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Sample records for adult silverleaf whiteflies

  1. Host plant effects on resistance to bifenthrin in silverleaf whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Riley, David G; Tan, Weijia

    2003-08-01

    Effects of host plants on resistance to bifenthrin in the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring, were determined by LC50 bioassay. In addition, inheritance of resistance to bifenthrin was investigated beginning with a single source of a bifenthrin-susceptible population. Overall, the resistance ratio between the bifenthrin-susceptible population and the selected bifenthrin-resistant population from the same source population was 915-fold after 1 yr in the greenhouse. Responses to bifenthrin among the susceptible and the resistant populations were changed when whiteflies were reared on three different host plants, i.e., cotton, cabbage, and squash. In the resistant populations, the LC50 value of whitefly fed on squash was increased as much as 7.5-fold, while the LC50 value of whitefly fed on cabbage was similar to cotton that served as the control plant. The host plant on which whiteflies feed appears to be an important factor in selection for resistance to bifenthrin, but these effects are crop specific. Based on an analysis using LC50 values of the reciprocal F1 cross on cotton, resistance of whitefly from a single-source whitefly population was inherited as an incompletely dominant factor. A model used to estimate loci numbers showed that resistance of whitefly to bifenthrin is probably controlled primarily by a few or a single locus. In addition, the difference in the ratio of LC50 values between males from unmated mother and males from mated mother was approximately fivefold, suggesting that insecticide resistance in whitefly males is in some way affected by mating.

  2. Local and systemic changes in squash gene expression in response to silverleaf whitefly feeding.

    PubMed

    van de Ven, W T; LeVesque, C S; Perring, T M; Walling, L L

    2000-08-01

    Squash genes (SLW1 and SLW3) induced systemically after silverleaf whitefly feeding were identified. Differences in the local and systemic expression of SLW1 and SLW3 after feeding by the closely related silverleaf and sweetpotato whiteflies were observed. Temporal and spatial studies showed that SLW1 and SLW3 were induced when second, third, and fourth nymphal instars were feeding. Although only barely detected after wounding and bacterial infection, SLW1 and SLW3 RNAs were abundant during water-deficit stress. Treatments with wound/defense signal molecules showed that SLW1 RNAs accumulated in response to methyl jasmonate and ethylene, whereas SLW3 was not regulated by known wound/defense signals, suggesting utilization of a novel mechanism for defense signal transduction. SLW1 RNAs accumulated during floral and fruit development, whereas SLW3 RNAs were not detected during vegetative or reproductive development. The potential roles of SLW1, an M20b peptidase-like protein, and SLW3, a beta-glucosidase-like protein, in defense and the leaf-silvering disorder are discussed.

  3. New Insecticides for Management of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl, a Virus Vectored by the Silverleaf Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Smith, H. A.; Giurcanu, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse studies using a randomized complete block design were carried out to evaluate the effect of six insecticides on transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) by the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) to tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum (Miller) (Solanales: Solanaceae), seedlings that were inoculated with whiteflies from a TYLCV colony in cages 3, 7, or 14 d after treatment with insecticide. The purpose was to reveal differences in residual efficacy of four materials that are nearing registration for use on tomato—cyazypyr, flupyradifurone, pyrafluquinazon, and sulfoxaflor—and to compare them with two established insecticides, pymetrozine and a zeta-cypermethrin/bifenthrin combination. Differences in efficacy were expected because these six materials represent five distinct modes of action and both contact and systemic materials. Percentage of tomato seedlings expressing virus symptoms tended to be lowest in seedlings treated with flupyradifurone. The zeta-cypermethrin/bifenthrin insecticide demonstrated comparable efficacy to flupyradifurone in some trials at 3 and 7 d after treatment inoculations, but not the 14 d after treatment inoculation. Pyrafluquinazon was not statistically different from cyazypyr or sulfoxaflor in percentage of plants with virus symptoms in any trial. Percentage virus in the cyazypyr and sulfoxaflor treatments was not statistically different in the 3 and 7 d after treatment inoculations. Among seedlings treated with insecticide, percentage with virus symptoms tended to be highest in the seedlings treated with pymetrozine. PMID:25368089

  4. Control of silverleaf whitefly, cotton aphid and kanzawa spider mite with oil and extracts from seeds of sugar apple.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Yih; Wu, Der-Chung; Yu, Jih-Zu; Chen, Bing-Huei; Wang, Chin-Ling; Ko, Wen-Hsiung

    2009-01-01

    Development of alternative methods for pest management is needed with the increased concern for adverse effects of pesticides for human health and the environment. The main goal of our study was to test the oil from seeds of sugar apple (Annona squamosa), an edible tropical fruit for pest control. The oil pressed out of seeds was as effective in controlling the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), infesting leaves of tomato plants in greenhouse conditions as the recommended insecticide, with the advantage of not being phytotoxic. When observed with a scanning electron microscope, the seed oil caused whitefly nymphs to shrink and detach from the leaf surface. Sugar apple seed oil was also very effective in controlling the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae), on melon leaves and the Kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae), on soybean leaves. The study revealed the possibility of developing the oil from sugar apple seeds, an agricultural waste, into a broad spectrum product friendly to the environment and human health for crop pest management.

  5. New insecticides for management of tomato yellow leaf curl, a virus vectored by the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Smith, H A; Giurcanu, M C

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse studies using a randomized complete block design were carried out to evaluate the effect of six insecticides on transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) by the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) to tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum (Miller) (Solanales: Solanaceae), seedlings that were inoculated with whiteflies from a TYLCV colony in cages 3, 7, or 14 d after treatment with insecticide. The purpose was to reveal differences in residual efficacy of four materials that are nearing registration for use on tomato-cyazypyr, flupyradifurone, pyrafluquinazon, and sulfoxaflor-and to compare them with two established insecticides, pymetrozine and a zeta-cypermethrin/bifenthrin combination. Differences in efficacy were expected because these six materials represent five distinct modes of action and both contact and systemic materials. Percentage of tomato seedlings expressing virus symptoms tended to be lowest in seedlings treated with flupyradifurone. The zeta-cypermethrin/bifenthrin insecticide demonstrated comparable efficacy to flupyradifurone in some trials at 3 and 7 d after treatment inoculations, but not the 14 d after treatment inoculation. Pyrafluquinazon was not statistically different from cyazypyr or sulfoxaflor in percentage of plants with virus symptoms in any trial. Percentage virus in the cyazypyr and sulfoxaflor treatments was not statistically different in the 3 and 7 d after treatment inoculations. Among seedlings treated with insecticide, percentage with virus symptoms tended to be highest in the seedlings treated with pymetrozine. PMID:25368089

  6. Age-specific interaction between the parasitoid, Encarsia formosa and its host, the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Strain B).

    PubMed

    Hu, Jing S; Gelman, Dale B; Blackburn, Michael B

    2003-01-01

    The effect of hostage, the instar of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) parasitized, on the growth and development of Encarsia formosa (Gahan) was studied. E. formosa was able to parasitize and complete its life cycle no matter which instar of B. tabaci (Strain B), [also identified as B. argentifolii (Bellows and Perring)], was provided for oviposition, but parasitoid development was significantly slower when 1st or 2nd instar B. tabaci rather than 3rd or 4th instars were parasitized. Host age influenced the day on which E. formosa nymphs hatching from eggs was first observed. Mean embryonic development was significantly longer when 1st (5.4 days) rather than 2nd, 3rd or 4th instars (4.1, 3.4 and 3.5 days, respectively) were parasitized. The duration of the 1st instar parasitoid and the pupa, but not the 2nd or 3rd instar parasitoid, were also significantly greater when 1st instars were parasitized than when older host instars were parasitized. Interestingly, no matter which instar was parasitized, the parasitoid did not molt to the 3rd instar until the 4th instar host had reached a depth of about 0.23 mm (Stage 4-5) and had initiated the nymphal-adult molt and adult development. Histological studies revealed that whitefly eye and wing structures had either disintegrated or were adult in nature whenever a 3rd instar parasitoid was present. It appears, then, that the molt of the parasitoid to its last instar is associated with the host whitefly's nymphal-adult molt. However, the initiation of the host's final molt, while a prerequisite for the parasitoid's 2nd-3rd instar molt, did not necessarily trigger this molt. In contrast to its significant effect on various aspects of parasitoid development, host instar did not significantly influence the mean size of the parasitoid larva, pupa, or adult. Larval and pupal length and adult head width were similar for all parasitoids, regardless of which host instar was parasitized as was adult longevity. Adult parasitoid emergence was

  7. Influence of cover crop and intercrop systems on Bemisia argentifolli (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) infestation and associated squash silverleaf disorder in zucchini.

    PubMed

    Manandhar, Roshan; Hooks, Cerruti R R; Wright, Mark G

    2009-04-01

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of cover cropping and intercropping on population densities of silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolli Bellow and Perring, and the incidence of squash silverleaf disorder (SSL) in zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L., in Oahu, HI. Two cover crops, buckwheat (BW), Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, and white clover (WC), Trifolium repens L., or sunn hemp (SH), Crotolaria juncea L., and an intercropped vegetable, okra, Abelmonchus esculentus L., were evaluated during the 2003, 2005, and 2006 growing seasons, respectively. Population densities of whiteflies and SSL severity varied during the three field experiments. In 2003, the severity of SSL and percentage of leaves displaying symptoms were significantly lower on zucchini plants in WC than BW plots throughout the crops' growth cycle. Additionally, the percentage of leaves per plant displaying SSL symptoms was significantly greater in bare-ground (BG) compared with the pooled BW and WC treatments on each inspection date. In 2005, zucchini intercropped with okra had lower numbers of adult whiteflies and resulted in significantly lower severity of SSL than pooled BW and WC treatments. During 2006, zucchini grown with SH had significantly lower numbers of all whitefly stages (i.e., egg, immature, and adult) and less SSL severity symptoms than BW. Despite these differences in whitefly numbers and SSL severity, marketable yields were not significantly lower in BW compared with WC or SH treatment plots during the study. The mechanisms underlying these results and the feasibility of using cover crops and intercrops to manage B. argentifolli and SSL are discussed.

  8. Critical feeding periods for last instar nymphal and pharate adults of the whiteflies, Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Gelman, Dale B; Hu, Jing S

    2007-01-01

    A critical feeding period is the time after which 50% of a given species of insect can be removed from its food source and complete development by undergoing adult eclosion. The critical feeding period was determined for the greenhouse white fly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, and the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Biotype B) (Homptera/Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Fourth (last) instar and pharate adult whiteflies were removed from green bean leaves, staged, placed on filter paper in small Petri dishes containing drops of water, and observed daily for eclosion. For T. vaporariorum reared at 25 degrees C and L:D 16:8, 55 and 80% adult eclosion were observed when whiteflies were removed at stages 4 (0.23-0.26 mm in body depth) and 5 (> or = 0.27 mm in body depth), respectively, so that at least 50% eclosion was only achieved in this species of whitefly when adult eye development had already been initiated (in Stage 4), and 80% eclosion when adult wing development had been initiated (Stage 5). In contrast, 63% of B. tabaci emerged as adults if removed from the leaf at Stage 3 (0.18-0.22 mm in body depth), and 80% emerged if removed at Stage 4/5, stages in which adult formation had not yet been initiated. The mean number of eggs laid by experimental (those removed at Stages 4-5, 6-7 or 8-9) and control (those that remained on the leaf prior to eclosion) whiteflies, and the mean percent hatch of these eggs were not significantly different in experimental and control groups. Stages 7, 8 and 9 are characterized by a light red adult eye, medium red bipartite adult eye and dark red or red-black bipartite adult eye, respectively. Mean adult longevity also was not significantly different between experimental and control groups. However, for all groups of T. vaporariorum, adult female longevity was significantly (at least 2 times) greater than male longevity. Our results identify the critical feeding periods for last instar/pharate adults of two important pest species of

  9. Laboratory evaluation of products to reduce settling of sweetpotato whitefly adults.

    PubMed

    Schuster, D J; Thompson, S; Ortega, L D; Polston, J E

    2009-08-01

    The impact of trademarked and commercial products on settling of adults of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), was studied in the laboratory. A no-choice bioassay using leaf disks of tomato, Solanum esculentum L., was developed to evaluate the impact of concentration series of products on settling of B. tabaci adults. The concentration of each product that would reduce settling by 50% (SC50) was estimated for each product using standard probit analyses, and the values were compared with that of Ultra-Fine Oil, a paraffinic oil product that is known to reduce settling of whitefly adults. Twenty-two trademarked products and 42 other products were evaluated in the laboratory bioassay. Based upon comparisons of fiducial limits of the respective SC50 values, Dawn detergent and E-RASE jojoba oil were the only trademarked products that were as effective as Ultra-Fine Oil in reducing settling of B. tabaci adults. Of the nontrademarked products, 25 were similar to Ultra-Fine Oil, although cedar, geranium, ginger, Hamlin (citrus), patchouli, olive and wintergreen oils, as well as citronellal and limonene, had ratios of respective SC50 values with that of Ultra-Fine Oil of approximately 1.5 or less. Combinations of limonene and citronellal with either olive oil or Ultra-Fine Oil were 15 and 30 times, respectively, more effective than Ultra-Fine Oil alone. Candidate products and combinations of products were further evaluated on tomato seedlings in no-choice screenhouse trials for effects on oviposition and on transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (family Geminiviridae, genus Begomovirus, TYLCV) by B. tabaci. Ultra-Fine Oil and olive oil reduced oviposition and transmission of TYLCV in the screenhouse trials. Ginger oil and limonene reduced oviposition in at least one screenhouse trial but did reduce transmission of TYLCV. The laboratory bioassay provided a rapid and relatively easy method to compare products for reducing settling of B. tabaci adults

  10. Short-term and transgenerational effects of the neonicotinoid nitenpyram on susceptibility to insecticides in two whitefly species.

    PubMed

    Liang, Pei; Tian, Yu-An; Biondi, Antonio; Desneux, Nicolas; Gao, Xi-Wu

    2012-10-01

    The cosmopolitan silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci which had coexisted with Trialeurodes vaporariorum in Northern China for many years, has become the dominant species in the last years. Recent reports show that it is gradually displacing the other greenhouse whitefly species. Neonicotinoid, which includes nitenpyram, is a major group of insecticides used against whiteflies in various crops. When exposed to low doses of insecticides, insects may develop resistance by adapting physiologically. The short- and long-term effects of nitenpyram on insecticide sensitivity in B. tabaci biotype B and T. vaporariorum adult populations have been compared in the present study. After being exposed to LC(25) of nitenpyram for 24 h, the B. tabaci biotype B adults showed no significant change in susceptibility to nitenpyram or to five other insecticides: imidacloprid, acetamiprid, abamectin, chlorpyrifos and beta-cypermethrin. By contrast, exposure to the LC(25) of nitenpyram for 24 h led to a significant increase in the susceptibility of T. vaporariorum to nitenpyram and imidacloprid, by 1.8- and 2-fold, respectively. When exposed for seven generations to the LC(25) of nitenpyram, B. tabaci developed 6-fold resistance to nitenpyram, and 3.1- and 5-fold cross-resistance to imidacloprid and acetamiprid, respectively, whereas T. vaporariorum developed lower resistance (3.7-fold) to the nitenpyram and very low cross-resistance to imidacloprid (2.5-fold). The higher adaptable nature of B. tabaci (demonstrated here in the case of nitenpyram) when exposed to low doses of insecticides may provide a selective advantage when competing with T. vaporariorum in crops.

  11. Pathogenicity of Aschersonia spp. against whiteflies Bemisia argentifolii and Trialeurodes vaporariorum.

    PubMed

    Meekes, Ellis T M; Fransen, Joanne J; van Lenteren, Joop C

    2002-09-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi of the genus Aschersonia are specific for whitefly and scale insects. They can be used as biological control agents against silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii and greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Forty-four isolates of Aschersonia spp. were tested for their ability to sporulate and germinate on semi-artificial media and to infect insect hosts. Seven isolates sporulated poorly (less than 1x10(7) conidia/dry weight) and 10 were not able to infect either of the whitefly species. Several isolates were able to produce capilliconidia. Infection level was not correlated with germination on water agar. After a selection based on spore production and infection, virulence of 31 isolates was evaluated on third instar nymphs of both whitefly species on poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima). Whitefly infection levels varied between 2 and 70%, and infection percentages of B. argentifolii correlated with that of T. vaporariorum. However, mortality was higher for T. vaporariorum than for B. argentifolii, as a result of a higher 'mortality due to unknown causes.' Several isolates, among which unidentified species of Aschersonia originating from Thailand and Malaysia, A. aleyrodis from Colombia, and A. placenta from India showed high spore production on semi-artificial medium and high infection levels of both whitefly species.

  12. Aleurotrachelus trachoides (pepper whitefly)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aleurotrachelus trachoides Back also known as solanum or pepper whitefly is a new addition to the list of serious whitefly pests found in Florida. According to EPPO global database, it is a pest of over 70 different crops worldwide, which include a combination of edibles, ornamentals, palms, and wee...

  13. Greenhouse whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) dispersal under different UV-light environments.

    PubMed

    Doukas, Dimitrios; Payne, Christopher C

    2007-04-01

    The greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), is known to respond to UV light (UV). Field studies were conducted to improve our understanding of the behavioral effects and practical implications of using UV-blocking plastic films for the control of whitefly. Adult whiteflies were released in outdoor-located choice-chamber experiments with compartments clad with a range of films that transmitted incident UV to different extents. In release-recapture experiments, a very small proportion of the whiteflies recovered had dispersed into compartments where the entire UV spectrum was blocked, whereas the major proportion preferred compartments with UV. Compartments clad with films that blocked UV below 375 nm attracted significantly more whiteflies than films that blocked UV below 385 nm, whereas the absorption of UV wavelengths above 385 nm did not show any further effect on whitefly numbers. A reduction in the side cladding of the compartments by >20% significantly reduced the advantage of using UV-blocking films. Adult whitefly did not discriminate between direct- and diffused-light environments, as long as the UV-absorbing properties of the films were equivalent. Whitefly dispersal was influenced by the time of the day when adult whitefly were released, with a higher proportion of whitefly avoiding compartments clad with UV-blocking films, at times of the day when light intensities were higher. The future use of UV-blocking films as a potentially highly effective component of integrated pest management systems for the control of whitefly is discussed.

  14. Diapause and its regulation in the whitefly Trialeurodes lauri.

    PubMed

    Gerling, D; Guershon, M; Erel, E; Inbar, M

    2011-12-01

    This study focuses on the regulation of synchronization between the life cycle of the oligophagous whitefly, Trialeurodes lauri (Signoret), and its evergreen host tree Arbutus andrachne in Mediterranean chaparral. Whitefly infestations vary considerably among trees. The adults of the univoltine (one generation per year) whitefly emerge en masse during April and May and oviposit on the new spring foliage. Following approximately one month of development to the early fourth instar, the nymphs enter nine-month diapauses, terminating in February. This diapause is induced and maintained by the plant and can be experimentally avoided (in the case of developing young nymphs) or terminated (in the case of diapausing fourth instars), if whitefly-bearing branches are severed from the tree and placed in water under laboratory conditions. This study is the first report of a whitefly diapausing through both summer and winter seasons. The role of the host plant in the process is discussed.

  15. Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) infestation on cassava genotypes grown at different ecozones in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ariyo, O A; Dixon, A G O; Atiri, G I

    2005-04-01

    Large-scale screening of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz, genotypes for resistance to infestation by whitefly Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, the vector of cassava mosaic geminiviruses, is limited. A range of new cassava elite clones were therefore assessed for the whitefly infestation in the 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 cropping seasons in experimental fields of International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria. On each scoring day, between 0600 and 0800 hours when the whiteflies were relatively immobile, adult whitefly populations on the five topmost expanded leaves of cassava cultivars were counted. All through the 6-mo scoring period, there was a highly significant difference in whitefly infestation among the new cassava elite clones. Vector population buildup was observed in Ibadan (forest-savanna transition zone) and Onne (humid forest), 2 mo after planting (MAP). Mean infestation across cassava genotypes was significantly highest (16.6 whiteflies per plant) in Ibadan and lowest in Zaria (0.2). Generally, whitefly infestation was very low in all locations at 5 and 6 MAP. During this period, cassava genotypes 96/1439 and 91/02324 significantly supported higher infestations than other genotypes. Plants of 96/1089A and TMS 30572 supported the lowest whitefly infestation across cassava genotypes in all locations. The preferential whitefly visitation, the differences between locations in relation to whitefly population, cassava mosaic disease, and the fresh root yield of cassava genotypes are discussed.

  16. Tropical Whitefly IPM Project.

    PubMed

    Morales, Francisco J

    2007-01-01

    The Tropical Whitefly IPM Project (TWFP) is an initiative of the Systemwide IPM Programme of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), financed by the Department for International Development (DFID) of the United Kingdom, the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA), the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Agency for International Development (USAID), the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), and the New Zealand Agency for International Development (NZAID), to manage whitefly pests and whitefly-transmitted viruses in the Tropics. Participating CGIAR and other international centers include the Centre for International Tropical Agriculture (CIAT); the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA); The International Potato Centre (CIP); the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Centre (AVRDC); and the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), in close collaboration with the National Resources Institute (NRI-UK); national agricultural research institutions; agricultural universities; and advanced agricultural research laboratories in Africa, Asia, Europe, the Pacific Region, and the Americas. The TWFP was launched in 1996 as five separate but closely linked subprojects targeting: (1) Bemisia tabaci as a vector of viruses affecting cassava and sweet potato in sub-Saharan Africa (IITA, NRI, CIP, CIAT); (2) B. tabaci as a vector of viruses in mixed cropping systems of Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean (CIAT); (3) B. tabaci as a vector of viruses in mixed cropping systems of eastern and southern Africa (ICIPE, AVRDC); (4) B. tabaci as a vector of viruses in mixed cropping systems of Southeast Asia (AVRDC); (5) Trialeurodes vaporariorum as a pest in mixed cropping systems of the Andean highlands (CIAT); and (6) whiteflies as pests of cassava in South America (CIAT). Diagnostic surveys conducted in Phase I (1997-2000) clearly showed that the two main

  17. Tropical Whitefly IPM Project.

    PubMed

    Morales, Francisco J

    2007-01-01

    The Tropical Whitefly IPM Project (TWFP) is an initiative of the Systemwide IPM Programme of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), financed by the Department for International Development (DFID) of the United Kingdom, the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA), the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Agency for International Development (USAID), the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), and the New Zealand Agency for International Development (NZAID), to manage whitefly pests and whitefly-transmitted viruses in the Tropics. Participating CGIAR and other international centers include the Centre for International Tropical Agriculture (CIAT); the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA); The International Potato Centre (CIP); the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Centre (AVRDC); and the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), in close collaboration with the National Resources Institute (NRI-UK); national agricultural research institutions; agricultural universities; and advanced agricultural research laboratories in Africa, Asia, Europe, the Pacific Region, and the Americas. The TWFP was launched in 1996 as five separate but closely linked subprojects targeting: (1) Bemisia tabaci as a vector of viruses affecting cassava and sweet potato in sub-Saharan Africa (IITA, NRI, CIP, CIAT); (2) B. tabaci as a vector of viruses in mixed cropping systems of Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean (CIAT); (3) B. tabaci as a vector of viruses in mixed cropping systems of eastern and southern Africa (ICIPE, AVRDC); (4) B. tabaci as a vector of viruses in mixed cropping systems of Southeast Asia (AVRDC); (5) Trialeurodes vaporariorum as a pest in mixed cropping systems of the Andean highlands (CIAT); and (6) whiteflies as pests of cassava in South America (CIAT). Diagnostic surveys conducted in Phase I (1997-2000) clearly showed that the two main

  18. Aleurodicus rugioperculatus (Regose spiraling whitefly)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aleurodicus rugioperculatus Martin, infamous as gumbo limbo or the rugose spiraling whitefly (RSWF), is a new addition in the list of whitefly species found in Florida. It is a newly introduced pest, endemic to Central America, and reported for the first time in Florida from Miami-Dade County in 200...

  19. Elevated O3 enhances the attraction of whitefly-infested tomato plants to Encarsia formosa

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Hongying; Su, Jianwei; Wei, Jianing; Hu, Yongjian; Ge, Feng

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally examined the effects of elevated O3 and whitefly herbivory on tomato volatiles, feeding and oviposition preferences of whiteflies and behavioural responses of Encarsia formosa to these emissions on two tomato genotypes, a wild-type (Wt) and a jasmonic acid (JA) defence-enhanced genotype (JA-OE, 35S). The O3 level and whitefly herbivory significantly increased the total amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), monoterpenes, green leaf volatiles (GLVs), and aldehyde volatiles produced by tomato plants. The 35S plants released higher amount of total VOCs and monoterpene volatiles than Wt plants under O3+herbivory treatments. The feeding and oviposition bioassays showed that control plants were preferred by adult whiteflies whereas the 35S plants were not preferred by whiteflies. In the Y-tube tests, O3+herbivory treatment genotypes were preferred by adult E. Formosa. The 35S plants were preferred by adult E. formosa under O3, herbivory and O3+herbivory treatments. Our results demonstrated that elevated O3 and whitefly herbivory significantly increased tomato volatiles, which attracted E. formosa and reduced whitefly feeding. The 35S plants had a higher resistance to B. tabaci than Wt plant. Such changes suggest that the direct and indirect defences of resistant genotypes, such as 35S, could strengthen as the atmospheric O3 concentration increases. PMID:24939561

  20. Co-development of Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) and the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae): a histological examination.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Michael B; Gelman, Dale B; Hu, Jing S

    2002-09-01

    Using histological techniques, we have simultaneously examined the co-development of the Aphelinid parasitoid Encarsia formosa and its host the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Previously we have determined that regardless of the whitefly instar parasitized, parasitoid larvae would not molt to their final instar until the whitefly reaches its maximum dimensions. In unparasitized T. vaporariorum, this point in development corresponds to the initiation of the adult molt. In part, this study was conducted to determine the developmental state of parasitized whiteflies at the time they achieve their maximum dimensions. It was found that parasitized final instar T. vaporariorum do, in fact, undergo a final molt and that E. formosa larvae will not molt to their final instar until this has occurred. The timing of the final whitefly molt appears unaffected by parasitization. The commonly observed melanization of parasitized whiteflies appears to be a consequence of this molt. In addition, we have discovered that the adult wasp oviposits within the ventral ganglion of the whitefly, and that major organ systems of the whitefly persist very late into parasitoid development. We also report the presence of possible endosymbiotic bacteria residing in the fatbody of E. formosa.

  1. Use of LANDSAT 2 data technique to estimate silverleaf sunflower infestation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, A. J.; Escobar, D. E.; Gausman, H. W.; Everitt, J. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of the technique using the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (LANDSAT-2) multispectral scanner (MSS) was tested; to distinguish silverleaf sunflowers (Helianthus argophyllus Torr. and Gray) from other plant species and to estimate the hectarage percent of its infestation. Sunflowers gave high mean digital counts in all four LANDSAT MSS bands that were manifested as a pinkish image response on the LANDSAT color composite imagery. Photo- and LANDSAT-estimated hectare percentages for silverleaf sunflower within a 23,467 ha study area were 9.1 and 9.5%, respectively. The geographic occurrence of sunflower areas on the line-printer recognition map was in good agreement with their known aerial photographic locations.

  2. Reliable molecular identification of nine tropical whitefly species

    PubMed Central

    Ovalle, Tatiana M; Parsa, Soroush; Hernández, Maria P; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis A

    2014-01-01

    The identification of whitefly species in adult stage is problematic. Morphological differentiation of pupae is one of the better methods for determining identity of species, but it may vary depending on the host plant on which they develop which can lead to misidentifications and erroneous naming of new species. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragment amplified from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene is often used for mitochondrial haplotype identification that can be associated with specific species. Our objective was to compare morphometric traits against DNA barcode sequences to develop and implement a diagnostic molecular kit based on a RFLP-PCR method using the COI gene for the rapid identification of whiteflies. This study will allow for the rapid diagnosis of the diverse community of whiteflies attacking plants of economic interest in Colombia. It also provides access to the COI sequence that can be used to develop predator conservation techniques by establishing which predators have a trophic linkage with the focal whitefly pest species. PMID:25614792

  3. Inactivation of Wolbachia Reveals Its Biological Roles in Whitefly Host

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Xia; Li, Shao-Jian; Ahmed, Muhammad Z.; De Barro, Paul J.; Ren, Shun-Xiang; Qiu, Bao-Li

    2012-01-01

    Background The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is cryptic species complex composed of numerous species. Individual species from the complex harbor a diversity of bacterial endosymbionts including Wolbachia. However, while Wolbachia is known to have a number of different roles, its role in B. tabaci is unclear. Here, the antibiotic rifampicin is used to selectively eliminate Wolbachia from B. tabaci so as to enable its roles in whitefly development and reproduction to be explored. The indirect effects of Wolbachia elimination on the biology of Encarsia bimaculata, a dominant parasitoid of B. tabaci in South China, were also investigated. Methodology/Principal Finding qRT-PCR and FISH were used to show that after 48 h exposure to 1.0 mg/ml rifampicin, Wolbachia was completely inactivated from B. tabaci Mediterranean (MED) without any significant impact on either the primary symbiont, Portiera aleyrodidarum or any of the other secondary endosymbionts present. For B. tabaci MED, Wolbachia was shown to be associated with decreased juvenile development time, increased likelihood that nymphs completed development, increased adult life span and increased percentage of female progeny. Inactivation was associated with a significant decrease in the body size of the 4th instar which leads us to speculate as to whether Wolbachia may have a nutrient supplementation role. The reduction in nymph body size has consequences for its parasitoid, E. bimaculata. The elimination of Wolbachia lead to a marked increase in the proportion of parasitoid eggs that completed their development, but the reduced size of the whitefly host was also associated with a significant reduction in the size of the emerging parasitoid adult and this was in turn associated with a marked reduction in adult parasitoid longevity. Conclusions/Significance Wolbachia increases the fitness of the whitefly host and provides some protection against parasitization. These observations add to our understanding of the roles

  4. Ecology and management of the woolly whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a new invasive citrus pest in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Belay, Difabachew K; Zewdu, Abebe; Foster, John E

    2011-08-01

    Distribution and importance of woolly whitefly (Aleurothrixus floccosus) (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), was studied in Ethiopia with an evaluation of treatments against it. Results showed that the pest is distributed in most citrus-growing parts of the country equally infesting all types of citrus crops. Only one pupal parasitoid, Amitus sp., was recorded at Melkaoba. During 2006-2007, eight treatments gave better control of woolly whitefly compared with the control: endod (Phytolacca dodecandra L'Herit) berry extract, white oil 80%, neem oil, omo detergent soap, band application of gasoline, cyhalothrin (karate) 5% EC, selecron (profenofos) 500 EC, and rimon (novaluron) 10 EC. Treatments were applied on 6-8 yr-old orange trees at Melkaoba and Nazareth. At Melkaoba, application of cyhalothrin, selecron, white oil, and Neem gave better control of woolly whitefly compared with the control. All the treatments resulted in a lower number of ants than the control. Ants disrupt biocontrol agents of honeydew-secreting pests, including woolly whiteflies. Mean infestation score was higher in the control than the rest of the treatments. Similarly, at Nazareth, woolly whitefly numbers were lower recorded on cyhalothrin-treated plants. However, the numbers of eggs were significantly higher in endod extract-sprayed plants than the control. All treatments controlled ants better than the control except endod. Infestation scores were lower on endod- and cyhalothrin-treated plants than the control. Mean number of adult woolly whiteflies and eggs were significantly higher on newly grown leaves than older leaves. In general, the number of live adult woolly whiteflies showed a decreasing trend at both sites after treatment applications compared with the control. PMID:21882700

  5. Making whitefly and natural enemy counts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet potato whitefly is a key insect pests affecting multiple crops in the southwestern U.S., including cotton during the summer months. Extensive research has demonstrated that arthropod natural enemies, particularly predators, can have a significant impact on whitefly population dynamics and can...

  6. Remarkable life history polymorphism may be evolving under divergent selection in the silverleaf sunflower.

    PubMed

    Moyers, Brook T; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2016-08-01

    Substantial intraspecific variation in life history is rare and potentially a signal of incipient ecological speciation, if variation is driven by geographically heterogenous natural selection. We present the first report of extensive life history polymorphism in Helianthus argophyllus, the silverleaf sunflower, and examine evidence for its evolution by divergent selection. In 18 populations sampled from across the species range and grown in a common garden, most quantitative traits covaried such that individuals could be assigned to two distinct life history syndromes: tall and late flowering with small initial flowerheads, or short and early flowering with larger initial flowerheads. Helianthus argophyllus exhibits regional genetic structure, but this population structure does not closely correspond with patterns of phenotypic variation. The early-flowering syndrome is primarily observed in populations from coastal barrier islands, while populations from the nearby mainland coast, although geographically and genetically close, are primarily late flowering. Additionally, several traits are more differentiated among regions than expected based on neutral genetic divergence (QST  > FST ), including the first principal component score corresponding with life history syndrome. This discordance between patterns of phenotypic and genetic variation suggests that divergent selection is driving genetic differences in life history across the species range. If so, the silverleaf sunflower may be in early stages of ecological speciation. PMID:27288664

  7. Resistance of tomato genotypes to the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (West.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Lucatti, Alejandro F; Alvarez, Adriana E; Machado, Cristina R; Gilardón, Elsa

    2010-01-01

    The greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood, is the most common and abundant whitefly in Argentine horticultural greenhouse crops, especially in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Resistance in some wild tomato relatives, such as S. peruvianum, S. habrochaites and S. pennellii to the greenhouse whitefly has been described. The Mi gene confers effective resistance against several species of insects, among them the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius. Resistance to T. vaporariorum was found in the prebreeding line FCN 93-6-2, derived from a cross between S. lycopersicum cultivar Uco Plata INTA (MiMi) and the wild line FCN 3-5 S. habrochaites. The purpose of this study was to evaluate resistance to T. vaporariorum in tomato genotypes and to study the relationship between this resistance and the presence of the REX-1 marker, which is linked to the Mi gene. In a free-choice assay, the average number of adults per leaf and the number of immatures on the middle and basal plant parts were analyzed. In a no-choice assay, the oviposition rate and adult survival rate were calculated. For all variables analyzed, FCN 3-5 was the most resistant strain. Variations were found in the F2 progeny between the prebreeding line FCN 13-1-6-1 and cv. Uco Plata INTA. Results from the F2 progeny indicate that resistance to T. vaporariorum may be polygenic with transgressive segregation. Whitefly resistance was found to be independent of the REX-1 marker.

  8. Trophic relationships between predators, whiteflies and their parasitoids in tomato greenhouses: a molecular approach.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Ripoll, R; Gabarra, R; Symondson, W O C; King, R A; Agustí, N

    2012-08-01

    The whiteflies Bemisia tabaci Gennadius and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are two of the main pests in tomato crops. Their biological control in Mediterranean IPM systems is based on the predators Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) and Nesidiocoris tenuis Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae), as well as on the parasitoids Eretmocerus mundus (Mercet) and Encarsia pergandiella Howard (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). These natural enemies may interact with each other and their joint use could interfere with the biological control of those whitefly pests. Analysis of predator-prey interactions under field conditions is therefore essential in order to optimize whitefly control. Species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-primers were designed to detect DNA fragments of these whiteflies and parasitoids within both predator species in tomato greenhouses. We demonstrated that both predators feed on both whitefly species, as well as on both parasitoids under greenhouse conditions. Prey molecular detection was possible where prey abundance was very low or even where predation was not observed under a microscope. Whitefly DNA detection was positively correlated with adult whitefly abundance in the crop. However, a significant relationship was not observed between parasitoid DNA detection and the abundance of parasitoid pupae, even though the predation rate on parasitoids was high. This unidirectional intraguild predation (predators on parasitoids) could potentially reduce their combined impact on their joint prey/host. Prey molecular detection provided improved detection of prey consumption in greenhouse crops, as well as the possibility to identify which prey species were consumed by each predator species present in the greenhouse, offering a blueprint with wider applicability to other food webs.

  9. Optimization of the genomic DNA extraction method of silverleaf nightshade/ (Solanum elaeagnifolium /Cav.), an invasive plant in the cultivated areas within the Mediterranean region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The geographical origin of an invasive in the cultivated area within the Mediterranean region, silverleaf nightshade, Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav, (Solanaceae) should be identified through the analysis of genetic similarities between native and introduced populations using microsatellite markers. Bef...

  10. Host-parasite interactions between whiteflies and their parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Gelman, Dale B; Gerling, Dan; Blackburn, Michael B; Hu, Jing S

    2005-12-01

    There is relatively little information available concerning the physiological and biochemical interactions between whiteflies and their parasitoids. In this report, we describe interactions between aphelinid parasitoids and their aleyrodid hosts that we have observed in four host-parasite systems: Bemisia tabaci/Encarsia formosa, Trialeurodes vaporariorum/E. formosa, B. tabaci/Eretmocerus mundus, and T. lauri/Encarsia scapeata. In the absence of reported polydnavirus and teratocytes, these parasitoids probably inject and/or produce compounds that interfere with the host immune response and also manipulate host development to suit their own needs. In addition, parasitoids must coordinate their own development with that of their host. Although eggs are deposited under all four instars of B. tabaci, Eretmocerus larvae only penetrate 4th instar B. tabaci nymphs. A pre-penetrating E. mundus first instar was capable of inducing permanent developmental arrest in its host, and upon penetration stimulated its host to produce a capsule (epidermal in origin) in which the parasitoid larva developed. T. vaporariorum and B. tabaci parasitized by E. formosa initiated adult development, and, on occasion, produced abnormal adult wings and eyes. In these systems, the site of parasitoid oviposition depended on the host species, occurring within or pressing into the ventral ganglion in T. vaporariorum and at various locations in B. tabaci. E. formosa's final larval molt is cued by the initiation of adult development in its host. In the T. lauri-E. scapeata system, both the host whitefly and the female parasitoid diapause during most of the year, i.e., from June until the middle of February (T. lauri) or from May until the end of December (E. scapeata). It appears that the growth and development of the insects are directed by the appearance of new, young foliage on Arbutus andrachne, the host tree. When adult female parasitoids emerged in the spring, they laid unfertilized male

  11. Seasonal population dynamics of the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on strawberries in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Bi, J L; Toscano, N C; Ballmer, G R

    2002-12-01

    The greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), has recently become a major insect pest of strawberries in Southern California. The population dynamics of this pest were monitored over 2 yr in six commercial strawberry fields near the coastal communities of Oxnard and Ventura under two crop-production regimes, summer- and fall-planted strawberries. Adult whitefly numbers generally peaked during the February through May period for fall-planted strawberries and during the October through November period for summer-planted strawberries. Population densities varied greatly among fields within each regime and the differences were likely caused by surrounding alternate host crops.

  12. Insecticidal Activity of Some Reducing Sugars Against the Sweet Potato Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, Biotype B

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of 15 sugars on sweet potato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) survival were determined using bioassays. Arabinose, mannose, ribose and xylose were strongly inhibitory to both nymphal and adult survival. When 10% mannose was added to the diet, 10.5%, 1.0% and 0% of nymphs developed to the 2nd, ...

  13. Wolbachia Has Two Different Localization Patterns in Whitefly Bemisia tabaci AsiaII7 Species.

    PubMed

    Shi, Peiqiong; He, Zhan; Li, Shaojian; An, Xuan; Lv, Ning; Ghanim, Murad; Cuthbertson, Andrew G S; Ren, Shun-Xiang; Qiu, Bao-Li

    2016-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a cosmopolitan insect species complex that harbors the obligate primary symbiont Portiera aleyrodidarum and several facultative secondary symbionts including Wolbachia, which have diverse influences on the host biology. Here, for the first time, we revealed two different localization patterns of Wolbachia present in the immature and adult stages of B. tabaci AsiaII7 cryptic species. In the confined pattern, Wolbachia was restricted to the bacteriocytes, while in the scattered pattern Wolbachia localized in the bacteriocytes, haemolymph and other organs simultaneously. Our results further indicated that, the proportion of B. tabaci AsiaII7 individuals with scattered Wolbachia were significantly lower than that of confined Wolbachia, and the distribution patterns of Wolbachia were not associated with the developmental stage or sex of whitefly host. This study will provide a new insight into the various transmission routes of Wolbachia in different whitefly species. PMID:27611575

  14. Wolbachia Has Two Different Localization Patterns in Whitefly Bemisia tabaci AsiaII7 Species

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Peiqiong; He, Zhan; Li, Shaojian; An, Xuan; Lv, Ning; Ghanim, Murad; Cuthbertson, Andrew G. S.; Ren, Shun-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a cosmopolitan insect species complex that harbors the obligate primary symbiont Portiera aleyrodidarum and several facultative secondary symbionts including Wolbachia, which have diverse influences on the host biology. Here, for the first time, we revealed two different localization patterns of Wolbachia present in the immature and adult stages of B. tabaci AsiaII7 cryptic species. In the confined pattern, Wolbachia was restricted to the bacteriocytes, while in the scattered pattern Wolbachia localized in the bacteriocytes, haemolymph and other organs simultaneously. Our results further indicated that, the proportion of B. tabaci AsiaII7 individuals with scattered Wolbachia were significantly lower than that of confined Wolbachia, and the distribution patterns of Wolbachia were not associated with the developmental stage or sex of whitefly host. This study will provide a new insight into the various transmission routes of Wolbachia in different whitefly species. PMID:27611575

  15. Effect of starvation on vein preference of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) on chilli as host plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siti Sakinah, A.; Mohamad Roff M., N.; Idris, A. B.

    2014-09-01

    The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), is a cosmopolitan pest of horticultural crops. It caused serious damaged to the plants by feeding on plant saps as direct damage and transmit virus as indirect damage. Vein preferences of both female and male whitefly (WF) on chilli plant were recorded using Dinolite, a portable microscope, under laboratory conditions. WF adults of both sexes were starved for 2 and 4 hours before used for observation while no starvation for control individual (treatment). Results showed that both female and male preferred to feed on secondary veins rather than lamina, midrib and vein. From the result of whitefly preferred target site, hopefully this information will help to improve control tactics in WF management.

  16. An Initial Study of the Greenhouse Whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchon, A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the life cycle and control of the greenhouse whitefly. Explains the culture of the whitefly for school use and presents a list of laboratory exercises that can be done in a double period. (GS)

  17. Novel Genes Affecting the Interaction between the Cabbage Whitefly and Arabidopsis Uncovered by Genome-Wide Association Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Broekgaarden, Colette; Bucher, Johan; Bac-Molenaar, Johanna; Keurentjes, Joost J. B.; Kruijer, Willem; Voorrips, Roeland E.; Vosman, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved a variety of ways to defend themselves against biotic attackers. This has resulted in the presence of substantial variation in defense mechanisms among plants, even within a species. Genome-wide association (GWA) mapping is a useful tool to study the genetic architecture of traits, but has so far only had limited exploitation in studies of plant defense. Here, we study the genetic architecture of defense against the phloem-feeding insect cabbage whitefly (Aleyrodes proletella) in Arabidopsis thaliana. We determined whitefly performance, i.e. the survival and reproduction of whitefly females, on 360 worldwide selected natural accessions and subsequently performed GWA mapping using 214,051 SNPs. Substantial variation for whitefly adult survival and oviposition rate (number of eggs laid per female per day) was observed between the accessions. We identified 39 candidate SNPs for either whitefly adult survival or oviposition rate, all with relatively small effects, underpinning the complex architecture of defense traits. Among the corresponding candidate genes, i.e. genes in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with candidate SNPs, none have previously been identified as a gene playing a role in the interaction between plants and phloem-feeding insects. Whitefly performance on knock-out mutants of a number of candidate genes was significantly affected, validating the potential of GWA mapping for novel gene discovery in plant-insect interactions. Our results show that GWA analysis is a very useful tool to gain insight into the genetic architecture of plant defense against herbivorous insects, i.e. we identified and validated several genes affecting whitefly performance that have not previously been related to plant defense against herbivorous insects. PMID:26699853

  18. Whitefly population dynamics and evaluation of whitefly-transmitted tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV)-resistant tomato genotypes as whitefly and TYLCV reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu; Riley, David; Diffie, Stan; Sparks, Alton; Adkins, Scott

    2012-08-01

    Sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), and whitefly-transmitted tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) are major threats to tomato production in the southeastern United States. TYLCV was introduced to Florida from the Caribbean islands and has spread to other southern states of the United States. In Georgia, in recent years, the incidence of TYLCV has been steadily increasing. Studies were conducted to monitor population dynamics of whiteflies in the vegetable production belt of Georgia, to evaluate TYLCV-resistant genotypes against whiteflies and TYLCV, and to assess the potential role of resistant genotypes in TYLCV epidemiology. Monitoring studies indicated that the peak incidence of whiteflies varied seasonally from year to year. In general, whitefly populations were not uniformly distributed. Tomato genotypes exhibited minor differences in their ability to support whitefly populations. TYLCV symptoms were visually undetectable in all but one resistant genotype. The infection rates (visually) in susceptible genotypes ranged from 40 to 87%. Greenhouse inoculations with viruliferous whiteflies followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated that up to 100% of plants of resistant genotypes were infected, although predominantly symptomless. TYLCV acquisition by whiteflies from TYLCV-infected genotypes was tested by PCR; TYLCV acquisition rates from resistant genotypes were less than from susceptible genotypes. Nevertheless, this difference did not influence TYLCV transmission rates from resistant to susceptible genotypes. Results emphasize that resistant genotypes can serve as TYLCV and whitefly reservoirs and potentially influence TYLCV epidemics. PMID:22928328

  19. Delphastus catalinae and Coleomegilla maculata lengi (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) as biological control agents of the greenhouse whitefly, trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Lucas, Eric; Labrecque, Claude; Coderre, Daniel

    2004-11-01

    Predation efficacy and compatibility of the predatory lady beetles Coleomegilla maculata lengi Timberlake and Delphastus catalinae (Horn) against the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) were studied in laboratory on glabrous fuchsia (Fuchsia hybrida Voss cv Lena Corolla) and pubescent poinsettia plants (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd ex Klotzch cv Dark Red Annette Hegg). On glabrous plants (fuchsia), fourth-instar and adults of C maculata were the most efficient, both against whitefly eggs and pupae. On pubescent plants (poinsettia), the larger stages of C maculata were negatively affected and less efficient than adults of D catalinae. The presence of plant structure did not affect the voracity of either predator species. Finally, the simultaneous use of both predator species generated inter-specific competition. These results provide recommendations for biological control of whitefly in horticultural greenhouses.

  20. Ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones of whiteflies, important insect vectors for plant viruses.

    PubMed

    Gelman, Dale B; Pszczolkowski, Maciej A; Blackburn, Michael B; Ramaswamy, Sonny B

    2007-03-01

    Ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones (JHs) regulate many physiological events throughout the insect life cycle, including molting, metamorphosis, ecdysis, diapause, reproduction, and behavior. Fluctuation of whitefly ecdysteroid levels and the identity of the whitefly molting hormone (20-hydroxyecdysone) have only been reported within the last few years. An ecdysteroid commitment peak that is associated with the reprogramming of tissues for a metamorphic molt in many holometabolous and some hemimetabolous insect species was not observed in last nymphal instars of either the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Biotype B), or the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Ecdysteroids reach peak levels 1-2 days prior to the initiation of the nymphal-adult metamorphic molt. Adult eye and wing differentiation which signal the onset of this molt begin earlier in 4th instar T. vaporariorum (Stages 4 and 5, respectively) than in B. tabaci (Stage 6), and the premolt peak is 3-4 times greater in B. tabaci ( approximately 400 fg/microg protein) than in T. vaporariorum ( approximately 120 fg/microg protein). The JH of B. tabaci nymphs and eggs was found to be JH III, supporting the view that JHs I and II are, with rare exception, only present in lepidopteran insects. In B. tabaci eggs, JH levels were approximately 10 times greater on day 2/3 (0.44 fg/egg or 0.54 ng/g) than on day 5 (0.04 fg/egg or 0.054 ng/g) post-oviposition. Approximately, 1.4 fg/2nd-3rd instar nymph (0.36 ng/g) was detected. It is probable that the relatively high level of JH in day 2/3 eggs is associated with the differentiation of various whitefly tissues during embryonic development.

  1. Leaf Morphological Characters Can Be a Factor for Intra-Varietal Preference of Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) among Eggplant Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Chen-Yang; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) MEAM1, is considered a serious pest of horticultural and many other crops. While eggplant (Solanum melongena) is one of the most favored host plants, the whiteflies exhibit preferences among different varieties. We hypothesized that certain morphological leaf characteristics of different varieties, like leaf trichome density, trichome length, leaf lamina thickness and leaf color, may affect whitefly landing, feeding and oviposition. In this study, we investigated the variation in leaf morphological characters among selected eggplant varieties and evaluated the effect of these leaf characteristics in rendering eggplant varieties either susceptible or resistant to B. tabaci. We evaluated eight eggplant varieties in choice feeding tests, and we found that the varieties JinSheng Zilongchangqie (JSZ) and H149 were the highly preferred varieties with the highest numbers of whitefly adults and eggs. Significantly lower numbers of whitefly adult eggs were found on the resistant variety Tuo Lu Bamu (TLB). The varieties JinGuangbo Luqie (JGL), JinGuangbo Ziquanqie (JGZ), DaYang Ziguanqie (DYZ), QinXing Ziguanqie (QXZ), and QinXing Niuxinqie (QXN) were moderately favored by B. tabaci. Leaf trichome density, trichome length and leaf lamina thickness were positively correlated with numbers of whitefly adults and eggs. B. tabaci was less attracted to the leaves that reflect long and middle wavelength light (higher R and G values) than to the bright green leaves (medium G value), but the short wavelength light (higher B value) had no significant effect on whitefly preference. The degree of hue had a positive effect, and saturation and brightness had a negative effect on whitefly attraction. PMID:27081849

  2. Leaf Morphological Characters Can Be a Factor for Intra-Varietal Preference of Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) among Eggplant Varieties.

    PubMed

    Hasanuzzaman, Abu Tayeb Mohammad; Islam, Md Nazrul; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Chen-Yang; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) MEAM1, is considered a serious pest of horticultural and many other crops. While eggplant (Solanum melongena) is one of the most favored host plants, the whiteflies exhibit preferences among different varieties. We hypothesized that certain morphological leaf characteristics of different varieties, like leaf trichome density, trichome length, leaf lamina thickness and leaf color, may affect whitefly landing, feeding and oviposition. In this study, we investigated the variation in leaf morphological characters among selected eggplant varieties and evaluated the effect of these leaf characteristics in rendering eggplant varieties either susceptible or resistant to B. tabaci. We evaluated eight eggplant varieties in choice feeding tests, and we found that the varieties JinSheng Zilongchangqie (JSZ) and H149 were the highly preferred varieties with the highest numbers of whitefly adults and eggs. Significantly lower numbers of whitefly adult eggs were found on the resistant variety Tuo Lu Bamu (TLB). The varieties JinGuangbo Luqie (JGL), JinGuangbo Ziquanqie (JGZ), DaYang Ziguanqie (DYZ), QinXing Ziguanqie (QXZ), and QinXing Niuxinqie (QXN) were moderately favored by B. tabaci. Leaf trichome density, trichome length and leaf lamina thickness were positively correlated with numbers of whitefly adults and eggs. B. tabaci was less attracted to the leaves that reflect long and middle wavelength light (higher R and G values) than to the bright green leaves (medium G value), but the short wavelength light (higher B value) had no significant effect on whitefly preference. The degree of hue had a positive effect, and saturation and brightness had a negative effect on whitefly attraction.

  3. Leaf Morphological Characters Can Be a Factor for Intra-Varietal Preference of Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) among Eggplant Varieties.

    PubMed

    Hasanuzzaman, Abu Tayeb Mohammad; Islam, Md Nazrul; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Chen-Yang; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) MEAM1, is considered a serious pest of horticultural and many other crops. While eggplant (Solanum melongena) is one of the most favored host plants, the whiteflies exhibit preferences among different varieties. We hypothesized that certain morphological leaf characteristics of different varieties, like leaf trichome density, trichome length, leaf lamina thickness and leaf color, may affect whitefly landing, feeding and oviposition. In this study, we investigated the variation in leaf morphological characters among selected eggplant varieties and evaluated the effect of these leaf characteristics in rendering eggplant varieties either susceptible or resistant to B. tabaci. We evaluated eight eggplant varieties in choice feeding tests, and we found that the varieties JinSheng Zilongchangqie (JSZ) and H149 were the highly preferred varieties with the highest numbers of whitefly adults and eggs. Significantly lower numbers of whitefly adult eggs were found on the resistant variety Tuo Lu Bamu (TLB). The varieties JinGuangbo Luqie (JGL), JinGuangbo Ziquanqie (JGZ), DaYang Ziguanqie (DYZ), QinXing Ziguanqie (QXZ), and QinXing Niuxinqie (QXN) were moderately favored by B. tabaci. Leaf trichome density, trichome length and leaf lamina thickness were positively correlated with numbers of whitefly adults and eggs. B. tabaci was less attracted to the leaves that reflect long and middle wavelength light (higher R and G values) than to the bright green leaves (medium G value), but the short wavelength light (higher B value) had no significant effect on whitefly preference. The degree of hue had a positive effect, and saturation and brightness had a negative effect on whitefly attraction. PMID:27081849

  4. Identification of the molting hormone of the sweet potato (Bemisia tabaci) and greenhouse (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) whitefly.

