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Sample records for adult sizes small

  1. Small Schools: Size or Community?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strike, Kenneth A.

    2008-01-01

    Small schools are not just about size. They are also about authentic instruction, portfolio evaluation, and a thematic curriculum. Their agendas overlap with that of charter schools. They have an uncomfortable and sometimes adversarial relationship with standards, accountability, and the No Child Left Behind Act. They have migrated from their…

  2. Small-particle-size cement

    SciTech Connect

    Ewert, D.P.; Almond, S.W.; Blerhaus, W.M. II )

    1991-05-01

    Successful remedial cementing has historically been difficult in wells with large-interval, multizone, gravel-packed completions. The reason is the inability of conventional oilfield cements to penetrate gravel packs adequately. Small-particle-size cement (SPSC) was developed to penetrate gravel packs and to provide the zonal isolation required. This paper details the laboratory work, job design, and field implementation of this new cement.

  3. A phylogenetic analysis of egg size, clutch size, spawning mode, adult body size, and latitude in reef fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimatis, Katja; Riginos, Cynthia

    2016-06-01

    Theoretical treatments of egg size in fishes suggest that constraints on reproductive output should create trade-offs between the size and number of eggs produced per spawn. For marine reef fishes, the observation of distinct reproductive care strategies (demersal guarding, egg scattering, and pelagic spawning) has additionally prompted speculation that these strategies reflect alternative fitness optima with selection on egg size differing by reproductive mode and perhaps latitude. Here, we aggregate data from 278 reef fish species and test whether clutch size, reproductive care, adult body size, and latitudinal bands (i.e., tropical, subtropical, and temperate) predict egg size, using a statistically unified framework that accounts for phylogenetic correlations among traits. We find no inverse relationship between species egg size and clutch size, but rather that egg size differs by reproductive mode (mean volume for demersal eggs = 1.22 mm3, scattered eggs = 0.18 mm3, pelagic eggs = 0.52 mm3) and that clutch size is strongly correlated with adult body size. Larger eggs were found in temperate species compared with tropical species in both demersal guarders and pelagic spawners, but this difference was not strong when accounting for phylogenetic correlations, suggesting that differences in species composition underlies regional differences in egg size. In summary, demersal guarders are generally small fishes with small clutch sizes that produce large eggs. Pelagic spawners and egg scatterers are variable in adult and clutch size. Although pelagic spawned eggs are variable in size, those of scatterers are consistently small.

  4. Accent on Adults; The Small College Program at Brooklyn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Myrtle S.; Offenbacher, Deborah I.

    An attempt is made to state unique elements of the Small College Program at Brooklyn. The book explains that few opportunities are available to older adults, that "small" is used to describe the class size (20) which is responsible for the primary group atmosphere created, and that admission is based on criteria, such as experience and interests,…

  5. Spatiotemporal relationship between adult census size and genetic population size across a wide population size gradient.

    PubMed

    Bernos, Thaїs A; Fraser, Dylan J

    2016-09-01

    Adult census population size (N) and effective number of breeders (Nb ) are highly relevant for designing effective conservation strategies. Both parameters are often challenging to quantify, however, making it of interest to determine whether one parameter can be generalized from the other. Yet, the spatiotemporal relationship between N and Nb has not been well characterized empirically in many taxa. We analysed this relationship for 5-7 consecutive years in twelve brook trout populations varying greatly in N (49-10032) and Nb (3-567) and identified major environmental variables affecting the two parameters. N or habitat size alone explained 47-57% of the variance in Nb , and Nb was strongly correlated with effective population size. The ratio Nb /N ranged from 0.01 to 0.45 and increased at small N or following an annual decrease in N, suggesting density-dependent constraints on Nb . We found no evidence for a consistent, directional difference between variability in Nb and/or Nb /N among small and large populations; however, small populations had more varying temporal variability in Nb /N ratios than large populations. Finally, Nb and Nb /N were 2.5- and 2.3-fold more variable among populations than temporally within populations. Our results demonstrate a clear linkage between demographic and evolutionary parameters, suggesting that Nb could be used to approximate N (or vice versa) in natural populations. Nevertheless, using one variable to infer the other to monitor trends within populations is less recommended, perhaps even less so in small populations given their less predictable Nb vs. N dynamics. PMID:27483203

  6. Argon-pumped tunable dye laser therapy for facial port-wine stain hemangiomas in adults--a new technique using small spot size and minimal power

    SciTech Connect

    Scheibner, A.; Wheeland, R.G.

    1989-03-01

    A low power, argon-pumped tunable dye laser was used to deliver yellow light of 577 nm. Individual blood vessels within port-wine stain hemangiomas were treated with a 0.1-mm beam of light using 8 X magnification. This technique permits excellent resolution of facial and nuchal port-wine stain hemangiomas in adults without the adverse complications of textural change, permanent pigmentation abnormality, or hypertrophic scarring.

  7. Statistical Analysis Techniques for Small Sample Sizes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navard, S. E.

    1984-01-01

    The small sample sizes problem which is encountered when dealing with analysis of space-flight data is examined. Because of such a amount of data available, careful analyses are essential to extract the maximum amount of information with acceptable accuracy. Statistical analysis of small samples is described. The background material necessary for understanding statistical hypothesis testing is outlined and the various tests which can be done on small samples are explained. Emphasis is on the underlying assumptions of each test and on considerations needed to choose the most appropriate test for a given type of analysis.

  8. Small domain-size multiblock copolymer electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Pistorino, Jonathan; Eitouni, Hany Basam

    2016-09-20

    New block polymer electrolytes have been developed which have higher conductivities than previously reported for other block copolymer electrolytes. The new materials are constructed of multiple blocks (>5) of relatively low domain size. The small domain size provides greater protection against formation of dendrites during cycling against lithium in an electrochemical cell, while the large total molecular weight insures poor long range alignment, which leads to higher conductivity. In addition to higher conductivity, these materials can be more easily synthesized because of reduced requirements on the purity level of the reagents.

  9. Small-size biofuel cell on paper.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingling; Zhou, Ming; Wen, Dan; Bai, Lu; Lou, Baohua; Dong, Shaojun

    2012-05-15

    In this work, we demonstrated a novel paper-based mediator-less and compartment-less biofuel cell (BFC) with small size (1.5 cm × 1.5 cm). Ionic liquid functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs-IL) nanocomposite was used as support for both stably confining the anodic biocatalyst (i.e., NAD(+)-dependent glucose dehydrogenase, GDH) for glucose electrooxidation and for facilitating direct electrochemistry of the cathodic biocatalyst (i.e., bilirubin oxidase, BOD) for O(2) electroreduction. Such BFC provided a simple approach to fabricate low-cost and portable power devices on small-size paper, which can harvest energy from a wide range of commercial beverages containing glucose (e.g., Nescafe instant coffee, Maidong vitamin water, Watermelon fresh juice, and Minute Maid grape juice). These made the low-cost paper-based biodevice potential for broad energy applications. PMID:22417872

  10. 78 FR 70847 - Small Business Size Standards; Manufacturing; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... RIN 3245-AG47 Small Business Size Standards; Manufacturing; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... small business size standards. In FR Doc. 2012-19973 appearing on page 49991 of the August 20,...

  11. Three dimensional fabrication at small size scales

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Timothy G.; Zarafshar, Aasiyeh M.; Gracias, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the fact that we live in a three-dimensional (3D) world and macroscale engineering is 3D, conventional sub-mm scale engineering is inherently two-dimensional (2D). New fabrication and patterning strategies are needed to enable truly three-dimensionally-engineered structures at small size scales. Here, we review strategies that have been developed over the last two decades that seek to enable such millimeter to nanoscale 3D fabrication and patterning. A focus of this review is the strategy of self-assembly, specifically in a biologically inspired, more deterministic form known as self-folding. Self-folding methods can leverage the strengths of lithography to enable the construction of precisely patterned 3D structures and “smart” components. This self-assembling approach is compared with other 3D fabrication paradigms, and its advantages and disadvantages are discussed. PMID:20349446

  12. Penile size and the 'small penis syndrome'.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Kevan R; Eardley, Ian

    2007-06-01

    The male is often troubled by concerns that his penis is not large enough to satisfy his partner or himself. He is ashamed to have others view his penis, especially in the flaccid state. Such concerns might be unfounded in reality and might be a presentation of social anxiety or some other clinical problem, such as erectile dysfunction. Concern over the size of the penis, when such concern becomes excessive, might present as the 'small penis syndrome', an obsessive rumination with compulsive checking rituals, body dysmorphic disorder, or as part of a psychosis. However, it is often a worry that can be described as within the normal experience of many men. Various potential causal factors are considered. A thorough assessment, normalizing the worry and then exploring the treatment options in detail with the man, is essential to allow the matter to be consolidated satisfactorily within the male ego.

  13. Constraints on the adult-offspring size relationship in protists.

    PubMed

    Caval-Holme, Franklin; Payne, Jonathan; Skotheim, Jan M

    2013-12-01

    The relationship between adult and offspring size is an important aspect of reproductive strategy. Although this filial relationship has been extensively examined in plants and animals, we currently lack comparable data for protists, whose strategies may differ due to the distinct ecological and physiological constraints on single-celled organisms. Here, we report measurements of adult and offspring sizes in 3888 species and subspecies of foraminifera, a class of large marine protists. Foraminifera exhibit a wide range of reproductive strategies; species of similar adult size may have offspring whose sizes vary 100-fold. Yet, a robust pattern emerges. The minimum (5th percentile), median, and maximum (95th percentile) offspring sizes exhibit a consistent pattern of increase with adult size independent of environmental change and taxonomic variation over the past 400 million years. The consistency of this pattern may arise from evolutionary optimization of the offspring size-fecundity trade-off and/or from cell-biological constraints that limit the range of reproductive strategies available to single-celled organisms. When compared with plants and animals, foraminifera extend the evidence that offspring size covaries with adult size across an additional five orders of magnitude in organism size.

  14. String Theory: Big Problem for Small Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahoo, S.

    2009-01-01

    String theory is the most promising candidate theory for a unified description of all the fundamental forces that exist in nature. It provides a mathematical framework that combines quantum theory with Einstein's general theory of relativity. The typical size of a string is of the order of 10[superscript -33] cm, called the Planck length. But due…

  15. Exploratory Factor Analysis with Small Sample Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Winter, J. C. F.; Dodou, D.; Wieringa, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is generally regarded as a technique for large sample sizes ("N"), with N = 50 as a reasonable absolute minimum. This study offers a comprehensive overview of the conditions in which EFA can yield good quality results for "N" below 50. Simulations were carried out to estimate the minimum required "N" for different…

  16. Small Multifidus Muscle Size Predicts Football Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Hides, Julie A.; Stanton, Warren R.; Mendis, M. Dilani; Franettovich Smith, Melinda M.; Sexton, Margot J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Australian football, lower limb injuries have had the highest incidence and prevalence rates. Previous studies have shown that football players with relatively more severe preseason and playing season hip, groin, and thigh injuries had a significantly smaller multifidus muscle compared with players with no lower limb injuries. Rehabilitation of the multifidus muscle, with restoration of its size and function, has been associated with decreased recurrence rates of episodic low back pain and decreased numbers of lower limb injuries in football players. Assessment of multifidus muscle size and function could potentially be incorporated into a model that could be used to predict injuries in football players. Purpose: To examine the robustness of multifidus muscle measurements as a predictor of lower limb injuries incurred by professional football players. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Ultrasound examinations were carried out on 259 male elite football players at the start of the preseason and 261 players at the start of the playing season. Injury data were obtained from records collected by the Australian Football League (AFL) club staff during the preseason and the playing season. Results: Decreased size of the multifidus muscle at L5 consistently predicted injury in the preseason and playing season. Asymmetry of the multifidus muscle and low back pain were significantly related to lower limb injuries in the preseason, and having no preferred kicking leg was related to season injuries. Seasonal change in the size of the multifidus muscle indicating a decrease in muscle mass was linked to injury. Sensitivity and specificity of the model were 60.6% and 84.9% for the preseason and 91.8% and 45.8% for the playing season, respectively. Conclusion: A model was developed for prediction of lower limb injuries in football players with potential utility for club medical staff. Of particular note is the finding that changes in muscle

  17. 77 FR 13329 - Information Collection; Small Business Size Representation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... statutory goals, set-aside determinations, and market research. B. Annual Reporting Burden Respondents: 10... implement the Small Business Administration (SBA) Final Rule (71 FR 66434), Small Business Size...

  18. 76 FR 27935 - Small Business Size Standards: Transportation and Warehousing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG08 Small Business Size Standards: Transportation and Warehousing AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small...

  19. Small Incidental Renal Masses in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Al-Marhoon, Mohammed S

    2010-01-01

    Incidental renal tumours are becoming an important clinical problem that many physicians will need to deal with. A good knowledge of the nature of these tumours and how to manage them is therefore needed. The aim of this paper is to review the literature about incidental renal tumours in adults. Many incidentally discovered small renal tumours (<4 cm) are benign and of low stage, grade and progression potential. The preferred management in young fit patients is open or laparoscopic nephron-sparing surgery. Treatment alternatives include needle-ablative therapies and surveillance in elderly unfit patients. Tumour renal biopsy is encouraged prior to needle-ablative therapy and surveillance. Awareness about incidental renal masses and their management is essential for treating doctors. PMID:21509229

  20. Relation of adult size to movements and distribution of smallmouth bass in a central Maine Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, M.B.; Moring, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Forty-four smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu of three size-classes were radiotracked in Green Lake, Maine, during summer 1993 (10 June-1 September) to determine whether adult size influenced distribution and movement. Large smallmouth bass (>406 mm) used deep water (>8 m) more often than did small (248-279 mm) or medium-sized (305-356 mm) smallmouth bass during the late summer (15 July-1 September). Large smallmouth bass also were found at middepths (4-8 m) significantly more often than were small individuals during late summer. Small fish used cover more frequently than large ones during early summer (10 June-13 July). Both small and medium-sized individuals were associated with cover more frequently than large smallmouth bass were during the late summer. Small smallmouth bass exhibited significantly smaller summer total ranges than did large individuals, and mean active displacement differed among all three size-classes.

  1. Adult Education in Small States: The Case of Malta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Peter; Pace, Paul J.; Zammit, Edward

    2008-01-01

    A small state faces several challenges with regard to adult continuing education and training. The paper discusses some of these challenges with specific reference to the Mediterranean small island state of Malta. It starts with a general discussion of some of the issues affecting adult education in a small state such as Malta that paves the way…

  2. 78 FR 36083 - Small Business Size Standards; Educational Services; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ..., effective October 24, 2012, increased small business size standards for nine industries in North American... Technical and Trade Schools, within that Sector. However, the Job Corps Centers exception and its size... Centers exception under NAICS 611519 and its $35.5 million size standard. DATES: Effective June 17,...

  3. 76 FR 62313 - Small Business Size and Status Integrity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 121, 124, 125, 126, 127 RIN 3245-AG23 Small Business Size and Status Integrity AGENCY... identified as a small disadvantaged business concern in the Online Representations and...

  4. Handbook of Reference Sources and Services for Small and Medium-Sized Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Margaret Irby

    This guide to adult reference works and services for the small or medium-sized public library is divided into two sections. Section One lists 559 numbered items arranged in 22 subsections, and 222 additional items in notes following entries or at the end of the relevant subsection. Subject areas are as follows: guides and bibliographies; general…

  5. Character Size and Reading to Remember from Small Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Christopher A.; Goolsbee, James Z.

    2010-01-01

    An under-addressed question regarding the usage of small devices is how information gathering from such devices is limited or changed relative to a full-size display? This study explores how factual recall from a text interacts with display size and other text characteristics. In this experiment, participants read several expository texts on…

  6. Small angle neutron scattering from nanometer grain sized materials

    SciTech Connect

    Epperson, J.E.; Siegel, R.W.

    1991-11-01

    Small angie neutron scattering has been utilized, along with a number of complementary characterization methods suitable to the nanometer size scale, to investigate the structures of cluster-assembled nanophase materials. Results of these investigations are described and problems and opportunities in using small angle scattering for elucidating nanostructures are discussed.

  7. Size & Flow: Adult Education Issues in the Senate Immigration Bill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Garrett; Spangenberg, Gail

    2014-01-01

    In this essay Garrett Murphy and Gail Spangenberg report on the need for understanding better than in the past, the number of undocumented immigrants likely to need adult education services under provisions of Senate Immigration Bill S.744. The essay looks at why the issues of "size and flow" are important for planners, providers, and…

  8. 48 CFR 52.219-21 - Small Business Size Representation for Targeted Industry Categories Under the Small Business...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Representation for Targeted Industry Categories Under the Small Business Competitiveness Demonstration Program....219-21 Small Business Size Representation for Targeted Industry Categories Under the Small Business... Size Representation for Targeted Industry Categories Under the Small Business...

  9. Practical considerations for electron beam small field size dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Subhash C.; Johnson, Martin W.; Gossman, Michael S. . E-mail: GossmanMS@erlanger.org

    2005-06-30

    Special care of superficial lesions surrounding critical structures, such as an eye, may require tight margins. When this is the case, small megavoltage electron treatment fields and nonstandard treatment distances become necessary. When the field size is found to be less than the practical range of the electron beam, dosimetric measurements should be performed. This research includes data proving that very small electron fields can be employed for treatment with appropriate beam flatness and penumbra. This is accomplished by first coning down the incident beam to a small field size, then secondly by adding a single lead sheet to the patient's skin surface. The aperture of the sheet is required to be greater than 2 x 2 cm{sup 2} in size, and must be cut properly to adequately confine the treatment area.

  10. Design of haptic master featuring small-sized MR brakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gang, Han Gyeol; Choi, Seung-Bok; Sohn, Jung Woo

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a new type of haptic master featuring small-sized MR brake is proposed and its performances are evaluated. The proposed haptic master consists of base frame, stick grip and small-sized four MR brakes for 3-DOF rotational motion and 1-DOF gripper motion. To obtain large braking torque under limited small size of MR brake, dual tapered shape inner magnetic core is proposed and its performance is evaluated via both numerical estimation and experimental test. After design and implementation of control algorithm, it has been demonstrated through experiment that the proposed actuator has good performances on tracking control of desired torques. Then, a new haptic master device is designed and constructed by adopting the proposed MR brakes and light weight frame structures. It is verified that the proposed haptic master device is effective for the real application in the field.

