was investigated. Sexually active Wistar male rats were assigned to intact, sham, lateral septal nuclei lesioned (LSL), and medial septal nuclei lesioned (MSL) groups. All male rats were tested for sexual behavior in an arena in the presence of a sexually receptive female. Intromission and ejaculation latencies were increased, and mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequencies were decreased in the LSL group compared to the intact group. In contrast, mount and intromission latencies were decreased, and pursuit and mount frequencies were increased in the MSL group compared to the intact group. The results indicate that medial septal nuclei may inhibit and lateral septal nuclei may facilitate male sexual behavior in rats. PMID:7652045

  12. Self-Identified Sexual Orientation and Sexual Risk Behavior Among HIV-Infected Latino Males.

    PubMed

    Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Szlachta, Alaina

    2016-01-01

    The HIV testing, disclosure, and sexual practices of ethnic minority men suggest that addressing sexual risk behavior and the underlying reasons for not receiving HIV testing or disclosing HIV-infection status-unique to differing populations-would improve public health interventions. Descriptive behaviors and underlying perspectives reported in our study suggest that public health interventions for HIV-infected Latino men who self-identify as heterosexual should explicitly identify substance use, needle sharing, and unprotected sex to current partners as behaviors placing both oneself and one's partners at high risk for contracting HIV. However, diversity of sexual behavior among gay, straight, and bisexual HIV-infected Latino men in our study ultimately suggested that clinicians should not rely on simplistic conceptions of sexuality in assessment of self-care needs. Care in presentation and discussion of self-identified sexual preference and sexual behavior is indicated, as these do not determine actual sexual orientation or behavior and vice versa. PMID:27108242

  13. Sexual Behaviors and Experiences among Behaviorally Bisexual Men in the Midwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Brian; Schnarrs, Phillip W.; Reece, Michael; Martinez, Omar; Goncalves, Gabriel; Malebranche, David; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Nix, Ryan; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Research examining the sexual behaviors and experiences of behaviorally bisexual men is limited. Most studies focus primarily on highlighting sexual risk behaviors among groups of “men who have sex with men (MSM)” or “gay and bisexual men,” which may not be appropriate in terms of behaviorally bisexual men’s sexual repertoires with both men and women. This study aimed to assess a broad range of sexual behaviors and associated experiences among bisexual men living in the midwestern United States. An interviewer-administered questionnaire containing items from the National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior assessed lifetime and recent (i.e., past six months and last event) sexual behaviors and experiences with both male and female partners among a diverse sample of 75 behaviorally bisexual men. Responses were quantified and analyzed using descriptive and multivariate statistics. A wide range of sexual behaviors with partners of both genders was found. Vaginal intercourse and oral sex with both men and women were the most commonly reported behaviors. Subjective reports of pleasure, arousal, and sexual function during sexual activity were similar with both male and female partners. Many participants reported using condoms during insertive sexual behaviors with male and female partners, but less during oral sex. Unprotected receptive anal sex was less commonly reported. Overall, participants reported a variety of sexual behaviors and experiences; however, unlike other populations, they shared these with partners of both genders. Results have implications for interventions targeting the sexual behaviors and associated issues among behaviorally bisexual men. PMID:22187027

  14. Revisiting the association between pornography use and risky sexual behaviors: the role of early exposure to pornography and sexual sensation seeking.

    PubMed

    Sinković, Matija; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Božić, Jasmina

    2013-01-01

    Among the suggested problems and harms associated with widespread pornography use among young people, risky sexual behaviors have been frequently mentioned. To further explore this public health concern, this article analyzed sexual sensation seeking (SSS) as a potential confounder of the association between pornography use and sexual risks using data collected in 2010 from a population-based sample of young Croatian adults aged 18 to 25 (n = 1,005). Significant, but small, correlations were found between the indicators of pornography use (age at first exposure, frequency of use in the past 12 months, and personal importance of pornography) and sexual risk taking. However, in a multivariate analysis, only age at first exposure to pornography remained a significant, albeit weak, predictor of sexual risk taking among both women and men. SSS, defined as the dispositional tendency toward the impulsive pursuit of sexual arousal and stimulation, neither confounded nor moderated this association. Overall, the findings do not support the notion that pornography use is substantially associated with sexual risk taking among young adults, but suggest that early exposure to sexually explicit material and high SSS are additive risk factors for sexual risk taking. PMID:22853694

  15. Men's Media Use, Sexual Cognitions, and Sexual Risk Behavior: Testing a Mediational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, L. Monique; Epstein, Marina; Caruthers, Allison; Merriwether, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to link media use to adolescents' sexual initiation have produced somewhat inconsistent results, perhaps as a result of the limited framing of the question. This study sought to expand current approaches by sampling college students instead of high school students, by investigating a range of sexual behaviors and media formats, and by…

  16. Experiential Avoidance and High-Risk Sexual Behavior in Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batten, Sonja V.; Follette, Victoria M.; Aban, Inmaculada B.

    2001-01-01

    The process of experiential avoidance has been proposed to account for many of the correlates of child sexual abuse (CSA). Explores variables related to two of the long-term correlates of CSA, general psychological distress and high risk sexual behavior. Results indicate that CSA survivors report higher levels of experiential avoidance and…

  17. Attitudes, Knowledge, and Sexual Behavior of High-Risk Adolescents: Implications for Counseling and Sexuality Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melchert, Tim; Burnett, Kent F.

    1990-01-01

    Examined high-risk sexual behavior in adolescents (N=212) involved in juvenile justice system. Found that youth were at high risk for unintended pregnancy, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome and other sexually transmitted disease. Compared to national norms, sample reported very early mean age at first intercourse and high rate of pregnancy. Most…

  18. The Developmental Association of Sexual Self-Concept with Sexual Behavior among Adolescent Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; O'Sullivan, Lucia F.; Orr, Donald P.

    2011-01-01

    Developing a sexual self-concept is an important developmental task of adolescence; however, little empirical evidence describes this development, nor how these changes are related to development in sexual behavior. Using longitudinal cohort data from adolescent women, we invoked latent growth curve analysis to: (1) examine reciprocal development…

  19. Protective and Risk Factors Associated with Adolescent Boys' Early Sexual Debut and Risky Sexual Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, Brenda J.; Billings, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Protective and risk factors associated with rates of early sexual debut and risky sexual behaviors for a sample of low-income adolescent boys were examined using bioecological theory framed by a resiliency perspective. Protective processes examined include a close mother-son and father-son relationship, parental monitoring and family routines, as…

  20. Adult Development and Adult Beginning Reading Behaviors: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Sally

    An ethnographic study investigated four adult beginning reading (ABR) classes in several adult learning centers in order to determine the effect of an adult's age and developmental phase on his or her behavior and attitudes in the learning-to-read process. For 9 months, a four-member research team conducted on-site observations, compiled extensive…

  1. Parenting Practices and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersamin, Melina; Todd, Michael; Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L.; Grube, Joel W.; Walker, Samantha

    2008-01-01

    The effects of parental attitudes, practices, and television mediation on adolescent sexual behaviors were investigated in a study of adolescent sexuality and media (N = 887). Confirmatory factor analyses supported an eight-factor parenting model with television mediation factors as constructs distinct from general parenting practices. Logistic…

  2. Does Sex Education Affect Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent…

  3. Education Level, Liberal Attitudes, and Sexual Behavior: A Reinterpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Mark A.

    1996-01-01

    Responds to Krull's conclusions (1994) that higher educational attainment is indirectly related to sexual promiscuity through more liberal attitudes toward premarital sex. Criticizes Krull's omission of certain variables, recoding of variables, and assumption of a one-way causal relationship between sexual attitudes and behaviors. Reanalysis with…

  4. Sexual and Reproductive Health Behaviors of California Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trieu, Sang Leng; Bratton, Sally; Marshak, Helen Hopp

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the sexual and reproductive health behaviors of students from 13 community college campuses in California. Participants: Heterosexual college students, ages 18 to 24, who have had sexual intercourse (N = 4,487). Methods: The American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) survey was…

  5. Coitally Active University Students: Sexual Behaviors, Concerns, and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Carol A.; Davidson, J. Kenneth., Sr.

    1986-01-01

    Examined behaviors, attitudes, and concerns of students coitally active. Differences between genders included male dissatisfaction with infrequent opportunities for sexual intercourse, lack of variety of sex partners, and insufficient oral-genital stimulation. Female concerns were lack of stimulation to their breasts, painful sexual intercourse,…

  6. Factor Structure of the Adolescent Clinical Sexual Behavior Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wherry, Jeffrey N.; Berres, Ashley K.; Sim, Leslie; Friedrich, William N.

    2009-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to determine if the Adolescent Clinical Sexual Behavior Inventory-Self-Report conformed to the five-factor scale format that was initially used with a clinical sample that included adolescents referred for sexual abuse evaluations. Participants were 141 teenagers, ages 12-19 (M = 15.11, SD = 1.4), and their…

  7. A Population-Based Study of Sexual Orientation Identity and Gender Differences in Adult Health

    PubMed Central

    Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Landers, Stewart J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We provide estimates of several leading US adult health indicators by sexual orientation identity and gender to fill gaps in the current literature. Methods. We aggregated data from the 2001–2008 Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance surveys (N = 67 359) to examine patterns in self-reported health by sexual orientation identity and gender, using multivariable logistic regression. Results. Compared with heterosexuals, sexual minorities (i.e., gays/lesbians, 2% of sample; bisexuals, 1%) were more likely to report activity limitation, tension or worry, smoking, drug use, asthma, lifetime sexual victimization, and HIV testing, but did not differ on 3-year Papanicolaou tests, lifetime mammography, diabetes, or heart disease. Compared with heterosexuals, bisexuals reported more barriers to health care, current sadness, past-year suicidal ideation, and cardiovascular disease risk. Gay men were less likely to be overweight or obese and to obtain prostate-specific antigen tests, and lesbians were more likely to be obese and to report multiple risks for cardiovascular disease. Binge drinking and lifetime physical intimate partner victimization were more common among bisexual women. Conclusions. Sexual orientation disparities in chronic disease risk, victimization, health care access, mental health, and smoking merit increased attention. More research on heterogeneity in health and health determinants among sexual minorities is needed. PMID:20516373

  8. The Co-Occurrence of Childhood Sexual Abuse, Adult Sexual Assault, Intimate Partner Violence, and Sexual Harassment: A Mediational Model of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Physical Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca; Greeson, Megan R.; Bybee, Deborah; Raja, Sheela

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the co-occurrence of childhood sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, intimate partner violence, and sexual harassment in a predominantly African American sample of 268 female veterans, randomly sampled from an urban Veterans Affairs hospital women's clinic. A combination of hierarchical and iterative cluster analysis was used to…

  9. Adult Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Tener, Dafna; Murphy, Sharon B

    2015-10-01

    Victims of childhood sexual abuse carry the experience of abuse into adulthood. One of the dilemmas victims face during adulthood is the decision to disclose or conceal the abuse. Although adult disclosure may be affected by former disclosure during childhood, adult survivors face new challenges and dilemmas, such as to whom, when, and how to tell. The purpose of this article is to review the domains found in the literature on survivors' experiences regarding disclosure of child sexual abuse during adulthood, all of which were published between 1980 and 2013. Domains include decisions to disclose during adulthood, barriers and facilitators to disclosure and potential recipients of the disclosure, as well as the process of telling and its impact on survivors' well-being. The authors present implications for policy, practice, and research. PMID:24903400

  10. Impact of Remembering Childhood Sexual Abuse on Addiction Recovery for Young Adult Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvin, Christina R.; Brooks-Livingston, Angela

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the impact of childhood sexual abuse on young adult lesbians' sexual identity and their recovery from chemical dependency. The authors recommend that counselors assess for sexual orientation (past and present), sexual abuse, and possible dual diagnosis. Implications for counselors are discussed.

  11. Sexual Revictimization in Adult Women: Examining Factors Associated with Their Childhood and Adulthood Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmel, Cassandra; Postmus, Judy L.; Lee, Inseon

    2012-01-01

    Using data collected from a sample of adult women (n = 234), this study examined the relationship between the experience and disclosure of childhood sexual abuse and subsequent adult sexual violence. Multivariate analyses revealed that physical force during the childhood sexual abuse experience was significant in both children's decisions to…

  12. Personality Profiles of Adult Males Sexually Molested by Their Maternal Caregivers: Preliminary Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roys, Deloris T.; Timms, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    Examined two groups of adult males who had been sexually abused as children by female maternal caregivers: those in treatment at a clinic specializing in sexual abuse survivor work, and those in treatment at a clinic specializing in sexual offender work. These groups show greater psychological disruption than adult males who as children had not…

  13. Psychodynamics of eating disorder behavior in sexual abuse survivors.

    PubMed

    Ross, Colin A

    2009-01-01

    The author reviews the psychodynamics of eating disorder behaviors in women with childhood sexual abuse histories, with a focus on anorexia, bingeing, purging, and overeating. The various defenses and behaviors interact with each other through numerous different feedback loops. The same behavior can have multiple defensive functions and the same defensive function can be served by different behaviors. None of the behaviors is specific to childhood sexual abuse, but the abuse history modifies the content, heightens the intensity of the feelings being defended against, and should be taken into account in the therapy. Several examples of therapeutic strategies are also provided. PMID:19845087

  14. I Want Your Sext: Sexting and Sexual Risk in Emerging Adult Minority Men.

    PubMed

    Davis, Mikaela Jessica; Powell, Adeya; Gordon, Derrick; Kershaw, Trace

    2016-04-01

    Sexting, sending, or receiving sexually suggestive or explicit messages/photos/videos, have not been studied extensively. The aims of this study is to understand factors associated with sexting among minority (e.g., African- American, Hispanic) emerging adult males and the association between sexting and sexual risk. We recruited 119 emerging adult heterosexual males and assessed sexting and sexual risk behaviors. Fifty-four percent of participants sent a sext, and 70% received a sext. Participants were more likely to sext with casual partners than with steady partners. Multiple regression analyses showed that participants who sent sexts to steady partners had significantly more unprotected vaginal intercourse and oral sex. Participants who sent sexts to casual partners had significantly more partners, and participants who received sexts from casual partners had significantly more unprotected oral sex and sex while on substances. We found that sexting is a frequent and reciprocal behavior among emerging adults, and there were different patterns of significance for sexts with casual and steady partners. PMID:27459165

  15. Sexual behavior of infertile women: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Bokaie, Mahshid; Simbar, Masoumeh; Yassini Ardekani, Seyed Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    Background: Infertility makes an essential challenge to the sexual life of couples, especially infertile women. When pregnancy does not happen, infertile women think that sexual intercourse is not fruitful and sexual desire became reduce gradually. Infertile women progressively forget that their sexual relationship is also a response to their natural need. Objective: This qualitative study was conducted to explore the infertility consequences in the sexual behavior of infertile women. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative content analysis study; and it was part of a widespread study, used a sequential mixed-method and conducted from August 2014 until February 2015. A purposeful sampling was used to recruit infertile women who had referred to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility. Data gathering techniques employed in this research included in-depth semi structured open face-to-face interviews and field notes. Credibility, transferability, confirm ability, and dependability were assessed for the rigor of the data collection. Results: Totally, 15 infertile women and 8 key informants were interviewed. Data analysis showed four themes about impact of infertility on female sexual behavior: 1/ Impact of infertility drugs on couple sexual behavior, 2/ Impact of assisted reproductive technologies on female sexual behavior, 3/ Timed intercourse during infertility and 4/ The psychological impact of infertility on sexual behavior. Conclusion: Some of Iranian infertile women could cope with their problems, but some of them were very affected by infertility drugs and assisted reproductive technologies procedures. Psychosexual counseling before medical treatment could help them to have a better sexual life. PMID:26644793

  16. Using the Information-Motivation Behavioral Model to Predict Sexual Behavior among Underserved Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazargan, Mohsen; Stein, Judith A.; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Hindman, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Testing, refining, and tailoring theoretical approaches that are hypothesized to reduce sexual risk behaviors among adolescent subpopulations is an important task. Relatively little is known about the relationship between components of the information-motivation-behavior (IMB) model and sexual behaviors among underage minority youth.…

  17. Subjective Sexual Well-Being in Chilean Adults: Evaluation of a Predictive Model.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Daniela; Lillo, Sebastián; Vera-Villarroel, Pablo