    PubMed

    Gelman, Dale B; Blackburn, Michael B; Hu, Jing S

    2005-01-01

    In order to identify the whitefly molting hormone, whole body extracts of mature 4th instar and newly formed pharate adult Bemisia tabaci (Biotype B) and Trialeurodes vaporariorum were prepared and subjected to reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RPHPLC). Ecdysteroid content of fractions was determined by enzymeimmunoassay (EIA). The only detectable ecdysteroids that were present in significant amounts in whitefly extracts were ecdysone and 20-hydroxyecdysone. The concentrations of 20-hydroxyecdysone in B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum extracts, respectively, were 40 and 15 times greater than the concentrations of ecdysone. The identity of the two ecdysteroids was confirmed by normal phase high performance liquid chromatography (NPHPLC). When ecdysteroid content of RPHPLC fractions was assayed by radioimmunoassay (RIA), small amounts of polar ecdysteroids were also detected indicating that these ecdysteroids have a very low affinity for the antiserum used in the EIA. Ecdysteroid at 10.4 mM administered by feeding stimulated 2nd instar whitefly nymphs to molt. Based on our results, it appears that 20-hydroxyecdysone is the whitefly molting hormone.

  5. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25204756

  6. Bioactivity of Indigenous Medicinal Plants against the Cotton Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Hammad, E. Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A.; Saliba, N.; Talhouk, S.

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25204756

  7. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species.

  8. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae),Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species.

  9. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae),Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25373231

  10. Seasonal trends of whitefly populations in a Mediterranean tomato growing area.

    PubMed

    Nannini, M; Foddi, F; Murgia, G; Pisci, R; Sanna, F; Testa, M

    2009-01-01

    The whiteflies Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum and their associated viruses constitute a major threat to tomato crops in the Mediterranean region. Continuous host availability and mild climate are thought to be among the factors contributing to the outbreaks of whitefly-related problems in this area. We carried out a year-long survey to investigate the relative contribution of different plants, agricultural and not, and indoor/outdoor crops as hosts of the two whiteflies and the tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD) in a multi-crop system typical of tomato growing areas in southern Sardinia (S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy). For this purpose, during 2005 we monitored whitefly population trends in different plots of a horticulture farm, evaluated seasonal changes in the infestation density of the two pests on the most represented host species and assessed the incidence of TYLCD on tomato crops and susceptible weeds. Whitefly catches on yellow sticky traps were found to be higher inside et along the external perimeter of greenhouses compared to open field crops or uncultivated areas, thus suggesting significant adult movement between indoor and outdoor patches. In most plots flight activity increased between late spring and late summer, peaking in July. The number of immatures of the two whitefly species showed similar dynamics, but while T. vaporariorum reached the highest densities in greenhouse tomato crops in June, peak levels of 8. tabaci were recorded between July and August in outdoor horticultural crops and weeds. The occurrence of TYLCD was detected all year round on weed hosts, but the highest number of infected plants was observed in June on long cycle tomato crops. The present survey has demonstrated the contribution of non-agricultural plants the maintenance of tomato yellow leaf curl disease in the study site. However, tomato crops established in summer as major reservoirs of TYLCD-associated viruses and presumably played a key

  11. Replication of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus in Its Whitefly Vector, Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Pakkianathan, Britto Cathrin; Kontsedalov, Svetlana; Lebedev, Galina; Mahadav, Assaf; Zeidan, Muhammad; Czosnek, Henryk

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a begomovirus transmitted exclusively by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci in a persistent, circulative manner. Replication of TYLCV in its vector remains controversial, and thus far, the virus has been considered to be nonpropagative. Following 8 h of acquisition on TYLCV-infected tomato plants or purified virions and then transfer to non-TYLCV-host cotton plants, the amounts of virus inside whitefly adults significantly increased (>2-fold) during the first few days and then continuously decreased, as measured by the amounts of genes on both virus DNA strands. Reported alterations in insect immune and defense responses upon virus retention led us to hypothesize a role for the immune response in suppressing virus replication. After virus acquisition, stress conditions were imposed on whiteflies, and the levels of three viral gene sequences were measured over time. When whiteflies were exposed to TYLCV and treatment with two different pesticides, the virus levels continuously increased. Upon exposure to heat stress, the virus levels gradually decreased, without any initial accumulation. Switching of whiteflies between pesticide, heat stress, and control treatments caused fluctuating increases and decreases in virus levels. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis confirmed these results and showed virus signals inside midgut epithelial cell nuclei. Combining the pesticide and heat treatments with virus acquisition had significant effects on fecundity. Altogether, our results demonstrate for the first time that a single-stranded DNA plant virus can replicate in its hemipteran vector. IMPORTANCE Plant viruses in agricultural crops are of great concern worldwide. Many of them are transmitted from infected to healthy plants by insects. Persistently transmitted viruses often have a complex association with their vectors; however, most are believed not to replicate within these vectors. Such replication is important, as it

  12. RNA Viral Metagenome of Whiteflies Leads to the Discovery and Characterization of a Whitefly-Transmitted Carlavirus in North America

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Karyna; Capobianco, Heather; Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Breitbart, Mya; Polston, Jane E.

    2014-01-01

    Whiteflies from the Bemisia tabaci species complex have the ability to transmit a large number of plant viruses and are some of the most detrimental pests in agriculture. Although whiteflies are known to transmit both DNA and RNA viruses, most of the diversity has been recorded for the former, specifically for the Begomovirus genus. This study investigated the total diversity of DNA and RNA viruses found in whiteflies collected from a single site in Florida to evaluate if there are additional, previously undetected viral types within the B. tabaci vector. Metagenomic analysis of viral DNA extracted from the whiteflies only resulted in the detection of begomoviruses. In contrast, whiteflies contained sequences similar to RNA viruses from divergent groups, with a diversity that extends beyond currently described viruses. The metagenomic analysis of whiteflies also led to the first report of a whitefly-transmitted RNA virus similar to Cowpea mild mottle virus (CpMMV Florida) (genus Carlavirus) in North America. Further investigation resulted in the detection of CpMMV Florida in native and cultivated plants growing near the original field site of whitefly collection and determination of its experimental host range. Analysis of complete CpMMV Florida genomes recovered from whiteflies and plants suggests that the current classification criteria for carlaviruses need to be reevaluated. Overall, metagenomic analysis supports that DNA plant viruses carried by B. tabaci are dominated by begomoviruses, whereas significantly less is known about RNA viruses present in this damaging insect vector. PMID:24466220

  13. RNA viral metagenome of whiteflies leads to the discovery and characterization of a whitefly-transmitted carlavirus in North America.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Karyna; Capobianco, Heather; Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Breitbart, Mya; Polston, Jane E

    2014-01-01

    Whiteflies from the Bemisia tabaci species complex have the ability to transmit a large number of plant viruses and are some of the most detrimental pests in agriculture. Although whiteflies are known to transmit both DNA and RNA viruses, most of the diversity has been recorded for the former, specifically for the Begomovirus genus. This study investigated the total diversity of DNA and RNA viruses found in whiteflies collected from a single site in Florida to evaluate if there are additional, previously undetected viral types within the B. tabaci vector. Metagenomic analysis of viral DNA extracted from the whiteflies only resulted in the detection of begomoviruses. In contrast, whiteflies contained sequences similar to RNA viruses from divergent groups, with a diversity that extends beyond currently described viruses. The metagenomic analysis of whiteflies also led to the first report of a whitefly-transmitted RNA virus similar to Cowpea mild mottle virus (CpMMV Florida) (genus Carlavirus) in North America. Further investigation resulted in the detection of CpMMV Florida in native and cultivated plants growing near the original field site of whitefly collection and determination of its experimental host range. Analysis of complete CpMMV Florida genomes recovered from whiteflies and plants suggests that the current classification criteria for carlaviruses need to be reevaluated. Overall, metagenomic analysis supports that DNA plant viruses carried by B. tabaci are dominated by begomoviruses, whereas significantly less is known about RNA viruses present in this damaging insect vector.

  14. Differential tolerance capacity to unfavourable low and high temperatures between two invasive whiteflies

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Na; Pan, Li-Long; Zhang, Chang-Rong; Shan, Hong-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Thermal response and tolerance to ambient temperature play important roles in determining the geographic distribution and seasonal abundance of insects. We examined the survival and performance, as well as expression of three heat shock protein related genes, of two species of invasive whiteflies, Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED), of the Bemisia tabaci species complex following exposure to a range of low and high temperatures. Our data demonstrated that the MED species was more tolerant to high temperatures than the MEAM1 species, especially in the adult stage, and this difference in thermal responses may be related to the heat shock protein related genes hsp90 and hsp70. These findings may assist in understanding and predicting the distribution and abundance of the two invasive whiteflies in the field. PMID:27080927

  15. Plant-mediated interactions between whiteflies, herbivores, and natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Inbar, Moshe; Gerling, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) comprise tiny phloem-sucking insects. The sessile development of their immatures and their phloem-feeding habits (with minimal physical plant damage) often lead to plant-mediated interactions with other organisms. The main data come from the polyphagous pest species Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), which are intricately associated with their host plants. Although these associations might not represent aleyrodids in general, we rely on them to highlight the fundamental role of host plants in numerous ecological interactions between whiteflies, other herbivores, and their natural enemies. Plant traits often affect the activity, preference, and performance of the whiteflies, as well as their entomopathogens, predators, and parasitoids. Leaf structure (primarily pubescence) and constitutive and induced chemical profiles (defensive and nutritional elements) are critically important determinants of whitefly fitness. Pest management-related and evolutionary biology studies could benefit from future research that will consider whiteflies in a multitrophic-level framework.

  16. Differential temporal changes of primary and secondary bacterial symbionts and whitefly host fitness following antibiotic treatments

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chang-Rong; Shan, Hong-Wei; Xiao, Na; Zhang, Fan-Di; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Yin-Quan; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Where multiple symbionts coexist in the same host, the selective elimination of a specific symbiont may enable the roles of a given symbiont to be investigated. We treated the Mediterranean species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex by oral delivery of the antibiotic rifampicin, and then examined the temporal changes of its primary symbiont “Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum” and secondary symbiont “Ca. Hamiltonella defensa” as well as host fitness for three generations. In adults treated with rifampicin (F0), the secondary symbiont was rapidly reduced, approaching complete disappearance as adults aged. In contrast, the primary symbiont was little affected until later in the adult life. In the offspring of these adults (F1), both symbionts were significantly reduced and barely detectable when the hosts reached the adult stage. The F1 adults laid few eggs (F2), all of which failed to hatch. Mating experiments illustrated that the negative effects of rifampicin on host fitness were exerted via female hosts but not males. This study provides the first evidence of differential temporal reductions of primary and secondary symbionts in whiteflies following an antibiotic treatment. Studies that disrupt functions of bacterial symbionts must consider their temporal changes. PMID:26510682

  17. Whitefly population dynamics and evaluation of whitefly-transmitted Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV)-resistant tomato genotypes as whitefly and TYLCV reservoirs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus resistant tomato cultivars are a major tool for management of this economically important virus. Results presented emphasize that such resistant tomatoes can serve as virus and whitefly reservoirs and potentially influence virus epidemics....

  18. A plant virus manipulates the behavior of its whitefly vector to enhance its transmission efficiency and spread.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Delafuente, Ana; Garzo, Elisa; Moreno, Aranzazu; Fereres, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Plant viruses can produce direct and plant-mediated indirect effects on their insect vectors, modifying their life cycle, fitness and behavior. Viruses may benefit from such changes leading to enhanced transmission efficiency and spread. In our study, female adults of Bemisia tabaci were subjected to an acquisition access period of 72 h in Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV)-infected and non-infected tomato plants to obtain viruliferous and non-viruliferous whiteflies, respectively. Insects that were exposed to virus-infected plants were checked by PCR to verify their viruliferous status. Results of the Ethovision video tracking bioassays indicated that TYLCV induced an arrestant behavior of B. tabaci, as viruliferous whitefly adults remained motionless for more time and moved slower than non-viruliferous whiteflies after their first contact with eggplant leaf discs. In fact, Electrical Penetration Graphs showed that TYLCV-viruliferous B. tabaci fed more often from phloem sieve elements and made a larger number of phloem contacts (increased number of E1, E2 and sustained E2 per insect, p<0.05) in eggplants than non-viruliferous whiteflies. Furthermore, the duration of the salivation phase in phloem sieve elements (E1) preceding sustained sap ingestion was longer in viruliferous than in non-viruliferous whiteflies (p<0.05). This particular probing behavior is known to significantly enhance the inoculation efficiency of TYLCV by B. tabaci. Our results show evidence that TYLCV directly manipulates the settling, probing and feeding behavior of its vector B. tabaci in a way that enhances virus transmission efficiency and spread. Furthermore, TYLCV-B. tabaci interactions are mutually beneficial to both the virus and its vector because B. tabaci feeds more efficiently after acquisition of TYLCV. This outcome has clear implications in the epidemiology and management of the TYLCV-B. tabaci complex. PMID:23613872

  19. Intraguild predation on the whitefly parasitoid Eretmocerus eremicus by the generalist predator Geocoris punctipes: a behavioral approach.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Hernández, María Concepción; Ramirez-Romero, Ricardo; Cicero, Lizette; Michel-Rios, Claudia; Desneux, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Intraguild predation (IGP) takes place when natural enemies that use similar resources attack each other. The impact of IGP on biological control can be significant if the survival of natural enemy species is disrupted. In the present study, we assessed whether Geocoris punctipes (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) engages in IGP on Eretmocerus eremicus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) while developing on whitefly nymphs of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). In choice and non-choice tests, we exposed G. punctipes to parasitized and non-parasitized whitefly nymphs. We found that G. punctipes does practice IGP on E. eremicus. However, choice tests assessing G. punctipes consumption revealed a significant preference for non-parasitized T. vaporariorum nymphs. Subsequently, we investigated whether E. eremicus females modify their foraging behavior when exposed to conditions involving IGP risk. To assess this, we analyzed wasp foraging behavior under the following treatments: i) whitefly nymphs only (control = C), ii) whitefly nymphs previously exposed to a predator ( = PEP) and, iii) whitefly nymphs and presence of a predator ( = PP). In non-choice tests we found that E. eremicus did not significantly modify its number of attacks, attack duration, oviposition duration, or behavior sequences. However, E. eremicus oviposited significantly more eggs in the PEP treatment. In the PP treatment, G. punctipes also preyed upon adult E. eremicus wasps, significantly reducing their number of ovipositions and residence time. When the wasps were studied under choice tests, in which they were exposed simultaneously to all three treatments, the number of attacks and frequency of selection were similar under all treatments. These results indicate that under IGP risk, E. eremicus maintains several behavioral traits, but can also increase its number of ovipositions in the presence of IG-predator cues. We discuss these findings in the context of population dynamics and

  20. Intraguild Predation on the Whitefly Parasitoid Eretmocerus eremicus by the Generalist Predator Geocoris punctipes: A Behavioral Approach

    PubMed Central

    Velasco-Hernández, María Concepción; Ramirez-Romero, Ricardo; Cicero, Lizette; Michel-Rios, Claudia; Desneux, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Intraguild predation (IGP) takes place when natural enemies that use similar resources attack each other. The impact of IGP on biological control can be significant if the survival of natural enemy species is disrupted. In the present study, we assessed whether Geocoris punctipes (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) engages in IGP on Eretmocerus eremicus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) while developing on whitefly nymphs of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). In choice and non-choice tests, we exposed G. punctipes to parasitized and non-parasitized whitefly nymphs. We found that G. punctipes does practice IGP on E. eremicus. However, choice tests assessing G. punctipes consumption revealed a significant preference for non-parasitized T. vaporariorum nymphs. Subsequently, we investigated whether E. eremicus females modify their foraging behavior when exposed to conditions involving IGP risk. To assess this, we analyzed wasp foraging behavior under the following treatments: i) whitefly nymphs only (control = C), ii) whitefly nymphs previously exposed to a predator ( = PEP) and, iii) whitefly nymphs and presence of a predator ( = PP). In non-choice tests we found that E. eremicus did not significantly modify its number of attacks, attack duration, oviposition duration, or behavior sequences. However, E. eremicus oviposited significantly more eggs in the PEP treatment. In the PP treatment, G. punctipes also preyed upon adult E. eremicus wasps, significantly reducing their number of ovipositions and residence time. When the wasps were studied under choice tests, in which they were exposed simultaneously to all three treatments, the number of attacks and frequency of selection were similar under all treatments. These results indicate that under IGP risk, E. eremicus maintains several behavioral traits, but can also increase its number of ovipositions in the presence of IG-predator cues. We discuss these findings in the context of population dynamics and

  1. Reducing whiteflies on cucumber using intercropping with less preferred vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of four less preferred vegetables – celery, asparagus lettuce, Malabar spinach, and edible amaranth – were investigated for suppression of two biotypes of sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. (Cucurbitaceae). Int...

  2. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation-Mediated Reshaping of the Root Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Hyun G.; Kim, Byung K.; Song, Geun C.; Lee, Soohyun; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to various types of herbivore and pathogen attack using well-developed defensive machinery designed for self-protection. Infestation from phloem-sucking insects such as whitefly and aphid on plant leaves was previously shown to influence both the saprophytic and pathogenic bacterial community in the plant rhizosphere. However, the modulation of the root microbial community by plants following insect infestation has been largely unexplored. Only limited studies of culture-dependent bacterial diversity caused by whitefly and aphid have been conducted. In this study, to obtain a complete picture of the belowground microbiome community, we performed high-speed and high-throughput next-generation sequencing. We sampled the rhizosphere soils of pepper seedlings at 0, 1, and 2 weeks after whitefly infestation versus the water control. We amplified a partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (V1–V3 region) by polymerase chain reaction with specific primers. Our analysis revealed that whitefly infestation reshaped the overall microbiota structure compared to that of the control rhizosphere, even after 1 week of infestation. Examination of the relative abundance distributions of microbes demonstrated that whitefly infestation shifted the proteobacterial groups at week 2. Intriguingly, the population of Pseudomonadales of the class Gammaproteobacteria significantly increased after 2 weeks of whitefly infestation, and the fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. recruited to the rhizosphere were confirmed to exhibit insect-killing capacity. Additionally, three taxa, including Caulobacteraceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Flavobacteriaceae, and three genera, including Achromobacter, Janthinobacterium, and Stenotrophomonas, were the most abundant bacterial groups in the whitefly infested plant rhizosphere. Our results indicate that whitefly infestation leads to the recruitment of specific groups of rhizosphere bacteria by the plant, which confer beneficial traits to the host plant. This

  3. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation-Mediated Reshaping of the Root Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Kong, Hyun G; Kim, Byung K; Song, Geun C; Lee, Soohyun; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to various types of herbivore and pathogen attack using well-developed defensive machinery designed for self-protection. Infestation from phloem-sucking insects such as whitefly and aphid on plant leaves was previously shown to influence both the saprophytic and pathogenic bacterial community in the plant rhizosphere. However, the modulation of the root microbial community by plants following insect infestation has been largely unexplored. Only limited studies of culture-dependent bacterial diversity caused by whitefly and aphid have been conducted. In this study, to obtain a complete picture of the belowground microbiome community, we performed high-speed and high-throughput next-generation sequencing. We sampled the rhizosphere soils of pepper seedlings at 0, 1, and 2 weeks after whitefly infestation versus the water control. We amplified a partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (V1-V3 region) by polymerase chain reaction with specific primers. Our analysis revealed that whitefly infestation reshaped the overall microbiota structure compared to that of the control rhizosphere, even after 1 week of infestation. Examination of the relative abundance distributions of microbes demonstrated that whitefly infestation shifted the proteobacterial groups at week 2. Intriguingly, the population of Pseudomonadales of the class Gammaproteobacteria significantly increased after 2 weeks of whitefly infestation, and the fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. recruited to the rhizosphere were confirmed to exhibit insect-killing capacity. Additionally, three taxa, including Caulobacteraceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Flavobacteriaceae, and three genera, including Achromobacter, Janthinobacterium, and Stenotrophomonas, were the most abundant bacterial groups in the whitefly infested plant rhizosphere. Our results indicate that whitefly infestation leads to the recruitment of specific groups of rhizosphere bacteria by the plant, which confer beneficial traits to the host plant. This

  4. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation-Mediated Reshaping of the Root Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Hyun G.; Kim, Byung K.; Song, Geun C.; Lee, Soohyun; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to various types of herbivore and pathogen attack using well-developed defensive machinery designed for self-protection. Infestation from phloem-sucking insects such as whitefly and aphid on plant leaves was previously shown to influence both the saprophytic and pathogenic bacterial community in the plant rhizosphere. However, the modulation of the root microbial community by plants following insect infestation has been largely unexplored. Only limited studies of culture-dependent bacterial diversity caused by whitefly and aphid have been conducted. In this study, to obtain a complete picture of the belowground microbiome community, we performed high-speed and high-throughput next-generation sequencing. We sampled the rhizosphere soils of pepper seedlings at 0, 1, and 2 weeks after whitefly infestation versus the water control. We amplified a partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (V1–V3 region) by polymerase chain reaction with specific primers. Our analysis revealed that whitefly infestation reshaped the overall microbiota structure compared to that of the control rhizosphere, even after 1 week of infestation. Examination of the relative abundance distributions of microbes demonstrated that whitefly infestation shifted the proteobacterial groups at week 2. Intriguingly, the population of Pseudomonadales of the class Gammaproteobacteria significantly increased after 2 weeks of whitefly infestation, and the fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. recruited to the rhizosphere were confirmed to exhibit insect-killing capacity. Additionally, three taxa, including Caulobacteraceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Flavobacteriaceae, and three genera, including Achromobacter, Janthinobacterium, and Stenotrophomonas, were the most abundant bacterial groups in the whitefly infested plant rhizosphere. Our results indicate that whitefly infestation leads to the recruitment of specific groups of rhizosphere bacteria by the plant, which confer beneficial traits to the host plant. This

  5. Assessment of potential sublethal effects of various insecticides on key biological traits of the tobacco whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    He, Yuxian; Zhao, Jianwei; Zheng, Yu; Weng, Qiyong; Biondi, Antonio; Desneux, Nicolas; Wu, Kongming

    2013-01-01

    The tobacco whitefly Bemisia tabaci is one of the most devastating pests worldwide. Current management of B. tabaci relies upon the frequent applications of insecticides. In addition to direct mortality by typical acute toxicity (lethal effect), insecticides may also impair various key biological traits of the exposed insects through physiological and behavioral sublethal effects. Identifying and characterizing such effects could be crucial for understanding the global effects of insecticides on the pest and therefore for optimizing its management in the crops. We assessed the effects of sublethal and low-lethal concentrations of four widely used insecticides on the fecundity, honeydew excretion and feeding behavior of B. tabaci adults. The probing activity of the whiteflies feeding on treated cotton seedlings was recorded by an Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG). The results showed that imidacloprid and bifenthrin caused a reduction in phloem feeding even at sublethal concentrations. In addition, the honeydew excretions and fecundity levels of adults feeding on leaf discs treated with these concentrations were significantly lower than the untreated ones. While, sublethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos and carbosulfan did not affect feeding behavior, honeydew excretion and fecundity of the whitefly. We demonstrated an antifeedant effect of the imidacloprid and bifenthrin on B. tabaci, whereas behavioral changes in adults feeding on leaves treated with chlorpyrifos and carbosulfan were more likely caused by the direct effects of the insecticides on the insects' nervous system itself. Our results show that aside from the lethal effect, the sublethal concentration of imidacloprid and bifenthrin impairs the phloem feeding, i.e. the most important feeding trait in a plant protection perspective. Indeed, this antifeedant property would give these insecticides potential to control insect pests indirectly. Therefore, the behavioral effects of sublethal concentrations of

  6. DNA barcode development for three recent exotic whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) invaders in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several new whitefly species have become established in Florida in the past decade. Three, in particular, have caused noticible damage to residential plants in the landscape such as ficus hedges, palms, and bird of paradise. These are fig whitefly (FW), rugose spiraling whitefly (RSW), and Bondar’s ...

  7. A swarm of whiteflies--the first record of gregarious behavior from Eocene Baltic amber.

    PubMed

    Szwedo, Jacek; Drohojowska, Jowita

    2016-04-01

    A new whitefly Snotra christelae gen. et sp. n. is characterized, illustrated, and described from the Baltic amber. It represents the first record of gregarious behavior of Aleyrodinae (Aleyrodidae) whiteflies in fossil state. Implications of this finding on interpretation of whiteflies and their host-plant relationships and evolutionary traits of the group are discussed. PMID:27023734

  8. Feeding and development of Nephaspis Oculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on rugose spiraling whitefly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nephaspis oculata (Blatchley, 1917) is a whitefly predatory lady beetle which has been studied for its biological control effect on different whiteflies. Here, we studied the feeding rate and development of this beetle on rugose spiraling whitefly (RSW), Aleurodicus rugioperculatus Martin 2004, an i...

  9. Effects of plant virus and its insect vector on Encarsia formosa, a biocontrol agent of whiteflies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyuan; Xiang, Wensheng; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Zhang, Youjun; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Zhou, Xuguo; Wang, Shaoli

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the tritrophic interactions among a persistently transmitted plant virus, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), its insect vector, the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci, and a parasitoid, Encarsia formosa Gahan, one of the most extensively used biological control agents. As an emerging invasive pest worldwide, the two most damaging whiteflies are B. tabaci B and Q cryptic species. On healthy tomato plants, parasitoid-induced mortality was significantly higher in B. tabaci B than in Q. In contrast, similar mortality levels of B and Q were observed on TYLCV-infected plants. A higher rate of parasitism was consistently observed in B, independent of the TYLCV infection. Similarly, the life history traits of E. formosa were influenced by both TYLCV and the two cryptic species of B. tabaci. Specifically, E. formosa parasitizing B had a greater adult longevity and shorter developmental time on healthy plants, whereas the parasitoids developing from Q has a greater adult longevity on TYLCV-infected plants. The emergence rate of E. formosa was unaffected by either B. tabaci cryptic species or the virus. These results suggest that the vector-borne pathogen can manipulate the host suitability of a parasitoid and hence the parasitoid-host interactions. PMID:25096549

  10. Effects of plant virus and its insect vector on Encarsia formosa, a biocontrol agent of whiteflies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyuan; Xiang, Wensheng; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Zhang, Youjun; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Zhou, Xuguo; Wang, Shaoli

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the tritrophic interactions among a persistently transmitted plant virus, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), its insect vector, the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci, and a parasitoid, Encarsia formosa Gahan, one of the most extensively used biological control agents. As an emerging invasive pest worldwide, the two most damaging whiteflies are B. tabaci B and Q cryptic species. On healthy tomato plants, parasitoid-induced mortality was significantly higher in B. tabaci B than in Q. In contrast, similar mortality levels of B and Q were observed on TYLCV-infected plants. A higher rate of parasitism was consistently observed in B, independent of the TYLCV infection. Similarly, the life history traits of E. formosa were influenced by both TYLCV and the two cryptic species of B. tabaci. Specifically, E. formosa parasitizing B had a greater adult longevity and shorter developmental time on healthy plants, whereas the parasitoids developing from Q has a greater adult longevity on TYLCV-infected plants. The emergence rate of E. formosa was unaffected by either B. tabaci cryptic species or the virus. These results suggest that the vector-borne pathogen can manipulate the host suitability of a parasitoid and hence the parasitoid-host interactions. PMID:25096549

  11. Timing and ecdysteroid regulation of the molt in last instar greenhouse whiteflies (Trialeurodes vaporariorum).

    PubMed

    Gelman, D B.; Blackburn, M B.; Hu, J S.

    2002-01-01

    A system of markers has been devised to track the development of 3rd and 4th instar/pharate adult greenhouse whiteflies. Instars were identified based on measurements of body width and body length. Depending upon the host plant, the product of the two measurements was exceptionally useful in distinguishing between instars. Body depth was used to divide the 3rd instar into eight stages and body depth and color and appearance of the developing adult eye were used to divide the 4th instar/pharate adult into nine stages. Under conditions of L:D 16:8 and a temperature of 26+/-2 degrees C, the body depth of 3rd instars reared on greenbean increased from 0.025 (stage 1) to 0.2mm (stage 8) and the instar duration was approximately 3 days. The body depth of 4th instars increased from approximately 0.1+/-0.02 (Stage 1) to 0.3+/-0.03mm (Stage 5) and then remained constant or decreased slightly during adult development. Ecdysteroid titers peaked at approximately 120fg/&mgr;g protein during Stages 3 through 6 of the 4th instar. Based on an external examination of developing 4th instars and the fluctuations in ecdysteroid titer, it appears that adult development is initiated in Stage 4 or 5 4th instars. Results from histological studies support this view. In Stage 4 nymphs, a subtle change was observed in the corneagenous cells of the eye. However, most Stage 4 4th instars possessed wing development characteristic of earlier, immature stages. In all Stage 5 insects, wing development had been initiated and the corneagenous cells had become quite distinct. In Stage 6 whiteflies, the wing buds were deeply folded and by Stage 7, spines were observed on the new cuticle, indicating that the adult cuticle was well-formed by this stage. Our study is the first to investigate the timing and regulation of the molt, to monitor ecdysteroid titers in precisely staged 4th instar whiteflies and to examine the internal anatomical changes associated with metamorphosis in these tiny homopteran

  12. Current status of the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, susceptibility to neonicotinoid and conventional insecticides on strawberries in southern California.

    PubMed

    Bi, Jian L; Toscano, Nick C

    2007-08-01

    Since 1998, the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), has emerged as a major insect pest of many horticultural crops in coastal California. Control of this pest has been heavily dependent upon chemical insecticides. Objectives of this study were to determine the status of the greenhouse whitefly susceptibility to neonicotinoid and conventional insecticides on strawberries in Oxnard/Ventura, a year-round intensive horticultural production area of southern California. For bioassay tests, adult whiteflies were collected from commercial strawberry crops, and immatures were directly developed from eggs laid by these adults. LD(50) values of soil-applied imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and dinotefuran were respectively 8.7, 3.2 and 4.9 times higher for the adults, 1.8, 1.2 and 1.5 times higher for the first-instar nymphs and 89.4, 390 and 10.4 times higher for the third-instar nymphs than their top label rates. LC(50) values of foliar-applied imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and acetamiprid were respectively 6.1, 6.0 and 1.7 times higher for the adults and 3.8, 8.7 and 4.4 times higher for the second-instar nymphs than their top label rates. For the adults, LC(90) values of endosulfan, malathion, methomyl, bifenthrin and fenpropathrin were 2.2, 1.2, 1.9, 2.3 and 4.9 times lower than their respective top label rates. Chlorpyrifos was not very effective against the adults, as indicated by its LC(90) being 120% higher than its top label rate. The present results strongly emphasize the need to develop resistance management strategies in the region.

  13. Evaluating plant and plant oil repellency against the sweetpotato whitefly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci is a major insect pest of vegetables world-wide. We evaluated the effect of commercial plant oils – garlic oil, hot pepper wax, and mustard oil against B. tabaci. Cucumber plants served as the control. Additional treatments included no plants or oil (clear ai...

  14. Control of rugose spiraling whitefly using biological insecticides, 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of selected biological insecticides against a new invasive whitefly pest, Aleurodicus rugioperculatus Martin, in white bird of paradise under field condition. The trial was conducted at United States Horticultural Research Laboratory in Fort P...

  15. Biotype Q in North America and whitefly control update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whitefly control is still a major issue. We will discuss a rotation project that was published this year and our future plans to extend this work to additional rotation research in order to better manage resistance. This is extremely critical in light of the demands on the industry to reduce the use...

  16. Persistent, circulative transmission of begomoviruses by whitefly vectors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Begomoviruses comprise an emerging and economically important group of plant viruses exclusively transmitted by the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci in many regions of the world. The past twenty years have witnessed significant progress in studying the molecular interactions between members of th...

  17. Effect of different photoperiods on the growth, infectivity and colonization of Trinidadian strains of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus on the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, using a glass slide bioassay.

    PubMed

    Avery, Pasco B; Faull, Jane; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2004-01-01

    Growth, infectivity and colonization rates for blastospores and conidia of Trinidadian strains T, T10, and T11 of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize) Brown and Smith were assessed for activity against late fourth-instar nymphs of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Homoptera:Aleyrodidae) under two different photoperiods (24 and 16 hour photophase). A glass-slide bioassay and a fungal development index, modified for both blastospores and conidia, were used to compare the development rates of the fungal strains on the insect hosts. Fewer adult whiteflies emerged from nymphs treated with blastospores and reared under a 16:8 hour light:dark photoperiod than a 24:0 hour photoperiod. Eclosion times of whitefly adults that emerged from nymphs treated with the different strains of conidia were similar over the 8 day experimental period at both light regimes. The percent eclosion of adult whiteflies seems to be directly correlated with the speed of infection of the blastospore or conidial treatment and the photoperiod regime. The longer photophase had a significant positive effect on development index for blastospores; however, a lesser effect was observed for the conidia at either light regime. Blastospore strain T11 offered the most potential of the three Trinidadian strains against T. vaporariorum fourth-instar nymphs, especially under constant light. The glass-slide bioassay was successfully used to compare both blastospores and conidia of P. fumosoroseus. It can be used to determine the pathogenicity and the efficacy of various fungal preparations against aleyrodid pests.

  18. Gene expression profiling in the thiamethoxam resistant and susceptible B-biotype sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wen; Yang, Xin; Wang, Shao-Ii; Wu, Qing-jun; Yang, Ni-na; Li, Ru-mei; Jiao, Xiao-guo; Pan, Hui-peng; Liu, Bai-ming; Feng, Yun-tao; Xu, Bao-yun; Zhou, Xu-guo; Zhang, You-jun

    2012-01-01

    Thiamethoxam has been used as a major insecticide to control the B-biotype sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Due to its excessive use, a high level of resistance to thiamethoxam has developed worldwide over the past several years. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this resistance in B. tabaci, gene profiles between the thiamethoxam-resistant and thiamethoxam-susceptible strains were investigated using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library approach. A total of 72 and 52 upand down-regulated genes were obtained from the forward and reverse SSH libraries, respectively. These expressed sequence tags (ESTs) belong to several functional categories based on their gene ontology annotation. Some categories such as cell communication, response to abiotic stimulus, lipid particle, and nuclear envelope were identified only in the forward library of thiamethoxam-resistant strains. In contrast, categories such as behavior, cell proliferation, nutrient reservoir activity, sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity, and signal transducer activity were identified solely in the reverse library. To study the validity of the SSH method, 16 differentially expressed genes from both forward and reverse SSH libraries were selected randomly for further analyses using quantitative realtime PCR (qRT-PCR). The qRT-PCR results were fairly consistent with the SSH results; however, only 50% of the genes showed significantly different expression profiles between the thiamethoxam-resistant and thiamethoxam-susceptible whiteflies. Among these genes, a putative NAD-dependent methanol dehydrogenase was substantially over-expressed in the thiamethoxamresistant adults compared to their susceptible counterparts. The distributed profiles show that it was highly expressed during the egg stage, and was most abundant in the abdomen of adult females. PMID:22957505

  19. Gene Expression Profiling in the Thiamethoxam Resistant and Susceptible B-biotype Sweetpotato Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wen; Yang, Xin; Wang, Shao-Ii; Wu, Qing-jun; Yang, Ni-na; Li, Ru-mei; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Pan, Hui-peng; Liu, Bai-ming; Feng, Yun-tao; Xu, Bao-yun; Zhou, Xu-guo; Zhang, You-jun

    2012-01-01

    Thiamethoxam has been used as a major insecticide to control the B-biotype sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Due to its excessive use, a high level of resistance to thiamethoxam has developed worldwide over the past several years. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this resistance in B. tabaci, gene profiles between the thiamethoxam-resistant and thiamethoxam-susceptible strains were investigated using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library approach. A total of 72 and 52 upand down-regulated genes were obtained from the forward and reverse SSH libraries, respectively. These expressed sequence tags (ESTs) belong to several functional categories based on their gene ontology annotation. Some categories such as cell communication, response to abiotic stimulus, lipid particle, and nuclear envelope were identified only in the forward library of thiamethoxam-resistant strains. In contrast, categories such as behavior, cell proliferation, nutrient reservoir activity, sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity, and signal transducer activity were identified solely in the reverse library. To study the validity of the SSH method, 16 differentially expressed genes from both forward and reverse SSH libraries were selected randomly for further analyses using quantitative realtime PCR (qRT-PCR). The qRT-PCR results were fairly consistent with the SSH results; however, only 50% of the genes showed significantly different expression profiles between the thiamethoxam-resistant and thiamethoxam-susceptible whiteflies. Among these genes, a putative NAD-dependent methanol dehydrogenase was substantially over-expressed in the thiamethoxamresistant adults compared to their susceptible counterparts. The distributed profiles show that it was highly expressed during the egg stage, and was most abundant in the abdomen of adult females. PMID:22957505

  20. Mixed release of two parasitoids and a polyphagous ladybird as a potential strategy to control the tobacco whitefly Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xiaoling; Hu, Nana; Zhang, Fan; Ramirez-Romero, Ricardo; Desneux, Nicolas; Wang, Su; Ge, Feng

    2016-01-01

    A mixed species release of parasitoids is used to suppress outbreaks of tobacco whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae); however, this biocontrol may be inhibited by interspecific interactions. We investigated the effects of mixed releases of natural enemies of B. tabaci on predation rates, parasite performance and adult parasitoid emergence under greenhouse conditions. We tested the polyphagous predatory ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and two whitefly-specific parasitoids, namely Encarsia formosa and Encarsia sophia (both, Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Harmonia axyridis exhibited the lowest rates of predation when released with each parasitoid than with both parasitoid species together and showed a significant preference for non-parasitized nymphs as prey. Both E. formosa and E. sophia parasitized more B. tabaci when released with the ladybird than when the wasps were released either alone or mixed with the other parasitoid. We also found that the presence of H. axyridis significantly reduced adult parasitoid emergence; the highest rate of adult emergence was obtained with parasitoids released alone. Our results indicate that different combinations of natural enemies can influence observed rates of predation, parasitism, and parasitoid emergence. Therefore, the combination of natural enemies to be used for a particular biological control program should depend on the specific objectives. PMID:27312174

  1. Mixed release of two parasitoids and a polyphagous ladybird as a potential strategy to control the tobacco whitefly Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiaoling; Hu, Nana; Zhang, Fan; Ramirez-Romero, Ricardo; Desneux, Nicolas; Wang, Su; Ge, Feng

    2016-01-01

    A mixed species release of parasitoids is used to suppress outbreaks of tobacco whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae); however, this biocontrol may be inhibited by interspecific interactions. We investigated the effects of mixed releases of natural enemies of B. tabaci on predation rates, parasite performance and adult parasitoid emergence under greenhouse conditions. We tested the polyphagous predatory ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and two whitefly-specific parasitoids, namely Encarsia formosa and Encarsia sophia (both, Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Harmonia axyridis exhibited the lowest rates of predation when released with each parasitoid than with both parasitoid species together and showed a significant preference for non-parasitized nymphs as prey. Both E. formosa and E. sophia parasitized more B. tabaci when released with the ladybird than when the wasps were released either alone or mixed with the other parasitoid. We also found that the presence of H. axyridis significantly reduced adult parasitoid emergence; the highest rate of adult emergence was obtained with parasitoids released alone. Our results indicate that different combinations of natural enemies can influence observed rates of predation, parasitism, and parasitoid emergence. Therefore, the combination of natural enemies to be used for a particular biological control program should depend on the specific objectives. PMID:27312174

  2. Biological agents for whitefly control in Sardinian greenhouse tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Nannini, M; Foddi, F; Manca, L; Pisci, R; Sanna, F

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of alternative options for biocontrol of whiteflies in greenhouse tomatoes, an experiment was carried out during the cropping season 2005-2006 in one of Sardinia's major horticultural districts (S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy). Twelve long-cycle and 17 short-cycle tomato crops (8 autumn and 9 spring crops) were surveyed. All of them were treated for insect pest control at the beginning of the growing season, but in 19 out of 29 cases whitefly natural enemies were also released (BCA greenhouses), at least four weeks after the last treatment. The following release programmes were tested: on autumn crops, 1 Macrolophus caliginosus and 12 Eretmocerus mundus/m2; on long-cycle crops, 1 M. caliginosus (released in autumn or spring) and 24 Encarsia formosa/m2 or 48 E. formosa/m2; on spring crops, 1 M. caliginosus and 24 E. formosa/m2 or 48 E. formosa/m2. The cost of each option was fixed at approximately 0.25 Euros/m2. The remaining greenhouses were maintained as controls (no BCA greenhouses). While whitefly and mirid populations were monitored monthly, whitefly species composition and mortality of immature stages were estimated at least twice during the growing season. On short-cycle autumn crops, the release of M. caliginosus and E. mundus produced negligible results in terms of Bemisia tabaci control. On long-cycle and spring crops, even though in June mortality rates in BCA greenhouses were found to be 2- to 3-fold higher than in no-BCA greenhouses, Trialeurodes vaporariorum population growth was not significantly affected by natural enemies. Among the beneficials tested, E. formosa proved to be the most effective; E. mundus and M. caliginosus did not establish well, probably owing to the persistence of insecticide residues, scarce prey availability and intense plant de-leafing. The presence of indigenous natural enemies of whiteflies was observed in most sites, but in general they contributed little to biological control. The

  3. Comparison of three single-nozzle operator-carried spray applicators for whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) management on squash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whiteflies cause problems in vegetable production on a global scale. The primary worldwide whitefly pest is Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). Insecticides are commonly used to mitigate the whitefly problem in vegetable crops. In limited-resource crop production, operator-carried spray applicators are comm...

  4. Resistance to the whitefly, Aleurotrachelus socialis, in wild populations of cassava, Manihot tristis.

    PubMed

    Carabalí, A; Bellotti, A C; Montoya-Lerma, J; Fregene, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The levels of resistance in the wild species of cassava, Manihot tristis Muell-Arg. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), to the whitefly, Aleurotrachelus socialis Bondar (Hemiptera: Alelyrodidae), the most important economic pest in cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) crops in South America, were estimated under glasshouse conditions. The parameters of the life history of A. socialis were studied on TST-26 and TST-18 accessions of the wild parent and compared with the susceptible (CMC-40) and resistant (MEcu-72) cultivars. The average longevity on the wild accessions (TST-26, 4.1; TST-18, 4.6 days) and oviposition rates (TST-26, 2.0; TST-18, 1.6 eggs/female/2 days) of the A. socialis females were not significantly different from those of MEcu-72 (5.1 days and 3.4 eggs/female/2 days). The longevity and oviposition rates on CMC-40 were highest (11 days and 8.6 eggs/female/2 days). Analyses of the demographic parameters (Ro, r(m); DT) showed a significant impact of the M. tristis accessions on the potential growth of A. socialis. The average survival time of adults that fed on TST-26, TST-18, and MEcu-72 were significantly different from those recorded on the susceptible genotype. Results from this study revealed important levels of resistance to the whitefly A. socialis on the TST-26 and TST-18 accessions due to the marked differences found for longevity and reproduction, which influenced and were consistent with the differences found in the net reproduction rate (Ro), intrinsic growth rate (r(m)) and population doubling time (DT). The combined effect of these parameters indicated that M. tristis accessions were inappropriate hosts for A. socialis.

  5. Resistance to the Whitefly, Aleurotrachelus socialis, in Wild Populations of Cassava, Manihot Tristis

    PubMed Central

    Carabalí, A.; Bellotti, A. C.; Montoya-Lerma, J.; Fregene, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The levels of resistance in the wild species of cassava, Manihot tristis Muell-Arg. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), to the whitefly, Aleurotrachelus socialis Bondar (Hemiptera: Alelyrodidae), the most important economic pest in cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) crops in South America, were estimated under glasshouse conditions. The parameters of the life history of A. socialis were studied on TST-26 and TST-18 accessions of the wild parent and compared with the susceptible (CMC-40) and resistant (MEcu-72) cultivars. The average longevity on the wild accessions (TST-26, 4.1; TST-18, 4.6 days) and oviposition rates (TST-26, 2.0; TST-18, 1.6 eggs/female/2 days) of the A. socialis females were not significantly different from those of MEcu-72 (5.1 days and 3.4 eggs/female/2days). The longevity and oviposition rates on CMC-40 were highest (11 days and 8.6 eggs/female/2days). Analyses of the demographic parameters (Ro, rm; DT) showed a significant impact of the M. tristis accessions on the potential growth of A. socialis. The average survival time of adults that fed on TST-26, TST-18, and MEcu-72 were significantly different from those recorded on the susceptible genotype. Results from this study revealed important levels of resistance to the whitefly A. socialis on the TST-26 and TST-18 accessions due to the marked differences found for longevity and reproduction, which influenced and were consistent with the differences found in the net reproduction rate (Ro), intrinsic growth rate (rm) and population doubling time (DT). The combined effect of these parameters indicated that M. tristis accessions were inappropriate hosts for A. socialis. PMID:21062208

  6. Exploring the diversity of plant DNA viruses and their satellites using vector-enabled metagenomics on whiteflies.

    PubMed

    Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Duffy, Siobain; Polston, Jane E; Bixby, Elise; Vallad, Gary E; Breitbart, Mya

    2011-04-22

    Current knowledge of plant virus diversity is biased towards agents of visible and economically important diseases. Less is known about viruses that have not caused major diseases in crops, or viruses from native vegetation, which are a reservoir of biodiversity that can contribute to viral emergence. Discovery of these plant viruses is hindered by the traditional approach of sampling individual symptomatic plants. Since many damaging plant viruses are transmitted by insect vectors, we have developed "vector-enabled metagenomics" (VEM) to investigate the diversity of plant viruses. VEM involves sampling of insect vectors (in this case, whiteflies) from plants, followed by purification of viral particles and metagenomic sequencing. The VEM approach exploits the natural ability of highly mobile adult whiteflies to integrate viruses from many plants over time and space, and leverages the capability of metagenomics for discovering novel viruses. This study utilized VEM to describe the DNA viral community from whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) collected from two important agricultural regions in Florida, USA. VEM successfully characterized the active and abundant viruses that produce disease symptoms in crops, as well as the less abundant viruses infecting adjacent native vegetation. PCR assays designed from the metagenomic sequences enabled the complete sequencing of four novel begomovirus genome components, as well as the first discovery of plant virus satellites in North America. One of the novel begomoviruses was subsequently identified in symptomatic Chenopodium ambrosiodes from the same field site, validating VEM as an effective method for proactive monitoring of plant viruses without a priori knowledge of the pathogens. This study demonstrates the power of VEM for describing the circulating viral community in a given region, which will enhance our understanding of plant viral diversity, and facilitate emerging plant virus surveillance and management of viral diseases.

  7. Exploring the Diversity of Plant DNA Viruses and Their Satellites Using Vector-Enabled Metagenomics on Whiteflies

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Duffy, Siobain; Polston, Jane E.; Bixby, Elise; Vallad, Gary E.; Breitbart, Mya

    2011-01-01

    Current knowledge of plant virus diversity is biased towards agents of visible and economically important diseases. Less is known about viruses that have not caused major diseases in crops, or viruses from native vegetation, which are a reservoir of biodiversity that can contribute to viral emergence. Discovery of these plant viruses is hindered by the traditional approach of sampling individual symptomatic plants. Since many damaging plant viruses are transmitted by insect vectors, we have developed “vector-enabled metagenomics” (VEM) to investigate the diversity of plant viruses. VEM involves sampling of insect vectors (in this case, whiteflies) from plants, followed by purification of viral particles and metagenomic sequencing. The VEM approach exploits the natural ability of highly mobile adult whiteflies to integrate viruses from many plants over time and space, and leverages the capability of metagenomics for discovering novel viruses. This study utilized VEM to describe the DNA viral community from whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) collected from two important agricultural regions in Florida, USA. VEM successfully characterized the active and abundant viruses that produce disease symptoms in crops, as well as the less abundant viruses infecting adjacent native vegetation. PCR assays designed from the metagenomic sequences enabled the complete sequencing of four novel begomovirus genome components, as well as the first discovery of plant virus satellites in North America. One of the novel begomoviruses was subsequently identified in symptomatic Chenopodium ambrosiodes from the same field site, validating VEM as an effective method for proactive monitoring of plant viruses without a priori knowledge of the pathogens. This study demonstrates the power of VEM for describing the circulating viral community in a given region, which will enhance our understanding of plant viral diversity, and facilitate emerging plant virus surveillance and management of viral

  8. Extended survival of spiders (Aranaeae) feeding on whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) honeydew

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honeydew produced by homopteran insects such as aphids, whiteflies and mealybugs, can be abundant in some crops and may represent an important food resource for spiders and other honeydew feeding natural enemies. Woolly whiteflies are common in south Texas citrus, and spiders consistently make up a...

  9. Toxicity of insecticides to the sweetpotato whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and its natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Bacci, Leandro; Crespo, André L B; Galvan, Tederson L; Pereira, Eliseu J G; Picanço, Marcelo C; Silva, Gerson A; Chediak, Mateus

    2007-07-01

    Efficient chemical control is achieved when insecticides are active against insect pests and safe to natural enemies. In this study, the toxicity of 17 insecticides to the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), and the selectivity of seven insecticides to natural enemies of this insect pest were evaluated. To determine the insecticide toxicity, B. tabaci adults were exposed to abamectin, acephate, acetamiprid, cartap, imidacloprid, malathion, methamidophos, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, fenitrothion, fenpropathrin, fenthion, phenthoate, permethrin and trichlorphon at 50 and 100% of the field rate (FR), and to water (untreated control). To determine the insecticide selectivity, adults of Encarsia sp., Acanthinus sp., Discodon sp. and Lasiochilus sp. were exposed to abamectin, acephate, acetamiprid, cartap, imidacloprid, malathion and methamidophos at 50 and 100% FR, and to water. Groups of each insect species were exposed to kale leaves preimmersed in each treatment under laboratory conditions. Mortality of exposed individuals was recorded 24 h after treatment. Cartap and imidacloprid at 50 and 100% FR and abamectin and acetamiprid at 100% FR showed insecticidal activity to B. tabaci adults. Abamectin at 50 and 100% FR was the least insecticidal compound to the natural enemies Acanthinus sp., Discodon sp. and Lasiochilus sp. The present results suggest that abamectin at 100% FR may decrease B. tabaci field populations but can still be harmless to predators. Implications of these results within an integrated pest management context are discussed.

  10. Enhanced Vitellogenesis in a Whitefly via Feeding on a Begomovirus-Infected Plant

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiu-ling; Cheng, Lu; Wan, Fang-Hao; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Zhou, Xue-ping; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Background The MEAM1 (B biotype) Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is one of the most widespread and damaging whitefly cryptic species. Our previous studies discovered that the MEAM1 whitefly indirectly benefits from interactions with the tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) via accelerated ovarian development and increased fecundity. However, the physiological mechanism of begomoviruse-infected plants acting on the reproduction of the insect vector was unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Biochemical and molecular properties of vitellogenin (Vg) and vitellin (Vt) were characterized in the MEAM1 whitefly. In addition, kinetics of Vt levels in ovary and Vg levels in hemolymph in different stages were detected using a sandwich ELISA. The level of hemolymph Vg increased rapidly after eclosion. A significantly higher level of hemolymph Vg and ovary Vt were observed in whiteflies feeding on virus-infected tobacco plants than those feeding on uninfected plants. In order to detect the levels of Vg mRNA transcription, complete vitellogenin (Vg) mRNA transcripts of 6474 bp were sequenced. Vg mRNA level in whiteflies feeding on virus-infected plants was higher than those feeding on uninfected plants. However, virus-infection of the whiteflies per se, as demonstrated using an artificial diet system, did not produce significant changes in Vg mRNA level. Conclusions/Significance In MEAM1 whitefly, increased levels of both vitellin and vitellogenin as well as increased transcription of Vg mRNA are associated with feeding on begomovirus-infected plants, thus providing a mechanism for accelerated vitellogenesis. We conclude that MEAM1 whitefly profits from feeding on begomovirus-infected plants for yolk protein synthesis and uptake, and thereby increases its fecundity. These results not only provide insights into the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying the elevated reproduction of a whitefly species through its association with a begomovirus-infected plant, but

  11. A Primary Screening and Applying of Plant Volatiles as Repellents to Control Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) on Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wenxiao; Han, Xiaoqing; Wang, Yubo; Qin, Yuchuan

    2016-01-01

    With the goal of finding a new way to reduce population densities of Bemisia tabaci biotype Q in greenhouses, seven repellent volatile chemicals and their combinations were screened. The mixture of DLCO (D-limonene, citral and olive oil (63:7:30)) had a better cost performance(SC50 = 22.59 mg/ml)to repel whiteflies from settling than the other mixtures or single chemicals. In the greenhouse, in both the choice test and the no-choice tests, the number of adult whiteflies that settled on 1% DLCO-treated tomato plants was significantly lower than those settling on the control plants for the different exposure periods (P < 0.01). In the choice test, the egg amount on the treated tomato plants was significantly lower (P < 0.01) than that on the control plants, but there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the number of eggs on treated and control plants in the no-choice test. Compared with the controls, 1% DLCO did not cause significantly statistic mortality rates (P > 0.05) out of different living stages of B. tabaci. The tests for evaluating the repellent efficacy, showed that a slow-releasing bottle containing the mixture had a period of efficacy of 29 days, and the application of this mixture plus a yellow board used as a push-pull strategy in the greenhouse was also effective. PMID:26907368

  12. A Primary Screening and Applying of Plant Volatiles as Repellents to Control Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) on Tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Wenxiao; Han, Xiaoqing; Wang, Yubo; Qin, Yuchuan

    2016-02-01

    With the goal of finding a new way to reduce population densities of Bemisia tabaci biotype Q in greenhouses, seven repellent volatile chemicals and their combinations were screened. The mixture of DLCO (D-limonene, citral and olive oil (63:7:30)) had a better cost performance(SC50 = 22.59 mg/ml)to repel whiteflies from settling than the other mixtures or single chemicals. In the greenhouse, in both the choice test and the no-choice tests, the number of adult whiteflies that settled on 1% DLCO-treated tomato plants was significantly lower than those settling on the control plants for the different exposure periods (P < 0.01). In the choice test, the egg amount on the treated tomato plants was significantly lower (P < 0.01) than that on the control plants, but there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the number of eggs on treated and control plants in the no-choice test. Compared with the controls, 1% DLCO did not cause significantly statistic mortality rates (P > 0.05) out of different living stages of B. tabaci. The tests for evaluating the repellent efficacy, showed that a slow-releasing bottle containing the mixture had a period of efficacy of 29 days, and the application of this mixture plus a yellow board used as a push-pull strategy in the greenhouse was also effective.