  11. Illusions of having small or large invisible bodies influence visual perception of object size

    PubMed Central

    van der Hoort, Björn; Ehrsson, H. Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The size of our body influences the perceived size of the world so that objects appear larger to children than to adults. The mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. It has been difficult to dissociate visual rescaling of the external environment based on an individual’s visible body from visual rescaling based on a central multisensory body representation. To differentiate these potential causal mechanisms, we manipulated body representation without a visible body by taking advantage of recent developments in body representation research. Participants experienced the illusion of having a small or large invisible body while object-size perception was tested. Our findings show that the perceived size of test-objects was determined by the size of the invisible body (inverse relation), and by the strength of the invisible body illusion. These findings demonstrate how central body representation directly influences visual size perception, without the need for a visible body, by rescaling the spatial representation of the environment. PMID:27708344

  12. Colony size selection determines adult survival and dispersal preferences: allee effects in a colonial bird.

    PubMed

    Serrano, David; Oro, Daniel; Ursua, Esperanza; Tella, José L

    2005-08-01

    Avian coloniality traditionally has been investigated by examining how breeding success varies with colony size, but other crucial fitness components rarely have been examined. This may lead to wrong conclusions because unmeasured parameters may change the final fitness balance. We used multistate capture-recapture models to investigate adult survival and dispersal in relation to colony size within a long-term monitored population of lesser kestrels (Falco naumanni). Nest predation probability decreases with colony size, and adult survival is predicted to show the same trend because adults are exposed to the same suite of predators. As expected, survival probability was higher in large colonies (0.72+/-0.015; mean+/-SE) than in medium or small colonies (0.65+/-0.02). Additionally, dispersal probabilities were higher going from small to large colonies (0.20+/-0.01) than from large to small (0.08+/-0.01), as predicted by theory of habitat selection shaped by fitness maximization. These asymmetries are likely to generate size-specific colony population dynamics, so they should be taken into account in studies of colonial birds and other metapopulation-like systems. Allee effects, that is, positive density dependence, appear to be the cause of the evolution of dispersal behavior and may explain the maintenance of coloniality in this species. PMID:16032568

  13. A method of approximating range size of small mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1965-01-01

    In summary, trap success trends appear to provide a useful approximation to range size of easily trapped small mammals such as Peromyscus. The scale of measurement can be adjusted as desired. Further explorations of the usefulness of the plan should be made and modifications possibly developed before adoption.

  14. Promoting Learning in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Maria; Gray, Sue

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, small and medium-sized enterprises constituted 99% of all businesses in the United Kingdom in all but the electricity, gas, and water supply sector, providing 46% of nongovernment employment. SMEs' concern with day-to-day demands leaves them with limited time and resources to consider their training needs. Although providing support and…

  15. Workplace Health Promotion within Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Ann; Parahoo, Kader; Fleming, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore managers' understanding of workplace health promotion (WHP) and experiences of WHP activity within small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in a Health and Social Care Trust area of Northern Ireland. The paper aims to focus on engagement with activities within the context of prevention of…

  16. Drift load in populations of small size and low density.

    PubMed

    Willi, Y; Griffin, P; Van Buskirk, J

    2013-03-01

    According to theory, drift load in randomly mating populations is determined by past population size, because enhanced genetic drift in small populations causes accumulation and fixation of recessive deleterious mutations of small effect. In contrast, segregating load due to mutations of low frequency should decline in smaller populations, at least when mutations are highly recessive and strongly deleterious. Strong local selection generally reduces both types of load. We tested these predictions in 13 isolated, outcrossing populations of Arabidopsis lyrata that varied in population size and plant density. Long-term size was estimated by expected heterozygosity at 20 microsatellite loci. Segregating load was assessed by comparing performance of offspring from selfings versus within-population crosses. Drift load was the heterosis effect created by interpopulation outbreeding. Results showed that segregating load was unrelated to long-term size. However, drift load was significantly higher in populations of small effective size and low density. Drift load was mostly expressed late in development, but started as early as germination and accumulated thereafter. The study largely confirms predictions of theory and illustrates that mutation accumulation can be a threat to natural populations.

  17. The advantages of small-size focus in ultrasound surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehui, Li; Guofeng, Shen; Jinfeng, Bai; Yazhu, Chen

    2012-10-01

    The near-field heating which easily occurs in ultrasound surgery is mainly due to the long axial intensity distribution, -6dB intensity length of which is larger than 10 mm. In this paper, we investigated the advantages of a small-size focus with -6dB intensity dimensions of 1 (transverse)×4.5(axial) mm. First, the near-field safety and treatment efficiency were shown to be improved. A 5×5×5 mm3 target was simulated using this small-size focus with 1 mm focal spacing. The consecutive sonications were applied without cooling intervals, and duration of each spot was 2 s under ultrasonic intensity of 200 W/cm2. The lesion was well conformed to simulated target with 89.6% coverage index and 11.8% external volume index, and peak temperature in the plane (1 cm before focal plane) was 40.5°C, showing it was safe. Meanwhile the treatment time was decreased due to continuous sonication. Another advantage of small-size focus is that it can reduce the possibility of bone burning at the far field. Assumed that the muscle-bone interface located 1 cm after the focal plane, the specific absorption rate at the bone interface were 0.25 and 1.28 times the that of focal plane for the small-size focus and commonsize focus (-6dB intensity axial width of 12.5 mm), respectively. So the small-size focus shows superiority in ultrasound surgery.

  18. INITIAL PLANETESIMAL SIZES AND THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF SMALL KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Schlichting, Hilke E.; Fuentes, Cesar I.; Trilling, David E.

    2013-08-01

    The Kuiper Belt is a remnant from the early solar system and its size distribution contains many important constraints that can be used to test models of planet formation and collisional evolution. We show, by comparing observations with theoretical models, that the observed Kuiper Belt size distribution is well matched by coagulation models, which start with an initial planetesimal population with radii of about 1 km, and subsequent collisional evolution. We find that the observed size distribution above R {approx} 30 km is primordial, i.e., it has not been modified by collisional evolution over the age of the solar system, and that the size distribution below R {approx} 30 km has been modified by collisions and that its slope is well matched by collisional evolution models that use published strength laws. We investigate in detail the resulting size distribution of bodies ranging from 0.01 km to 30 km and find that its slope changes several times as a function of radius before approaching the expected value for an equilibrium collisional cascade of material strength dominated bodies for R {approx}< 0.1 km. Compared to a single power-law size distribution that would span the whole range from 0.01 km to 30 km, we find in general a strong deficit of bodies around R {approx} 10 km and a strong excess of bodies around 2 km in radius. This deficit and excess of bodies are caused by the planetesimal size distribution left over from the runaway growth phase, which left most of the initial mass in small planetesimals while only a small fraction of the total mass is converted into large protoplanets. This excess mass in small planetesimals leaves a permanent signature in the size distribution of small bodies that is not erased after 4.5 Gyr of collisional evolution. Observations of the small Kuiper Belt Object (KBO) size distribution can therefore test if large KBOs grew as a result of runaway growth and constrained the initial planetesimal sizes. We find that results from

  19. Bank Size and Small- and Medium-sized Enterprise (SME) Lending: Evidence from China

    PubMed Central

    SHEN, YAN; SHEN, MINGGAO; XU, ZHONG; BAI, YING

    2014-01-01

    Summary Using panel data collected in 2005, we evaluate how bank size, discretion over credit, incentive schemes, competition, and the institutional environment affect lending to small- and medium-sized enterprises in China. We deal with the endogeneity problem using instrumental variables, and a reduced-form approach is also applied to allow for weak instruments in estimation. We find that total bank asset is an insignificant factor for banks’ decision on small- and medium-enterprise (SME) lending, but more local lending authority, more competition, carefully designed incentive schemes, and stronger law enforcement encourage commercial banks to lend to SMEs. PMID:26052179

  20. Stroop-like interference in the real animal size test and the pictorial animal size test in 5- to 12-year-old children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Yoshifumi; Okuzumi, Hideyuki; Kokubun, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    This study examined prepotent response inhibition among 653 5- to 12-year-old children and young adults divided into five age groups: forty-six 5- to 6-year-olds, one hundred fifty-eight 7- to 8-year-olds, one hundred ninety-six 9- to 10-year-olds, one hundred eighty-three 11- to 12-year-olds, and 70 young adults (19- to 22-year-olds). Two paper-and-pencil versions of Stroop-like tasks were administered: the Real Animal Size Test and the Pictorial Animal Size Test. In these tests, participants are presented with pictures of animals (large animals such as an elephant, a giraffe, and a whale vs. small animals such as a frog, a bird, and a squirrel) printed as either big or small images that are mismatched with the animal's real size. Participants are required to decide the size of the animals (big vs. small) based on either the size in real life or the size of the picture. The results indicated the following: (a) The Pictorial Animal Size Test elicited robust interference, whereas the Real Animal Size Test elicited no interference; (b) prepotent response inhibition develops markedly in childhood and between children and young adults; and (c) error correction increased rapidly after age 8. The mechanism of interference and the influence of metacognition on prepotent response inhibition are discussed. PMID:24716870

  1. Litter Size Predicts Adult Stereotypic Behavior in Female Laboratory Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bechard, Allison; Nicholson, Anthony; Mason, Georgia

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypic behaviors are repetitive invariant behaviors that are common in many captive species and potentially indicate compromised welfare and suitability as research subjects. Adult laboratory mice commonly perform stereotypic bar-gnawing, route-tracing, and back-flipping, although great individual variation in frequency occurs. Early life factors (for example, level of maternal care received) have lasting effects on CNS functioning and abilities to cope with stress and therefore may also affect stereotypic behavior in offspring. Access to maternal resources and care are influenced by the number of pups in a litter; therefore, we examined both litter size and its potential correlate, weight at weaning, as early environmental predictors of adult stereotypic behavior in laboratory mice. Further, we assessed the effects on offspring stereotypic behavior of delaying the separation of mother and pups (weaning) beyond the standard 21 d of age. Analyzing stereotypic behavior in 3 different mouse colonies composed of 2 inbred strains (C57BL/6N and C57BL/6J) and an outbred stock (CD1[ICR]) revealed significant positive correlation between litter size and stereotypic behavior in female, but not male, mice. Weight and age at weaning did not significantly affect levels of stereotypy in either sex. Litter size therefore may be a useful indicator of individual predisposition to stereotypic behavior in female laboratory mice. PMID:23043805

  2. Small size plasma tools for material processing at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionita, E. R.; Ionita, M. D.; Stancu, E. C.; Teodorescu, M.; Dinescu, G.

    2009-03-01

    A small size radiofrequency plasma jet source able to produce cold plasma jets at atmospheric pressure is presented. The surface modification of polyethylene terephtalate, polyethylene and polytetrafluorethylene foils is performed by using a scanning procedure. The contact angle measurements reveal that the treatment leads to hydrophilicity increase. The roughening of surface, specific to each material is noticed. A significant improvement of adhesion is obtained as result of atmospheric plasma treatments.

  3. Optoelectronic complex for separation of moving small size mineral objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertov, Aleksandr N.; Gorbunova, Elena V.; Korotaev, Valery V.; Pavlenko, Nikita A.

    2014-05-01

    For today the mineral resources of our planet, especially mineral raw deposits are depleted continuously. Therefore the traditional technologies of extraction and enrichment of mineral raw materials are often unable to provide the profitability of development of mentioned mineral deposits. Thus, the mining industry needs in improving of the existing systems for mineral raw materials separation. The well-known optical sorting method is the most promising in terms of improving of structure and characteristics of devices that realize this method. There are a lot of types of color sorters, but they have a number of shortcomings relating to both schemes of lighting and registration of mineral objects as well as used algorithms of images processing. Often color sorters are unable to divide low-contrast small size mineral objects. This problem can be solved by using of optoelectronic complex for separation of moving small size mineral objects developed by the employees of the chair of optical-electronic devices and systems of University ITMO in Russia. The paper presents the description of structure organization and operating principles of proposed experimental model of optoelectronic complex for separation of moving small size mineral objects.

  4. The Size Frequency Distribution of Small Main-Belt Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, Brian J.; Trilling, David E.; Hines, Dean C.; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Rebull, Luisa M.; Fuentes, Cesar I.; Hulsebus, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The asteroid size distribution informs us about the formation and composition of the Solar System. We build on our previous work in which we harvest serendipitously observed data of the Taurus region and measure the brightness and size distributions of Main-belt asteroids. This is accomplished with the highly sensitive MIPS 24 micron channel. We expect to catalog 104 asteroids, giving us a statistically significant data set. Results from this investigation will allow us to characterize the total population of small, Main-belt asteroids. Here we will present new results on the completeness of our study; on the presence of size distribution variations with inclination and radial distance in the belt; and early result on other archival fields.

  5. Oligomeric viral proteins: small in size, large in presence

    PubMed Central

    Jayaraman, Bhargavi; Smith, Amber M.; Fernandes, Jason D.; Frankel, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    Viruses are obligate parasites that rely heavily on host cellular processes for replication. The small number of proteins typically encoded by a virus is faced with selection pressures that lead to the evolution of distinctive structural properties, allowing each protein to maintain its function under constraints such as small genome size, high mutation rate, and rapidly changing fitness conditions. One common strategy for this evolution is to utilize small building blocks to generate protein oligomers that assemble in multiple ways, thereby diversifying protein function and regulation. In this review, we discuss specific cases that illustrate how oligomerization is used to generate a single defined functional state, to modulate activity via different oligomeric states, or to generate multiple functional forms via different oligomeric states. PMID:27685368

  6. Time and size at metamorphosis related to adult fitness in Ambystoma talpoideum

    SciTech Connect

    Semlitsch, R.D.; Scott, D.E.; Pechmann, J.H.K.

    1988-02-01

    The relationships among timing of metamorphosis, size at metamorphosis, and traits related to adult fitness were studied for 8 yr in the salamander Ambystoma talpoideum at a temporary pond. Among years, the modal time of metamorphosis and mean body size at metamorphosis were positively correlated with the date the pond dried. In years that the pond dried late, one group of larvae metamorphosed well before the pond dried, whereas the other group metamorphosed just before pond drying. Mean body size of late-metamorphosing individuals was not greater than that of individuals metamorphosing early. Early-metamorphosing males and females were larger at first and second reproduction than were late-metamorphosing individuals. Independent of timing of metamorphosis, larger juveniles at metamorphosis were also larger adults at first reproduction. Age at first reproduction for males was not associated with timing of or size at metamorphosis but large early-metamorphosing females reproduced at a younger age than did small early-metamorphosing females. Neither time of metamorphosis nor size at metamorphosis was associated with survival to first reproduction. These results demonstrate a direct relationship between phenotypic variation generated in the larval stage and adult traits closely associated with an individual's fitness.

  7. Size-varying small target detection for infrared image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Miao; Zhu, Ran; Long, Yunli; An, Wei; Zhou, Yiyu

    2015-10-01

    IRST (Infrared Search and Track) has been applied to many military or civil fields such as precise guidance, aerospace, early warning. As a key technique, small target detection based on infrared image plays an important role. However, infrared targets have their own characteristics, such as target size variation, which make the detection work quite difficult. In practical application, the target size may vary due to many reasons, such as optic angle of sensors, imaging distance, environment and so on. For conventional detection methods, it is difficult to detect such size-varying targets, especially when the backgrounds have strong clutters. This paper presents a novel method to detect size-varying infrared targets in a cluttered background. It is easy to find that the target region is salient in infrared images. It means that target region have a signature of discontinuity with its neighboring regions and concentrates in a relatively small region, which can be considered as a homogeneous compact region, and the background is consistent with its neighboring regions. Motivated by the saliency feature and gradient feature, we introduce minimum target intensity (MTI) to measure the dissimilarity between different scales, and use mean gradient to restrict the target scale in a reasonable range. They are integrated to be multiscale MTI filter. The proposed detection method is designed based on multiscale MTI filter. Firstly, salient region is got by morphological low-pass filtering, where the potential target exists in. Secondly, the candidate target regions are extracted by multiscale minimum target intensity filter, which can effectively give the optimal target size. At last, signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) is used to segment targets, which is computed based on optimal scale of candidate targets. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method can achieve both higher detection precision and robustness in complex background.

  8. The lifecycle effects of nutrition and body size on adult adiposity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Yajnik, C S

    2002-08-01

    This study was undertaken to review the links between maternal nutrition, offspring's birth weight and the propensity to early insulin resistance and high diabetes rates in Indian adults. Studies included a comparison of maternal size and nutrition with birth weights in Pune, India, and Southampton, UK. In Pune, the growth, insulin resistance and blood pressure of four-year-old children were assessed. Adults >40 years of age, who were resident in rural areas, were compared with adults living in urban areas for size, glucose handling, lipid status and blood pressure. Newly diagnosed diabetic adults living in urban areas were also monitored. Height, weight, head, waist and hip circumferences, skin-fold measurements and blood pressure were routinely measured. Fasting glucose, insulin, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were linked to the glucose and insulin responses during glucose tolerance tests. Cytokine levels were measured in plasma samples of urban and rural adults. Indian babies were lighter, thinner, shorter and had a relatively lower lean tissue mass than the Caucasian babies. However, the subcutaneous fat measurements of these babies were comparable to those of the white Caucasian babies. The Indian mothers were small, but relatively fat mothers produced larger babies. Maternal intake of green vegetables, fruit and milk, and their circulating folate and vitamin C levels, predicted larger fetal size. Rapid childhood growth promoted insulin resistance and higher blood pressure. Rural adults were thin, with a 4% prevalence of diabetes and a 14% prevalence of hypertension, but the risks increased within the normal body mass index (BMI) range. Type 2 diabetes was common in urban adults younger than 35 years of age. Although the average BMI was 23.9 kg m(-2), central obesity and thin limbs were noteworthy. Levels of interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-a were markedly increased in urban dwellers. Hence, there is evidence of a

  9. The lifecycle effects of nutrition and body size on adult adiposity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Yajnik, C S

    2002-08-01

    This study was undertaken to review the links between maternal nutrition, offspring's birth weight and the propensity to early insulin resistance and high diabetes rates in Indian adults. Studies included a comparison of maternal size and nutrition with birth weights in Pune, India, and Southampton, UK. In Pune, the growth, insulin resistance and blood pressure of four-year-old children were assessed. Adults >40 years of age, who were resident in rural areas, were compared with adults living in urban areas for size, glucose handling, lipid status and blood pressure. Newly diagnosed diabetic adults living in urban areas were also monitored. Height, weight, head, waist and hip circumferences, skin-fold measurements and blood pressure were routinely measured. Fasting glucose, insulin, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were linked to the glucose and insulin responses during glucose tolerance tests. Cytokine levels were measured in plasma samples of urban and rural adults. Indian babies were lighter, thinner, shorter and had a relatively lower lean tissue mass than the Caucasian babies. However, the subcutaneous fat measurements of these babies were comparable to those of the white Caucasian babies. The Indian mothers were small, but relatively fat mothers produced larger babies. Maternal intake of green vegetables, fruit and milk, and their circulating folate and vitamin C levels, predicted larger fetal size. Rapid childhood growth promoted insulin resistance and higher blood pressure. Rural adults were thin, with a 4% prevalence of diabetes and a 14% prevalence of hypertension, but the risks increased within the normal body mass index (BMI) range. Type 2 diabetes was common in urban adults younger than 35 years of age. Although the average BMI was 23.9 kg m(-2), central obesity and thin limbs were noteworthy. Levels of interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-a were markedly increased in urban dwellers. Hence, there is evidence of a

  10. Relationship between regolith particle size and porosity on small bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiuchi, M.; Nakamura, A.