    2016-05-18

    Research on sexuality has traditionally focused on sexual satisfaction, with studies into subjective sexual well-being being a recent phenomenon. This study sought to evaluate the relationship between sexual behavior, happiness, health, and subjective sexual well-being. The data were collected from 862 people aged between 18 and 50 years in Santiago, Chile, and were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. The results showed that sexual behavioral indicators (sexual frequency, sexual caresses, and touching), happiness, and perception of health taken as a whole predicted 47.4% of subjective sexual well-being (SSWB). Analysis of the four items of subjective sexual well-being separately showed that the dimension of physical satisfaction was associated with three variables of sexual behavior indicators with a prediction percentage of 33.5%, whereas emotional satisfaction was associated with three variables of sexual behavior indicators and happiness, with a percentage of prediction of 43.3%. Satisfaction with sexual function was associated with perception of health and one sexual behavior indicator, with a prediction percentage of 29.2% of this variable. The importance of sex was associated with three sexual behavior variables that predicted 26.2% of this variable. The results confirm that subjective sexual well-being can be predicted and that its four dimensions present a different behavior compared to the study predictors. PMID:26020732

  18. Exploring the Psychosocial and Behavioral Adjustment Outcomes of Multi-Type Abuse among Homeless Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the psychosocial and behavioral adjustment outcomes associated with verbal, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse among homeless young adults as well as the associations among abuse types. Convenience sampling was used to select 28 homeless young adults (ages 18 to 24) from one drop-in center. Overall, subjects experienced…

  19. Sexual Risk Behaviors and Substance Use Among Men Sexually Victimized by Women

    PubMed Central

    Morisky, Donald E.; Williams, John K.; Ford, Chandra L.; Gee, Gilbert C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate whether forced sex of men by women was associated with sexual risk behaviors, and whether this association was mediated by substance use. Methods. Data from US men aged 18 years or older at interview in the National Survey of Family Growth 2006–2010 (n = 8108) who reported sexual behavior history. Outcome variables were condom use at most recent sex and number of lifetime sexual partners. Sexual activity covariates included age at first consensual sex and treatment of sexually transmitted infections. Alcohol and drug use were the mediating factors. Results. Six percent of men reported forced sex by a woman at a mean age of 18 years. On average, victimized men had 3 more lifetime sexual partners than nonvictimized men (P < .01). Furthermore, victimized men who reported drug use had, on average, 4 more female sexual partners (P < .01) than nonvictimized men. Marijuana (P < .05) and crack cocaine use (P < .05) partially mediated the association between forced sex and number of female partners. Neither condom use nor number of male partners differed between victimized and nonvictimized men. Conclusions. A nontrivial fraction of men experience forced sex by women; some of them have elevated sexual risk behaviors. PMID:27077345

  20. Technological Advancements and Internet Sexuality: Does Private Access to the Internet Influence Online Sexual Behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Månsson, Sven-Axel; Ross, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate whether demographic characteristics and sexual behavior online and offline were associated with private, respectively, nonprivate access to the Internet in a Web sample of people who use the Internet for sexual purposes. A total of 1,913 respondents completed an online questionnaire about Internet sexuality, and 1,614 reported using the Internet for sexual purposes. The majority of these respondents reported having access to an Internet-connected computer no one else had access to (62 percent women and 70 percent men). The results showed that it is possible to differentiate between those who have access to an Internet-connected computer no one else has access to and those who have shared access to an Internet-connected computer. Not only did they differ in demographic characteristics, but also in the sexual activities they engaged in on the Internet. Different patterns were found for women and men. For example, men who had private access to Internet-connected computers were more likely than those who had shared access to seek information about sexual issues. Thus, having access to Internet computers no one else has access to may promote sexual knowledge and health for men. The results of this study along with the technological development implies that in future research, attention should be paid to where and how people access the Internet in relation to online behavior in general and online sexual behavior in particular. PMID:22823598

  1. Social contagion and adolescent sexual behavior: a developmental EMOSA model.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, J L; Rowe, D C

    1993-07-01

    Epidemic Models of the Onset of Social Activities (EMOSA models) describe the spread of adolescent transition behaviors (e.g., sexuality, smoking, and drinking) through an interacting adolescent network. A theory of social contagion is defined to explain how social influence affects sexual development. Contacts within a network can, with some transition rate or probability, result in an increase in level of sexual experience. Five stages of sexual development are posited. One submodel proposes a systematic progression through these stages; a competing submodel treats each as an independent process. These models are represented in sets of dynamically interacting recursive equations, which are fit to empirical prevalence data to estimate parameters. Model adjustments are substantively interpretable and can be used to test for and better understand social interaction processes that affect adolescent sexual behavior. PMID:8356187

  2. Sexual Behaviors in Autism: Problems of Definition and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Realmuto, George M.; Ruble, Lisa A.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the problems of definition of sexual behaviors in individuals with autism and describes a case that highlights the difficulties of management. After failure of behavioral and educational programs, a testosterone-suppressing medication was used resulting in suppression of public masturbation behaviors and retention of the participant's…

  3. Rural Mexican-American Adolescent Sexual Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Kelly, Pat; Shain, Rochelle N.; Piper, Jeanna M.

    2004-01-01

    There is a need for community-based, culturally sensitive, cognitive-behavioral interventions to reduce sexual risk behavior among minority adolescents. Studies of adolescent risk and protective behaviors have focused on identifying modifiable psychosocial variables that predict differential outcomes for subsequent intervention efforts. Research…

  4. Pornography Use and Sexual Behavior Among Polish and German University Students.

    PubMed

    Martyniuk, Urszula; Briken, Peer; Sehner, Susanne; Richter-Appelt, Hertha; Dekker, Arne

    2016-08-17

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between pornography use and sexual behavior in young adults from two culturally different countries. Data were collected in an online survey among German (n = 1,303; G) and Polish (n = 1,135; P) university students aged 18 to 26 years. Pornography use was associated with engaging in a greater variety of sexual activities (e.g., sexual role playing, using sex toys; G > P) rather than with a high number of sex partners or condom use consistency. The differences between the samples were found primarily for females (in anal sex experience and age at the first sexual intercourse; G > P). PMID:26177786

  5. Affect and sexual behavior in the transition to university.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Andrea L; Galambos, Nancy L

    2009-10-01

    This research applied a lifespan developmental framework to the study of sexual behavior among late adolescents by examining monthly covariations of penetrative and oral sex with positive and negative affect across the first year of university. Participants were 177 Canadian students who completed baseline questionnaires, followed by six monthly, web-based questionnaires assessing sexual behaviors and affect. Multilevel analyses revealed an average positive relation between oral sex and positive affect. Of six variables, five predicted individual differences in covariation between sex and affect: psychosocial maturity (immature and semi-mature status), attitudes toward sex, prior sexual experience, and living situation. During months when participants reported sexual behavior, psychosocially mature students reported more positive affect than did less mature students; students with more permissive attitudes reported more positive affect than did students with less permissive attitudes; students with no penetrative sexual experience reported more positive affect than students who had penetrative sexual experience; and living away from parents was associated with less negative affect. Implications for further study of sexual behavior from a developmental perspective are discussed. PMID:18814022

  6. Adolescents' Communication with Parents, Other Adult Family Members and Teachers on Sexuality: Effects of School-Based Interventions in South Africa and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Namisi, Francis; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Kaaya, Sylvia; Kajula, Lusajo J; Kilonzo, Gad P; Onya, Hans; Wubs, Annegreet; Mathews, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Cluster-randomized controlled trials were carried out to examine effects on sexual practices of school-based interventions among adolescents in three sites in sub-Saharan Africa. In this publication, effects on communication about sexuality with significant adults (including parents) and such communication as a mediator of other outcomes were examined. Belonging to the intervention group was significantly associated with fewer reported sexual debuts in Dar es Salaam only (OR 0.648). Effects on communication with adults about sexuality issues were stronger for Dar es Salaam than for the other sites. In Dar, increase in communication with adults proved to partially mediate associations between intervention and a number of social cognition outcomes. The hypothesized mediational effect of communication on sexual debut was not confirmed. Promoting intergenerational communication on sexuality issues is associated with several positive outcomes and therefore important. Future research should search for mediating factors influencing behavior beyond those examined in the present study. PMID:25724974

  7. Gender differences in sexual practices and sexually transmitted infections among adults in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, J; Gotuzzo, E; Escamilla, J; Carrillo, C; Phillips, I A; Barrios, C; Stamm, W E; Ashley, R L; Kreiss, J K; Holmes, K K

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study examined the prevalences of antibodies to Treponema pallidum, Chlamydia trachomatis, and herpes simplex virus type 2 in a sample of Peruvian adults. METHODS. Among adults seeking health certification in Lima, Peru, 600 were randomly selected to undergo interviews and serologic testing. RESULTS. Men's reported mean lifetime number of partners (10.6) far exceeded women's (1.1), yet antibody to sexually transmitted infection pathogens among sexually experienced participants was 2.8 times more prevalent among women than among men. Among men, female sex workers accounted for 37% of recent partners, and only sex with female sex workers while using condoms less than half of the time was independently associated with antibody (odds ratio = 3.6, 95% confidence interval = 1.5, 8.8). among women, number of partners was associated with any sexually transmitted infection antibody, while intercourse before 18 years of age was associated with C trachomatis antibody. At every level of perceived risk, sexually transmitted infection antibody was more frequent among women. CONCLUSIONS. Men having unprotected sex with female sex workers had the greatest risk of acquiring infections and (by inference) of transmitting them to women. PMID:8712268

  8. Differential Patterns of Amygdala and Ventral Striatum Activation Predict Gender-Specific Changes in Sexual Risk Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sansosti, Alexandra A.; Bowman, Hilary C.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2015-01-01

    Although the initiation of sexual behavior is common among adolescents and young adults, some individuals express this behavior in a manner that significantly increases their risk for negative outcomes including sexually transmitted infections. Based on accumulating evidence, we have hypothesized that increased sexual risk behavior reflects, in part, an imbalance between neural circuits mediating approach and avoidance in particular as manifest by relatively increased ventral striatum (VS) activity and relatively decreased amygdala activity. Here, we test our hypothesis using data from seventy 18- to 22-year-old university students participating in the Duke Neurogenetics Study. We found a significant three-way interaction between amygdala activation, VS activation, and gender predicting changes in the number of sexual partners over time. Although relatively increased VS activation predicted greater increases in sexual partners for both men and women, the effect in men was contingent on the presence of relatively decreased amygdala activation and the effect in women was contingent on the presence of relatively increased amygdala activation. These findings suggest unique gender differences in how complex interactions between neural circuit function contributing to approach and avoidance may be expressed as sexual risk behavior in young adults. As such, our findings have the potential to inform the development of novel, gender-specific strategies that may be more effective at curtailing sexual risk behavior. PMID:26063921

  9. Sexual orientation and diurnal cortisol patterns in a cohort of U.S. young adults

    PubMed Central

    Austin, S. Bryn; Rosario, Margaret; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Roberts, Andrea L.; Gordon, Allegra R.; Sarda, Vishnudas; Missmer, Stacey; Anatale-Tardiff, Laura; Scherer, Emily A.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual minorities in the United States are at elevated risk of bullying, discrimination, and violence victimization, all stressors that have been linked to psychological and behavioral stress responses including depressive and anxious symptoms and substance use. Acute and chronic stressors may also elicit physiologic stress responses, including changes in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. Few studies, however, have examined the relationship between minority sexual orientation and diurnal cortisol patterns. The present study included 1670 young adults ages 18–32 years (69% female, 31% male) from the Growing Up Today Study, a prospective cohort of U.S. youth. Participants provided five saliva samples over one day to estimate diurnal cortisol patterns. Sexual orientation groups included: completely heterosexual with no same-sex partners (referent), completely heterosexual with same-sex partners/mostly heterosexual, and gay/lesbian/bisexual. Covariates included perceived stress and stressful life events in the past month. Sex-stratified multilevel models of log-transformed cortisol values were used to model diurnal cortisol patterns, and generalized estimating equations were used to model area under the curve (AUC), both with respect to ground (AUCg) and increase (AUCi). Among females, sexual minorities reported significantly more stressful life events in the past month than their heterosexual counterparts. In adjusted multilevel models, sexual orientation was not significantly associated with diurnal cortisol patterns or with AUCg or AUCi in either females or males. There were no significant interactions between sexual orientation and stressful life events. Time-varying negative mood was significantly associated with higher cortisol levels across the day for both female and male participants, after adjusting for all covariates. This study from a large cohort of U.S. young adults did not detect a relationship between sexual

  10. Sexual orientation and diurnal cortisol patterns in a cohort of U.S. young adults.

    PubMed

    Austin, S Bryn; Rosario, Margaret; McLaughlin, Katie A; Roberts, Andrea L; Gordon, Allegra R; Sarda, Vishnudas; Missmer, Stacey; Anatale-Tardiff, Laura; Scherer, Emily A

    2016-07-01

    Sexual minorities in the United States are at elevated risk of bullying, discrimination, and violence victimization, all stressors that have been linked to psychological and behavioral stress responses including depressive and anxious symptoms and substance use. Acute and chronic stressors may also elicit physiologic stress responses, including changes in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. Few studies, however, have examined the relationship between minority sexual orientation and diurnal cortisol patterns. The present study included 1670 young adults ages 18-32 years (69% female, 31% male) from the Growing Up Today Study, a prospective cohort of U.S. youth. Participants provided five saliva samples over one day to estimate diurnal cortisol patterns. Sexual orientation groups included: completely heterosexual with no same-sex partners (referent), completely heterosexual with same-sex partners/mostly heterosexual, and gay/lesbian/bisexual. Covariates included perceived stress and stressful life events in the past month. Sex-stratified multilevel models of log-transformed cortisol values were used to model diurnal cortisol patterns, and generalized estimating equations were used to model area under the curve (AUC), both with respect to ground (AUCg) and increase (AUCi). Among females, sexual minorities reported significantly more stressful life events in the past month than their heterosexual counterparts. In adjusted multilevel models, sexual orientation was not significantly associated with diurnal cortisol patterns or with AUCg or AUCi in either females or males. There were no significant interactions between sexual orientation and stressful life events. Time-varying negative mood was significantly associated with higher cortisol levels across the day for both female and male participants, after adjusting for all covariates. This study from a large cohort of U.S. young adults did not detect a relationship between sexual

  11. Urban American Indian Adolescent Girls: Framing Sexual Risk Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Martyn, Kristy K.; Momper, Sandra L.; Loveland-Cherry, Carol J.; Low, Lisa Kane

    2014-01-01

    Purpose American Indian (AI) adolescent girls have higher rates of sexual activity, births and STIs compared to the national average. The purpose of this study was to explore factors that influence urban adolescent AI girls' sexual risk behavior (SRB). Design A qualitative study was conducted using grounded theory methodology to reveal factors and processes that influence SRB. Methods Talking circles, individual interviews, and event history calendars were used with 20 urban AI 15-19 year old girls to explore influences on their sexual behavior. Findings The generated theory, Framing Sexual Risk Behavior, describes both social and structural factors and processes that influenced the girls' sexual behaviors. The theory extends Bronfenbrenner's ecological model by identifying microsystem, mesosystem, and macrosystem influences on sexual behavior, including: Microsystem: Being “Normal,” Native, and Having Goals; Mesosystem: Networks of Family and Friends, Environmental Influences, and Sex Education; and Macrosystem: Tribal Traditions/History and Federal Policy. Discussion Urban AI girls reported similar social and structural influences on SRB as urban adolescents from other racial and ethnic groups. However, differences were noted in the family structure, cultural heritage, and unique history of AIs. Implications for Practice This theory can be used in culturally responsive practice with urban AI girls. PMID:24803532

  12. Hormone-dependent adolescent organization of socio-sexual behaviors in mammals.

    PubMed

    Sisk, Cheryl L

    2016-06-01

    The adolescent transition from childhood to adulthood requires both reproductive and behavioral maturation as individuals acquire the ability to procreate. Gonadal steroid hormones are key players in the maturation of behaviors required for reproductive success. Beyond activating behavior in adulthood, testicular and ovarian hormones organize the adolescent brain and program adult-typical and sex-typical expression of sociosexual behaviors. Testicular hormones organize sexual and agonistic behaviors, including social proficiency-the ability to adapt behavior as a function of social experience. Ovarian hormones organize behaviors related to energy balance and maternal care. These sex differences in the behaviors that are programmed by gonadal hormones during adolescence suggest that evolution has selected for hormone-dependent sex-specific organization of behaviors that optimize reproductive fitness. PMID:26963894

  13. Androgen deprivation treatment of sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Houts, Frederick W; Taller, Inna; Tucker, Douglas E; Berlin, Fred S

    2011-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists are underutilized in patients seeking diminution of problematic sexual drives. This chapter reviews the literature on surgical castration of sex offenders, anti-androgen use and the rationale for providing androgen deprivation therapy, rather than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or more conservative interventions, for patients with paraphilias and excessive sexual drive. Discussions of informed consent, side effects, contraindications and case examples are provided. PMID:22005210

  14. Sexual behavior, knowledge, and attitudes about AIDS among college freshmen.

    PubMed

    McGuire, E; Shega, J; Nicholls, G; Deese, P; Landefeld, C S

    1992-01-01

    We surveyed 158 college freshmen on an urban campus to determine their sexual practices and their knowledge and attitudes about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Many students (47%) were heterosexually active; 1% were homosexual, 1% were bisexual, and 51% had not been sexually active. Among the 77 sexually active students, many engaged in activities that can facilitate transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): 58% did not always use condoms with a new partner; 31% had had two or more sex partners in the last year; 8% engaged in anonymous sex; and 14% of sexually active women had anal intercourse. Although most sexually active students said they would use condoms more or reduce the number of their sexual partners if they believed these changes would reduce "my risk for getting AIDS," few students had adopted these safer sexual practices. Safer sexual practices were associated with heightened personal concerns about AIDS but not with knowledge, which was at a high level. These findings underscore the need for preventive programs that overcome the gap between knowledge and safer sexual behaviors in this and similar groups of adolescents and suggest that programs that heighten personal concerns may be most effective. Community-based physicians who care for adolescents should develop such preventive programs and integrate them into their practices. PMID:1524859

  15. Revisualising 'porn': how young adults' consumption of sexually explicit Internet movies can inform approaches to Canadian sexual health promotion.