  13. A Primary Screening and Applying of Plant Volatiles as Repellents to Control Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) on Tomato.

    PubMed

    Du, Wenxiao; Han, Xiaoqing; Wang, Yubo; Qin, Yuchuan

    2016-01-01

    With the goal of finding a new way to reduce population densities of Bemisia tabaci biotype Q in greenhouses, seven repellent volatile chemicals and their combinations were screened. The mixture of DLCO (D-limonene, citral and olive oil (63:7:30)) had a better cost performance(SC50 = 22.59 mg/ml)to repel whiteflies from settling than the other mixtures or single chemicals. In the greenhouse, in both the choice test and the no-choice tests, the number of adult whiteflies that settled on 1% DLCO-treated tomato plants was significantly lower than those settling on the control plants for the different exposure periods (P < 0.01). In the choice test, the egg amount on the treated tomato plants was significantly lower (P < 0.01) than that on the control plants, but there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the number of eggs on treated and control plants in the no-choice test. Compared with the controls, 1% DLCO did not cause significantly statistic mortality rates (P > 0.05) out of different living stages of B. tabaci. The tests for evaluating the repellent efficacy, showed that a slow-releasing bottle containing the mixture had a period of efficacy of 29 days, and the application of this mixture plus a yellow board used as a push-pull strategy in the greenhouse was also effective. PMID:26907368

  14. A Primary Screening and Applying of Plant Volatiles as Repellents to Control Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) on Tomato.

    PubMed

    Du, Wenxiao; Han, Xiaoqing; Wang, Yubo; Qin, Yuchuan

    2016-02-24

    With the goal of finding a new way to reduce population densities of Bemisia tabaci biotype Q in greenhouses, seven repellent volatile chemicals and their combinations were screened. The mixture of DLCO (D-limonene, citral and olive oil (63:7:30)) had a better cost performance(SC50 = 22.59 mg/ml)to repel whiteflies from settling than the other mixtures or single chemicals. In the greenhouse, in both the choice test and the no-choice tests, the number of adult whiteflies that settled on 1% DLCO-treated tomato plants was significantly lower than those settling on the control plants for the different exposure periods (P < 0.01). In the choice test, the egg amount on the treated tomato plants was significantly lower (P < 0.01) than that on the control plants, but there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the number of eggs on treated and control plants in the no-choice test. Compared with the controls, 1% DLCO did not cause significantly statistic mortality rates (P > 0.05) out of different living stages of B. tabaci. The tests for evaluating the repellent efficacy, showed that a slow-releasing bottle containing the mixture had a period of efficacy of 29 days, and the application of this mixture plus a yellow board used as a push-pull strategy in the greenhouse was also effective.

  15. The Facultative Symbiont Rickettsia Protects an Invasive Whitefly against Entomopathogenic Pseudomonas syringae Strains

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Martha S.; Baltrus, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Facultative endosymbionts can benefit insect hosts in a variety of ways, including context-dependent roles, such as providing defense against pathogens. The role of some symbionts in defense may be overlooked, however, when pathogen infection is transient, sporadic, or asymptomatic. The facultative endosymbiont Rickettsia increases the fitness of the sweet potato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) in some populations through mechanisms that are not yet understood. In this study, we investigated the role of Rickettsia in mediating the interaction between the sweet potato whitefly and Pseudomonas syringae, a common environmental bacterium, some strains of which are pathogenic to aphids. Our results show that P. syringae multiplies within whiteflies, leading to host death, and that whiteflies infected with Rickettsia show a decreased rate of death due to P. syringae. Experiments using plants coated with P. syringae confirmed that whiteflies can acquire the bacteria at a low rate while feeding, leading to increased mortality, particularly when the whiteflies are not infected with Rickettsia. These results suggest that P. syringae may affect whitefly populations in nature and that Rickettsia can ameliorate this effect. This study highlights the possible importance of interactions among opportunistic environmental pathogens and endosymbionts of insects. PMID:25217020

  16. The Facultative Symbiont Rickettsia Protects an Invasive Whitefly against Entomopathogenic Pseudomonas syringae Strains.

    PubMed

    Hendry, Tory A; Hunter, Martha S; Baltrus, David A

    2014-12-01

    Facultative endosymbionts can benefit insect hosts in a variety of ways, including context-dependent roles, such as providing defense against pathogens. The role of some symbionts in defense may be overlooked, however, when pathogen infection is transient, sporadic, or asymptomatic. The facultative endosymbiont Rickettsia increases the fitness of the sweet potato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) in some populations through mechanisms that are not yet understood. In this study, we investigated the role of Rickettsia in mediating the interaction between the sweet potato whitefly and Pseudomonas syringae, a common environmental bacterium, some strains of which are pathogenic to aphids. Our results show that P. syringae multiplies within whiteflies, leading to host death, and that whiteflies infected with Rickettsia show a decreased rate of death due to P. syringae. Experiments using plants coated with P. syringae confirmed that whiteflies can acquire the bacteria at a low rate while feeding, leading to increased mortality, particularly when the whiteflies are not infected with Rickettsia. These results suggest that P. syringae may affect whitefly populations in nature and that Rickettsia can ameliorate this effect. This study highlights the possible importance of interactions among opportunistic environmental pathogens and endosymbionts of insects.

  17. Diversity and Localization of Bacterial Endosymbionts from Whitefly Species Collected in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Marubayashi, Julio Massaharu; Kliot, Adi; Yuki, Valdir Atsushi; Rezende, Jorge Alberto Marques; Krause-Sakate, Renate; Pavan, Marcelo Agenor; Ghanim, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are sap-sucking insect pests, and some cause serious damage in agricultural crops by direct feeding and by transmitting plant viruses. Whiteflies maintain close associations with bacterial endosymbionts that can significantly influence their biology. All whitefly species harbor a primary endosymbiont, and a diverse array of secondary endosymbionts. In this study, we surveyed 34 whitefly populations collected from the states of Sao Paulo, Bahia, Minas Gerais and Parana in Brazil, for species identification and for infection with secondary endosymbionts. Sequencing the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I gene revealed the existence of five whitefly species: The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci B biotype (recently termed Middle East-Asia Minor 1 or MEAM1), the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum, B. tabaci A biotype (recently termed New World 2 or NW2) collected only from Euphorbia, the Acacia whitefly Tetraleurodes acaciae and Bemisia tuberculata both were detected only on cassava. Sequencing rRNA genes showed that Hamiltonella and Rickettsia were highly prevalent in all MEAM1 populations, while Cardinium was close to fixation in only three populations. Surprisingly, some MEAM1 individuals and one NW2 population were infected with Fritschea. Arsenopnohus was the only endosymbiont detected in T. vaporariorum. In T. acaciae and B. tuberculata populations collected from cassava, Wolbachia was fixed in B. tuberculata and was highly prevalent in T. acaciae. Interestingly, while B. tuberculata was additionally infected with Arsenophonus, T. acaciae was infected with Cardinium and Fritschea. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on representative individuals showed that Hamiltonella, Arsenopnohus and Fritschea were localized inside the bacteriome, Cardinium and Wolbachia exhibited dual localization patterns inside and outside the bacteriome, and Rickettsia showed strict localization outside the bacteriome. This study is

  18. Diversity and localization of bacterial endosymbionts from whitefly species collected in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marubayashi, Julio Massaharu; Kliot, Adi; Yuki, Valdir Atsushi; Rezende, Jorge Alberto Marques; Krause-Sakate, Renate; Pavan, Marcelo Agenor; Ghanim, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are sap-sucking insect pests, and some cause serious damage in agricultural crops by direct feeding and by transmitting plant viruses. Whiteflies maintain close associations with bacterial endosymbionts that can significantly influence their biology. All whitefly species harbor a primary endosymbiont, and a diverse array of secondary endosymbionts. In this study, we surveyed 34 whitefly populations collected from the states of Sao Paulo, Bahia, Minas Gerais and Parana in Brazil, for species identification and for infection with secondary endosymbionts. Sequencing the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I gene revealed the existence of five whitefly species: The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci B biotype (recently termed Middle East-Asia Minor 1 or MEAM1), the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum, B. tabaci A biotype (recently termed New World 2 or NW2) collected only from Euphorbia, the Acacia whitefly Tetraleurodes acaciae and Bemisia tuberculata both were detected only on cassava. Sequencing rRNA genes showed that Hamiltonella and Rickettsia were highly prevalent in all MEAM1 populations, while Cardinium was close to fixation in only three populations. Surprisingly, some MEAM1 individuals and one NW2 population were infected with Fritschea. Arsenopnohus was the only endosymbiont detected in T. vaporariorum. In T. acaciae and B. tuberculata populations collected from cassava, Wolbachia was fixed in B. tuberculata and was highly prevalent in T. acaciae. Interestingly, while B. tuberculata was additionally infected with Arsenophonus, T. acaciae was infected with Cardinium and Fritschea. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on representative individuals showed that Hamiltonella, Arsenopnohus and Fritschea were localized inside the bacteriome, Cardinium and Wolbachia exhibited dual localization patterns inside and outside the bacteriome, and Rickettsia showed strict localization outside the bacteriome. This study is

  19. Biological control of greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) with fungal insecticides.

    PubMed

    Siongers, C; Coosemans, J

    2003-01-01

    The influence of the biological insecticide Botanigard (Beauveria bassiana) on different developmental stages of the greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) has been tested and compared with the influence of Preferal (Paecilomyces fumosoroseus), also a biological product. Six experiments were set up to test the two products on eggs, which were four and seven days old, on larvae of the first, second/third and fourth stage and to test the effect on egg-deposition. These experiments were all conducted on cucumber. Egg-deposition was limited to a small area on the leaf by using leaf cages. To evaluate these tests the number of eggs or larvae developed to the next stage has been counted and compared to the total amount of eggs or larvae on the leaves. The results revealed that Botanigard has an effect on the larval stages. The first larval stage is most sensitive; the next stages have a decreasing sensitivity. There was no influence on the hatching of the eggs, but a treatment short before the hatching could have a residual effect on the new nymphs. When the treatment with Botanigard is performed shortly before a moult or a fungicide treatment, the efficacy of the product decreases significantly. The influence of Preferal on the greenhouse whitefly is, under the same circumstances, less obvious.

  20. Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Citrus Spiny Whitefly Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintance) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae): Implications for the Phylogeny of Whiteflies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi-Teng; Mu, Li-Xia; Wang, Ji-Rui; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome (15,220 bp) of the citrus spiny whitefly, Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintance), a well-known pest from the superfamily Aleyrodidae. The A. spiniferus mitogenome contains 36 genes, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 21 transfer RNAs (tRNA), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNA) and a large non-coding region (control region, CR). Like most whiteflies, the A. spiniferus mitogenome had a large degree of rearrangement due to translocation of the nad3-trnG-cox3 gene cluster. The 13 PCGs initiated with ATN and generally terminated with TAA, although some used TAG or T as stop codons; atp6 showed the highest evolutionary rate, whereas cox2 appeared to have the lowest rate. The A. spiniferus mitogenome had 21 tRNAs with a typical cloverleaf secondary structure composed of four arms. Modeling of the two rRNA genes indicated that their secondary structure was similar to that of other insects. The CR of A. spiniferus was 920 bp and mapped between the nad3-trnG-cox3 and trnI-trnM gene clusters. One potential stem-loop structure and five tandem repeats were identified in the CR. Phylogenetic relationships of 11 species from the Aleyrodidae were analyzed based on the deduced amino acid sequences of the 13 PCGs and evolutionary characteristics were explored. Species with more genetic rearrangements were generally more evolved within the Aleyrodidae. PMID:27551782

  1. Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Citrus Spiny Whitefly Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintance) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae): Implications for the Phylogeny of Whiteflies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Teng; Mu, Li-Xia; Wang, Ji-Rui; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome (15,220 bp) of the citrus spiny whitefly, Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintance), a well-known pest from the superfamily Aleyrodidae. The A. spiniferus mitogenome contains 36 genes, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 21 transfer RNAs (tRNA), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNA) and a large non-coding region (control region, CR). Like most whiteflies, the A. spiniferus mitogenome had a large degree of rearrangement due to translocation of the nad3-trnG-cox3 gene cluster. The 13 PCGs initiated with ATN and generally terminated with TAA, although some used TAG or T as stop codons; atp6 showed the highest evolutionary rate, whereas cox2 appeared to have the lowest rate. The A. spiniferus mitogenome had 21 tRNAs with a typical cloverleaf secondary structure composed of four arms. Modeling of the two rRNA genes indicated that their secondary structure was similar to that of other insects. The CR of A. spiniferus was 920 bp and mapped between the nad3-trnG-cox3 and trnI-trnM gene clusters. One potential stem-loop structure and five tandem repeats were identified in the CR. Phylogenetic relationships of 11 species from the Aleyrodidae were analyzed based on the deduced amino acid sequences of the 13 PCGs and evolutionary characteristics were explored. Species with more genetic rearrangements were generally more evolved within the Aleyrodidae. PMID:27551782

  2. Effects of UV-absorbing plastic films on greenhouse whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Mutwiwa, Urbanus N; Borgemeister, Christian; von Elsner, Burkhard; Tantau, Hans-Juergen

    2005-08-01

    Studies were conducted to investigate the effects of ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing plastic films on the orientation and distribution behavior of the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood). In field experiments, small tunnels were constructed and covered with either an UV-transmitting (Thermilux) or UV-absorbing (K-Rose) plastic film. Results show that significantly more whiteflies were recorded in the tunnels with high compared with those with low UV intensities. Moreover, whitefly penetration and dispersion were less inside the UV-deficient tunnels. These results suggest that the type of plastic film used for greenhouse covers may have a significant influence on both the initial immigration and distribution of T. vaporariorum into greenhouses. The possibilities of using UV-absorbing plastic films for whitefly integrated pest management in greenhouses are discussed.

  3. Insect stings to change gear for healthy plant: Improving maize drought tolerance by whitefly infestation.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-05-01

    Since plants first appeared about 1.1 billion years ago, they have been faced with biotic and abiotic stresses in their environment. To overcome these stresses, plants developed defense strategies. Accumulating evidence suggests that the whitefly [Bemisia tabaci (Genn.)] affects the regulation of plant defenses and physiology. A recent study demonstrates that aboveground whitefly infestation positively modulates root biomass and anthocyanin pigmentation on brace roots of maize plants (Zea mays L.). In agreement with these observations, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and jasmonic acid (JA) contents and the expression of IAA- and JA-related genes are higher in whitefly-infested maize plants than in non-infected control plants. Interestingly, the fresh weight of whitefly-infested maize plants is approximately 20% higher than in non-infected control plants under water stress conditions. Further investigation has revealed that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulates in whitefly-infested maize plants after water stoppage. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of phytohormones- (i.e., IAA and JA) and H2O2-mediated maize signaling pathways triggered by aboveground whitefly infestation promotes drought resistance. They also provide an insight into how inter-kingdom interactions can improve drought tolerance in plants. PMID:27164447

  4. Feeding by whiteflies suppresses downstream jasmonic acid signaling by eliciting salicylic acid signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng-Jun; Li, Wei-Di; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Jin-Ming; Xu, Fang-Cheng; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2013-05-01

    Phloem-feeding whiteflies in the species complex Bemisia tabaci cause extensive crop damage worldwide. One of the reasons for their "success" is their ability to suppress the effectual jasmonic acid (JA) defenses of the host plant. However, little is understood about the mechanisms underlying whitefly suppression of JA-regulated defenses. Here, we showed that the expression of salicylic acid (SA)-responsive genes (EDS1 and PR1) in Arabidopsis thaliana was significantly enhanced during feeding by whitefly nymphs. Whereas upstream JA-responsive genes (LOX2 and OPR3) also were induced, the downstream JA-responsive gene (VSP1) was repressed, i.e., whiteflies only suppressed downstream JA signaling. Gene-expression analyses with various Arabidopsis mutants, including NahG, npr-1, ein2-1, and dde2-2, revealed that SA signaling plays a key role in the suppression of downstream JA defenses by whitefly feeding. Assays confirmed that SA activation enhanced whitefly performance by suppressing downstream JA defenses.

  5. Persistent, circulative transmission of begomoviruses by whitefly vectors.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Ran; Kanakala, Surapathrudu; Kliot, Adi; Cathrin Pakkianathan, Britto; Farich, Basheer Abu; Santana-Magal, Nadine; Elimelech, Meytar; Kontsedalov, Svetlana; Lebedev, Galina; Cilia, Michelle; Ghanim, Murad

    2015-12-01

    Begomoviruses comprise an emerging and economically important group of plant viruses exclusively transmitted by the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci in many regions of the world. The past twenty years have witnessed significant progress in studying the molecular interactions between members of this virus group and B. tabaci. Mechanisms and proteins encoded by the insect vector and its bacterial symbionts, which have been shown to be important for virus transmission, have been identified and thoroughly studied. Despite the economic importance of this group of viruses and their impact on the global agriculture, progress in investigating the virus-vector interactions is moving slowly when compared with similar virus-vector systems in plants and animals. Major advances in this field and future perspectives will be discussed in this review. PMID:26196230

  6. Enhanced Whitefly Resistance in Transgenic Tobacco Plants Expressing Double Stranded RNA of v-ATPase A Gene

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Nidhi; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Verma, Praveen C.; Chandrashekar, Krishnappa; Tuli, Rakesh; Singh, Pradhyumna K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Expression of double strand RNA (dsRNA) designed against important insect genes in transgenic plants have been shown to give protection against pests through RNA interference (RNAi), thus opening the way for a new generation of insect-resistant crops. We have earlier compared the efficacy of dsRNAs/siRNAs, against a number of target genes, for interference in growth of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) upon oral feeding. The v-ATPase subunit A (v-ATPaseA) coding gene was identified as a crucial target. We now report the effectiveness of transgenic tobacco plants expressing siRNA to silence v-ATPaseA gene expression for the control of whitefly infestation. Methodology/Principal Findings Transgenic tobacco lines were developed for the expression of long dsRNA precursor to make siRNA and knock down the v-ATPaseA mRNA in whitefly. Molecular analysis and insecticidal properties of the transgenic plants established the formation of siRNA targeting the whitefly v-ATPaseA, in the leaves. The transcript level of v-ATPaseA in whiteflies was reduced up to 62% after feeding on the transgenic plants. Heavy infestation of whiteflies on the control plants caused significant loss of sugar content which led to the drooping of leaves. The transgenic plants did not show drooping effect. Conclusions/Significance Host plant derived pest resistance was achieved against whiteflies by genetic transformation of tobacco which generated siRNA against the whitefly v-ATPaseA gene. Transgenic tobacco lines expressing dsRNA of v-ATPaseA, delivered sufficient siRNA to whiteflies feeding on them, mounting a significant silencing response, leading to their mortality. The transcript level of the target gene was reduced in whiteflies feeding on transgenic plants. The strategy can be taken up for genetic engineering of plants to control whiteflies in field crops. PMID:24595215

  7. Growth and development of Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae): effect of host age.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jing S; Gelman, Dale B; Blackburn, Michael B

    2002-03-01

    The tiny parasitoid wasp, Encarsia formosa, has been used successfully to control greenhouse whiteflies (GHWFs) in greenhouses in many countries throughout the world. Therefore, there has been considerable interest in developing methods for artificially rearing this wasp. However, little information is available concerning the regulation of its development including the host-parasitoid interactions that are required for the parasitoid to complete its life cycle. Here we confirm that parasitoid developmental rates differ significantly based upon the host instar parasitized. Development was faster when 3rd and 4th instar GHWFs were offered for parasitization than when 1st or 2nd instars were used. Our results show that it is primarily the embryo and the first two parasitoid instars that exhibit prolonged developmental times when 1st and 2nd instar whiteflies are parasitized. Although percent emergence was not affected by host age at the time of parasitization, adult longevity as well as adult emergence pattern varied greatly depending upon the instar parasitized. When 3rd and 4th instar GHWFs were selected for oviposition, adult wasps lived significantly longer than when 1st or 2nd instars were used; also, there was a sharp emergence peak on the 2nd day after emergence was first observed (reduced or absent when 1st or 2nd instar GHWFs were parasitized) and the emergence period was reduced from between 8 and 11 days to 5 days. In general, the younger the host instar parasitized, the less synchronous was parasitoid development. Previous reports that E. formosa will not molt to the 2nd instar until the host has reached its 4th instar were not confirmed. When 1st instar host nymphs were parasitized, 2nd instar parasitoids were detected in 3rd instar hosts. Importantly, however, no matter which instar was parasitized, the parasitoid never molted to its last instar until the host had reached Stage 5 of its last instar, a stage in which host pharate adult formation has been

  8. Infection of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci with Rickettsia spp. alters its interactions with Tomato yellow leaf curl virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous animal and plant viruses are transmitted by arthropod vectors in a persistent, circulative manner. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is transmitted by the sweet potato whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Here we report that infection with Rickettsia spp., a facultative endosymbiont of whiteflies...

  9. Transcriptomics-guided development of RNA interference strategies to manage whiteflies: a globally distributed vector of crop viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 300 viruses are transmitted by the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, with 90% of them belonging to the genus, Begomovirus. Begomoviruses are exclusively transmitted by whiteflies to a range of agriculture crops, resulting in billions of dollars lost annually, while jeopardizing food security worldwide....

  10. The entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea and its compatibility with buprofezin: effects on the rugose spiraling whitefly Aleurodicus rugioperculatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gumbo limbo or rugose spiraling whitefly is a new invasive pest of palms, woody ornamentals, and fruits in Florida. The pathogenicity of a naturally occurring entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea (PFR 97) is well known for its activity against commonly found whiteflies species in the regi...

  11. Biology and Feeding Behaviour of Ladybird, Clitostethus arcuatus, the Predator of the Ash Whitefly, Siphoninus phillyreae, in Fars Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Tavadjoh, Z.; Hamzehzarghani, H.; Alemansoor, H.; Khalghani, J.; Vikram, A.

    2010-01-01

    Clitostethus arcuatus (Rossi) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is considered as one of the most important natural biological control agents of the ash whitefly, Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Iran. In the current survey, the development, survival, longevity, fecundity, feeding behaviour, and population dynamics of the predator under laboratory and field conditions were studied. The longevity of female insects was significantly longer than that of males. Total feeding of 4th larval instars and females was significantly higher than males and other larval instars. The overall mortality rate from egg to adult under laboratory conditions was 22.7% while under field conditions it was 38.2%. Copulation lasted approximately 67 minutes while the average pre-mating and pre-oviposition times recorded were 3.8 and 1.8 days, respectively. The mean number of eggs laid by each female was 181. The adults could survive starvation for 4 days with a normal longevity of 62–73 days. The maximum population density of the predator was recorded in late August that coincided with the decline of the S. phillyreae population. C. arcuatus had four generations per year, and the adults were observed until mid December. Possible application of C. arcuatus for biological control of S. phillyreae in integrated pest management programs is discussed. PMID:20874601

  12. Transcriptome profiling of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci reveals stage-specific gene expression signatures for thiamethoxam resistance

    PubMed Central

    Yang, N; Xie, W; Jones, CM; Bass, C; Jiao, X; Yang, X; Liu, B; Li, R; Zhang, Y

    2013-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci has developed high levels of resistance to many insecticides including the neonicotinoids and there is strong evidence that for some compounds resistance is stage-specific. To investigate the molecular basis of B. tabaci resistance to the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam we used a custom whitefly microarray to compare gene expression in the egg, nymph and adult stages of a thiamethoxam-resistant strain (TH-R) with a susceptible strain (TH-S). Gene ontology and bioinformatic analyses revealed that in all life stages many of the differentially expressed transcripts encoded enzymes involved in metabolic processes and/or metabolism of xenobiotics. Several of these are candidate resistance genes and include the cytochrome P450 CYP6CM1, which has been shown to confer resistance to several neonicotinoids previously, a P450 belonging to the Cytochrome P450s 4 family and a glutathione S-transferase (GST) belonging to the sigma class. Finally several ATP-binding cassette transporters of the ABCG subfamily were highly over-expressed in the adult stage of the TH-R strain and may play a role in resistance by active efflux. Here, we evaluated both common and stage-specific gene expression signatures and identified several candidate resistance genes that may underlie B. tabaci resistance to thiamethoxam. PMID:23889345

  13. Sensitivity of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) to several new insecticides in China: effects of insecticide type and whitefly species, strain, and stage.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wen; Liu, Yang; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Pan, Huipeng; Yang, Xin; Guo, Litao; Zhang, Youjun

    2014-01-01

    Whitefly biotypes B and Q are the two most damaging members of the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) species complex. Control of B. tabaci (and especially of Q) has been impaired by resistance to commonly used insecticides. To find new insecticides for B. tabaci management in China, we investigated the sensitivity of eggs, larvae, and adults of laboratory strains of B and Q (named Lab-B and Lab-Q) and field strains of Q to several insecticides. For eggs, larvae, and adults of B. tabaci and for six insecticides (cyantraniliprole, chlorantraniliprole, pyriproxyfen, buprofezin, acetamiprid, and thiamethoxam), LC50 values were higher for Lab-Q than for Lab-B; avermectin LC50 values, however, were low for adults of both Lab-Q and Lab-B. Based on the laboratory results, insecticides were selected to test against eggs, larvae, and adults of four field strains of B. tabaci Q. Although the field strains differed in their sensitivity to the insecticides, the eggs and larvae of all strains were highly sensitive to cyantraniliprole, and the adults of all strains were highly sensitive to avermectin. The eggs, larvae, and adults of B. tabaci Q were generally more resistant than those of B. tabaci B to the tested insecticides. B. tabaci Q eggs and larvae were sensitive to cyantraniliprole and pyriproxyfen, whereas B. tabaci Q adults were sensitive to avermectin. Field trials should be conducted with cyantraniliprole, pyriproxyfen, and avermectin for control of B. tabaci Q and B in China. PMID:25434040

  14. Sensitivity of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) to several new insecticides in China: effects of insecticide type and whitefly species, strain, and stage.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wen; Liu, Yang; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Pan, Huipeng; Yang, Xin; Guo, Litao; Zhang, Youjun

    2014-01-01

    Whitefly biotypes B and Q are the two most damaging members of the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) species complex. Control of B. tabaci (and especially of Q) has been impaired by resistance to commonly used insecticides. To find new insecticides for B. tabaci management in China, we investigated the sensitivity of eggs, larvae, and adults of laboratory strains of B and Q (named Lab-B and Lab-Q) and field strains of Q to several insecticides. For eggs, larvae, and adults of B. tabaci and for six insecticides (cyantraniliprole, chlorantraniliprole, pyriproxyfen, buprofezin, acetamiprid, and thiamethoxam), LC50 values were higher for Lab-Q than for Lab-B; avermectin LC50 values, however, were low for adults of both Lab-Q and Lab-B. Based on the laboratory results, insecticides were selected to test against eggs, larvae, and adults of four field strains of B. tabaci Q. Although the field strains differed in their sensitivity to the insecticides, the eggs and larvae of all strains were highly sensitive to cyantraniliprole, and the adults of all strains were highly sensitive to avermectin. The eggs, larvae, and adults of B. tabaci Q were generally more resistant than those of B. tabaci B to the tested insecticides. B. tabaci Q eggs and larvae were sensitive to cyantraniliprole and pyriproxyfen, whereas B. tabaci Q adults were sensitive to avermectin. Field trials should be conducted with cyantraniliprole, pyriproxyfen, and avermectin for control of B. tabaci Q and B in China.

  15. Papaya is not a host for Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The economic value of tomato production is threatened by tomato yellow leaf-curl virus TYLCV and its vector, the silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Use of papaya Carica papaya L. as a banker plant for a whitefly parasitoid shows promise as a whitefly m...

  16. Effectiveness of Juventox 040 SL in the control of glasshouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) on tomato cv. Gracja.

    PubMed

    Narkiewicz-Jodko, Jan; Nawrocka, Bozena

    2002-01-01

    In 1999 a glasshouse experiment was carried out on the effectiveness of Juventox 040 SL at the concentration 0.05% in the control of glasshouse whitefly on tomato. The standard treatment was pyriproxyfen. In order to determine the efficiency of the insecticides the dynamics of whitefly development was determined for each treatment and in the control on 10 plants, on 3 leafs per plant. Juventox 040SL performed well in limiting of glasshouse whitefly and keep pest population on low level for many days.

  17. Host plant resistance in melon to sweetpotato whitefly in California and Arizona

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweetpotato whitefly biotype B (MEAM1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci; SPWF) feeding severely impacts fall season melon (Cucumis melo L.) yield and quality in the lower deserts of California and Arizona. Melon accessions PI 313970 and TGR 1551 (PI 482420) have been reported to exhibit host plant r...

  18. Ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex, and its predation by a coccinellid beetle, Delphastus catalinae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex, is a pest of ficus plant such as Ficus benjamina, F. altissima, F. bengalensis and others. This invasive pest causes plants to exhibit leaf yellowing, wilting, and eventually, leaf drop. There is little information on the effectiveness of insect predators to contr...

  19. Effect of buprofezin and Isaria fumosorosea against rugose spiraling whitefly, 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of selected insecticides alone or in combination against Aleurodicus rugioperculatus Martin, the rugose spiraling whitefly (RSW), a new invasive pest of ornamentals in Florida. The trial was conducted on an ornamental host, white bird of parad...

  20. Metabolic coevolution in the bacterial symbiosis of whiteflies and related plant sap-feeding insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In animals dependent on intracellular bacteria with very small genomes, the host cell is adapted to support the function of its bacterial symbionts, but the molecular basis of these adaptations is poorly understood. We investigated the metabolic coevolution between the whitefly Bemisia tabaci and th...

  1. Identification and characterization of functional aquaporin water channel protein from alimentary tract of whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some hemipteran xylem and phloem feeding insects have evolved specialized alimentary structures or filter chambers that rapidly transport water for excretion or osmoregulation. In the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, mass movement of water through opposing alimentary tract tissues within the filter chamber...

  2. Identification of unique volatile compounds associated with repelling whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in desert watermelon (Citrullus colocynthis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) share a narrow genetic base and are susceptible to many insect pests and diseases. The insects include whiteflies which cause serious economic damages to this important cucurbit crop. However, several United States Plant Introduction a...

  3. Resistance for watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) against whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an important global pest with and an extensive host range. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) is among the crops damaged by this pest. Host plant resistance is the foundation for the management of crops pests in general. ...

  4. Evaluations of melon germplasm reported to exhibit host plant resistance to sweetpotato whitefly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweetpotato whitefly (MEAM1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci; SPWF) displaced B. tabaci biotype A in 1991 in the lower desert area of southern California and the adjoining areas of Arizona and western Mexico. The search for high-level host plant resistance to this devastating insect has been ongoin...

  5. Host plant resistance in melon (Cucumis melo L.) to sweetpotato whitefly in California and Arizona

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweetpotato whitefly (MEAM1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci; SPWF) feeding severely impacts fall season melon yield and quality in the lower deserts of California and Arizona. Melon accessions PI 313970 and TGR 1551 (PI 482420) have been reported to exhibit host plant resistance (HPR) to SPWF. Pot...

  6. Management of whitefly-transmitted viruses in open-field production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whiteflies are a key pest of crops in open field production throughout the tropics and subtropics. This is due in large part to the long and diverse list of devastating plant viruses transmitted by these vectors. Open field production provides many challenges to manage these viruses and in many case...

  7. A bead-based suspension array for the multiplexed detection of begomoviruses and their whitefly vectors.

    PubMed

    van Brunschot, S L; Bergervoet, J H W; Pagendam, D E; de Weerdt, M; Geering, A D W; Drenth, A; van der Vlugt, R A A

    2014-03-01

    Bead-based suspension array systems enable simultaneous fluorescence-based identification of multiple nucleic acid targets in a single reaction. This study describes the development of a novel approach to plant virus and vector diagnostics, a multiplexed 7-plex array that comprises a hierarchical set of assays for the simultaneous detection of begomoviruses and Bemisia tabaci, from both plant and whitefly samples. The multiplexed array incorporates genus, species and strain-specific assays, offering a unique approach for identifying both known and unknown viruses and B. tabaci species. When tested against a large panel of sequence-characterized begomovirus and whitefly samples, the array was shown to be 100% specific to the homologous target. Additionally, the multiplexed array was highly sensitive, efficiently and concurrently determining both virus and whitefly identity from single viruliferous whitefly samples. The detection limit for one assay within the multiplexed array that specifically detects Tomato yellow leaf curl virus-Israel (TYLCV-IL) was quantified as 200fg of TYLCV-IL DNA, directly equivalent to that of TYLCV-specific qPCR. Highly reproducible results were obtained over multiple tests. The flexible multiplexed array described in this study has great potential for use in plant quarantine, biosecurity and disease management programs worldwide. PMID:24388931

  8. Effect of dinotefuran on Bemisia tabaci (MED whitefly) and Amblyseius swirskii, 2016

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bemisia tabaci is a polyphagous pest known to feed upon over 900 plant taxa, and is an effective vector of more than 100 plant damaging viruses. Among different biotypes of this cryptic species complex, MEAM1 and MED whitefly are the two most destructive members posing threats of several crops of ec...

  9. The autophagy pathway participates in resistance to tomato yellow leaf curl virus infection in whiteflies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan-Lan; Wang, Xin-Ru; Wei, Xue-Mei; Huang, Huang; Wu, Jian-Xiang; Chen, Xue-Xin; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Wei

    2016-09-01

    Macroautophagy/autophagy plays an important role against pathogen infection in mammals and plants. However, little has been known about the role of autophagy in the interactions of insect vectors with the plant viruses, which they transmit. Begomoviruses are a group of single-stranded DNA viruses and are exclusively transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci in a circulative manner. In this study, we found that the infection of a begomovirus, tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) could activate the autophagy pathway in the Middle East Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) species of the B. tabaci complex as evidenced by the formation of autophagosomes and ATG8-II. Interestingly, the activation of autophagy led to the subsequent degradation of TYLCV coat protein (CP) and genomic DNA. While feeding the whitefly with 2 autophagy inhibitors (3-methyladenine and bafilomycin A1) and silencing the expression of Atg3 and Atg9 increased the viral load; autophagy activation via feeding of rapamycin notably decreased the amount of viral CP and DNA in the whitefly. Furthermore, we found that activation of whitefly autophagy could inhibit the efficiency of virus transmission; whereas inhibiting autophagy facilitated virus transmission. Taken together, these results indicate that TYLCV infection can activate the whitefly autophagy pathway, which leads to the subsequent degradation of virus. Furthermore, our report proves that an insect vector uses autophagy as an intrinsic antiviral program to repress the infection of a circulative-transmitted plant virus. Our data also demonstrate that TYLCV may replicate and trigger complex interactions with the insect vector. PMID:27310765

  10. Implication of Bemisia tabaci heat shock protein 70 in Begomovirus-whitefly interactions.

    PubMed

    Götz, Monika; Popovski, Smadar; Kollenberg, Mario; Gorovits, Rena; Brown, Judith K; Cicero, Joseph M; Czosnek, Henryk; Winter, Stephan; Ghanim, Murad

    2012-12-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is a major cosmopolitan pest capable of feeding on hundreds of plant species and transmits several major plant viruses. The most important and widespread viruses vectored by B. tabaci are in the genus Begomovirus, an unusual group of plant viruses owing to their small, single-stranded DNA genome and geminate particle morphology. B. tabaci transmits begomoviruses in a persistent circulative nonpropagative manner. Evidence suggests that the whitefly vector encounters deleterious effects following Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) ingestion and retention. However, little is known about the molecular and cellular basis underlying these coevolved begomovirus-whitefly interactions. To elucidate these interactions, we undertook a study using B. tabaci microarrays to specifically describe the responses of the transcriptomes of whole insects and dissected midguts following TYLCV acquisition and retention. Microarray, real-time PCR, and Western blot analyses indicated that B. tabaci heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) specifically responded to the presence of the monopartite TYLCV and the bipartite Squash leaf curl virus. Immunocapture PCR, protein coimmunoprecipitation, and virus overlay protein binding assays showed in vitro interaction between TYLCV and HSP70. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunolocalization showed colocalization of TYLCV and the bipartite Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus virions and HSP70 within midgut epithelial cells. Finally, membrane feeding of whiteflies with anti-HSP70 antibodies and TYLCV virions showed an increase in TYLCV transmission, suggesting an inhibitory role for HSP70 in virus transmission, a role that might be related to protection against begomoviruses while translocating in the whitefly. PMID:23015709

  11. Compatibility of the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana with neem against sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, on eggplant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study on the compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) with neem was conducted against sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), on eggplant. Initially, three concentrations of B. bassiana (106, 1...

  12. Effects of selected defoliants in combination with insecticides on sweetpotato whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and its parasitoids in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of two defoliants, Def (S, S, Stributylphosphorotrithioate) and Dropp (thidiazuron) alone and in combination with two commonly used insecticides, a pyrethroid, Karate (lambda-cyhalothrin) and an organophosphate, Guthion (azinphosmethyl) on sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius Bioty...

  13. Population dynamics and the economics of invasive species management: the greenhouse whitefly in California-grown strawberries.

    PubMed

    McKee, Gregory J; Goodhue, Rachael E; Zalom, Frank G; Carter, Colin A; Chalfant, James A

    2009-01-01

    In agriculture, relatively few efficacious control measures may be available for an invasive pest. In the case of a new insect pest, insecticide use decisions are affected by regulations associated with its registration, insect population dynamics, and seasonal market price cycles. We assess the costs and benefits of environmental regulations designed to regulate insecticide applications on an invasive species. We construct a bioeconomic model, based on detailed scientific data, of management decisions for a specific invasion: greenhouse whiteflies in California-grown strawberries. The empirical model integrates whitefly population dynamics, the effect of whitefly feeding on strawberry yields, and weekly strawberry price. We use the model to assess the optimality of alternative treatment programs on a simulated greenhouse whitefly population. Our results show that regulations may lead growers to "under-spray" when placed in an economic context, and provide some general lessons about the design of optimal invasive species control policies.

  14. Population dynamics of Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on spring collard and relationship to yield in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas.

    PubMed

    Liu, T X

    2000-06-01

    Seasonal population dynamics of the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring [formerly known as the sweetpotato whitefly, B. tabaci (Gennadius) Biotype "B"], was investigated on collard (Brassica oleracea L. variety acephala) during spring 1998 and 1999 in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Yield loss caused by whitefly was determined by using insecticides to suppress whitefly populations to a low level. Although B. argentifolii populations of adults and immatures fluctuated greatly from April to June during the two seasons, the relative values were similar. Adult whiteflies first appeared on the plants in early April, increased rapidly within the month, peaked in May, and declined at the end of the season in early or mid-June. Whitefly eggs appeared on plants soon after adults were found, but high numbers of eggs were observed on foliage until late May 1998 and mid- and late May 1999. Nymphs and pupae increased slowly before June 1998 and increased early in May 1999. Whitefly population levels appeared to be positively associated with the availability and the growth of host plants until plant maturation, afterward being negatively related with plant quality in the late season. Temperature, rainfall, and natural enemies were not key factors in regulating population dynamics during the two seasons. Collard plants with heavy infestations of whiteflies were unmarketable because of the damage caused by honeydew and sooty mold on the foliage. Application of a combination of fenpropathrin (Danitol) and acephate (Orthene) not only significantly reduced the whitefly infestation levels but also reduced plant foliar damage, resulting in marketable foliage with six to seven times greater yield and higher quality compared with the untreated plants.

  15. Microarray analysis of tomato plants exposed to the nonviruliferous or viruliferous whitefly vector harboring Pepper golden mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Musser, Richard O; Hum-Musser, Sue M; Gallucci, Matthew; DesRochers, Brittany; Brown, Judith K

    2014-01-01

    Plants are routinely exposed to biotic and abiotic stresses to which they have evolved by synthesizing constitutive and induced defense compounds. Induced defense compounds are usually made, initially, at low levels; however, following further stimulation by specific kinds of biotic and abiotic stresses, they can be synthesized in relatively large amounts to abate the particular stress. cDNA microarray hybridization was used to identify an array of genes that were differentially expressed in tomato plants 15 d after they were exposed to feeding by nonviruliferous whiteflies or by viruliferous whiteflies carrying Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV) (Begomovirus, Geminiviridae). Tomato plants inoculated by viruliferous whiteflies developed symptoms characteristic of PepGMV, whereas plants exposed to nonviruliferous whitefly feeding or nonwounded (negative) control plants exhibited no disease symptoms. The microarray analysis yielded over 290 spotted probes, with significantly altered expression of 161 putative annotated gene targets, and 129 spotted probes of unknown identities. The majority of the differentially regulated "known" genes were associated with the plants exposed to viruliferous compared with nonviruliferous whitefly feeding. Overall, significant differences in gene expression were represented by major physiological functions including defense-, pathogen-, photosynthesis-, and signaling-related responses and were similar to genes identified for other insect-plant systems. Viruliferous whitefly-stimulated gene expression was validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction of selected, representative candidate genes (messenger RNA): arginase, dehydrin, pathogenesis-related proteins 1 and -4, polyphenol oxidase, and several protease inhibitors. This is the first comparative profiling of the expression of tomato plants portraying different responses to biotic stress induced by viruliferous whitefly feeding (with resultant virus infection

  16. Diversity and localization of bacterial symbionts in three whitefly species (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) from the east coast of the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Skaljac, M; Zanić, K; Hrnčić, S; Radonjić, S; Perović, T; Ghanim, M

    2013-02-01

    Several whitefly species (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are cosmopolitan phloem-feeders that cause serious damage in numerous agricultural crops. All whitefly species harbor a primary bacterial symbiont and a diverse array of secondary symbionts which may influence several aspects of the insect's biology. We surveyed infections by secondary symbionts in Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) and Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday) from areas in the east cost of the Adriatic Sea. Both the Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED) B. tabaci genetic groups were detected in Montenegro, whereas only the MED was confirmed in Croatia. Trialeurodes vaporariorum and S. phillyreae were found in all areas surveyed. MEAM1 and MED exhibited similarity to previously reported infections, while populations of T. vaporariorum from Montenegro harbored Rickettsia, Wolbachia and Cardinium in addition to previously reported Hamiltonella and Arsenopnohus. Siphoninus phillyreae harbored Hamiltonella, Wolbachia, Cardinium and Arsenophonus, with the latter appearing in two alleles. Multiple infections of all symbionts were common in the three insect species tested, with some reaching near fixation. Florescent in situ hybridization showed new localization patterns for Hamiltonella in S. phillyreae, and the morphology of the bacteriosome differed from that observed in other whitefly species. Our results show new infections with bacterial symbionts in the whitefly species studied. Infections with the same symbionts in reproductively isolated whitefly species confirm complex relationships between whiteflies and bacterial symbionts, and suggest possible horizontal transfer of some of these bacteria.

  17. Evaluation of Bioinsecticides for Management of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and the Effect on the Whitefly Predator Delphastus catalinae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Organic Squash.

    PubMed

    Razze, Janine M; Liburd, Oscar E; Nuessly, Gregg S; Samuel-Foo, Michelle

    2016-08-01

    Organic zucchini squash is a high-value vegetable crop in Florida and potential exists to expand its production throughout the state. A lack of knowledge on the effectiveness of organic products and their integration with natural enemies is an important constraint to the regulation of pest populations in organic squash production in Florida. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of insecticides labeled for organic production that can be used for management of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B, on organically grown squash; and to determine the effects of the most efficient insecticides on a key natural enemy, Delphastus catalinae (Horn). Experiments were conducted in the greenhouse in exclusion cages. The first experiment compared the effects of four bioinsecticides on whitefly densities. Insecticides include 1) AzaSol (azadirachtin), 2) PyGanic EC 1.4 (pyrethrin), 3) M-Pede (insecticidal soap), and 4) Entrust (spinosad). The second experiment investigated the effects of bioinsecticides on D. catalinae Treatment effectiveness was evaluated 1, 3, and 5 d posttreatment. PyGanic and M-Pede were highly effective in controlling whitefly populations on organic squash, while moderate control was provided by AzaSol and there was no control provided by Entrust. PyGanic and M-Pede treatments reduced D. catalinae populations when adults were released 1 d post pesticide application. However, when adults were released 5 d post application, there was no reduction. The importance of using bioinsecticides in combination with natural enemies to regulate pest populations in organic cropping systems is discussed.

  18. Evaluation of Bioinsecticides for Management of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and the Effect on the Whitefly Predator Delphastus catalinae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Organic Squash.

    PubMed

    Razze, Janine M; Liburd, Oscar E; Nuessly, Gregg S; Samuel-Foo, Michelle

    2016-08-01

    Organic zucchini squash is a high-value vegetable crop in Florida and potential exists to expand its production throughout the state. A lack of knowledge on the effectiveness of organic products and their integration with natural enemies is an important constraint to the regulation of pest populations in organic squash production in Florida. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of insecticides labeled for organic production that can be used for management of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B, on organically grown squash; and to determine the effects of the most efficient insecticides on a key natural enemy, Delphastus catalinae (Horn). Experiments were conducted in the greenhouse in exclusion cages. The first experiment compared the effects of four bioinsecticides on whitefly densities. Insecticides include 1) AzaSol (azadirachtin), 2) PyGanic EC 1.4 (pyrethrin), 3) M-Pede (insecticidal soap), and 4) Entrust (spinosad). The second experiment investigated the effects of bioinsecticides on D. catalinae Treatment effectiveness was evaluated 1, 3, and 5 d posttreatment. PyGanic and M-Pede were highly effective in controlling whitefly populations on organic squash, while moderate control was provided by AzaSol and there was no control provided by Entrust. PyGanic and M-Pede treatments reduced D. catalinae populations when adults were released 1 d post pesticide application. However, when adults were released 5 d post application, there was no reduction. The importance of using bioinsecticides in combination with natural enemies to regulate pest populations in organic cropping systems is discussed. PMID:27247302

  19. Apple scar skin viroid naked RNA is actively transmitted by the whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum.

    PubMed

    Walia, Yashika; Dhir, Sunny; Zaidi, Aijaz Asghar; Hallan, Vipin

    2015-01-01

    Nucleic acid transfer between plants is a phenomenon which is likely to occur in many ways in nature. We report here the active transmission of Apple scar skin viroid (ASSVd) naked ssRNA species by the whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Tv). Not only the viroid RNA, its DNA form was also identified from the insect. The viroid transfer efficiency was enhanced with the help of Cucumis sativus Phloem protein 2 (CsPP2), a plant protein known to translocate viroid RNAs. This PP2/ASSVd complex is stably present in the viroid infected cucumber plants, as was identified with the help of immunological reaction. As viroid-like secondary structures are found in some plant RNAs, and PP2 is known to bind and translocate several RNAs, the results have huge implications in transfer of these RNA species between plants visited by the whitefly.

  20. Apple scar skin viroid naked RNA is actively transmitted by the whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum

    PubMed Central

    Walia, Yashika; Dhir, Sunny; Zaidi, Aijaz Asghar; Hallan, Vipin

    2015-01-01

    Nucleic acid transfer between plants is a phenomenon which is likely to occur in many ways in nature. We report here the active transmission of Apple scar skin viroid (ASSVd) naked ssRNA species by the whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Tv). Not only the viroid RNA, its DNA form was also identified from the insect. The viroid transfer efficiency was enhanced with the help of Cucumis sativus Phloem protein 2 (CsPP2), a plant protein known to translocate viroid RNAs. This PP2/ASSVd complex is stably present in the viroid infected cucumber plants, as was identified with the help of immunological reaction. As viroid-like secondary structures are found in some plant RNAs, and PP2 is known to bind and translocate several RNAs, the results have huge implications in transfer of these RNA species between plants visited by the whitefly. PMID:26327493

  1. Molecular markers for the identification and global tracking of whitefly vector-Begomovirus complexes.

    PubMed

    Brown, J K

    2000-11-01

    Recent unprecedented upsurges in populations of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) have drawn much attention to its worldwide importance as an insect pest and as the vector of emergent begomoviruses (Family: Geminiviridae; Genus: Begomovirus). Several begomoviruses that are considered 'new' and others previously regarded as minor pathogens have been linked to recent epidemics. Recent studies have revealed much variation in begomoviruses, despite the view that DNA-containing viruses do not rapidly accumulate mutations. Also, certain B. tabaci 'variants' are known that more effectively or selectively transmit certain begomoviruses and exhibit biotic differences that may influence their spread. Patterns of distribution and dissemination of begomoviruses transmitted by B. tabaci are poorly understood because standardized molecular-based tracking methods have not been available. Understanding virus/whitefly vector/host plant interrelationships in the context of emerging problems can be achieved only by linking predicted evolutionary histories with epidemiology using molecular phylogenetic approaches. Identification and validation of informative molecular sequences are essential initial steps in this process. Genus-wide degenerate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers have been developed to amplify and sequence the 'core' region of the coat protein open reading frame (ORF) (V1), permitting 'universal' detection and provisional virus identification by comparisons with described viral genotypes. In subsequent studies reported here, several potentially informative viral ORFs and a non-coding region are explored. Of particular use for expanding diversity studies are group- or virus-specific sequences that can be targeted by utilizing newly available core CP sequences, or additional conserved regions around which broad spectrum primers can be designed to target variable sequences in key ORFs or non-coding regions. Prospective markers under exploration were selected with a

  2. First report on the whitefly, Aleurodicus pseudugesii on the coconut palm, Cocos nucifera in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Omena, Rose Paula Mendonça; Guzzo, Elio Cesar; Ferreira, Joana Maria Santos; de Mendonça, Fernando Antônio Cavalcante; de Lima, Aurino Florencio; Racca-Filho, Francisco; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

    2012-01-01

    The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae), is currently grown extensively throughout the intertropical zones of the world, including Brazil, where it constitutes an important source of income for growers. Although whiteflies are not normally considered coconut pests, these insects can damage crops directly by sucking the sap, which weakens the plant; indirect damage may be caused by sooty mold formation over the excreted honeydew and by the transmission of pathogens. Whiteflies have infested coconut plants in the northeastern, northern, and southeastern regions of Brazil. Infested materials were collected and the causative insect was identified as Aleurodicus pseudugesii Martin (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). This is the first report of A. pseudugesii in Brazil as a pest of the coconut palm.