    2014-07-01

    Small planetary bodies are covered by a particle layer called the regolith. The particle size and porosity of the regolith surface of the small bodies are important physical properties. The responses of the surface to solar irradiation depend on the particle size and porosity. The particle size and porosity have influences on the dynamic responses of the surface, such as cratering efficiency. In previous studies, these two quantities were measured or estimated by various methods. Here we propose a semi-empirical relationship between the particle size and porosity for small bodies' surfaces. An empirical relationship between the porosity of granular materials in loose packing state under 1G and the ratio of the magnitudes of the interparticle force and gravity which act on a particle was presented in a previous study [1]. In this study, we assume that the van der Waals force F_{V} is predominant in the interparticle forces and adopt a model formula [2] which is different from that adopted in the previous study [1]: F_{V} = {AS^{2}}/{48Ω ^{2}}r, where A is the Hamaker constant, r is the particle radius, Ω is the diameter of an O^{-2} ion, and S is the cleanliness ratio which shows the smallness of a number of the adsorbate molecules [2]. It was shown that the cleanliness ratio S is approximately 0.1 on the Earth, and is almost unity in the interplanetary space. In addition to the data of the several previous studies, our own measurement result for micron-sized fly-ash particles in atmospheric conditions is used in the present analysis. We calculate F_{V} using Eq. (1), and obtain a relationship between porosity and the ratio R_{F} = F_{V}/F_{g}, where F_{g} is gravity. An empirical formula used in the previous study [1], p = p_{0}+(1-p_{0})exp(-m{R_{F}}^{-n}), is applied to fit the data, where p is the porosity and p_{0}, m and n are constants. We assume that p_{0} is 0.36. By substituting Eq. (1) to Eq. 2, we obtain p = p_{0}+(1-p_{0})exp {-m({AS^{2}}/{64πΩ ^{2

  11. Small Sample Sizes Yield Biased Allometric Equations in Temperate Forests

    PubMed Central

    Duncanson, L.; Rourke, O.; Dubayah, R.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate quantification of forest carbon stocks is required for constraining the global carbon cycle and its impacts on climate. The accuracies of forest biomass maps are inherently dependent on the accuracy of the field biomass estimates used to calibrate models, which are generated with allometric equations. Here, we provide a quantitative assessment of the sensitivity of allometric parameters to sample size in temperate forests, focusing on the allometric relationship between tree height and crown radius. We use LiDAR remote sensing to isolate between 10,000 to more than 1,000,000 tree height and crown radius measurements per site in six U.S. forests. We find that fitted allometric parameters are highly sensitive to sample size, producing systematic overestimates of height. We extend our analysis to biomass through the application of empirical relationships from the literature, and show that given the small sample sizes used in common allometric equations for biomass, the average site-level biomass bias is ~+70% with a standard deviation of 71%, ranging from −4% to +193%. These findings underscore the importance of increasing the sample sizes used for allometric equation generation. PMID:26598233

  12. Therapeutic strategy for small-sized lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Hisashi

    2016-08-01

    Minimizing the volume of lung resection without diminishing curability has recently become an important issue in primary lung cancer. In this review, we will discuss the current state of the feasibility of sublobar resection and specific issues for a segmentectomy procedure. A previous randomized controlled trial showed that lobectomy must still be considered the standard surgical procedure compared with sublobar resection for T1N0 non-small cell lung cancer with a tumor less than 3 cm in size. Since then, supporting studies for segmentectomy of lung cancer with a tumor less than 2 cm in size were reported. In addition, segmentectomy seems to be feasible for clinical stage I adenocarcinoma less than 2 cm in size, in women younger than 70 years old, with a low tumor 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) standardized uptake value (SUV) from propensity-matching studies. In a meta-analysis of sublobar resection vs. lobectomy, intentionally performed sublobar resection showed equivalent outcomes to lobectomy. In the near future, two ongoing prospective, randomized trials will report results. As specific issues for the surgical procedure of segmentectomy, achieving a sufficient surgical margin is an important issue for preventing loco-regional recurrence. More studies regarding the regional lymph node dissection area for segmentectomy are needed. Sublobar resection has the potential to become the standard procedure for peripheral small-sized lung cancer less than 2 cm. However, more information is needed about the characteristics of this cancer and the surgical procedure, including nodal dissection. PMID:27300350

  13. 78 FR 11745 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On May 15, 2012, at 77 FR 28520 (available at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-05... and eligibility. On December 27, 2012 (77 FR 76215), SBA published a final rule, which amended the... 28, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Carl Jordan, Office of Size Standards, at (202)...

  14. 77 FR 76215 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-27

    ... to sizestandards@SBA.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background On May 15, 2012, at 77 FR 28520 (available at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-05-15/pdf/2012-11586.pdf ), the U.S. Small Business... FR 30227 (May 22, 2012). SBA held these outreach sessions in Washington, DC; Boston,...

  15. Ultracapacitors for fuel saving in small size hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solero, L.; Lidozzi, A.; Serrao, V.; Martellucci, L.; Rossi, E.

    The main purpose of the paper is to describe a small size hybrid vehicle having ultracapacitors as on-board storage unit. The vehicle on-board main power supply is achieved by a genset being formed of a 250 cm 3 internal combustion engine and a permanent magnet synchronous electric generator, whereas 4 16V-500F ultracapacitors modules are connected in series in order to supply as well as to store the power peaks during respectively acceleration and braking vehicle modes of operation. The traction power is provided by a permanent magnet synchronous electric motor, whereas a distributed power electronic interface is in charge of all the required electronic conversions as well of controlling the operating conditions for each power unit. The paper discusses the implemented control strategy and shows experimental results on the modes of operation of both generation unit and storage unit.

  16. Age-related decline in metabolic competence of small and medium-sized synaptic mitochondria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoni-Freddari, Carlo; Fattoretti, Patrizia; Giorgetti, Belinda; Spazzafumo, Liana; Solazzi, Moreno; Balietti, Marta

    2005-02-01

    A computer-assisted morphometric investigation of cytochrome oxidase (COX) activity, selectively evidenced by preferential diaminobenzidine cytochemistry, has been carried out on synaptic mitochondria in the cerebellar cortex of adult and old rats. The ratio (R) of the area of the cytochemical precipitate (CPA) to the overall area of each mitochondrion (MA) was calculated. R refers to the fraction of the inner mitochondrial membrane actively involved in cellular respiration, thus its quantitative estimation constitutes a reliable index of the mitochondrial metabolic competence (MMC). In adult rats a significant negative correlation between MA and R values was found, while in old animals there was just a positive trend. Paired-quartile comparisons of R values showed a significant age-related decrease in small and medium-sized mitochondria, whereas the lowest and not significant age-related reduction was found in oversized organelles. A paired decrease in number and increase in size is reported to be a general trend for mitochondria during aging, but oversized organelles, according to their low R value, constitute a scanty, though functional, compensating reaction. Thus, the present findings support the argument that the currently reported age-related cellular metabolic decay appears to rely both on the decline in MMC of the small and medium-sized mitochondria, and on their specific reduction in number. This novel result is of biological relevance since it is largely the small and medium-sized mitochondria that are required for the provision of adequate amounts of ATP for actual cellular performance, while the significantly enlarged organelles are thought to represent an intermediate ultrastructural feature in mitochondrial genesis and/or remodelling.

  17. Variability of the raindrop size distribution at small spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berne, A.; Jaffrain, J.

    2010-12-01

    Because of the interactions between atmospheric turbulence and cloud microphysics, the raindrop size distribution (DSD) is strongly variable in space and time. The spatial variability of the DSD at small spatial scales (below a few km) is not well documented and not well understood, mainly because of a lack of adequate measurements at the appropriate resolutions. A network of 16 disdrometers (Parsivels) has been designed and set up over EPFL campus in Lausanne, Switzerland. This network covers a typical operational weather radar pixel of 1x1 km2. The question of the significance of the variability of the DSD at such small scales is relevant for radar remote sensing of rainfall because the DSD is often assumed to be uniform within a radar sample volume and because the Z-R relationships used to convert the measured radar reflectivity Z into rain rate R are usually derived from point measurements. Thanks to the number of disdrometers, it was possible to quantify the spatial variability of the DSD at the radar pixel scale and to show that it can be significant. In this contribution, we show that the variability of the total drop concentration, of the median volume diameter and of the rain rate are significant, taking into account the sampling uncertainty associated with disdrometer measurements. The influence of this variability on the Z-R relationship can be non-negligible. Finally, the spatial structure of the DSD is quantified using a geostatistical tool, the variogram, and indicates high spatial correlation within a radar pixel.

  18. Durability of small-for-size living donor allografts.

    PubMed

    Au, Kin Pan; Chan, See Ching; Chok, Kenneth Siu Ho; Chan, Albert Chi Yan; Wong, Tiffany Cho Lam; Sharr, William Wei; Lo, Chung Mau

    2015-11-01

    Our aim was to study the long-term outcomes of living donor liver transplantation using small-for-size (SFS) grafts. From July 2002 to July 2009, 233 patients received a right liver graft with a middle hepatic vein from a living donor in our center. Recipients were stratified according to the graft weight to recipient standard liver volume (GW/SLV) ratio into 4 groups: >50% (n = 89), >40% to 50% (n = 85), >35% to 40% (n = 38), and ≤ 35% (n = 21). They were compared in terms of graft survivals, biliary stricture rates, renal function in terms of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), platelet counts, and graft function in terms of serum bilirubin and international normalized ratio (INR). The 5-year graft survivals for patients with GW/SLV of >50%, >40% to 50%, >35% to 40% and ≤ 35% were 88.8%, 88.2%, 81.5%, and 81.0%, respectively. Transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma affected graft survivals (P = 0.02), but graft size did not (P = 0.66). There were no differences in frequency of biliary stricture (21.3% versus 17.1% versus 21.1% versus 28.6%; P = 0.75). At each year after transplant, their platelet counts (P = 0.12-0.65), eGFR (P = 0.49-0.91), bilirubin (P = 0.14-0.51), and INR (P = 0.20-0.98) remained comparable. SFS grafts with GW/SLV ≤ 35% and >35% to 40% had comparable long-term outcomes with larger liver grafts. Graft size did not affect long-term graft survivals. PMID:26123155

  19. Consultation for Small-Sized Penis in the Egyptian Males: A Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    Salama, Nader

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to report penile dimensions in adult Egyptian males consulting for small-sized penis (SSP) and describe their demographics and andrological profile. A case control study was designed through retrospective data analysis of patients (n = 239) seeking advice for SSP and a control group (n = 59). This included sociodemographics, other andrological complaints, and penile dimensions (pendulous length [PL], penopubic or total length [TL], and circumference [CF]) at flaccid and erect states and the size of the prepubic fatty pad. The results reported that most patients were single, students, and smokers and had not completed a university education. Several patients reported falsely premature ejaculation (PE), penile curvature (PC), and small-sized testes. Most penile dimensions of the patients (mean, cm) were significantly lower than those of the controls, whether in flaccid (PL: 7.4 vs. 8.05, p = .008; CF: 8.7 vs. 8.98, p = .026) or erect state (PL: 11.8 vs. 13, p = .000; TL: 14.2 vs. 15, p = .000; CF: 11.3 vs. 11.8, p = .003). However, no patient presented with a pendulous penile length <4 cm in flaccid or <7 cm in erect state. In conclusion, Egyptian men consulting for SSP did not have true small organs, but their penile dimensions were slightly smaller than those of men without such complaint. The proper sexual education program is highly advisable in these situations to avoid the myths and misconceptions about sexuality.

  20. Salary Management System for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Zhang; Guangli, Xu; Yuhuan, Zhang; Yilong, Lei

    Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in the process of wage entry, calculation, the total number are needed to be done manually in the past, the data volume is quite large, processing speed is low, and it is easy to make error, which is resulting in low efficiency. The main purpose of writing this paper is to present the basis of salary management system, establish a scientific database, the computer payroll system, using the computer instead of a lot of past manual work in order to reduce duplication of staff labor, it will improve working efficiency.This system combines the actual needs of SMEs, through in-depth study and practice of the C/S mode, PowerBuilder10.0 development tools, databases and SQL language, Completed a payroll system needs analysis, database design, application design and development work. Wages, departments, units and personnel database file are included in this system, and have data management, department management, personnel management and other functions, through the control and management of the database query, add, delete, modify, and other functions can be realized. This system is reasonable design, a more complete function, stable operation has been tested to meet the basic needs of the work.

  1. The evolution of nonimmune histological injury and its clinical relevance in adult-sized kidney grafts in pediatric recipients.

    PubMed

    Naesens, M; Kambham, N; Concepcion, W; Salvatierra, O; Sarwal, M

    2007-11-01

    To describe the evolution, risk factors and impact of nonimmune histological injury after pediatric kidney transplantation, we analyzed 245 renal allograft protocol biopsies taken regularly from the time of transplantation to 2 years thereafter in 81 consecutive rejection-free pediatric recipients of an adult-sized kidney. Isometric tubular vacuolization was present early after transplantation was not progressive, and was associated with higher tacrolimus pre-dose trough levels. Chronic tubulo-interstitial damage and tubular microcalcifications were already noted at 3 months, were progressive and had a greater association with small recipient size, male donor gender, higher donor age and female recipient gender, but not with tacrolimus exposure. Renal function assessment showed that older recipients had a significant increase in absolute glomerular filtration rate with time after transplantation, which differed from small recipients who showed no increase. It is concluded that progressive, functionally relevant, nonimmune injury is detected early after adult-sized kidney transplantation in pediatric recipients. Renal graft ischemia associated with the donor-recipient size discrepancy appears to be a greater risk factor for this chronic histological injury, suggesting that the exploration of additional therapeutic approaches to increase allograft perfusion could further extend the graft survival benefit of adult-sized kidneys transplanted into small children.

  2. Measuring the Size of a Small, Frost World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-01-01

    Observing a very rare occultation of a star by Pluto's satellite Charon from three different sites, including Paranal, home of the VLT, astronomers were able to determine with great accuracy the radius and density of the satellite to the farthest planet. The density, 1.71 that of water, is indicative of an icy body with about slightly more than half of rocks. The observations also put strong constraints on the existence of an atmosphere around Charon. ESO PR Photo 02a/06 ESO PR Photo 02a/06 Artist's Impression of the Pluto-Charon system Since its discovery in 1978, Charon and Pluto have appeared to form a double planet, rather than a planet-satellite couple. Actually, Charon is about twice as small as Pluto in size, and about eight times less massive. However, there have been considerable discussions concerning the precise radii of Pluto and Charon, as well as about the presence of a tenuous atmosphere around Charon. In August 2004, Australian amateur astronomer Dave Herald predicted that the 15-magnitude star UCAC2 26257135 should be occulted by Charon on 11 July 2005. The occultation would be observable from some parts of South America, including Cerro Paranal, in the northern Atacama Desert, the location of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). Stellar occultations have proved to be powerful tools to both measure sizes - at km-level accuracy, i.e. a factor ten better than what is feasible with other techniques - and detect very tenuous atmosphere - at microbar levels or less. Unfortunately, in the case of Charon, such occultations are extremely rare, owing to the very small angular diameter of the satellite on the sky: 55 milli-arcsec, i.e. the size of a one Euro coin observed from 100 km away! This explains why only one occultation by Charon was ever observed before 2005, namely on 7 April 1980 by Alistair Walker, from the South Africa Astronomical Observatory. Similarly, only in 1985, 1988 and 2002 could astronomers observe stellar occultations by Pluto. Quite

  3. The relationship between social network body size and the body size norms of Black and Hispanic adults

    PubMed Central

    Winston, Ginger; Phillips, Erica; Wethington, Elaine; Wells, Martin; Devine, Carol M.; Peterson, Janey; Wansink, Brian; Ramos, Rosio; Charlson, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between the body size norms of Black and Hispanic adults and the body sizes of their social network members. Methods Egocentric network data were examined for 245 adults recruited from 2012–2013 in New York City. A multivariable regression model was used to examine the relationship between participants' perception of normal body size and the body sizes of their network members adjusted for participant age, education, race/ethnicity and network size. Participants' body size norms were also examined stratified by the following characteristics of obese network members: frequency of contact, living proximity, relationship, and importance of relationship. Results Index participants were 89% female with mean body mass index 33.5 kg/m2. There were 2571 network members identified (31% overweight, 10% obese). In the fully adjusted multivariable model, perception of normal body size increased as the number of network members with obesity increased (p < 0.01). Larger body size norms were associated with increased frequency of contact with obese network members (p = 0.04), and obese members living in the home (p = 0.049). Conclusions These findings support a relationship between the body size norms of Black and Hispanic adults and their social network body size. PMID:26705513

  4. 76 FR 70667 - Small Business Size Standards: Educational Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... inflation adjustment to size standards was published in the Federal Register on July 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237... rules relating to size standards for specific industries. SBA welcomes comments from the public on a... varying receipts based size standards (see 69 FR 13130 (March 4, 2004) and 57 FR 62515 (December 31,...

  5. Podocyte Number in Children and Adults: Associations with Glomerular Size and Numbers of Other Glomerular Resident Cells.

    PubMed

    Puelles, Victor G; Douglas-Denton, Rebecca N; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A; Li, Jinhua; Hughson, Michael D; Hoy, Wendy E; Kerr, Peter G; Bertram, John F

    2015-09-01

    Increases in glomerular size occur with normal body growth and in many pathologic conditions. In this study, we determined associations between glomerular size and numbers of glomerular resident cells, with a particular focus on podocytes. Kidneys from 16 male Caucasian-Americans without overt renal disease, including 4 children (≤3 years old) to define baseline values of early life and 12 adults (≥18 years old), were collected at autopsy in Jackson, Mississippi. We used a combination of immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy, and design-based stereology to estimate individual glomerular volume (IGV) and numbers of podocytes, nonepithelial cells (NECs; tuft cells other than podocytes), and parietal epithelial cells (PECs). Podocyte density was calculated. Data are reported as medians and interquartile ranges (IQRs). Glomeruli from children were small and contained 452 podocytes (IQR=335-502), 389 NECs (IQR=265-498), and 146 PECs (IQR=111-206). Adult glomeruli contained significantly more cells than glomeruli from children, including 558 podocytes (IQR=431-746; P<0.01), 1383 NECs (IQR=998-2042; P<0.001), and 367 PECs (IQR=309-673; P<0.001). However, large adult glomeruli showed markedly lower podocyte density (183 podocytes per 10(6) µm(3)) than small glomeruli from adults and children (932 podocytes per 10(6) µm(3); P<0.001). In conclusion, large adult glomeruli contained more podocytes than small glomeruli from children and adults, raising questions about the origin of these podocytes. The increased number of podocytes in large glomeruli does not match the increase in glomerular size observed in adults, resulting in relative podocyte depletion. This may render hypertrophic glomeruli susceptible to pathology.

  6. Visual exposure to large and small portion sizes and perceptions of portion size normality: Three experimental studies

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Eric; Oldham, Melissa; Cuckson, Imogen; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M.; Rogers, Peter J.; Hardman, Charlotte A.