    PubMed

    Hare, Kathleen A; Gahagan, Jacqueline; Jackson, Lois; Steenbeek, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    The Internet offers an invaluable opportunity to re-imagine ideas, constructs and disciplines to create innovative sexual health promotion interventions. To gain insight into what young adults (aged 19-28) may be seeking in online sexual resources and approaches, this study explored how young people perceived their sexual health to be influenced by their consumption of the highly utilised sexual medium of Sexually Explicit Internet Movies [SEIM]. Employing an exploratory, qualitative methodology, data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 12 urban, heterosexual young adults, who self-identified as having consumed SEIM for a period of at least one year. All interviews were audiotaped with permission, transcribed verbatim and the data were analysed to identify emergent thematic concepts. Participants described utilising SEIM as an all-inclusive sexual forum to learn more about the positive aspects of sexual health, in a context that they viewed as being devoid of alternatives. Young adults' perceptions of the utility of SEIM suggest that it would be beneficial to create novel, sex-positive online sexual health interventions. Further exploration is clearly warranted on how Internet resources that are related to sexual health, such as SEIM, can be utilised to facilitate innovative approaches to online sexual health promotion. PMID:24917353

  16. Health risk behaviors and medical sequelae of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Springs, F E; Friedrich, W N

    1992-06-01

    The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and subsequent health risk behaviors and medical problems was examined in 511 women who had used a family practice clinic in a rural midwestern community during a 2-year period (1988 and 1989). These women completed a questionnaire that assessed various health risk behaviors--smoking, drinking, drug abuse, number of sexual partners, and age at first intercourse--and a medical symptom checklist that assessed 38 medical problems related to major systems of body function, the somatization scale from the SCL-90, a screen for sexual abuse, and a brief measure of social support. The results indicated that sexually abused women, who represented 22.1% of the sample, reported significantly more medical problems, greater levels of somatization, and more health risk behaviors than did the nonabused women. More severe abuse (for example, penetration or multiple abusers) correlated with more severe problems. Extent of social support correlated inversely with the number of gynecologic problems reported in the sexually abused group. Fewer than 2% of the sexually abused women had discussed the abuse with a physician. To identify and assist victims of sexual abuse, physicians should become experienced with nonthreatening methods of eliciting such information when the medical history is obtained. PMID:1434879

  17. A brief history of behavioral and cognitive behavioral approaches to sexual offenders: Part 1. Early developments.

    PubMed

    Laws, D R; Marshall, W L

    2003-04-01

    This is the first of two papers which briefly outline the development of behavioral and cognitive behavioral treatment of sexual offenders from the mid-1800s to 1969. We first consider the historic role of Sigmund Freud and note that a broad scientific interest in deviant sexual behaviour was well established by 1900. In the early to mid-20th century, two psychologies were prominent in the development of behaviorial approaches, those of John B. Watson and Alfred Kinsey. Behavior therapy for a variety of problems emerged in the 1950s and soon found application to deviant sexuality. The development of penile plethysmography helped to focus interest on deviant sexual preference and behavior. While nonbehavioral approaches to sexual offenders paralleled these developments, a combination of behavioral and cognitive behavioral treatments began to emerge in the late 1960s which ultimately developed into the approaches more commonly seen today. PMID:12731145

  18. 78 FR 34995 - Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel (Response Systems Panel); Notice of Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... of the Secretary Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel (Response Systems Panel... Sexual Assault Crimes Panel. DATES: A meeting of the Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes... crimes involving adult sexual assault and related offenses under section 920 of title 10, United...

  19. An assessment of HIV/STI vulnerability and related sexual risk-taking in a nationally representative sample of young Croatian adults.

    PubMed

    Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Graham, Cynthia; Bozicević, Ivana; Kufrin, Kresimir; Ajduković, Dean

    2009-04-01

    Despite the recent increase in the number of HIV infections in Central and Eastern Europe, patterns of sexual behavior have not been extensively researched, particularly among young people. The aim of the present study was to provide a comprehensive assessment of HIV/AIDS-related vulnerability and sexual risk-taking among young adults in Croatia. Data were collected in 2005 using a nationally representative, multi-stage stratified probability sample (n = 1,093) of women and men aged 18-24 years. The focus in this article was on predictors of sexual risk-taking measured by a composite risky sexual behaviors scale. Using hierarchical regression models, we analyzed gendered effects of community, family, peer group, and individual level factors. For both men and women, peer pressure, sensation seeking, personal risk-assessment, behavioral intention, condom use at first sexual intercourse, and sexual victimization were significant predictors of sexual risk-taking behaviors. A number of predictors were gender-specific: sexual assertiveness and condom self-efficacy for women and parental monitoring, traditional morality, HIV knowledge, and talking about sex with partner for men. Documenting substantial prevalence of potentially risky sexual behaviors among young people in Croatia, the findings call for prevention and intervention efforts that should focus on individual capacity building for responsible sexual behavior. PMID:17922182

  20. Transitions in body and behavior: a meta-analytic study on the relationship between pubertal development and adolescent sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Baams, Laura; Dubas, Judith Semon; Overbeek, Geertjan; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2015-06-01

    The present meta-analysis studies the relations of pubertal timing and status with sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior among youth aged 10.5-22.4 years. We included biological sex, age, and ethnicity as potential moderators. Four databases were searched for studies (published between 1980 and 2012) on the relation between pubertal timing or status and sexual behavior. The outcomes were (1) sexual intercourse; (2) combined sexual behavior; and (3) risky sexual behavior. Earlier pubertal timing or more advanced pubertal status was related to earlier and more sexual behavior, and earlier pubertal timing was related to more risky sexual behavior. Further, the links between (1) pubertal status and combined sexual behavior and (2) pubertal timing and sexual intercourse status, combined sexual behavior, and risky sexual behavior were stronger for girls than boys. Most links between pubertal status, timing, and sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior were stronger for younger adolescents. Moderation by ethnicity did not yield consistent results. There was significant variation in results among studies that was not fully explained by differences in biological sex, age, and ethnicity. Future research is needed to identify moderators that explain the variation in effects and to design sexual health interventions for young adolescents. PMID:25636818

  1. Youth Behavior: Subcultural Effect or Mirror of Adult Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Males, Mike

    1990-01-01

    Examines national trends in the consequence of youth and adult behavior in four areas: violent crime arrests, violent deaths, total births, and alcohol-indicated fatal traffic crashes. Statistics indicate that youth mirror parents and society, responding better to measures which reduce problem behavior in both youth and adults. (SM)

  2. [Development of sexuality and motivational aspects of sexual behavior in men with obsessive-compulsive disorders].

    PubMed

    2014-09-01

    Sexual behavior and formation of sexuality in men with obsessive-compulsive disorder is one of the pressing issues in contemporary medicine. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by the development of intrusive thoughts, memories, movements and actions, as well as a variety of pathological fears (phobias). Increase in the number of patients with this pathology in modern clinical practice of neurotic disorders, the young age of the patients and as a result violation of interpersonal, communicational and sexual nature is quite apparent. The study involved 35 men aged 23 to 47 years with clinical signs of OCD. We determined the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms using the Yale-Brown scale. We established the presence of a mild degree of disorder in 34,3% of cases; in 48,6% of cases disorder of moderate severity was diagnosed; remaining 17.1% were assessed subclinical condition of OCD at the applicable scale. The system of motivational maintenance of sexual behavior in men with obsessive-compulsive disorders is investigated. Motives of sexual behavior of the investigated men with the pathology are determined. The presented research in men with OCD have established multidimensionality and complexity of motivational ensuring of sexual behavior. PMID:25341245

  3. Sexual health of adults working in pornographic films.

    PubMed

    Coyne, K M; Banks, A; Heggie, C; Scott, C J; Grover, D; Evans, C; Mandalia, S; McLean, K A; Cohen, C E

    2009-07-01

    We report the frequency of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) diagnosed in performers in the adult pornographic film industry. Over a 13 month period, 445 STI screens were performed in 115 patients, 56 women and 59 men. All reported unprotected sex during filming. Seventy-five percent (86) had at least one sexual partner outside work, and 90% used condoms inconsistently with them. Women worked exclusively with women (23%), men only (38%) or both genders (39%). Almost all men (97%) worked exclusively heterosexually. Thirty-eight percent (44/115) were diagnosed with 77 STIs, including non-specific urethritis (51), gonorrhoea (10), chlamydia (6) and genital warts (6). Gonorrhoea was found exclusively at the pharynx in three heterosexual men. There were no cases of HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B or hepatitis C. Monthly screening and certification is a working requirement for this population but STIs are common in an industry where unprotected sex is the norm. PMID:19541897

  4. Contextual influence of Taiwanese adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavioral intent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Neilands, Torsten B; Chan, Shu-Min; Lightfoot, Marguerita

    2016-09-01

    This study examined parental, peer, and media influences on Taiwanese adolescents' attitudes toward premarital sex and intent to engage in sexual behavior. Participants included a convenience sample of 186 adolescents aged 13-15 recruited from two middle schools in Taiwan. Parental influence was indicated by perceived parental disapproval toward premarital sex and perceived peer sexual behavior was used to measure peer influence. Media influence was measured by the adolescents' perception of whether the media promotes premarital sex. We conducted structural equation modeling to test a hypothesized model. The findings suggested that the perceived sexual behavior of peers had the strongest effect on Taiwanese adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavioral intent, while parental disapproval and media influence also significantly contributed to adolescents' sexual attitudes and intent to engage in sex. School nurses are in an ideal position to coordinate essential resources and implement evidence-based sexually transmitted infection and HIV/AIDS prevention interventions that address issues associated with the influence of parents, peers, and media. PMID:26991765

  5. Sexual Behavior and Concerns in a Sample of Elderly, Former Indentured Swiss Child Laborers

    PubMed Central

    Burri, Andrea; Maercker, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Past research suggests a link between post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and an increased risk for sexual problems. However, there is still no clear picture whether these higher rates are related to trauma exposure or to PTSD itself. Aim The aim of the present study was to complement existing knowledge on the relative impact of trauma and PTSD on sexuality in later life, considering different aspects of trauma exposure on both men and women. Methods The study was conducted on a unique population sample of former Swiss indentured child laborers (55 men, M age 78, age range 60–95 years) who have repeatedly experienced a variety of severe childhood traumas. Main Outcome Measures Sexual outcomes were measured using two scales from the Trauma Symptom Inventory—Dysfunctional Sexual Behavior (DSB) and Sexual Concerns (SC). PTSD symptoms and trauma were assessed with the Short Screening Scale for PTSD and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, respectively. Results Twenty‐two individuals showed PTSD symptoms, and 53 reported having experienced childhood trauma. Significant differences between men and women were reported for DSB and SC. Men reported a significantly higher prevalence of both SC and DSB compared with women. Conclusions This is the very first study investigating DSB and SC in a sample of older adults exposed to similar traumatic experiences and settings. However, some study limitations need to be considered such as the small sample size. Additional studies are needed to further explore the relative role of traumatization and PTSD on sexual behavior and well‐being, especially to improve sexual therapy for patients who experience trauma. Rechsteiner K, Burri A, and Maercker A. Sexual behavior and concerns in a sample of elderly, former indentured Swiss child laborers. Sex Med 2015;3:305–314. PMID:26797066

  6. Exploring Family Factors and Sexual Behaviors in a Group of Black and Hispanic Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucibwa, Naphtal Kaberege; Modeste, Naomi; Montgomery, Susan; Fox, Curtis A.

    2003-01-01

    Examined family factors influencing sexual behavior among black and Hispanic adolescent males from San Bernardino County, California's 1996 Youth Survey. Family structure, parent sexual behaviors, and peer sexual norms closely associated with adolescent sexual attitudes and behaviors. Having a sibling who was a teen parent significantly associated…

  7. Methamphetamine facilitates female sexual behavior and enhances neuronal activation in the medial amygdala and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Holder, Mary K; Hadjimarkou, Maria M; Zup, Susan L; Blutstein, Tamara; Benham, Rebecca S; McCarthy, Margaret M; Mong, Jessica A

    2010-02-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) abuse has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. Users of MA report dramatic increases in sexual drive that have been associated with increased engagement in risky sexual behavior leading to higher rates of sexually transmitted diseases and unplanned pregnancies. The ability of MA to enhance sexual drive in females is enigmatic since related psychostimulants like amphetamine and cocaine appear not to affect sexual drive in women, and in rodents models, amphetamine has been reported to be inhibitory to female sexual behavior. Examination of MA's effects on female sexual behavior in an animal model is lacking. Here, using a rodent model, we have demonstrated that MA enhanced female sexual behavior. MA (5mg/kg) or saline vehicle was administered once daily for 3 days to adult ovariectomized rats primed with ovarian steroids. MA treatment significantly increased the number of proceptive events and the lordosis response compared to hormonally primed, saline controls. The effect of MA on the neural circuitry underlying the motivation for sexual behavior was examined using Fos immunoreactivity. In the medial amygdala and the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, nuclei implicated in motivated behaviors, ovarian hormones and MA independently enhance the neuronal activation, but more striking was the significantly greater activation induced by their combined administration. Increases in dopamine neurotransmission may underlie the MA/hormone mediated increase in neuronal activation. In support of this possibility, ovarian hormones significantly increased tyrosine hydroxylase (the rate limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis) immunoreactivity in the medial amygdala. Thus our present data suggest that the interactions of MA and ovarian hormones leads to changes in the neural substrate of key nuclei involved in mediating female sexual behaviors, and these changes may underlie MA's ability to enhance these behaviors. PMID:19589643

  8. Naltrexone effects on male sexual behavior, corticosterone, and testosterone in stressed male rats.

    PubMed

    Retana-Márquez, S; Bonilla-Jaime, H; Vázquez-Palacios, G; Martínez-García, R

    2009-02-16

    Chronic physical or psychological stress disrupts male reproductive function. Studies in our laboratory have shown that stress by immersion in cold water (ICW) and by electrical foot shocks (EFS) has inhibitory effects on male sexual behavior; these effects do not seem to be mediated by an increase in corticosterone, nor by a decrease in testosterone. On the other hand, it is known that endogenous opioids are released in the brain in response to these same stressors; consequently, they could be participating in the impairment of sexual behavior, as well as in the changes in corticosterone and testosterone caused by stress. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the opioid antagonist naltrexone (NTX) on male sexual behavior, corticosterone, and testosterone in both stressed sexually experienced and naive male rats. Sexually experienced adult male rats were assigned to one of the following groups (n=10 each): 1) control group, males without sexual evaluation; 2) control group, rats injected ip with saline, non-stressed; 3) control group, rats injected with NTX (3 mg/kg) non-stressed; 4) rats injected ip with saline, and stressed by EFS; 5) rats injected ip with NTX (1.5 mg/kg) and stressed by EFS; 6) rats injected ip with saline and stressed by ICW; 7) rats injected ip with NTX (1.5 mg/kg) and stressed by ICW; 8) rats injected ip with NTX (3 mg/kg) and stressed by ICW. Naive males were assigned to the same control groups but only stressed by ICW and the NTX dose used was 3 mg/kg. Injections were given 30 min before stress sessions. Stress was applied on 20 consecutive days. Male sexual behavior was assessed 15 min after EFS or 30 min after ICW, on days 1, 4, 8, 12, 15, and 20. Trunk blood was collected at the end of the experiments on day 20 of stress. Corticosterone and testosterone were evaluated by HPLC. Mount, intromission and ejaculation latencies were longer in control saline naive males compared to control saline sexually experienced males on the

  9. Future directions in research on sexual minority adolescent mental, behavioral, and sexual health

    PubMed Central

    Mustanski, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This article describes current knowledge on sexual, mental, and behavioral health of sexual minority (SM) youth and identifies gaps that would benefit from future research. A translational sciences framework is used to conceptualize the article, discussing findings and gaps along the spectrum from basic research on prevalence and mechanisms, to intervention development and testing, to implementation. Relative to adults, there has been much less research on adolescents and very few studies that had longitudinal follow-up beyond one year. Due to historical changes in the social acceptance of the SM community, new cohorts are needed to represent contemporary life experiences and associated health consequences. Important theoretical developments have occurred in conceptualizing mechanisms that drive SM health disparities and mechanistic research is underway, including studies that identify individual and structural risk/protective factors. Research opportunities exist in the utilization of sibling-comparison designs, inclusion of parents, and studying romantic relationships. Methodological innovation is needed in sampling SM populations. There has been less intervention research and approaches should consider natural resiliencies, life-course frameworks, prevention science, multiple levels of influence, and the importance of implementation. Regulatory obstacles are created when ethics boards elect to require parental permission and ethics research is needed. There has been inconsistent inclusion of SM populations in the definition of “health disparity population,” which impacts funding and training opportunities. There are incredible opportunities for scholars to make substantial and foundational contributions to help address the health of SM youth, and new funding opportunities to do so. PMID:25575125

  10. Digital and divergent: sexual behaviors on the Internet.

    PubMed

    Klein, Carolina A

    2014-01-01

    A variety of sexual behaviors occur online, including those that are highly unusual or even plainly illicit. There is a growing body of literature pertaining to sexual abuse of minors that occurs or may be promoted online, but there is a paucity of information regarding other Internet-based sexual interactions, such as manufacturing, dissemination, and online viewing of other atypical sexual material. In this article, I explore and analyze these different practices, which include, but are not limited to, videos of rape, sadomasochism with bodily disfigurement, zoophilia, and necrophilia, with the intention of diminishing the gap in information about this industry. The impact that these behaviors may have on clinical or forensic psychiatric evaluations is discussed, along with pertinent legal regulations and ethics-related considerations. PMID:25492077

  11. The Perceived Intent of Potentially Offensive Sexual Behaviors among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacasse, Anne; Mendelson, Morton J.