  3. First Report on the Whitefly, Aleurodicus pseudugesii on the Coconut Palm, Cocos nucifera in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Omena, Rose Paula Mendonça; Guzzo, Elio Cesar; Ferreira, Joana Maria Santos; de Mendonça, Fernando Antônio Cavalcante; de Lima, Aurino Florencio; Racca-Filho, Francisco; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

    2012-01-01

    The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae), is currently grown extensively throughout the intertropical zones of the world, including Brazil, where it constitutes an important source of income for growers. Although whiteflies are not normally considered coconut pests, these insects can damage crops directly by sucking the sap, which weakens the plant; indirect damage may be caused by sooty mold formation over the excreted honeydew and by the transmission of pathogens. Whiteflies have infested coconut plants in the northeastern, northern, and southeastern regions of Brazil. Infested materials were collected and the causative insect was identified as Aleurodicus pseudugesii Martin (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). This is the first report of A. pseudugesii in Brazil as a pest of the coconut palm. PMID:22958126

  4. First report on the whitefly, Aleurodicus pseudugesii on the coconut palm, Cocos nucifera in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Omena, Rose Paula Mendonça; Guzzo, Elio Cesar; Ferreira, Joana Maria Santos; de Mendonça, Fernando Antônio Cavalcante; de Lima, Aurino Florencio; Racca-Filho, Francisco; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

    2012-01-01

    The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae), is currently grown extensively throughout the intertropical zones of the world, including Brazil, where it constitutes an important source of income for growers. Although whiteflies are not normally considered coconut pests, these insects can damage crops directly by sucking the sap, which weakens the plant; indirect damage may be caused by sooty mold formation over the excreted honeydew and by the transmission of pathogens. Whiteflies have infested coconut plants in the northeastern, northern, and southeastern regions of Brazil. Infested materials were collected and the causative insect was identified as Aleurodicus pseudugesii Martin (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). This is the first report of A. pseudugesii in Brazil as a pest of the coconut palm. PMID:22958126

  5. Diversity and evolution of the Wolbachia endosymbionts of Bemisia (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) whiteflies

    PubMed Central

    Bing, Xiao-Li; Xia, Wen-Qiang; Gui, Jia-Dong; Yan, Gen-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Wolbachia is the most prevalent symbiont described in arthropods to date. Wolbachia can manipulate host reproduction, provide nutrition to insect hosts and protect insect hosts from pathogenic viruses. So far, 13 supergroups of Wolbachia have been identified. The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a complex containing more than 28 morphologically indistinguishable cryptic species. Some cryptic species of this complex are invasive. In this study, we report a comprehensive survey of Wolbachia in B. tabaci and its relative B. afer from 1658 insects representing 54 populations across 13 provinces of China and one state of Australia. Based on the results of PCR or sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, the overall rates of Wolbachia infection were 79.6% and 0.96% in the indigenous and invasive Bemisia whiteflies, respectively. We detected a new Wolbachia supergroup by sequencing five molecular marker genes including 16S rRNA, groEL, gltA, hcpA, and fbpA genes. Data showed that many protein-coding genes have limitations in detecting and classifying newly identified Wolbachia supergroups and thus raise a challenge to the known Wolbachia MLST standard analysis system. Besides, the other Wolbachia strains detected from whiteflies were clustered into supergroup B. Phylogenetic trees of whitefly mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I and Wolbachia multiple sequencing typing genes were not congruent. In addition, Wolbachia was also detected outside the special bacteriocytes in two cryptic species by fluorescence in situ hybridization, indicating the horizontal transmission of Wolbachia. Our results indicate that members of Wolbachia are far from well explored. PMID:25077022

  6. Management of whitefly-transmitted viruses in open-field production systems.

    PubMed

    Lapidot, Moshe; Legg, James P; Wintermantel, William M; Polston, Jane E

    2014-01-01

    Whiteflies are a key pest of crops in open-field production throughout the tropics and subtropics. This is due in large part to the long and diverse list of devastating plant viruses transmitted by these vectors. Open-field production provides many challenges to manage these viruses and in many cases adequate management has not been possible. Diseases caused by whitefly-transmitted viruses have become limiting factors in open-field production of a wide range of crops, i.e., bean golden mosaic disease in beans, tomato yellow leaf curl disease in tomato, cassava mosaic disease and cassava brown streak disease in cassava, and cotton leaf crumple disease in cotton. While host resistance has proven to be the most cost-effective management solution, few examples of host resistance have been developed to date. The main strategy to limit the incidence of virus-infected plants has been the application of insecticides to reduce vector populations aided to some extent by the use of selected cultural practices. However, due to concerns about the effect of insecticides on pollinators, consumer demand for reduced pesticide use, and the ability of the whitefly vectors to develop insecticide-resistance, there is a growing need to develop and deploy strategies that do not rely on insecticides. The reduction in pesticide use will greatly increase the need for genetic resistance to more viruses in more crop plants. Resistance combined with selected IPM strategies could become a viable means to increase yields in crops produced in open fields despite the presence of whitefly-transmitted viruses. PMID:25410102

  7. Understanding cross-communication between aboveground and belowground tissues via transcriptome analysis of a sucking insect whitefly-infested pepper plants.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2014-01-01

    Plants have developed defensive machinery to protect themselves against herbivore and pathogen attacks. We previously reported that aboveground whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn.) infestation elicited induced resistance in leaves and roots and influenced the modification of the rhizosphere microflora. In this study, to obtain molecular evidence supporting these plant fitness strategies against whitefly infestation, we performed a 300 K pepper microarray analysis using leaf and root tissues of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) applied with whitefly, benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH), and the combination of BTH+whitefly. We defined differentially expressed genes (DEGs) as genes exhibiting more than 2-fold change (1.0 based on log2 values) in expression in leaves and roots in response to each treatment compared to the control. We identified a total of 16,188 DEGs in leaves and roots. Of these, 6685, 6752, and 4045 DEGs from leaf tissue and 6768, 7705, and 7667 DEGs from root tissue were identified in the BTH, BTH+whitefly, and whitefly treatment groups, respectively. The total number of DEGs was approximately two-times higher in roots than in whitefly-infested leaves subjected to whitefly infestation. Among DEGs, whitefly feeding induced salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ethylene-dependent signaling pathways in leaves and roots. Several transporters and auxin-responsive genes were upregulated in roots, which can explain why biomass increase is facilitated. Using transcriptome analysis, our study provides new insights into the molecular basis of whitefly-mediated intercommunication between aboveground and belowground plant tissues and provides molecular evidence that may explain the alteration of rhizosphere microflora and root biomass by whitefly infestation.

  8. Plastic cup traps equipped with light-emitting diodes for monitoring adult Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Chu, Chang-Chi; Jackson, Charles G; Alexander, Patrick J; Karut, Kamil; Henneberry, Thomas J

    2003-06-01

    Equipping the standard plastic cup trap, also known as the CC trap, with lime-green light-emitting diodes (LED-plastic cup trap) increased its efficacy for catching Bemisia tabaci by 100%. Few Eretmocerus eremicus Rose and Zolnerowich and Encarsia formosa Gahan were caught in LED-plastic cup traps. The LED-plastic cup traps are less expensive than yellow sticky card traps for monitoring adult whiteflies in greenhouse crop production systems and are more compatible with whitefly parasitoids releases for Bemisia nymph control.

  9. Impact of Vapor Pressure Deficit on the Performance of Bemisia tabaci: Adult, Nymphal, and Egg Survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The B-biotype sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, is a serious global pest with varying population dynamics among different ecosystems. An experiment was conducted to assess the impact of vapor pressure deficit (VPD) on the survival of adults, nymphs and eggs of B. tabaci. The insects were reared...

  10. Spatio-temporal patterns of genetic change amongst populations of cassava Bemisia tabaci whiteflies driving virus pandemics in East and Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Legg, James P; Sseruwagi, Peter; Boniface, Simon; Okao-Okuja, Geoffrey; Shirima, Rudolph; Bigirimana, Simon; Gashaka, Gervais; Herrmann, Hans-Werner; Jeremiah, Simon; Obiero, Hannington; Ndyetabula, Innocent; Tata-Hangy, Willy; Masembe, Charles; Brown, Judith K

    2014-06-24

    The greatest current threat to cassava in sub-Saharan Africa, is the continued expansion of plant virus pandemics being driven by super-abundant populations of the whitefly vector, Bemisia tabaci. To track the association of putatively genetically distinct populations of B. tabaci with pandemics of cassava mosaic disease (CMD) and cassava brown streak disease (CBSD), a comprehensive region-wide analysis examined the phylogenetic relationships and population genetics of 642 B. tabaci adults sampled from cassava in six countries of East and Central Africa, between 1997 and 2010, using a mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I marker (780 bases). Eight phylogenetically distinct groups were identified, including one, designated herein as 'East Africa 1' (EA1), not previously described. The three most frequently occurring groups comprised >95% of all samples. Among these, the Sub-Saharan Africa 2 (SSA2) group diverged by c. 8% from two SSA1 sub-groups (SSA1-SG1 and SSA1-SG2), which themselves were 1.9% divergent. During the 14-year study period, the group associated with the CMD pandemic expansion shifted from SSA2 to SSA1-SG1. Population genetics analyses of SSA1, using Tajima's D, Fu's Fs and Rojas' R2 statistics confirmed a temporal transition in SSA1 populations from neutrally evolving at the outset, to rapidly expanding from 2000 to 2003, then back to populations more at equilibrium after 2004. Based on available evidence, hybrid introgression appears to be the most parsimonious explanation for the switch from SSA2 to SSA1-SG1 in whitefly populations driving cassava virus pandemics in East and Central Africa.

  11. Efficacy of an entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea and an insect growth regulator against the rugose spiraling whitefly, Aleurodicus rugioperculatus Martin (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aleurodicus rugioperculatus Martin, infamous as gumbo limbo or rugose spiraling whitefly is a new addition in the list of devastating whitefly species found in Florida. It is a newly introduced pest of Central American origin, reported first time in Florida from Miami-Dade County in 2009. Since then...

  12. The genome of sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci, a global crop pest, provides novel insights into virus transmission, host adaptation, and insecticide resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whiteflies are among the most important agricultural pests. They have a broad range of host plants and exceptional ability to transmit a large number of plant viruses, and can rapidly evolve insecticide resistance. Here we present a high-quality draft genome of the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. Comparat...

  13. Transcriptome analysis of Bemisia tabaci during tomato yellow leaf curl virus acquisition and ribonucleic acid interference to manage whitefly-transmitted viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 300 viruses are transmitted by the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, with 90% of them belonging to the genus, Begomovirus. Begomoviruses are obligately transmitted by whiteflies to a wide range of agriculture crops, resulting in billions of dollars lost annually, while jeopardizing food security worldw...

  14. Implications Of Host Plant Resistance Against Whitefly-Transmitted Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus In Tomato For Virus Epidemics And Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whitefly-transmitted Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) severely impacts tomato production in southeastern USA. Growers typically spray insecticides against whiteflies and plant TYLCV-resistant genotypes. Semi-dominant genes such as TY-1 and TY-2 confer resistance to TYLCV. Resistant genotypes ar...

  15. Estimation of the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci Genome Size Based on k-mer and Flow Cytometric Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenbo; Hasegawa, Daniel K.; Arumuganathan, Kathiravetpillai; Simmons, Alvin M.; Wintermantel, William M.; Fei, Zhangjun; Ling, Kai-Shu

    2015-01-01

    Whiteflies of the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) cryptic species complex are among the most important agricultural insect pests in the world. These phloem-feeding insects can colonize over 1000 species of plants worldwide and inflict severe economic losses to crops, mainly through the transmission of pathogenic viruses. Surprisingly, there is very little genomic information about whiteflies. As a starting point to genome sequencing, we report a new estimation of the genome size of the B. tabaci B biotype or Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) population. Using an isogenic whitefly colony with over 6500 haploid male individuals for genomic DNA, three paired-end genomic libraries with insert sizes of ~300 bp, 500 bp and 1 Kb were constructed and sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 system. A total of ~50 billion base pairs of sequences were obtained from each library. K-mer analysis using these sequences revealed that the genome size of the whitefly was ~682.3 Mb. In addition, the flow cytometric analysis estimated the haploid genome size of the whitefly to be ~690 Mb. Considering the congruency between both estimation methods, we predict the haploid genome size of B. tabaci MEAM1 to be ~680–690 Mb. Our data provide a baseline for ongoing efforts to assemble and annotate the B. tabaci genome. PMID:26463411

  16. Comparison of transmission of Papaya leaf curl China virus among four cryptic species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tao; Guo, Qi; Cui, Xi-Yun; Liu, Yin-Quan; Hu, Jian; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Begomoviruses are transmitted by cryptic species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex, often in a species-specific manner. Papaya leaf curl China virus (PaLCuCNV) has been recorded to infect several crops including papaya, tomato and tobacco in China. To help assess the risks of spread of this virus, we compared the acquisition, retention and transmission of PaLCuCNV among four species of whiteflies, Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1), Mediterranean (MED), Asia 1 and Asia II 7. All four species of whiteflies are able to acquire, retain and transmit the virus, but with different levels of efficiency. Transmission tests using tomato as the host plant showed that MEAM1 transmitted PaLCuCNV with substantially higher efficiency than did MED, Asia 1 and Asia II 7. Furthermore, accumulation of PaLCuCNV in the whiteflies was positively associated with its efficiency of transmitting the virus. Altogether, these findings indicate that MEAM1 is the most efficient vector for PaLCuCNV in the four species of whiteflies, and suggest that risks of PaLCuCNV pandemics are high in regions where MEAM1 occurs.

  17. Estimation of the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci Genome Size Based on k-mer and Flow Cytometric Analyses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenbo; Hasegawa, Daniel K; Arumuganathan, Kathiravetpillai; Simmons, Alvin M; Wintermantel, William M; Fei, Zhangjun; Ling, Kai-Shu

    2015-01-01

    Whiteflies of the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) cryptic species complex are among the most important agricultural insect pests in the world. These phloem-feeding insects can colonize over 1000 species of plants worldwide and inflict severe economic losses to crops, mainly through the transmission of pathogenic viruses. Surprisingly, there is very little genomic information about whiteflies. As a starting point to genome sequencing, we report a new estimation of the genome size of the B. tabaci B biotype or Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) population. Using an isogenic whitefly colony with over 6500 haploid male individuals for genomic DNA, three paired-end genomic libraries with insert sizes of ~300 bp, 500 bp and 1 Kb were constructed and sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 system. A total of ~50 billion base pairs of sequences were obtained from each library. K-mer analysis using these sequences revealed that the genome size of the whitefly was ~682.3 Mb. In addition, the flow cytometric analysis estimated the haploid genome size of the whitefly to be ~690 Mb. Considering the congruency between both estimation methods, we predict the haploid genome size of B. tabaci MEAM1 to be ~680-690 Mb. Our data provide a baseline for ongoing efforts to assemble and annotate the B. tabaci genome.

  18. Comparison of transmission of Papaya leaf curl China virus among four cryptic species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Tao; Guo, Qi; Cui, Xi-Yun; Liu, Yin-Quan; Hu, Jian; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Begomoviruses are transmitted by cryptic species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex, often in a species-specific manner. Papaya leaf curl China virus (PaLCuCNV) has been recorded to infect several crops including papaya, tomato and tobacco in China. To help assess the risks of spread of this virus, we compared the acquisition, retention and transmission of PaLCuCNV among four species of whiteflies, Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1), Mediterranean (MED), Asia 1 and Asia II 7. All four species of whiteflies are able to acquire, retain and transmit the virus, but with different levels of efficiency. Transmission tests using tomato as the host plant showed that MEAM1 transmitted PaLCuCNV with substantially higher efficiency than did MED, Asia 1 and Asia II 7. Furthermore, accumulation of PaLCuCNV in the whiteflies was positively associated with its efficiency of transmitting the virus. Altogether, these findings indicate that MEAM1 is the most efficient vector for PaLCuCNV in the four species of whiteflies, and suggest that risks of PaLCuCNV pandemics are high in regions where MEAM1 occurs. PMID:26486606

  19. A geographic distribution database of the Neotropical cassava whitefly complex (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) and their associated parasitoids and hyperparasitoids (Hymenoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez-Ordóñez, Aymer Andrés; Hazzi, Nicolas A.; Escobar-Prieto, David; Paz-Jojoa, Dario; Parsa, Soroush

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Whiteflies (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) are represented by more than 1,500 herbivorous species around the world. Some of them are notorious pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta), a primary food crop in the tropics. Particularly destructive is a complex of Neotropical cassava whiteflies whose distribution remains restricted to their native range. Despite their importance, neither their distribution, nor that of their associated parasitoids, is well documented. This paper therefore reports observational and specimen-based occurrence records of Neotropical cassava whiteflies and their associated parasitoids and hyperparasitoids. The dataset consists of 1,311 distribution records documented by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) between 1975 and 2012. The specimens are held at CIAT’s Arthropod Reference Collection (CIATARC, Cali, Colombia). Eleven species of whiteflies, 14 species of parasitoids and one species of hyperparasitoids are reported. Approximately 66% of the whitefly records belong to Aleurotrachelus socialis and 16% to Bemisia tuberculata. The parasitoids with most records are Encarsia hispida, Amitus macgowni and Encarsia bellottii for Aleurotrachelus socialis; and Encarsia sophia for Bemisia tuberculata. The complete dataset is available in Darwin Core Archive format via the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). PMID:26798295

  20. Transmission of Squash vein yellowing virus to and From Cucurbit Weeds and Effects on Sweetpotato Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Behavior.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, D; McAuslane, H J; Adkins, S T; Smith, H A; Dufault, N; Webb, S E

    2016-08-01

    Since 2003, growers of Florida watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai] have periodically suffered large losses from a disease caused by Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), which is transmitted by the whitefly Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1), formerly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B. Common cucurbit weeds like balsam apple (Momordica charantia L.) and smellmelon [Cucumis melo var. dudaim (L.) Naud.] are natural hosts of SqVYV, and creeping cucumber (Melothria pendula L.) is an experimental host. Study objectives were to compare these weeds and 'Mickylee' watermelon as sources of inoculum for SqVYV via MEAM1 transmission, to determine weed susceptibility to SqVYV, and to evaluate whitefly settling and oviposition behaviors on infected vs. mock-inoculated (inoculated with buffer only) creeping cucumber leaves. We found that the lowest percentage of watermelon recipient plants was infected when balsam apple was used as a source of inoculum. Watermelon was more susceptible to infection than balsam apple or smellmelon. However, all weed species were equally susceptible to SqVYV when inoculated by whitefly. For the first 5 h after release, whiteflies had no preference to settle on infected vs. mock-inoculated creeping cucumber leaves. After 24 h, whiteflies preferred to settle on mock-inoculated leaves, and more eggs were laid on mock-inoculated creeping cucumber leaves than on SqVYV-infected leaves. The transmission experiments (source of inoculum and susceptibility) show these weed species as potential inoculum sources of the virus. The changing settling preference of whiteflies from infected to mock-inoculated plants could lead to rapid spread of virus in the agroecosystem. PMID:27400705

  1. Pathogenicity of Two Species of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Against the Greenhouse Whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), in Laboratory and Greenhouse Experiments.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Nastaran; Karimi, Javad; Hosseini, Mojtaba; Goldani, Morteza; Campos-Herrera, Raquel

    2015-03-01

    The greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a polyphagous pest in greenhouse crops. The efficacy of two entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN), Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, as biological control agents against T. vaporariorum was evaluated using two model crops typical of vegetable greenhouse productions: cucumber and pepper. Laboratory tests evaluated adults and second nymphal instars for pest susceptibility to different EPN species at different concentrations of infective juveniles (IJ; 0, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 IJ per cm(2)); subsequent greenhouse trials against second nymphal instars on cucumber and pepper plants evaluated more natural conditions. Concentrations were applied in combination with Triton X-100 (0.1% v/v), an adjuvant for increasing nematode activity. In laboratory studies, both life stages were susceptible to infection by the two nematode species, but S. feltiae recorded a lower LC50 than H. bacteriophora for both insect stages. Similarly, in greenhouse experiments, S. feltiae required lower concentrations of IJ than H. bacteriophora to reach the same mortality in nymphs. In greenhouse trials, a significant difference was observed in the triple interaction among nematode species × concentration × plant. Furthermore, the highest mortality rate of the second nymphal instars of the T. vaporariorum was obtained from the application of S. feltiae concentrated to 250 IJ/cm(2) on cucumber (49 ± 1.23%). The general mortality caused by nematodes was significantly higher in cucumber than in pepper. These promising results support further investigation for the optimization of the best EPN species/concentration in combination with insecticides or adjuvants to reach a profitable control of this greenhouse pest.

  2. Pathogenicity of Two Species of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Against the Greenhouse Whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), in Laboratory and Greenhouse Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Nastaran; Karimi, Javad; Hosseini, Mojtaba; Goldani, Morteza; Campos-Herrera, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    The greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a polyphagous pest in greenhouse crops. The efficacy of two entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN), Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, as biological control agents against T. vaporariorum was evaluated using two model crops typical of vegetable greenhouse productions: cucumber and pepper. Laboratory tests evaluated adults and second nymphal instars for pest susceptibility to different EPN species at different concentrations of infective juveniles (IJ; 0, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 IJ per cm2); subsequent greenhouse trials against second nymphal instars on cucumber and pepper plants evaluated more natural conditions. Concentrations were applied in combination with Triton X-100 (0.1% v/v), an adjuvant for increasing nematode activity. In laboratory studies, both life stages were susceptible to infection by the two nematode species, but S. feltiae recorded a lower LC50 than H. bacteriophora for both insect stages. Similarly, in greenhouse experiments, S. feltiae required lower concentrations of IJ than H. bacteriophora to reach the same mortality in nymphs. In greenhouse trials, a significant difference was observed in the triple interaction among nematode species × concentration × plant. Furthermore, the highest mortality rate of the second nymphal instars of the T. vaporariorum was obtained from the application of S. feltiae concentrated to 250 IJ/cm2 on cucumber (49 ± 1.23%). The general mortality caused by nematodes was significantly higher in cucumber than in pepper. These promising results support further investigation for the optimization of the best EPN species/concentration in combination with insecticides or adjuvants to reach a profitable control of this greenhouse pest. PMID:25861117

  3. Specific Cells in the Primary Salivary Glands of the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci Control Retention and Transmission of Begomoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jing; Zhao, Juan-Juan; Zhang, Tong; Li, Fang-Fang; Ghanim, Murad; Zhou, Xue-Ping; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The majority of plant viruses are vectored by arthropods via persistent-circulative or noncirculative transmission. Previous studies have shown that specific binding sites for noncirculative viruses reside within the stylet or foregut of insect vectors, whereas the transmission mechanisms of circulative viruses remain ambiguous. Here we report the critical roles of whitefly primary salivary glands (PSGs) in the circulative transmission of two begomoviruses. The Middle East Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex efficiently transmits both Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), whereas the Mediterranean (MED) species transmits TYLCV but not TYLCCNV. PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments showed that TYLCCNV efficiently penetrates the PSGs of MEAM1 but not MED whiteflies. When a fragment of the coat protein of TYLCCNV was exchanged with that of TYLCV, mutated TYLCCNV accumulated in the PSGs of MED whiteflies, while mutant TYLCV was nearly undetectable. Confocal microscopy revealed that virion transport in PSGs follows specific paths to reach secretory cells in the central region, and the accumulation of virions in the secretory region of PSGs was correlated with successful virus transmission. Our findings demonstrate that whitefly PSGs, in particular the cells around the secretory region, control the specificity of begomovirus transmission. IMPORTANCE Over 75% of plant viruses are transmitted by insects. However, the mechanisms of virus transmission by insect vectors remain largely unknown. Begomoviruses and whiteflies are a complex of viruses and vectors which threaten many crops worldwide. We investigated the transmission of two begomoviruses by two whitefly species. We show that specific cells of the whitefly primary salivary glands control viral transmission specificity and that virion transport in the glands follows specific paths to reach secretory cells in

  4. Three new species of Baeoentedon Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from China, with the first record of whitefly host association (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhu-Hong; Huang, Jian; Polaszek, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    Three new species of Baeoentedon Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) are described from China, Baeoentedon balios Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov., Baeoentedon bouceki Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov. and Baeoentedon virgatus Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov. Both female and male of Baeoentedon balios were reared from the whitefly Pealius spina (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on the bodhi tree Ficus religiosa L. (Urticales: Moraceae). The male and the whitefly host association of Baeoentedon are recorded for the first time. A key is also provided to females of the world species of the genus.

  5. Whitefly resistance traits derived from the wild tomato Solanum pimpinellifolium affect the preference and feeding behavior of Bemisia tabaci and reduce the spread of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-López, M J; Garzo, E; Bonani, J P; Fereres, A; Fernández-Muñoz, R; Moriones, E

    2011-10-01

    Breeding of tomato genotypes that limit whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) access and feeding might reduce the spread of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) that is the causal agent of tomato yellow leaf curl disease. TYLCV is restricted to the phloem and is transmitted in a persistent manner by B. tabaci. The tomato breeding line ABL 14-8 was developed by introgressing type IV leaf glandular trichomes and secretion of acylsucroses from the wild tomato Solanum pimpinellifolium accession TO-937 into the genetic background of the whitefly- and virus-susceptible tomato cultivar Moneymaker. Results of preference bioassays with ABL 14-8 versus Moneymaker indicated that presence of type IV glandular trichomes and the production of acylsucrose deterred the landing and settling of B. tabaci on ABL 14-8. Moreover, electrical penetration graph studies indicated that B. tabaci adults spent more time in nonprobing activities and showed a reduced ability to start probing. Such behavior resulted in a reduced ability to reach the phloem. The superficial type of resistance observed in ABL 14-8 against B. tabaci probing significantly reduced primary and secondary spread of TYLCV. PMID:21615206

  6. Transcriptomic and Proteomic Responses of Sweetpotato Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, to Thiamethoxam

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Nina; Xie, Wen; Yang, Xin; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Li, Rumei; Pan, Huipeng; Liu, Baiming; Shi, Xiaobin; Fang, Yong; Xu, Baoyun; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2013-01-01

    Background The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is one of the most widely distributed agricultural pests. Although it has developed resistance to many registered insecticides including the neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam, the mechanisms that regulate the resistance are poorly understood. To understand the molecular basis of thiamethoxam resistance, “omics” analyses were carried out to examine differences between resistant and susceptible B. tabaci at both transcriptional and translational levels. Results A total of 1,338 mRNAs and 52 proteins were differentially expressed between resistant and susceptible B. tabaci. Among them, 11 transcripts had concurrent transcription and translation profiles. KEGG analysis mapped 318 and 35 differentially expressed genes and proteins, respectively, to 160 and 59 pathways (p<0.05). Thiamethoxam treatment activated metabolic pathways (e.g., drug metabolism), in which 118 transcripts were putatively linked to insecticide resistance, including up-regulated glutathione-S-transferase, UDP glucuronosyltransferase, glucosyl/glucuronosyl transferase, and cytochrome P450. Gene Ontology analysis placed these genes and proteins into protein complex, metabolic process, cellular process, signaling, and response to stimulus categories. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated “omics” response, and suggested a highly overexpressed P450, CYP6CX1, as a candidate molecular basis for the mechanistic study of thiamethoxam resistance in whiteflies. Finally, enzymatic activity assays showed elevated detoxification activities in the resistant B. tabaci. Conclusions This study demonstrates the applicability of high-throughput omics tools for identifying molecular candidates related to thiamethoxam resistance in an agricultural important insect pest. In addition, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses provide a solid foundation for future functional investigations into the complex molecular mechanisms

  7. Agroecosystems shape population genetic structure of the greenhouse whitefly in Northern and Southern Europe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To predict further invasions of pests it is important to understand what factors contribute to the genetic structure of their populations. Cosmopolitan pest species are ideal for studying how different agroecosystems affect population genetic structure within a species at different climatic extremes. We undertook the first population genetic study of the greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum), a cosmopolitan invasive herbivore, and examined the genetic structure of this species in Northern and Southern Europe. In Finland, cold temperatures limit whiteflies to greenhouses and prevent them from overwintering in nature, and in Greece, milder temperatures allow whiteflies to inhabit both fields and greenhouses year round, providing a greater potential for connectivity among populations. Using nine microsatellite markers, we genotyped 1274 T. vaporariorum females collected from 18 greenhouses in Finland and eight greenhouses as well as eight fields in Greece. Results Populations from Finland were less diverse than those from Greece, suggesting that Greek populations are larger and subjected to fewer bottlenecks. Moreover, there was significant population genetic structure in both countries that was explained by different factors. Habitat (field vs. greenhouse) together with longitude explained genetic structure in Greece, whereas in Finland, genetic structure was explained by host plant species. Furthermore, there was no temporal genetic structure among populations in Finland, suggesting that year-round populations are able to persist in greenhouses. Conclusions Taken together our results show that greenhouse agroecosystems can limit gene flow among populations in both climate zones. Fragmented populations in greenhouses could allow for efficient pest management. However, pest persistence in both climate zones, coupled with increasing opportunities for naturalization in temperate latitudes due to climate change, highlight challenges for the

  8. Ecology and management of whitefly-transmitted viruses of vegetable crops in Florida.

    PubMed

    Adkins, Scott; Webster, Craig G; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Webb, Susan E; Roberts, Pamela D; Stansly, Philip A; Turechek, William W

    2011-08-01

    A variety of fresh market vegetables, including watermelon and tomato are economically important crops in Florida. Whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) was first identified in squash and watermelon in Florida in 2005 and shown to cause a severe decline of watermelon vines as crops approach harvest. Florida is most economically impacted by SqVYV, although the virus has been detected more recently in Indiana and South Carolina. The origin and evolutionary history of SqVYV, one of the few members of the genus Ipomovirus within the family Potyviridae, are not known. Sequence diversity of SqVYV isolates collected at different times, from different locations and from different plant species is being analyzed for insights into the origin of the virus. More recently, Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV) and Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), also whitefly-transmitted, have been detected in watermelon in Florida. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) was first detected in south Florida tomato crops in 1997. Several surveys have been conducted in the region to identify alternative hosts for these four viruses. Cucurbit weeds including Balsam-apple (Momordica charantia), creeping cucumber (Melothria pendula) and smellmelon (Cucumis melo var. dudaim) provide reservoirs for SqVYV, CuLCrV and/or CYSDV. Green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) also can be a reservoir for CuLCrV. No wild hosts of TYLCV have been reported in Florida. The effectiveness of insecticides and silver plastic mulch to manage whiteflies and mitigate TYLCV has been demonstrated and is currently being evaluated for SqVYV, CuLCrV and CYSDV. In addition, potential sources of SqVYV resistance have been identified in greenhouse and field screening of watermelon germplasm. Further studies to refine these sources of resistance are underway. Lastly, a comprehensive map of 33,560 hectares (82,928 acres) of vegetable fields in the three counties comprising the majority of the southwest

  9. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation Modulates Transcriptional Levels of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis and Jasmonic Acid Signaling-Related Genes and Augments the Cope with Drought Stress of Maize

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong-Soon; Bae, Dong-Won; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Up to now, the potential underlying molecular mechanisms by which maize (Zea mays L.) plants elicit defense responses by infestation with a phloem feeding insect whitefly [Bemisia tabaci (Genn.)] have been barely elucidated against (a)biotic stresses. To fill this gap of current knowledge maize plants were infested with whitefly and these plants were subsequently assessed the levels of water loss. To understand the mode of action, plant hormone contents and the stress-related mRNA expression were evaluated. Whitefly-infested maize plants did not display any significant phenotypic differences in above-ground tissues (infested site) compared with controls. By contrast, root (systemic tissue) biomass was increased by 2-fold by whitefly infestation. The levels of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), jasmonic acid (JA), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were significantly higher in whitefly-infested plants. The biosynthetic or signaling-related genes for JA and anthocyanins were highly up-regulated. Additionally, we found that healthier plants were obtained in whitefly-infested plants under drought conditions. The weight of whitefly-infested plants was approximately 20% higher than that of control plants at 14 d of drought treatment. The drought tolerance-related genes, ZmbZIP72, ZmSNAC1, and ZmABA1, were highly expressed in the whitefly-infected plants. Collectively, our results suggest that IAA/JA-derived maize physiological changes and correlation of H2O2 production and water loss are modulated by above-ground whitefly infestation in maize plants. PMID:26630288

  10. A technique for the prevention of greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) using the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana M130.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Su; Lee, Jung-Bok; Kim, Beam-Soo; Nam, Young-Ho; Shin, Kee-Sun; Kim, Jin-Won; Kim, Jang-Eok; Kwon, Gi-Seok

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of using hyphomycete fungi as suitable biocontrol agents against greenhouse whitefly has led to the isolation of various insect pathogenic fungi. Among them is Beauveria bassiana, one of the most studied entomopathogenic fungi. The objective of this study was to use B. bassiana M130 as an insecticidal agent against the greenhouse whitefly. M130 isolated from infected insects is known to be a biocontrol agent against greenhouse whitefly. Phylogenetic classification of M130 was determined according to its morphological features and 18S rRNA sequence analysis. M130 was identified as B. bassiana M130 and showed chitinase (342.28 units/ml) and protease (461.70 units/ml) activities, which were involved in the invasion of the host through the outer cuticle layer, thus killing them. The insecticidal activity was 55.2% in petri-dish test, 84.6% in pot test, and 45.3% in field test. The results of this study indicate that B. bassiana has potential as a biological agent for the control of greenhouse whitefly to replace chemical pesticides.

  11. Transmission of Squash vein yellowing virus to and From Cucurbit Weeds and Effects on Sweetpotato Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several common cucurbit weed reservoirs for Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) were compared with watermelons as sources of inoculum. Weed susceptibility to SqVYV was also analyzed. In addition, behavior of the whitefly vector of SqVYV was studied on infected and non-infected plants. This report...

  12. The effect of time of sweetpotato whitefly infestation on plant nutrition and development of tomato irregular ripening disorder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato irregular ripening (TIR) disorder is associated with Bemisia tabaci biotype B feeding and is characterized by incomplete ripening of longitudinal sections of fruit. Our objective was to determine the effect of time of whitefly infestation on plant nutrition and the development of tomato irreg...

  13. The effect of time of whitefly infestation and plant nutrition on the development of tomato irregular ripening disorder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato irregular ripening (TIR) is a physiological plant disorder caused by Bemisia tabaci biotype B feeding on foliage and resulting in incomplete ripening of longitudinal sections of fruit.Our objective was to determine the effect of time of whitefly infestation and plant nutrition on the developm...

  14. Genome sequencing and analysis of the whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) MEAM1, one of the most important vectors for plant viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among whiteflies, the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) species complex is particularly important because of its ability to transmit hundreds of plant viruses, resulting in the loss of billions of U.S. dollars on agronomically important crops such as tomato, cucurbits, cassava, and cotton worl...

  15. Estimation of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci genome size based on k-mer and flow cytometry analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whiteflies, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), are one of the most important agricultural insect pests in the world. These phloem-feeding insects can colonize over 500 crop plants worldwide and inflict severe economic losses, mainly through the transmission of pathogenic viruses. Surprisingl...

  16. A technique for the prevention of greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) using the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana M130.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Su; Lee, Jung-Bok; Kim, Beam-Soo; Nam, Young-Ho; Shin, Kee-Sun; Kim, Jin-Won; Kim, Jang-Eok; Kwon, Gi-Seok

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of using hyphomycete fungi as suitable biocontrol agents against greenhouse whitefly has led to the isolation of various insect pathogenic fungi. Among them is Beauveria bassiana, one of the most studied entomopathogenic fungi. The objective of this study was to use B. bassiana M130 as an insecticidal agent against the greenhouse whitefly. M130 isolated from infected insects is known to be a biocontrol agent against greenhouse whitefly. Phylogenetic classification of M130 was determined according to its morphological features and 18S rRNA sequence analysis. M130 was identified as B. bassiana M130 and showed chitinase (342.28 units/ml) and protease (461.70 units/ml) activities, which were involved in the invasion of the host through the outer cuticle layer, thus killing them. The insecticidal activity was 55.2% in petri-dish test, 84.6% in pot test, and 45.3% in field test. The results of this study indicate that B. bassiana has potential as a biological agent for the control of greenhouse whitefly to replace chemical pesticides. PMID:24002449

  17. Acyl sugars and whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) resistance in segregating populations of tomato genotypes.

    PubMed

    Dias, D M; Resende, J T V; Marodin, J C; Matos, R; Lustosa, I F; Resende, N C V

    2016-04-07

    The wild tomato, Solanum pennellii, is an important source of resistance genes against tomato pests. This resistance is due to the presence of acyl sugars (AS), which are allelochemicals that have negative effects on arthropod pests. There are no commercially available tomato cultivars that exhibit significant levels of resistance to arthropod pests. Therefore, this study evaluated resistance to whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) in F2 and F2RC1 tomato genotypes with high AS levels from a cross between Solanum lycopersicum 'Redenção' and the S. pennellii accession, LA-716. Plants were exposed to B. tabaci biotype B at the pre-flowering stage. In both generations, there were significant, negative correlations between AS content and oviposition preference and nymph development. Whitefly exhibited a lower preference for oviposition and produced fewer nymphs in genotypes with high AS levels and the wild parent S. pennellii than in the low AS-level genotypes and Redenção cultivar, demonstrating that the breeding program was effective in transferring resistance to the F2 and F2RC1 generations. RVTA-2010-pl#31 and RVTA-2010-pl#94 in the F2 population are promising genotypes that produced materials with high AS levels in the F2RC1 generation (RVTA-2010-31-pl#177 and RVTA-2010-94-pl#381).

  18. Mating behaviour, life history and adaptation to insecticides determine species exclusion between whiteflies.

    PubMed

    Crowder, David W; Horowitz, A Rami; De Barro, Paul J; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Showalter, Ann M; Kontsedalov, Svetlana; Khasdan, Vadim; Shargal, Amihai; Liu, Jian; Carrière, Y

    2010-05-01

    1. Negative interspecific interactions, such as resource competition or reproductive interference, can lead to the displacement of species (species exclusion). 2. Here, we investigated the effect of life history, mating behaviour and adaptation to insecticides on species exclusion between cryptic whitefly species that make up the Bemisia tabaci species complex. We conducted population cage experiments independently in China, Australia, the United States and Israel to observe patterns of species exclusion between an invasive species commonly referred to as the B biotype and three other species commonly known as biotypes ZHJ1, AN and Q. 3. Although experimental conditions and species varied between regions, we were able to predict the observed patterns of exclusion in each region using a stochastic model that incorporated data on development time, mating behaviour and resistance to insecticides. 4. Between-species variation in mating behaviour was a more significant factor affecting species exclusion than variation in development time. Specifically, the ability of B to copulate more effectively than other species resulted in a faster rate of population increase for B, as well as a reduced rate of population growth for other species, leading to species exclusion. The greater ability of B to evolve resistance to insecticides also contributed to exclusion of other species in some cases. 5. Results indicate that an integrative analysis of the consequences of variation in life-history traits, mating behaviours and adaption to insecticides could provide a robust framework for predicting species exclusion following whitefly invasions.

  19. Acyl sugars and whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) resistance in segregating populations of tomato genotypes.

    PubMed

    Dias, D M; Resende, J T V; Marodin, J C; Matos, R; Lustosa, I F; Resende, N C V

    2016-01-01

    The wild tomato, Solanum pennellii, is an important source of resistance genes against tomato pests. This resistance is due to the presence of acyl sugars (AS), which are allelochemicals that have negative effects on arthropod pests. There are no commercially available tomato cultivars that exhibit significant levels of resistance to arthropod pests. Therefore, this study evaluated resistance to whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) in F2 and F2RC1 tomato genotypes with high AS levels from a cross between Solanum lycopersicum 'Redenção' and the S. pennellii accession, LA-716. Plants were exposed to B. tabaci biotype B at the pre-flowering stage. In both generations, there were significant, negative correlations between AS content and oviposition preference and nymph development. Whitefly exhibited a lower preference for oviposition and produced fewer nymphs in genotypes with high AS levels and the wild parent S. pennellii than in the low AS-level genotypes and Redenção cultivar, demonstrating that the breeding program was effective in transferring resistance to the F2 and F2RC1 generations. RVTA-2010-pl#31 and RVTA-2010-pl#94 in the F2 population are promising genotypes that produced materials with high AS levels in the F2RC1 generation (RVTA-2010-31-pl#177 and RVTA-2010-94-pl#381). PMID:27173206

  20. Effects of Host Plant Factors on the Bacterial Communities Associated with Two Whitefly Sibling Species

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ming-Ming; Guo, Lei; Tao, Yun-Li; Zhang, You-Jun; Wan, Fang-Hao; Chu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Background Although discrepancy in the specific traits and ecological characteristics of Bemisia tabaci between species are partially attributed to the B. tabaci-associated bacteria, the factors that affect the diversity of B. tabaci-associated bacteria are not well-understood. We used the metagenomic approach to characterize the B. tabaci-associated bacterial community because the approach is an effective tool to identify the bacteria. Methodology and Results To investigate the effects of the host plant and a virus, tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), on the bacterial communities of B. tabaci sibling species B and Q, we analyzed the bacterial communities associated with whitefly B and Q collected from healthy cotton, healthy tomato, and TYLCV-infected tomato. The analysis used miseq-based sequencing of a variable region of the bacterial 16S rDNA gene. For the bacteria associated with B. tabaci, we found that the influence of the host plant species was greater than that of the whitefly cryptic species. With further analysis of host plants infected with the TYLCV, the virus had no significant effects on the B. tabaci-associated bacterial community. Conclusions The effects of different plant hosts and TYLCV-infection on the diversity of B. tabaci-associated bacterial communities were successfully analyzed in this study. To explain why B. tabaci sibling species with different host ranges differ in performance, the analysis of the bacterial community may be essential to the explanation. PMID:27008327

  1. Challenges with managing insecticide resistance in agricultural pests, exemplisfied by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Denholm, I.

    1998-01-01

    For many key agricultural pests, successful management of insecticide resistance depends not only on modifying the way that insecticides are deployed, but also on reducing the total number of treatments applied. Both approaches benefit from a knowledge of the biological characteristics of pests that promote or may retard the development of resistance. For the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), these factors include a haplodiploid breeding system that encourages the rapid selection and fixation of resistance genes, its breeding cycle on a succession of treated or untreated hosts, and its occurrence on and dispersal from high-value crops in greenhouses and glasshouses. These factors, in conjunction with often intensive insecticide use, have led to severe and widespread resistance that now affects several novel as well as conventional control agents. Resistance-management strategies implemented on cotton in Israel, and subsequently in south-western USA, have nonetheless so far succeeded in arresting the resistance treadmill in B. tabaci through a combination of increased chemical diversity, voluntary or mandatory restrictions on the use of key insecticides, and careful integration of chemical control with other pest-management options. In both countries, the most significant achievement has been a dramatic reduction in the number of insecticide treatments applied against whiteflies on cotton, increasing the prospect of sustained use of existing and future insecticides.

  2. Effects of rearing host species on the host-feeding capacity and parasitism of the whitefly parasitoid Encarsia formosa.

    PubMed

    Dai, Peng; Ruan, Changchun; Zang, Liansheng; Wan, Fanghao; Liu, Linzhou

    2014-01-01

    Parasitoids of the Encarsia genus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) are important biological control agents against whiteflies. Some of the species in this genus not only parasitize their hosts, but also kill them through host feeding. The whitefly parasitoid, Encarsia formosa Gahan, was examined to determine whether the rearing host species affects its subsequent host-feeding capacity and parasitism. E. formosa wasps were reared on Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) 'Q', and their subsequent host-feeding capacity and parasitism of T. vaporariorum and B. tabaci were examined. E. formosa reared on T. vaporariorum were significantly larger in body size than those reared on B. tabaci, but these wasps killed a similar number of whitefly nymphs by host feeding when they attacked the same host species on which they were reared. Regardless of the species on which it was reared, E. formosa fed significantly more on the B. tabaci nymphs than on the T. vaporariorum nymphs. The number of whitefly nymphs parasitized by E. formosa differed between the wasps reared on T. vaporariorum and those reared on B. tabaci depending on which whitefly species was offered as a host. In addition, the wasps reared on T. vaporariorum parasitized significantly more on T. vaporariorum than those reared on B. tabaci. The wasps reared on B. tabaci, however, parasitized similar numbers of whiteflies of both host species. The results indicated that the host-feeding capacity of E. formosa was affected more by the host species attacked than by the rearing host species, but the parasitism was affected by the host species attacked and the rearing host species. Generally, E. formosa reared on T. vaporariorum killed more T. vaporariorum nymphs by parasitism and host feeding than those reared on B. tabaci. Additionally, a similar number of B. tabaci nymphs were killed by parasitism and host feeding regardless of the rearing host species. Currently

  3. [Evaluation of interactive efficacy of two mycoinsecticides and low application rate imidacloprid in controlling greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae)].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Feng, Mingguang

    2003-11-01

    The interactive effects of pure emulsifiable formulations (10(10) conidia.ml-1) of Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus conidia and 1% and 3% of imidacloprid 10% WP were tested for controlling greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, on lettuce grown in four polyethylene film-covered greenhouses (5 m x 100 m) in Kunming, Yunnan. Six fungal treatments, two imidacloprid ones, and one water-spray control were included in the experiment, with each being replicated in three plots (7 m x 5 m.plot-1). For each of the treatments, 1000-fold aqueous dilution (10(7) conidia.ml-1) was sprayed twice at a 15-d interval, with the first spray given on day 11 after lettuce transplantation. Counts of live and dead whiteflies from each treatment were made on the initial day, and then, once every five days. During a 30-d period of observation from August 20, the two applications of the fungal formulations alone or those containing low rates of imidacloprid 10% WP effectively protected the lettuce from damage by T. vaporariorum, and generated relative efficacies. Whitefly density decreased > 95%, which was significantly higher than that attributed to the low application rates of imidacloprid 10% WP. Based on the estimations of relative efficacy and percent density decrease, P. fumosoroseus treatments controlled the whiteflies better than B. bassiana ones, and the effects of both fungi on the pest population were apparently enhanced with the quantity of imidacloprid added. The differences among the fungal treatments in the two estimations were larger during the first 10 days, but decreased thereafter, becoming insignificant on day 10 after the second spray. The results indicated that the fungal formulations tested in this study are of great potential for practical use in whitefly control, and their efficacy could be enhanced with low rates of imidacloprid.

  4. Sequencing and comparison of the Rickettsia genomes from the whitefly Bemisia tabaci Middle East Asia Minor I.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dan-Tong; Xia, Wen-Qiang; Rao, Qiong; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Ghanim, Murad; Wang, Xiao-Wei

    2016-08-01

    The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, harbors the primary symbiont 'Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum' and a variety of secondary symbionts. Among these secondary symbionts, Rickettsia is the only one that can be detected both inside and outside the bacteriomes. Infection with Rickettsia has been reported to influence several aspects of the whitefly biology, such as fitness, sex ratio, virus transmission and resistance to pesticides. However, mechanisms underlying these differences remain unclear, largely due to the lack of genomic information of Rickettsia. In this study, we sequenced the genome of two Rickettsia strains isolated from the Middle East Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) species of the B. tabaci complex in China and Israel. Both Rickettsia genomes were of high coding density and AT-rich, containing more than 1000 coding sequences, much larger than that of the coexisted primary symbiont, Portiera. Moreover, the two Rickettsia strains isolated from China and Israel shared most of the genes with 100% identity and only nine genes showed sequence differences. The phylogenetic analysis using orthologs shared in the genus, inferred the proximity of Rickettsia in MEAM1 and Rickettsia bellii. Functional analysis revealed that Rickettsia was unable to synthesize amino acids required for complementing the whitefly nutrition. Besides, a type IV secretion system and a number of virulence-related genes were detected in the Rickettsia genome. The presence of virulence-related genes might benefit the symbiotic life of the bacteria, and hint on potential effects of Rickettsia on whiteflies. The genome sequences of Rickettsia provided a basis for further understanding the function of Rickettsia in whiteflies. PMID:27273750

  5. Augmentation and Evaluation of a Parasitoid, Encarsia inaron, and a Predator, Clitostethus arcuatus, for Biological Control of the Pomegranate Whitefly, Siphoninus phillyreae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pomegranate whitefly, Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), attacks at least 60 plant species of economic importance including pomegranate (Punica granatum), apple (Malus domestica), pear (Pyrus communis) and ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). A study was conducted to evaluate the b...

  6. Reduction of viral load in whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gen.) feeding on RNAi-mediated bean golden mosaic virus resistant transgenic bean plants.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Nayhanne T; de Faria, Josias C; Aragão, Francisco J L

    2015-12-01

    The RNAi concept was explored to silence the rep gene from the bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) and a genetically modified (GM) bean immune to the virus was previously generated. We investigated if BGMV-viruliferous whiteflies would reduce viral amount after feeding on GM plants. BGMV DNA amount was significantly reduced in whiteflies feeding in GM-plants (compared with insects feeding on non-GM plants) for a period of 4 and 8 days in 52% and 84% respectively.

  7. Microbial control of the invasive spiraling whitefly on cassava with entomopathogenic fungi

    PubMed Central

    Boopathi, Thangavel; Karuppuchamy, Palaniappan; Singh, Soibam B.; Kalyanasundaram, Manickavasagam; Mohankumar, S.; Ravi, Madhaiyan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Lecanicillium lecanii and Isaria fumosorosea were tested for their efficacy in managing the exotic spiraling whitefly Aleurodicus dispersus (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) on cassava (Manihot esculenta) during 2 seasons (2011-2012 and 2012-2013). The fungi I. fumosorosea and L. lecanii exhibited promising levels of control (> 70% mortality of the A. dispersus population). The percent mortality increased over time in both seasons. Application of I. fumosorosea was highly pathogenic to A. dispersus in both seasons compared to the other entomopathogenic fungi. Analysis of the percent mortality in both seasons revealed differences in efficacy between 3 and 15 days after treatment. The season also influenced the effects of the fungi on the A. dispersus population. Thus, entomopathogenic fungi have the potential to manage A. dispersus infestation of cassava. PMID:26691465

  8. Metabolic Coevolution in the Bacterial Symbiosis of Whiteflies and Related Plant Sap-Feeding Insects

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Jun-Bo; Chen, Wenbo; Hasegawa, Daniel K.; Simmons, Alvin M.; Wintermantel, William M.; Ling, Kai-Shu; Fei, Zhangjun; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Douglas, Angela E.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic decay is a common feature of intracellular bacteria that have entered into symbiosis with plant sap-feeding insects. This study of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci and two bacteria (Portiera aleyrodidarum and Hamiltonella defensa) cohoused in each host cell investigated whether the decay of Portiera metabolism genes is complemented by host and Hamiltonella genes, and compared the metabolic traits of the whitefly symbiosis with other sap-feeding insects (aphids, psyllids, and mealybugs). Parallel genomic and transcriptomic analysis revealed that the host genome contributes multiple metabolic reactions that complement or duplicate Portiera function, and that Hamiltonella may contribute multiple cofactors and one essential amino acid, lysine. Homologs of the Bemisia metabolism genes of insect origin have also been implicated in essential amino acid synthesis in other sap-feeding insect hosts, indicative of parallel coevolution of shared metabolic pathways across multiple symbioses. Further metabolism genes coded in the Bemisia genome are of bacterial origin, but phylogenetically distinct from Portiera, Hamiltonella and horizontally transferred genes identified in other sap-feeding insects. Overall, 75% of the metabolism genes of bacterial origin are functionally unique to one symbiosis, indicating that the evolutionary history of metabolic integration in these symbioses is strongly contingent on the pattern of horizontally acquired genes. Our analysis, further, shows that bacteria with genomic decay enable host acquisition of complex metabolic pathways by multiple independent horizontal gene transfers from exogenous bacteria. Specifically, each horizontally acquired gene can function with other genes in the pathway coded by the symbiont, while facilitating the decay of the symbiont gene coding the same reaction. PMID:26377567

  9. Metabolic Coevolution in the Bacterial Symbiosis of Whiteflies and Related Plant Sap-Feeding Insects.

    PubMed

    Luan, Jun-Bo; Chen, Wenbo; Hasegawa, Daniel K; Simmons, Alvin M; Wintermantel, William M; Ling, Kai-Shu; Fei, Zhangjun; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Douglas, Angela E

    2015-09-15

    Genomic decay is a common feature of intracellular bacteria that have entered into symbiosis with plant sap-feeding insects. This study of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci and two bacteria (Portiera aleyrodidarum and Hamiltonella defensa) cohoused in each host cell investigated whether the decay of Portiera metabolism genes is complemented by host and Hamiltonella genes, and compared the metabolic traits of the whitefly symbiosis with other sap-feeding insects (aphids, psyllids, and mealybugs). Parallel genomic and transcriptomic analysis revealed that the host genome contributes multiple metabolic reactions that complement or duplicate Portiera function, and that Hamiltonella may contribute multiple cofactors and one essential amino acid, lysine. Homologs of the Bemisia metabolism genes of insect origin have also been implicated in essential amino acid synthesis in other sap-feeding insect hosts, indicative of parallel coevolution of shared metabolic pathways across multiple symbioses. Further metabolism genes coded in the Bemisia genome are of bacterial origin, but phylogenetically distinct from Portiera, Hamiltonella and horizontally transferred genes identified in other sap-feeding insects. Overall, 75% of the metabolism genes of bacterial origin are functionally unique to one symbiosis, indicating that the evolutionary history of metabolic integration in these symbioses is strongly contingent on the pattern of horizontally acquired genes. Our analysis, further, shows that bacteria with genomic decay enable host acquisition of complex metabolic pathways by multiple independent horizontal gene transfers from exogenous bacteria. Specifically, each horizontally acquired gene can function with other genes in the pathway coded by the symbiont, while facilitating the decay of the symbiont gene coding the same reaction.

  10. Torradoviruses are transmitted in a semi-persistent and stylet-borne manner by three whitefly vectors.

    PubMed

    Verbeek, Martin; van Bekkum, Petra J; Dullemans, Annette M; van der Vlugt, René A A

    2014-06-24

    Members of the genus Torradovirus (family Secoviridae, type species Tomato torrado virus, ToTV) are spherical plant viruses transmitted by the whitefly species Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Bemisia tabaci. Knowledge on the mode of vector transmission is lacking for torradoviruses. Here, the mode of transmission was determined for Tomato marchitez virus (ToMarV). A minimal acquisition access period (AAP) and inoculation access period (IAP) of approximately 2h each was required for its transmission by T. vaporariorum, while optimal transmission required an AAP and IAP of at least 16h and 8h, respectively. Whiteflies could retain the virus under non-feeding conditions for at least 8h without loss of transmission efficiency, but upon feeding on a non-host plant in between the AAP and IAP they retained the virus for no more than 8h. Similar conditions supported transmission of isolates of ToTV and Tomato chocolàte virus (ToChV) by T. vaporariorum and B. tabaci. Additionally, similar experiments revealed the banded-winged whitefly (Trialeurodes abutilonea) as a vector for all three virus species. The results are congruent with acquisition and retention periods for semi-persistent virus transmission. RT-PCR detection analysis of ToTV and ToMarV in the vector's body revealed their presence in the stylet, but not in the head where the pharynx of the foregut is located. The results altogether indicate a semi-persistent stylet-borne mode of vector transmission for torradoviruses. Additionally, this is the first group of spherical viruses transmitted by at least three different species of whiteflies.