    2016-01-01

    Portion sizes of many foods have increased in recent times. In three studies we examined the effect that repeated visual exposure to larger versus smaller food portion sizes has on perceptions of what constitutes a normal-sized food portion and measures of portion size selection. In studies 1 and 2 participants were visually exposed to images of large or small portions of spaghetti bolognese, before making evaluations about an image of an intermediate sized portion of the same food. In study 3 participants were exposed to images of large or small portions of a snack food before selecting a portion size of snack food to consume. Across the three studies, visual exposure to larger as opposed to smaller portion sizes resulted in participants considering a normal portion of food to be larger than a reference intermediate sized portion. In studies 1 and 2 visual exposure to larger portion sizes also increased the size of self-reported ideal meal size. In study 3 visual exposure to larger portion sizes of a snack food did not affect how much of that food participants subsequently served themselves and ate. Visual exposure to larger portion sizes may adjust visual perceptions of what constitutes a ‘normal’ sized portion. However, we did not find evidence that visual exposure to larger portions altered snack food intake. PMID:26702602

  7. 77 FR 42441 - Small Business Size Standards: Utilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... energy sources (solar, wind, etc.) have entered the industry and these firms tend to be generally smaller... size standards was published in the Federal Register on July 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237). Because of changes... status caused by a large number of varying receipts based size standards (see 69 FR 13130 (March 4,...

  8. Clinical characteristics of adult asthma associated with small airway dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kjellberg, S; Houltz, B K; Zetterström, O; Robinson, P D; Gustafsson, Per M

    2016-08-01

    Suboptimal asthma control is common despite modern asthma therapy. The degree of peripheral airway involvement remains unclear and poor medication delivery to these regions might be a contributing reason for this failure in obtaining adequate symptom control. A cohort of 196 adults (median (range) age 44 (18-61) years, 109 females, 54 ex-smokers, six current smokers) with physician-diagnosed asthma were recruited from primary care. Subjects were characterized clinically by interviews, questionnaires, skin prick tests (SPT) and blood eosinophil counts. Lung function was assessed by spirometry, impulse oscillometry (IOS) and nitrogen multiple breath washout (N2 MBW). IOS assessed peripheral airway resistance (FDR, frequency dependence of resistance). N2 MBW assessed global ventilation inhomogeneity (LCI, lung clearance index), specific indices of peripheral airway function (Scond × VT and Sacin × VT; VT, tidal volume), and inter-regional inhomogeneity (specific ventilation ratio). Never-smoking healthy cohorts of 158 and 400 adult subjects provided local reference values for IOS and N2 MBW variables, respectively. Peripheral airway dysfunction was detected in 31% (FDR or specific ventilation ratio) to 47% (Scond x VT) of subjects. Risk factors for peripheral airway dysfunction were identified. Among subjects with low FEV1 and either positive smoking history and/or blood eosinophilia (>4.0%), 63% had abnormality across all peripheral airway outcomes, whilst only one subject was completely normal. Abnormal peripheral airway function was present in a large proportion of adult asthmatics at baseline. Reduced FEV1, a positive smoking history, and/or blood eosinophilia identified "a small airway asthma subtype" that might benefit from peripheral airway targeted therapy. PMID:27492518

  9. 77 FR 30265 - Submission for OMB Review; Small Business Size Representation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... representation. A notice was published in the Federal Register at 77 FR 13329, on March 6, 2012. No comments were... implement the Small Business Administration (SBA) Final Rule (71 FR 66434), Small Business Size Regulations... 20417. ATTN: Hada Flowers/IC 9000-0163, Small Business Size Representation. Instructions: Please...

  10. 76 FR 63509 - Small Business Size Standards: Administrative and Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG27 Small Business Size Standards: Administrative and Support, Waste Management... October 12, 2011 Part VI Small Business Administration 13 CFR Part 121 Small Business Size Standards: Administrative and Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register /...

  11. 77 FR 55737 - Small Business Size Standards: Finance and Insurance and Management of Companies and Enterprises

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ...; ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG45 Small Business Size Standards: Finance and Insurance and Management of Companies and Enterprises AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... business status caused by a large number of varying receipts based size standards (see 69 FR 13130 (March...

  12. TiN nanoparticles: small size-selected fabrication and their quantum size effect

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Size-selected TiN nanoclusters in the range of 4 to 20 nm have been produced by an ionized cluster beam, which combines a glow-discharge sputtering with an inert gas condensation technique. With this method, by controlling the experimental conditions, it was possible to produce nanoparticles with a high control in size. The size distribution of TiN nanoparticles was determined before deposition by mass spectroscopy and confirmed by atomic force microscopy. The size distribution was also analyzed using a high-resolution transmission electron micrograph. The photoluminescence [PL] spectra of TiN nanoparticles at different sizes were also experimentally investigated. We reported, for the first time, the strong visible luminescence of TiN nanoparticles on Si (111) wafer due to the reduced size. We also discussed the PL intensity as a function of the nanoparticle size distribution. PMID:22252375

  13. TiN nanoparticles: small size-selected fabrication and their quantum size effect.

    PubMed

    Hernández Mainet, Luis Carlos; Cabrera, Luis Ponce; Rodriguez, Eugenio; Cruz, Abel Fundora; Santana, Guillermo; Menchaca, Jorge Luis; Pérez-Tijerina, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Size-selected TiN nanoclusters in the range of 4 to 20 nm have been produced by an ionized cluster beam, which combines a glow-discharge sputtering with an inert gas condensation technique. With this method, by controlling the experimental conditions, it was possible to produce nanoparticles with a high control in size. The size distribution of TiN nanoparticles was determined before deposition by mass spectroscopy and confirmed by atomic force microscopy. The size distribution was also analyzed using a high-resolution transmission electron micrograph. The photoluminescence [PL] spectra of TiN nanoparticles at different sizes were also experimentally investigated. We reported, for the first time, the strong visible luminescence of TiN nanoparticles on Si (111) wafer due to the reduced size. We also discussed the PL intensity as a function of the nanoparticle size distribution. PMID:22252375

  14. 75 FR 61597 - Small Business Size Standards: Retail Trade

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... the Federal Register on July 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237). SBA recognizes that changes in industry structure... Register (74 FR 53924) to increase the size standards for 47 industries in that Sector. The proposed rule... (74 FR 53913) and for 18 industries in NAICS Sector 81, Other Services (74 FR ] 53941). Similarly,...

  15. 78 FR 77334 - Small Business Size Standards: Construction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... Dredging and Surface Cleanup Activities, an ``exception'' under Other Heavy and Civil Engineering... ``exception'' under Other Heavy and Civil Engineering Construction (NAICS 238910), from $20 million to $30... Heavy and Civil Engineering Construction (NAICS 238910) and retain the current size standards for the...

  16. Exploring Organizational Learning Mechanisms in Small-Size Business Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Carroll M.; Nafukho, Fredrick M.

    2008-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the importance of existing organizational learning mechanisms and establish the size and magnitude of the relationship among the organizational learning mechanisms. Of great import also was to determine whether statistically significant relationships existed among the organizational learning…

  17. 75 FR 61591 - Small Business Size Standards; Other Services.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... financial and procurement programs. Over the years, SBA has received comments that its size standards have... standards was published in the Federal Register on July 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237). SBA recognizes that changes..., 2009 issue of Federal Register (74 FR 53941) to increase the standards for 18 industries in that...

  18. 76 FR 63216 - Small Business Size Standards: Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... July 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237). Because of changes in the Federal marketplace and industry structure since...) along the vertical axis. (For further detail, please refer to SBA's ``Size Standards Methodology'' on... standards (see 69 FR 13130 (March 4, 2004) and 57 FR 62515 (December 31, 1992)). At the start of...

  19. 78 FR 38811 - Small Business Size and Status Integrity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... certification or representation for a contract or other instrument; and concerns that fail to update their size... thereto (such as the System for Award Management (SAM) database) at least annually shall no longer be... the Federal Register on October 7, 2011 (76 FR 62313), inviting the public to submit comments on...

  20. Clinical pharmacology in neonates: small size, huge variability.

    PubMed

    Allegaert, Karel; van den Anker, John N

    2014-01-01

    Drug therapy is a powerful tool for improving neonatal outcome. Despite this, neonatologists still routinely prescribe off-label compounds developed for adults and extrapolate doses from those used for children or adults. Knowledge integration through pharmacokinetic modeling is a method that could improve the current situation. Such predictive models may convert neonatal pharmacotherapy from explorative to confirmatory. This can be illustrated by research projects related to the prediction of neonatal renal clearance and neonatal glucuronidation. This type of model will also improve the current knowledge of neonatal (patho)physiology. In the meanwhile, the fields of clinical pharmacology (e.g. pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling and pharmacogenetics) and neonatology (e.g. whole-body cooling and the lower limit of viability) have both matured, resulting in new research topics. However, in order for the modeling and the newly emerging topics to become effective tools, they need to be tailored to the specific characteristics of neonates. Consequently, the field of neonatal pharmacotherapy needs dedicated neonatologists who continue to raise the awareness that off-label practices, eminence-based dosing regimens and the absence of neonatal drug formulations all reflect suboptimal care.

  1. Lifetime selection on adult body size and components of body size in a waterstrider: opposing selection and maintenance of sexual size dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Preziosi, R F; Fairbairn, D J

    2000-04-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD), the difference in body size between males and females, is common in almost all taxa of animals and is generally assumed to be adaptive. Although sexual selection and fecundity selection alone have often been invoked to explain the evolution of SSD, more recent views indicate that the sexes must experience different lifetime selection pressures for SSD to evolve and be maintained. We estimated selection acting on male and female adult body size (total length) and components of body size in the waterstrider Aquarius remigis during three phases of life history. Opposing selection pressures for overall body size occurred in separate episodes of fitness for females in both years and for males in one year. Specific components of body size were often the targets of the selection on overall body size. When net adult fitness was estimated by combining each individual's fitnesses from all episodes, we found stabilizing selection in both sexes. In addition, the net optimum overall body size of males was smaller than that of females. However, even when components of body size had experienced opposing selection pressures in individual episodes, no components appeared to be under lifetime stabilizing selection. This is the first evidence that contemporary selection in a natural population acts to maintain female size larger than male size, the most common pattern of SSD in nature.

  2. School Size as a Factor in Financing Small Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alspaugh, John W.

    This paper examines the effects of enrollment on the financing of small rural K-8 versus K-12 school districts in Missouri and compares the educational outcomes of K-8 and K-12 districts. The sample included 48 K-8 and 48 K-12 districts with K-8 enrollments ranging from 70 to 370 students. Findings indicate that it is more difficult to financially…

  3. Capitalizing on Small Class Size. ERIC Digest Number 136.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Jessica; Smith, Stuart C.

    This Digest examines school districts' efforts to reap the greatest benefit from smaller classes. Although the report discusses teaching strategies that are most effective in small classes, research has shown that teachers do not significantly change their teaching practices when they move from larger to smaller classes. Smaller classes mean…

  4. Landscape Simplification Constrains Adult Size in a Native Ground-Nesting Bee

    PubMed Central

    Renauld, Miles; Hutchinson, Alena; Loeb, Gregory; Poveda, Katja; Connelly, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Bees provide critical pollination services to 87% of angiosperm plants; however, the reliability of these services may become threatened as bee populations decline. Agricultural intensification, resulting in the simplification of environments at the landscape scale, greatly changes the quality and quantity of resources available for female bees to provision their offspring. These changes may alter or constrain the tradeoffs in maternal investment allocation between offspring size, number and sex required to maximize fitness. Here we investigate the relationship between landscape scale agricultural intensification and the size and number of individuals within a wild ground nesting bee species, Andrena nasonii. We show that agricultural intensification at the landscape scale was associated with a reduction in the average size of field collected A. nasonii adults in highly agricultural landscapes but not with the number of individuals collected. Small females carried significantly smaller (40%) pollen loads than large females, which is likely to have consequences for subsequent offspring production and fitness. Thus, landscape simplification is likely to constrain allocation of resources to offspring through a reduction in the overall quantity, quality and distribution of resources. PMID:26943127

  5. 78 FR 42817 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule AGENCY: U.S. Small Business.... Small Business Administration (SBA) intends to rescind a class waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule...

  6. An insulin-like peptide regulates size and adult stem cells in planarians.

    PubMed

    Miller, Claire M; Newmark, Phillip A

    2012-01-01

    Animal growth depends on nutritional intake during development. In many animals, nutritional status is uncoupled from moderation of adult stature after adult size is achieved. However, some long-lived animals continue to regulate adult size and fertility in a nutrition-dependent manner. For example, the regenerating flatworm Schmidtea mediterranea becomes smaller, or degrows, during periods of starvation. These animals provide an opportunity to readily observe adult stem cell population dynamics in response to nutritional cues. We explored the role of insulin signaling in S. mediterranea. We disrupted insulin signaling via RNA interference and showed that animals, despite eating, degrew similarly to starved animals. Utilizing in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence, we assessed cellular changes in proliferative populations including the planarian adult stem cell population (neoblasts) and the germline. Both impaired insulin signaling and nutritional deprivation correlated with decreased neoblast proliferation. Additionally, insulin signaling played a role in supporting spermatogenesis that was distinct from the effects of starvation. In sum, we have demonstrated that insulin signaling is responsible for regulation of adult animal size and tissue homeostasis in an organism with plastic adult size. Importantly, insulin signaling continued to affect stem cell and germline populations in a mature organism. Furthermore, we have shown that adult organisms can differentially regulate specific cell populations as a result of environmental challenges.

  7. Spontaneous formation of small sized albumin/acacia coacervate particles.

    PubMed

    Burgess, D J; Singh, O N

    1993-07-01

    Microgel coacervate particles form spontaneously on mixing aqueous solutions of oppositely charged albumin and acacia, under specific conditions of pH, ionic strength, and polyion concentration, close to but not at the optimum conditions for maximum coacervate yield. The mean particle diameter of these coacervate particles is approximately 6 microns when suspended in aqueous media, as determined by HIAC/Royco particle analysis. The geometric standard deviation of the particles falls in the range 1.2-1.9 microns. The particle size was not dependent on the method of emulsification of the coacervate in the equilibrium phase, or on the stirring speed applied during the manufacturing process. The microgel particles were stable on storage, for periods up to forty-six days, without the addition of a chemical cross-linking agent, or the application of heat. Stability was measured with respect to the change in particle size of samples stored at different temperatures. The non-cross-linked microcapsules were also shown to be stable on pH change, to pH values outside the coacervation pH range. At the optimum conditions for maximum coacervate yield the albumin/acacia system formed a very viscous coacervate phase, which was unsuitable for microcapsule preparation. The rheological properties of albumin/acacia and gelatin/acacia complex coacervates optimized for maximum coacervate yield were compared. The albumin/acacia coacervate was shown to be three orders of magnitude more viscous than the gelatin/acacia system.

  8. Substrate size and heterogeneity control anomalous transport in small streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubeneau, A. F.; Hanrahan, Brittany; Bolster, Diogo; Tank, Jennifer L.

    2014-12-01

    In alluvial systems, substrate characteristics play a critical role in slowing downstream transport of both water and solutes. We present results from solute injection experiments testing the influence of sediment size (pea gravel versus coarse gravel) and heterogeneity (alternating sections versus well-mixed reaches) on solute transport dynamics in four experimental streams at the Notre Dame Linked Experimental Ecosystem Facility. The stream with pea gravel resulted in more long-term retention than the stream with coarse gravel, whereas both streams with heterogeneous substrate (alternated and mixed) fell between with similar late-time scaling. Inverse modeling of solute breakthrough curves suggested that residence times were distributed according to a truncated power law. While conservative solute transport in all four streams was anomalous, truncation times were influenced by sediment size, with the smaller pea gravel exhibiting a later truncation time than the coarse gravel, and the two streams with heterogeneous substrate having an intermediate cutoff. These results uniquely associate transport scaling with substrate characteristics in fluvial systems, revealing truncation time scales that had been previously predicted but not observed and quantified in field conditions. Because both benthic (i.e., substrate-water interface) and subsurface hyporheic regions are known biogeochemical hot spots, relating physical characteristics to the macroscopic transport behavior could be crucial to improve our estimates of solute export from fluvial systems.

  9. Ethanol production in small- to medium-size facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiler, E. A.; Coble, C. G.; Oneal, H. P.; Sweeten, J. M.; Reidenbach, V. G.; Schelling, G. T.; Lawhon, J. T.; Kay, R. D.; Lepori, W. A.; Aldred, W. H.

    1982-04-01

    In early 1980 system design criteria were developed for a small-scale ethanol production plant. The plant was eventually installed on November 1, 1980. It has a production capacity of 30 liters per hour; this can be increased easily (if desired) to 60 liters per hour with additional fermentation tanks. Sixty-six test runs were conducted to date in the alcohol production facility. Feedstocks evaluated in these tests include: corn (28 runs); grain sorghum (33 runs); grain sorghum grits (1 run); half corn/half sorghum (1 run); and sugarcane juice (3 runs). In addition, a small bench-scale fermentation and distillation system was used to evaluate sugarcane and sweet sorghum feedstocks prior to their evaluation in the larger unit. In each of these tests, evaluation of the following items was conducted: preprocessing requirements; operational problems; conversion efficiency (for example, liters of alcohol produced per kilogram of feedstock); energy balance and efficiency; nutritional recovery from stillage; solids separation by screw press; chemical characterization of stillage including liquid and solids fractions; wastewater requirements; and air pollution potential.

  10. Hairy polyp can be lethal even when small in size.

    PubMed

    Koike, Yuhki; Uchida, Keiichi; Inoue, Mikihiro; Ohtsu, Kazuya; Tanaka, Takaaki; Otake, Kohei; Tanaka, Koji; Kusunoki, Masato

    2013-06-01

    A case of sudden cardiopulmonary arrest in a 3-month-old girl is presented. The patient had barely recovered from hypoxic encephalopathy when she presented with repeated respiratory distress. Computed tomography and endoscopic analysis revealed a shiny polyp in the lateral wall of the nasopharynx, and this polyp was suspected to be the main cause of respiratory distress. After referral to our hospital, surgical removal was performed, and the histopathological diagnosis was hairy polyp. Hairy polyp is a rare congenital benign tumor that sometimes induces respiratory distress. This polyp can potentially induce a life-threatening event. In a systematic review of 40 reported cases, polyps of ≤ 3.0 cm in diameter have a higher risk of respiratory distress than do those >3.0 cm in diameter (P = 0.01). Small hairy polyps may be lethal because of delayed diagnosis. To locate small hairy polyps, physicians should not hesitate to perform further examination because there is the possibility of oversight with only physical examination.

  11. A practical and theoretical definition of very small field size for radiotherapy output factor measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Charles, P. H. Crowe, S. B.; Langton, C. M.; Trapp, J. V.; Cranmer-Sargison, G.; Thwaites, D. I.; Kairn, T.; Knight, R. T.; Kenny, J.