    2006-01-01

    Individual differences may partly explain how students react to potentially offensive sexual behaviors from peers. This study focused on situational and personal characteristics that may make such behaviors more or less upsetting. Six hundred and thirty two Quebecois high-school students in Grades 8-11 completed questionnaires regarding their…

  12. Taking a Developmental Approach to Treating Juvenile Sexual Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creeden, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    While theories on the etiology of sexually problematic and offending behavior have become increasingly developmental in their perspective, treatment approaches that are utilized to address these issues have not significantly changed to address this thinking. Adolescent behavioral problems are especially linked to a wide range of personal and…

  13. Health Risk Behavior and Sexual Assault among Ethnically Diverse Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleton, Heather L.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Buck, Katherine S.; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among…

  14. Sexual behavior, contraception, and risk among college students.

    PubMed

    Siegel, D M; Klein, D I; Roghmann, K J

    1999-11-01

    This study aimed to describe the differences and similarities among college freshmen, sophomores, juniors, and seniors concerning their sexual behavior, including contraception choices and HIV risk. The sample (N = 797; mean age = 19 years) were taken from a private 4-year undergraduate college and represented 17% of the college population. It consisted of 474 (60%) females and 318 (40%) males. They were interviewed through the use of a 41-item questionnaire administered in a cross-sectional survey design. In the results, levels of sexual activity were similar to other college-based surveys with 72% reporting ever having had sexual intercourse. The average age of first sexual intercourse was 16.8 years for females and 16.7 for males; 358 (45%) were currently sexually active. Condoms were the most common contraception used, followed by oral contraceptives. The primary purpose in choosing a contraceptive was prevention of both pregnancy and disease. Seniors had increased level of oral contraceptive use and increased reliance on women to provide contraception as compared to freshmen. The percentage of students who had undergone HIV testing also increased from freshman (16%) to senior (32%) years. As to gender differences, women reported greater partner relationship duration, intensity, and communication prior to initiating sexual intercourse as compared to men. In conclusion, college-based health care programs should address sexual behavior with an awareness of the differences that exist in the 4 cohorts of students. PMID:10551664

  15. Substance Use, Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Risk Behavior among Women in Methadone Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Lisa R.; Tross, Susan; Pavlicova, Martina; Hu, Mei-Chen; Campbell, Aimee N.; Nunes, Edward V.

    2009-01-01

    Substance use and a history of childhood sexual abuse have both been identified as risk factors for unprotected sex among women, yet questions remain as to how their combined influence may differentially affect sexual risk behavior. In the current study a Generalized Linear Mixed Model was used to examine the interaction effect between current cocaine and opioid use and a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on number of unprotected sexual occasions (USO) in a sample of 214 sexually active women in outpatient methadone maintenance treatment programs. Results show significant interaction effects between drug use in the past 30 days and CSA on unprotected sexual occasions. These interactions, however, differ depending on type of drug used and CSA status. For women with CSA, an increase in days of cocaine use was significantly associated with an increase in USO, whereas an increase in number of days of opiate use was not significantly associated with an increase in USO. In contrast, for women who did not report CSA, an increase in number of days of cocaine use was associated with a significant decrease in USO and number of days of opiate use was significantly correlated with an increase in USO. Findings indicate that CSA is related to unprotected sexual occasions depending on drug type and severity of use. Women with childhood sexual abuse using cocaine are at particularly high risk for having unprotected sex, which suggests that this group of women should be specifically targeted for HIV prevention interventions. PMID:19637103

  16. Male rats that differ in novelty exploration demonstrate distinct patterns of sexual behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Jennifer A.; Clinton, Sarah M.; Perry, Adam N.; Akil, Huda; Becker, Jill B.

    2014-01-01

    High versus low novelty exploration predicts a variety of behavioral differences. For example, rats selectively-bred for high novelty exploration (bred High Responders, bHR) exhibit exaggerated aggression, impulsivity, and proclivity to addictive behaviors compared to low novelty-reactive rats (bred Low Responders, bLRs), which are characterized by a high anxiety/depressive-like phenotype. Since bHR/bLR rats exhibit differences in dopaminergic circuitry and differential response to rewarding stimuli (i.e., psychostimulants, food), the present study examined whether they also differ in another key hedonic behavior – sex. Thus, adult bHR/bLR males were given five 30-min opportunities to engage in sexual activity with a receptive female. Sexual behavior and motivation were examined and compared between the groups. The bHR/bLR phenotype affected both sexual motivation and behavior, with bLR males demonstrating reduced motivation for sex compared with bHR males (i.e., fewer animals copulated, longer latency to engage in sex). The bHR males required more intromissions at a faster pace per ejaculation than did bLR males. Thus, neurobiological differences that affect motivation for drugs of abuse, aggression, and impulsivity in rats also affect sexual motivation and performance. PMID:23398441

  17. Developmental exposure to Ethinylestradiol affects transgenerationally sexual behavior and neuroendocrine networks in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Derouiche, Lyes; Keller, Matthieu; Duittoz, Anne Hélène; Pillon, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive behavior and physiology in adulthood are controlled by hypothalamic sexually dimorphic neuronal networks which are organized under hormonal control during development. These organizing effects may be disturbed by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). To determine whether developmental exposure to Ethinylestradiol (EE2) may alter reproductive parameters in adult male mice and their progeny, Swiss mice (F1 generation) were exposed from prenatal to peripubertal periods to EE2 (0.1–1 μg/kg/d). Sexual behavior and reproductive physiology were evaluated on F1 males and their F2, F3 and F4 progeny. EE2-exposed F1 males and their F2 to F4 progeny exhibited EE2 dose-dependent increased sexual behavior, with reduced latencies of first mount and intromission, and higher frequencies of intromissions with a receptive female. The EE2 1 μg/kg/d exposed animals and their progeny had more calbindin immunoreactive cells in the medial preoptic area, known to be involved in the control of male sexual behavior in rodents. Despite neuroanatomical modifications in the Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone neuron population of F1 males exposed to both doses of EE2, no major deleterious effects on reproductive physiology were detected. Therefore EE2 exposure during development may induce a hypermasculinization of the brain, illustrating how widespread exposure of animals and humans to EDCs can impact health and behaviors. PMID:26640081

  18. Variation in Prolactin Is Related to Variation in Sexual Behavior and Contact Affiliation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Prolactin is associated with both maternal and paternal care and appears important in developing a bond between parent and infant. In contrast with oxytocin, another hormone important in infant care, there is scant information on the role of prolactin in maintaining adult heterosexual relationships. We present here the first results demonstrating a relationship between prolactin levels and sexual and contact affiliation behavior in a pair-bonded species. We studied cotton-top tamarins, a socially-monogamous, cooperatively-breeding primate. We measured chronic urinary prolactin levels over a four week period to include the entire female ovulatory cycle and correlated prolactin levels in males and females with simultaneous measures of contact affiliation and sexual behavior. Current mothers who were no longer nursing displayed lower amounts of sexual behavior and proximity than non-breeding females and also had marginally lower levels of prolactin. The prolactin levels of males and females were similar within pairs, and variation in prolactin levels for both sexes was explained both by the amount of sexual behavior and contact affiliation. The results parallel a previous study that compared oxytocin levels with sociosexual behavior in the same species, and supports the hypothesis that both prolactin and oxytocin are involved in pair-bonding as well as in infant care. PMID:25799436

  19. Sexual behavior and job stress in software professionals, Bengaluru - India

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Giridhara R.; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Detels, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sexually transmitted diseases are now gradually affecting the general population groups increasingly. Our earlier observations from qualitative research called for an effort to understand the sexual exposure, activity and behavior of the workers in these software professionals in Bengaluru, India. Aim: The current study is explored to understand the association of the sexual behaviors with Job. Materials and Methods: The study design employed was a cross-sectional study using a mixed sampling method. A total of 1071 subjects from software sector in Bengaluru, the capital city of Karnataka completed the self-administered questionnaire. The source population comprised all information technology/information technology enabled services (IT/ITES) professionals aged 20-59 years working in “technical functions” in 21 selected worksites (units) of the software industry. The exposure of interest was job stressors and the outcome measures were sexual behaviors in the form of having multiple sexual partners, paid sex in last 3 months and frequency of intercourse with irregular sexual partners and condom use with regular partners during last sexual act. Results: Among the study population, 74.3% reported not using a condom during their last vaginal intercourse with their regular partner. Regression estimates indicated that workers with high physical stressors had 6 times odds of having paid for sex in last 3 months and those with a moderate level of income related stress had 2.4 times likelihood of not using a condom during the last sexual intercourse with their regular partner. Conclusion: There is scope for starting prevention programs among young professionals in the IT/ITES sector to mitigate their possible risk behaviors. PMID:24421592

  20. Adolescence, sexual behavior and risk factors to health

    PubMed Central

    de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Gomes, Romeu; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the relationships between sexual behavior and risk factors to physical and mental health in adolescents. METHODS Study of 3,195 pupils aged 15 to 19 in secondary education, in public and private schools in 10 state capitals in Brazil between 2007 and 2008. Multi-stage (schools and pupils) cluster sampling was used in each city and public and private educational network. All of the students selected completed a questionnaire on the following items: socioeconomic and demographic data; sexual behavior; having sex with those of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both; alcohol and cannabis use; using condoms; traumatic sexual experiences as a child or adolescent; suicidal thoughts. The analysis included describing frequencies, Chi-square test, analysis of multiple and cluster correspondence. Responses to an open ended question in which the adolescent expressed general comments about themselves and their lives were qualitatively analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS Around 3.0% of adolescents reported homosexual or bisexual behavior, with no difference according to sex, age, skin color, social status family structure or educational network. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior, compared to their heterosexual peers, reported: (p < 0.05): getting drunk (18.7% and 10.5%, respectively), frequent cannabis use (6.1% and 2.1%, respectively), suicidal thoughts (42.5% and 18.7%, respectively), and having been the victim of sexual violence (11.7% and 1.5%; respectively). Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior reported that they used condoms less frequently (74.2%) than their heterosexual peers (48.6%, p < 0.001). In the correspondence analysis, three groups were found, one composed of adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior and experiencing risk factors; suffering sexual violence, never using a condom, suicidal thoughts, frequent cannabis use; another composed of occasional cannabis and condom users, who got drunk

  1. Differences in correlates of condom use between young adults and adults attending sexually transmitted infection clinics.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Amanda R; Blood, Emily A; Crosby, Richard A; Shrier, Lydia A

    2015-07-01

    Despite developmental differences between young adults and adults, studies of condom use have not typically considered young adults as a distinct age group. This study sought to examine how condom use and its correlates differed between high-risk young adults and adults. Sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic patients (n = 763) reported STI history, contraception, negative condom attitudes, fear of partner reaction to condom use and risky behaviours. Past 3-month condom use was examined as unprotected vaginal sex (UVS) acts, proportional condom use and consistent condom use. Regression models tested associations of age group and potential correlates with each condom use outcome. Interaction models tested whether associations differed by age group. Proportional condom use was greater in young adults than adults (mean 0.55 vs. 0.47); UVS and consistent condom use were similar between age groups. Young adults with a recent STI reported less condom use, whereas for older adults, a distant STI was associated with less condom use, compared to others in their age groups. Negative condom attitudes were more strongly linked to UVS acts for younger versus older adults. STI prevention efforts for younger adults may be improved by intensifying counselling about condom use immediately following STI diagnosis and targeting negative condom attitudes. PMID:25070945

  2. Female Same-Sex Sexuality from a Dynamical Systems Perspective: Sexual Desire, Motivation, and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Farr, Rachel H.; Diamond, Lisa M.; Boker, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Fluidity in attractions and behaviors among same-sex attracted women has been well-documented, suggesting the appropriateness of dynamical systems modeling of these phenomena over time. As dynamical systems modeling offer an approach to explaining the patterns of complex phenomena, it may be apt for explaining variability in female same-sex sexuality. The present research is the first application of this analytical approach to such data. Dynamical systems modeling, and specifically generalized local linear approximation modeling, was used to fit daily diary data on same-sex attractions and behaviors over a 21 day period among a group of 33 sexual minority women characterized as lesbian, bisexual or “fluid” based on their identity histories. Daily measures of women’s reported same-sex attractions were fit using a linear oscillator model and its parameters estimated the cyclicity in these attractions. Results supported the existence of a “core sexual orientation” for women in this sample, regardless of how they identified and despite a high degree of variability in daily same-sex attractions. Thus, modeling individual differences in the variability of attractions and behaviors of sexual minority women may be critical to furthering our understanding of female same-sex sexuality and human sexual orientation more broadly. PMID:25193132

  3. Female same-sex sexuality from a dynamical systems perspective: sexual desire, motivation, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Farr, Rachel H; Diamond, Lisa M; Boker, Steven M

    2014-11-01

    Fluidity in attractions and behaviors among same-sex attracted women has been well-documented, suggesting the appropriateness of dynamical systems modeling of these phenomena over time. As dynamical systems modeling offer an approach to explaining the patterns of complex phenomena, it may be apt for explaining variability in female same-sex sexuality. The present research is the first application of this analytical approach to such data. Dynamical systems modeling, and specifically generalized local linear approximation modeling, was used to fit daily diary data on same-sex attractions and behaviors over a 21 day period among a group of 33 sexual minority women characterized as lesbian, bisexual or "fluid" based on their identity histories. Daily measures of women's reported same-sex attractions were fit using a linear oscillator model and its parameters estimated the cyclicity in these attractions. Results supported the existence of a "core sexual orientation" for women in this sample, regardless of how they identified and despite a high degree of variability in daily same-sex attractions. Thus, modeling individual differences in the variability of attractions and behaviors of sexual minority women may be critical to furthering our understanding of female same-sex sexuality and human sexual orientation more broadly. PMID:25193132

  4. Prenatal endocrine influences on sexual orientation and on sexually differentiated childhood behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Both sexual orientation and sex-typical childhood behaviors, such as toy, playmate and activity preferences, show substantial sex differences, as well as substantial variability within each sex. In other species, behaviors that show sex differences are typically influenced by exposure to gonadal steroids, particularly testosterone and its metabolites, during early development (prenatally or neonatally). This article reviews the evidence regarding prenatal influences of gonadal steroids on human sexual orientation, as well as sex-typed childhood behaviors that predict subsequent sexual orientation. The evidence supports a role for prenatal testosterone exposure in the development of sex-typed interests in childhood, as well as in sexual orientation in later life, at least for some individuals. It appears, however, that other factors, in addition to hormones, play an important role in determining sexual orientation. These factors have not been well-characterized, but possibilities include direct genetic effects, and effects of maternal factors during pregnancy. Although a role for hormones during early development has been established, it also appears that there may be multiple pathways to a given sexual orientation outcome and some of these pathways may not involve hormones. PMID:21333673