  11. Effect of Host Plant Resistance to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) on Virus Acquisition and Transmission by Its Whitefly Vector.

    PubMed

    Lapidot, M; Friedmann, M; Pilowsky, M; Ben-Joseph, R; Cohen, S

    2001-12-01

    ABSTRACT The effect that Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV)-infected resistant tomato plants may have on virus epidemiology was studied. Four tomato genotypes that exhibit different levels of viral resistance, ranging from fully susceptible to highly resistant, served as TYLCV-infected source plants. Viral acquisition and transmission rates by white-flies following feeding on the different source plants were evaluated. TYLCV transmission rate by whiteflies that had fed on infected source plants 21 days postinoculation (DPI), shortly after the appearance of TYLCV symptoms, was negatively correlated with the level of resistance displayed by the source plant. Therefore, the higher the resistance, the lower the transmission rate. In addition, TYLCV DNA accumulation was shown to be lower in the resistant source plants compared with the susceptible plants. Whitefly survival rate, following feeding on source plants 21 DPI, was similar for all the cultivars tested. Significant differences in whitefly survival were found, however, following feeding on the infected source plants at 35 DPI; here, whitefly survival rate increased with higher levels of resistance displayed by the source plant. At 35 DPI, the susceptible plants had developed severe TYLCV disease symptoms, and transmission rates from these plants were the lowest, presumably due to the poor condition of these plants. Transmission rates from source plants displaying a medium level of resistance level were highest, with rates declining following feeding on source plants displaying higher levels of TYLCV resistance. TYLCV DNA accumulation in whiteflies following feeding on infected source plants at both 21 and 35 DPI was directly correlated with viral DNA accumulation in source plants. Results show that, in essence, the higher the resistance expressed, the less suitable the plant was as a viral source. Consequently, following acquisition from a highly resistant plant, TYLCV transmission by whiteflies will be less

  12. Vector-Enabled Metagenomic (VEM) Surveys Using Whiteflies (Aleyrodidae) Reveal Novel Begomovirus Species in the New and Old Worlds

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Karyna; Seah, Yee Mey; Marr, Christian; Varsani, Arvind; Kraberger, Simona; Stainton, Daisy; Moriones, Enrique; Polston, Jane E.; Duffy, Siobain; Breitbart, Mya

    2015-01-01

    Whitefly-transmitted viruses belonging to the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae) represent a substantial threat to agricultural food production. The rapid evolutionary potential of these single-stranded DNA viruses combined with the polyphagous feeding behavior of their whitefly vector (Bemisia tabaci) can lead to the emergence of damaging viral strains. Therefore, it is crucial to characterize begomoviruses circulating in different regions and crops globally. This study utilized vector-enabled metagenomics (VEM) coupled with high-throughput sequencing to survey begomoviruses directly from whiteflies collected in various locations (California (USA), Guatemala, Israel, Puerto Rico, and Spain). Begomoviruses were detected in all locations, with the highest diversity identified in Guatemala where up to seven different species were identified in a single field. Both bipartite and monopartite viruses were detected, including seven new begomovirus species from Guatemala, Puerto Rico, and Spain. This begomovirus survey extends the known diversity of these highly damaging plant viruses. However, the new genomes described here and in the recent literature appear to reflect the outcome of interactions between closely-related species, often resulting from recombination, instead of unique, highly divergent species. PMID:26516898

  13. Volatiles from whitefly-infested plants elicit a host-locating response in the parasitoid, Encarsia formosa.

    PubMed

    Birkett, M A; Chamberlain, K; Guerrieri, E; Pickett, J A; Wadhams, L J; Yasuda, T

    2003-07-01

    The blend of volatile compounds emitted by bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) infested with greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) has been studied comparatively with undamaged plants and whiteflies themselves. Collection of the volatiles and analysis by gas chromatography revealed more than 20 compounds produced by plants infested with whitefly. Of these, 4 compounds, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, 4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, 3-octanone, and one unidentified compound were emitted at higher levels than from the undamaged control plants. Synthetic (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, 4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, or 3-octanone all elicited a significant increase in oriented flight and landing on the source by the parasitoid, Encarsia formosa, in wind tunnel bioassays. Two-component mixtures of the compounds and the three-component mixture all elicited a similar or, in most cases, a better response by the parasitoid, the most effective being a mixture of (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and 3-octanone. These results demonstrate that E. formosa uses volatiles from the plant-host complex as olfactory cues for host location.

  14. Vector-Enabled Metagenomic (VEM) Surveys Using Whiteflies (Aleyrodidae) Reveal Novel Begomovirus Species in the New and Old Worlds.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Karyna; Seah, Yee Mey; Marr, Christian; Varsani, Arvind; Kraberger, Simona; Stainton, Daisy; Moriones, Enrique; Polston, Jane E; Duffy, Siobain; Breitbart, Mya

    2015-10-01

    Whitefly-transmitted viruses belonging to the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae) represent a substantial threat to agricultural food production. The rapid evolutionary potential of these single-stranded DNA viruses combined with the polyphagous feeding behavior of their whitefly vector (Bemisia tabaci) can lead to the emergence of damaging viral strains. Therefore, it is crucial to characterize begomoviruses circulating in different regions and crops globally. This study utilized vector-enabled metagenomics (VEM) coupled with high-throughput sequencing to survey begomoviruses directly from whiteflies collected in various locations (California (USA), Guatemala, Israel, Puerto Rico, and Spain). Begomoviruses were detected in all locations, with the highest diversity identified in Guatemala where up to seven different species were identified in a single field. Both bipartite and monopartite viruses were detected, including seven new begomovirus species from Guatemala, Puerto Rico, and Spain. This begomovirus survey extends the known diversity of these highly damaging plant viruses. However, the new genomes described here and in the recent literature appear to reflect the outcome of interactions between closely-related species, often resulting from recombination, instead of unique, highly divergent species. PMID:26516898

  15. Molecular evidence for multiple phylogenetic groups within two species of invasive spiny whiteflies and their parasitoid wasp.

    PubMed

    Uesugi, R; Sato, Y; Han, B-Y; Huang, Z-D; Yara, K; Furuhashi, K

    2016-06-01

    The invasive orange spiny whitefly (OSW) Aleurocanthus spiniferus has extended its distribution to non-native areas since the early 20th century. In a similar manner, the invasive tea spiny whitefly (TSW) A. camelliae has been expanding over East Asia in recent decades. In this study, the genetic diversity of OSW and TSW and of their important parasitoid wasp Encarsia smithi was investigated in China and Japan to enable more efficient biological control policies. We detected two phylogenetic groups (haplogroups A1 and A2) in OSW and three phylogenetic groups (haplotypes B1 and B2, and haplogroup B3) in TSW in China; however, only a single haplotype was detected in each whitefly species in Japan. Based on historical records and molecular data, OSW was considered to be native to China whereas TSW has probably expanded to China from a more southern location in the last 50 years; China appears to be the source region for OSW and TSW invading Japan. In E. smithi, two phylogenetic groups were detected in Japan: haplotype I, associated with OSW, and haplogroup II mostly associated with TSW, except in two locations. These data support the hypothesis that E. smithi parasitizing TSW in Japan did not originate from the existent population parasitizing OSW but was newly imported into Japan following the invasion of its host. PMID:26782948

  16. Molecular evidence for multiple phylogenetic groups within two species of invasive spiny whiteflies and their parasitoid wasp.

    PubMed

    Uesugi, R; Sato, Y; Han, B-Y; Huang, Z-D; Yara, K; Furuhashi, K

    2016-06-01

    The invasive orange spiny whitefly (OSW) Aleurocanthus spiniferus has extended its distribution to non-native areas since the early 20th century. In a similar manner, the invasive tea spiny whitefly (TSW) A. camelliae has been expanding over East Asia in recent decades. In this study, the genetic diversity of OSW and TSW and of their important parasitoid wasp Encarsia smithi was investigated in China and Japan to enable more efficient biological control policies. We detected two phylogenetic groups (haplogroups A1 and A2) in OSW and three phylogenetic groups (haplotypes B1 and B2, and haplogroup B3) in TSW in China; however, only a single haplotype was detected in each whitefly species in Japan. Based on historical records and molecular data, OSW was considered to be native to China whereas TSW has probably expanded to China from a more southern location in the last 50 years; China appears to be the source region for OSW and TSW invading Japan. In E. smithi, two phylogenetic groups were detected in Japan: haplotype I, associated with OSW, and haplogroup II mostly associated with TSW, except in two locations. These data support the hypothesis that E. smithi parasitizing TSW in Japan did not originate from the existent population parasitizing OSW but was newly imported into Japan following the invasion of its host.

  17. Vector-Enabled Metagenomic (VEM) Surveys Using Whiteflies (Aleyrodidae) Reveal Novel Begomovirus Species in the New and Old Worlds.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Karyna; Seah, Yee Mey; Marr, Christian; Varsani, Arvind; Kraberger, Simona; Stainton, Daisy; Moriones, Enrique; Polston, Jane E; Duffy, Siobain; Breitbart, Mya

    2015-10-26

    Whitefly-transmitted viruses belonging to the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae) represent a substantial threat to agricultural food production. The rapid evolutionary potential of these single-stranded DNA viruses combined with the polyphagous feeding behavior of their whitefly vector (Bemisia tabaci) can lead to the emergence of damaging viral strains. Therefore, it is crucial to characterize begomoviruses circulating in different regions and crops globally. This study utilized vector-enabled metagenomics (VEM) coupled with high-throughput sequencing to survey begomoviruses directly from whiteflies collected in various locations (California (USA), Guatemala, Israel, Puerto Rico, and Spain). Begomoviruses were detected in all locations, with the highest diversity identified in Guatemala where up to seven different species were identified in a single field. Both bipartite and monopartite viruses were detected, including seven new begomovirus species from Guatemala, Puerto Rico, and Spain. This begomovirus survey extends the known diversity of these highly damaging plant viruses. However, the new genomes described here and in the recent literature appear to reflect the outcome of interactions between closely-related species, often resulting from recombination, instead of unique, highly divergent species.

  18. Aphid-induced Defences in Chilli Affect Preferences of the Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Khalid A.; Mohamad Roff, M. N.; Hallett, Rebecca H.; Idris, A. B.

    2015-01-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly (WF), Bemisia tabaci, is a major pest that damages a wide range of vegetable crops in Malaysia. WF infestation is influenced by a variety of factors, including previous infestation of the host plant by other insect pests. This study investigated the effects of previous infestation of host chilli plants by the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) on the olfactory behavioural response of B. tabaci, using free-choice bioassay with a Y-tube olfactometer. We analysed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by non-infested and M. persicae-infested chilli plants using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Our results showed that female WFs preferred non-infested to pre-infested plants. Collection and analysis of volatile compounds emitted by infested plants confirmed that there were significant increases in the production of monoterpenes (cymene; 1,8-cineole), sesquiterpenes (β–cadinene, α-copaene), and methyl salicylate (MeSA) compared to non-infested plants. Our results suggest that host plant infestation by aphids may induce production of secondary metabolites that deter B. tabaci from settling on its host plants. These results provide important information for understanding WF host selection and dispersal among crops, and also for manipulating WF behaviour to improve IPM in chilli. PMID:26334135

  19. Tolerance to a whitefly-transmitted virus causing muskmelon yellows disease in Spain.

    PubMed

    Esteva, J; Nuez, F

    1992-08-01

    Muskmelon yellowing disease was one of the most serious problems affecting muskmelon crops along the south-east coast of Spain throughout the 1980s. The causal agent of this disease is a virus that we call muskmelon yellows virus (MYV); MYV is transmitted by the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood. It has proven impossible to find sources of resistance to MYV within a wide collection of Spanish muskmelon landraces and exotic varieties. However, 'Nagata Kin Makuwa' and PI 161375, lines of Asiatic origin, show tolerance to this disease. These two lines were studied together with two others ('Galia' and 'Piel de Sapo' type) that are very susceptible to MYV. The crosses between them (susceptible x tolerant) and the segregant generations derived from these crosses were also investigated. The studies were carried out in two different places and years. The expression of tolerance is influenced by the environment. A parabolic type relationship exists between the average value of percentage of tolerant plants and their variation. This allowed us to quantify the expected response in the segregant generations. The results observed in these generations agreed with a simple genetic control of tolerance. This tolerance, combined with protective measures which delay the infection, can contribute notably to mitigating the effects of MYV.

  20. Aphid-induced Defences in Chilli Affect Preferences of the Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Saad, Khalid A; Mohamad Roff, M N; Hallett, Rebecca H; Idris, A B

    2015-01-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly (WF), Bemisia tabaci, is a major pest that damages a wide range of vegetable crops in Malaysia. WF infestation is influenced by a variety of factors, including previous infestation of the host plant by other insect pests. This study investigated the effects of previous infestation of host chilli plants by the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) on the olfactory behavioural response of B. tabaci, using free-choice bioassay with a Y-tube olfactometer. We analysed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by non-infested and M. persicae-infested chilli plants using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our results showed that female WFs preferred non-infested to pre-infested plants. Collection and analysis of volatile compounds emitted by infested plants confirmed that there were significant increases in the production of monoterpenes (cymene; 1,8-cineole), sesquiterpenes (β-cadinene, α-copaene), and methyl salicylate (MeSA) compared to non-infested plants. Our results suggest that host plant infestation by aphids may induce production of secondary metabolites that deter B. tabaci from settling on its host plants. These results provide important information for understanding WF host selection and dispersal among crops, and also for manipulating WF behaviour to improve IPM in chilli. PMID:26334135

  1. Genetic structure of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci populations in Colombia following a recent invasion.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Fernando; Endersby, Nancy M; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2015-08-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is one of the most important pests causing economic losses in a variety of cropping systems around the world. This species was recently found in a coastal region of Colombia and has now spread inland. To investigate this invasive process, the genetic structure of B. tabaci was examined in 8 sampling locations from 2 infested regions (coastal, inland) using 9 microsatellite markers and the mitochondrial COI gene. The mitochondrial analysis indicated that only the invasive species of the B. tabaci complex Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM 1 known previously as biotype B) was present. The microsatellite data pointed to genetic differences among the regions and no isolation by distance within regions. The coastal region in the Caribbean appears to have been the initial point of invasion, while the inland region in the Southwest showed genetic variation among populations most likely reflecting founder events and ongoing changes associated with climatic and topographical heterogeneity. These findings have implications for tracking and managing B. tabaci.

  2. Nature lessons: The whitefly bacterial endosymbiont is a minimal amino acid factory with unusual energetics.

    PubMed

    Calle-Espinosa, Jorge; Ponce-de-Leon, Miguel; Santos-Garcia, Diego; Silva, Francisco J; Montero, Francisco; Peretó, Juli

    2016-10-21

    Reductive genome evolution is a universal phenomenon observed in endosymbiotic bacteria in insects. As the genome reduces its size and irreversibly losses coding genes, the functionalities of the cell system, including the energetics processes, are more restricted. Several energetic pathways can also be lost. How do these reduced metabolic networks sustain the energy needs of the system? Among the bacteria with reduced genomes Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum, obligate endosymbiont of whiteflies, represents an extreme case since lacks several key mechanisms for ATP generation. Thus, to analyze the cell energetics in this system, a genome-scale metabolic model of this endosymbiont was constructed, and its energy production capabilities dissected using stoichiometric analysis. Our results suggest that energy generation is coupled to the synthesis of essential amino acids and carotenoids, crucial metabolites in the symbiotic association. A deeper insight showed that ATP production via carotenoid synthesis is also connected with amino acid production. This unusual association of energy production with anabolism suggests that, although minimized, endosymbiont metabolic networks maintain a remarkable biosynthetic potential. PMID:27473768

  3. Manipulation of Host Quality and Defense by a Plant Virus Improves Performance of Whitefly Vectors.

    PubMed

    Su, Qi; Preisser, Evan L; Zhou, Xiao Mao; Xie, Wen; Liu, Bai Ming; Wang, Shao Li; Wu, Qing Jun; Zhang, You Jun

    2015-02-01

    Pathogen-mediated interactions between insect vectors and their host plants can affect herbivore fitness and the epidemiology of plant diseases. While the role of plant quality and defense in mediating these tripartite interactions has been recognized, there are many ecologically and economically important cases where the nature of the interaction has yet to be characterized. The Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) cryptic species Mediterranean (MED) is an important vector of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), and performs better on virus-infected tomato than on uninfected controls. We assessed the impact of TYLCV infection on plant quality and defense, and the direct impact of TYLCV infection on MED feeding. We found that although TYLCV infection has a minimal direct impact on MED, the virus alters the nutritional content of leaf tissue and phloem sap in a manner beneficial to MED. TYLCV infection also suppresses herbivore-induced production of plant defensive enzymes and callose deposition. The strongly positive net effect on TYLCV on MED is consistent with previously reported patterns of whitefly behavior and performance, and provides a foundation for further exploration of the molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects and the evolutionary processes that shape them. PMID:26470098

  4. Evidence that whitefly-transmitted cowpea mild mottle virus belongs to the genus Carlavirus.

    PubMed

    Naidu, R A; Gowda, S; Satyanarayana, T; Boyko, V; Reddy, A S; Dawson, W O; Reddy, D V

    1998-01-01

    Two strains of whitefly-transmitted cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) causing severe (CPMMV-S) and mild (CPMMV-M) disease symptoms in peanuts were collected from two distinct agro-ecological zones in India. The host-range of these strains was restricted to Leguminosae and Chenopodiaceae, and each could be distinguished on the basis of symptoms incited in different hosts. The 3'-terminal 2500 nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA of both the strains was 70% identical and contains five open reading frames (ORFs). The first three (P25, P12 and P7) overlap to form a triple gene block of proteins, P32 encodes the coat protein, followed by P12 protein located at the 3' end of the genome. Genome organization and pair-wise comparisons of amino acid sequences of proteins encoded by these ORFs with corresponding proteins of known carlaviruses and potexviruses suggest that CPMMV-S and CPMMV-M are closely related to viruses in the genus Carlavirus. Based on the data, it is concluded that CPMMV is a distinct species in the genus Carlavirus.

  5. Contribution to our knowledge of the whitefly genus Aleuroclava Singh (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in China, including Taiwan and Hong Kong, with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-Rui; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Two new whitefly species, Aleuroclava sterculiae sp. nov., collected from Sterculia nobilis (Malvales: Sterculiaceae) of Qingxiu hill park (Guangxi, China), and Aleuroclava rosae sp. nov., collected from Stranvaesia sp. (Rosales: Rosaceae) of Maoer Mountain (Guangxi, China), are described with morphology, line illustrations, photographs and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. In addition, two other whitefly species, Aleuroclava lefroyi (Sundararaj & David) and Aleuroclava manii (David), are reported as new to the fauna of China, and are discussed. An identification key to Aleuroclava species known from Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong is provided. The specimens are deposited in the Insect Collection of Yangzhou University (YZU). PMID:27470767

  6. Isolation and Classification of Fungal Whitefly Entomopathogens from Soils of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor in China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Tingyan; Zhang, Bowen; Jiang, Yanfang; Hu, Qiongbo

    2016-01-01

    Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor of China with distinct geographic and climatic conditions are remote and less disturbed by humans, in which are likely to find some new strains of fungal entomopathogens against B-biotype whiteflies that is a very important invading pest worldwide. In this research, nineteen strains among six species of entomogenous fungi were isolated from the soil samples collected from 32 locations in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor. From the data of isolation rates, it was indicated that the good biodiversity of entomogenous fungi was found in the soil covered good vegetations. On the contrary, no strains were isolated from the desert areas. In addition, the dominant species, Isaria fumosorosea and Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are different from the strains of other places based on ITS genetic homology analysis. It was verified that the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau area was less disturbed by human, and the fungi in this place exchanged less compared with other regional species. All of these strains showed the pathogenicity against the B-biotype whitefly with the mortality of more than 30%. However, a few strains of Paecilomyces lilacinus, Lecanicillium psalliotae, Aspergillus ustus, I. fumosorosea and M. anisopliae var. anisopliae had better virulence with LC50s of 0.36-26.44×106 spores/mL on post-treatment day 6-7. Especially, the L. psalliotae strain LpTS01 was the greatest virulence with LC50 of 0.36×106spores/mL and LT50 of 4.23d. Our research thus presents some new insights to discover new entomopathogenic fungal strains used for B-biotype whitefly biocontrol. PMID:27228109

  7. Isolation and Classification of Fungal Whitefly Entomopathogens from Soils of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor in China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Tingyan; Zhang, Bowen; Jiang, Yanfang; Hu, Qiongbo

    2016-01-01

    Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor of China with distinct geographic and climatic conditions are remote and less disturbed by humans, in which are likely to find some new strains of fungal entomopathogens against B-biotype whiteflies that is a very important invading pest worldwide. In this research, nineteen strains among six species of entomogenous fungi were isolated from the soil samples collected from 32 locations in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor. From the data of isolation rates, it was indicated that the good biodiversity of entomogenous fungi was found in the soil covered good vegetations. On the contrary, no strains were isolated from the desert areas. In addition, the dominant species, Isaria fumosorosea and Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are different from the strains of other places based on ITS genetic homology analysis. It was verified that the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau area was less disturbed by human, and the fungi in this place exchanged less compared with other regional species. All of these strains showed the pathogenicity against the B-biotype whitefly with the mortality of more than 30%. However, a few strains of Paecilomyces lilacinus, Lecanicillium psalliotae, Aspergillus ustus, I. fumosorosea and M. anisopliae var. anisopliae had better virulence with LC50s of 0.36-26.44×106 spores/mL on post-treatment day 6-7. Especially, the L. psalliotae strain LpTS01 was the greatest virulence with LC50 of 0.36×106spores/mL and LT50 of 4.23d. Our research thus presents some new insights to discover new entomopathogenic fungal strains used for B-biotype whitefly biocontrol.

  8. Isolation and Classification of Fungal Whitefly Entomopathogens from Soils of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor in China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanfang; Hu, Qiongbo

    2016-01-01

    Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor of China with distinct geographic and climatic conditions are remote and less disturbed by humans, in which are likely to find some new strains of fungal entomopathogens against B-biotype whiteflies that is a very important invading pest worldwide. In this research, nineteen strains among six species of entomogenous fungi were isolated from the soil samples collected from 32 locations in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor. From the data of isolation rates, it was indicated that the good biodiversity of entomogenous fungi was found in the soil covered good vegetations. On the contrary, no strains were isolated from the desert areas. In addition, the dominant species, Isaria fumosorosea and Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are different from the strains of other places based on ITS genetic homology analysis. It was verified that the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau area was less disturbed by human, and the fungi in this place exchanged less compared with other regional species. All of these strains showed the pathogenicity against the B-biotype whitefly with the mortality of more than 30%. However, a few strains of Paecilomyces lilacinus, Lecanicillium psalliotae, Aspergillus ustus, I. fumosorosea and M. anisopliae var. anisopliae had better virulence with LC50s of 0.36–26.44×106 spores/mL on post-treatment day 6–7. Especially, the L. psalliotae strain LpTS01 was the greatest virulence with LC50 of 0.36×106spores/mL and LT50 of 4.23d. Our research thus presents some new insights to discover new entomopathogenic fungal strains used for B-biotype whitefly biocontrol. PMID:27228109

  9. Implication of the Bacterial Endosymbiont Rickettsia spp. in Interactions of the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci with Tomato yellow leaf curl virus

    PubMed Central

    Kliot, Adi; Cilia, Michelle; Czosnek, Henryk

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Numerous animal and plant viruses are transmitted by arthropod vectors in a persistent, circulative manner. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is transmitted by the sweet potato whitefly Bemisia tabaci. We report here that infection with Rickettsia spp., a facultative endosymbiont of whiteflies, altered TYLCV-B. tabaci interactions. A B. tabaci strain infected with Rickettsia acquired more TYLCV from infected plants, retained the virus longer, and exhibited nearly double the transmission efficiency compared to an uninfected B. tabaci strain with the same genetic background. Temporal and spatial antagonistic relationships were discovered between Rickettsia and TYLCV within the whitefly. In different time course experiments, the levels of virus and Rickettsia within the insect were inversely correlated. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of Rickettsia-infected midguts provided evidence for niche exclusion between Rickettsia and TYLCV. In particular, high levels of the bacterium in the midgut resulted in higher virus concentrations in the filter chamber, a favored site for virus translocation along the transmission pathway, whereas low levels of Rickettsia in the midgut resulted in an even distribution of the virus. Taken together, these results indicate that Rickettsia, by infecting the midgut, increases TYLCV transmission efficacy, adding further insights into the complex association between persistent plant viruses, their insect vectors, and microorganism tenants that reside within these insects. IMPORTANCE Interest in bacterial endosymbionts in arthropods and many aspects of their host biology in agricultural and human health systems has been increasing. A recent and relevant studied example is the influence of Wolbachia on dengue virus transmission by mosquitoes. In parallel with our recently studied whitefly-Rickettsia-TYLCV system, other studies have shown that dengue virus levels in the mosquito vector are inversely correlated with

  10. DNA Barcoding of Bemisia tabaci Complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Reveals Southerly Expansion of the Dominant Whitefly Species on Cotton in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Mirza, M. Sajjad; Khan, Arif M.; Mansoor, Shahid; Shah, Ghulam S.; Zafar, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    Background Although whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci complex) are an important pest of cotton in Pakistan, its taxonomic diversity is poorly understood. As DNA barcoding is an effective tool for resolving species complexes and analyzing species distributions, we used this approach to analyze genetic diversity in the B. tabaci complex and map the distribution of B. tabaci lineages in cotton growing areas of Pakistan. Methods/Principal Findings Sequence diversity in the DNA barcode region (mtCOI-5′) was examined in 593 whiteflies from Pakistan to determine the number of whitefly species and their distributions in the cotton-growing areas of Punjab and Sindh provinces. These new records were integrated with another 173 barcode sequences for B. tabaci, most from India, to better understand regional whitefly diversity. The Barcode Index Number (BIN) System assigned the 766 sequences to 15 BINs, including nine from Pakistan. Representative specimens of each Pakistan BIN were analyzed for mtCOI-3′ to allow their assignment to one of the putative species in the B. tabaci complex recognized on the basis of sequence variation in this gene region. This analysis revealed the presence of Asia II 1, Middle East-Asia Minor 1, Asia 1, Asia II 5, Asia II 7, and a new lineage “Pakistan”. The first two taxa were found in both Punjab and Sindh, but Asia 1 was only detected in Sindh, while Asia II 5, Asia II 7 and “Pakistan” were only present in Punjab. The haplotype networks showed that most haplotypes of Asia II 1, a species implicated in transmission of the cotton leaf curl virus, occurred in both India and Pakistan. Conclusions DNA barcodes successfully discriminated cryptic species in B. tabaci complex. The dominant haplotypes in the B. tabaci complex were shared by India and Pakistan. Asia II 1 was previously restricted to Punjab, but is now the dominant lineage in southern Sindh; its southward spread may have serious implications for cotton plantations in this region. PMID

  11. Effectiveness of imidacloprid (ProAgro 100 SL) in the control of glasshouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) and western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) on tomato under cover.

    PubMed

    Narkiewicz Jodki, J; Nawrocka, B; Swietosławski, J

    2004-01-01

    In 2002 a glasshouse experiments were carried out on the effectiveness of ProAgro 100 SL in the control of glasshouse whitefly and western flower thrips on tomato cv. Perkoz. Strict observation of the basic prophylactic rules such as introducing in to glasshouse only healthy seedlings, uninfected by whitefly and thrips as well as isolation of tomato plants, especially the seedlings from ornamental plants are important to the limit of the pest population. During the vegetation period the population of whitefly and thrips may be limited by the insecticide application. The glasshouse experiments on the performance of ProAgro 100 SL in the control of mentioned above pest species were carried out at the Research Institute of Vegetable Crops in Skierniewice. The ProAgro 100 SL was applied in the concentration of 0,1%. The standard treatment was Juventox 040 SL (acetamiprid) in the concentration of 0.05%. The obtained results allow to find that ProAgro 100 SL in the rates of 0.1% performed well in the limiting population of whitefly and western flower thrips on glasshouse tomato.

  12. Cross-kingdom effects of plant-plant signaling via volatile organic compounds emitted by tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants infested by the greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum).

    PubMed

    Ángeles López, Yesenia Ithaí; Martínez-Gallardo, Norma Angélica; Ramírez-Romero, Ricardo; López, Mercedes G; Sánchez-Hernández, Carla; Délano-Frier, John Paul

    2012-11-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from plants in response to insect infestation can function as signals for the attraction of predatory/parasitic insects and/or repulsion of herbivores. VOCs also may play a role in intra- and inter-plant communication. In this work, the kinetics and composition of VOC emissions produced by tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants infested with the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum was determined within a 14 days period. The VOC emission profiles varied concomitantly with the duration of whitefly infestation. A total of 36 different VOCs were detected during the experiment, 26 of which could be identified: 23 terpenoids, plus decanal, decane, and methyl salicylate (MeSA). Many VOCs were emitted exclusively by infested plants, including MeSA and 10 terpenoids. In general, individual VOC emissions increased as the infestation progressed, particularly at 7 days post-infestation (dpi). Additional tunnel experiments showed that a 3 days exposure to VOC emissions from whitefly-infested plants significantly reduced infection by a biotrophic bacterial pathogen. Infection of VOC-exposed plants induced the expression of a likely tomato homolog of a methyl salicylate esterase gene, which preceded the expression of pathogenesis-related protein genes. This expression pattern correlated with reduced susceptibility in VOC-exposed plants. The observed cross-kingdom effect of plant-plant signaling via VOCs probably represents a generalized defensive response that contributes to increased plant fitness, considering that resistance responses to whiteflies and biotrophic bacterial pathogens in tomato share many common elements.

  13. The Whitefly Bemisia tabaci Knottin-1 Gene Is Implicated in Regulating the Quantity of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Ingested and Transmitted by the Insect

    PubMed Central

    Hariton Shalev, Aliza; Sobol, Iris; Ghanim, Murad; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Czosnek, Henryk

    2016-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a major pest to agricultural crops. It transmits begomoviruses, such as Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), in a circular, persistent fashion. Transcriptome analyses revealed that B. tabaci knottin genes were responsive to various stresses. Upon ingestion of tomato begomoviruses, two of the four knottin genes were upregulated, knot-1 (with the highest expression) and knot-3. In this study, we examined the involvement of B. tabaci knottin genes in relation to TYLCV circulative transmission. Knottins were silenced by feeding whiteflies with knottin dsRNA via detached tomato leaves. Large amounts of knot-1 transcripts were present in the abdomen of whiteflies, an obligatory transit site of begomoviruses in their circulative transmission pathway; knot-1 silencing significantly depleted the abdomen from knot-1 transcripts. Knot-1 silencing led to an increase in the amounts of TYLCV ingested by the insects and transmitted to tomato test plants by several orders of magnitude. This effect was not observed following knot-3 silencing. Hence, knot-1 plays a role in restricting the quantity of virions an insect may acquire and transmit. We suggest that knot-1 protects B. tabaci against deleterious effects caused by TYLCV by limiting the amount of virus associated with the whitefly vector. PMID:27455309

  14. Electrostatic Insect Sweeper for Eliminating Whiteflies Colonizing Host Plants: A Complementary Pest Control Device in An Electric Field Screen-Guarded Greenhouse

    PubMed Central

    Takikawa, Yoshihiro; Matsuda, Yoshinori; Kakutani, Koji; Nonomura, Teruo; Kusakari, Shin-ichi; Okada, Kiyotsugu; Kimbara, Junji; Osamura, Kazumi; Toyoda, Hideyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Our greenhouse tomatoes have suffered from attacks by viruliferous whiteflies Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) over the last 10 years. The fundamental countermeasure was the application of an electric field screen to the greenhouse windows to prevent their entry. However, while the protection was effective, it was incomplete, because of the lack of a guard at the greenhouse entrance area; in fact, the pests entered from the entrance door when workers entered and exited. To address this, we developed a portable electrostatic insect sweeper as a supplementary technique to the screen. In this sweeper, eight insulated conductor wires (ICWs) were arranged at constant intervals along a polyvinylchloride (PVC) pipe and covered with a cylindrical stainless net. The ICWs and metal net were linked to a DC voltage generator (operated by 3-V alkaline batteries) inside the grip and oppositely electrified to generate an electric field between them. Whiteflies on the plants were attracted to the sweeper that was gently slid along the leaves. This apparatus was easy to operate on-site in a greenhouse and enabled capture of the whiteflies detected during the routine care of the tomato plants. Using this apparatus, we caught all whiteflies that invaded the non-guarded entrance door and minimized the appearance and spread of the viral disease in tomato plants in the greenhouse. PMID:26463195

  15. Electrostatic Insect Sweeper for Eliminating Whiteflies Colonizing Host Plants: A Complementary Pest Control Device in An Electric Field Screen-Guarded Greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Takikawa, Yoshihiro; Matsuda, Yoshinori; Kakutani, Koji; Nonomura, Teruo; Kusakari, Shin-Ichi; Okada, Kiyotsugu; Kimbara, Junji; Osamura, Kazumi; Toyoda, Hideyoshi

    2015-05-12

    Our greenhouse tomatoes have suffered from attacks by viruliferous whiteflies Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) over the last 10 years. The fundamental countermeasure was the application of an electric field screen to the greenhouse windows to prevent their entry. However, while the protection was effective, it was incomplete, because of the lack of a guard at the greenhouse entrance area; in fact, the pests entered from the entrance door when workers entered and exited. To address this, we developed a portable electrostatic insect sweeper as a supplementary technique to the screen. In this sweeper, eight insulated conductor wires (ICWs) were arranged at constant intervals along a polyvinylchloride (PVC) pipe and covered with a cylindrical stainless net. The ICWs and metal net were linked to a DC voltage generator (operated by 3-V alkaline batteries) inside the grip and oppositely electrified to generate an electric field between them. Whiteflies on the plants were attracted to the sweeper that was gently slid along the leaves. This apparatus was easy to operate on-site in a greenhouse and enabled capture of the whiteflies detected during the routine care of the tomato plants. Using this apparatus, we caught all whiteflies that invaded the non-guarded entrance door and minimized the appearance and spread of the viral disease in tomato plants in the greenhouse.

  16. Comparative transcriptome analysis in Bemisia tabaci in response to tomato yellow leaf curl virus and development of ribonucleic acid interference to manage whitefly-transmitted viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci transmits over 300 plant viruses, with the majority of them belonging to the Begomovirus genus. Begomoviruses are obligately transmitted to a wide range of agriculture crops, resulting in the loss of billions of dollars annually, while jeopardizing food security worldwid...

  17. Expression of stress-response proteins upon whitefly-mediated inoculation of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus in susceptible and resistant tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Gorovits, Rena; Akad, Fouad; Beery, Hila; Vidavsky, Favi; Mahadav, Assaf; Czosnek, Henryk

    2007-11-01

    To better understand the nature of resistance of tomato to the whitefly (Bemisia tabaci, B biotype)-transmitted Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), whiteflies and TYLCV were considered as particular cases of biotic stresses and virus resistance as a particular case of successful response to these stresses. Two inbred tomato lines issued from the same breeding program that used Solanum habrochaites as a TYLCV resistance source, one susceptible and the other resistant, were used to compare the expression of key proteins involved at different stages of the plant response with stresses: mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), cellular heat shock proteins (HSPs, proteases), and pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. The two biotic stresses-non-viruliferous whitefly feeding and virus infection with viruliferous insects--led to a slow decline in abundance of MAPKs, HSPs, and chloroplast protease FtsH (but not chloroplast protease ClpC), and induced the activities of the PR proteins, beta-1,3-glucanase, and peroxidase. This decline was less pronounced in virus-resistant than in virus-susceptible lines. Contrary to whitefly infestation and virus infection, inoculation with the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum induced a rapid accumulation of the stress proteins studied, followed by a decline; the virus-susceptible and -resistant tomato lines behaved similarly in response to the fungus. PMID:17977149

  18. Pre shipping dip treatments using soap, natural oils, and Isaria fumosorosea: potential biopesticides for mitigating the spread of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) invasive insects on ornamental plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyodidae) is an invasive insect pest affecting different crops including vegetables, fruits, cereals, and ornamentals. The efficacy of some products such as commercial soap, natural oils and Preferal® (based on the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea ...

  19. The Whitefly Bemisia tabaci Knottin-1 Gene Is Implicated in Regulating the Quantity of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Ingested and Transmitted by the Insect.

    PubMed

    Hariton Shalev, Aliza; Sobol, Iris; Ghanim, Murad; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Czosnek, Henryk

    2016-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a major pest to agricultural crops. It transmits begomoviruses, such as Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), in a circular, persistent fashion. Transcriptome analyses revealed that B. tabaci knottin genes were responsive to various stresses. Upon ingestion of tomato begomoviruses, two of the four knottin genes were upregulated, knot-1 (with the highest expression) and knot-3. In this study, we examined the involvement of B. tabaci knottin genes in relation to TYLCV circulative transmission. Knottins were silenced by feeding whiteflies with knottin dsRNA via detached tomato leaves. Large amounts of knot-1 transcripts were present in the abdomen of whiteflies, an obligatory transit site of begomoviruses in their circulative transmission pathway; knot-1 silencing significantly depleted the abdomen from knot-1 transcripts. Knot-1 silencing led to an increase in the amounts of TYLCV ingested by the insects and transmitted to tomato test plants by several orders of magnitude. This effect was not observed following knot-3 silencing. Hence, knot-1 plays a role in restricting the quantity of virions an insect may acquire and transmit. We suggest that knot-1 protects B. tabaci against deleterious effects caused by TYLCV by limiting the amount of virus associated with the whitefly vector. PMID:27455309

  20. Electrostatic Insect Sweeper for Eliminating Whiteflies Colonizing Host Plants: A Complementary Pest Control Device in An Electric Field Screen-Guarded Greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Takikawa, Yoshihiro; Matsuda, Yoshinori; Kakutani, Koji; Nonomura, Teruo; Kusakari, Shin-Ichi; Okada, Kiyotsugu; Kimbara, Junji; Osamura, Kazumi; Toyoda, Hideyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Our greenhouse tomatoes have suffered from attacks by viruliferous whiteflies Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) over the last 10 years. The fundamental countermeasure was the application of an electric field screen to the greenhouse windows to prevent their entry. However, while the protection was effective, it was incomplete, because of the lack of a guard at the greenhouse entrance area; in fact, the pests entered from the entrance door when workers entered and exited. To address this, we developed a portable electrostatic insect sweeper as a supplementary technique to the screen. In this sweeper, eight insulated conductor wires (ICWs) were arranged at constant intervals along a polyvinylchloride (PVC) pipe and covered with a cylindrical stainless net. The ICWs and metal net were linked to a DC voltage generator (operated by 3-V alkaline batteries) inside the grip and oppositely electrified to generate an electric field between them. Whiteflies on the plants were attracted to the sweeper that was gently slid along the leaves. This apparatus was easy to operate on-site in a greenhouse and enabled capture of the whiteflies detected during the routine care of the tomato plants. Using this apparatus, we caught all whiteflies that invaded the non-guarded entrance door and minimized the appearance and spread of the viral disease in tomato plants in the greenhouse. PMID:26463195

  1. Transcriptome analysis reveals a comprehensive insect resistance response mechanism in cotton to infestation by the phloem feeding insect Bemisia tabaci (whitefly)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) causes tremendous damage to cotton production worldwide. However, very limited information is available about how plants perceive and defend themselves from this destructive pest. In this study, the transcriptomics differences between two cotton cultivars that exhibit e...

  2. Begomovirus-Associated Satellite DNA Diversity Captured Through Vector-Enabled Metagenomic (VEM) Surveys Using Whiteflies (Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Rosario, Karyna; Marr, Christian; Varsani, Arvind; Kraberger, Simona; Stainton, Daisy; Moriones, Enrique; Polston, Jane E; Breitbart, Mya

    2016-02-02

    Monopartite begomoviruses (Geminiviridae), which are whitefly-transmitted single-stranded DNA viruses known for causing devastating crop diseases, are often associated with satellite DNAs. Since begomovirus acquisition or exchange of satellite DNAs may lead to adaptation to new plant hosts and emergence of new disease complexes, it is important to investigate the diversity and distribution of these molecules. This study reports begomovirus-associated satellite DNAs identified during a vector-enabled metagenomic (VEM) survey of begomoviruses using whiteflies collected in various locations (California (USA), Guatemala, Israel, Puerto Rico, and Spain). Protein-encoding satellite DNAs, including alphasatellites and betasatellites, were identified in Israel, Puerto Rico, and Guatemala. Novel alphasatellites were detected in samples from Guatemala and Puerto Rico, resulting in the description of a phylogenetic clade (DNA-3-type alphasatellites) dominated by New World sequences. In addition, a diversity of small (~640-750 nucleotides) satellite DNAs similar to satellites associated with begomoviruses infecting Ipomoea spp. were detected in Puerto Rico and Spain. A third class of satellite molecules, named gammasatellites, is proposed to encompass the increasing number of reported small (<1 kilobase), non-coding begomovirus-associated satellite DNAs. This VEM-based survey indicates that, although recently recovered begomovirus genomes are variations of known genetic themes, satellite DNAs hold unexplored genetic diversity.

  3. Begomovirus-Associated Satellite DNA Diversity Captured Through Vector-Enabled Metagenomic (VEM) Surveys Using Whiteflies (Aleyrodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Karyna; Marr, Christian; Varsani, Arvind; Kraberger, Simona; Stainton, Daisy; Moriones, Enrique; Polston, Jane E.; Breitbart, Mya

    2016-01-01

    Monopartite begomoviruses (Geminiviridae), which are whitefly-transmitted single-stranded DNA viruses known for causing devastating crop diseases, are often associated with satellite DNAs. Since begomovirus acquisition or exchange of satellite DNAs may lead to adaptation to new plant hosts and emergence of new disease complexes, it is important to investigate the diversity and distribution of these molecules. This study reports begomovirus-associated satellite DNAs identified during a vector-enabled metagenomic (VEM) survey of begomoviruses using whiteflies collected in various locations (California (USA), Guatemala, Israel, Puerto Rico, and Spain). Protein-encoding satellite DNAs, including alphasatellites and betasatellites, were identified in Israel, Puerto Rico, and Guatemala. Novel alphasatellites were detected in samples from Guatemala and Puerto Rico, resulting in the description of a phylogenetic clade (DNA-3-type alphasatellites) dominated by New World sequences. In addition, a diversity of small (~640–750 nucleotides) satellite DNAs similar to satellites associated with begomoviruses infecting Ipomoea spp. were detected in Puerto Rico and Spain. A third class of satellite molecules, named gammasatellites, is proposed to encompass the increasing number of reported small (<1 kilobase), non-coding begomovirus-associated satellite DNAs. This VEM-based survey indicates that, although recently recovered begomovirus genomes are variations of known genetic themes, satellite DNAs hold unexplored genetic diversity. PMID:26848679

  4. Differential expression patterns among heat-shock protein genes and thermal responses in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (MEAM 1).

    PubMed

    Díaz, Fernando; Orobio, Rony F; Chavarriaga, Paul; Toro-Perea, Nelson

    2015-08-01

    There is convincing evidence that heat-shock proteins (HSP) are upregulated by stress conditions in insects; however, the relative contribution of each HSP gene to the heat-shock response remains unclear. Here we considered the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (MEAM 1), a phloem feeder and invasive species whose molecular stress response is an important mechanism for overcoming heat stress. We assessed the expression of the hsp23, 40, 70 and 90 genes at the mRNA level when submitted to heat shocks of 40 and 44°C/1h (control at 25°C). For this, we evaluated a set of available and suitable reference genes in order to perform data normalization using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) technique, and then confirmed the production of HSP70 protein based on Western blot. Results were compared with the hardening capacity of B. tabaci, measured by fitness components as a response to heat shocks, using 40°C as the induction temperature. Three of the four genes (hsp23, 70 and 90) were upregulated by heat stress at mRNA, showing differential expression patterns. Hsp70 expression was confirmed at the protein level. Hardening significantly increased fitness following heat stress, suggesting that HSPs may contribute to hardening capacity in B. tabaci. Potential role of each gene in the heat-shock response for whiteflies is discussed. PMID:26267515

  5. Infectivity, effects on helper viruses and whitefly transmission of the deltasatellites associated with sweepoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae)

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Ishtiaq; Orílio, Anelise F.; Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Briddon, Rob W.; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae) are whitefly-transmitted viruses with single-stranded DNA genomes that are frequently associated with DNA satellites. These satellites include non-coding satellites, for which the name deltasatellites has been proposed. Although the first deltasatellite was identified in the late 1990s, little is known about the effects they have on infections of their helper begomoviruses. Recently a group of deltasatellites were identified associated with sweepoviruses, a group of phylogenetically distinct begomoviruses that infect plants of the family Convolvulaceae including sweet potato. In this work, the deltasatellites associated with sweepoviruses are shown to be transreplicated and maintained in plants by the virus with which they were identified, sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV). These deltasatellites were shown generally to reduce symptom severity of the virus infection by reducing virus DNA levels. Additionally they were shown to be maintained in plants, and reduce the symptoms induced by two Old World monopartite begomoviruses, tomato yellow leaf curl virus and tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus. Finally one of the satellites was shown to be transmitted plant-to-plant in the presence of SPLCV by the whitefly vector of the virus, Bemisia tabaci, being the first time a deltasatellite has been shown to be insect transmitted. PMID:27453359

  6. Transcriptional responses of invasive and indigenous whiteflies to different host plants reveal their disparate capacity of adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hong-Xing; Hong, Yue; Zhang, Min-Zhu; Wang, Yong-Liang; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci contains more than 35 cryptic species. The higher adaptability of Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) cryptic species has been recognized as one important factor for its invasion and displacement of other indigenous species worldwide. Here we compared the performance of the invasive MEAM1 and the indigenous Asia II 3 whitefly species following host plant transfer from a suitable host (cotton) to an unsuitable host (tobacco) and analyzed their transcriptional responses. After transfer to tobacco for 24 h, MEAM1 performed much better than Asia II 3. Transcriptional analysis showed that the patterns of gene regulation were very different with most of the genes up-regulated in MEAM1 but down-regulated in Asia II 3. Whereas carbohydrate and energy metabolisms were repressed in Asia II 3, the gene expression and protein metabolisms were activated in MEAM1. Compared to the constitutive high expression of detoxification genes in MEAM1, most of the detoxification genes were down-regulated in Asia II 3. Enzymatic activities of P450, GST and esterase further verified that the detoxification of MEAM1 was much higher than that of Asia II 3. These results reveal obvious differences in responses of MEAM1 and Asia II 3 to host transfer. PMID:26041313

  7. Differential expression patterns among heat-shock protein genes and thermal responses in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (MEAM 1).

    PubMed

    Díaz, Fernando; Orobio, Rony F; Chavarriaga, Paul; Toro-Perea, Nelson

    2015-08-01

    There is convincing evidence that heat-shock proteins (HSP) are upregulated by stress conditions in insects; however, the relative contribution of each HSP gene to the heat-shock response remains unclear. Here we considered the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (MEAM 1), a phloem feeder and invasive species whose molecular stress response is an important mechanism for overcoming heat stress. We assessed the expression of the hsp23, 40, 70 and 90 genes at the mRNA level when submitted to heat shocks of 40 and 44°C/1h (control at 25°C). For this, we evaluated a set of available and suitable reference genes in order to perform data normalization using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) technique, and then confirmed the production of HSP70 protein based on Western blot. Results were compared with the hardening capacity of B. tabaci, measured by fitness components as a response to heat shocks, using 40°C as the induction temperature. Three of the four genes (hsp23, 70 and 90) were upregulated by heat stress at mRNA, showing differential expression patterns. Hsp70 expression was confirmed at the protein level. Hardening significantly increased fitness following heat stress, suggesting that HSPs may contribute to hardening capacity in B. tabaci. Potential role of each gene in the heat-shock response for whiteflies is discussed.

  8. Infectivity, effects on helper viruses and whitefly transmission of the deltasatellites associated with sweepoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae).

    PubMed

    Hassan, Ishtiaq; Orílio, Anelise F; Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Briddon, Rob W; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae) are whitefly-transmitted viruses with single-stranded DNA genomes that are frequently associated with DNA satellites. These satellites include non-coding satellites, for which the name deltasatellites has been proposed. Although the first deltasatellite was identified in the late 1990s, little is known about the effects they have on infections of their helper begomoviruses. Recently a group of deltasatellites were identified associated with sweepoviruses, a group of phylogenetically distinct begomoviruses that infect plants of the family Convolvulaceae including sweet potato. In this work, the deltasatellites associated with sweepoviruses are shown to be transreplicated and maintained in plants by the virus with which they were identified, sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV). These deltasatellites were shown generally to reduce symptom severity of the virus infection by reducing virus DNA levels. Additionally they were shown to be maintained in plants, and reduce the symptoms induced by two Old World monopartite begomoviruses, tomato yellow leaf curl virus and tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus. Finally one of the satellites was shown to be transmitted plant-to-plant in the presence of SPLCV by the whitefly vector of the virus, Bemisia tabaci, being the first time a deltasatellite has been shown to be insect transmitted. PMID:27453359

  9. Tomato Infection by Whitefly-Transmitted Circulative and Non-Circulative Viruses Induce Contrasting Changes in Plant Volatiles and Vector Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Fereres, Alberto; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda G V; Favaro, Carla F; Azevedo, Kamila E X; Landi, Carolina H; Maluta, Nathalie K P; Bento, José Mauricio S; Lopes, Joao R S

    2016-08-11

    Virus infection frequently modifies plant phenotypes, leading to changes in behaviour and performance of their insect vectors in a way that transmission is enhanced, although this may not always be the case. Here, we investigated Bemisia tabaci response to tomato plants infected by Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV), a non-circulative-transmitted crinivirus, and Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV), a circulative-transmitted begomovirus. Moreover, we examined the role of visual and olfactory cues in host plant selection by both viruliferous and non-viruliferous B. tabaci. Visual cues alone were assessed as targets for whitefly landing by placing leaves underneath a Plexiglas plate. A dual-choice arena was used to assess whitefly response to virus-infected and mock-inoculated tomato leaves under light and dark conditions. Thereafter, we tested the whitefly response to volatiles using an active air-flow Y-tube olfactometer, and chemically characterized the blends using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Visual stimuli tests showed that whiteflies, irrespective of their infectious status, always preferred to land on virus-infected rather than on mock-inoculated leaves. Furthermore, whiteflies had no preference for either virus-infected or mock-inoculated leaves under dark conditions, but preferred virus-infected leaves in the presence of light. ToSRV-infection promoted a sharp decline in the concentration of some tomato volatiles, while an increase in the emission of some terpenes after ToCV infection was found. ToSRV-viruliferous whiteflies preferred volatiles emitted from mock-inoculated plants, a conducive behaviour to enhance virus spread, while volatiles from ToCV-infected plants were avoided by non-viruliferous whiteflies, a behaviour that is likely detrimental to the secondary spread of the virus. In conclusion, the circulative persistent begomovirus, ToSRV, seems to have evolved together with its vector B. tabaci to optimise its own spread. However

  10. Tomato Infection by Whitefly-Transmitted Circulative and Non-Circulative Viruses Induce Contrasting Changes in Plant Volatiles and Vector Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Fereres, Alberto; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda G V; Favaro, Carla F; Azevedo, Kamila E X; Landi, Carolina H; Maluta, Nathalie K P; Bento, José Mauricio S; Lopes, Joao R S

    2016-01-01

    Virus infection frequently modifies plant phenotypes, leading to changes in behaviour and performance of their insect vectors in a way that transmission is enhanced, although this may not always be the case. Here, we investigated Bemisia tabaci response to tomato plants infected by Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV), a non-circulative-transmitted crinivirus, and Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV), a circulative-transmitted begomovirus. Moreover, we examined the role of visual and olfactory cues in host plant selection by both viruliferous and non-viruliferous B. tabaci. Visual cues alone were assessed as targets for whitefly landing by placing leaves underneath a Plexiglas plate. A dual-choice arena was used to assess whitefly response to virus-infected and mock-inoculated tomato leaves under light and dark conditions. Thereafter, we tested the whitefly response to volatiles using an active air-flow Y-tube olfactometer, and chemically characterized the blends using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Visual stimuli tests showed that whiteflies, irrespective of their infectious status, always preferred to land on virus-infected rather than on mock-inoculated leaves. Furthermore, whiteflies had no preference for either virus-infected or mock-inoculated leaves under dark conditions, but preferred virus-infected leaves in the presence of light. ToSRV-infection promoted a sharp decline in the concentration of some tomato volatiles, while an increase in the emission of some terpenes after ToCV infection was found. ToSRV-viruliferous whiteflies preferred volatiles emitted from mock-inoculated plants, a conducive behaviour to enhance virus spread, while volatiles from ToCV-infected plants were avoided by non-viruliferous whiteflies, a behaviour that is likely detrimental to the secondary spread of the virus. In conclusion, the circulative persistent begomovirus, ToSRV, seems to have evolved together with its vector B. tabaci to optimise its own spread. However

  11. Tomato Infection by Whitefly-Transmitted Circulative and Non-Circulative Viruses Induce Contrasting Changes in Plant Volatiles and Vector Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Fereres, Alberto; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda G. V.; Favaro, Carla F.; Azevedo, Kamila E. X.; Landi, Carolina H.; Maluta, Nathalie K. P.; Bento, José Mauricio S.; Lopes, Joao R.S.