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: This work introduces the concept of very small field size. Output factor (OPF) measurements at these field sizes require extremely careful experimental methodology including the measurement of dosimetric field size at the same time as each OPF measurement. Two quantifiable scientific definitions of the threshold of very small field size are presented. Methods: A practical definition was established by quantifying the effect that a 1 mm error in field size or detector position had on OPFs and setting acceptable uncertainties on OPF at 1%. Alternatively, for a theoretical definition of very small field size, the OPFs were separated into additional factors to investigate the specific effects of lateral electronic disequilibrium, photon scatter in the phantom, and source occlusion. The dominant effect was established and formed the basis of a theoretical definition of very small fields. Each factor was obtained using Monte Carlo simulations of a Varian iX linear accelerator for various square field sizes of side length from 4 to 100 mm, using a nominal photon energy of 6 MV. Results: According to the practical definition established in this project, field sizes ≤15 mm were considered to be very small for 6 MV beams for maximal field size uncertainties of 1 mm. If the acceptable uncertainty in the OPF was increased from 1.0% to 2.0%, or field size uncertainties are 0.5 mm, field sizes ≤12 mm were considered to be very small. Lateral electronic disequilibrium in the phantom was the dominant cause of change in OPF at very small field sizes. Thus the theoretical definition of very small field size coincided to the field size at which lateral electronic disequilibrium clearly caused a greater change in OPF than any other effects. This was found to occur at field sizes ≤12 mm. Source occlusion also caused a large change in OPF for field sizes ≤8 mm. Based on the results of this study, field sizes ≤12 mm were considered to be theoretically very small for 6

  12. Small-sized dichroic atomic vapor laser lock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Changmin; Iwata, G. Z.; Corsini, E.; Higbie, J. M.; Knappe, S.; Ledbetter, M. P.; Budker, D.

    2011-04-01

    Two, lightweight diode laser frequency stabilization systems designed for experiments in the field are described. A significant reduction in size and weight in both models supports the further miniaturization of measurement devices in the field. Similar to a previous design, magnetic field lines are contained within a magnetic shield enclosing permanent magnets and a Rb cell, so that these dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (DAVLL) systems may be used for magnetically sensitive instruments. The mini-DAVLL system (49 mm long) uses a vapor cell (20 mm long) and does not require cell heaters. An even smaller micro-DAVLL system (9 mm long) uses a microfabricated cell (3 mm square) and requires heaters. These new systems show no degradation in performance with regard to previous designs while considerably reducing dimensions.

  13. Metabolic syndrome: a child is not a small adult.

    PubMed

    Pietrobelli, Angelo; Malavolti, Marcella; Battistini, Nino C; Fuiano, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased all-cause mortality rate and even small weight losses can be associated with short-term reduction in risk factors for disease. There is strong evidence that weight loss in obese subjects improves risk factors for diabetes and cardiaovascular diseases. Metabolic syndrome (MS) in adults is defined as a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which includes abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance and hypertension. Application of the MS concept in children and adolescents is controversial; in fact no consensus exists on a specific definition for pediatric MS. Lack of consensus is in part due to body evolution associated with childhood and puberty that is related to changes in metabolic and clinical characteristics. The aim of this article is to try to clarify the differences between the MS as a concept and the MS as a diagnostic category, as well as to develop a theory related to its pathophysiology. We comment on the relationship between obesity, regional fat distribution and the MS, and finally we offer some insights into MS methodological approaches for estimating metabolic risk-factor clustering in children and adolescents. PMID:18278635

  14. In contrast to many other mammals, cetaceans have relatively small hippocampi that appear to lack adult neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Patzke, Nina; Spocter, Muhammad A; Karlsson, Karl Æ; Bertelsen, Mads F; Haagensen, Mark; Chawana, Richard; Streicher, Sonja; Kaswera, Consolate; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Mohammed, Osama B; Reep, Roger L; Bennett, Nigel C; Siegel, Jerry M; Ihunwo, Amadi O; Manger, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampus is essential for the formation and retrieval of memories and is a crucial neural structure sub-serving complex cognition. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis, the birth, migration and integration of new neurons, is thought to contribute to hippocampal circuit plasticity to augment function. We evaluated hippocampal volume in relation to brain volume in 375 mammal species and examined 71 mammal species for the presence of adult hippocampal neurogenesis using immunohistochemistry for doublecortin, an endogenous marker of immature neurons that can be used as a proxy marker for the presence of adult neurogenesis. We identified that the hippocampus in cetaceans (whales, dolphins and porpoises) is both absolutely and relatively small for their overall brain size, and found that the mammalian hippocampus scaled as an exponential function in relation to brain volume. In contrast, the amygdala was found to scale as a linear function of brain volume, but again, the relative size of the amygdala in cetaceans was small. The cetacean hippocampus lacks staining for doublecortin in the dentate gyrus and thus shows no clear signs of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. This lack of evidence of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, along with the small hippocampus, questions current assumptions regarding cognitive abilities associated with hippocampal function in the cetaceans. These anatomical features of the cetacean hippocampus may be related to the lack of postnatal sleep, causing a postnatal cessation of hippocampal neurogenesis. PMID:24178679

  15. In contrast to many other mammals, cetaceans have relatively small hippocampi that appear to lack adult neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Patzke, Nina; Spocter, Muhammad A; Karlsson, Karl Æ; Bertelsen, Mads F; Haagensen, Mark; Chawana, Richard; Streicher, Sonja; Kaswera, Consolate; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Mohammed, Osama B; Reep, Roger L; Bennett, Nigel C; Siegel, Jerry M; Ihunwo, Amadi O; Manger, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampus is essential for the formation and retrieval of memories and is a crucial neural structure sub-serving complex cognition. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis, the birth, migration and integration of new neurons, is thought to contribute to hippocampal circuit plasticity to augment function. We evaluated hippocampal volume in relation to brain volume in 375 mammal species and examined 71 mammal species for the presence of adult hippocampal neurogenesis using immunohistochemistry for doublecortin, an endogenous marker of immature neurons that can be used as a proxy marker for the presence of adult neurogenesis. We identified that the hippocampus in cetaceans (whales, dolphins and porpoises) is both absolutely and relatively small for their overall brain size, and found that the mammalian hippocampus scaled as an exponential function in relation to brain volume. In contrast, the amygdala was found to scale as a linear function of brain volume, but again, the relative size of the amygdala in cetaceans was small. The cetacean hippocampus lacks staining for doublecortin in the dentate gyrus and thus shows no clear signs of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. This lack of evidence of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, along with the small hippocampus, questions current assumptions regarding cognitive abilities associated with hippocampal function in the cetaceans. These anatomical features of the cetacean hippocampus may be related to the lack of postnatal sleep, causing a postnatal cessation of hippocampal neurogenesis.

  16. A new small-sized Theloderma (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Laos.

    PubMed

    Sivongxay, Niane; Davankham, Monekham; Phimmachak, Somphouthone; Phoumixay, Keochay; Stuart, Bryan L

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the rhacophorid frog genus Theloderma is described from the forested shoreline of the Nam Lik Reservoir, Vientiane Province, Laos. The new species differs from its congeners by having the combination of males with SVL 17.0-20.6; pearly asperities on dorsum; no vomerine teeth; disc diameter of finger III ca. 40% of tympanum diameter; uniformly gray venter; light brown dorsum with darker brown and black markings; and a uniformly bronze iris with small black reticulations. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequence data infers that the new species is most closely related to T. lateriticum from northern Vietnam. Evidence for the monophyly of Theloderma is reviewed. PMID:27515627

  17. Birth weight, early life course BMI, and body size change: Chains of risk to adult inflammation?

    PubMed

    Goosby, Bridget J; Cheadle, Jacob E; McDade, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how body size changes over the early life course to predict high sensitivity C-reactive protein in a U.S. based sample. Using three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we test the chronic disease epidemiological models of fetal origins, sensitive periods, and chains of risk from birth into adulthood. Few studies link birth weight and changes in obesity status over adolescence and early adulthood to adult obesity and inflammation. Consistent with fetal origins and sensitive periods hypotheses, body size and obesity status at each developmental period, along with increasing body size between periods, are highly correlated with adult CRP. However, the predictive power of earlier life course periods is mediated by body size and body size change at later periods in a pattern consistent with the chains of risk model. Adult increases in obesity had effect sizes of nearly 0.3 sd, and effect sizes from overweight to the largest obesity categories were between 0.3 and 1 sd. There was also evidence that risk can be offset by weight loss, which suggests that interventions can reduce inflammation and cardiovascular risk, that females are more sensitive to body size changes, and that body size trajectories over the early life course account for African American- and Hispanic-white disparities in adult inflammation.

  18. 78 FR 45051 - Small Business Size Standards; Support Activities for Mining; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... June 20, 2013 (78 FR 37404). The document amended SBA's Small Business Size Regulations by increasing.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Doc. 2013-14712 appearing on page 37404 in the June 20, 2013 Federal Register... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG44 Small Business Size Standards; Support Activities for...

  19. Using the Student's "t"-Test with Extremely Small Sample Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Winter, J. C .F.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers occasionally have to work with an extremely small sample size, defined herein as "N" less than or equal to 5. Some methodologists have cautioned against using the "t"-test when the sample size is extremely small, whereas others have suggested that using the "t"-test is feasible in such a case. The present…

  20. Design and implementation of web server soft load balancing in small and medium-sized enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Liu

    2011-12-01

    With the expansion of business scale, small and medium-sized enterprises began to use information platform to improve their management and competition ability, the server becomes the core factor which restricts the enterprise's infomationization construction. This paper puts forward a suitable design scheme for small and medium-sized enterprise web server soft load balancing, and proved it effective through experiment.

  1. Effects of Group Size on Students Mathematics Achievement in Small Group Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enu, Justice; Danso, Paul Amoah; Awortwe, Peter K.

    2015-01-01

    An ideal group size is hard to obtain in small group settings; hence there are groups with more members than others. The purpose of the study was to find out whether group size has any effects on students' mathematics achievement in small group settings. Two third year classes of the 2011/2012 academic year were selected from two schools in the…

  2. Managers' Understanding of Workplace Health Promotion within Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Ann; Parahoo, Kader; Fleming, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed at exploring managers' understanding of workplace health promotion and experiences of workplace health promotion activity within small and medium-sized enterprises. Design: A Heideggerian interpretive phenomenological methodology was adopted. Setting: This study was undertaken with small and medium-sized enterprise…

  3. 76 FR 27952 - Small Business Size Standards: Professional, Scientific and Technical Services.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG07 Small Business Size Standards: Professional, Scientific and...) proposed to increase small business size standards for 35 industries and one sub-industry in North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Sector 54, Professional, Scientific and Technical Services and...

  4. Socioeconomic status, body size and physical activity of adults on Rarotonga, the Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, S J

    2001-01-01

    the women, weight is independent of occupation category. Physical activity patterns of modernizing adult Cook Islanders show no relationships with socioeconomic variables for the males, but while older women are less active, those born on Rarotonga are less active than those born elsewhere in the Cook Islands. The number of years spent on Rarotonga shows no significant relationships with any of the physical measures, or with physical activity level. This is likely to be as much a function of small sample size as a lack of effect. Although declines in energy expenditure with increasing age have been demonstrated for both males and females in various populations around the world, on Rarotonga this holds true for females and not males, indicating that physical activity declines with increasing age in modernizing societies do not occur in uniform fashion. PMID:11572521

  5. The effect of practical portion size measurement aids on the accuracy of portion size estimates made by young adults.

    PubMed

    Byrd-Bredbenner, C; Schwartz, J

    2004-08-01

    A barrier to controlling the amount of food consumed may be the difficulty consumers have in accurately estimating portion sizes. Although portion size measurement aids (PSMAs) can improve estimation accuracy, their bulk and/or cost tends to make them impractical for regular use. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect on portion size estimation accuracy of two practical PSMAs: a 2-D PSMA (life size picture of tennis and golf balls) and 3-D PSMAs (tennis and golf balls). Young adults were randomly assigned to one of two groups and estimated the portion sizes of 36 foods divided into three equal sets. PSMAs were not used to estimate portion sizes in Food Set 1. Study group 1 (n = 57) used the 2-D PSMA and study group 2 (n = 56) used the 3-D PSMAs to estimate the portion sizes in Food Set 2. Neither group used PSMAs to estimate portion sizes in Food Set 3. Repeated measures anova indicated that both groups significantly improved estimation accuracy between Food Sets 1 and 2 and between Foods Sets 1 and 3. Thus, even short-term exposure to practical PSMAs may improve estimation accuracy and these improvements persist when the PSMA is no longer available. However, the accuracy rate for Food Set 2 was only about 60% indicating that a great deal of estimation error remains. PMID:15250844

  6. Comparing Server Energy Use and Efficiency Using Small Sample Sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, Henry C.; Qin, Yong; Price, Phillip N.

    2014-11-01

    This report documents a demonstration that compared the energy consumption and efficiency of a limited sample size of server-type IT equipment from different manufacturers by measuring power at the server power supply power cords. The results are specific to the equipment and methods used. However, it is hoped that those responsible for IT equipment selection can used the methods described to choose models that optimize energy use efficiency. The demonstration was conducted in a data center at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California. It was performed with five servers of similar mechanical and electronic specifications; three from Intel and one each from Dell and Supermicro. Server IT equipment is constructed using commodity components, server manufacturer-designed assemblies, and control systems. Server compute efficiency is constrained by the commodity component specifications and integration requirements. The design freedom, outside of the commodity component constraints, provides room for the manufacturer to offer a product with competitive efficiency that meets market needs at a compelling price. A goal of the demonstration was to compare and quantify the server efficiency for three different brands. The efficiency is defined as the average compute rate (computations per unit of time) divided by the average energy consumption rate. The research team used an industry standard benchmark software package to provide a repeatable software load to obtain the compute rate and provide a variety of power consumption levels. Energy use when the servers were in an idle state (not providing computing work) were also measured. At high server compute loads, all brands, using the same key components (processors and memory), had similar results; therefore, from these results, it could not be concluded that one brand is more efficient than the other brands. The test results show that the power consumption variability caused by the key components as a

  7. Soft X-Ray Microscopy: Imaging Magnetism at Small Sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Peter

    2010-03-01

    The manipulation of spins on the nanoscale is of both fundamental and technological interest. In spin based electronics the observation that spin currents can exert a torque onto local spin configurations which can e.g. push a domain wall has stimulated significant research activities in order to provide a fundamental understanding of the physical processes involved. Magnetic soft X-ray microscopy is a unique analytical technique combining X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (X-MCD) as element specific magnetic contrast mechanism with high spatial and temporal resolution. Fresnel zone plates used as X-ray optical elements provide a spatial resolution down to currently <12nm [1] thus approaching fundamental magnetic length scales such as the grain size [2] and magnetic exchange lengths. Images can be recorded in external magnetic fields giving access to study magnetization reversal phenomena on the nanoscale and its stochastic character [3] with elemental sensitivity [4]. Utilizing the inherent time structure of current synchrotron sources fast magnetization dynamics with 70ps time resolution, limited by the lengths of the electron bunches, can be performed with a stroboscopic pump-probe scheme. In this talk I will review recent achievements with magnetic soft X-ray microscopy with focus on current induced wall [5] and vortex dynamics in ferromagnetic elements [6]. Future magnetic microscopies are faced with the challenge to provide both spatial resolution in the nanometer regime, a time resolution on a ps to fs scale and elemental specificity to be able to study novel multicomponent and multifunctional magnetic nanostructures and their ultrafast spin dynamics.[4pt] References[0pt] [1] W. Chao, et al., Optics Express 17(20) 17669 (2009) [0pt] [2] M.-Y. Im, et al, Advanced Materials 20 1750 (2008) [0pt] [3] M.-Y. Im, et al., Phys Rev Lett 102 147204 (2009) [0pt] [4] M.-Y. Im, et al., Appl Phys Lett 95 182504 (2009) [0pt] [5] L. Bocklage, et al., Phys Rev B 78 180405(R

  8. The Structure and Climate of Size: Small Scale Schooling in an Urban District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeChasseur, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    This study explores mechanisms involved in small scale schooling and student engagement. Specifically, this study questions the validity of arguments for small scale schooling reforms that confound the promised effects of small scale schooling "structures" (such as smaller enrollments, schools-within-schools, and smaller class sizes) with the…

  9. 78 FR 37409 - Small Business Size Standards: Finance and Insurance and Management of Companies and Enterprises

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG45 Small Business Size Standards: Finance and Insurance and Management... enrollment in the Systems of Award Management's (SAM) Dynamic Small Business Search database, and more...

  10. 77 FR 72691 - Small Business Size Standards: Administrative and Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG27 Small Business Size Standards: Administrative and Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Final rule....

  11. 78 FR 61443 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... ADMINISTRATION Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of Final Action: Partial Waiver Rescission of the Nonmanufacturer Rule for Aerospace Ball and Roller Bearings. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) received a...

  12. The Small Nuclear Genomes of Selaginella Are Associated with a Low Rate of Genome Size Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Baniaga, Anthony E.; Arrigo, Nils; Barker, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    The haploid nuclear genome size (1C DNA) of vascular land plants varies over several orders of magnitude. Much of this observed diversity in genome size is due to the proliferation and deletion of transposable elements. To date, all vascular land plant lineages with extremely small nuclear genomes represent recently derived states, having ancestors with much larger genome sizes. The Selaginellaceae represent an ancient lineage with extremely small genomes. It is unclear how small nuclear genomes evolved in Selaginella. We compared the rates of nuclear genome size evolution in Selaginella and major vascular plant clades in a comparative phylogenetic framework. For the analyses, we collected 29 new flow cytometry estimates of haploid genome size in Selaginella to augment publicly available data. Selaginella possess some of the smallest known haploid nuclear genome sizes, as well as the lowest rate of genome size evolution observed across all vascular land plants included in our analyses. Additionally, our analyses provide strong support for a history of haploid nuclear genome size stasis in Selaginella. Our results indicate that Selaginella, similar to other early diverging lineages of vascular land plants, has relatively low rates of genome size evolution. Further, our analyses highlight that a rapid transition to a small genome size is only one route to an extremely small genome. PMID:27189987

  13. [Obesity in adults: a population based study in a small town in South of Brazil, 2005].

    PubMed

    Sarturi, Juliana Barbosa; das Neves, Janaina; Peres, Karen Glazer

    2010-01-01

    Changes in nutritional pattern in Brazilian population have been observed mainly in relation to obesity increase. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of obesity and associated factors in adult population in Santo Angelo, Rio Grande do Sul State, 2005. A cross sectional study was carried out involving adult subjects from 20 to 59 years old (n=434), of both sexes. People with Body Mass Index equal to or higher than 30 kg/m(2) were considered obese. A questionnaire was applied to collect data related to socioeconomic, demographic, and behavioral conditions. The multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the associated factors. The response rate was 95.0% and the prevalence of obesity was equal to 16.6% (CI 95% 13.120.1). Presence of obesity was positively associated with lack of physical activity, none feeding habits care, and some individuals that mentioned current health problems regardless of sex. The prevalence of obesity found was similar to other Brazilian population based studies. The results may support planning and implementing prevention actions as well as obesity control in adult population taking into account the relevant details of a small size town.

  14. Effects of YORP-induced rotational fission on the small size end of the Main Belt asteroid size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Alessandro; Jacobson, S.; Marzari, F.; Scheeres, D.; Davis, D. R.