  5. Prenatal endocrine influences on sexual orientation and on sexually differentiated childhood behavior.

    PubMed

    Hines, Melissa

    2011-04-01

    Both sexual orientation and sex-typical childhood behaviors, such as toy, playmate and activity preferences, show substantial sex differences, as well as substantial variability within each sex. In other species, behaviors that show sex differences are typically influenced by exposure to gonadal steroids, particularly testosterone and its metabolites, during early development (prenatally or neonatally). This article reviews the evidence regarding prenatal influences of gonadal steroids on human sexual orientation, as well as sex-typed childhood behaviors that predict subsequent sexual orientation. The evidence supports a role for prenatal testosterone exposure in the development of sex-typed interests in childhood, as well as in sexual orientation in later life, at least for some individuals. It appears, however, that other factors, in addition to hormones, play an important role in determining sexual orientation. These factors have not been well-characterized, but possibilities include direct genetic effects, and effects of maternal factors during pregnancy. Although a role for hormones during early development has been established, it also appears that there may be multiple pathways to a given sexual orientation outcome and some of these pathways may not involve hormones. PMID:21333673

  6. Risk of Substance Abuse and Dependence Among Young Adult Sexual Minority Groups Using a Multidimensional Measure of Sexual Orientation

    PubMed Central

    Strutz, Kelly L.; Herring, Amy A.; Halpern, Carolyn T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined associations between two definitions of sexual minority status (SMS) and substance abuse and/or dependence among young adults in a national population. Methods A total of 14,152 respondents (7,529 women and 6,623 men) interviewed during wave four of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were included in the study (age range: 24–32 years). We used two definitions of SMS based on self-reported attraction, behavior, and identity: 1-indicator SMS (endorsing any dimension) and 3-indicator SMS (endorsing all dimensions). Outcomes included nicotine dependence as well as ≥3 signs of substance dependence, any sign of substance abuse, and lifetime diagnosis of abuse or dependence for alcohol, marijuana, and a composite measure of other drugs. Weighted logistic regression models were fit to estimate the odds of each outcome for each of the sexual minority groups (compared with the heterosexual majority), controlling for sociodemographic covariates. Results SMS women were more likely than exclusively heterosexual women to experience substance abuse and dependence, regardless of substance or SMS definition. In adjusted models for women, 3-indicator SMS was most strongly associated with abuse/dependence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] range: 2.74–5.17) except for ≥3 signs of cannabis dependence, where 1-indicator SMS had the strongest association (AOR=3.35). For men, the 1-indicator SMS group had higher odds of nicotine dependence (AOR=1.35) and the 3-indicator SMS group had higher odds of ≥3 signs of alcohol dependence (AOR=1.64). Conclusions Young adult female sexual minority groups, regardless of how defined, are at a higher risk than their heterosexual peers of developing alcohol, drug, or tobacco abuse and dependence. PMID:23633729

  7. Heterosexual daters' sexual initiation behaviors: use of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Simms, Deanne C; Byers, E Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated sexual initiations within the framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) (Ajzen, 1991; Ajzen & Madden, 1986). Male and female daters in heterosexual dating relationships completed an online survey that assessed their sexual relationship with their partner and the TPB components (perceptions of social norms, attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and intentions). The TPB was supported for both men and women in that, as predicted, the more an individual perceived that important others would approve of them initiating sexual activities with their partner, the more positive their evaluations were of the outcomes of initiating, and the more confident they were in their ability to initiate, the stronger were their initiation intentions. In turn, stronger sexual initiation intentions were associated with more frequent initiation behaviors. Compared to women, men initiated more frequently, had stronger sexual initiation intentions, and perceived more positive social norms regarding initiation; men and women did not differ in their attitudes toward sexual initiation or in their perceived behavioral control. Both men and women who reported initiating more frequently and perceived their partner as initiating more frequently reported greater sexual satisfaction. These results are discussed in terms of the utility of the TPB for understanding sexual initiations and the role of the traditional sexual script in initiation-related cognitions and behavior. PMID:22875717

  8. An application of the theory of planned behavior to the proximal and distal etiology of sexual offending.

    PubMed

    Miller, Diane Lynn

    2010-07-01

    Emerging from social psychology, the theory of planned behavior offers a potentially useful theoretical framework for research into the etiology of sexual offending in adults and adolescents. The theory of planned behavior--a cognitive-affective theory about the role of attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control on behaviors--may provide a means by which to link distal etiological factors into proximal ones involved in the offense process, providing greater specificity to the ''abused- abuser'' hypothesis. The theory of planned behavior also provides a theoretical framework with which to specify mechanisms involved in the proximal offense cycle. Important new directions for research resulting from this conceptual advance are presented, along with limitations of the theory in its application to the etiology of sexual offending. This theoretical framework directs practitioners to classify sexual offenders' cognitive distortions by whether they involve behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, and/or control beliefs and to modify treatment activities accordingly. PMID:20554503

  9. Evolution of sexuality: biology and behavior

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Sexual reproduction in animals and plants is far more prevalent than asexual reproduction, and there is no dearth of hypotheses attempting to explain why. Even bacteria and viruses, which reproduce by cloning, engage in promiscuous horizontal gene exchange (“parasexual reproduction”) on such short time scales that they evolve genotypic diversity even more rapidly than eukaryotes. (We confront this daily in the form of antimicrobial resistance.) The host-parasite and host-pathogen arms race purports to explain the prevalence of sexual reproduction, yet there are over a dozen other hypotheses, including the proposition that sexual reproduction purges the genome of deleterious mutations. An equally daunting challenge is to understand, in terms of evolutionary logic, the jungle of diverse courtship and mating strategies that we find in nature. The phenotypic plasticity of sex determination in animals suggests that the central nervous system and reproductive tract may not reach the same endpoint on the continuum between our stereotypic male and female extremes. Why are there only two kinds of gametes in most eukaryotes? Why are most flowering plants, and few animals, hermaphroditic? Why do male animals compete more for access to females than the other way around in most animals that have been studied?This review presents more questions than answers, but an extraordinary wealth of data has been collected, and new genetic techniques will provide new answers. The possible relevance of these data to human sexuality will be discussed in a future article. PMID:16200180

  10. Coping behaviors among sexual minority female youth.

    PubMed

    Pendragon, Diane K

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes data from a qualitative study investigating the ways in which female youth perceive and respond to challenges related to the interplay of late adolescence and a minority sexual orientation. Fifteen sexual minority females in late adolescence were interviewed individually and in focus groups. The interviews focused on participants' perceptions of challenges, the impact those stressors have in their lives, and methods they utilize to cope with them. The most common negative experiences reported were isolation, lack of acceptance, harassment, and violence. Sub-themes include: hearing negative messages about gender and sexual orientation, pressures to conform to a variety of cultural norms including gender norms, fears of future violence, and pressure to identify sexual orientation. Collectively, the participants described these negative consequences of experiences of heterosexism, sexism, and racism as their most difficult experiences. The most common responses to these stressors reported by participants were finding support in relationships, engaging in coping responses, pursuing education and activism, rebellion and resistance, and avoidance and deferment. PMID:20077261

  11. The relationship between disordered eating and sexuality amongst adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Annie; Russon, Jody; Herres, Joanna; Atte, Tita; Kodish, Tamar; Diamond, Guy

    2015-12-01

    Research shows that gay and bisexual males are at increased risk for disordered eating symptoms (DES); however, studies examining DES amongst lesbians and bisexual women have produced mixed findings. Furthermore, few studies have included questioning or "unsure" individuals. This study examined DES symptoms in adolescents and young adults across self-reported sexual attraction and behavior. Participants were recruited from ten primary care sites in Pennsylvania and administered the Behavioral Health Screen (BHS) - a web-based screening tool that assesses psychiatric symptoms and risk behaviors - during a routine visit. As expected, males who were attracted to other males exhibited significantly higher disordered eating scores than those only attracted to members of the opposite sex. Males who engaged in sexual activities with other males also exhibited significantly higher scores than those who only engaged in sexual activities with females. Amongst females, there were no significant differences in DES scores between females who were only attracted to females and those only attracted to males. Those who reported being attracted to both sexes, however, had significantly higher scores, on average, than those only attracted to one sex. More surprisingly, females who were unsure of who they were attracted to reported the highest DES scores of all. These findings are contrary to previous assumptions that same-sex attraction plays a protective role against eating pathology in females. Females who are unsure or attracted to both sexes may actually be at increased risk for developing DES. PMID:26332989

  12. 78 FR 25972 - Establishment of the Response Systems to Adult Sexual Crimes Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... shall provide recommendations on how to improve the effectiveness of the investigation, prosecution, and..., including the administration of the UCMJ, and the investigation, prosecution, and adjudication of adult... systems for the investigation, prosecution, and adjudication of adult sexual assault crimes....

  13. Teen sexting and its association with sexual behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Temple, Jeff R.; Paul, Jonathan A.; van den Berg, Patricia; Le, Vi Donna; McElhany, Amy; Temple, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Despite recent media attention and potential public health importance, little is known about the prevalence and nature of sexting. Using a large school-based sample of adolescents, we examined the prevalence of sexting behaviors, as well as its relation to dating, sex, and risky sexual behaviors. DESIGN Data are from Time 2 of a three-year longitudinal study. Participants self-reported their history of dating, sexual behaviors, and sexting (sent, asked, been asked, bothered by being asked). SETTING Seven public high schools in southeast Texas. PARTICIPANTS A total of 948 public high school students (55.9% female) participated. The sample consisted of African American (26.6%), Caucasian (30.3%), Hispanic (31.7%), Asian (3.4%), and mixed/other (8.0%) teens. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Having ever engaged in sexting behaviors. RESULTS 28% of the sample reported having sent a naked picture of themselves through text or email (sext), and 31% reported having asked someone for a sext. Over half (57%) had been asked to send a sext, with a vast majority bothered by having been asked. Adolescents who engaged in sexting behaviors were more likely to have begun dating and to have had sex than those who did not sext (all p<.001). For girls, sexting was also associated with risky sexual behaviors. CONCLUSIONS The results suggest that teen sexting is prevalent, and potentially indicative of teens’ sexual behaviors. Teen-focused health care providers should consider screening for sexting behaviors, so as to provide age-specific education about the potential consequences of sexting, and as a mechanism for discussing sexual behaviors. PMID:22751805

  14. Incentivizing health care behaviors in emerging adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Catherine H; Guarna, Giuliana; Tsao, Pamela; Jesuthasan, Jude R; Lau, Adrian NC; Siddiqi, Ferhan S; Gilmour, Julie Anne; Ladha, Danyal; Halapy, Henry; Advani, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Purpose For emerging adults with chronic medical diseases, the transition from pediatric to adult health care is often a time of great upheaval, commonly associated with unhealthy self-management choices, loss to follow-up, and adverse outcomes. We conducted a systematic review to examine the use of incentive strategies to promote positive health-related behaviors in young adults with chronic medical diseases. Methods The Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsycInfo, and Cochrane databases were searched through June 2014. Studies of any design where an incentive was used to achieve a target behavior or outcome in a pediatric or emerging adult population (age <30 years) with chronic medical conditions including addictions, were included. Results A total of 26 studies comprising 10,880 patients met our inclusion criteria after screening 10,305 abstracts and 301 full-text articles. Of these studies, 20 examined the effects of behavioral incentives on cigarette smoking or substance abuse, including alcohol; four studies explored behavioral incentives in the setting of HIV or sexual health; and two articles studied individuals with other chronic medical conditions. Seventeen articles reported a statistically significant benefit of the behavioral incentive on one or more outcomes, although only half reported follow-up after the incentive period was terminated. Conclusion While the majority of studies reported positive outcomes, these studies focused on promoting the cessation of adverse behaviors rather than promoting positive behaviors. In addition, conclusions were limited by the high risk of bias present in the majority of studies, as well as lack of follow-up after the incentive period. Whether behavioral incentives facilitate the adoption of positive health choices in this population remains to be determined. PMID:27069356

  15. Sexual Fluidity and Related Attitudes and Beliefs Among Young Adults with a Same-Gender Orientation.

    PubMed

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Hyde, Janet S

    2015-07-01

    Little research has examined whether experiencing sexual fluidity--changes over time in attractions and sexual orientation identity--is related to specific cognitions. This study explored attitudes and beliefs among sexually fluid and non-sexually fluid individuals and developed two new measures of sexuality beliefs based on Diamond's sexual fluidity research and Dweck's psychological theory of intelligence beliefs. Participants were 188 female and male young adults in the United States with a same-gender orientation, ages 18-26 years. Participants completed an online questionnaire which assessed sexual fluidity in attractions and sexual orientation identity, attitudes toward bisexuality, sexuality beliefs, and demographics. Sexual fluidity in attractions was reported by 63 % of females and 50 % of males, with 48 % of those females and 34 % of those males reporting fluidity in sexual orientation identity. No significant gender differences in frequency of sexual fluidity were observed. Sexually fluid females had more positive attitudes toward bisexuality than non-sexually fluid females; however, no significant difference was observed for males. Females were more likely than males to endorse sexual fluidity beliefs and to believe that sexuality is changeable; and sexually fluid persons were more likely than non-sexually fluid persons to hold those two beliefs. Among males, non-sexually fluid individuals were more likely than sexually fluid individuals to believe that sexuality is something an individual is born with. Females were more likely than males to endorse the belief that sexuality is influenced by the environment. Findings from this research link sexual fluidity with specific cognitions. PMID:25378265

  16. But I'm Married: Understanding Relationship Status and College Students' Sexual Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswalt, Sara B.; Wyatt, Tammy J.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual health programs on college campuses are often directed toward single individuals with a focus on sexual risk. Using a sample of college students, this study examines how relationship status relates to sexual behaviors and may be a factor for sexual risk. Based on the study's results, expansion of sexual health programming on college…

  17. The Association between Sexual Aggression and HIV Risk Behavior in Heterosexual Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Zoe D.; Janssen, Erick; Heiman, Julia R.

    2010-01-01

    Perpetrating sexual coercion and rape can be conceptualized as a form of sexual risk taking. In this study, the authors evaluated the relationship between sexual aggression and other risky sexual behaviors (e.g., intercourse without a condom) using an online convenience sample of 1,240 heterosexual men. Sexually aggressive men engaged in more…

  18. Self-Reported Childhood and Adolescent Sexual Abuse among Adult Homosexual and Bisexual Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doll, Lynda S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study of 1,001 adult homosexual and bisexual men found that 37% reported they had been encouraged or forced to have sexual contact with an older or more powerful partner before age 19. Median age at first contact was 10. Ninety-three percent of participants reporting early sexual contact were classified as sexually abused. (Author/DB)

  19. Adaptation to Sexual Orientation Stigma: A Comparison of Bisexual and Lesbian/Gay Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Mohr, Jonathan J.

    2007-01-01

    This study extends research on dimensions of sexual minority experience by examining differences between bisexual and lesbian/gay adults in adaptation to sexual orientation stigma. The authors investigated sexual orientation self-disclosure, connection to community, and 4 identity-related variables (internalized homonegativity, stigma…

  20. Sexual Health Care, Sexual Behaviors and Functioning, and Female Genital Cutting: Perspectives From Somali Women Living in the United States.

    PubMed

    Connor, Jennifer Jo; Hunt, Shanda; Finsaas, Megan; Ciesinski, Amanda; Ahmed, Amira; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the sexual values, attitudes, and behaviors of 30 Somali female refugees living in a large metropolitan area of Minnesota by collecting exploratory sexual health information based on the components of the sexual health model-components posited to be essential aspects of healthy human sexuality. A Somali-born bilingual interviewer conducted the semistructured interviews in English or Somali; 22 participants chose to be interviewed in Somali. Interviews were translated, transcribed, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analyses. Our study findings highlighted a sexually conservative culture that values sexual intimacy, female and male sexual pleasure, and privacy in marriage; vaginal sexual intercourse as the only sanctioned sexual behavior; and the importance of Islamic religion in guiding sexual practices. Findings related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) revealed HIV testing at immigration, mixed attitudes toward condom use, and moderate knowledge about HIV transmission modes. Female genital cutting (FGC) was a pervasive factor affecting sexual functioning in Somali women, with attitudes about the controversial practice in transition. We recommend that health professionals take the initiative to discuss sexual health care and safer sex, sexual behaviors/functioning, and likely challenges to sexual health with Somali women--as they may be unlikely to broach these subjects without permission and considerable encouragement. PMID:26168010

  1. The law hath not been dead: protecting adults with mental retardation from sexual abuse and violation of their sexual freedom.