    2016-01-01

    Virus infection frequently modifies plant phenotypes, leading to changes in behaviour and performance of their insect vectors in a way that transmission is enhanced, although this may not always be the case. Here, we investigated Bemisia tabaci response to tomato plants infected by Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV), a non-circulative-transmitted crinivirus, and Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV), a circulative-transmitted begomovirus. Moreover, we examined the role of visual and olfactory cues in host plant selection by both viruliferous and non-viruliferous B. tabaci. Visual cues alone were assessed as targets for whitefly landing by placing leaves underneath a Plexiglas plate. A dual-choice arena was used to assess whitefly response to virus-infected and mock-inoculated tomato leaves under light and dark conditions. Thereafter, we tested the whitefly response to volatiles using an active air-flow Y-tube olfactometer, and chemically characterized the blends using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Visual stimuli tests showed that whiteflies, irrespective of their infectious status, always preferred to land on virus-infected rather than on mock-inoculated leaves. Furthermore, whiteflies had no preference for either virus-infected or mock-inoculated leaves under dark conditions, but preferred virus-infected leaves in the presence of light. ToSRV-infection promoted a sharp decline in the concentration of some tomato volatiles, while an increase in the emission of some terpenes after ToCV infection was found. ToSRV-viruliferous whiteflies preferred volatiles emitted from mock-inoculated plants, a conducive behaviour to enhance virus spread, while volatiles from ToCV-infected plants were avoided by non-viruliferous whiteflies, a behaviour that is likely detrimental to the secondary spread of the virus. In conclusion, the circulative persistent begomovirus, ToSRV, seems to have evolved together with its vector B. tabaci to optimise its own spread. However

  12. High efficient of females of B-type Bemisia tabaci as males in transmitting the whitefly-borne tomato yellow leaf curl virus to tomato plant with Q-PCR method confirmation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wen; Xu, Yan-Xia; Jiao, Xiao-Guo; Zhang, You-Jun

    2012-11-01

    It has been previously reported that TYLCV can be transmitted from viruliferous males to non-viruliferous females and from viruliferous females to non-viruliferous males, but not between insects of the same sex; female whiteflies transmit TYLCV-Is with higher efficiency than males through symptoms recognition and viral DNA identification in tomato test plants (one insect per plant, with 48 h AAP and 48 h IAP). However, it remains unclear whether non-infected female and male could obtain same virus from TYLCV-infected tomato plants, and whether TYLCV-infected female and male could transmit same virus to non-viruliferous tomato plants. To address this issue, quantitative real-time PCR were applied to detect TYLCV content in adults or tomato plant. The acquisition and transmission experiments showed that both female and male can acquire and transmit the virus and no acquisition capability difference was observed between newly emerged female and male, however, female demonstrated superior transmission capability than male. Moreover, gene expressions profilings of GroEL and Hamiltonella in non-viruliferous and viruliferous female was all higher than that in male. These results further indicated that sex is an important factor affecting TYLCV transmission efficiency in B. tabaci. PMID:23336021

  13. Inter-organ defense networking: Leaf whitefly sucking elicits plant immunity to crown gall disease caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Plants have elaborate defensive machinery to protect against numerous pathogens and insects. Plant hormones function as modulators of defensive mechanisms to maintain plant resistance to natural enemies. Our recent study suggests that salicylic acid (SA) is the primary phytohormone regulating plant responses to Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection. Tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana Domin.) immune responses against Agrobacterium-mediated crown gall disease were activated by exposure to the sucking insect whitefly, which stimulated SA biosynthesis in aerial tissues; in turn, SA synthesized in aboveground tissues systemically modulated SA secretion in root tissues. Further investigation revealed that endogenous SA biosynthesis negatively modulated Agrobacterium-mediated plant genetic transformation. Our study provides novel evidence that activation of the SA-signaling pathway mediated by a sucking insect infestation has a pivotal role in subsequently attenuating Agrobacterium infection. These results demonstrate new insights into interspecies cross-talking among insects, plants, and soil bacteria. PMID:26357873

  14. Inter-organ defense networking: Leaf whitefly sucking elicits plant immunity to crown gall disease caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Plants have elaborate defensive machinery to protect against numerous pathogens and insects. Plant hormones function as modulators of defensive mechanisms to maintain plant resistance to natural enemies. Our recent study suggests that salicylic acid (SA) is the primary phytohormone regulating plant responses to Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection. Tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana Domin.) immune responses against Agrobacterium-mediated crown gall disease were activated by exposure to the sucking insect whitefly, which stimulated SA biosynthesis in aerial tissues; in turn, SA synthesized in aboveground tissues systemically modulated SA secretion in root tissues. Further investigation revealed that endogenous SA biosynthesis negatively modulated Agrobacterium-mediated plant genetic transformation. Our study provides novel evidence that activation of the SA-signaling pathway mediated by a sucking insect infestation has a pivotal role in subsequently attenuating Agrobacterium infection. These results demonstrate new insights into interspecies cross-talking among insects, plants, and soil bacteria. PMID:26357873

  15. An Extensive Field Survey Combined with a Phylogenetic Analysis Reveals Rapid and Widespread Invasion of Two Alien Whiteflies in China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jian; De Barro, Paul; Zhao, Hua; Wang, Jia; Nardi, Francesco; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Background To understand the processes of invasions by alien insects is a pre-requisite for improving management. The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a cryptic species complex that contains some of the most invasive pests worldwide. However, extensive field data to show the geographic distribution of the members of this species complex as well as the invasion by some of its members are scarce. Methodology/Principal Findings We used field surveys and published data to assess the current diversity and distribution of B. tabaci cryptic species in China and relate the indigenous members to other Asian and Australian members of the complex. The survey covered the 16 provinces where indigenous B. tabaci occur and extends this with published data for the whole of China. We used molecular markers to identify cryptic species. The evolutionary relationships between the different Asian B. tabaci were reconstructed using Bayesian methods. We show that whereas in the past the exotic invader Middle East-Asia Minor 1 was predominant across China, another newer invader Mediterranean is now the dominant species in the Yangtze River Valley and eastern coastal areas, and Middle East-Asia Minor 1 is now predominant only in the south and south eastern coastal areas. Based on mtCO1 we identified four new cryptic species, and in total we have recorded 13 indigenous and two invasive species from China. Diversity was highest in the southern and southeastern provinces and declined to north and west. Only the two invasive species were found in the northern part of the country where they occur primarily in protected cropping. By 2009, indigenous species were mainly found in remote mountainous areas and were mostly absent from extensive agricultural areas. Conclusions/Significance Invasions by some members of the whitefly B. tabaci species complex can be rapid and widespread, and indigenous species closely related to the invaders are replaced. PMID:21283707

  16. Insecticidal Activity of Chromobacterium subtsugae on the Sweet Potato Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, Biotype B

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chromobacterium subtsugae crude extracts contain compounds that are toxic to nymphal and adult Bemisia tabaci. When fed on artificial diet containing 10% of the supernatant of an aqueous cell-free extract of C subtsugae, the number of 2nd and 4th instar nymphs and of emerged adults was significantl...

  17. A review of the mechanisms and components that determine the transmission efficiency of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (Geminiviridae; Begomovirus) by its whitefly vector.

    PubMed

    Ghanim, Murad

    2014-06-24

    Begomoviruses are a group of icosahedral single stranded DNA viruses exclusively transmitted by the sweet potato whitefly Bemisia tabaci in a persistent, circulative manner. In this mode of transmission, begomoviruses are acquired by their insect vector as intact virions from the plant phloem, move along the food canal, foregut and esophagus and reach the midgut where they are absorbed into the hemolymph via the filter chamber. The filter chamber is the site where most of the ingested food is filtered, and the first site where the majority of begomoviruses appear to be translocated into the hemolymph via unknown proteins or receptors. Transport from the filter chamber to the hemolymph is aided by a Heat Shock Protein 70. Virus particles not translocated across the filter chamber circulate in the midgut loop but it is not known whether absorption into the hemolymph occurs along this loop. Localization studies have confirmed that begomoviruses are not associated with the hindgut and absorption of virions in this organ is unlikely. In the hemolymph, virions have been shown to interact with a GroEL chaperone produced by the whitefly's endosymbiontic bacteria for ensuring their safe journey to the salivary glands. Virions penetrate the primary salivary glands via unknown proteins or receptors and are transported and secreted outside the whitefly to the plant with salivary secretions. Several recent studies have demonstrated the implications of insect and endosymbiont proteins such as the heat shock protein 70 and the bacterial GroEL protein, in the transmission of begomoviruses by B. tabaci. Additional studies attempting to identify other proteins that aid or interact with begomoviruses along their circulation pathway in the whitefly are reviewed in this paper. PMID:24508344

  18. Resistance Mechanisms to Chlorpyrifos and F392W Mutation Frequencies in the Acetylcholine Esterase Ace1 Allele of Field Populations of the Tobacco Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning-ning; Liu, Cai-feng; Yang, Fang; Dong, Shuang-lin; Han, Zhao-jun

    2012-01-01

    The tobacco whitefly B-biotype Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a worldwide pest of many crops. In China, chlorpyrifos has been used to control this insect for many years and is still being used despite the fact that some resistance has been reported. To combat resistance and maintain good control efficiency of chlorpyrifos, it is essential to understand resistance mechanisms. A chlorpyrifos resistant tobacco whitefly strain (NJ-R) and a susceptible strain (NJ-S) were derived from a field-collected population in Nanjing, China, and the resistance mechanisms were investigated. More than 30-fold resistance was achieved after selected by chlorpyrifos for 13 generations in the laboratory. However, the resistance dropped significantly to about 18-fold in only 4 generations without selection pressure. Biochemical assays indicated that increased esterase activity was responsible for this resistance, while acetylcholine esterase, glutathione S-transferase, and microsomal-O-demethylase played little or no role. F392W mutations in acel were prevalent in NJ-S and NJ-R strains and 6 field-collected populations of both B and Q-biotype from locations that cover a wide geographical area of China. These findings provide important information about tobacco whitefly chlorpyrifos resistance mechanisms and guidance to combat resistance and optimize use patterns of chlorpyrifos and other organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. PMID:22954331

  19. Tracking disease and insect pests using Smartphone technology: a new approach for regional (and local) pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is vectored by the silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci biotype B) and was first detected in south Florida in 1997. The virus has spread widely in Florida and is responsible for millions of dollars of lost production. Anlaysis of data from a comprehensive, multi-...

  20. IPM of specialty crops and community gardens in north Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect pests post serious challenges to specialty crops (vegetables, fruits and nut crops) and community gardens in North Florida. The major vegetable pests include silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii; the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae; southeastern green stinkbug, Nezara viridula; brown s...

  1. Environmental and geographical variables associated with TYLCV epidemics in southwest Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), which is vectored by the silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci biotype B), was first detected in south Florida in 1997. The virus has spread widely in Florida and is responsible for millions of dollars of lost production. A more complete understanding of the temp...

  2. Field Evaluation of Different Wavelengths Light-Emitting Diodes as Attractants for Adult Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Zheng, L X; Zheng, Y; Wu, W J; Fu, Y G

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, light traps with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been widely used in integrated pest management. The spiralling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus Russell, a highly invasive pest which causes heavy damage to fruit trees and ornamental plants, exhibits positive phototaxis, and light trap is the most appropriate tool for monitoring. We evaluated the use of LEDs as an inexpensive light source and examined the relationship between the captured number and the population density of adult A. dispersus in the field. We found that the violet (405 nm) LED traps captured the most adults of A. dispersus, and the captured numbers were significantly higher than those of blue (460 nm), green (520 nm), yellow (570 nm), and red (650 nm) LED traps. The adults of A. dispersus captured by light traps equipped with violet LEDs and smeared with liquid paraffin had a significant positive correlation with the population density of adult A. dispersus in a guava orchard, with a correlation coefficient of 0.828. In general, the light traps with 15 violet LED bulbs hung into 550-mL plastic bottles and smeared with liquid paraffin were the portable devices for attraction of adult A. dispersus. The results have potential use for improving the efficiency of light traps at attracting and trapping the adult spiralling whitefly. PMID:27193950

  3. Making a friend from a foe: expressing a GroEL gene from the whitefly Bemisia tabaci in the phloem of tomato plants confers resistance to tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    PubMed

    Akad, F; Eybishtz, A; Edelbaum, D; Gorovits, R; Dar-Issa, O; Iraki, N; Czosnek, H

    2007-01-01

    Some (perhaps all) plant viruses transmitted in a circulative manner by their insect vectors avoid destruction in the haemolymph by interacting with GroEL homologues, ensuring transmission. We have previously shown that the phloem-limited begomovirus tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) interacts in vivo and in vitro with GroEL produced by the whitefly vector Bemisia tabaci. In this study, we have exploited this phenomenon to generate transgenic tomato plants expressing the whitefly GroEL in their phloem. We postulated that following inoculation, TYLCV particles will be trapped by GroEL in the plant phloem, thereby inhibiting virus replication and movement, thereby rendering the plants resistant. A whitefly GroEL gene was cloned in an Agrobacterium vector under the control of an Arabidopsis phloem-specific promoter, which was used to transform two tomato genotypes. During three consecutive generations, plants expressing GroEL exhibited mild or no disease symptoms upon whitefly-mediated inoculation of TYLCV. In vitro assays indicated that the sap of resistant plants contained GroEL-TYLCV complexes. Infected resistant plants served as virus source for whitefly-mediated transmission as effectively as infected non-transgenic tomato. Non-transgenic susceptible tomato plants grafted on resistant GroEL-transgenic scions remained susceptible, although GroEL translocated into the grafted plant and GroEL-TYLCV complexes were detected in the grafted tissues. PMID:17334947

  4. Population structure of the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), an invasive species from the Americas, 60 years after invading China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Rui-Rui; Zhang, Wen-Ping; Wu, Huai-Tong; Zhang, Rui-Ming; Zhou, Hong-Xu; Pan, Hui-Peng; Zhang, You-Jun; Brown, Judith K; Chu, Dong

    2014-08-04

    Though the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) was introduced into China more than 60 years ago, the genetic diversity and structure of this exotic insect pest and virus vector have not been studied. To investigate the population genetic characteristics of this invasive species and to identify potential invasion routes, the genetic diversity and population structure of 17 collections of T. vaporariorum from nine provinces in China were analyzed using seven microsatellite loci. The results of the analyses indicated that the genetic diversity for the populations examined from the four provinces: Jilin, Ningxia, Guizhou and Qinghai, was lower than the genetic diversity of populations from the five provinces: Yunnan, Shandong, Shanxi, Liaoning, and Gansu. The T. vaporariorum populations analyzed in this study grouped as two distinct genetic clusters based on the analysis using STRUCTURE, whereas, 8 clusters were identified based on the BAPS analysis. Of the 136 genetic distance (Fst) values, 128 (94%) were associated with a significant exact test. However, there was no significant relationship between Fst and geographical distance. These results demonstrate that populations of T. vaporariorum in China exhibit significant genetic differentiation, indicating the likelihood that multiple introductions of T. vaporariorum into China have occurred. Also, the populations collected from the provinces of Jilin, Ningxia, Guizhou and Qinghai appear to represent secondary introductions originating from other Chinese provinces.

  5. Low levels of mitochondrial DNA and symbiont diversity in the worldwide agricultural pest, the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Kapantaidaki, Despoina E; Ovčarenko, Irina; Fytrou, Natasa; Knott, K Emily; Bourtzis, Kostas; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Trialeurodes vaporariorum, the greenhouse whitefly, is a cosmopolitan agricultural pest. Little is known about the genetic diversity of T. vaporariorum and the bacterial symbionts associated with this species. Here, we undertook a large phylogeographic study by investigating both the mitochondrial (mt) diversity and the infection status of 38 T. vaporariorum collections from 18 countries around the world. Genetic diversity of T. vaporariorum was studied by analyzing sequence data from the mt cytochrome oxidase I, cytochrome b, and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 genes. Maximum-likelihood (ML) phylogeny reconstruction delineated 2 clades characterized by limited sequence divergence: one clade comprised samples only from the Northern hemisphere whereas the other comprised samples from a broader geographical range. The presence of secondary symbionts was determined by PCR using primers specific for Hamiltonella, Rickettsia, Arsenophonus, Cardinium, Wolbachia, and Fritschea. Most individuals examined harbored at least one secondary endosymbiont, and Arsenophonus was detected in almost all male and female individuals. Wolbachia was present at a much lower frequency, and Cardinium was detected in only a few individuals from Greece. Rickettsia, Hamiltonella, and Fritschea were not found. Additionally, we set out to further analyze Arsenophonus diversity by multilocus sequence typing analysis; however, the Arsenophonus sequences did not exhibit any polymorphism. Our results revealed remarkably low diversity in both mtDNA and symbionts in this worldwide agricultural pest, contrasting sharply with that of the ecologically similar Bemisia tabaci.

  6. Pathogenicity, Ovicidal Action, and Median Lethal Concentrations (LC50) of Entomopathogenic Fungi against Exotic Spiralling Whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus Russell

    PubMed Central

    Palaniappan, Karuppuchamy; Manickavasagam Pillai, Kalyanasundaram; Subbarayalu, Mohankumar; Madhaiyan, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Biological control using entomopathogenic fungi could be a promising alternative to chemical control. Entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin, Lecanicillium lecanii (Zimmerm.) Zare and Gams, and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize) Brown and Smith, were tested for their pathogenicity, ovicidal effect, and median lethal concentrations (LC50) against exotic spiralling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus Russell. The applications were made at the rate of 2 × 109 conidia mL−1 for evaluating the pathogenicity and ovicidal effect of entomopathogenic fungi against A. dispersus. The results of pathogenicity test showed that P. fumosoroseus (P1 strain) was highly pathogenic to A. dispersus recording 100% mortality at 15 days after treatment (DAT). M. anisopliae (M2 strain) had more ovicidal effect causing 37.3% egg mortality at 8 DAT. However, L. lecanii (L1 strain) caused minimum egg hatchability (23.2%) at 10 DAT as compared to control (92.6%). The lowest LC50 produced by P. fumosoroseus (P1 strain) as 8.189 × 107 conidia mL−1 indicated higher virulence against A. dispersus. Hence, there is potential for use of entomopathogenic fungi in the field conditions as an alternate control method in combating the insect pests and other arthropod pests since they are considered natural mortality agents and are environmentally safe. PMID:24455279

  7. Over-Expression of a Cytochrome P450 Is Associated with Resistance to Pyriproxyfen in the Greenhouse Whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum

    PubMed Central

    Karatolos, Nikos; Williamson, Martin S.; Denholm, Ian; Gorman, Kevin; ffrench-Constant, Richard H.; Bass, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Background The juvenile hormone mimic, pyriproxyfen is a suppressor of insect embryogenesis and development, and is effective at controlling pests such as the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) which are resistant to other chemical classes of insecticides. Although there are reports of insects evolving resistance to pyriproxyfen, the underlying resistance mechanism(s) are poorly understood. Results Bioassays against eggs of a German (TV8) population of T. vaporariorum revealed a moderate level (21-fold) of resistance to pyriproxyfen. This is the first time that pyriproxyfen resistance has been confirmed in this species. Sequential selection of TV8 rapidly generated a strain (TV8pyrsel) displaying a much higher resistance ratio (>4000-fold). The enzyme inhibitor piperonyl butoxide (PBO) suppressed this increased resistance, indicating that it was primarily mediated via metabolic detoxification. Microarray analysis identified a number of significantly over-expressed genes in TV8pyrsel as candidates for a role in resistance including cytochrome-P450 dependent monooxygenases (P450s). Quantitative PCR highlighted a single P450 gene (CYP4G61) that was highly over-expressed (81.7-fold) in TV8pyrsel. Conclusion Over-expression of a single cytochrome P450 gene (CYP4G61) has emerged as a strong candidate for causing the enhanced resistance phenotype. Further work is needed to confirm the role of the encoded P450 enzyme CYP4G61 in detoxifying pyriproxyfen. PMID:22347432

  8. Location of Symbionts in the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci Affects Their Densities during Host Development and Environmental Stress

    PubMed Central

    Su, Qi; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Ghanim, Murad; Zhang, Youjun

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial symbionts often enhance the physiological capabilities of their arthropod hosts and enable their hosts to expand into formerly unavailable niches, thus leading to biological diversification. Many arthropods, including the worldwide invasive whitefly Bemisia tabaci, have individuals simultaneously infected with symbionts of multiple genera that occur in different locations in the host. This study examined the population dynamics of symbionts that are located in different areas within B. tabaci. While densities of Portiera and Hamiltonella (which are located in bacteriocytes) appeared to be well-regulated during host development, densities of Rickettsia (which are not located in bacteriocytes) were highly variable among individual hosts during host development. Host mating did not significantly affect symbiont densities. Infection by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus did not affect Portiera and Hamiltonella densities in either sex, but increased Rickettsia densities in females. High and low temperatures did not affect Portiera and Hamiltonella densities, but low temperature (15°C) significantly suppressed Rickettsia densities whereas high temperature (35°C) had little effect on Rickettsia densities. The results are consistent with the view that the population dynamics of bacterial symbionts in B. tabaci are regulated by symbiont location within the host and that the regulation reflects adaptation between the bacteria and insect. PMID:24632746

  9. Non-invasive delivery of dsGST is lethal to the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (G.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Asokan, R; Rebijith, K B; Roopa, H K; Kumar, N K Krishna

    2015-02-01

    The sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (G.) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is one of the most economically important pest, by being a dreaded vector of Geminiviruses, and also causes direct damage to the crops by sucking phloem sap. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is a large family of multifunctional enzymes that play pivotal roles in the detoxification of secondary allelochemical produced by the host plants and in insecticide resistance, thus regulates insect growth and development. The objective of this study is to show the potential of RNA interference (RNAi) in the management of B. tabaci. RNAi is a sequence-specific gene silencing mechanism induced by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) which holds tremendous potential in pest management. In this regard, we sequenced the GST from B. tabaci and synthesized approximately 500-bp dsRNA from the above and delivered through diet to B. tabaci. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) showed that continuous application of dsGST at 1.0, 0.5, and 0.25 μg/μl reduced mRNA expression levels for BtGST by 77.43, 64.86, and 52.95 % which resulted in mortality by 77, 59, and 40 %, respectively, after 72 h of application. Disruption of BtGST expression will enable the development of novel strategies in pest management and functional analysis of vital genes in B. tabaci.

  10. Virulence testing and extracellular subtilisin-like (Pr1) and trypsin-like (Pr2) activity during propagule production of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus isolates from whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Moguel, Judith; González-Barajas, Margarita; Mier, Teresa; Reyes-Montes, María Del Rocío; Aranda, Eduardo; Toriello, Conchita

    2007-03-01

    To properly characterize several isolates of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, a fungal entomopathogen of whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and other insect pests for biocontrol purposes, virulence towards Trialeurodes vaporariorum, and subtilisin-like (Pr1) and trypsin-like (Pr2) protease activity during propagule production were investigated in monospore cultures (MCs). The virulence of three MCs towards second instar whiteflies was measured and expressed as lethal median concentration (LC50). Number and widthlength ratio of propagules (blastospores, hyphal bodies, short hyphae, submerged conidia) and extracellular proteolytic activity was determined simultaneously in liquid medium. Total protease activity was assayed with azocasein, Pr1 and Pr2 activity was determined with the substrates N-Succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide and N-Benzoyl-Phe-Val-Arg-pnitroanilide, respectively. Natural variability in virulence, propagule production and cuticle-degrading proteases among isolates was observed. Bioassays showed a LC50 of 1.1 x 1,000, 2.5 x 10,000 and 7.6 x 10,000 conidia/ml for MCs EH-506/3, EH-503/3 and EH-520/3, respectively, EH-506/3 being the most virulent isolate. Isolate EH-503/3 produced the highest yield of propagules (7.7 x 10000000 propagules/ml), followed by EH-520/3 with 6.4 x 10000000 and EH-506/3 with 1.0 x 10000000 propagules/ml. Subtilisin-like (Pr1) and trypsin-like (Pr2) activity was present in the three MCs. Subtilisin-like (Pr1) activity was highest (745.7 UPr1/ml at 120 h) in the most virulent isolate, EH-506/3, pointing at Pr1 as a phenotypic marker of virulence for P. fumosoroseus. EH-506/3 appears to be a good candidate for whitefly biocontrol due to its high virulence, Pr1 concentration and rapid transition to blastospores in submerged liquid medium.

  11. Effects of host plants on insecticide susceptibility and carboxylesterase activity in Bemisia tabaci biotype B and greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum.

    PubMed

    Liang, Pei; Cui, Jian-Zhou; Yang, Xiu-Qing; Gao, Xi-Wu

    2007-04-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B and the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), have become serious pests of cotton and vegetable crops in China since the early 1990s. In recent years, however, B. tabaci have broken out more frequently and widely than have T. vaporariorum. The B. tabaci biotype B has also developed higher resistance to several insecticides. Here, the effects of four different host plants on the insecticide susceptibility of B. tabaci biotype B and T. vaporariorum have been compared. The LC(50) values of imidacloprid, abamectin, deltamethrin and omethoate in T. vaporariorum reared on cucumber were significantly higher than those in B. tabaci (the LC(50) values in T. vaporariorum were respectively 3.13, 2.63, 2.78 and 6.67 times higher than those in B. tabaci). On the other hand, the B. tabaci population reared on cotton was more tolerant to all four insecticides tested than the T. vaporariorum population from the same host, especially to abamectin (up to 8.4-fold). The effects of the four host plants on the activity of carboxylesterase (CarE) in B. tabaci biotype B and T. vaporariorum were also compared. The results showed that, although the CarE activity of B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum varied depending on the host plants, the B. tabaci population possessed significantly higher CarE activity than the T. vaporariorum population reared on the same host plant. This was especially so on cucumber and cotton, where the CarE activities of the B. tabaci population were over 1.6 times higher than those of T. varporariorum. The frequency profiles for this activity in B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum populations reared on same host plant were apparently different.

  12. The Dynamics and Environmental Influence on Interactions Between Cassava Brown Streak Disease and the Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Jeremiah, S C; Ndyetabula, I L; Mkamilo, G S; Haji, S; Muhanna, M M; Chuwa, C; Kasele, S; Bouwmeester, H; Ijumba, J N; Legg, J P

    2015-05-01

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) is currently the most significant virus disease phenomenon affecting African agriculture. In this study, we report results from the most extensive set of field data so far presented for CBSD in Africa. From assessments of 515 farmers' plantings of cassava, incidence in the Coastal Zone of Tanzania (46.5% of plants; 87% of fields affected) was higher than in the Lake Zone (22%; 34%), but incidences for both zones were greater than previous published records. The whitefly vector, Bemisia tabaci, was more abundant in the Lake Zone than the Coastal Zone, the reverse of the situation reported previously, and increased B. tabaci abundance is driving CBSD spread in the Lake Zone. The altitudinal "ceiling" previously thought to restrict the occurrence of CBSD to regions <1,000 masl has been broken as a consequence of the greatly increased abundance of B. tabaci in mid-altitude areas. Among environmental variables analyzed, minimum temperature was the strongest determinant of CBSD incidence. B. tabaci in the Coastal and Lake Zones responded differently to environmental variables examined, highlighting the biological differences between B. tabaci genotypes occurring in these regions and the superior adaptation of B. tabaci in the Great Lakes region both to cassava and low temperature conditions. Regression analyses using multi-country data sets could be used to determine the potential environmental limits of CBSD. Approaches such as this offer potential for use in the development of predictive models for CBSD, which could strengthen country- and continent-level CBSD pandemic mitigation strategies. PMID:25585059

  13. Diet selection exhibited by juvenile and adult lifestages of the omnivores Western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus and tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris.

    PubMed

    Hagler, James R; Jackson, C Glen; Blackmer, Jacquelyn L

    2010-01-01

    Lygus hesperus Knight and Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Heteroptera: Miridae) are economically important plant bugs on many crops worldwide. However, these omnivores are also facultative predators on a wide variety of insects. This study was conducted to quantify and compare herbivory and carnivory exhibited among different lifestages of these two insect pests. The feeding activity of a total of 422 individuals was observed for 1 h each in feeding arenas containing a cotton leaf disk and copious amounts of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) eggs, nymphs and adults. The L. hesperus and L. lineolaris lifestages examined included adults and 3rd, 4th and 5th instar nymphs. Plant feeding occupied the majority of both species' time budget, regardless of the species or lifestage examined. There was a tendency for L. lineolaris lifestages to feed more often and for longer duration on plant tissue than L. hesperus. All lifestages of both species rarely fed on B. tabaci, but when they did, they preferred nymphs > adults > eggs. There were only a few cases where there were significant differences in predation rates and prey handling times exhibited among lifestages and between species, but juvenile L. hesperus tended to be more predaceous than juvenile L. lineolaris on whitefly nymphs and adults and 5th instar and adult L. lineolaris were significantly more herbaceous than their L. hesperus counterparts. In addition, the younger individuals of both species tended to have greater prey handling times than their older counterparts. The significance of these findings is discussed.

  14. Identification and Evaluation of Suitable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies in the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Asia I) by Reverse Transcription Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Carl; Patel, Mitulkumar V.; Colvin, John; Bailey, David; Seal, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a reliable method for performing reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) to measure gene expression in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Asia I) (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), utilising suitable reference genes for data normalisation. We identified orthologs of commonly used reference genes (actin (ACT), cyclophilin 1 (CYP1), elongation factor 1α (EF1A), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein L13a (RPL13A), and α-tubulin (TUB1A)), measured the levels of their transcripts by RT-qPCR during development and in response to thermal stress, and evaluated their suitability as endogenous controls using geNorm, BestKeeper, and NormFinder programs. Overall, TUB1A, RPL13A, and CYP1 were the most stable reference genes during B. tabaci development, and TUB1A, GAPDH, and RPL13A were the most stable reference genes in the context of thermal stress. An analysis of the effects of reference gene choice on the transcript profile of a developmentally-regulated gene encoding vitellogenin demonstrated the importance of selecting the correct endogenous controls for RT-qPCR studies. We propose the use of TUB1A, RPL13A, and CYP1 as endogenous controls for transcript profiling studies of B. tabaci development, whereas the combination of TUB1A, GAPDH, and RPL13A should be employed for studies into thermal stress. The data presented here will assist future transcript profiling studies in whiteflies. PMID:25373210

  15. Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi from agricultural and natural ecosystems in Saltillo, México, and their virulence towards thrips and whiteflies.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Peña, Sergio R; Lara, Jorge San-Juan; Medina, Raúl F

    2011-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi were collected from soil in four adjacent habitats (oak forest, agricultural soil, pine reforestation and chaparral habitat) in Saltillo, México using the insect bait method with Tenebrio molitor (L.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae as bait. Overall, of the larvae exposed to soil, 171 (20%) hosted Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae), 25 (3%) hosted Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and 1 (0.1%) hosted lsaria (=Paecilomyces) sp. (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae). B. bassiana was significantly more frequent on larvae exposed to oak forest soil. M. anisopliae was significantly more frequent on larvae exposed to agricultural soil. From the infected bait insects, 93 isolates of B. bassiana and 24 isolates of M. anisopliae were obtained. Strains were tested for their infectivity against Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips uzeli Zimmerman (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) and the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). B. bassiana isolates caused the highest mortality on thrips (some causing 88% mortality after 6 days); both fungal species caused similarly high mortality levels against whiteflies (75%) after 6 days. Large amounts of germplasm of entomopathogenic fungi, fundamentally B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, exist in the habitats sampled; pathogenicity varied among strains, and some strains possessed significant virulence. Soils in these habitats are reservoirs of diverse strains with potential for use in biocontrol.

  16. Identification and evaluation of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Asia I) by reverse transcription quantitative realtime PCR.

    PubMed

    Collins, Carl; Patel, Mitulkumar V; Colvin, John; Bailey, David; Seal, Susan

    2014-05-02

    This study presents a reliable method for performing reverse transcription quantitative realtime PCR (RT-qPCR) to measure gene expression in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Asia I) (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), utilising suitable reference genes for data normalisation. We identified orthologs of commonly used reference genes (actin (ACT), cyclophilin 1 (CYP1), elongation factor 1α (EF1A), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein L13a (RPL13A), and α-tubulin (TUB1A)), measured the levels of their transcripts by RT-qPCR during development and in response to thermal stress, and evaluated their suitability as endogenous controls using geNorm, BestKeeper, and NormFinder programs. Overall, TUB1A, RPL13A, and CYP1 were the most stable reference genes during B. tabaci development, and TUB1A, GAPDH, and RPL13A were the most stable reference genes in the context of thermal stress. An analysis of the effects of reference gene choice on the transcript profile of a developmentally-regulated gene encoding vitellogenin demonstrated the importance of selecting the correct endogenous controls for RT-qPCR studies. We propose the use of TUB1A, RPL13A, and CYP1 as endogenous controls for transcript profiling studies of B. tabaci development, whereas the combination of TUB1A, GAPDH, and RPL13A should be employed for studies into thermal stress. The data pre- sented here will assist future transcript profiling studies in whiteflies.

  17. Occurrence of Entomopathogenic Fungi from Agricultural and Natural Ecosystems in Saltillo, México, and their Virulence Towards Thrips and Whiteflies

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Peña, Sergio R.; Lara, Jorge San-Juan; Medina, Raúl F.

    2011-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi were collected from soil in four adjacent habitats (oak forest, agricultural soil, pine reforestation and chaparral habitat) in Saltillo, México using the insect bait method with Tenebrio molitor (L.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae as bait. Overall, of the larvae exposed to soil, 171 (20%) hosted Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae), 25 (3%) hosted Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and 1 (0.1%) hosted lsaria (=Paecilomyces) sp. (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae). B. bassiana was significantly more frequent on larvae exposed to oak forest soil. M. anisopliae was significantly more frequent on larvae exposed to agricultural soil. From the infected bait insects, 93 isolates of B. bassiana and 24 isolates of M. anisopliae were obtained. Strains were tested for their infectivity against Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips uzeli Zimmerman (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) and the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). B. bassiana isolates caused the highest mortality on thrips (some causing 88% mortality after 6 days); both fungal species caused similarly high mortality levels against whiteflies (75%) after 6 days. Large amounts of germplasm of entomopathogenic fungi, fundamentally B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, exist in the habitats sampled; pathogenicity varied among strains, and some strains possessed significant virulence. Soils in these habitats are reservoirs of diverse strains with potential for use in biocontrol. PMID:21521145

  18. Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi from agricultural and natural ecosystems in Saltillo, México, and their virulence towards thrips and whiteflies.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Peña, Sergio R; Lara, Jorge San-Juan; Medina, Raúl F

    2011-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi were collected from soil in four adjacent habitats (oak forest, agricultural soil, pine reforestation and chaparral habitat) in Saltillo, México using the insect bait method with Tenebrio molitor (L.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae as bait. Overall, of the larvae exposed to soil, 171 (20%) hosted Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae), 25 (3%) hosted Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and 1 (0.1%) hosted lsaria (=Paecilomyces) sp. (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae). B. bassiana was significantly more frequent on larvae exposed to oak forest soil. M. anisopliae was significantly more frequent on larvae exposed to agricultural soil. From the infected bait insects, 93 isolates of B. bassiana and 24 isolates of M. anisopliae were obtained. Strains were tested for their infectivity against Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips uzeli Zimmerman (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) and the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). B. bassiana isolates caused the highest mortality on thrips (some causing 88% mortality after 6 days); both fungal species caused similarly high mortality levels against whiteflies (75%) after 6 days. Large amounts of germplasm of entomopathogenic fungi, fundamentally B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, exist in the habitats sampled; pathogenicity varied among strains, and some strains possessed significant virulence. Soils in these habitats are reservoirs of diverse strains with potential for use in biocontrol. PMID:21521145

  19. Adult Books for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Considers the differences between young adult and adult books and maintains that teachers must be familiar with young adults' tastes for both. Suggests that traffic between these publishing divisions is a two-way street, with young adults reading adult books and adults reading young adult books. (TB)

  20. Impact of UV-A radiation on the performance of aphids and whiteflies and on the leaf chemistry of their host plants.

    PubMed

    Dáder, Beatriz; Gwynn-Jones, Dylan; Moreno, Aránzazu; Winters, Ana; Fereres, Alberto

    2014-09-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation directly regulates a multitude of herbivore life processes, in addition to indirectly affecting insect success via changes in plant chemistry and morphogenesis. Here we looked at plant and insect (aphid and whitefly) exposure to supplemental UV-A radiation in the glasshouse environment and investigated effects on insect population growth. Glasshouse grown peppers and eggplants were grown from seed inside cages covered by novel plastic filters, one transparent and the other opaque to UV-A radiation. At a 10-true leaf stage for peppers (53 days) and 4-true leaf stage for eggplants (34 days), plants were harvested for chemical analysis and infested by aphids and whiteflies, respectively. Clip-cages were used to introduce and monitor the insect fitness and populations of the pests studied. Insect pre-reproductive period, fecundity, fertility and intrinsic rate of natural increase were assessed. Crop growth was monitored weekly for 7 and 12 weeks throughout the crop cycle of peppers and eggplants, respectively. At the end of the insect fitness experiment, plants were harvested (68 days and 18-true leaf stage for peppers, and 104 days and 12-true leaf stage for eggplants) and leaves analysed for secondary metabolites, soluble carbohydrates, amino acids, total proteins and photosynthetic pigments. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that UV-A modulates plant chemistry with implications for insect pests. Both plant species responded directly to UV-A by producing shorter stems but this effect was only significant in pepper whilst UV-A did not affect the leaf area of either species. Importantly, in pepper, the UV-A treated plants contained higher contents of secondary metabolites, leaf soluble carbohydrates, free amino acids and total content of protein. Such changes in tissue chemistry may have indirectly promoted aphid performance. For eggplants, chlorophylls a and b, and carotenoid levels decreased with supplemental UV-A over the entire

  1. Impact of UV-A radiation on the performance of aphids and whiteflies and on the leaf chemistry of their host plants.

    PubMed

    Dáder, Beatriz; Gwynn-Jones, Dylan; Moreno, Aránzazu; Winters, Ana; Fereres, Alberto

    2014-09-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation directly regulates a multitude of herbivore life processes, in addition to indirectly affecting insect success via changes in plant chemistry and morphogenesis. Here we looked at plant and insect (aphid and whitefly) exposure to supplemental UV-A radiation in the glasshouse environment and investigated effects on insect population growth. Glasshouse grown peppers and eggplants were grown from seed inside cages covered by novel plastic filters, one transparent and the other opaque to UV-A radiation. At a 10-true leaf stage for peppers (53 days) and 4-true leaf stage for eggplants (34 days), plants were harvested for chemical analysis and infested by aphids and whiteflies, respectively. Clip-cages were used to introduce and monitor the insect fitness and populations of the pests studied. Insect pre-reproductive period, fecundity, fertility and intrinsic rate of natural increase were assessed. Crop growth was monitored weekly for 7 and 12 weeks throughout the crop cycle of peppers and eggplants, respectively. At the end of the insect fitness experiment, plants were harvested (68 days and 18-true leaf stage for peppers, and 104 days and 12-true leaf stage for eggplants) and leaves analysed for secondary metabolites, soluble carbohydrates, amino acids, total proteins and photosynthetic pigments. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that UV-A modulates plant chemistry with implications for insect pests. Both plant species responded directly to UV-A by producing shorter stems but this effect was only significant in pepper whilst UV-A did not affect the leaf area of either species. Importantly, in pepper, the UV-A treated plants contained higher contents of secondary metabolites, leaf soluble carbohydrates, free amino acids and total content of protein. Such changes in tissue chemistry may have indirectly promoted aphid performance. For eggplants, chlorophylls a and b, and carotenoid levels decreased with supplemental UV-A over the entire

  2. Resistance of soybean genotypes to Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) Biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Vieira, S S; Bueno, A F; Boff, M I C; Bueno, R C O F; Hoffman-Campo, C B

    2011-01-01

    The silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B has become a serious problem for soybean cultivation because it can significantly reduce soybean productivity. The use of soybean cultivars resistant to whitefly attack is an important strategy in an integrated pest management (IPM) program. This study evaluated the preference for oviposition and colonization by B. tabaci biotype B on different soybean genotypes. In the free-choice test, the genotypes studied were 'IAC 17' and 'IAC 19' as the standards for resistance and 'IAC Holambra Stwart' as the standard for susceptibility, as well as BABR01-0492, BABR01-0173, BABR01-1259, BABR01-1576, BABR99-4021HC, BABR99-4021HP, 'Barreiras', 'Conquista', 'Corisco', 'BRS Gralha', PI274454, PI227687, and PI171451. In the no-choice test, the four best genotypes selected in the free-choice test, in addition to the susceptible and resistant standards were evaluated. Our data indicated 'Barreiras' as the most resistant genotype against B. tabaci biotype B. 'BRS Gralha', which was the least attractive to whitefly adults in the free-choice test, did not show resistance to insect attack when they were confined in cages in the no-choice test. Despite the high number of eggs observed, BABR01-1576 and BABR99-4021HC showed a reduced number of nymphs, indicating antibiosis. The genotypes with a high level of resistance can be used as a tool against B. tabaci in IPM or as a source of resistance in plant-breeding programs.

  3. Efficacy and Dose Response of Soil-Applied Neem Formulations in Substrates With Different Amounts of Organic Matter, in the Control of Whiteflies, Aleyrodes proletella and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Karanja, Josephine; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Pallmann, Philip

    2015-06-01

    Neem products have been used frequently as an alternative to synthetic pesticides, because of their insecticidal, insect antifeedant, and growth-regulating effects. Moreover, new formulations are continually being developed and therefore, they have to be evaluated for their efficacy and persistence. In this regard, two soil-applied products-a liquid-based drenching solution NeemAzal-T and NeemAzal granules-were evaluated against two whitefly species, Aleyrodes proletella L. and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (West) on Brussels sprout and tomatoes, respectively. The plants were grown in two substrates: one was a commercial substrate (CS) composed of 15% humus, 35% clay, and 50% peat, and the other was a commercial substrate and sand mixture in 1:1 ratio. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy, persistence, and dose response of the two soil-applied NeemAzal formulations in substrates with different amount of organic matter. The results show that the efficacy of neem formulations was dose dependent, with the highest doses of NeemAzal granules (300 mg/kg=21 mg azadirachtin [AZA]/kg of substrate) and NeemAzal T (2 ml/kg=20 mg AZA/kg of substrate) achieving up to 100% mortality of immature stages of whiteflies. NeemAzal caused significantly higher mortality in immature stages of both whitefly species with CS + sand mixture than with pure CS. Persistence of the NeemAzal formulations was not influenced by the substrate type but rather by time span between treatment application and infestation, with significant decrease in efficacy when whiteflies were exposed 10 d after treatments. PMID:26470244

  4. Interactions of light intensity, insecticide concentration, and time on the efficacy of systemic insecticides in suppressing populations of the sweetpotato whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and the citrus mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Williams, Kimberly A; Byrne, Frank J; Kemp, Kenneth E

    2012-04-01

    The impact of light intensity on the uptake and persistence of the systemic neonicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid and dinotefuran, were evaluated in poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd.) and yellow sage (Lantana camara L.). Insecticide residues were measured in leaves sampled from the treated plants at four time intervals after treatment to determine the relationship between insecticide concentration and efficacy against two insect pests: sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, and the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri Risso. The insecticides were evaluated at their respective label rate and at the comparable label rate of the other insecticide under two different light environments: ambient and shade. The uptake of dinotefuran into yellow sage was more rapid at both treatment rates than both rates of imidacloprid, resulting in higher percent mortality of whitefly nymphs (89.8-100) compared with imidacloprid (14.1-89.2) across all 4 wk. Additionally, plants that received both rates of dinotefuran had fewer whitefly pupae (< 1.0) at week 4 compared with imidacloprid-treated plants (23.7-25.3). The uptake of dinotefuran into poinsettia plants was also more rapid and resulted in quicker and higher percent mortality of whitefly nymphs (89.5-99.6) compared with imidacloprid (14.1-89.2) across all 4 wk. However, despite efficient uptake, the efficacy of both systemic insecticides was less for citrus mealybug where percent mortality values were <50% among all the treatments across the 4 wk. The use of the two systemic insecticides evaluated in regards to pest management in horticultural cropping systems is discussed.

  5. Efficacy and Dose Response of Soil-Applied Neem Formulations in Substrates With Different Amounts of Organic Matter, in the Control of Whiteflies, Aleyrodes proletella and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Karanja, Josephine; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Pallmann, Philip

    2015-06-01

    Neem products have been used frequently as an alternative to synthetic pesticides, because of their insecticidal, insect antifeedant, and growth-regulating effects. Moreover, new formulations are continually being developed and therefore, they have to be evaluated for their efficacy and persistence. In this regard, two soil-applied products-a liquid-based drenching solution NeemAzal-T and NeemAzal granules-were evaluated against two whitefly species, Aleyrodes proletella L. and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (West) on Brussels sprout and tomatoes, respectively. The plants were grown in two substrates: one was a commercial substrate (CS) composed of 15% humus, 35% clay, and 50% peat, and the other was a commercial substrate and sand mixture in 1:1 ratio. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy, persistence, and dose response of the two soil-applied NeemAzal formulations in substrates with different amount of organic matter. The results show that the efficacy of neem formulations was dose dependent, with the highest doses of NeemAzal granules (300 mg/kg=21 mg azadirachtin [AZA]/kg of substrate) and NeemAzal T (2 ml/kg=20 mg AZA/kg of substrate) achieving up to 100% mortality of immature stages of whiteflies. NeemAzal caused significantly higher mortality in immature stages of both whitefly species with CS + sand mixture than with pure CS. Persistence of the NeemAzal formulations was not influenced by the substrate type but rather by time span between treatment application and infestation, with significant decrease in efficacy when whiteflies were exposed 10 d after treatments.

  6. New developments in insecticide resistance in the glasshouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) and the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) in the UK.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Kevin; Hewitt, Fiona; Denholm, Ian; Devine, Gregor J

    2002-02-01

    A recent survey of insecticide resistance in two of the most problematic pests in UK glasshouses revealed some new developments. At least some individuals in all UK samples of Trialeurodes vaporariorum that were tested resisted the insect growth regulator (IGR) buprofezin. The most strongly resistant strains were unaffected by the field application rate of this compound, and even samples from populations that had never been exposed to buprofezin contained individuals that survived the highest concentration applied (10,000 mg litre-1). The field rate of buprofezin was shown to select for resistance through vapour action alone. The benzophenylurea teflubenzuron, an unrelated IGR, was cross-resisted by buprofezin-resistant individuals. There was no evidence of resistance to imidacloprid, but all T vaporariorum strains tested, regardless of origin, exhibited a high innate tolerance to nicotine, when compared with another whitefly species, Bemisia tabaci. Marked resistance to fenbutatin oxide and tebufenpyrad was found in single glasshouse populations of Tetranychus urticae, but these compounds and abamectin appeared to remain highly effective against all other strains collected.

  7. Sweet pepper confirmed as a reservoir host for tomato yellow leaf curl virus by both agro-inoculation and whitefly-mediated inoculation.

    PubMed

    Kil, Eui-Joon; Byun, Hee-Seong; Kim, Sunhoo; Kim, Jaedeok; Park, Jungan; Cho, Seungchan; Yang, Dong-Cheol; Lee, Kyeong-Yeoll; Choi, Hong-Soo; Kim, Ji-Kwang; Lee, Sukchan

    2014-09-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a member of the genus Begomovirus, has a single-stranded DNA genome. TYLCV can induce severe disease symptoms on tomato plants, but other hosts plants such as cucurbits and peppers are asymptomatic. A full-length DNA clone of a Korean TYLCV isolate was constructed by rolling-circle amplification from TYLCV-infected tomatoes in Korea. To assess relative susceptibility of sweet pepper varieties to TYLCV, 19 cultivars were inoculated with cloned TYLCV by agro-inoculation. All TYLCV-infected sweet peppers were asymptomatic, even though Southern hybridization and polymerase chain reaction analysis showed TYLCV genomic DNA accumulation in roots, stems, and newly produced shoots. Southern hybridization indicated that TYLCV replicated and moved systemically from agro-inoculated apical shoot tips to roots or newly produced shoots of sweet peppers. Whitefly-mediated inoculation experiments showed that TYLCV can be transmitted to tomatoes from TYLCV-infected sweet peppers. Taken together, these results indicate that sweet pepper can be a reservoir for TYLCV in nature.

  8. Infection of Bacterial Endosymbionts in Insects: A Comparative Study of Two Techniques viz PCR and FISH for Detection and Localization of Symbionts in Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Harpreet Singh; Singh, Ambika; Popli, Sonam; Pandey, Neeti; Rajagopal, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts have been associated with arthropods and large number of the insect species show interaction with such bacteria. Different approaches have been used to understand such symbiont- host interactions. The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, a highly invasive agricultural pest, harbors as many as seven different bacterial endosymbionts. These bacterial endosymbionts are known to provide various nutritional, physiological, environmental and evolutionary benefits to its insect host. In this study, we have tried to compare two techniques, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Flourescence in situ Hybridisation (FISH) commonly used for identification and localization of bacterial endosymbionts in B. tabaci as it harbors one of the highest numbers of endosymbionts which have helped it in becoming a successful global invasive agricultural pest. The amplified PCR products were observed as bands on agarose gel by electrophoresis while the FISH samples were mounted on slides and observed under confocal microscope. Analysis of results obtained by these two techniques revealed the advantages of FISH over PCR. On a short note, performing FISH, using LNA probes proved to be more sensitive and informative for identification as well as localization of bacterial endosymbionts in B. tabaci than relying on PCR. This study would help in designing more efficient experiments based on much reliable detection procedure and studying the role of endosymbionts in insects. PMID:26287997

  9. Sweet pepper confirmed as a reservoir host for tomato yellow leaf curl virus by both agro-inoculation and whitefly-mediated inoculation.

    PubMed

    Kil, Eui-Joon; Byun, Hee-Seong; Kim, Sunhoo; Kim, Jaedeok; Park, Jungan; Cho, Seungchan; Yang, Dong-Cheol; Lee, Kyeong-Yeoll; Choi, Hong-Soo; Kim, Ji-Kwang; Lee, Sukchan

    2014-09-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a member of the genus Begomovirus, has a single-stranded DNA genome. TYLCV can induce severe disease symptoms on tomato plants, but other hosts plants such as cucurbits and peppers are asymptomatic. A full-length DNA clone of a Korean TYLCV isolate was constructed by rolling-circle amplification from TYLCV-infected tomatoes in Korea. To assess relative susceptibility of sweet pepper varieties to TYLCV, 19 cultivars were inoculated with cloned TYLCV by agro-inoculation. All TYLCV-infected sweet peppers were asymptomatic, even though Southern hybridization and polymerase chain reaction analysis showed TYLCV genomic DNA accumulation in roots, stems, and newly produced shoots. Southern hybridization indicated that TYLCV replicated and moved systemically from agro-inoculated apical shoot tips to roots or newly produced shoots of sweet peppers. Whitefly-mediated inoculation experiments showed that TYLCV can be transmitted to tomatoes from TYLCV-infected sweet peppers. Taken together, these results indicate that sweet pepper can be a reservoir for TYLCV in nature. PMID:24777825

  10. Adult immunization

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Bharti; Chawla, Sumit; Kumar Dharma, Vijay; Jindal, Harashish; Bhatt, Bhumika

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is recommended throughout life to prevent vaccine-preventable diseases and their sequel. The primary focus of vaccination programs has historically been directed to childhood immunizations. For adults, chronic diseases have been the primary focus of preventive and medical health care, though there has been increased emphasis on preventing infectious diseases. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains low for most of the routinely recommended vaccines. Though adults are less susceptible to fall prey to traditional infectious agents, the probability of exposure to infectious agents has increased manifold owing to globalization and increasing travel opportunities both within and across the countries. Thus, there is an urgent need to address the problem of adult immunization. The adult immunization enterprise is more complex, encompassing a wide variety of vaccines and a very diverse target population. There is no coordinated public health infrastructure to support an adult immunization program as there is for children. Moreover, there is little coordination among adult healthcare providers in terms of vaccine provision. Substantial improvement in adult vaccination is needed to reduce the health consequences of vaccine-preventable diseases among adults. Routine assessment of adult patient vaccination needs, recommendation, and offer of needed vaccines for adults should be incorporated into routine clinical care of adults. PMID:24128707

  11. First report of the Q biotype of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) in Guatemala

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) adults were collected from poinsettia plants at a commercial greenhouse, bean and zucchini vegetable fields, weed species, and wild ornamentals species in selected locations in Guatemala. Both adult and immature whiteflies were observed on infested poinsettias. Whiteflies ...