    2013-10-01

    From the results of a comprehensive asteroid population evolution model, we conclude that the YORP-induced rotational fission hypothesis has strong repercussions for the small size end of the Main Belt asteroid size frequency distribution. These results are consistent with observed asteroid population statistics. The foundation of this model is the asteroid rotation model of Marzari et al. (2011), which incorporates both the YORP effect and collisional evolution. This work adds to that model the rotational fission hypothesis (i.e. when the rotation rate exceeds a critical value, erosion and binary formation occur). The YORP effect timescale for large asteroids with diameters D > ~6 km is longer than the collision timescale in the Main Belt, thus the frequency of large asteroids is determined by a collisional equilibrium (e.g. Bottke 2005), but for small asteroids with diameters D < ~6 km, the asteroid population evolution model confirms that YORP-induced rotational fission destroys small asteroids more frequently than collisions. Therefore, the frequency of these small asteroids is determined by an equilibrium between the creation of new asteroids out of the impact debris of larger asteroids and the destruction of these asteroids by YORP-induced rotational fission. By introducing a new source of destruction that varies strongly with size, YORP-induced rotational fission alters the slope of the size frequency distribution. Using the outputs of the asteroid population evolution model and a 1-D collision evolution model, we can generate this new size frequency distribution and it matches the change in slope observed by the SKADS survey (Gladman 2009). This agreement is achieved with both an accretional power-law or a truncated “Asteroids were Born Big” size frequency distribution (Weidenschilling 2010, Morbidelli 2009).

  15. Magnetic Resonance (MR) rectography in diagnostics of small-size rectal neoplasms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usova, AV; Frolova, IG; Trukhacheva, NG; Cheremisina, OV; Afanas'ev, SG

    2016-02-01

    Purpose was the assessment of diagnostic efficiency of MR-rectography in diagnostics of small-size rectal neoplasms. 12 patients with polyps and small tumors of a rectum are examined, the size of detected neoplasms varied in the range 3-18 mm. Native MRI and MRI with retrograde contrasting by ultrasonic gel was carried out. Results of MRI are compared with results of videocolonoscopy. Sensitivity of native MRT was 24%, MR- rectography was 88%. MR-rectography can be used in diagnostics of small-size rectal neoplasms.

  16. Can adult and juvenile European rabbits be differentiated by their pellet sizes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delibes-Mateos, Miguel; Rouco, Carlos; Villafuerte, Rafael

    2009-03-01

    Recently, a new method for differentiating juvenile and adult rabbits based on faecal pellet size was published. According to this method, pellets >6 mm diameter are inferred to be deposited by adults, while those <6 mm are inferred to be from juveniles or kittens. In this study, we designed a simple experiment to test the accuracy of this methodology. Twelve adult rabbits were housed in individual outdoor cages and their pellets were removed every day for 10 consecutive days. Pellets were separated using a sieve according to their size and counted. Results showed that adult rabbits produce pellets >6 mm diameter in the same proportion as those <6 mm. We also observed a strong influence of the individual rabbit on pellet size; some rabbits produce a high proportion of pellets >6 mm, whereas others deposit mostly pellets <6 mm in size. Our findings demonstrate that pellet size is unsuitable for aging wild rabbits. Field biologists should therefore be cautious when employing the pellet size method of age determination in other wild animals in the absence of validating studies.

  17. Small portion sizes in worksite cafeterias: do they help consumers to reduce their food intake?

    PubMed Central

    Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Leeuwis, F H; Heymans, M W; Seidell, J C

    2011-01-01

    Background: Environmental interventions directed at portion size might help consumers to reduce their food intake. Objective: To assess whether offering a smaller hot meal, in addition to the existing size, stimulates people to replace their large meal with a smaller meal. Design: Longitudinal randomized controlled trial assessing the impact of introducing small portion sizes and pricing strategies on consumer choices. Setting/participants: In all, 25 worksite cafeterias and a panel consisting of 308 consumers (mean age=39.18 years, 50% women). Intervention: A small portion size of hot meals was offered in addition to the existing size. The meals were either proportionally priced (that is, the price per gram was comparable regardless of the size) or value size pricing was employed. Main outcome measures: Daily sales of small and the total number of meals, consumers' self-reported compensation behavior and frequency of purchasing small meals. Results: The ratio of small meals sales in relation to large meals sales was 10.2%. No effect of proportional pricing was found B=−0.11 (0.33), P=0.74, confidence interval (CI): −0.76 to 0.54). The consumer data indicated that 19.5% of the participants who had selected a small meal often-to-always purchased more products than usual in the worksite cafeteria. Small meal purchases were negatively related to being male (B=−0.85 (0.20), P=0.00, CI: −1.24 to −0.46, n=178). Conclusion: When offering a small meal in addition to the existing size, a percentage of consumers that is considered reasonable were inclined to replace the large meal with the small meal. Proportional prices did not have an additional effect. The possible occurrence of compensation behavior is an issue that merits further attention. PMID:21224829

  18. Contrasting children and women's health and the determinants of health in a small-sized city.

    PubMed

    Eser, Erhan; Dinç, Gönül; Oral, Ahmet Murat; Ozcan, Cemil

    2005-12-01

    Contrasts that exist in urban infrastructure and accessibility of public health and social services between suburban and urban districts of mega-cities have been well defined. There has been less research in small-sized cities (population under 500,000). This cross-sectional study was done on 1,728 ever-married reproductive-aged women living in Manisa, Turkey, in the year 2000. The probability proportion to size cluster sampling approach was used in the sample selection. Data were collected for women and 7,016 inhabitants of the interviewed households. The data were collected from the women by face to face interviews. Suburban areas (illegally occupied public land called "Gecekondu" dwellings) in Manisa differ from other urban regions (legal settlements of the city) on socioeconomic factors including household occupancy, adult literacy, social class, rates of religious marriages, unemployment, health insurance coverage, migration, cultural segregation, and social status of women. Some traditional practices were also highly prevalent in gecekondu families, where poverty is more common. Although gross fertility rate (GFR), total fertility rate (TFR), and percent decrease of the TFR were higher for gecekondu women than urban women, total wanted fertility rate (TWFR) was lower. In urban neighborhoods, prevalence of contraceptive use was higher, and the infant and child mortality rates were lower; however, when rates were adjusted for mother's age, education and number of births, the differences turned out to be nonsignificant. Women living in urban areas receive better antenatal care, child immunization services, and professional health delivery assistance and services in a health facility; these services are very scarce in gecekondu districts. Health status of gecekondu populations can be improved by social and economic support and by making health services more available and accessible, especially maternity and child health services.

  19. Novel estimates of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) population size and adult survival based on Wolbachia releases.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Scott A; Montgomery, Brian L; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2013-05-01

    The size of Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquito populations and adult survival rates have proven difficult to estimate because of a lack of consistent quantitative measures to equate sampling methods, such as adult trapping, to actual population size. However, such estimates are critical for devising control methods and for modeling the transmission of dengue and other infectious agents carried by this species. Here we take advantage of recent releases of Wolbachia-infected Ae. aegypti coupled with the results of ongoing monitoring to estimate the size of adult Ae. aegypti populations around Cairns in far north Queensland, Australia. Based on the association between released adults infected with Wolbachia and data from Biogents Sentinel traps, we show that data from two locations are consistent with population estimates of approximately 5-10 females per house and daily survival rates of 0.7-0.9 for the released Wolbachia-infected females. Moreover, we estimate that networks of Biogents Sentinel traps at a density of one per 15 houses capture around 5-10% of the adult population per week, and provide a rapid estimate of the absolute population size of Ae. aegypti. These data are discussed with respect to release rates and monitoring in future Wolbachia releases and also the levels of suppression required to reduce dengue transmission. PMID:23802459

  20. Tree allometry, leaf size and adult tree size in old-growth forests of western Oregon.

    PubMed

    King, D A

    1991-10-01

    Relationships between tree height and crown dimensions and trunk diameter were determined for shade-tolerant species of old-growth forests of western Oregon. The study included both understory and overstory species, deciduous and evergreen angiosperms and evergreen conifers. A comparison of adult understory species with sapling overstory species of similar height showed greater crown width and trunk diameter in the former, whether the comparison is made among conifers or deciduous trees. Conifer saplings had wider crowns than deciduous saplings, but the crown widths of the two groups converged with increase in tree height. Conifer saplings had thicker trunks than deciduous saplings of similar crown width, possibly because of selection for resistance to stem bending under snow loads. The results suggest that understory species have morphologies that increase light interception and persistence in the understory, whereas overstory species allocate their biomass for efficient height growth, thereby attaining the high-light environment of the canopy. The greater crown widths and the additional strength requirements imposed by snow loads on conifer saplings result in less height growth per biomass increment in conifer saplings than in deciduous saplings. However, the convergence in crown width of the two groups at heights greater than 20 m, and the proportionately smaller effect of snow loads on large trees, may result in older conifers equalling or surpassing deciduous trees in biomass allocation to height growth.

  1. 75 FR 1296 - Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: ] I. Background On October 28, 2009 (74 FR 55694-55721), SBA issued a Notice of... was published in the Federal Register on December 7, 2009 (74 FR 64026). The public meetings will be... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL...

  2. Is Small Finally Becoming Beautiful? Small and Medium-Size Enterprises in the New Economy. IES Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dejonckheere, J.; Ramioul, M.; Van Hootegem, G.

    This report addresses small and medium-sized enterprises' (SMEs') role in the changing international division of labor and trade in information service activities. Chapter 2 describes the EMERGENCE project to map and measure eWork. Chapter 3 reviews literature that shows SMEs account for the overwhelming majority of companies and make a crucial…

  3. Completeness of the fossil record: Estimating losses due to small body size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Roger A.; Maxwell, Phillip A.; Crampton, James S.; Beu, Alan G.; Jones, Craig M.; Marshall, Bruce A.

    2006-04-01

    Size bias in the fossil record limits its use for interpreting patterns of past biodiversity and ecological change. Using comparative size frequency distributions of exceptionally good regional records of New Zealand Holocene and Cenozoic Mollusca in museum archive collections, we derive first-order estimates of the magnitude of the bias against small body size and the effect of this bias on completeness of the fossil record. Our database of 3907 fossil species represents an original living pool of 9086 species, from which ˜36% have been removed by size culling, 27% from the smallest size class (<5 mm). In contrast, non-size-related losses compose only 21% of the total. In soft rocks, the loss of small taxa can be reduced by nearly 50% through the employment of exhaustive collection and preparation techniques.

  4. 40 CFR 142.303 - Which size public water systems can receive a small system variance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Which size public water systems can... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Variances for Small System General Provisions § 142.303 Which size public water systems...

  5. 40 CFR 142.303 - Which size public water systems can receive a small system variance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Variances for Small System General Provisions § 142.303 Which size public water systems can... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Which size public water systems...

  6. 40 CFR 142.303 - Which size public water systems can receive a small system variance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Variances for Small System General Provisions § 142.303 Which size public water systems can... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Which size public water systems...

  7. 77 FR 42211 - Small Business Size Standards: Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... published in the Federal Register on July 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237). Because of changes in the Federal... rules relating to size standards for specific industries. SBA welcomes comments from the public on a... determining small business status caused by a large number of varying receipts based size standards (see 69...

  8. 78 FR 37404 - Small Business Size Standards: Support Activities for Mining

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... initially announced in the Fall 2012 Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions, 78 FR... was clarified to read: ``Small Business Size Standards: Support Activities for Mining.'' 77 FR 72766....e., ``exceptions'' in SBA's table of size standards). Of these, 31 were based on average...

  9. Sustainability and Small to Medium Sized Enterprises--How to Engage Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condon, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have a major advantage over larger organisations in regard to addressing sustainability issues--their size means they are able to react very quickly to changes in the business environment. They are disadvantaged, however, by lack of information on marketplace changes that make sustainability an opportunity…

  10. A novel AP2-type transcription factor, SMALL ORGAN SIZE1, controls organ size downstream of an auxin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Aya, Koichiro; Hobo, Tokunori; Sato-Izawa, Kanna; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Kitano, Hidemi; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2014-05-01

    The organ size of flowering plants is determined by two post-embryonic developmental events: cell proliferation and cell expansion. In this study, we identified a new rice loss-of-function mutant, small organ size1 (smos1), that decreases the final size of various organs due to decreased cell size and abnormal microtubule orientation. SMOS1 encodes an unusual APETALA2 (AP2)-type transcription factor with an imperfect AP2 domain, and its product belongs to the basal AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) lineage, including WRINKLED1 (WRI1) and ADAP. SMOS1 expression was induced by exogenous auxin treatment, and the auxin response element (AuxRE) of the SMOS1 promoter acts as a cis-motif through interaction with auxin response factor (ARF). Furthermore, a functional fluorophore-tagged SMOS1 was localized to the nucleus, supporting the role of SMOS1 as a transcriptional regulator for organ size control. Microarray analysis showed that the smos1 mutation represses expression of several genes involved in microtubule-based movement and DNA replication. Among the down-regulated genes, we demonstrated by gel-shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments that OsPHI-1, which is involved in cell expansion, is a target of SMOS1. SMOS1 homologs in early-diverged land plants partially rescued the smos1 phenotype of rice. We propose that SMOS1 acts as an auxin-dependent regulator for cell expansion during organ size control, and that its function is conserved among land plants.

  11. Successful E-Learning in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    So far, e-learning has primarily been used when there are many learners involved. The up-front investments related to e-learning are relatively high, and may be perceived as prohibitive for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Some e-learning is, however, getting less expensive, and some e-learning models are more suited for small-scale…

  12. Size Matters: An Exploratory Comparison of Small- and Large-Class University Lecture Introductions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joseph J.

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the impact of class size on the rhetorical move structures and lexico-grammatical features of academic lecture introductions. From the MICASE corpus (The Michigan Corpus of Academic Spoken English), two small corpora of lecture introductions of small- and large-class lectures were compiled. Using a genre-based…

  13. 76 FR 35263 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... PVS-17 to read: PVS-7. John W. Klein, Director, Office of Government Contracting. BILLING CODE 8025-01... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule; Correction AGENCY: U.S....

  14. Adult and larval traits as determinants of geographic range size among tropical reef fishes

    PubMed Central

    Luiz, Osmar J.; Allen, Andrew P.; Robertson, D. Ross; Floeter, Sergio R.; Kulbicki, Michel; Vigliola, Laurent; Becheler, Ronan; Madin, Joshua S.

    2013-01-01

    Most marine organisms disperse via ocean currents as larvae, so it is often assumed that larval-stage duration is the primary determinant of geographic range size. However, empirical tests of this relationship have yielded mixed results, and alternative hypotheses have rarely been considered. Here we assess the relative influence of adult and larval-traits on geographic range size using a global dataset encompassing 590 species of tropical reef fishes in 47 families, the largest compilation of such data to date for any marine group. We analyze this database using linear mixed-effect models to control for phylogeny and geographical limits on range size. Our analysis indicates that three adult traits likely to affect the capacity of new colonizers to survive and establish reproductive populations (body size, schooling behavior, and nocturnal activity) are equal or better predictors of geographic range size than pelagic larval duration. We conclude that adult life-history traits that affect the postdispersal persistence of new populations are primary determinants of successful range extension and, consequently, of geographic range size among tropical reef fishes. PMID:24065830

  15. Adult and larval traits as determinants of geographic range size among tropical reef fishes.

    PubMed

    Luiz, Osmar J; Allen, Andrew P; Robertson, D Ross; Floeter, Sergio R; Kulbicki, Michel; Vigliola, Laurent; Becheler, Ronan; Madin, Joshua S

    2013-10-01

    Most marine organisms disperse via ocean currents as larvae, so it is often assumed that larval-stage duration is the primary determinant of geographic range size. However, empirical tests of this relationship have yielded mixed results, and alternative hypotheses have rarely been considered. Here we assess the relative influence of adult and larval-traits on geographic range size using a global dataset encompassing 590 species of tropical reef fishes in 47 families, the largest compilation of such data to date for any marine group. We analyze this database using linear mixed-effect models to control for phylogeny and geographical limits on range size. Our analysis indicates that three adult traits likely to affect the capacity of new colonizers to survive and establish reproductive populations (body size, schooling behavior, and nocturnal activity) are equal or better predictors of geographic range size than pelagic larval duration. We conclude that adult life-history traits that affect the postdispersal persistence of new populations are primary determinants of successful range extension and, consequently, of geographic range size among tropical reef fishes.

  16. Comparison of effects of diet versus exercise weight loss regimens on LDL and HDL particle size in obese adults

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with an atherogenic lipid profile characterized by a predominance of small LDL and HDL particles. Weight loss, by dietary restriction or exercise, increases LDL particle size. Whether these interventions can augment HDL size in conjunction with LDL size remains unknown. Objective This study compared the effects of alternate day fasting (ADF), calorie restriction (CR), and endurance exercise on LDL and HDL particle size in overweight and obese subjects. Methods In a 12-week parallel-arm trial, adult subjects (n = 60) were randomized to 1 of 4 groups: 1) ADF (75% energy restriction for 24-h alternated with ad libitum feeding for 24-h), 2) CR (25% energy restriction every day), 3) exercise (moderate intensity training 3 x/week), or 4) control. Results Body weight was reduced (P < 0.001) by ADF, CR, and exercise (5.2 ± 1.1%, 5.0 ± 1.4%, 5.1 ± 0.9%, respectively). Plasma LDL cholesterol decreased (P < 0.05) with ADF (10 ± 4%) and CR (8 ± 4%), whereas HDL cholesterol increased (P < 0.05) with exercise (16 ± 5%). Integrated LDL particle size was augmented (P = 0.01) by ADF and CR. The proportion of small LDL particles decreased (P = 0.04) with ADF only, and the proportion of large HDL particles increased (P = 0.03) with exercise only. Conclusion These results indicate that dietary restriction increases LDL particle size, while endurance training augments HDL particle size, with minimal weight loss. None of these interventions concomitantly increased both LDL and HDL particle size, however. PMID:21767400

  17. 46 CFR 160.171-17 - Approval testing for adult size immersion suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Approval testing for adult size immersion suit. Caution: During each of the in-water tests prescribed in this section, a person ready to render assistance when needed should be near each subject in the water... being immersed in water at 5 °C (41 °F) for a period of one hour, each subject must be able to pick up...

  18. 46 CFR 160.171-17 - Approval testing for adult size immersion suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Approval testing for adult size immersion suit. Caution: During each of the in-water tests prescribed in this section, a person ready to render assistance when needed should be near each subject in the water... being immersed in water at 5 °C (41 °F) for a period of one hour, each subject must be able to pick up...

  19. Shedding New Light on an Old Problem: The Estimation of Shadow Sizes in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebersbach, Mirjam; Resing, Wilma C. M.