    PubMed

    Parker, T; Abramson, P R

    1995-08-01

    The extent to which three professional groups (law enforcement officers, licensing personnel, and sex educators/counselors) utilize legally relevant criteria when assessing the sexual abuse of an adult with mental retardation was examined. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions that varied in terms of the ability of a woman with mental retardation to understand concepts involving the nature and consequences and right of volition in a sexual relationship. The results indicated significant effects for both treatment condition and group. Thus, more explicit, standardized criteria should be developed for professionals to utilize when assessing consent involving possible sexual abuse of adults with mental retardation. PMID:7565149

  2. Sexual Orientation- and Race-Based Discrimination and Sexual HIV Risk Behavior Among Urban MSM

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Victoria; Nandi, Vijay; Egan, James; Cerda, Magdalena; Greene, Emily; Van Tieu, Hong; Ompad, Danielle C.; Hoover, Donald R.; Lucy, Debbie; Baez, Eduardo; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding what social factors are associated with risk of HIV acquisition and transmission among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) is a critical public health goal. Experiencing discrimination may increase risk of HIV infection among MSM. This analysis assessed relations between experiences of sexual orientation- and race-based discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior among MSM in New York City. 1,369 MSM completed a self-administered computerized assessment of past 3-month sexual behavior, experience of social discrimination and other covariates. Regression models assessed relations between recent experience of discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior. Mean age was 32 years; 32 % were white; 32 % Latino/Hispanic; 25 % African American/Black. Of MSM who self-reported HIV-positive or unknown status (377), 7 % (N = 27) reported having unprotected insertive anal intercourse with an HIV-negative or unknown status partner (“HIV transmission risk”). Of MSM who self-reported HIV-negative status (992), 11 % (110) reported unprotected receptive anal intercourse with an HIV-positive or unknown status partner (“HIV acquisition risk”). HIV acquisition risk was positively associated with sexual orientation-based discrimination in home or social neighborhoods, but not race-based discrimination. We observed that sexual orientation-based discrimination was associated with sexual HIV risk behavior among urban-dwelling MSM. Addressing environmental sources of this form of discrimination, as well as the psychological distress that may result, should be prioritized in HIV prevention efforts. PMID:25381561

  3. Sexual orientation- and race-based discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior among urban MSM.

    PubMed

    Frye, Victoria; Nandi, Vijay; Egan, James; Cerda, Magdalena; Greene, Emily; Van Tieu, Hong; Ompad, Danielle C; Hoover, Donald R; Lucy, Debbie; Baez, Eduardo; Koblin, Beryl A

    2015-02-01

    Understanding what social factors are associated with risk of HIV acquisition and transmission among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) is a critical public health goal. Experiencing discrimination may increase risk of HIV infection among MSM. This analysis assessed relations between experiences of sexual orientation- and race-based discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior among MSM in New York City. 1,369 MSM completed a self-administered computerized assessment of past 3-month sexual behavior, experience of social discrimination and other covariates. Regression models assessed relations between recent experience of discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior. Mean age was 32 years; 32 % were white; 32 % Latino/Hispanic; 25 % African American/Black. Of MSM who self-reported HIV-positive or unknown status (377), 7 % (N = 27) reported having unprotected insertive anal intercourse with an HIV-negative or unknown status partner ("HIV transmission risk"). Of MSM who self-reported HIV-negative status (992), 11 % (110) reported unprotected receptive anal intercourse with an HIV-positive or unknown status partner ("HIV acquisition risk"). HIV acquisition risk was positively associated with sexual orientation-based discrimination in home or social neighborhoods, but not race-based discrimination. We observed that sexual orientation-based discrimination was associated with sexual HIV risk behavior among urban-dwelling MSM. Addressing environmental sources of this form of discrimination, as well as the psychological distress that may result, should be prioritized in HIV prevention efforts. PMID:25381561

  4. Young Parents’ Relationship Characteristics, Shared Sexual Behaviors, Perception of Partner Risks, and Dyadic Influences

    PubMed Central

    Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Huang, Rong; Lesser, Janna; González-Figueroa, Evelyn; Takayanagi, Sumiko; Cumberland, William G.

    2010-01-01

    Rising rates of heterosexually-transmitted HIV among youth and young adults, particularly from ethnic minorities, create an urgent need to understand risk factors and perceptions of risk within the context of couple relationships. This study examined reports of young mothers and fathers (predominantly Latino) about background characteristics, relationship quality and length, HIV-related risk factors, and perceptions of partners’ behaviors and personal history. Higher concordance was found for relationship characteristics and partners’ personal history (e.g., incarceration) than on shared sexual behaviors. Most males and females stated that they were monogamous; however, those whose partners reported concurrency were unaware of this. Many were unaware of their partners’ HIV testing status. Relationship quality was higher when females accurately perceived their partners’ self-reported HIV-related risk behaviors. Length of the relationship did not influence concordance. Findings support the need for HIV prevention programs to promote open discussion about condom use and HIV testing within sexual partnerships. PMID:19337935

  5. Lifetime Prevalence of Suicide Attempts Among Sexual Minority Adults by Study Sampling Strategies: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bogaert, Laura; Rhodes, Anne E.; Brennan, David J.; Gesink, Dionne

    2016-01-01

    Background. Previous reviews have demonstrated a higher risk of suicide attempts for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons (sexual minorities), compared with heterosexual groups, but these were restricted to general population studies, thereby excluding individuals sampled through LGB community venues. Each sampling strategy, however, has particular methodological strengths and limitations. For instance, general population probability studies have defined sampling frames but are prone to information bias associated with underreporting of LGB identities. By contrast, LGB community surveys may support disclosure of sexuality but overrepresent individuals with strong LGB community attachment. Objectives. To reassess the burden of suicide-related behavior among LGB adults, directly comparing estimates derived from population- versus LGB community–based samples. Search methods. In 2014, we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and Scopus databases for articles addressing suicide-related behavior (ideation, attempts) among sexual minorities. Selection criteria. We selected quantitative studies of sexual minority adults conducted in nonclinical settings in the United States, Canada, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. Data collection and analysis. Random effects meta-analysis and meta-regression assessed for a difference in prevalence of suicide-related behavior by sample type, adjusted for study or sample-level variables, including context (year, country), methods (medium, response rate), and subgroup characteristics (age, gender, sexual minority construct). We examined residual heterogeneity by using τ2. Main results. We pooled 30 cross-sectional studies, including 21 201 sexual minority adults, generating the following lifetime prevalence estimates of suicide attempts: 4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3%, 5%) for heterosexual respondents to population surveys, 11% (95% CI = 8%, 15%) for LGB respondents to population surveys, and 20% (95% CI

  6. Exploring Older Adults' Health Information Seeking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore older adults' (55-70 years) health information-seeking behaviors. Methods: Using a qualitative methodology, based on grounded theory, data were collected using in-depth interviews. Participants were community-living, older adults in Toronto, Canada who independently seek nutrition and health information. Interview transcripts…

  7. A culture of future planning: perceptions of sexual risk among educated young adults.

    PubMed

    Cheney, Ann M; Ostrach, Bayla; Marcus, Ruthanne; Frank, Cynthia; Ball, Cassandra; Erickson, Pamela I

    2014-10-01

    In this study we examined how social processes, specifically the acquisition of postsecondary education and capital, shaped perceptions of sexual risk and impacted sexual practices and sexual health among young adults. Using qualitative research methods we collected and analyzed data among students attending a 4-year university in the northeastern region of the United States over a 1-year period. By analyzing participants' narratives, we found that the reproduction of shared norms and values encouraged educated young adults to focus on educational and professional success, pressing many of them to be concerned about preventing pregnancy rather than preventing disease transmission, and increasing their risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS. Sexual-health educators need to address how social processes shape sexual practices, encourage educated young adults to challenge unequal gender expectations, and consider how sexually transmitted infections might also interfere with life plans. PMID:25156216

  8. Media interventions to promote responsible sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Keller, Sarah N; Brown, Jane D

    2002-02-01

    While the media have been used effectively to promote sexual responsibility in other countries for decades, few such opportunities have been seized in the United States. Mass media may be especially useful for teaching young people about reproductive health because elements of popular culture can be used to articulate messages in young people s terms, in language that won t embarrass them and may even make safe sex more attractive. Media can potentially change the way people think about sex, amidst cultural pressures to have sex at a young age, to have sex forcefully, or to have unsafe sex. Information can be communicated through a variety of channels--small media (e.g., pamphlets, brochures, and the Internet) and mass media--and in a variety of formats--campaigns, news coverage, and educational messages inserted into regular entertainment programming. Several international studies show that exposure to family planning messages through television, radio, and print media are strongly associated with contraceptive use. Domestically, safe sex media campaigns have been associated with increased teen condom use with casual partners, and reductions in the numbers of teenagers reporting sexual activity. Due to private ownership and First Amendment concerns, U.S. sexual health advocates have been working with the commercial media to incorporate subtle health messages into existing entertainment programming. PMID:12476260

  9. Social Exchange and Sexual Behavior in Young Women's Premarital Relationships in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Luke, Nancy; Goldberg, Rachel E; Mberu, Blessing U; Zulu, Eliya M

    2011-10-01

    Transactional sex, or the exchange of money and gifts for sexual activities within nonmarital relationships, has been widely considered a contributing factor to the disproportionate prevalence of HIV/AIDS among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. This study applied social exchange theory to premarital relationships in order to investigate the linkages between a variety of young women's resources-including employment and material transfers from male partners-and sexual behaviors. Data on the first month of premarital relationships (N=551 relationships) were collected from a random sample of young adult women ages 18-24 in Kisumu, Kenya, using a retrospective life history calendar. Consistent with the hypotheses, results showed that young women's income increases the likelihood of safer sexual activities, including delaying sex and using condoms consistently. Material transfers from the male partner displayed the opposite effect, supporting the view that resources obtained from within the relationship decrease young women's negotiating power. PMID:22180665

  10. Is Sexual Behavior Healthy for Adolescents? A Conceptual Framework for Research on Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Physical, Mental, and Social Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasilenko, Sara A.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Welsh, Deborah P.

    2014-01-01

    Although research has increasingly emphasized how adolescent sexual behavior may be associated with aspects of health beyond unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, no current theoretical or conceptual model fully explains associations between sexual behavior and multiple facets of health. We provide a conceptual model that…

  11. 11-ketotestosterone induces male-type sexual behavior and gonadotropin secretion in gynogenetic crucian carp, Carassius auratus langsdorfii.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, M; Nakanishi, T

    1999-08-01

    To determine if a gynogenetic teleost might have a sexually bipotential brain, we tested whether implantation of 11-ketotestosterone (KT) induces male-type sexual behavior and gonadotropin (GTH) secretion in adult gynogenetic crucian carp, "ginbuna," Carassius auratus langsdorfii. KT-implanted female ginbuna were tested for male spawning behavior by pairing them with a stimulus female in which sexual receptivity and attractivity were induced by prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PG) injection. When KT-implanted female ginbuna were paired with a PG-injected stimulus female ginbuna, all the KT-implanted fish tested showed male spawning behavior in response to the PG-injected females. KT-implanted fish also showed female spawning behavior when they were injected with PG. When the KT-implanted female ginbuna were exposed to waterborne 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (a female sex pheromone that stimulates male-typical GTH secretion in goldfish), all the KT-implanted fish showed an elevation of plasma GTH levels in response to the pheromone. These results demonstrate that gynogenetically evolved ginbuna, like goldfish, is sexually plastic and can be behaviorally and endocrinologically masculinized by androgen treatment without behavioral defeminization. These results support our hypothesis that adult teleosts retain a sexually bipotential brain regardless of reproductive strategy, i.e., hermaphroditism, gonochorism, or gynogenesis. PMID:10417231

  12. Anti-Social Behavioral Correlates of Self-Reported Sexual Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Jacquelyn W.; And Others

    Two studies examined the hypothesis that sexually coercive behavior is part of a larger constellation of non-sexual deviant behaviors. The first study considered the relationship between various antisocial intentions and self-reported levels of sexual aggression. As a part of a larger study, college men (N=108) responded to the Sexual Experiences…

  13. College Students' Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors, 1974-1985: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spees, Emil R.

    1987-01-01

    Reviewed the literature on college students' sexual attitudes and behaviors from 1974 through 1985. Found a rise in sexual activity and in openness to discuss sexual issues, a relationship between soft drugs and sexual activity, greater concern for rape, and greater male student awareness of male responsibility for contraceptive behavior.…

  14. "I Didn't Mean to...": Practical Suggestions for Understanding and Teaching Students with Sexualized Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rappaport, Nancy; Minahan, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    There is no definitive research on how many students display sexualized behavior in schools. Sexually inappropriate behavior includes using sexual language, gestures, or noises, engaging in pretend play that simulates sex, making sexual invitations to others, inappropriately touching another person, or masturbating in the classroom. These…

  15. Association of "Macho Man" Sexual Attitudes and Behavioral Risks in Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Ellen Johnson; Bauman, Laurie J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether sexual attitudes of adolescents were related to their self-reported sexual risk behavior by analyzing survey data from 1,052 boys and girls aged 14 to 17 years from a low income, urban community. Sexual behavior norms that may increase sexually transmitted infection/HIV risks in youth were sanctioned more by males and by…

  16. Sexual Partners and Contraceptive Use: A 16-Year Prospective Study Predicting Abstinence and Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebenbruner, Jessica; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Egeland, Byron

    2007-01-01

    Antecedents and correlates of sexual behavior among 167 (46 female) adolescents were examined in this multi-informant longitudinal study. Data were collected at birth through middle adolescence. Data on number of sexual partners and contraception use at age 16 defined sexual abstinence (SAs, n = 73), high-risk sexual behavior (HRTs, n = 45) and…

  17. Family Sex Communication and the Sexual Desire, Attitudes, and Behavior of Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamboni, Brian D.; Silver, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Parental sex education might promote healthy sexual behavior among adolescents, but some parents assume that family communication about sex will lead to sexual activity. Family sex communication has been studied with a limited range of adolescent sexual behaviors but not sexual fantasy or desire. Two measures of family sex communication were…

  18. Effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on sexual motivation in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ávila, Mara Aparecida P; Marthos, Gabriela Cristina P; Oliveira, Liliane Gibram M; Figueiredo, Eduardo Costa; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre; Vilela, Fabiana Cardoso

    2016-08-01

    Maternal alcohol use during pregnancy adversely affects prenatal and postnatal growth and increases the risk of behavioral deficits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal exposure to a moderate dose of alcohol on sexual motivation during adulthood. Rats were prenatally exposed to ethanol by feeding pregnant dams a liquid diet containing 25% ethanol-derived calories on days 6 through 19 of gestation. The controls consisted of pair-fed dams (receiving an isocaloric liquid diet containing 0% ethanol-derived calories) and dams with ad libitum access to a liquid control diet. The sexual motivation of offspring was evaluated during adulthood. The results revealed that the male and female pups of dams treated with alcohol exhibited reduced weight gain, which persisted until adulthood. Both male and female adult animals from dams that were exposed to alcohol showed a reduction in the preference score in the sexual motivation test. Taken together, these results provide evidence of the damaging effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on sexual motivation responses in adulthood. PMID:27565750

  19. Positive urgency predicts illegal drug use and risky sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Zapolski, Tamika C B; Cyders, Melissa A; Smith, Gregory T

    2009-06-01

    There are several different personality traits that dispose individuals to engage in rash action. One such trait is positive urgency: the tendency to act rashly when experiencing extremely positive affect. This trait may be relevant for college student risky behavior, because it appears that a great deal of college student risky behavior is undertaken during periods of intensely positive mood states. To test this possibility, the authors conducted a longitudinal study designed to predict increases in risky sexual behavior and illegal drug use over the course of the first year of college (n=407). In a well-fitting structural model, positive urgency predicted increases in illegal drug use and risky sexual behavior, even after controlling for time 1 (T1) involvement in both risky behaviors, biological sex, and T1 scores on four other personality dispositions to rash action. The authors discuss the theoretical and practical implications of this finding. PMID:19586152

  20. The Social-Sexual Voice of Adults with Mild Intellectual Disabilities: A Qualitative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, George W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore how adults with mild intellectual disabilities live out their social-sexual lives. Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) are often assumed to be asexual or incapable of having sexual lives, resulting in a paucity of research-based knowledge. Research and educational efforts with this…