  12. Urinary tract infection - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Bladder infection - adults; UTI - adults; Cystitis - bacterial - adults; Pyelonephritis - adults; Kidney infection - adults ... to the hospital if you: Are an older adult Have kidney stones or changes in the anatomy ...

  13. Genetic variation of the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), among populations from Serbia and neighbouring countries, as inferred from COI sequence variability.

    PubMed

    Prijović, M; Skaljac, M; Drobnjaković, T; Zanić, K; Perić, P; Marčić, D; Puizina, J

    2014-06-01

    The greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood, 1856 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is an invasive and highly polyphagous phloem-feeding pest of vegetables and ornamentals. Trialeurodes vaporariorum causes serious damage due to direct feeding and transmits several important plant viruses. Excessive use of insecticides has resulted in significantly reduced levels of susceptibility of various T. vaporariorum populations. To determine the genetic variability within and among populations of T. vaporariorum from Serbia and to explore their genetic relatedness with other T. vaporariorum populations, we analysed the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequences of 16 populations from Serbia and six neighbouring countries: Montenegro (three populations), Macedonia (one population) and Croatia (two populations), for a total of 198 analysed specimens. A low overall level of sequence divergence and only five variable nucleotides and six haplotypes were found. The most frequent haplotype, H1, was identified in all Serbian populations and in all specimens from distant localities in Croatia and Macedonia. The COI sequence data that was retrieved from GenBank and the data from our study indicated that H1 is the most globally widespread T. vaporariorum haplotype. A lack of spatial genetic structure among the studied T. vaporariorum populations, as well as two demographic tests that we performed (Tajima's D value and Fu's Fs statistics), indicate a recent colonisation event and population growth. Phylogenetic analyses of the COI haplotypes in this study and other T. vaporariorum haplotypes that were retrieved from GenBank were performed using Bayesian inference and median-joining (MJ) network analysis. Two major haplogroups with only a single unique nucleotide difference were found: haplogroup 1 (containing the five Serbian haplotypes and those previously identified in India, China, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Morocco, Reunion and the USA) and haplogroup 3

  14. Adult intussusception.

    PubMed Central

    Azar, T; Berger, D L

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objectives were to review adult intussusception, its diagnosis, and its treatment. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Adult intussusception represents 1% of all bowel obstructions, 5% of all intussusceptions, and 0.003%-0.02% of all hospital admissions. Intussusception is a different entity in adults than it is in children. METHODS: The records of all patients 18 years and older with the postoperative diagnosis of intussusception at the Massachusetts General Hospital during the years 1964 through 1993 were reviewed retrospectively. The 58 patients were divided into those with benign enteric, malignant enteric, benign colonic, and malignant colonic lesions associated with their intussusception. The diagnosis and treatment of each were reviewed. RESULTS: In 30 years at the Massachusetts General Hospital, there are 58 cases of surgically proven adult intussusception. The patients' mean age was 54.4 years. Most patients presented with symptoms consistent with bowel obstruction. There were 44 enteric and 14 colonic intussusceptions. Ninety-three percent of the intussusceptions were associated with a pathologic lesion. Forty-eight percent of the enteric lesions were malignant and 52% were benign. Forty-three percent of the colonic lesions were malignant and 57% were benign. CONCLUSIONS: Intussusception occurs rarely in adults. It presents with a variety of acute, intermittent, and chronic symptoms, thus making its preoperative diagnosis difficult. Computed tomography scanning proved to be the most useful diagnostic radiologic method. The diagnosis and treatment of adult intussusception are surgical. Surgical resection of the intussusception without reduction is the preferred treatment in adults, as almost half of both colonic and enteric intussusceptions are associated with malignancy. PMID:9296505

  15. Adult Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Billie H.

    This document contains a brief bibliography of peer-reviewed literature, with abstracts, on adult children. It is one of 12 bibliographies on aging prepared by the National Agricultural Library for its "Pathfinders" series of publications. Topics covered by the other 11 bibliographies include aging parents, dementia and Alzheimer's disease in the…

  16. Adult Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bischof, Ledford J.

    This volume comprehensively reviews the research on the psychology of the middle aged (ages 40-65). Topics include the concept of maturity and maturation models, the measurement and influences of adult self image; marriage and sexual patterns; intergenerational relationships between and children; vocations and avocations (work, retirement, play,…

  17. ADULT EDUCATION OF MIGRANT ADULTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BEAL, CATHERINE; AND OTHERS

    UNITS ON MIGRANT ADULT EDUCATION, AND A UNIT ON ORGANIZING INFORMAL GROUPS OF MIGRANT WOMEN TO DISCUSS MAINTAINING AND IMPROVING THEIR TEMPORARY HOMES, ARE PRESENTED. THE GOALS OF THE UNIT ON EDUCATION FOR MIGRANT MEN ARE ECONOMIC INDEPENDENCE, BETTER HEALTH AND WELL-BEING, AND BETTER HANDLING OF RESPONSIBILITIES. THE MAIN DIVISIONS OF THE…

  18. [Adult twins].

    PubMed

    Charlemaine, Christiane

    2006-12-31

    This paper explores the deep roots of closeness that twins share in their youngest age and their effect on their destiny at the adult age. Psychologists believe the bond between twins begins in utero and develops throughout the twins' lives. The four patterns of twinship described show that the twin bond is determined by the quality of parenting that twins receive in their infancy and early childhood. Common problems of adult twins bring about difficulties to adapt in a non-twin world. The nature versus nurture controversy has taken on new life focusing on inter-twin differences and the importance of parent-child interaction as fundamental to the growth and development of personality. PMID:17352324

  19. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...

  20. Teaching Adults. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Alan

    The question of how adult educators can make their teaching of adults more effective is explored in the context of recent work on adult lifelong learning. The following are among the topics discussed: (1) modes of adult education and the shift in focus from adult education to lifelong learning; (2) the contract between adult student and adult…

  1. Tomato pathogenesis-related protein genes are expressed in response to Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Bemisia tabaci biotype B feeding.

    PubMed

    Puthoff, David P; Holzer, Frances M; Perring, Thomas M; Walling, Linda L

    2010-11-01

    The temporal and spatial expression of tomato wound- and defense-response genes to Bemisia tabaci biotype B (the silverleaf whitefly) and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (the greenhouse whitefly) feeding were characterized. Both species of whiteflies evoked similar changes in tomato gene expression. The levels of RNAs for the methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA)- or ethylene-regulated genes that encode the basic β-1,3-glucanase (GluB), basic chitinase (Chi9), and Pathogenesis-related protein-1 (PR-1) were monitored. GluB and Chi9 RNAs were abundant in infested leaves from the time nymphs initiated feeding (day 5). In addition, GluB RNAs accumulated in apical non-infested leaves. PR-1 RNAs also accumulated after whitefly feeding. In contrast, the ethylene- and salicylic acid (SA)-regulated Chi3 and PR-4 genes had RNAs that accumulated at low levels and GluAC RNAs that were undetectable in whitefly-infested tomato leaves. The changes in Phenylalanine ammonia lyase5 (PAL5) were variable; in some, but not all infestations, PAL5 RNAs increased in response to whitefly feeding. PAL5 RNA levels increased in response to MeJA, ethylene, and abscisic acid, and declined in response to SA. Transcripts from the wound-response genes, leucine aminopeptidase (LapA1) and proteinase inhibitor 2 (pin2), were not detected following whitefly feeding. Furthermore, whitefly infestation of transgenic LapA1:GUS tomato plants showed that whitefly feeding did not activate the LapA1 promoter, although crushing of the leaf lamina increased GUS activity up to 40 fold. These studies indicate that tomato plants perceive B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum in a manner similar to baterical pathogens and distinct from tissue-damaging insects.

  2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - adults - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive airways disease - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive lung disease - adults - discharge; Chronic bronchitis - adults - discharge; Emphysema - adults - ...

  3. Adult flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Toullec, E

    2015-02-01

    Adult flatfoot is defined as a flattening of the medial arch of the foot in weight-bearing and lack of a propulsive gait. The 3 lesion levels are the talonavicular, tibiotarsal and midfoot joints. The subtalar joint is damaged by the consequent rotational defects. Clinical examination determines deformity and reducibility, and assesses any posterior tibialis muscle deficit, the posterior tibialis tendon and spring ligament being frequently subject to degenerative lesions. Radiographic examination in 3 incidences in weight-bearing is essential, to determine the principal level of deformity. Tendon (posterior tibialis tendon) and ligamentous lesions (spring ligament and interosseous ligament) are analyzed on MRI or ultrasound. In fixed deformities, CT explores for arthritic evolution or specific etiologies. 3D CT reconstruction can analyze bone and joint morphology and contribute to the planning of any osteotomy. Medical management associates insoles and physiotherapy. Acute painful flatfoot requires strict cast immobilization. Surgical treatment associates numerous combinations of procedures, currently under assessment for supple flatfoot: for the hindfoot: medial slide calcaneal osteotomy, calcaneal lengthening osteotomy, or arthroereisis; for the midfoot: arthrodesis on one or several rays, or first cuneiform or first metatarsal osteotomy; for the ankle: medial collateral ligament repair with tendon transfer. Fixed deformities require arthrodesis of one or several joint-lines in the hindfoot; for the ankle, total replacement after realignment of the foot, or tibiotalocalcaneal fusion or ankle and hindfoot fusion; and, for the midfoot, cuneonavicular or cuneometatarsal fusion. Tendinous procedures are often associated. Specific etiologies may need individualized procedures. In conclusion, adult flatfoot tends to be diagnosed and managed too late, with consequent impact on the ankle, the management of which is complex and poorly codified.

  4. Adult flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Toullec, E

    2015-02-01

    Adult flatfoot is defined as a flattening of the medial arch of the foot in weight-bearing and lack of a propulsive gait. The 3 lesion levels are the talonavicular, tibiotarsal and midfoot joints. The subtalar joint is damaged by the consequent rotational defects. Clinical examination determines deformity and reducibility, and assesses any posterior tibialis muscle deficit, the posterior tibialis tendon and spring ligament being frequently subject to degenerative lesions. Radiographic examination in 3 incidences in weight-bearing is essential, to determine the principal level of deformity. Tendon (posterior tibialis tendon) and ligamentous lesions (spring ligament and interosseous ligament) are analyzed on MRI or ultrasound. In fixed deformities, CT explores for arthritic evolution or specific etiologies. 3D CT reconstruction can analyze bone and joint morphology and contribute to the planning of any osteotomy. Medical management associates insoles and physiotherapy. Acute painful flatfoot requires strict cast immobilization. Surgical treatment associates numerous combinations of procedures, currently under assessment for supple flatfoot: for the hindfoot: medial slide calcaneal osteotomy, calcaneal lengthening osteotomy, or arthroereisis; for the midfoot: arthrodesis on one or several rays, or first cuneiform or first metatarsal osteotomy; for the ankle: medial collateral ligament repair with tendon transfer. Fixed deformities require arthrodesis of one or several joint-lines in the hindfoot; for the ankle, total replacement after realignment of the foot, or tibiotalocalcaneal fusion or ankle and hindfoot fusion; and, for the midfoot, cuneonavicular or cuneometatarsal fusion. Tendinous procedures are often associated. Specific etiologies may need individualized procedures. In conclusion, adult flatfoot tends to be diagnosed and managed too late, with consequent impact on the ankle, the management of which is complex and poorly codified. PMID:25595429

  5. Lethal and Inhibitory Activities of Plant-Derived Essential Oils Against Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Biotype B in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Fanela, T L M; Baldin, E L L; Pannuti, L E R; Cruz, P L; Crotti, A E M; Takeara, R; Kato, M J

    2016-04-01

    The silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is one of the most severe tomato pests in the world. The damage caused by this insect may compromise up to 100% of crop production, and management of this pest has relied on spraying of synthetic insecticides. However, due to the environmental issues associated with this practice, alternative methods such as the use of botanical pesticides are now used as a strategy of integrated pest management (IPM). We evaluated the effects of essential oils of five plant species on B. tabaci biotype B in tomato and demonstrate that the essential oils (0.5%) of Piper callosum (PC-EO), Adenocalymma alliaceum (AA-EO), Pelargonium graveolens (PG-EO), and Plectranthus neochilus (PN-EO) inhibit the settlement and oviposition of B. tabaci biotype B adults in tomato plants. In fumigation tests, A. alliaceum (AA-EO) at 0.4 μL/L of air after 72 h and 0.1 μL/L of air after 6 h was the most effective against nymphs and adults of B. tabaci biotype B, respectively. The major chemical constituents of PC-EO were identified as being safrole (29.3%), α-pinene (19.2%), and β-pinene (14.3%), whereas diallyl trisulfide (66.9%) and diallyl disulfide (23.3%) were the major compounds identified in AA-EO. This is the first report on the reduction of oviposition by the use of P. callosum (PC-EO) and A. alliaceum (AA-EO). In addition, the fumigant effect of A. alliaceum (AA-EO) on nymphs and adults has also been reported here for the first time. PMID:26712319

  6. Adult Still's disease

    MedlinePlus

    Still's disease - adult; AOSD ... than 1 out of 100,000 people develop adult-onset Still's disease each year. It affects women more often than men. The cause of adult Still's disease is unknown. No risk factors for ...

  7. Panic Disorder among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  8. Bipolar Disorder Among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  9. Major Depression Among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  10. Adult Recruitment Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Juliet, Ed.; And Others

    Findings of an American College Testing Program 1981 survey on college recruitment of adult students are summarized, and 12 articles on adult recruitment are presented. Titles and authors are as follows: "Adult Recruitment Practices: A Report of a National Survey" (Patricia Spratt, Juliet Kaufmann, Lee Noel); "Three Programs for Adults in Shopping…

  11. Adult Cancers in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Laurence, Valérie; Marples, Maria; Stark, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of cancer seen in young people changes with increasing age, transitioning from childhood- to adult-type cancer in adolescence and the third decade. The risk factors, presentation and biology of cancer in young adults differ from those in the older adult population. Factors of particular significance in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) include genetic predisposition to adult-type cancer, diagnostic uncertainty, long-term morbidity and considerations of fertility. New systemic therapies are being introduced that can prolong life and even increase the chance of cure, but the impact on AYAs is uncertain, as these patients are often under-represented in clinical trials. Here, we discuss the management of AYAs with 3 of the most common cancers affecting adults, when they emerge in the AYA populations, and therefore are currently met by medical oncologists - breast cancer, colorectal cancer and melanoma. PMID:27595357

  12. Expressing a whitefly GroEL protein in Nicotiana benthamiana plants confers tolerance to tomato yellow leaf curl virus and cucumber mosaic virus, but not to grapevine virus A or tobacco mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Edelbaum, Dagan; Gorovits, Rena; Sasaki, Sonoko; Ikegami, Masato; Czosnek, Henryk

    2009-01-01

    Transgenesis offers many ways to obtain virus-resistant plants. However, in most cases resistance is against a single virus or viral strain. We have taken a novel approach based on the ability of a whitefly endosymbiotic GroEL to bind viruses belonging to several genera, in vivo and in vitro. We have expressed the GroEL gene in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, postulating that upon virus inoculation, GroEL will bind to virions, thereby interfering with pathogenesis. The transgenic plants were inoculated with the begomovirus tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and the cucumovirus cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), both of which interacted with GroEL in vitro, and with the trichovirus grapevine virus A (GVA) and the tobamovirus tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), which did not. While the transgenic plants inoculated with TYLCV and CMV presented a high level of tolerance, those inoculated with GVA and TMV were susceptible. The amounts of virus in tolerant transgenic plants was lower by three orders of magnitude than those in non-transgenic plants; in comparison, the amounts of virus in susceptible transgenic plants were similar to those in non-transgenic plants. Leaf extracts of the tolerant plants contained GroEL-virus complexes. Hence, tolerance was correlated with trapping of viruses in planta. This study demonstrated that multiple resistances to viruses belonging to several different taxonomic genera could be achieved. Moreover, it might be hypothesized that plants expressing GroEL will be tolerant to those viruses that bind to GroEL in vitro, such as members of the genera Begomovirus, Cucumovirus, Ilarvirus, Luteovirus, and Tospovirus. PMID:19184338

  13. Adult Congenital Heart Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... survivable, manageable, yet in the routine years between infancy and adulthood, sometimes forgettable. The Adult Congenital Heart ... understand the continuum of the disease from its infancy. The Adult Congential Heart Association brings together valuable ...

  14. Immunization Schedules for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedules for Adults in Easy-to-read Formats ... previous immunizations. View or Print a Schedule Recommended Immunizations for Adults (19 Years and Older) by Age ...

  15. Liberal Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toiviainen, Timo

    1988-01-01

    Discusses providers of and the concept of liberal adult education in Finland. Providers include (1) folk high schools, (2) adult education centers, (3) voluntary popular organizations, (4) public libraries, (5) evening schools, (6) cooperative groups formed of universities and other adult education providers, (7) summer universities, and (8)…

  16. Comparing Adult Education Worldwide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charters, Alexander N.; And Others

    Comparative international adult education, defined as that field in which adult educators from various countries compare their own institutions and practices with those of their counterparts in other nations, is examined. Provided is an account of adult education in nine European socialist countries (including the Soviet Union), as well as…

  17. Adult Numeracy Core Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steeds, Andrew, Ed.

    Designed primarily for adult literacy teachers and tutors, this curriculum describes the content of what should be taught in numeracy programs in order to meet the individual needs of adults through the selection and teaching of skills appropriate to those adults' needs. An introduction describes national standards and qualifications, learners,…

  18. Adult Educators' Core Competences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    Which competences do professional adult educators need? This research note discusses the topic from a comparative perspective, finding that adult educators' required competences are wide-ranging, heterogeneous and complex. They are subject to context in terms of national and cultural environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned…

  19. Adults Learning. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Jenny

    Aimed at anyone who wants to know how to teach adults, this guide aims to build confidence, offer practical advice, and give the real-life flavor of helping fellow adults develop. Chapter 1 addresses adult learners: mindsets, motivation, and learning (learning cycle, learning styles, relevance, reinforcement and practice, experience, learning to…

  20. Adult Education in Hungary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csoma, Gyula; And Others

    Beginning with a brief survey of the national system, this work covers provisions since 1945 for adult education in Hungary. Educational objectives and other theoretical aspects of adult education in Hungarian society are described, together with the eight year elementary program, technical and vocational adult schools, general and professional…

  1. An Adult ESL Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Literacy Resource Center, Columbia.

    This curriculum framework for adult literacy was written by 21 South Carolina adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instructors, as submitted to the South Carolina Literacy Resource Center. It is based on current theories in the fields of adult education and second language acquisition and is designed to be flexible so that it may be adapted to…

  2. Dimensions of Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Griff, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This broad introduction to adult and postcompulsory education offers an overview of the field for students, adult educators and workplace trainers. The book establishes an analytical framework to emphasize the nature of learning and agency of learners; examines the core knowledge and skills that adult educators need; discusses policy, research and…

  3. Canadian Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooke, W. Michael, Comp.

    "Trends," a publication of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, is a collection of abstracts on selected subjects affecting adult education; this issue is on adult basic education (ABE). It covers teachers and teacher training, psychological factors relating to the ABE teacher and students, manuals for teachers, instructional materials,…

  4. Adult Learning Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine Knowles' theory of andragogy and his six assumptions of how adults learn while providing evidence to support two of his assumptions based on the theory of andragogy. As no single theory explains how adults learn, it can best be assumed that adults learn through the accumulation of formal and informal…

  5. Adult Education in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkos, Alexios

    2008-01-01

    The central aim of this article is to analyse the current situation of adult education in Greece. The article focuses on the following points: (a) the degree of participation in programmes of continuing professional training and general adult education courses, (b) the quality and the outcomes of the adult education provision in Greece, and (c)…

  6. Adults Role in Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notar, Charles E.; Padgett, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Do adults play a role in bullying? Do parents, teachers, school staff, and community adult leaders influence bullying behavior in children and teenagers? This article will focus on research regarding all adults who have almost daily contact with children and teens and their part in how bullying is identified, addressed, and prevented. This article…

  7. Adult Survival Skills Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsko, Gregory M.

    The purpose of this instrument is to supplement data from the Adult Basic Learning Examination in assessing the functional level of adults in daily situations. It may also be used as a teaching tool for adults requesting tutoring in specific concepts and skills presented in the instrument. This instrument is an informal assessment instrument and…

  8. Adult Learning: A Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Peter, Ed.

    This book on adult learning is divided into six sections. Section 1, Cognitive Processes, includes the following chapters: "Cognitive Processes: Contemporary Paradigms of Learning" (Jack Mezirow); "Information Processing, Memory, Age and Adult Learning" (Gillian Boulton-Lewis); "Adult Learners' Metacognitive Behaviour in Higher Education" (Barry…

  9. Kids Who Outwit Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seita, John R.; Brendtro, Larry K.

    Kids who distrust adults are highly skilled at hiding their real nature and resisting change. Most adults shun such youths or get mired in conflict with them. Punitive get tough practices as well as traditional flaw-fixing treatment are reactive strategies that often drive these youths further from adult bonds and reinforce oppositional and…

  10. Adults Learning for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Alan

    This book, drawing on 30 years of adult education experience in England, Ireland, India, and other countries, contrasts the individualistic approach to adult education in the West with the social responsibility view of adult education in the developing world. The book's thesis is that the gulf between the approach of the West and that of…

  11. Young Adult Services Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boegen, Anne, Ed.

    Designed to offer guidelines, ideas and help to those who provide library service to young adults, this manual includes information about the provision of young adult (YA) services in six sections. The first section, which addresses planning and administration, includes a definition of a young adult and a checklist for determining community needs…

  12. The Adult Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Janet

    The 14 chapters of this textbook chronicle adult development from youth through old age, emphasizing both research and interviews with adults at various stages in their lives. Topics covered include the following: (1) the academic field of adult development; (2) theories and research methods; (3) aging and disease prevention; (4) sexuality and…

  13. Adult Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miser, Rifat; Ural, Ozana; Ünlühisarýklý, Özlem

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the situation and practices of adult education in Turkey in terms of (a) participants, (b) providers, and (c) program areas. The data were derived from published statistical data and one-to-one interaction with adult education providers when such data are unavailable. Turkey has a long tradition of adult education with…

  14. Repellent and Attractive Effects of α-, β-, and Dihydro-β- Ionone to Generalist and Specialist Herbivores.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, L A; Lakshminarayan, S; Yeung, K K-C; McGarvey, B D; Hannoufa, A; Sumarah, M W; Benitez, X; Scott, I M

    2016-02-01

    In plants, the oxidative cleavage of carotenoid substrates produces volatile apocarotenoids, including α-ionone, β-ionone, and dihydro-β-ionone, compounds that are important in herbivore-plant communication. For example, β-ionone is part of an induced defense in canola, Brassica napus, and is released following wounding by herbivores. The objectives of the research were to evaluate whether these volatile compounds would: 1) be released in higher quantities from plants through the over-expression of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase1 (CCD1) gene and 2) cause herbivores to be repelled or attracted to over-expressing plants relative to the wild-type. In vivo dynamic headspace collection of volatiles coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the headspace of the Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia-0 (L.) over-expressing the AtCCD1 gene. The analytical method allowed the detection of β-ionone in the Arabidopsis headspace where emission rates ranged between 2 and 5-fold higher compared to the wild type, thus corroborating the in vivo enhancement of gene expression. A two chamber choice test between wild type and AtCCD1 plants revealed that crucifer flea beetle Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) adults were repelled by the AtCCD1 plants with the highest transcription and β-ionone levels. α-Ionone and dihydro-β-ionone were not found in the headspace analysis, but solutions of the three compounds were tested in the concentration range of β-ionone found in the Arabidopsis headspace (0.05 to 0.5 ng/μl) in order to assess their biological activity with crucifer flea beetle, two spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Koch), and silverleaf whiteflies Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). Choice bioassays demonstrated that β-ionone has a strong repellent effect toward both the flea beetle and the spider mite, and significant oviposition deterrence to whiteflies. In contrast, dihydro-β-ionone had attractant

  15. Recruiting Adult Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Resources Network, Manhattan, KS.

    This document is the first nationwide compilation of successful recruiting techniques for students in adult basic education, literacy, General Educational Development classes, and adult high school degree programs. Information for the publication was gathered from a literature search and other sources, especially "Reaching the Least Educated," a…

  16. Provision for Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Edward

    1970-01-01

    Comments on the report recently issued by the National Institute of Adult Education as a result of inquiries made into provision for adult education in six areas in England and one in Wales between the years 1967 and 1969. (Author/EB)

  17. Counseling Adult Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corder, Kate

    2012-01-01

    This review presents various resources about working with adult adoptees in order to inform counselors in their practice. Topics covered include basics of adoption, including types of adoption and adoption statistics; possible issues adult adoptees may face; and suggestions and implications for counselors. The article addresses some of the serious…

  18. Adult Counseling Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrone, Phil; Davis, Sandy A.

    In order to determine the specific counseling needs of the adult learner, staff of the Adult Counseling Project began by conducting a literature search pertaining to the problems of returning students and those considering a return to school. The review revealed that little is known about the educational and vocational needs of the returning…

  19. Adult Day Services

    MedlinePlus

    A Smart Choice Adult Day Services Comparison At-a-Glance 1 Adult Day Services Assisted Living Home Care Nursing Homes Live at home with family ... supervision Nursing care available as needed during the day Flexibility to receive care only on days when ...

  20. Today's Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Who are the adult students in career and technical education (CTE) today? There is not one simple answer to that question. Some are young with little life experience, while others are returning to the workforce and learning new skills to reinvent themselves. Whatever the case, educating adult students is an integral part of ACTE's mission, and the…

  1. Toward Transpersonal Adult Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucouvalas, Marcie

    2016-01-01

    As a foundation for discussing transpersonal adult development, the author traces her trajectory, involvement in, and contribution to the modern transpersonal movement and her introduction of it to the adult learning literature, beginning during the early 1980s. Highlighted are the transpersonal domain and a differentiation between transpersonal…

  2. Adult Education Regional Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2015

    2015-01-01

    For more than one hundred and fifty years, until 2008, California was an undisputed national leader in its commitment to adult education. The state's investment in adult learners topped $750 million, a sum greater than the combined total of every other state in the nation. However, for the past several years recession and fiscal crisis have left…

  3. Adult Education in Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Harry G.; Torricelli, James

    To develop background for examining the past, present, and future of adult education in Thailand, the author initially sketches an economic and geographic profile of the country. In the second of five sections, Thailand's adult education movement is traced by examining the influences of kings, the Buddhist religion, various governments, and the…

  4. Authenticity in Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Sam

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the relationship between authenticity and adult learning and prompted by some studies in which adult "authentic learning" is a central concept. The implication revealed by them is that real-worldness of learning contexts, learning content and learning tasks is perceived as conferring authenticity on learning. Here,…

  5. Nutrition in older adults.

    PubMed

    DiMaria-Ghalili, Rose Ann; Amella, Elaine

    2005-03-01

    Both physiologic and psychosocial changes affect the nutritional status of adults over the age of 65. Malnutrition is, in fact, a greater threat to this population than obesity. This article reviews the intake requirements of older adults and discusses the risk factors that can lead to malnutrition, including diet, limited income, isolation, chronic illness, and physiologic changes. Assessment and nursing interventions are also addressed.

  6. Young Adult Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Ernestine P., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    The major articles in this journal issue deal with various aspects of young adult literature. Specific topics covered in the articles are (1) questions worth asking students about young adult novels, (2) the five major functions of adolescent literature in high school literature programs, (3) Southwestern literature for adolescents, (4) teaching…

  7. Career Advising for Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Johnnie H., Ed.; Clouse, James, Ed.

    This manual is designed to provide information and structural exercises for teachers who assist adults in career advising and career development. The materials, which can be shared with students individually or in small groups, are based on needs of adult students identified from the literature and from local needs assessment surveys. Topics…

  8. Libraries and Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josey, E. J., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Of the 13 essays presented in this special issue on libraries and adult education, 8 focus on programs and services from the public library for adult learners. These essays provide information on: (1) an Education Information Centers Program (EIC) designed to complement employment skills training provided under the Comprehensive Employment and…

  9. Constructing Adult Identities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter Magolda, Marcia B.

    1999-01-01

    Stories from a longitudinal study of 39 adults illuminate the complex journey from external to internal self-definition. Explores the dynamics of constructing an internal adult identity from age 22 to 30 and translates into recommendations for effective student affairs practice. (Contains 22 references.) (Author/GCP)

  10. Adult Learning and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenson, Kjell, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    As individuals and societies try to respond to fundamental economic and social transformation, the field of adult learning and education is rapidly getting increased attention and new topics for research on adult learning have emerged. This collection of articles from the International Encyclopedia of Education 3e offers practitioners and…

  11. Adult Education and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinzen, Heribert, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document contains 19 papers on adult education and development worldwide. The following papers are included: "Editorial" (Heribert Hinzen); "Lifelong Learning in Europe: Moving towards EFA (Dakar Framework for Action on Education for All) Goals and the CONFINTEA V Agenda" (Sofia Conference on Adult Education); "Poverty and Schooling in the…

  12. Adult Tech Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaad, Donna

    For over 2 years, Blak Hawk College (Illinois) has provided high school equivalency (GED) candidates and recipients, older returning students, and underprepared high school graduates with a Tech Prep curriculum to give them the skills to make the transition from adult basic education to college or work. The Adult Tech Prep (ATP) core curriculum…

  13. Gender Dysphoria in Adults.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Kenneth J; Lawrence, Anne A; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C

    2016-01-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD), a term that denotes persistent discomfort with one's biologic sex or assigned gender, replaced the diagnosis of gender identity disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 2013. Subtypes of GD in adults, defined by sexual orientation and age of onset, have been described; these display different developmental trajectories and prognoses. Prevalence studies conclude that fewer than 1 in 10,000 adult natal males and 1 in 30,000 adult natal females experience GD, but such estimates vary widely. GD in adults is associated with an elevated prevalence of comorbid psychopathology, especially mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and suicidality. Causal mechanisms in GD are incompletely understood, but genetic, neurodevelopmental, and psychosocial factors probably all contribute. Treatment of GD in adults, although largely standardized, is likely to evolve in response to the increasing diversity of persons seeking treatment, demands for greater client autonomy, and improved understanding of the benefits and limitations of current treatment modalities. PMID:26788901

  14. Schizophrenia in older adults.

    PubMed

    Collier, Elizabeth; Sorrell, Jeanne M

    2011-11-01

    Although the number of people older than 55 with schizophrenia is expected to double during the next 20 years, the research data on older adults with schizophrenia are limited. This appears to be because until the middle of the 20th century, it was assumed that mental illness in older adults was a part of the aging process and because older adults are often excluded from research investigations. Nursing research is needed to explore how people with schizophrenia learn to manage their problems as they age, as well as how those who are first diagnosed with schizophrenia in later life adapt to their illness. Mental health nurses need to be cautious in assigning premature labels to older adults with mental illness that may lead to unsubstantiated assumptions about levels of disability. Instead, nurses should realize individual potential regarding undiscovered strengths and should attempt to create interventions that recognize and foster personal development for older adults with schizophrenia.

  15. Adult Education in the Seventies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian Adult Education Association, New Delhi.

    The proceedings of the 24th All India Adult Education Conference highlight two symposia, "Adult Education and Urban Development" and "Adult Education and Green Revolution." Commission Reports on the two symposia are given. (DB)

  16. Young Adult Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking. PMID:19269128

  17. Depression in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, Amy; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Gatz, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Depression is less prevalent among older adults than among younger adults but can have serious consequences. Over half of cases represent a first onset in later life. Although suicide rates in the elderly are declining, they are still higher than in younger adults and more closely associated with depression. Depressed older adults are less likely to endorse affective symptoms and more likely to display cognitive changes, somatic symptoms, and loss of interest than are younger adults. Risk factors leading to the development of late life depression likely comprise complex interactions among genetic vulnerabilities, cognitive diathesis, age-associated neurobiological changes, and stressful events. Insomnia is an often overlooked risk factor for late life depression. We suggest that a common pathway to depression in older adults, regardless of which predisposing risks are most prominent, may be curtailment of daily activities. Accompanying self-critical thinking may exacerbate and maintain a depressed state. Offsetting the increasing prevalence of certain risk factors in late life are age-related increases in psychological resilience. Other protective factors include higher education and socioeconomic status, engagement in valued activities, and religious or spiritual involvement. Treatments including behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive bibliotherapy, problem-solving therapy, brief psychodynamic therapy, and life review/reminiscence therapy are effective but too infrequently used with older adults. Preventive interventions including education for individuals with chronic illness, behavioral activation, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving skills training, group support, and life review have also received support. PMID:19327033

  18. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  19. Brainstem Glioma in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jethro; Western, Stephen; Kesari, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    Brainstem gliomas are not nearly as common in adults as they are in children. They are likely the final common consequence not of a single disease process but of several. They can be difficult to diagnose, and are challenging to treat. Clinical studies of this diagnosis are few and generally small. Because of these factors, our understanding of the biology of adult brainstem glioma is incomplete. However, the knowledge base is growing and progress is being made. In this article, we review the current state of knowledge for brainstem glioma in adults and identify key areas for which additional information is required. PMID:27556016

  20. Motivation and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veeraraghavan, J.

    1974-01-01

    The paper examines the role of adult education and the contribution it can make to the solution of current problems in developing countries, particularly the problems of economic under-development and over-population. (Author/AG)

  1. About BMI for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs About Adult BMI Language: ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Language: English Español (Spanish) ...

  2. Mosquito, adult (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This illustration shows an adult southern house mosquito. This mosquito feeds on blood and is the carrier of many diseases, such as encephalitis, West Nile, dengue fever, yellow fever, and others. ( ...

  3. Motivation and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, J. Rodney

    1982-01-01

    The author reviews theories of human motivation: Lewin's force field analysis, Skinner's operant reinforcement theory, and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. He then extracts the implications of these theories for adult learning. SK)

  4. Education for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glendenning, Frank

    2001-01-01

    Examines ways in which discussion of education for older adults has been enlarged and expanded since 1973. Discusses developments in third-age learning, educational gerontology, and preretirement education. (Contains 33 references.) (SK)

  5. Cardiac imaging in adults

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffe, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    This book approaches adult cardiac disease from the correlative imaging perspective. It includes chest X-rays and angiographs, 2-dimensional echocardiograms with explanatory diagrams for clarity, plus details on digital radiology, nuclear medicine techniques, CT and MRI. It also covers the normal heart, valvular heart disease, myocardial disease, pericardial disease, bacterial endocarditis, aortic aneurysm, cardiac tumors, and congenital heart disease of the adult. It points out those aspects where one imaging technique has significant superiority.

  6. Ovicide in the whitefly parasitoid, Encarsia formosa.

    PubMed

    Netting; Hunter

    2000-08-01

    The oviposition decisions made by insect parasitoids when encountering hosts of variable quality have been the subject of extensive theoretical and experimental investigation. For parasitoids that lay their eggs inside the host, the possible outcomes of encounters with parasitized hosts have been assumed to include only oviposition (superparasitism), rejection, or in some cases feeding on host haemolymph. We document another outcome in Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), a species that has been a model system for the study of oviposition behaviour. In E. formosa, females may kill eggs previously laid within the host by jabbing them with their ovipositor before ovipositing themselves. (1) Our observations indicated that jabbed eggs were indeed killed. (2) In experimental arenas in the laboratory, ovicide occurred in the majority of encounters with parasitized hosts and at highest frequency in encounters resulting in oviposition. (3) There was no significant difference in the handling time associated with oviposition+ovicide in parasitized hosts in comparison with oviposition alone, suggesting that there is no time cost to ovicide. (4) Ovicide did not appear to be incidental to normal probing within a host. Radial analysis of the direction of ovipositor movement with respect to the centre of the previously laid egg within the host showed that females engaged in ovicidal bouts probed most often in the direction of the egg. This is the first well-documented study of ovicide in an endoparasitoid. We suggest ovicide may be under-reported in other endoparasitoid species due to the difficulty of observing it. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  7. Adult educators' core competences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-06-01

    Which competences do professional adult educators need? This research note discusses the topic from a comparative perspective, finding that adult educators' required competences are wide-ranging, heterogeneous and complex. They are subject to context in terms of national and cultural environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned (e.g. basic education, work-related education etc.). However, it seems that it is possible to identify certain competence requirements which transcend national, cultural and functional boundaries. This research note summarises these common or "core" requirements, organising them into four thematic subcategories: (1) communicating subject knowledge; (2) taking students' prior learning into account; (3) supporting a learning environment; and (4) the adult educator's reflection on his or her own performance. At the end of his analysis of different competence profiles, the author notes that adult educators' ability to train adult learners in a way which then enables them to apply and use what they have learned in practice (thus performing knowledge transfer) still seems to be overlooked.

  8. Adult Education through World Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassara, Beverly Benner, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers about development/delivery of adult education through the efforts of multinational and bilateral government donors and the International Council for Adult Education (ICAE): "Preface" (Beverly Benner Cassara); "Introduction: Adult Education and Democracy" (Francisco Vio Grossi); "Adult Education and the…

  9. The ABC's of Adult Ed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roehrig, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    According to the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy, it is estimated that 93 million adults in the United States have basic or below basic literacy skills. Those individuals found most lacking in literacy skills were adults living in poverty, adults lacking a high school diploma, seniors and the elderly aged 65 and older, the more than one…

  10. Rich Environments for Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentham, Renee

    2008-01-01

    Unaware of the messages a bare adult learning environment sends and its effect on adult learners, a trainer attends an intensive Reggio Emilia course and learns that the physical environment is the "third teacher"--for adults as well as for children. Using principles of Reggio, she offers suggestions for enhancing adult learning spaces and…

  11. Adult Education in Croatian Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pongrac, Silvije, Ed.

    This document contains eight papers on adult education in Croatian society. "Basic Characteristics of Croatian Adult Education up to These Days" (Silvije Pongrac, Ilija Lavrnja) highlights key trends in the development of Croatian adult education. "Adult Education in Croatia Based on Social Changes" (Anita Klapan) discusses Croatian adult…

  12. Adult Seborrheic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a common chronic-recurrent inflammatory disorder that most commonly affects adults; however, a more transient infantile form also occurs. The definitive cause of seborrheic dermatitis is unknown. However, proliferation of Malassezia species has been described as a contributing factor. The adult form of seborrheic dermatitis affects up to approximately five percent of the general population. The disorder commonly affects the scalp, face, and periauricular region, with the central chest, axillae, and genital region also involved in some cases. Pruritus is not always present and is relatively common, especially with scalp disease. A variety of treatments are available including topical corticosteroids, topical antifungal agents, topical calcineurin inhibitors, and more recently, a nonsteroidal “device ”cream. This article reviews the practical topical management of seborrheic dermatitis in the United States, focusing on the adult population. PMID:21607192

  13. Adult onset retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Sabyasachi; Pan, Utsab; Khetan, Vikas

    2016-07-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common primary malignant intraocular tumor of childhood presenting usually before 5 years of age. RB in adults older than 20 years is extremely rare. A literature search using PubMed/PubMed Central, Scopus, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases revealed only 45 cases till date. Over the past decade, there has been a significant increase in the number of such reports, indicating heightened level of suspicion among ophthalmologists. Compared to its pediatric counterpart, adult onset RB poses unique challenges in diagnosis and treatment. This article summarizes available literature on adult onset RB and its clinical and pathologic profile, genetics, association with retinocytoma, diagnostics, treatment, and outcomes. PMID:27609158

  14. Hypertension in young adults.

    PubMed

    De Venecia, Toni; Lu, Marvin; Figueredo, Vincent M

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension remains a major societal problem affecting 76 million, or approximately one third, of US adults. While more prevalent in the older population, an increasing incidence in the younger population, including athletes, is being observed. Active individuals, like the young and athletes, are viewed as free of diseases such as hypertension. However, the increased prevalence of traditional risk factors in the young, including obesity, diabetes mellitus, and renal disease, increase the risk of developing hypertension in younger adults. Psychosocial factors may also be contributing factors to the increasing incidence of hypertension in the younger population. Increased left ventricular wall thickness and mass are increasingly found in young adults on routine echocardiograms and predict future cardiovascular events. This increasing incidence of hypertension in the young calls for early surveillance and prompt treatment to prevent future cardiac events. In this review we present the current epidemiological data, potential mechanisms, clinical implications, and treatment of hypertension in young patients and athletes.

  15. Adult onset retinoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Sabyasachi; Pan, Utsab; Khetan, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common primary malignant intraocular tumor of childhood presenting usually before 5 years of age. RB in adults older than 20 years is extremely rare. A literature search using PubMed/PubMed Central, Scopus, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases revealed only 45 cases till date. Over the past decade, there has been a significant increase in the number of such reports, indicating heightened level of suspicion among ophthalmologists. Compared to its pediatric counterpart, adult onset RB poses unique challenges in diagnosis and treatment. This article summarizes available literature on adult onset RB and its clinical and pathologic profile, genetics, association with retinocytoma, diagnostics, treatment, and outcomes. PMID:27609158

  16. Adult Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, John L.

    2012-01-01

    Most religious organizations exert their greatest effort in the religious education of children. This makes sense in terms of handing on the faith to the next generation. Historically, however, religious education of adults is the first endeavor of religious groups. Conducting education of children requires the previous religious education of…

  17. Adult Education in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitelock, Derek A., Ed.

    This evaluative national survey begins with a brief historical review of Australian adult education, followed by its current (1968) profile and features of the overall educational system. The next six chapters consider the role played by universities, Federal and state governments, the Workers' Educational Association and other voluntary…

  18. Adult Literacy Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Maurice C., Ed.; Draper, James A., Ed.

    This book, intended to serve as a professional reference work, proposes to define the field of Adult Basic Education in its evolution, its contribution to professional education, and the principal problems and issues. The volume contains the following treatises: "Definitions and Evolution of the Concepts" (Thomas); "Selected Chronology of Literacy…

  19. Bereavement in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, James P.

    1994-01-01

    Factors that place older adults at risk for problems associated with the bereavement process are identified and discussed. Provides guidelines for distinguishing between normal bereavement depression and clinical depression, discusses the impact of different types of loss, describes three types of intervention, and explores countertransference.…

  20. Helping Adults Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmundson, Phyllis J.

    2007-01-01

    Increased attention to preparing addictions counselors and related professionals to use evidence-based practices has brought new attention to the preparation programs for addictions counselors. Research and theory about adult learning emphasizes the importance of students as active participants in problem and experience based learning. This paper…

  1. Simulation in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knolle, Lawrence M.; Nicely, Robert F., Jr.

    Various simulations designed for adult learning experiences are described. A simulation is defined as "an operating model that displays processes over time and thus may develop dynamically." It is stated that this definition implies that the teacher can design a simulation that he can manage and then can increase its complexity. One simulation…

  2. Profiles of Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Library, Springfield.

    Since January 1986, when the Illinois Secretary of State Literacy Grant Program began funding a wide variety of adult literacy programs, more than 30,000 students have sought help with reading. They have been matched with 25,000 tutors who have provided more than 2 million hours of volunteer instruction. The profiles in this booklet are stories of…

  3. Hearing Loss in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, John W.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses hearing loss in adults. It begins with an explanation of the anatomy of the ear and then explains the three types of hearing loss: conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss, and mixed conductive-sensorineural hearing loss. Tinnitus, hearing aids, and cochlear implants are also addressed. (CR)

  4. Intelligence and Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellenz, Robert A., Ed.; Conti, Gary J., Ed.

    "Understanding Adult Intelligence" (Robert Sternberg) focuses on the nature of intelligence. It explains Sternberg's triarchic theory, in which he posits three main aspects of intelligence: its relation to the internal or mental world of the learner, its relation to experience, and its relation to the surrounding world. "Strategies and Learning"…

  5. ADULTS IN TRANSITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCHLOSSBERG, NANCY K.

    THERE IS A LACK OF THEORY AND EMPIRICAL KNOWLEDGE CONCERNING ADULT DEVELOPMENT BETWEEN THE AGES OF 30 TO 60. THE POSTULATE THAT THIS PERIOD IS CHARACTERIZED BY STABILITY IS QUESTIONED. EXPLORATION TAKES PLACE ALL THROUGH LIFE. ITS QUALITY AND FOCUS MIGHT CHANGE, BUT THE PROCESS IS THE SAME. DEVELOPMENTAL MODELS COULD PROVIDE A MORE COMPREHENSIVE…

  6. Adult Learning Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adults Learning, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Campaigning Alliance for Lifelong Learning is to lobby parliament for the restoration of the 1.5 million adult learning places lost over the past two years. The campaign has attracted supporters from an astonishingly wide range of backgrounds. In this article, Gordon Marsden, Caroline Biggins, Beth Walker, Mike Chaney, Peter Davies, Sian…

  7. ADHD in Adults. [DVD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.

    2006-01-01

    From leading ADHD authority Dr. Russell A. Barkley, this instructive program integrates information about ADHD with the experiences of adults from different walks of life who suffer from the disorder. Including interviews with these individuals, their family members, and the clinicians who treat them, the program addresses such important topics as…

  8. Migration and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gois, William

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to highlight the role of adult education as a tool in addressing labour migration issues, specifically those concerning the protection of migrant workers' rights and the transformation of the impact of migration into positive holistic developmental gains. The view of labour migration as a means to forge the economic…

  9. Facilitation of Adult Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boydell, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Taking an autobiographical approach, I tell the story of my experiences facilitating adult development, in a polytechnic and as a management consultant. I relate these to a developmental framework of Modes of Being and Learning that I created and elaborated with colleagues. I connect this picture with a number of related models, theories,…

  10. No Adult Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arndt, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Left out of the conversation for education reform, at least on the level of grade school, secondary school, and college are the adult education programs provided across the country. These programs receive a fraction of the funds and respect as mainstream programs do. However, they are sorely needed in Northwest Indiana. The region's early 21st…

  11. Adult Basic Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet, aimed at adult basic education students, pinpoints and summarizes a few common spelling rules to help make spelling easier, and includes a component on using the dictionary. In the text, each rule is presented with many examples. Exercises follow each spelling rule, allowing students the opportunity to apply the rule to specific…

  12. Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Ronald W.

    1987-01-01

    Presents analysis of adult children of alcoholics, their experience and adjustment in relation to the severity and type of alcoholism, age considerations and perceptions as a child, and existence and nature of significant others. Discusses alcoholics' and others' family issues, focusing on roles taken, and personality characteristics. Emphasizes…

  13. Adult Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    The status and goals of adult education programs in Brazil are discussed in this report. Supplemental systems such as the Brazilian Literacy Movement (Mobral) and their results are described and evaluated. Charts detailing the evolution of literacy are shown and priorities in education are suggested. The progress of other educational entities is…

  14. Protein and older adults.

    PubMed

    Chernoff, Ronni

    2004-12-01

    Body composition changes as people get older. One of the noteworthy alterations is the reduction in total body protein. A decrease in skeletal muscle is the most noticeable manifestation of this change but there is also a reduction in other physiologic proteins such as organ tissue, blood components, and immune bodies as well as declines in total body potassium and water. This contributes to impaired wound healing, loss of skin elasticity, and an inability to fight infection. The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for adults for protein is 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight. Protein tissue accounts for 30% of whole-body protein turnover but that rate declines to 20% or less by age 70. The result of this phenomenon is that older adults require more protein/kilogram body weight than do younger adults. Recently, it has become clear that the requirement for exogenous protein is at least 1.0 gram/kilogram body weight. Adequate dietary intake of protein may be more difficult for older adults to obtain. Dietary animal protein is the primary source of high biological value protein, iron, vitamin B(12), folic acid, biotin and other essential nutrients. In fact, egg protein is the standard against which all other proteins are compared. Compared to other high-quality protein sources like meat, poultry and seafood, eggs are the least expensive. The importance of dietary protein cannot be underestimated in the diets of older adults; inadequate protein intake contributes to a decrease in reserve capacity, increased skin fragility, decreased immune function, poorer healing, and longer recuperation from illness.

  15. Utah Adult Education Services. Adult Education Report 1968-69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Board of Education, Salt Lake City.

    Major purposes for the preparation of this report on public school adult education in Utah were: to provide the public with a description of achievements, trends, and needs, and with meaningful cost accounting information; to make comparisons and analyses of adult education by program, school district, and year; and to provide the adult education…

  16. Adult Education for Limited English Proficient Adults. Fact Sheet 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Vocational and Adult Education (ED), Washington, DC. Adult Learning and Literacy Clearinghouse.

    An overview of adult education programs and services for limited-English-proficient adults is offered. The population targeted by these programs and services is estimated at 4 to 6.5 million United States residents, refugees, and immigrants. Adults and out-of-school youth 16 years and older are eligible for federal adult…

  17. Adult Development. What do Teachers of Adults Need To Know?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiting, Susan; And Others

    The first part of this two-part paper provides a general review of adult development and is premised on an understanding of andragogy. Andragogy is the art and science of helping adults learn. It is based on the following four assumptions about adults: (1) as people mature they become less dependent and more self-directed; (2) experiences serve as…

  18. Teaching Nontraditional Adult Students: Adult Learning Theories in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Joseph C.

    2014-01-01

    As the USA experiences rapid growth of nontraditional adult students in higher education, educators and institutions will increasingly need to look beyond the traditional youth-centric educational models to better address adult learning needs. To date, no research has been conducted examining the learning experiences of adult students enrolled in…

  19. Hearing Loss and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Hearing Loss and Older Adults On this page: What is ... about hearing loss and older adults? What is hearing loss? Hearing loss is a sudden or gradual decrease ...

  20. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  1. Adults with Congenital Heart Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Updated:Apr ... topic from the list below to learn more. Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Introduction Introduction: ...

  2. Facts about Measles for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... as part of a combination vaccine, called the MMR vaccine that protects against measles, mumps, and rubella. Which adults should get vaccinated against measles with MMR vaccine? Adults born in 1957 or later who do ...

  3. Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  4. Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  5. Finding Your Adult Vaccination Record

    MedlinePlus

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Is Your Adult Vaccination Record Up-To-Date? Language: English Español (Spanish) ... next medical appointment. Staying Up-to-date on Vaccination is Important Every year thousands of adults in ...

  6. HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... percentage is less than 15%. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  7. Transformative Dimensions of Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezirow, Jack

    This book presents a theory of how adults learn by making meaning of their experiences. Chapter 1 gives an overview of an emerging transformation theory of adult learning, compares it with other theories of adult learning, and describes the dynamics of the process through which one makes meaning of one's experience. Chapter 2 examines the way…

  8. Rural Education for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mott, Vivian W.

    2008-01-01

    Meeting the learning needs of older adults in rural areas is a critical and growing concern for adult and continuing education. This chapter addresses learning in a rural context for older adults by examining several constructs. These include the definitions of "rural," the issues of the learners' ages, and the various structures and purposes…

  9. Adult Education and Development, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult Education and Development, 1994

    1994-01-01

    The publication is a half-yearly journal for adult education in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Issue 42 includes the following: "Adult Education for Self-Reliance in Community Health Education Programmes" (Kweka); "Promoting Good Nutrition" (Mangvwat); "Incorporating Health-Improvement Activities in Adult Education Programmes in Nigeria"…

  10. Adult Learning and Numeracy: Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantner, M. Joanne

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to explore the marginalization of adult mathematics learning within education. The problem is adult education subsumes adult mathematics learning under the umbrella of literacy. Literacy and numeracy compared in terms of their quantities of funding, directed projects, ERIC submissions, and published dissertations.…

  11. Adult Multiple Intelligences and Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Meg Ryback

    In the Adult Multiple Intelligences (AMI) study, 10 teachers of adults from the northeastern region of the United States explored for 18 months the ways that multiple intelligences (MI) theory could support instruction and assessment in various adult learning contexts. The results of this research were published in a book by Julie Viens called MI…

  12. Facilitating Creativity in Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Kuan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Creativity in education research has received increasing attention, although the major focus of this research has been on children. Despite pleas by several adult educators for promoting creativity, very few studies have focused on adult learners, leaving to it to be explored what approaches are useful for adult educators to facilitate creativity…

  13. Adult Development and the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heffernan, James M.

    Little attention has been given to how adults develop through their lifetimes and what roles their workplace environments play in that development. Research and theory regarding adult psychosocial development have confirmed the developmental life-cycle phases of adulthood. These are: leaving the family (ages 16-22), getting into the adult world…

  14. Assessment Tools for Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shefrin, Carol; Shafer, Dehra; Forlizzi, Lori

    The Assessment Tools for Adult Education project was designed to provide training and support to staff of the Pennsylvania Bureau of Adult Basic and Literacy Education (ABLE) funded programs to help them use assessment tools and procedures to document the learning gains of the adult students they serve. The following candidate assessment…

  15. Adult Education in Western Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoll, Joachim H.; And Others

    Here are abstracts of three books on adult education in Western Germany, where the institutions and methods of continuing education have been nearly unknown. The first, ERWACHSENENBILDUNG IN DER BUNDESREPUBLIK (ADULT EDUCATION IN THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC), 167 pages, justifies regarding adult education today as a complete changeover from its forms in…

  16. The Future of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    It is an interesting assignment to think about the future of adult education. In fact, it is an assignment the author has the graduate students in his "Introduction to Adult Education" class at East Carolina University consider during one of their course units. As a member of the Board of Directors for the American Association for Adult and…

  17. Rural Adult Education: Current Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchey, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    "Context". The word pervades the literature on adult and continuing education. For adult education practitioners and researchers alike, understanding the beliefs and actions of their educational place continues to be of significant concern, and rightfully so. That adults wish to have their histories, experiences, and abilities appreciated and…

  18. Infantile autism: adult outcome.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, B

    2000-07-01

    Although the core features of autism do not change qualitatively, a gradual overall symptomatic improvement including an increase in adaptive skills is observed in most cases with age. Follow-up studies show that the diagnostic features, the differential diagnosis, and clinical problems of adult autistics differ substantially from that of autistic children. The differential diagnosis of older autistics include personality disorders, learning disabilities, and mood disorder. Depression, epilepsy, and behavioral problems such as aggression and agitation may be major clinical problems during adolescence. The early indicators of a better outcome include a higher level of IQ and language. Among the neuropsychological variables, measures of flexibility and cognitive shift are important as prognostic factors. Early behavioral and educational intervention may especially increase the adaptive skills of the patients and promote the in-family communication. The outcome studies of autism are particularly helpful in addressing the appropriate and most effective programs of remediation for adult autistics.