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments using the "projection of shadows" paradigm investigated multidimensional reasoning, implicit and explicit knowledge, and the nonlinearity concept in 5-, 9-, and 13-year-olds and adults. Participants estimated the resulting shadow lengths of differently sized objects, placed at varying distances from a light source. Experiment 1…

  20. A single IGF1 allele is a major determinant of small size in dogs.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Nathan B; Bustamante, Carlos D; Chase, Kevin; Gray, Melissa M; Zhao, Keyan; Zhu, Lan; Padhukasahasram, Badri; Karlins, Eric; Davis, Sean; Jones, Paul G; Quignon, Pascale; Johnson, Gary S; Parker, Heidi G; Fretwell, Neale; Mosher, Dana S; Lawler, Dennis F; Satyaraj, Ebenezer; Nordborg, Magnus; Lark, K Gordon; Wayne, Robert K; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2007-04-01

    The domestic dog exhibits greater diversity in body size than any other terrestrial vertebrate. We used a strategy that exploits the breed structure of dogs to investigate the genetic basis of size. First, through a genome-wide scan, we identified a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 15 influencing size variation within a single breed. Second, we examined genetic variation in the 15-megabase interval surrounding the QTL in small and giant breeds and found marked evidence for a selective sweep spanning a single gene (IGF1), encoding insulin-like growth factor 1. A single IGF1 single-nucleotide polymorphism haplotype is common to all small breeds and nearly absent from giant breeds, suggesting that the same causal sequence variant is a major contributor to body size in all small dogs.

  1. Effects of corridors on home range sizes and interpatch movements of three small mammal species.

    SciTech Connect

    Mabry, Karen, E.; Barrett, Gary, W.

    2002-04-30

    Mabry, K.E., and G.W. Barrett. 2002. Effects of corridors on home range sizes and interpatch movements of three small mammal species. Landscape Ecol. 17:629-636. Corridors are predicted to benefit populations in patchy habitats by promoting movement, which should increase population densities, gene flow, and recolonization of extinct patch populations. However, few investigators have considered use of the total landscape, particularly the possibility of interpatch movement through matrix habitat, by small mammals. This study compares home range sizes of 3 species of small mammals, the cotton mouse, old field mouse and cotton rat between patches with and without corridors. Corridor presence did not have a statistically significant influence on average home range size. Habitat specialization and sex influenced the probability of an individual moving between 2 patches without corridors. The results of this study suggest that small mammals may be more capable of interpatch movement without corridors than is frequently assumed.

  2. Small, medium, large or supersize? The development and evaluation of interventions targeted at portion size

    PubMed Central

    Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Poelman, M P

    2014-01-01

    In the past decades, portion sizes of high-caloric foods and drinks have increased and can be considered an important environmental obesogenic factor. This paper describes a research project in which the feasibility and effectiveness of environmental interventions targeted at portion size was evaluated. The studies that we conducted revealed that portion size labeling, offering a larger variety of portion sizes, and proportional pricing (that is, a comparable price per unit regardless of the size) were considered feasible to implement according to both consumers and point-of-purchase representatives. Studies into the effectiveness of these interventions demonstrated that the impact of portion size labeling on the (intended) consumption of soft drinks was, at most, modest. Furthermore, the introduction of smaller portion sizes of hot meals in worksite cafeterias in addition to the existing size stimulated a moderate number of consumers to replace their large meals by a small meal. Elaborating on these findings, we advocate further research into communication and marketing strategies related to portion size interventions; the development of environmental portion size interventions as well as educational interventions that improve people's ability to deal with a ‘super-sized' environment; the implementation of regulation with respect to portion size labeling, and the use of nudges to stimulate consumers to select healthier portion sizes. PMID:25033959

  3. Prognostic Importance of Small Prostate Size in Men Receiving Definitive Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Taira, Al V.; Merrick, Gregory S.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Adamovich, Edward; Wallner, Kent E.

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To assess whether small prostate size is an adverse prognostic factor in men undergoing brachytherapy in the same manner in which it seems to be for men undergoing radical prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: From April 1995 to June 2008, 2024 patients underwent brachytherapy by a single brachytherapist. Median follow-up was 7.4 years. The role of small prostate size ({<=}20 cm{sup 3}) as a prognostic factor for biochemical progression-free survival, cause-specific survival, and all-cause mortality was investigated. The differences in survival between men with small and larger prostates were compared using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests. Results: Median prostate size for the entire cohort was 32.7 cm{sup 3}. For the 167 men with small prostates, median prostate size was 17.4 cm{sup 3}. There was no difference in biochemical progression-free survival (95.2% vs 96.2%, P=.603), cause-specific survival (97.7% vs 98.3%, P=.546), or all-cause mortality (78.0% vs 77.2%, P=.838) at 10 years for men with small prostates compared with men with larger prostates. On univariate and multivariate analysis, small prostate size was not associated with any of the primary outcome measures. Conclusion: Men with small prostates treated with brachytherapy have excellent outcomes and are at no higher risk of treatment failure than men with larger glands. High-quality implants with adequate margins seem sufficient to address the increased adverse risk factors associated with small prostate size.

  4. Undiagnosed intussusception in an adultsmall and large bowel’

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Christa; Costello, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Two cases of adult intussusception (large bowel and small bowel) are presented highlighting the challenges posed by their often innocuous presentation in addition to significant morbidity resulting from delayed diagnosis. PMID:24459224

  5. [Assessment of the food list and serving size of a Food Frequency Questionnaire in an adult population].

    PubMed

    Tomita, Luciana Yuki; Cardoso, Marly Augusto

    2002-01-01

    This study examined both the food list and portion size values from a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) among participants in a case-control study in São Paulo, Brazil. Two hundred adult respondents to a case-control study were randomly selected (101 men and 99 women; age range: 35-69 years). FFQ food items were examined on the basis of their contribution to total population nutrient intake estimated by 24-hour dietary recall (1-DR). We examined the frequency distribution of equivalent-gram weights of each selected food from the 1-DR and identified the portion sizes as small, medium, and large in the distribution (percentiles 25, 50, and 75, respectively). The FFQ provided close estimation of total fat, saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, total fiber, vitamin B6, and folic acid compared to the 1-DR (paired t-test; p < 0.05). The FFQ food list covered the study population's main dietary nutrient sources.

  6. Recovery trajectories after burn injury in young adults: does burn size matter?

    PubMed

    Ryan, Colleen M; Lee, Austin; Kazis, Lewis E; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Shapiro, Gabriel D; Sheridan, Robert L; Meyer, Walter J; Palmieri, Tina; Pidcock, Frank S; Reilly, Debra; Tompkins, Ronald G

    2015-01-01

    The impact of burn size on mortality is well known, but the association of burn size with the trajectories of long-term functional outcomes remains poorly studied. This prospective multi-center study included burned adults ages 19 to 30 years who completed the Young Adult Burn Outcome Questionnaire at initial baseline contact, 2 weeks, and at 6 and 12 months after initial questionnaire administration. Non-burned adults of comparable ages also completed the questionnaire as a reference group. The association between functional recovery and TBSA burned was analyzed longitudinally using generalized linear models with the generalized estimation equation technique. Functional status was characterized in 15 domains: physical function, fine motor function, pain, itch, social function limited by physical function, perceived appearance, social function limited by appearance, sexual function, emotion, family function, family concern, satisfaction with symptom relief, satisfaction with role, work reintegration, and religion. Scores were standardized to a mean of 50 and a SD of 10 based on non-burned controls. There were 153 burned and 112 non-burned subjects with a total of 620 questionnaires. TBSA burned was 11 ± 14% (mean ± SD); 31% had face involvement and 57% had hand involvement. The lag time from burn injury to questionnaire administration was on average 7 ± 7.7 months, with a maximum of 36 months. Lower recovery levels were associated with increasing burn size for physical function, pain, itch, work reintegration, emotion, satisfaction with symptom relief, satisfaction with role, family function, and family concern (P value ranged from .04-<.0001). No significant differences in recovery levels were found with increasing burn size for fine motor function, social function limited by physical function, sexual function, and religion; these areas tracked toward the age-matched non-burned group regardless of burn size. Perceived appearance and social function limited by

  7. Population Variation Reveals Independent Selection toward Small Body Size in Chinese Debao Pony

    PubMed Central

    Kader, Adiljan; Li, Yan; Dong, Kunzhe; Irwin, David M.; Zhao, Qianjun; He, Xiaohong; Liu, Jianfeng; Pu, Yabin; Gorkhali, Neena Amatya; Liu, Xuexue; Jiang, Lin; Li, Xiangchen; Guan, Weijun; Zhang, Yaping; Wu, Dong-Dong; Ma, Yuehui

    2016-01-01

    Body size, one of the most important quantitative traits under evolutionary scrutiny, varies considerably among species and among populations within species. Revealing the genetic basis underlying this variation is very important, particularly in humans where there is a close relationship with diseases and in domestic animals as the selective patterns are associated with improvements in production traits. The Debao pony is a horse breed with small body size that is unique to China; however, it is unknown whether the size-related candidate genes identified in Western breeds also account for the small body size of the Debao pony. Here, we compared individual horses from the Debao population with other two Chinese horse populations using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified with the Equine SNP 65 Bead Chip. The previously reported size-related candidate gene HMGA2 showed a significant signature for selection, consistent with its role observed in human populations. More interestingly, we found a candidate gene TBX3, which had not been observed in previous studies on horse body size that displayed the highest differentiation and most significant association, and thus likely is the dominating factor for the small stature of the Debao pony. Further comparison between the Debao pony and other breeds of horses from around the world demonstrated that TBX3 was selected independently in the Debao pony, suggesting that there were multiple origins of small stature in the horse. PMID:26637467

  8. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of... to small, medium-size and large water systems. (a) Systems shall complete the applicable corrosion...) or (b)(3) of this section. (2) A small system (serving ≤3300 persons) and a medium-size...

  9. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of... to small, medium-size and large water systems. (a) Systems shall complete the applicable corrosion...) or (b)(3) of this section. (2) A small system (serving ≤3300 persons) and a medium-size...

  10. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of... to small, medium-size and large water systems. (a) Systems shall complete the applicable corrosion...) or (b)(3) of this section. (2) A small system (serving ≤3300 persons) and a medium-size...

  11. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of... to small, medium-size and large water systems. (a) Systems shall complete the applicable corrosion...) or (b)(3) of this section. (2) A small system (serving ≤3300 persons) and a medium-size...

  12. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of... to small, medium-size and large water systems. (a) Systems shall complete the applicable corrosion...) or (b)(3) of this section. (2) A small system (serving ≤3300 persons) and a medium-size...

  13. 40 CFR 428.50 - Applicability; description of the small-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... small-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.50 Section 428.50... (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Small-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber Plants Subcategory § 428.50 Applicability; description of the small-sized general molded,...

  14. 40 CFR 428.50 - Applicability; description of the small-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... small-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.50 Section 428.50... (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Small-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber Plants Subcategory § 428.50 Applicability; description of the small-sized general molded,...

  15. 40 CFR 428.50 - Applicability; description of the small-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... small-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.50 Section 428.50... (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Small-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber Plants Subcategory § 428.50 Applicability; description of the small-sized general molded,...

  16. Analyses of transverse vibrations of axially pretensioned viscoelastic nanobeams with small size and surface effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongqiang; Pang, Miao; Fan, Lifeng

    2016-07-01

    The general governing equation for transverse vibration of an axially pretensioned viscoelastic nanobeam embedded in elastic substrate medium is formulated on the basis of the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory and the Kelvin model. The factors of structural damping, initial axial tension, surrounding medium, small size, surface elasticity and residual surface tension are incorporated in the formulation. The explicit expression is obtained for the vibrational frequency of a simply supported nanobeam. The impacts of these factors on the properties of transverse vibration of the nanobeam are discussed. It is demonstrated that the dependences of natural frequency on the structural damping, surrounding medium, small size, surface elasticity and residual surface tension are significant, whereas the effect of initial axial tension on the natural frequency is limited. In addition, it can be concluded that the energy dissipation of transverse vibration of the viscoelastic nanobeam is related to the small size effect and structural damping.

  17. The Cherenkov Telescope Array single-mirror small size telescope project: status and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Bilnik, W.; Bogacz, L.; Bulik, T.; Christov, A.; della Volpe, D.; Dyrda, M.; Frankowski, A.; Grudzińska, M.; Grygorczuk, J.; Heller, M.; Idźkowski, B.; Janiak, M.; Jamrozy, M.; Karczewski, M.; Kasperek, J.; Lyard, E.; Marszalek, A.; Michalowski, J.; Rameez, M.; Moderski, R.; Montaruli, T.; Neronov, A.; Nicolau-Kukliński, J.; Niemiec, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Paśko, P.; Płatos, Ł.; Prandini, E.; Rafalski, J.; Rajda, P. J.; Rataj, M.; Rupiński, M.; Rutkowskai, K.; Seweryn, K.; Sidz, M.; Stawarz, Ł.; Stodulska, M.; Stodulski, M.; Tokarz, M.; Toscano, S.; Troyano Pujadas, I.; Walter, R.; Wawer, P.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Wiśniewski, L.; Winiarski, K.; Zietara, K.; Ziółkowski, P.; Źychowski, P.

    2014-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), the next generation very high energy gamma-ray observatory, will consist of three types of telescopes: large (LST), medium (MST) and small (SST) size telescopes. The small size telescopes are dedicated to the observation of gamma-rays with energy between a few TeV and few hundreds of TeV. The single-mirror small size telescope (SST-1M) is one of several SST designs. It will be equipped with a 4 m-diameter segmented mirror dish and a fully digital camera based on Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes. Currently, the first prototype of the mechanical structure is under assembly in Poland. In 2014 it will be equipped with 18 mirror facets and a prototype of the camera.

  18. Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense: wide egg size variation in 32 molecularly confirmed adult specimens from Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seoyun; Cho, Jaeeun; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Kim, Deok-Gyu; Jeon, Sarah Jiyoun; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Eom, Keeseon S; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2015-06-01

    The eggs of Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense were reported to be smaller than those of the classical Diphyllobothrium latum in general. However, verification using a large number of adult tapeworms is required. We assessed the egg size variation in 32 adult specimens of D. nihonkaiense recovered from Korean patients in 1975-2014. The diagnosis of individual specimens was based on analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene sequence. Uterine eggs (n = 10) were obtained from each specimen, and their length and width were measured by micrometry. The results indicated that the egg size of D. nihonkaiense (total number of eggs measured, 320) was widely variable according to individual specimens, 54-76 μm long (mean 64) and 35-58 μm wide (mean 45), with a length-width ratio of 1.32-1.70 (mean 1.46). The worm showing the smallest egg size had a length range of 54-62 μm, whereas the one showing the largest egg size had a length range of 68-76 μm. The two ranges did not overlap, and a similar pattern was observed for the egg width. Mapping of each egg size (n = 320) showed a wide variation in length and width. The widely variable egg size of D. nihonkaiense cannot be used for specific diagnosis of diphyllobothriid tapeworm infections in human patients.

  19. [Primary small bowel volvulus in a young adult].

    PubMed

    Pastor, J; Adámek, S; Polanecký, O

    2014-06-01

    The authors present a rare case of a young male patient with primary small bowel volvulus. They show the main points to be considered in clinical diagnosis of this kind of acute abdomen and the importance of CT scan in such cases.

  20. Size-dependent properties of small unilamellar vesicles formed by model lipids.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Min; Li, Chun-Shian; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Wu, David T; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2012-01-10

    The size-dependent behavior of small unilamellar vesicles is explored by dissipative particle dynamics, including the membrane characteristics and mechanical properties. The spontaneously formed vesicles are in the metastable state and the vesicle size is controlled by the concentration of model lipids. As the vesicle size decreases, the bilayer gets thinner and the area density of heads declines. Nonetheless, the area density in the inner leaflet is higher than that in the outer. The packing parameters are calculated for both leaflets. The result indicates that the shape of lipid in the outer leaflet is like a truncated cone but that in the inner leaflet resembles an inverted truncated cone. Based on a local order parameter, our simulations indication that the orientation order of lipid molecules decreases as the size of the vesicle reduces and this fact reveals that the bilayer becoming thinner for smaller vesicle is mainly attributed to the orientation disorder of the lipids. The membrane tension can be obtained through the Young-Laplace equation. The tension is found to grow with reducing vesicle size. Therefore, small vesicles are less stable against fusion. Using the inflation method, the area stretching and bending moduli can be determined and those moduli are found to grow with reducing size. Nonetheless, a general equation with a single numerical constant can relate bending modulus, area stretching modulus, and bilayer thickness irrespective of the vesicle size. Finally, a simple metastable model is proposed to explain the size-dependent behavior of bilayer thickness, orientation, and tension.

  1. Health care of Holsteins selected for large or small body size.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, C B; Hansen, L B; Young, C W; Marx, G D; Reneau, J K

    1986-12-01

    Genetic groups of Holsteins selected for large size or small size were compared for health care needs. Two groups were formed from a paired foundation population. Large group was mated to sires with extreme estimates of transmitting ability for tall height and deep and wide bodies. Small group was similarly mated to extreme sires but to those transmitting short height and shallow and narrow bodies. Predicted Differences for milk and fat of sires were above breed average. Actual expenses for veterinary treatment, health supplies and drugs, and value of labor required of animal attendants were evaluated. Large cows required significantly more health care than small cows. Digestive disorders accounted for much of the group difference, and displaced abomasums were more frequent among large cows. Small cows may have economic advantages over large cows of the same breed.

  2. Educational Practice for Small Size Class in Fundamental Education of Faculty of Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Hirano, Kimitaka; Honda, Chikahisa

    An educational practice for small size class in fundamental education of our faculty has been carried out using a special fund from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology since fiscal year 2005. The fundamental subjects such as Mathematics and Physics are very important for the students of Faculty of Engineering. In order to achieve the aim of each subject for students with insufficient understanding, we wrestle with the project of the education for small size class. Some projects are described in this paper.

  3. The role of micro size computing clusters for small physics groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevel, A. Y.

    2014-06-01

    A small physics group (3-15 persons) might use a number of computing facilities for the analysis/simulation, developing/testing, teaching. It is discussed different types of computing facilities: collaboration computing facilities, group local computing cluster (including colocation), cloud computing. The author discuss the growing variety of different computing options for small groups and does emphasize the role of the group owned computing cluster of micro size.

  4. "Learning to Work" in Small Businesses: Learning and Training for Young Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggeri-Stevens, Geoff; Goodwin, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper alerts small business employers to new dictates of the Disability Discrimination Act (2005) as it applies to learning disabilities. Then the "Learning to Work" project featured in the paper offers small business employers a set of approaches and methods for the identification of a learning-disabled young adult candidate's…

  5. Diagnosis of small intestinal intussuception by transabdominal ultrasonography in 2 adult horses.

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine-Rodgerson, G; Rodgerson, D H

    2001-01-01

    Transabdominal ultrasonography is frequently used to diagnose small intestinal intussusceptions in foals. We demonstrate that transabdominal ultrasonography also provides a rapid and accurate diagnosis of small intestinal intussusception in adult horses. A detailed description of the ultrasonographic appearance is provided. Images Figure 1a. Figure 1b. Figure 2. PMID:11360861

  6. Role of media and peers on body change strategies among adult men: is body size important?

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; McGreevy, Shauna J

    2011-01-01

    There has been limited previous research that has examined the role of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult men. The current study investigated the role of specific types of messages (encouragement, teasing and modelling) from peers and the media on the strategies to change weight among adult men. Differences were evaluated between 526 men aged from 18 to 60 years from three groups (normal weight, overweight and obese) on body image, body change strategies and messages about their body received from peers and the media. Men were primarily drawn from United States, Australia and Europe. Results showed that messages received by men regarding losing weight or increasing muscle size differed according to weight. Body image and media messages were the strongest predictors of losing weight, whereas body image importance and messages from peers were the strongest predictors of increasing muscles. These findings highlight the importance of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult males.