  1. Sexual Activity of Young Adults Who Are Visually Impaired and the Need for Effective Sex Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Stacy M.; Kapperman, Gaylen

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Little research has been reported on all aspects of sexuality as it pertains to individuals with visual impairments. This article analyzes data on the sexual experiences of young adults who are visually impaired and young adults without disabilities. Methods: The authors conducted a secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal…

  2. A Review of "Older, Wiser, Sexually Smarter: 30 Sex Ed Lessons for Adults Only"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrity, Joan Mogul

    2010-01-01

    While virtually all sex ed curricula are designed to be used with children, teens and young adults, "Older, Wiser, Sexually Smarter: 30 Sex Ed Lessons for Adults Only" ([C] 2009, Planned Parenthood of Greater Northern New Jersey) offers lessons to help participants fully embrace the possibility of sexual pleasure and intimacy from mid-life through…

  3. Adult Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse: Multitype Maltreatment and Disclosure Characteristics Related to Subjective Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the impact of child sexual abuse and disclosure characteristics on adult psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. Data on abuse characteristics, disclosure-related events, and subjective health were collected through semistructured interviews and questionnaires from 123 adult women reporting having been sexually abused in…

  4. Nonneural Androgen Receptors Affect Sexual Differentiation of Brain and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Coome, Lindsay A; Ramzan, Firyal; Monks, D Ashley

    2016-02-01

    Testosterone, acting via estrogenic and androgenic pathways, is the major endocrine mechanism promoting sexual differentiation of the mammalian nervous system and behavior, but we have an incomplete knowledge of which cells and tissues mediate these effects. To distinguish between neural and nonneural actions of androgens in sexual differentiation of brain and behavior, we generated a loxP-based transgenic mouse, which overexpresses androgen receptors (ARs) when activated by Cre. We used this transgene to overexpress AR globally in all tissues using a cytomegalovirus (CMV)-Cre driver (CMV-AR), and we used a Nestin-Cre driver to overexpress AR only in neural tissue (Nes-AR). We then examined whether neural or global AR overexpression can affect socio-sexual behaviors using a resident-intruder paradigm. We found that both neural and global AR overexpression resulted in decreased aggressive behaviors and increased thrusting during mounting of intruders, consistent with a neural site of action. Global, but not neural, AR overexpression in males led to an increase in same-sex anogenital investigation. Together, these results suggest novel roles for nonneural AR in sexual differentiation of mice, and indicate that excess AR can lead to a paradoxical reduction of male-typical behavior. PMID:26636184

  5. Attitudes Towards the Sexuality of Adults with an Intellectual Disability: Parents, Support Staff, and a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuskelly, Monica; Bryde, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Attitudes toward the sexuality of adults with intellectual disability were assessed in parents and carers of adults with intellectual disability and in a community sample. An instrument that contained items relating to eight aspects of sexuality (sexual feelings, sex education, masturbation, personal relationships, sexual intercourse,…

  6. Adolescents' Use of Sexually Explicit Internet Material and Their Sexual Attitudes and Behavior: Parallel Development and Directional Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doornwaard, Suzan M.; Bickham, David S.; Rich, Michael; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Although research has repeatedly demonstrated that adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) is related to their endorsement of permissive sexual attitudes and their experience with sexual behavior, it is not clear how linkages between these constructs unfold over time. This study combined 2 types of longitudinal modeling,…

  7. “Sexting” and its relation to sexual activity and sexual risk behavior in a national survey of adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ybarra, Michele L.; Mitchell, Kimberly J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation between “sexting,” (sending and sharing sexual photos online via text messaging and in-person) with sexual risk behaviors and psychosocial challenge in adolescence. Methods Data were collected online between 2010 and 2011 with 3,715 randomly selected 13- to 18-year-old youth across the United States. Results Seven percent of youth reported sending or showing someone sexual pictures of themselves, where they were nude or nearly nude, online, via text messaging, or in-person, during the past year. Although females and older youth were more likely to share sexual photos than males and younger youth, the profile of psychosocial challenge and sexual behavior was similar for all youth. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, sharing sexual photos was associated with all types of sexual behaviors assessed (e.g., oral sex, vaginal sex) as well as some of the risky sexual behaviors examined—particularly having concurrent sexual partners and having more past-year sexual partners. Adolescents who shared sexual photos also were more likely to use substances and less likely to have high self-esteem than their demographically similar peers. Conclusions While the media has portrayed “sexting” as a problem caused by new technology, health professionals may be more effective by approaching it as an aspect of adolescent sexual development and exploration and, in some cases, risk-taking and psychosocial challenge. PMID:25266148

  8. Propensity Scoring and the Relationship between Sexual Media and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Comment on Steinberg and Monahan (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Rebecca L.; Martino, Steven C.; Elliott, Marc N.

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal research has demonstrated a link between exposure to sexual content in media and subsequent changes in adolescent sexual behavior, including initiation of intercourse and various noncoital sexual activities. Based on a reanalysis of one of the data sets involved, Steinberg and Monahan (2011) have challenged these findings. However,…

  9. Do the Depictions of Sexual Attire and Sexual Behavior in Music Videos Differ Based on Video Network and Character Gender?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith; Laake, Rebecca A.; Bernard, Amy

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the sexual messages depicted in music videos aired on MTV, MTV2, BET, and GAC from August 2, 2004 to August 15, 2004. One-hour segments of music videos were taped daily for two weeks. Depictions of sexual attire and sexual behavior were analyzed via a four-page coding sheet (interrater-reliability = 0.93). Results indicated…

  10. Hook-up Sexual Experiences and Problem Behaviors Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Fortunato, Leanna; Young, Amy M.; Boyd, Carol J.; Fons, Courntey E.

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on the sexual phenomenon of “hooking-up.” A hook-up is defined as a single sexual encounter that may or may not include sexual intercourse with someone who is a stranger, brief acquaintance, or friend. The aim of this study was to document the prevalence of hook-ups in a sample of 1,011 urban, middle and high school students and to examine the relationship between hooking-up and a variety of problem behaviors, including, alcohol, cigarette, illicit drug use, truancy, and school suspensions. The results revealed that 28% of the sample had engaged in at least one hook-up experience, and this percentage increased with age. Hook-ups were correlated moderately with all problem behaviors examined. PMID:22039333

  11. Perceptions of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: Development and Initial Validation of a New Scale to Measure Stereotypes of Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zafar, Sadia; Ross, Erin C.

    2013-01-01

    The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and…

  12. Self-Injurious Behaviors, PTSD Arousal, and General Health Complaints Within a Treatment-Seeking Sample of Sexually Abused Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Terri L.; Chard, Kathleen M.; Mechanic, Mindy B.; Etzel, Julie C.

    2004-01-01

    Eighty-nine adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse, presenting for psychological treatment, were assessed for self-reported rates of self-injurious behaviors (SIB), health complaints, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms of physiological arousal. A composite measure of current SIB was significantly and positively associated…

  13. Kinsey revisited, Part II: Comparisons of the sexual socialization and sexual behavior of black women over 33 years.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, G E; Peters, S D; Guthrie, D

    1988-08-01

    Kinsey's findings regarding the sexual behavior of black women were compared with data from a more recent study of sexual socialization and experiences among women in Los Angeles County, Ca. The study examined responses from two groups of college-educated black women, ages 18 to 36, 196 women from the original Kinsey sample and 64 women from the new sample. Log-linear analyses were used to control for differences between the samples on age and marital status. Comparisons were conducted in the areas of childhood family characteristics; sexual socialization and education; sexual behavior in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood; contraceptive practices; and child sexual abuse. Results reflected changes that have taken place in society and in patterns of sexual behavior. Differences in sexual socialization pointed to the increased role of the media and the schools and to more relaxed attitudes about nudity in the home. Shifts in sexual behavior were particularly dramatic. As compared to women in the Kinsey sample, newer subjects began intercourse earlier, were less likely to have a fiance or husband as their first partner, reported a higher number of sexual partners, and participated in a broader range of sexual behaviors. Contraceptive practices differed considerably, especially among never-married women. Women in this study were slightly more likely to report instances of child sexual abuse. Methodological and social factors contributing to the findings are discussed. PMID:3421826

  14. Kinsey revisited, Part I: Comparisons of the sexual socialization and sexual behavior of white women over 33 years.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, G E; Peters, S D; Guthrie, D

    1988-06-01

    This research compared data from two studies of women's sexual behavior--one conducted in the 1940s, the other in the 1980s. The first sample included 3952 white women, ages 18 to 36, drawn from the larger sample of women who participated in the original Kinsey study. The second comprised 122 white women, in the same age range, who had taken part in a recent study of sexual socialization and experiences among women in Los Angeles County, CA. Log-linear analyses were used to control for differences between the samples on age, education, and marital status. Comparisons were conducted in the areas of childhood family characteristics; sexual socialization and education; sexual behavior in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood; contraceptive practices; and child sexual abuse. Results tended to reflect changes that have taken place in society and in patterns of sexual behavior. Differences in sexual socialization pointed to the increased role of the media and the schools and to more relaxed attitudes about nudity in the home. Shifts in sexual behavior were particularly dramatic. As compared to women in the Kinsey sample, the newer subjects began intercourse earlier, were less likely to have a fiance or husband as their first partner, reported a higher number of sexual partners, and participated in a broader range of sexual behaviors. Contraceptive practices differed considerably, especially among never-married women. Women in the new study were also more likely to report instances of child sexual abuse. Methodological and social factors contributing to the findings are discussed. PMID:3408344

  15. Pathways from Childhood Abuse to Prospective Revictimization: Depression, Sex to Reduce Negative Affect, and Forecasted Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Miron, Lynsey R.; Orcutt, Holly K.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that adverse events in childhood, such as childhood physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, confer risk for later sexual assault. Psychological distress, coping strategies, and sexual behavior may help explain the path from childhood abuse to revictimization. The present study explored how the use of sex to regulate negative affect (SRNA) operates independently, and in combination with other psychosocial factors to increase college women’s (N = 541) risk of experiencing prospective adult sexual assault (ASA). Sequential multiple mediator models in Mplus were used to assess the effect of three different forms of childhood abuse on prospective ASA, both independently and while controlling for other forms of childhood abuse. The indirect effect of adolescent sexual assault (AdolSA), depressive symptoms, SRNA, and participants’ response to a sex-related vignette was tested using bias-corrected bootstrapping. In the full path model, childhood emotional abuse and AdolSA predicted ASA, while childhood physical and sexual abuse were directly associated with AdolSA, but not ASA. Additionally, depressive symptoms and participants’ estimate of their likely behavior in a sex-related vignette directly predicted prospective ASA. Results using bootstrapping revealed that a history of childhood abuse predicted prospective ASA via diverse direct and indirect paths, as well as through a similar multiple mediator path. Overall, findings suggest that a combination of affective, coping, and sexual expectancy factors contribute to risk for revictimization in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Future research directions and targets for risk-reduction programming will be discussed. PMID:25455965

  16. Sexual Violence Among Youth in New Mexico: Risk and Resiliency Factors That Impact Behavioral Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Reed, Danielle; Reno, Jessica; Green, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated a relationship between history of forced sex and poor behavioral health outcomes. The objectives of this study were to describe this relationship among high school students and to explore the impact of resiliency factors. Using data from the 2013 New Mexico Youth Risk and Resiliency Survey, we found that history of forced sex was associated with negative behavioral health outcomes for males and females, regardless of sexual orientation and disability status. Furthermore, the presence of a caring adult at home appeared to reduce the risk of substance abuse and suicidality among students with and without a history of forced sex. PMID:26882412

  17. On sexual behavior and sex-role reversal.

    PubMed

    Schuiling, Gerard A

    2005-09-01

    Sex is not about reproduction; sex is about (re-)combination of DNA. Sex, not reproduction, always involves physical contact between two individuals; to achieve this, strategies of sexual behavior evolved. Sexual behavior, therefore, did not evolve as part of a reproductive strategy, but evolved to enable exchange of genetic material. In multicellular organisms the situation is more complicated than in unicellular organisms, as it is impossible for each cell within a multicellular body to have sex with another cell. Hence, evolution selected a system in which the possibility to have sex was limited to only one cell-line: the germ cells. As a result, sex adopted the character of fertilization, and sex and reproduction became inseparably linked. Still, in some species, including humans, sexual behavior still exhibits features of its evolutionary past: in humans (like in bonobo's) most sexual activity and many sexual behavioral patterns have nothing to do with reproduction (masturbation, homosexual behavior, for example); in humans, sexual behavior also became associated with other strategic objectives, such as intensifying the pair bond, expression of love or power. Different genders - male and female - evolved, and each gender evolved typical gender-related sexual and reproductive strategies as well. In most multicellular species, these strategies became inextricably mixed, and sexual behavior increasingly more - and in most species even exclusively - 'served' the interests of reproduction: sexual behavior became more or less synonymous with reproductive behavior. In most species, the 'mix' of sexual and reproductive strategies evolved into typical gender-related patterns of behavior, that is, in typical 'sex-roles'. Often, males are bigger and more 'beautiful' (= more intensely ornamented) than females; males compete with each other for access to females; males court females, while females choose males ('female choice'). However, ecological circumstances may cause

  18. Latent Classes of Adolescent Sexual and Romantic Relationship Experiences: Implications for Adult Sexual Health and Relationship Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Vasilenko, Sara A; Kugler, Kari C; Lanza, Stephanie T

    2016-09-01

    Adolescents' sexual and romantic relationship experiences are multidimensional but often studied as single constructs. Thus, it is not clear how different patterns of sexual and relationship experience may interact to differentially predict later outcomes. In this study we used latent class analysis to model patterns (latent classes) of adolescent sexual and romantic experiences, and then examined how these classes were associated with young adult sexual health and relationship outcomes in data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). We identified six adolescent relationship classes: No Relationship (33%), Waiting (22%), Intimate (38%), Private (3%), Low Involvement (3%), and Physical (2%). Adolescents in the Waiting and Intimate classes were more likely to have married by young adulthood than those in other classes, and those in the Physical class had a greater number of sexual partners and higher rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Some gender differences were found; for example, women in the Low-Involvement and Physical classes in adolescence had average or high odds of marriage, whereas men in these classes had relatively low odds of marriage. Our findings identify more and less normative patterns of romantic and sexual experiences in late adolescence and elucidate associations between adolescent experiences and adult outcomes. PMID:26445133

  19. Reasonable Expectation of Adult Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todaro, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Discusses staff behavioral problems that prove difficult for successful library management. Suggests that reasonable expectations for behavior need to be established in such areas as common courtesies, environmental issues such as temperature and noise levels, work relationships and values, diverse work styles and ways of communicating, and…

  20. Molecular and neural control of sexually dimorphic social behaviors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Taehong; Shah, Nirao M

    2016-06-01

    Sexually reproducing animals exhibit sex differences in behavior. Sexual dimorphisms in mating, aggression, and parental care directly contribute to reproductive success of the individual and survival of progeny. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the molecular and neural network mechanisms underlying these behaviors in mice. Notable advances include novel insights into the sensory control of social interactions and the identification of molecularly-specified neuronal populations in the brain that control mating, aggression, and parental behaviors. In the case of the latter, these advances mark a watershed because scientists can now focus on discrete neural pathways in an effort to understand how the brain encodes these fundamental social behaviors. PMID:27162162

  1. Excitotoxic lesions of the nucleus paragigantocellularis facilitate male sexual behavior but attenuate female sexual behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Normandin, J J; Murphy, A Z

    2011-02-23

    Little is known regarding the descending inhibitory control of genital reflexes such as ejaculation and vaginal contractions. The brainstem nucleus paragigantocellularis (nPGi) projects bilaterally to the lumbosacral motoneuron pools that innervate the genital musculature of both male and female rats. Electrolytic nPGi lesions facilitate ejaculation in males, leading to the hypothesis that the nPGi is the source of descending inhibition to genital reflexes. However, the function of the nPGi in female sexual behavior remains to be elucidated. To this end, male and female rats received bilateral excitotoxic fiber-sparing lesions of the nPGi, and sexual behavior and sexual behavior-induced Fos expression were examined. In males, nPGi lesions facilitated copulation, supporting the hypothesis that the nPGi, and not fibers-of-passage, is the source of descending inhibition of genital reflexes in male rats. nPGi lesions in males did not alter sexual behavior-induced Fos expression in any brain region examined. nPGi-lesioned females spent significantly less time mating with stimulus males and had significantly longer ejaculation-return latencies compared to baseline. These results did not significantly differ from control females, but this trend warranted further analysis of the reinforcing value of sexual behavior. Both lesioned and non-lesioned females formed a conditioned place preference (CPP) for artificial vaginocervical stimulation (aVCS). However, post-reinforcement, nPGi-lesioned females did not differ in the percentage of time spent in the non-reinforced chamber versus the reinforced chamber, suggesting a weakened CPP for aVCS. nPGi lesions in females reduced sexual behavior-induced Fos expression throughout the hypothalamus and amygdala. Taken together, these results suggest that while nPGi lesions in males facilitate copulation, such lesions in females attenuate several aspects of sexual behavior resulting in a reduction in the rewarding value of copulation