  19. Adult orbital trapdoor fracture.

    PubMed

    Kum, Clarissa; McCulley, Timothy J; Yoon, Michael K; Hwang, Thomas N

    2009-01-01

    Trapdoor fractures occur almost exclusively in the pediatric population. The authors describe an adult with an entrapped inferior rectus muscle sheath in a trapdoor fracture. A 37-year-old man presented with persistent diplopia 3 weeks after blunt right orbital trauma. The only abnormal findings on clinical examination were limited vertical ductions. No bony defect or displacement was evident on CT. However, several small pockets of air were visible adjacent to the inferior rectus muscle. On surgical exploration, a linear nondisplaced orbital floor fracture was confirmed, and the entrapped inferior rectus muscle was released. One month postoperatively, extraocular motility had improved with no diplopia in primary or reading positions. This case demonstrates that trapdoor fractures can occur in adults and should be considered when suggestive findings are encountered. Clinicians should be aware of this because timely diagnosis and treatment might achieve more favorable outcomes.

  20. Diarrhoea in adults (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction An estimated 4000 million cases of diarrhoea occurred worldwide in 1996, resulting in 2.5 million deaths. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for acute diarrhoea in adults living in resource-rich countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults from resource-rich countries traveling to resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute severe diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to January 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 71 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics, antimotility agents, antisecretory agents, bismuth subsalicylate, diet, intravenous rehydration, nasogastric tube rehydration, and oral rehydration solutions (amino acid oral rehydration solution, bicarbonate oral rehydration solution, reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution, rice-based oral rehydration solution, standard oral rehydration solution). PMID:19450323

  1. Diarrhoea in adults (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction An estimated 4.6 billion cases of diarrhoea occurred worldwide in 2004, resulting in 2.2 million deaths. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for acute diarrhoea in adults living in resource-rich countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults from resource-rich countries travelling to resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute severe diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 72 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics, antimotility agents, antisecretory agents, bismuth subsalicylate, diet, intravenous rehydration, nasogastric tube rehydration, oral rehydration solutions (amino acid oral rehydration solution, bicarbonate oral rehydration solution, reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution, rice-based oral rehydration solution, standard oral rehydration solution), vitamin A supplementation, and zinc supplementation. PMID:21718555

  2. Rhinitis in older adults.

    PubMed

    Nyenhuis, Sharmilee M; Mathur, Sameer K

    2013-04-01

    Rhinitis symptoms of rhinorrhea, congestion, sneezing, nasal/ocular pruritis, and postnasal drainage can significantly affect the quality of life for older adults. As the US population ages, it will be increasingly important for health-care providers to effectively diagnose and manage rhinitis. Rhinitis is categorized broadly into allergic rhinitis and non-allergic rhinitis. Environmental changes and avoidance measures are a primary means of intervention. In addition, there are several topical therapies (nasal sprays) that can be effective for symptom control.

  3. An Undergraduate Course in Adult Development: When the Virtual Adult Is an Adult

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    An aspect of an undergraduate psychology course on adult development was the preparation of case records on adults who consented to be studied. Participants (1) developed their abilities to observe and accurately record adult behavior across a variety of ages and contexts; (2) withheld judgments about behavior when evidence was lacking; (3)…

  4. Immigration and adult transitions.

    PubMed

    Rumbaut, Rubén G; Komaie, Golnaz

    2010-01-01

    Almost 30 percent of the more than 68 million young adults aged eighteen to thirty-four in the United States today are either foreign born or of foreign parentage. As these newcomers make their transitions to adulthood, say Rubén Rumbaut and Golnaz Komaie, they differ significantly not only from one another but also from their native-parentage counterparts, including blacks and whites. The authors document the demographic changes in the United States over the past forty years and describe the ways in which generation and national origin shape the experiences of these newcomers as they become adults. Rumbaut and Komaie point out that immigrant groups experience gaps in social, economic, and legal status that are even greater than the gaps between native whites and blacks. By far the most-educated (Indians) and the least-educated (Mexicans) groups in the United States today are first-generation immigrants, as are the groups with the lowest poverty rate (Filipinos) and the highest poverty rate (Dominicans). These social and economic divides reflect three very different ways immigrants enter the country: through regular immigration channels, without legal authorization, or as state-sponsored refugees. For many ethnic groups, significant progress takes place from the first to the second generation. But, say the authors, for millions of young immigrants, a lack of legal permanent residency status blocks their prospects for social mobility. Having an undocumented status has become all the more consequential with the failure of Congress to pass comprehensive federal immigration reforms. In the coming two decades, as the U.S. native-parentage labor force continues to shrink, immigrants and their children are expected to account for most of the growth of the nation's labor force, with the fastest-growing occupations requiring college degrees. Rumbaut and Komaie stress that one key to the nation's future will be how it incorporates young adults of immigrant origin in its

  5. Mathematical modeling of cotton leaf curl virus with respect to environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Khan, Jahangir; Bashir, Zoobia; Ahmad, Aqeel; Tariq, Wajeeha; Yousaf, Anam; Gohar, Madiha

    2015-06-01

    This study mathematically correlates incidence of cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV), environmental factors (i.e., rainfall, humidity and temperature), and silverleaf whitefly population in agricultural system of Pakistan. It has been concluded that the disease is directly linked with rainfall and humidity. The third most influential factor in defining CLCuV incidence is the vector population, which is also strictly dependent upon monthly mean temperature of Pakistan. Developed mathematical interrelation is capable of predicting disease incidence of future months. Therefore, it will help agriculturists to control disease in agricultural areas of Pakistan. It is strongly advised on the basis of current research that vector population controlling practices should be immediately applied after detecting small elevations in mean monthly temperature.

  6. Mathematical modeling of cotton leaf curl virus with respect to environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Jahangir; Bashir, Zoobia; Ahmad, Aqeel; Tariq, Wajeeha; Yousaf, Anam; Gohar, Madiha

    2015-01-01

    This study mathematically correlates incidence of cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV), environmental factors (i.e., rainfall, humidity and temperature), and silverleaf whitefly population in agricultural system of Pakistan. It has been concluded that the disease is directly linked with rainfall and humidity. The third most influential factor in defining CLCuV incidence is the vector population, which is also strictly dependent upon monthly mean temperature of Pakistan. Developed mathematical interrelation is capable of predicting disease incidence of future months. Therefore, it will help agriculturists to control disease in agricultural areas of Pakistan. It is strongly advised on the basis of current research that vector population controlling practices should be immediately applied after detecting small elevations in mean monthly temperature. PMID:26185686

  7. [Intraosseous infusion for adults].

    PubMed

    Leidel, B A; Kirchhoff, C

    2008-04-01

    Intraosseous (IO) infusion methods have been common for emergency treatment in infants and children for years. The role of IO access in adults is however much less clear, but its importance in this patient group is increasing, and different devices are available today. Each device has strengths and weaknesses, but all achieve rapid vascular access even in challenging situations. The potential of IO access regarding both therapeutic and diagnostic options has been shown in several operational studies in and out of hospital. Insertion times require between 1 and 2 min in most cases, while insertion and handling of the IO access devices seem to be easy and reliable. The flow rates of IO access devices for adults are lower than those of large-bore peripheral intravenous catheters, but fluid resuscitation is possible in most cases at least with pressure bag infusion systems. Most drugs administered intravenously can be given intraosseously in equivalent dosages and with the same effects. Nevertheless the limitations and risks of IO access routes need to be considered for each application. Rapid IO access is now possible in all age groups, and the 2005 AHA Guidelines favor it over drug administration via the endotracheal tube. PMID:18250995

  8. Sexting among young adults

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Messer, Deborah; Bauermeister, Jose Arturo; Grodzinski, Alison; Zimmerman, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Sexting has stirred debate over its legality and safety, but few researchers have documented the relationship between sexting and health. We describe the sexting behavior of young adults in the United States, and examine its association with sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Methods Using an adapted web version of Respondent-Driven Sampling (webRDS) we recruited a sample of U.S. young adults (ages 18 to 24; N=3447). We examined participant sexting behavior using 4 categories of sexting: 1) Non-Sexters, 2) Receivers, 3) Senders, and 4) Two-way Sexters. We then assessed the relationships between sexting categories and sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Results Over half (57%) of respondents were Non-Sexters, 28.2% of the sample were Two-way Sexters, 12.6% were Receivers, and 2% were Senders. Males were more likely to be Receivers than females. Sexually active respondents were more likely to be Two-way Sexters than non-sexually active respondents. Among participants who were sexually active in the past 30 days, we found no differences across sexting groups in number of sexual partners, or number of unprotected sex partners in the past 30 days. We also found no relationship between sexting and psychological well-being. Conclusions Our results suggest that sexting is not related to sexual risk behavior or psychological well-being. We discuss the findings of this study and propose directions for further research on sexting. PMID:23299018

  9. Near Vision Test for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eyes Education Series Online Training and Certification Patient Education Materials Star Pupils ... Test for Adults Testing Near Vision and Distance Vision Prevent Blindness does NOT recommend that you ...

  10. Facts about Rubella for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Hepatitis B HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Influenza (Flu) Measles Meningococcal Disease Mumps Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Pneumococcal Disease Rubella (German Measles) Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Tetanus (Lockjaw) Professional Resources Adult ...

  11. Facts about Mumps for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Hepatitis B HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Influenza (Flu) Measles Meningococcal Disease Mumps Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Pneumococcal Disease Rubella (German Measles) Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Tetanus (Lockjaw) Professional Resources Adult ...

  12. Oakland Adult Reading Lab. Building Comprehension in Adult Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Suzanne

    Many adult poor readers do not organize what they read in a way that best facilitates good comprehension. To help students overcome this problem, the Adult Day and Evening School in Oakland, California, organized a reading laboratory for their mostly low-income, educationally disadvantaged students with a diverse range of needs. Instruction in the…

  13. Responding to Young Adult Literature. Young Adult Literature Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monseau, Virginia R.

    This book focuses on how readers respond to the power of young adult literature--negating the assumption that because such literature appeals to adolescents it cannot possibly be worthy of a place in the language arts curriculum. The book serves two purposes: it describes and discusses the oral and written response of adolescents and adults to…

  14. Adult Literacy and Numeracy: Assessing Change. Adult Literacy Research Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, J. Joy, Ed.; van Kraayenoord, Christina E., Ed.

    This document contains eight papers from an action research program to foster good practice in adult literacy provision and policy. "Introduction" (J. Joy Cumming, Christina E. van Kraayenoord) presents an overview of the action research project and individual reports. "Assessment: Making a Difference in Adult Literacy and Numeracy Learning" (J.…

  15. Literacy of Older Adults in America. Adult Literacy Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent State Univ., OH. Ohio Literacy Resource Center.

    As part of the National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS) of 1992, the National Center for Education Statistics published a separate study that focuses on the literacy skills of older adults (aged 60 years and older) from a variety of perspectives, such as age, sex, amount of education, race or ethnic background, income, and geographic region. Some of…

  16. Evaluation of Adult Education Programs. California Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    To assist adult educators in finding meaningful ways to measure the effectiveness of instruction, this monograph provides selected illustrations of specific methods used by adult education instructors to verify student learning. Obtained from teachers in the field, the examples are from programs in (1) dental assisting, (2) instrument pilot ground…

  17. The Varieties of Adult Civic Engagement in Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Linda; Wrigley, Heide Spruck

    2012-01-01

    Civic engagement, or the practice of democratic deliberation in adult education and learning, asks that adults use their experiences to cooperatively build solutions to the difficult social, economic, and political problems that affect their lives and communities now and into the future. The articles presented in this issue look at the…

  18. Atomoxetine Treatment for ADHD: Younger Adults Compared with Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durell, Todd; Adler, Lenard; Wilens, Timothy; Paczkowski, Martin; Schuh, Kory

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Atomoxetine is a nonstimulant medication for treating child, adolescent, and adult ADHD. This meta-analysis compared the effects in younger and older adults. Method: A post hoc analysis was conducted using data from two double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Data from patients aged 18-25 years were compared with data from…

  19. [Degenerative adult scoliosis].

    PubMed

    García-Ramos, C L; Obil-Chavarría, C A; Zárate-Kalfópulos, B; Rosales-Olivares, L M; Alpizar-Aguirre, A; Reyes-Sánchez, A A

    2015-01-01

    Adult scoliosis is a complex three-dimensional rotational deformity of the spine, resulting from the progressive degeneration of the vertebral elements in middle age, in a previously straight spine; a Cobb angle greater than 10° in the coronal plane, which also alters the sagittal and axial planes. It originates an asymmetrical degenerative disc and facet joint, creating asymmetrical loads and subsequently deformity. The main symptom is axial, radicular pain and neurological deficit. Conservative treatment includes drugs and physical therapy. The epidural injections and facet for selectively blocking nerve roots improves short-term pain. Surgical treatment is reserved for patients with intractable pain, radiculopathy and/ or neurological deficits. There is no consensus for surgical indications, however, it must have a clear understanding of the symptoms and clinical signs. The goal of surgery is to decompress neural elements with restoration, modification of the three-dimensional shape deformity and stabilize the coronal and sagittal balance. PMID:27012088

  20. [Degenerative adult scoliosis].

    PubMed

    García-Ramos, C L; Obil-Chavarría, C A; Zárate-Kalfópulos, B; Rosales-Olivares, L M; Alpizar-Aguirre, A; Reyes-Sánchez, A A

    2015-01-01

    Adult scoliosis is a complex three-dimensional rotational deformity of the spine, resulting from the progressive degeneration of the vertebral elements in middle age, in a previously straight spine; a Cobb angle greater than 10° in the coronal plane, which also alters the sagittal and axial planes. It originates an asymmetrical degenerative disc and facet joint, creating asymmetrical loads and subsequently deformity. The main symptom is axial, radicular pain and neurological deficit. Conservative treatment includes drugs and physical therapy. The epidural injections and facet for selectively blocking nerve roots improves short-term pain. Surgical treatment is reserved for patients with intractable pain, radiculopathy and/ or neurological deficits. There is no consensus for surgical indications, however, it must have a clear understanding of the symptoms and clinical signs. The goal of surgery is to decompress neural elements with restoration, modification of the three-dimensional shape deformity and stabilize the coronal and sagittal balance.

  1. Secondary hypertension in adults

    PubMed Central

    Puar, Troy Hai Kiat; Mok, Yingjuan; Debajyoti, Roy; Khoo, Joan; How, Choon How; Ng, Alvin Kok Heong

    2016-01-01

    Secondary hypertension occurs in a significant proportion of adult patients (~10%). In young patients, renal causes (glomerulonephritis) and coarctation of the aorta should be considered. In older patients, primary aldosteronism, obstructive sleep apnoea and renal artery stenosis are more prevalent than previously thought. Primary aldosteronism can be screened by taking morning aldosterone and renin levels, and should be considered in patients with severe, resistant or hypokalaemia-associated hypertension. Symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea should be sought. Worsening of renal function after starting an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor suggests the possibility of renal artery stenosis. Recognition, diagnosis and treatment of secondary causes of hypertension lead to good clinical outcomes and the possible reversal of end-organ damage, in addition to blood pressure control. As most patients with hypertension are managed at the primary care level, it is important for primary care physicians to recognise these conditions and refer patients appropriately. PMID:27211205

  2. Adult medulloblastoma: multiagent chemotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, H. S.; Chamberlain, M. C.; Glantz, M. J.; Wang, S.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, the records of 17 adult patients with medulloblastoma treated with craniospinal radiation and 1 of 2 multiagent chemotherapy protocols were reviewed for progression-free survival, overall survival, and toxicity, and the patients were compared with each other and with similarly treated children and adults. Records of patients treated at 3 institutions were reviewed. Seventeen medulloblastoma patients (11 female, 6 male) with a median age of 23 years (range, 18-47 years) were treated with surgery, craniospinal radiation (CSRT) plus local boost, and 1 of 2 adjuvant chemotherapy regimens. All tumors were infratentorial (10 in 4th ventricle and 7 in left or right hemisphere). Ten patients presented with hydrocephalus, and 7 of them were shunted. Eight patients had gross total resection, 7 had subtotal resection (>50% removed), and 2 had partial resection (<50% removed). Postoperatively, 3 patients had positive cytology and 3 had positive spinal MRI. Five patients were classified as good risk and 12 were classified as poor risk (Chang staging system). Ten patients were treated with the "Packer protocol," consisting of CSRT plus weekly vincristine followed by 8 cycles of cisplatin, lomustine, and vincristine. Seven patients were treated with the Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) protocol, consisting of alternating courses of cisplatin/etoposide and cyclophosphamide/vincristine, followed by CSRT. Eight of 17 patients relapsed, with all 8 relapsing at the primary site. Other relapse sites included the leptomeninges (5), bone (1), and brain (1). The estimated median relapse-free survival (Kaplan-Meier) for all patients was 48 months (95% confidence interval, >26 months to infinity). Median relapse-free survival for patients on the Packer protocol was 26 months, and for those on the POG regimen was 48 months (P = 0.410). Five of 10 on the Packer protocol were relapse-free, while 4 of 7 were relapse-free on the POG regimen. Two patients relapsed during chemotherapy

  3. [Modified Takeuchi in adults].

    PubMed

    Jaurena, J M; Subirana, M; Montiel, J; Ruyra, X; Blasco, E; Torner, M; Caralps, J M

    1996-02-01

    Anomalous origin of left coronary artery from pulmonary artery is a rare congenital anomaly (0.25-0.46%). Mortality is high in the first months (65%). Paradoxically, some patients reach adulthood because of a net made of collaterals from the right coronary artery. Thus, we classify the entity in two ways of clinical onset: childhood and adulthood. Ideally, the best surgical approach is the arrangement of a double coronary system. The most well-known technique is the one described by Takeuchi, that links the aorta and the left coronary artery by a tunnel through the pulmonary artery, made from a pulmonary artery frontal wall flap (closing the defect with a pericardial patch). We present a case of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery in an adult, treated in our institution using a modified Takeuchi technique.

  4. Extravasation Injuries in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Al-Benna, S.; O'Boyle, C.; Holley, J.

    2013-01-01

    Insertion of an intravascular catheter is one of the most common invasive procedures in hospitals worldwide. These intravascular lines are crucial in resuscitation, allow vital medication to be administered, and can be used to monitor the patients' real-time vital parameters. There is, however, growing recognition of potential risks to life and limb associated with their use. Medical literature is now replete with isolated case reports of complications succinctly described by Garden and Laussen (2004) as “An unending supply of “unusual” complications from central venous catheters.” This paper reviews complications of venous and arterial catheters and discusses treatment approaches and methods to prevent complications, based on current evidence and endeavours to provide information and guidance that will enable practitioners to prevent, recognise, and successfully treat extravasation injuries in adults. PMID:23738141

  5. The older adult driver.

    PubMed

    Carr, D B

    2000-01-01

    More adults aged 65 and older will be driving in the next few decades. Many older drivers are safe behind the wheel and do not need intensive testing for license renewal. Others, however, have physiologic or cognitive impairments that can affect their mobility and driving safety. When an older patient's driving competency is questioned, a comprehensive, step-by-step assessment is recommended. Many diseases that impair driving ability can be detected and treated effectively by family physicians. Physicians should take an active role in assessing and reducing the risk for injury in a motor vehicle and, when possible, prevent or delay driving cessation in their patients. Referral to other health care professionals, such as an occupational or physical therapist, may be helpful for evaluation and treatment. When an older patient is no longer permitted or able to drive, the physician should counsel the patient about using alternative methods of transportation. PMID:10643955

  6. Adult cervicothoracic lipomyelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    Abu-Bonsrah, Nancy; Purvis, Taylor E; Rory Goodwin, C; Petteys, Rory J; De la Garza-Ramos, Rafael; Sciubba, Daniel M

    2016-10-01

    Lipomyelomeningocele (LMM) as a cause of tethered cord syndrome (TCS) commonly presents in childhood in the lumbosacral spine. Patients frequently present with cutaneous manifestations, progressive neurological deterioration, bladder dysfunction, and intractable pain. Early surgical intervention with untethering is recommended for symptomatic patients. We report an unusual case of a woman who presented with a subcutaneous lump, pain, and neurological decline found to have a cervicothoracic LMM. The patient underwent laminectomy and subtotal resection of the mass; seventeen years later she was confined to a wheelchair with severe neurological decline ultimately requiring three additional attempts at surgical excision and repair. This case emphasizes the need for early recognition of and intervention in adult patients with LMM. PMID:27430413

  7. [Allergies in adults].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, T; Heinrich, J; Böhler, E; Klemm, E; Merkl, J; Ruhdorfer, S; Weigl, L; Wessner, D; Wichmann, H E; Ring, J

    2005-08-01

    Only few epidemiological studies have assessed allergic diseases in adults. In a follow-up study of the MONICA survey S3 (1994/95), which was performed 1997-1999, a total of 1,537 persons were interviewed and tested by skin prick and patch test. Furthermore data of the MONICA survey (RAST, cholesterol, food diaries) could be used. Within survey S4 (1999/2001) a total of 4,261 subjects were interviewed concerning their personal history of atopic diseases and the corresponding history of their partners. In survey S3 the prevalence of allergic sensitisation was 20.5 % for persons without formal graduation from school and 48.1 % for those with a university degree. 20.8 % reported a hypersensitivity to food and about one quarter exhibited a positive reaction in skin prick test. Atopic eczema and hay fever increased over quartiles of HDL cholesterol. Similar, allergic sensitisation (RAST) increased over quartiles of uptake of unsaturated fatty acids in men. 40 % of those who were patch tested exhibited a positive reaction, with perfume mix, nickel, thimerosal and balsam of Peru being the most prominent allergens. Inhabitants of the City of Augsburg were sensitised more often (34.0 % overall, 23.9 % pollen) than inhabitants of villages with (29.4 %, 17.0 %). Full time farmers were sensitised less frequently (22.0 %, 8.4 %). In survey S4 the lifetime prevalence of atopic diseases diagnosed by doctors was 5.1 % for atopic eczema, 6.1 % for asthma and 13.7 % for hay fever. Subjects who lived together with a partner who suffered from hay fever were affected in 19.6 % whereas 13.1 % had hay fever when the partner was not affected. Future studies will offer an unique opportunity to analyse the incidence and remission of manifestations of atopy in adults.

  8. Florida's Adult Education Programs. Challenges and Accomplishments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Bureau of Adult/Community Education.

    Florida supported a wide range of educational activities for adults through an extensive network of public and private agencies during fiscal year 1989-90. In 1990, 419,429 adults participated in adult education programs. Adult educational programs assisted adults in completing requirements for U.S. citizenship and getting off welfare. A total of…

  9. Sibling Status Effects: Adult Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskett, Linda Musun

    1985-01-01

    This study attempted to determine what expectations or beliefs adults might hold about a child based on his or her sibling status alone. Ratings on 50 adjective pairs for each of three sibling status types, only, oldest, and youngest child, were assessed in relation to adult expectations, birth order, and parental status of rater. (Author/DST)

  10. ESOL and the Adult Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, Timothy F.

    Problems of adult basic education in the United States, symptomatic of the connection between poverty, poor education, and unemployment, have forged for the disadvantaged adult most of the links in the unbreakable chain of deprivation, frustration, and despair. The problem of ESOL (English for Speakers of Other Languages) instruction is…

  11. Adult Transition Program without Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moberg, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Best practices in adult transition special education for moderate to severe students suggest student-centered planning that maximizes independence in adult life. Based on the above sources, school districts and governing boards would best serve moderate to severe transition special education students with increasing integration into the community…

  12. Examining Controversies in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreitlow, Burton W.; And Others

    Controversies over adult education purposes, methods, audiences, and procedures are examined. After outlining a procedure for reviewing competing positions on controversial topics, the book pairs the contrasting views of two authors on each of 10 key issues facing adult education. Chapters cover: philosophies at issue (David L. Boggs); identifying…

  13. Economic Essays on Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shetty, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Adult students are an important component of the current U.S education landscape. They account for over 40% of the degree-seeking fresh enrollees in the U.S. colleges and according to the U.S. Department of Education, their growth will soon outpace that of traditional students. Adult students have also received considerable attention in higher…

  14. Orienting Adult Learners to College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Tara S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes pilot program at University of Louisville (Kentucky) which was designed to assist in orienting adult learners to the collegiate environment. Addresses special concerns of adult learners, including child care, career planning, academic support, personal support, and financial aid. Explains program development and presentation, materials,…

  15. CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR ADULT EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    THE STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IN SOUTH CAROLINA PREPARED THIS CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR ADULT EDUCATION SUPPORTED BY PUBLIC FUNDS. OBJECTIVES AND CURRICULUM OUTLINES FOR ADULT BASIC EDUCATION ARE GIVEN TO COVER LEVELS I (GRADES 1 TO 3), II (GRADES 4 TO 6), AND III (GRADES 7 AND 8). THE OUTLINES COVER COURSES IN READING, BASIC LANGUAGE ARTS AND…

  16. Texas Adult Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., Austin. Extension Instruction and Materials Center.

    This guide was created to provide Texas adult educators with a state-of-the-art resource for practical information about adult education materials and methods for their own growth and that of their students. The guide is organized in four parts. Part I provides preparatory information on the following topics: related resources; characteristics of…

  17. Travel and Adult Transformative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Steven K.

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological research study examines the lived experience of individual adult transformation in the context of travel. Adults throughout history have experienced profound personal and perception changes as a result of significant travel events. Transformative learning occurs through experience, crisis, and reflection, all of which are…

  18. Adult Education: Greece, November 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, E. K. Townsend

    As part of a UNESCO program to assist the government of Greece in the preparation and implementation of a five-year plan for the development of adult education, an expert in the field and four Fellows were chosen to study adult education trends in Scotland, England, Denmark, France, Switzerland, and the Federal Republic of Germany. As a result of…

  19. The Politics of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Art

    2016-01-01

    Art Ellison is longtime advocate for adult education, having managed numerous advocacy campaigns over the past forty years on the state and national levels. Prior to his employment in 1980 as the NH State Director of Adult Education he worked for many years as a high school teacher and as a community organizer. In this article, Ellison offers some…

  20. Reading and the Adult Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Laura S., Ed.

    This monograph consists of selected International Reading Association convention and journal articles that describe reading programs for adult learners in the United States. The focus of the articles is on continuing adult education and developing advanced reading skills rather than on remedial or basic skills. Topics of selections include…

  1. Adult Learning Disorders: Contemporary Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Lorraine E., Ed.; Schreiber, Hope E., Ed.; Wasserstein, Jeanette, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging and genetics technologies have enhanced our understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders in adults. The authors in this volume not only discuss such advances as they apply to adults with learning disorders, but also address their translation into clinical practice. One cluster of chapters addresses developmental…

  2. Understanding Adult Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Griff, Ed.

    This book introduces readers to issues, debates and literatures related to a number of central areas of practice in adult education and training, especially in Australia. It is intended as a first attempt to define the field of adult education in Australia in an analytical and theoretical, as opposed to a theoretical and practical sense. Written…

  3. Predictive Modeling in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindner, Charles L.

    2011-01-01

    The current economic crisis, a growing workforce, the increasing lifespan of workers, and demanding, complex jobs have made organizations highly selective in employee recruitment and retention. It is therefore important, to the adult educator, to develop models of learning that better prepare adult learners for the workplace. The purpose of…

  4. Marketing Higher Education to Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Diana K.

    With fewer recent high school graduates available to attend college, colleges need to increase their efforts to attract adults. If colleges want to attract more adult students, they must develop a comprehensive marketing plan. The marketing process entails a thorough marketing study that includes a detailed institutional analysis, an analysis of…

  5. Mass Media and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, John A., Ed.

    Some important developments affecting the use of the mass media in adult education are described in this collection of papers. A paper by Dr. George Gordon accuses educators of lacking imagination in their whole approach to adult education, especially in their use of the media. Dr. Robert Carlson's paper delineates the history of educational…

  6. Adult Students and Career Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustin, James W.

    This study sought to determine the interests of adult students at the University of Wisconsin in using various types of career-related information and services, to assess the extent to which adult students use campus resources that provide career-related information and services and find them helpful, and to examine the process of selecting a…

  7. Native American Adult Reader I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lovern Root, Ed.

    Aspects of Native American history and culture as well as issues and concerns of American Indians are presented in the twelve short articles in this reader for adults. Intended for use in an adult basic education/GED program, the reader features simply written stories (for grades 0-3), illustrations, vocabulary lists and student study questions.…

  8. Focus on Young Adult Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Union, Bunni; Williams, Sheila

    1996-01-01

    Presents three library youth service programs which focus on "Pizza and Politicians," a public library pizza party which gave high school students and college-aged young adults a chance to meet and question politicians; a young adult "Reading to Seniors" program; "Making Books," a public library journal-making project for middle school students.…

  9. Neuropsychological Assessment of Adult Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marceau, Roger; Meghani, Rehana; Reddon, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This report is primarily concerned with reporting on the normative results obtained on a large sample of serious adult offenders. An expanded Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery was administered to 584 adult offenders (OF), 132 normal controls (NC), and 494 acute psychiatric patients (PP). Subjects were between 18 and 44 years of age.…

  10. Tough Times for Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckett, Alan; Aldridge, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    The key message of NIACE's 2011 survey of adult participation in learning is that recession is bad for lifelong learning for anyone over the age of 25. The survey highlights the central importance of workplaces as sites of adult learning--and the challenges posed to a learning society when opportunities to learn reduce. It shows that the gap…

  11. Clinical Interviewing with Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohlman, Jan; Sirota, Karen Gainer; Papp, Laszlo A.; Staples, Alison M.; King, Arlene; Gorenstein, Ethan E.

    2012-01-01

    Over the next few decades the older adult population will increase dramatically, and prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders are also expected to increase in the elderly cohort. These demographic projections highlight the need for diagnostic instruments and methods that are specifically tailored to older adults. The current paper discusses the…

  12. Adult Education in India & Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Nikhil Ranjan

    A survey is made of various aspects of adult education in India since 1947, together with comparative accounts of the origin, development, and notable features of adult education in Denmark, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States. Needs and objectives in India, largely in the eradication of illiteracy, are set forth, and pertinent…

  13. Segmenting the Adult Education Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aurand, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Describes market segmentation and how the principles of segmentation can be applied to the adult education market. Indicates that applying segmentation techniques to adult education programs results in programs that are educationally and financially satisfying and serve an appropriate population. (JOW)

  14. Three Models of Adult Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, Michael R.; Crumpler, Cheryl A.

    1996-01-01

    Compares ontogenetic models, which stress development through a series of stages; sociogenic models, which stress the influence of social context on adult behavior; and liberative models. Liberative models do not treat adult development as entirely dependent on biological or social determinism, and do stress individuals' conscious efforts at…

  15. Recruiting and Retaining Adult Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadfield, Janice

    2003-01-01

    Adult learners, long the stepchildren of colleges and universities, have nearly become the norm, and they spend billions of dollars each year on education. This chapter takes a customer-oriented approach to recruiting and retaining adult students in higher education. (GCP)

  16. Books for Adult New Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Roberta Luther, Comp.

    This document is an annotated bibliography of recommended print materials for English-speaking adults reading at the seventh grade level or below. (Sixty percent of the titles are at fifth grade level or below). The titles were selected for their broad appeal to the average adult new reader. In the selection, special consideration was given to…

  17. Senior Adult Consumer Advisory Manual,

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ater, E. Carolyn, Ed.

    This manual is intended for use by senior adult peer advisors (age 60 and over) engaged in helping relationships in providing consumer education to other senior adults. The advisory procedures are based on a problem solving approach which incorporates the development of a self-help concept. Chapter 1 provides information on consumer advising. It…

  18. Creating Adult Basic Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Dolores M.

    Adult basic education programs must teach the "social living skills" disadvantaged adults need, as well as basic literacy skills. In creating an ABE program, one must first assess the needs of the target population--through surveys, group meetings, an advisory council of members of the target population, demographic studies, and consideration of…

  19. Research Perspectives in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, D. Randy, Ed.

    This book focuses on understanding the epistemological foundation of adult education, the research process, policy issues, and directions for the future. "An Epistemological Overview of the Field" (Garrison) provides an overview of adult education research: the historical development, issues, the scope of the knowledge base, and approaches to…

  20. Cultural Influences on Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conti, Gary J., Ed.; Fellenz, Robert A., Ed.

    Five projects are reported that examined factors related to adult learning in nontraditional environments. "Conrad, Montana: A Community of Memories" (Janice Counter, Lynn Paul, and Gary Conti) reports on a group of adults who for over 40 years have been active in building a better community for friends, relatives, and themselves. A 17-item…

  1. Adult Education in Israel IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirmayer, Paul, Ed.; Michaelson, Serena T., Ed.

    This fourth journal edition, oriented towards the topic of adult education and the community in Israel, focuses on these two major themes: the different approaches to analyzing and understanding the community, its populations, and its connection to adult education; and educational institutions and cultural entities within the community. Seventeen…

  2. Adult Education at a Distance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudet, Alphonse

    This document, which examines the use of educational technologies for distance education for adults in Canada, consists of five narrative sections and a bibliography. The first section introduces the topic and the document's objectives (to describe those technologies used in Canadian adult distance education, paying particular attention to those…

  3. Older adults challenged financially when adult children move home.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Steven P; Padilla-Frausto, D Imelda

    2014-02-01

    This policy brief looks at the financial burdens imposed on older Californians when adult children return home, often due to a crisis not of their own making, to live with their parents. The findings show that on average in California, the amount of money that older adults need in order to maintain a minimally decent standard of living while supporting one adult child in their home increases their expenses by a minimum of 50 percent. Low-income older adults are usually on fixed incomes, so helping an adult child can provide the child with a critical safety net but at the cost of the parents' own financial well-being. Policy approaches to assisting this vulnerable population of older adults include implementing reforms to increase Supplemental Security Income (SSI), improving the availability of affordable housing, assuring that all eligible nonelderly adults obtain health insurance through health care reform's expansion of Medi-Cal and subsidies, and increasing food assistance through SNAP and senior meal programs. PMID:24804354

  4. Older Adults Prefer Less Choice than Younger Adults

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Andrew E.; Mikels, Joseph A.; Simon, Kosali I.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that older adults prefer less autonomy and seek less information when making decisions on their own relative to younger adults (for a review, see Mather, 2006). Would older adults also prefer fewer options from which to choose? We tested this hypothesis in the context of different decision domains. Participants completed a choice preferences survey in which they indicated their desired number of choices across six domains of healthcare and everyday decisions. Our hypothesis was confirmed across all decision domains. We discuss implications from these results for theories of aging and healthcare policy. PMID:18808256

  5. Aspects of Adult Development. The Rossman Adult Learning Inventory: Creating Awareness of Adult Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Frederick; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Romero's overview of adult developmental theory stresses the work of Erikson, Havighurst, Loevinger, Perry, Kohlberg, and Cross. Rossman and Rossman discuss the development of their Adult Learning Inventory with an extensive source summary for its 4 factors and a 62-item bibliography. (SK)

  6. Just How Adult Is This Young Adult Book: Young Adult Books for the Junior High Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Charlotte

    1999-01-01

    Discusses young adult novels and presents a bibliography to acquaint librarians with titles and authors that are suitable for emerging young adult readers in grades five through nine. Subject categories include realistic fiction, in the news, historical fiction, short stories, legendary characters, mysteries, science fiction/fantasy/horror, and…

  7. General Information about Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma Go to Health Professional ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  8. Treatment Options for Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Adult ...

  9. Stages of Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Adult ...

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Adult ...

  11. Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults Download Printable ... the topics below to get started. What Is Brain/CNS Tumors In Adults? What are adult brain ...

  12. Coaching as a Strategy for Helping Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wax, Dorothy M.; Wertheim, Judith

    2015-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the use of coaching for adult learners, the specific characteristics adults bring to the learning environment, and strategies for dealing with the obstacles adult learners may face.

  13. Cancer survivorship in adults.

    PubMed

    Kiserud, Cecilie E; Dahl, Alv A; Loge, Jon Håvard; Fosså, Sophie D

    2014-01-01

    With the favorable trend regarding survival of cancer in the Western world, there is an increasing focus among patients, clinicians, researchers, and politicians regarding cancer survivors' health and well-being. Their number is rapidly growing and more than 3 % of the adult populations in Western countries have survived cancer for 5 years or more. Cancer survivors are at increased risk for a variety of late effects after treatment, some life-threatening such as secondary cancer and cardiac diseases, others might negatively impact on their daily functioning and quality of life. The latter might include fatigue, anxiety disorders and difficulties returning to work while depression does not seem to be more common among survivors than in the general population. Still, the majority of survivors regain their health and social functioning. The field of cancer survivorship research has been rapidly growing. Models for follow-up care of cancer survivors have been proposed, but how to best integrate the knowledge of the field into clinical practice with adequate follow-up of cancer survivors at risk for developing late effects is still an unsolved question. PMID:24305772

  14. [Prehospitale analgesia in adults].

    PubMed

    Hossfeld, Björn; Holsträter, Susanne; Bernhard, Michael; Lampl, Lorenz; Helm, Matthias; Kulla, Martin

    2016-02-01

    After securing vital function, treatment of pain is an important aspect in emergency medical care. Irrespective of the underlying disease or injury, pain is an important warning symptom of the body and the most common reason for an emergency alert notification. A patient assesses quality of care and success of prehospital care using the criteria of the extent of pain relief he experiences. Since mild pain does not usually lead to an emergency alert, the criteria apply mainly to treatment of severe and very severe pain. Pain perception varies from individual to individual. Accordingly, assessment of pain intensity is the very first step in pain therapy. The Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) ranging from 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain imaginable) is suitable for pain assessment in adult emergency patients. Above a grade of 4, therapeutic intervention should be initiated with the goal of reducing pain to reach a value of <4, or at least to achieve a reduction by 3 points. The choice of analgesics that can be meaningfully used in pre-hospital emergency medicine is limited. The emergency physician should be aware of available drugs and administration routes. PMID:26949902

  15. La lecture et les adultes (Reading and Adults).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caceres, Benigno

    1980-01-01

    Discusses methods used to help adults improve their reading skills and read with more enjoyment. Particular attention is paid to the Reading Club method. An illustration is given of a particular exercise used at a center in Paris. (AMH)

  16. Clueless: Adult Mysteries with Young Adult Appeal 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    This annotated bibliography includes adult mysteries that appeal to teen readers under the categories of Sherlock Holmes; reference sources; private investigators; amateur sleuths; historical sleuths; suspense and thrillers; police procedurals; mystery blends; and anthologies. (LRW)

  17. Computational models of adult neurogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecchi, Guillermo A.; Magnasco, Marcelo O.

    2005-10-01

    Experimental results in recent years have shown that adult neurogenesis is a significant phenomenon in the mammalian brain. Little is known, however, about the functional role played by the generation and destruction of neurons in the context of an adult brain. Here, we propose two models where new projection neurons are incorporated. We show that in both models, using incorporation and removal of neurons as a computational tool, it is possible to achieve a higher computational efficiency that in purely static, synapse-learning-driven networks. We also discuss the implication for understanding the role of adult neurogenesis in specific brain areas like the olfactory bulb and the dentate gyrus.

  18. Thematic relations in adults' concepts.

    PubMed

    Lin, E L; Murphy, G L

    2001-03-01

    Concepts can be organized by their members' similarities, forming a kind (e.g., animal), or by their external relations within scenes or events (e.g., cake and candles). This latter type of relation, known as the thematic relation, is frequently found to be the basis of children's but not adults' classification. However, 10 experiments found that when thematic relations are meaningful and salient, they have significant influence on adults' category construction (sorting), inductive reasoning, and verification of category membership. The authors conclude that concepts function closely with knowledge of scenes and events and that this knowledge has a role in adults' conceptual representations. PMID:11293459

  19. Adult outcomes of preterm children.

    PubMed

    Hack, Maureen

    2009-10-01

    The survivors of the initial years of neonatal intensive care of preterm infants reached adulthood during the last decade. Reports of their adult outcomes examined have included neurodevelopmental, behavioral and health outcomes as well as social functioning and reproduction. Despite statistically significant differences between preterm young adults and controls in most outcomes studied, the majority of preterm survivors do well and live fairly normal lives. The two major predictors of adult outcomes are lower gestational age that reflect perinatal injury and family sociodemographic status which reflects both genetic and environmental effects.

  20. Adult-Onset Hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Khera, Mohit; Broderick, Gregory A; Carson, Culley C; Dobs, Adrian S; Faraday, Martha M; Goldstein, Irwin; Hakim, Lawrence S; Hellstrom, Wayne J G; Kacker, Ravi; Köhler, Tobias S; Mills, Jesse N; Miner, Martin; Sadeghi-Nejad, Hossein; Seftel, Allen D; Sharlip, Ira D; Winters, Stephen J; Burnett, Arthur L

    2016-07-01

    In August 2015, an expert colloquium commissioned by the Sexual Medicine Society of North America (SMSNA) convened in Washington, DC, to discuss the common clinical scenario of men who present with low testosterone (T) and associated signs and symptoms accompanied by low or normal gonadotropin levels. This syndrome is not classical primary (testicular failure) or secondary (pituitary or hypothalamic failure) hypogonadism because it may have elements of both presentations. The panel designated this syndrome adult-onset hypogonadism (AOH) because it occurs commonly in middle-age and older men. The SMSNA is a not-for-profit society established in 1994 to promote, encourage, and support the highest standards of practice, research, education, and ethics in the study of human sexual function and dysfunction. The panel consisted of 17 experts in men's health, sexual medicine, urology, endocrinology, and methodology. Participants declared potential conflicts of interest and were SMSNA members and nonmembers. The panel deliberated regarding a diagnostic process to document signs and symptoms of AOH, the rationale for T therapy, and a monitoring protocol for T-treated patients. The evaluation and management of hypogonadal syndromes have been addressed in recent publications (ie, the Endocrine Society, the American Urological Association, and the International Society for Sexual Medicine). The primary purpose of this document was to support health care professionals in the development of a deeper understanding of AOH, particularly in how it differs from classical primary and secondary hypogonadism, and to provide a conceptual framework to guide its diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. PMID:27343020

  1. Asthma in adults (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction About 10% of adults have suffered an attack of asthma, and up to 5% of these have severe disease that responds poorly to treatment. Patients with severe disease have an increased risk of death, but patients with mild to moderate disease are also at risk of exacerbations. Most guidelines about the management of asthma follow stepwise protocols. This review does not endorse or follow any particular protocol, but presents the evidence about specific interventions. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for acute asthma? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 100 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: beta2 agonists (plus ipratropium bromide, pressured metered-dose inhalers, short-acting continuous nebulised, short-acting intermittent nebulised, short-acting iv, and inhaled formoterol); corticosteroids (inhaled); corticosteroids (single oral, combined inhaled, and short courses); education about acute asthma; generalist care; helium–oxygen mixture (heliox); magnesium sulphate (iv and adding isotonic nebulised magnesium to inhaled beta2 agonists); mechanical ventilation; oxygen supplementation (controlled 28% oxygen and controlled 100% oxygen); and specialist care. PMID:21463536

  2. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    MedlinePlus

    ... International TSC Research Conference Text Size Get Involved EPILEPSY IN ADULTS WITH TSC Download a PDF of ... age, including either new-onset seizures or ongoing epilepsy. Recent studies indicate that more than 80% of ...

  3. Split liver transplantation in adults.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Koji; Fujiki, Masato; Quintini, Cristiano; Aucejo, Federico N; Uso, Teresa Diago; Kelly, Dympna M; Eghtesad, Bijan; Fung, John J; Miller, Charles M

    2016-09-01

    Split liver transplantation (SLT), while widely accepted in pediatrics, remains underutilized in adults. Advancements in surgical techniques and donor-recipient matching, however, have allowed expansion of SLT from utilization of the right trisegment graft to now include use of the hemiliver graft as well. Despite less favorable outcomes in the early experience, better outcomes have been reported by experienced centers and have further validated the feasibility of SLT. Importantly, more than two decades of experience have identified key requirements for successful SLT in adults. When these requirements are met, SLT can achieve outcomes equivalent to those achieved with other types of liver transplantation for adults. However, substantial challenges, such as surgical techniques, logistics, and ethics, persist as ongoing barriers to further expansion of this highly complex procedure. This review outlines the current state of SLT in adults, focusing on donor and recipient selection based on physiology, surgical techniques, surgical outcomes, and ethical issues. PMID:27672272

  4. Adult Learners' Week in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, John

    2002-01-01

    Promotional materials and activities for Australia's Adult Learners Week, which are shaped by a variety of stakeholders , include media strategies and a website. Activities are evaluated using a market research company and website and telephone hotline statistics. (SK)

  5. National Adult Protective Services Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is Abuse? What Is Neglect? What is Financial Exploitation? Other Safety Concerns? History of Adult Protective Services ... Groups Banks and APS Get Involved Elder Financial Exploitation National Policy Elder Justice Act Implementation Program Standards ...

  6. Osteoporosis: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... fractures if needed annual flu shots. Protein-Calorie Malnutrition Many older adults living at home eat poorly. ... serious that a condition known as protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) develops. Sometimes, PCM occurs after a long ...

  7. Youths Transitioning as Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, C. Amelia

    2014-01-01

    This chapter considers how transitions to adulthood have been historically represented and presents alternative ways of thinking about transitions to adulthood through the context of adult basic education programs.

  8. Split liver transplantation in adults

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Koji; Fujiki, Masato; Quintini, Cristiano; Aucejo, Federico N; Uso, Teresa Diago; Kelly, Dympna M; Eghtesad, Bijan; Fung, John J; Miller, Charles M

    2016-01-01

    Split liver transplantation (SLT), while widely accepted in pediatrics, remains underutilized in adults. Advancements in surgical techniques and donor-recipient matching, however, have allowed expansion of SLT from utilization of the right trisegment graft to now include use of the hemiliver graft as well. Despite less favorable outcomes in the early experience, better outcomes have been reported by experienced centers and have further validated the feasibility of SLT. Importantly, more than two decades of experience have identified key requirements for successful SLT in adults. When these requirements are met, SLT can achieve outcomes equivalent to those achieved with other types of liver transplantation for adults. However, substantial challenges, such as surgical techniques, logistics, and ethics, persist as ongoing barriers to further expansion of this highly complex procedure. This review outlines the current state of SLT in adults, focusing on donor and recipient selection based on physiology, surgical techniques, surgical outcomes, and ethical issues.

  9. Computer acceptance of older adults.

    PubMed

    Nägle, Sibylle; Schmidt, Ludger

    2012-01-01

    Even though computers play a massive role in everyday life of modern societies, older adults, and especially older women, are less likely to use a computer, and they perform fewer activities on it than younger adults. To get a better understanding of the factors affecting older adults' intention towards and usage of computers, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Usage of Technology (UTAUT) was applied as part of a more extensive study with 52 users and non-users of computers, ranging in age from 50 to 90 years. The model covers various aspects of computer usage in old age via four key constructs, namely performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influences, and facilitating conditions, as well as the variables gender, age, experience, and voluntariness it. Interestingly, next to performance expectancy, facilitating conditions showed the strongest correlation with use as well as with intention. Effort expectancy showed no significant correlation with the intention of older adults to use a computer.

  10. Older Adults and Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a widely underrecognized and undertreated medical illness. Depression often co-occurs with other serious illnesses, such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes, cancer, and Parkinson's disease. Because many older adults face these illnesses as well as various social and ...

  11. Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes The table below shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

  12. Recommended Immunizations for Adults 50+

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Health Screenings and Immunizations Recommended Immunizations For Adults 50+ The content in this section ... out more, visit How Vaccines Prevent Disease . Vaccines, Vaccinations, and Immunizations Understanding the difference between vaccines, vaccinations, ...

  13. Split liver transplantation in adults

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Koji; Fujiki, Masato; Quintini, Cristiano; Aucejo, Federico N; Uso, Teresa Diago; Kelly, Dympna M; Eghtesad, Bijan; Fung, John J; Miller, Charles M

    2016-01-01

    Split liver transplantation (SLT), while widely accepted in pediatrics, remains underutilized in adults. Advancements in surgical techniques and donor-recipient matching, however, have allowed expansion of SLT from utilization of the right trisegment graft to now include use of the hemiliver graft as well. Despite less favorable outcomes in the early experience, better outcomes have been reported by experienced centers and have further validated the feasibility of SLT. Importantly, more than two decades of experience have identified key requirements for successful SLT in adults. When these requirements are met, SLT can achieve outcomes equivalent to those achieved with other types of liver transplantation for adults. However, substantial challenges, such as surgical techniques, logistics, and ethics, persist as ongoing barriers to further expansion of this highly complex procedure. This review outlines the current state of SLT in adults, focusing on donor and recipient selection based on physiology, surgical techniques, surgical outcomes, and ethical issues. PMID:27672272

  14. Split liver transplantation in adults.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Koji; Fujiki, Masato; Quintini, Cristiano; Aucejo, Federico N; Uso, Teresa Diago; Kelly, Dympna M; Eghtesad, Bijan; Fung, John J; Miller, Charles M

    2016-09-01

    Split liver transplantation (SLT), while widely accepted in pediatrics, remains underutilized in adults. Advancements in surgical techniques and donor-recipient matching, however, have allowed expansion of SLT from utilization of the right trisegment graft to now include use of the hemiliver graft as well. Despite less favorable outcomes in the early experience, better outcomes have been reported by experienced centers and have further validated the feasibility of SLT. Importantly, more than two decades of experience have identified key requirements for successful SLT in adults. When these requirements are met, SLT can achieve outcomes equivalent to those achieved with other types of liver transplantation for adults. However, substantial challenges, such as surgical techniques, logistics, and ethics, persist as ongoing barriers to further expansion of this highly complex procedure. This review outlines the current state of SLT in adults, focusing on donor and recipient selection based on physiology, surgical techniques, surgical outcomes, and ethical issues.

  15. New Literacy Tools for Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jonathan

    1990-01-01

    Describes an Australian national study of technologies used for adult literacy: traditional technologies (print, radio, television, audio and videotape, teleconferencing, and computers) and new generation technologies (laser discs, CD-ROM, videodiscs, and hypermedia). (SK)

  16. Adult Education and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Francis A.

    1972-01-01

    Author discussed American public's shifts in values and priorities" and suggests that adult educators become involved in 'real politique'" in order to help form public policy in the future. (Author/SP)

  17. Root Caries in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Dick; Hyde, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Older adults are retaining an increasing number of natural teeth, and nearly half of all individuals aged 75 and older have experienced root caries. Root caries is a major cause of tooth loss in older adults, and tooth loss is the most significant negative impact on oral health-related quality of life for the elderly. The need for improved preventive efforts and treatment strategies for this population is acute.

  18. Root Caries in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Dick; Hyde, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Older adults are retaining an increasing number of natural teeth, and nearly half of all individuals aged 75 and older have experienced root caries. Root caries is a major cause of tooth loss in older adults, and tooth loss is the most significant negative impact on oral health-related quality of life for the elderly. The need for improved preventive efforts and treatment strategies for this population is acute. PMID:26357814

  19. What Does It Take to Be an Adult in Austria? Views of Adulthood in Austrian Adolescents, Emerging Adults, and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirsch, Ulrike; Dreher, Eva; Mayr, Eva; Willinger, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the defining features of emerging adulthood, subjects' conceptions of the transition to adulthood, and the perceived adult status in Austria. The sample consisted of 775 subjects (226 adolescents, 317 emerging adults, 232 adults). Results showed that most Austrian emerging adults feel themselves to be between adolescence…

  20. Adult Stem and Progenitor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraerts, Martine; Verfaillie, Catherine M.

    The discovery of adult stem cells in most adult tissues is the basis of a number of clinical studies that are carried out, with therapeutic use of hematopoietic stem cells as a prime example. Intense scientific debate is still ongoing as to whether adult stem cells may have a greater plasticity than previously thought. Although cells with some features of embryonic stem cells that, among others, express Oct4, Nanog and SSEA1 are isolated from fresh tissue, it is not clear if the greater differentiation potential is acquired during cell culture. Moreover, adult more pluripotent cells do not have all pluripotent characteristics typical for embryonic stem cells. Recently, some elegant studies were published in which adult cells could be completely reprogrammed to embryonic stem cell-like cells by overexpression of some key transcription factors for pluripotency (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc). It will be interesting for the future to investigate the exact mechanisms underlying this reprogramming and whether similar transcription factor pathways are present and/or can be activated in adult more pluripotent stem cells.