  2. Excitotoxic lesions of the nucleus paragigantocellularis facilitate male sexual behavior but attenuate female sexual behavior in rats

    PubMed Central

    Normandin, Joseph J.; Murphy, Anne Z.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known regarding the descending inhibitory control of genital reflexes such as ejaculation and vaginal contractions. The brainstem nucleus paragigantocellularis (nPGi) projects bilaterally to the lumbosacral motoneuron pools that innervate the genital musculature of both male and female rats. Electrolytic nPGi lesions facilitate ejaculation in males, leading to the hypothesis that the nPGi is the source of descending inhibition to genital reflexes. However, the function of the nPGi in female sexual behavior remains to be elucidated. To this end, male and female rats received bilateral excitotoxic fiber-sparing lesions of the nPGi, and sexual behavior and sexual behavior-induced Fos expression were examined. In males, nPGi lesions facilitated copulation, supporting the hypothesis that the nPGi, and not fibers-of-passage, is the source of descending inhibition of genital reflexes in male rats. nPGi lesions in males did not alter sexual behavior-induced Fos expression in any brain region examined. nPGi-lesioned females spent significantly less time mating with stimulus males and had significantly longer ejaculation-return latencies compared to baseline. These results did not significantly differ from control females, but this trend warranted further analysis of the reinforcing value of sexual behavior. Both lesioned and non-lesioned females formed a conditioned place preference (CPP) for artificial vaginocervical stimulation (aVCS). However, post-reinforcement, nPGi-lesioned females did not differ in the percentage of time in spent in the non-reinforced chamber versus the reinforced chamber, suggesting a weakened CPP for aVCS. nPGi lesions in females reduced sexual behavior-induced Fos expression throughout the hypothalamus and amygdala. Taken together, these results suggest that while nPGi lesions in males facilitate copulation, such lesions in females attenuate several aspects of sexual behavior resulting in a reduction in the rewarding value of copulation

  3. Denying Denial in Children with Sexual Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reicher, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Denial in some form is almost always present in the assessment and therapy of children with sexual behavior problems. Although it can be a major element in the therapeutic interaction, denial has received scant attention, both in teaching programs and professional literature. It is as if the clinical community is "denying denial."…

  4. Measurement of Motivations for and against Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Megan E.; Maggs, Jennifer L.; Cooper, M. Lynne; Lee, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    A multidimensional measure assessing distinct motivations for and against sex was shown to be reliable, valid, and configurally invariant among incoming first-year college students. Three Motivations Against Sex Questionnaire subscales were developed to measure motivations "against" sexual behavior (Values, Health, Not Ready) to complement and…

  5. Sexual and Substance Use Behaviors of College Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernert, Donna J.; Ding, Kele; Hoban, Mary T.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the substance use and the sexual behaviors of college students with disabilities. Methods: A secondary data analysis was conducted of the spring 2009 administration of the ACHA-NCHA II. Results: College students with disabilities tended to be 24 or more years old; of an ethnic minority; and bisexual, gay, or lesbian. They…

  6. Premarital Sexual Guilt and Contraceptive Attitudes and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herold, Edward S.; Goodwin, Marilyn Shirley

    1981-01-01

    Studied the relationship between premarital sexual guilt and contraceptive attitudes and behavior among young single women. High-guilt subjects were significantly more embarrassed about coming to the birth control clinics and were more likely to believe that it was difficult to obtain birth control. (Author)

  7. Pathways to Drug and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Detained Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2008-01-01

    This study recruited 559 youths from detention centers (mean age was 15.4 years; 50.1% of detainees were girls) to investigate pathways that link witnessing community violence in the 12 months before detainment to drug and sexual risk behaviors in the two months preceding detainment. Through the use of audio-computer-assisted technology, data were…

  8. Estimating Peer Effects in Sexual Behavior among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Mir M.; Dwyer, Debra S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we seek to empirically quantify the role of peer social networks in influencing sexual behavior among adolescents. Using data of a nationally representative sample of adolescents we utilize a multivariate structural model with school-level fixed effects to account for the problems of contextual effects, correlated effects and peer…

  9. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Inappropriate Sexual Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyffe, Christie E.; Kahng, SungWoo; Fittro, Ellen; Russell, David

    2004-01-01

    The results of a functional analysis showed that inappropriate sexual behaviors exhibited by a 9-year-old boy who had been diagnosed with traumatic brain injury were maintained by positive reinforcement in the form of social attention. An intervention consisting of functional communication training and extinction resulted in reduced levels of…

  10. Stressful Life Events, Sexual Orientation, and Cardiometabolic Risk Among Young Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Slopen, Natalie; McLaughlin, Kate A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of the present study was to examine whether sexual minority young adults are more vulnerable to developing cardiometabolic risk following exposure to stressful life events than heterosexual young adults. Method Data came from the National Longitudinal Study for Adolescent Health (Shin, Edwards, & Heeren, 2009; Brummett et al., 2013), a prospective nationally representative study of U.S. adolescents followed into young adulthood. A total of 306 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) respondents and 6,667 heterosexual respondents met inclusion criteria for this analysis. Measures of cumulative stressful life events were drawn from all 4 waves of data collection; sexual orientation and cardiometabolic biomarkers were assessed at Wave 4 (2008–2009). Results Gay/bisexual men exposed to 1–2 (β = 0.71, p = .01) and 5 + (β = 0.87, p = .01) stressful life events had a statistically significant elevation in cardiometabolic risk, controlling for demographics, health behaviors, and socioeconomic status. Moreover, in models adjusted for all covariates, lesbian/bisexual (β = 0.52, p = .046) women with 5 + stressful life events had a statistically significant elevation in cardiometabolic risk. There was no relationship between stressful life events and cardiometabolic risk among heterosexual men or women. Conclusion Stressful life events during childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood place LGB young adults at heightened risk for elevated cardiometabolic risk as early as young adulthood. The mechanisms underlying this relationship require future study. PMID:25133830

  11. 78 FR 63454 - Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... of the Secretary Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel; Notice of Federal Advisory... Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel. DATES: A meeting of the Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel (``the Panel'') will be held November 7-8, 2013. The Public Session...

  12. Sexual risk behavior and type of sexual partners in transnational indigenous migrant workers.

    PubMed

    Caballero-Hoyos, Ramiro; Villaseñor-Sierra, Alberto; Millán-Guerrero, Rebeca; Trujillo-Hernández, Benjamín; Monárrez-Espino, Joel

    2013-06-01

    Indigenous migrant workers (IMWs) have a high vulnerability to HIV and STDs due to poverty and marginalization. This study examined factors associated with sexual risk behavior (SRB) according to type of partner in transnational young male IMWs at a sugar cane agro-industrial complex in western Mexico. A total of 192 sexually active IMWs were recruited from four laborer shelters to participate in a sexual partner survey. The IMWs were interviewed about their sexual partners and practices over the last 12 months during which it emerged that they had had a total of 360 sexual partners. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to identify factors related to SRB in 222 main (spouse, mistress and girlfriend) and 138 casual partners (colleague, friend, casual encounter and sex worker). Results showed a significantly higher SRB score with casual partners. For the main partner regression model, prior exposure to HIV- and STD-preventive information and sexual intercourse with higher employment status partners (formal workers vs. self-employed in informal activities and unemployed) were associated with lower SRB scores, but if the sexual relations occurred in Mexico (vs. the U.S.), the SRB scores increased. For the casual partner model, the practice of survival sex (sex in exchange for basic needs), sexual relations in Mexico (vs. the U.S.), and being a circular migrant (person traveling for temporary work to return home when the contract is over) were related to higher SRB scores. Findings support the implementation of preventive interventions using different messages depending on the type of partners, main or casual, within the labor migrant context. PMID:22851155

  13. Sexual Experience Enhances Drosophila melanogaster Male Mating Behavior and Success

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Sehresh; Ruggles, Patrick H.; Abbott, Wiley K.; Carney, Ginger E.

    2014-01-01

    Competition for mates is a wide-spread phenomenon affecting individual reproductive success. The ability of animals to adjust their behaviors in response to changing social environment is important and well documented. Drosophila melanogaster males compete with one another for matings with females and modify their reproductive behaviors based on prior social interactions. However, it remains to be determined how male social experience that culminates in mating with a female impacts subsequent male reproductive behaviors and mating success. Here we show that sexual experience enhances future mating success. Previously mated D. melanogaster males adjust their courtship behaviors and out-compete sexually inexperienced males for copulations. Interestingly, courtship experience alone is not sufficient in providing this competitive advantage, indicating that copulation plays a role in reinforcing this social learning. We also show that females use their sense of hearing to preferentially mate with experienced males when given a choice. Our results demonstrate the ability of previously mated males to learn from their positive sexual experiences and adjust their behaviors to gain a mating advantage. These experienced-based changes in behavior reveal strategies that animals likely use to increase their fecundity in natural competitive environments. PMID:24805129

  14. Life-course typology of adults who experienced sexual violence.

    PubMed

    Draucker, Claire; Martsolf, Donna

    2010-07-01

    Two qualitative methodologies were used to develop a life-course typology of individuals who had been exposed to sexual violence. Interview narratives of 121 adult women and men who participated in qualitative study of women's and men's responses to sexual violence provided the data. The authors combined a narrative approach (holistic-content and holistic-form analysis) to describe the life courses of the participants and a qualitative person-oriented approach (cross-case analysis) to identify meaningful subgroups within the total sample. The six groups are as follows: (a) life of turmoil, (b) life of struggles, (c) diminished life, (d) taking control of life, (e), finding peace in life, and (f) getting life back to normal. This work exemplifies a promising strategy for identifying subgroups of violence-exposed individuals within a heterogeneous sample. Such a typology could aid the development of treatment approaches that consider both the substance and the structure of an individual's life course, rather than target one specific type of violence. PMID:19762554

  15. Life Course Typology of Adults Who Experienced Sexual Violence

    PubMed Central

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna S.

    2011-01-01

    Two qualitative methodologies were used to develop a life course typology of individuals who had been exposed to sexual violence. Interview narratives of 121 adult women and men who participated in qualitative study of women’s and men’s responses to sexual violence provided the data. The authors combined a narrative approach (holistic-content and holistic-form analysis) to describe the life courses of the participants and a qualitative person-oriented approach (cross-case analysis) to identify meaningful sub-groups within the total sample. The six groups are: (a) life of turmoil, (b) life of struggles, (c) diminished life, (d) taking control of life, (e), finding peace in life, and (f) getting life back to normal. This work exemplifies a promising strategy for identifying sub-groups of violence-exposed individuals within a heterogeneous sample. Such a typology could aid the development of treatment approaches that consider both the substance and the structure of an individual’s life course, rather than target one specific type of violence. PMID:19762554

  16. Alcohol and HIV sexual risk behaviors among injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Arasteh, Kamyar; Des Jarlais, Don C; Perlis, Theresa E

    2008-05-01

    We analyzed data from 6341 injection drug users (IDUs) entering detoxification or methadone maintenance treatment in New York City between 1990 and 2004 to test the hypothesis that alcohol use and intoxication is associated with increased HIV sexual risk behaviors. Two types of associations were assessed: (1) a global association (i.e., the relationship between HIV sexual risk behaviors during the 6 months prior to the interview and at-risk drinking in that period, defined as more than 14 drinks per week for males or 7 drinks per week for females), and (2) an event-specific association (i.e., the relationship between HIV sexual risk behaviors during the most recent sex episode and alcohol intoxication during that episode). Sexual risk behaviors included multiple sex partners and engaging in unprotected sex. After adjusting for the effects of other variables, at-risk-drinkers were more likely to report multiple sex partners and engaging in unprotected sex with casual sex partners (both global associations). IDUs who reported both they and their casual partners were intoxicated during the most recent sex episode were more likely to engage in unprotected sex (an event-specific association). We also observed two significant interactions. Among IDUs who did not inject cocaine, moderate-drinkers were more likely to report multiple partners. Among self-reported HIV seropositive IDUs, when both primary partners were intoxicated during the most recent sex episode they were more likely to engage in unprotected sex. These observations indicate both global and event-specific associations of alcohol and HIV sexual-risk behaviors. PMID:18242009

  17. The health consequences of adolescent sexual and fertility behavior in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Zabin, L S; Kiragu, K

    1998-06-01

    This article reviews the literature on health consequences of adolescent sexual behavior and child-bearing in sub-Saharan Africa, and the social and cultural context in which they occur. It suggests that, in addressing the most serious health sequelae, sexual intercourse that occurs in early marriage and premaritally must both be considered. Some limitations of the data are noted. Despite the excess risk to which adolescents are exposed, due both to custom and age-related vulnerability, differences between health effects among adult and adolescent women are often differences in degree. They are attributable to behavioral, social, and biological causes, exist in traditional and nontraditional settings, in union and out of union, and are exacerbated by declining ages at menarche, pressures of HIV/AIDS and STDs, and a dearth of appropriate services-especially for young people. Some current interventions are discussed, and the need for policy as well as medical intervention is stressed. PMID:9664633

  18. Use of Drinking Protective Behavioral Strategies and Sexual Perceptions and Behaviors in U.S. College Students

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Diane E.; Koo, Kelly H.; Kilmer, Jason R.; Blayney, Jessica A.; Lewis, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use among college students is linked to an increased likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behaviors, including casual sex and unprotected sex. These behaviors increase college students' risks for negative social and health-related consequences. This study examined the relationship between drinking behaviors and protective behavioral strategies (PBS), expectancies and perceptions of sexual risk, and actual alcohol-related sexual behaviors and consequences. Sexually active college students completed web-based self-report measures of drinking behaviors and use of PBS, alcohol expectancies and perceptions of risk, sexual behaviors and related consequences (n = 524; 57.1% women). Findings indicated that PBS were related to lower expectancies of sexual risk and sexual disinhibition, and among lighter drinkers, lower expectancies of sexual enhancement from alcohol. PBS were also related to decreased perceptions of sexual-related risks, some alcohol-related sexual behaviors, including number of drinks before/during sex, and number of sexual consequences, but were not related to abstaining during sex, frequency of alcohol-related sexual behavior, or general condom use. These findings demonstrate a disconnect between perceived and actual risks among college students, such that decreased perceptions of risk may not be associated with protective behaviors. Prevention and intervention implications are discussed. PMID:25350078

  19. Coping, emotion regulation, and self-blame as mediators of sexual abuse and psychological symptoms in adult sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Ullman, Sarah E; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Relyea, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether coping, emotion regulation, and self-blame mediate relationships of trauma histories with post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in adult sexual assault victims (N = 1863). A path analysis showed that theorized mediators partially mediated associations between trauma history variables and psychological symptoms. Specifically, child sexual abuse severity was related to greater post-traumatic stress disorder and depression indirectly through maladaptive coping and decreased emotion regulation but not self-blame. Other traumas had direct relationships with symptoms and partially mediated effects through maladaptive coping and emotion regulation. Child sexual abuse was unrelated to self-blame, but other traumas were related to greater self-blame. Results differed according to whether women had counseling post-assault. Implications are drawn for future research and clinical treatment of adult sexual assault victims. PMID:24393091

  20. Trajectories and Predictors of Sexually Aggressive Behaviors during Emerging Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Martie P.; Swartout, Kevin M.; Koss, Mary P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess longitudinal trajectories of college males’ sexually aggressive behaviors and determine time-varying individual- and peer-level risk factors that differentiate men who follow these different paths. Method Our analytic sample consisted of 795 men who participated in a longitudinal study on high-risk behaviors among college students. The sample was surveyed at the end of each of their four years at university on a variety of measures, including sexual aggression (SA) and its hypothesized risk factors (hostile masculinity, number of sexual partners, alcohol misuse, and peer norms). Results Using latent growth mixture modeling, we found four distinct SA trajectories – (1) consistently high, (2) decreasing, (3) increasing, and (4) consistently low. Multinomial logistic regression revealed that hostile masculinity and peer norms positively predicted trajectory membership at times when each trajectory reflected a high level of SA. Conclusions Our study adds to the knowledge base by elucidating the different ways sexually aggressive behaviors change during emerging adulthood and how confluence model-derived factors predict the different trajectories. The finding that changes over time in these risk factors correspond with SA perpetration risk informs prevention programming by illuminating the importance of continual focus on these risk factors throughout the college years, perhaps through annual self-assessments. PMID:23914305