  7. Core and shell sizing of small silver-coated nanospheres by optical extinction spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schinca, D C; Scaffardi, L B

    2008-12-10

    Silver metal nanoparticles (Nps) are extensively used in different areas of research and technology due to their interesting optical, thermal and electric properties, especially for bare core and core-shell nanostructures with sizes smaller than 10 nm. Since these properties are core-shell size-dependent, size measurement is important in manipulating their potential functionalization and applications. Bare and coated small silver Nps fabricated by physical and chemical methods present specific characteristics in their extinction spectra that are potentially useful for sizing purposes. This work presents a novel procedure to size mean core radius smaller than 10 nm and mean shell thickness of silver core-shell Nps based on a comparative study of the characteristics in their optical extinction spectra in different media as a function of core radii, shell thickness and coating refractive index. From the regularities derived from these relationships, it can be concluded that plasmon full width at half-maximum (FWHM) is sensitive to core size but not to coating thickness, while plasmon resonance wavelength (PRW) is related to shell thickness and mostly independent of core radius. These facts, which allow sizing simultaneously both mean core radius and shell thickness, can also be used to size bare silver Nps as a special case of core-shell Nps with zero shell thickness. The proposed method was applied to size experimental samples and the results show good agreement with conventional TEM microscopy.

  8. Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

    SciTech Connect

    Wipple, C.; Vosti, E.

    1997-11-01

    This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to address needs that are characterized of small to medium sized apparel manufactures and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for this specific efforts are discussed.

  9. Small and Medium-Sized Information Technology Firms: Assessment of Non-Local Partnership Facilitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findikoglu, Melike Nur

    2012-01-01

    A two-phased qualitative study was conducted to explore the facilitators of non-local (i.e. domestic or international) partnerships formed by small- and medium-sized firms (SME). Rooted in trust, proximity and dynamic capabilities lenses, the study focused on behaviors of SMEs performing in dynamic, competitive and highly interlinked industry, the…

  10. Leadership and Organizational Learning: Accounting for Variances in Small-Size Business Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Carroll M.; Nafukho, Fredrick M.

    2007-01-01

    This study's primary purpose was to determine the relationship between leadership and the dependent variable organizational learning readiness at three locations of a small-size business enterprise in the Mid-Western United States. Surveys were acquired within an exploratory correlational research design and the results indicated leadership…

  11. Parameter Estimation with Small Sample Size: A Higher-Order IRT Model Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Torre, Jimmy; Hong, Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Sample size ranks as one of the most important factors that affect the item calibration task. However, due to practical concerns (e.g., item exposure) items are typically calibrated with much smaller samples than what is desired. To address the need for a more flexible framework that can be used in small sample item calibration, this article…

  12. Continuing Education for Managers from Small and Medium Sized German Companies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fub, Jorg

    1995-01-01

    An international trade school in southern Germany, which is a highly export-oriented environment, has established a vocational and professional continuing education program for personnel of small- and medium-size companies. Offerings include a graduate course in international marketing, seminars for export companies, distance education in…

  13. Supporting the E-Business Readiness of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Approaches and Metrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jutla, Dawn; Bodorik, Peter; Dhaliwal, Jasbir

    2002-01-01

    Presents a conceptual model for governments in creating a climate that facilitates the national adoption of e-business. Focuses on the needs of small and medium-sized enterprises, suggests measures to assess how a country is performing in providing a positive e-business climate, and provides examples from Canada, The Netherlands, Norway, and…

  14. 77 FR 58755 - Small Business Size Standards: Health Care and Social Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG30 Small Business Size Standards: Health Care and Social Assistance... Classification System (NAICS) Sector 62, Health Care and Social Assistance, and retaining the current standards... the Federal Register on July 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237). SBA recognizes that changes in industry...

  15. 77 FR 11001 - Small Business Size Standards: Health Care and Social Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG30 Small Business Size Standards: Health Care and Social Assistance... Industry Classification System (NAICS) Sector 62, Health Care and Social Assistance. As part of its ongoing... Subsector 621(Ambulatory Health Care Services), NAICS Subsector 622 (Hospitals), and NAICS Subsector...

  16. Regularization Methods for Fitting Linear Models with Small Sample Sizes: Fitting the Lasso Estimator Using R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, W. Holmes; Finch, Maria E. Hernandez

    2016-01-01

    Researchers and data analysts are sometimes faced with the problem of very small samples, where the number of variables approaches or exceeds the overall sample size; i.e. high dimensional data. In such cases, standard statistical models such as regression or analysis of variance cannot be used, either because the resulting parameter estimates…

  17. Barriers to Employee Training in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises: Insights and Evidences from Mauritius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padachi, Kesseven; Bhiwajee, Soolakshna Lukea

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Training is an important component of successful business concerns. However, although there is growing acceptance amongst scholars that small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are engines that drive economies across nations, through their contribution in terms of job creation and poverty reduction; extant research portray that these…

  18. Small-size controlled vacuum spark-gap in an external magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Asyunin, V. I. Davydov, S. G.; Dolgov, A. N. Pshenichnyi, A. A.; Yakubov, R. Kh.

    2015-02-15

    It is demonstrated that the operation of a small-size controlled spark-gap can be controlled by applying a uniform external magnetic field. It is shown that the magnetic field of such a simple configuration efficiently suppresses the effect of localization of the discharge current after multiple actuations of the spark-gap.

  19. Canadian Colleges and Institutes and Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises, Productivity at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges.

    This document was prepared by the Association of Community Colleges in order to describe the relationship between colleges and small- and medium-sized enterprises in Canada. The ACCC collected information for this survey from the 150 Canadian colleges by conducting a literature/data review and a survey of member institutions in addition to on site…

  20. Business Continuity Planning Resources for Small- and Medium-Sized Businesses

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Lesperance, Ann M.

    2010-05-14

    This document/memo summarizes existing resources and guidance on business continuity planning for small- to medium-sized businesses. DTRA will share this information with large commercial businesses who identified the need to help their suppliers and other key collaborators prepare business continuity plans in order to speed recovery from a wide-area bioterrorism incident.

  1. Culture, Organizational Learning and Selected Employee Background Variables in Small-Size Business Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Carroll M.; Nafukho, Fredrick Muyia

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between four independent variables educational level, longevity, type of enterprise, and gender and the dependent variable culture, as a dimension that explains organizational learning readiness in seven small-size business enterprises. Design/methodology/approach: An exploratory…

  2. Low-noise small-size microring ultrasonic detectors for high-resolution photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sung-Liang; Ling, Tao; Guo, L. Jay

    2011-05-01

    Small size polymer microring resonators have been exploited for photoacoustic (PA) imaging. To demonstrate the advantages of the wide acceptance angle of ultrasound detection of small size microrings, photoacoustic tomography (PAT), and delay-and-sum beamforming PA imaging was conducted. In PAT, we compared the imaging quality using different sizes of detectors with similar noise-equivalent pressures and the same wideband response: 500 μm hydrophone and 100, 60, and 40 μm microrings. The results show significantly improved imaging contrast and high resolution over the whole imaging region using smaller size detectors. The uniform high resolution in PAT imaging using 40 μm microrings indicates the potential to resolve microvasculature over a large imaging region. The improved lateral resolution of two-dimensional and three-dimensional delay-and-sum beamforming PA imaging using a synthetic array demonstrate another advantageous application of small microrings. The small microrings can also be applied to other ultrasound-related imaging applications.

  3. The Dynamics of Small-Sized Ensembles of the Phase-Locked Loops with Unidirectional Couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleshin, K. N.; V. Matrosov, V.; Shalfeev, V. D.

    2016-06-01

    We study collective dynamics of a small-sized chain of the unidirectionally coupled phase-locked loop. The conditions for the synchronous-regime existence are found, the asynchronous selfoscillation regimes and the transitions among them are studied, and the property of inheriting the structure of the parameter space of the chain when a new element is added to it is established.

  4. Key Influencing Factors behind Moodle Adoption in Irish Small to Medium Sized Higher Education Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, David; Livadas, Lelia; Miles, Gail

    2011-01-01

    This research investigated Irish Small to Medium Sized Educational Institutions (SMSEs) involved in Higher Education (HE) that adopted Moodle, the OSS (Open Source Software) course management system (CMS). As Moodle has only been adopted in the Irish HE sector in the last 5-7 years, this research crucially studied the attitudes of the SMSEs that…

  5. 78 FR 42484 - Small Entity Size Standards Under the Regulatory Flexibility Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... carriers with revenues that would bring them within the Class III definition. 68 FR 24,891 (2003); see also 62 FR 43,024 (1997). The SBA's Office of Advocacy has been consulted with respect to the Board's... Surface Transportation Board 49 CFR Chapter X Small Entity Size Standards Under the Regulatory...

  6. Toward a Singleton Undergraduate Computer Graphics Course in Small and Medium-Sized Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shesh, Amit

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the evolution of a single undergraduate computer graphics course over five semesters, driven by a primary question: if one could offer only one undergraduate course in graphics, what would it include? This constraint is relevant to many small and medium-sized colleges that lack resources, adequate expertise, and enrollment…

  7. An Agile Methodology for Implementing Service-Oriented Architecture in Small and Medium Sized Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laidlaw, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of Lean/Agile principles, using action research to develop and deploy new technology for Small and Medium sized enterprises. The research case was conducted at the Lapeer County Sheriff's Department and involves the initial deployment of a Service Oriented Architecture to alleviate the data…

  8. Small for Size and Flow (SFSF) syndrome: An alternative description for posthepatectomy liver failure.

    PubMed

    Golriz, Mohammad; Majlesara, Ali; El Sakka, Saroa; Ashrafi, Maryam; Arwin, Jalal; Fard, Nassim; Raisi, Hanna; Edalatpour, Arman; Mehrabi, Arianeb

    2016-06-01

    Small for Size Syndrome (SFSS) syndrome is a recognizable clinical syndrome occurring in the presence of a reduced mass of liver, which is insufficient to maintain normal liver function. A definition has yet to be fully clarified, but it is a common clinical syndrome following partial liver transplantation and extended hepatectomy, which is characterized by postoperative liver dysfunction with prolonged cholestasis and coagulopathy, portal hypertension, and ascites. So far, this syndrome has been discussed with focus on the remnant size of the liver after partial liver transplantation or extended hepatectomy. However, the current viewpoints believe that the excessive flow of portal vein for the volume of the liver parenchyma leads to over-pressure, sinusoidal endothelial damages and haemorrhage. The new hypothesis declares that in both extended hepatectomy and partial liver transplantation, progression of Small for Size Syndrome is not determined only by the "size" of the liver graft or remnant, but by the hemodynamic parameters of the hepatic circulation, especially portal vein flow. Therefore, we suggest the term "Small for Size and Flow (SFSF)" for this syndrome. We believe that it is important for liver surgeons to know the pathogenesis and manifestation of this syndrome to react early enough preventing non-reversible tissue damages. PMID:26516057

  9. Pioglitazone enhances small-sized adipocyte proliferation in subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Kajita, Kazuo; Mori, Ichiro; Hanamoto, Takayuki; Ikeda, Takahide; Fujioka, Kei; Yamauchi, Masahiro; Okada, Hideyuki; Usui, Taro; Takahashi, Noriko; Kitada, Yoshihiko; Taguchi, Kohichiro; Kajita, Toshiko; Uno, Yoshihiro; Morita, Hiroyuki; Ishizuka, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    The possibility that mature adipocytes proliferate has not been fully investigated. In this study, we demonstrate that adipocytes can proliferate. 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled adipocyte like cells, most of which were less than 30 μm in diameter, were observed in adipose tissue. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was simultaneously detected in BrdU-labeled nuclei. Observation of individual mature adipocytes of smeared specimens on glass slides revealed that small sized adipocytes more frequently incorporated BrdU. Cultured mature adipocytes using the ceiling-cultured method showed clustering of proliferating cells in small-sized adipocytes. These small cultured adipocytes, but not large ones, extensively incorporated BrdU. Quantified analysis of BrdU incorporation demonstrated that mature visceral adipocytes, including epididymal, mesenteric and perirenal adipocytes, proliferated more actively than subcutaneous ones. On the other hand, treatment with pioglitazone (Pio), a ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, containing food for 2w, elevated BrdU incorporation and expression of PCNA in mature adipocytes isolated from subcutaneous, but not visceral adipose tissue. Moreover, Pio induced increased BrdU-labeled small-sized subcutaneous adipocytes, which was associated with an increased number of total small adipocytes in subcutaneous adipose tissue. In conclusion, mature adipocytes have a subgroup representing the potential to replicate, and this proliferation is more active in visceral adipocytes. Treatment with Pio increases proliferation in subcutaneous adipocytes. These results may explain the mechanism of Pio-induced hyperplasia especially in subcutaneous adipocytes.

  10. Body size and the small branch niche: using marsupial ontogeny to model primate locomotor evolution.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Liza J; Young, Jesse W; VandeBerg, John L

    2014-03-01

    Recently proposed ancestral locomotor and morphological 'stages' leading to the evolution of primates have emphasized small body size, and a transition from a clawed non-grasping stage, to a clawed, grasping stage with clawless opposable hallux, to a fully-nailed primate with grasping extremities. This evolutionary transition was presumably associated with frequent use of the small branch niche. To model elements of these evolutionary transitions, we investigate how body size, substrate size, substrate orientation and grasping morphology interact to influence quadrupedal kinematics within and between ontogenetic samples of two small-bodied marsupials, one arboreal (Petaurus breviceps) and the other mainly terrestrial (Monodelphis domestica). Longitudinal morphometric and kinematic data were collected from four juvenile P. breviceps (33-75 g) and two juvenile M. domestica (18-95 g) walking across poles of three diameters (2.5, 1.0, and 0.5 cm) and three orientations (horizontal, 30° incline, 30° decline). The two species responded similarly to some substrate conditions, but diverged in response to others. Kinematic divergence between the two species reflects Monodelphis' relatively shorter digits, reduced grasping ability and greater need for stabilizing mechanisms on narrow substrates. At a given relative body size or pole orientation, Monodelphis used higher limb duty factors, more limbs in support per stride, lower limb phases, and in some conditions, faster speeds compared with Petaurus. Interspecific differences were the least distinct on declined poles, highlighting the particular challenge of this substrate condition, even for arboreally adapted species. Small-bodied, arboreal primate ancestors would likely have employed the kinematic mechanisms common to our model taxa, but those with enhanced grasping adaptations would most likely not have required the increased level of stabilizing mechanisms exhibited by Monodelphis. Thus, using these two species

  11. Children and Adults Use Physical Size and Numerical Alliances in Third-Party Judgments of Dominance

    PubMed Central

    Lourenco, Stella F.; Bonny, Justin W.; Schwartz, Bari L.

    2016-01-01

    Humans and other social animals interact regularly with conspecifics as part of affiliative groups. Many of these interactions are cooperative, but many others involve competition for resources. Competitive exchanges are often resolved on the basis of dominance relationships, with higher-ranking individuals receiving priority access to desired goods. Although no single cue can establish permanent dominance relationships, there are some cues that predict dominance fairly reliably across context. In the present study, we focused on two such cues relevant to competing groups: (i) the physical sizes of individual members, and (ii) their relative number. Using a social competition task, we examined whether, and how, preschool-aged children and adults used differences in physical size and numerical alliances to judge which of two groups should prevail in a competitive exchange for a desired object. These judgments were made when either physical size or number differed between groups (Experiment 1), and when both were available but pitted against each other (Experiments 1 and 2). Our findings revealed that by 3 years of age, humans use multiple perceptible cues in third-party judgments of dominance. Our findings also revealed that 3-year-olds, like adults, weighted these cues flexibly according to the additional factor of overall group size, with the physical sizes of individuals determining dominance in smaller groups (e.g., 2 vs. 4 characters) and the relative number of individuals determining dominance in larger groups (e.g., 15 vs. 30 characters). Taken together, our findings suggest that a basic formula for determining dominance in competitive exchanges, which weights physical size of individuals and numerical alliances as a function of overall group size, is available to young children and appears fairly stable through to adulthood. PMID:26793158

  12. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hum Na, Yong; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George

    2010-07-01

    Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals' size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms—modeled entirely in mesh surfaces—of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte

  13. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms.

    PubMed

    Na, Yong Hum; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F; Xu, X George

    2010-07-01

    Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals' size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms--modeled entirely in mesh surfaces--of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte Carlo

  14. Size effects on Raman spectra of small CdSe nanoparticles in polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhagan, V. M.; Valakh, M. Ya; Raevskaya, A. E.; Stroyuk, A. L.; Kuchmiy, S. Ya; Zahn, D. R. T.

    2008-07-01

    The results of a resonant Raman scattering (RRS) study of polymer-stabilized colloidal CdSe nanoparticles (NPs) are reported. The size-selective nature of the RRS is demonstrated by analysing the NP ensembles with different average size \\bar {d} and size distribution Δd using a set of excitation wavelengths. The effect of size selection on the estimation of \\bar {d} and Δd values from the RRS spectra is discussed, as well as some peculiarities of RRS on surface optical phonons. From the experimentally observed small variation of the I2LO/ILO ratio for 2-5 nm NPs a minor effect of \\bar {d} on the electron-phonon coupling strength in this \\bar {d} range is supposed.

  15. Small- and Medium-Sized Commercial Building Monitoring and Controls Needs: A Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Underhill, Ronald M.; Goddard, James K.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Piette, M. A.; Granderson, J.; Brown, Rich E.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; Kuruganti, T.

    2012-10-31

    Buildings consume over 40% of the total energy consumption in the U.S. A significant portion of the energy consumed in buildings is wasted because of the lack of controls or the inability to use existing building automation systems (BASs) properly. Much of the waste occurs because of our inability to manage and controls buildings efficiently. Over 90% of the buildings are either small-size (<5,000 sf) or medium-size (between 5,000 sf and 50,000 sf); these buildings currently do not use BASs to monitor and control their building systems from a central location. According to Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), about 10% of the buildings in the U.S. use BASs or central controls to manage their building system operations. Buildings that use BASs are typically large (>100,000 sf). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP) to identify monitoring and control needs for small- and medium-sized commercial buildings and recommend possible solutions. This study documents the needs and solutions for small- and medium-sized buildings.

  16. Deformation twinning in small-sized face-centred cubic single crystals: Experiments and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Z. Y.; Huang, M. X.

    2015-12-01

    Small-sized crystals generally show deformation behaviour distinct from their bulk counterparts. In addition to dislocation slip, deformation twinning in small-sized face-centred cubic (FCC) single crystals has been reported to follow a different mechanism which involves coherent emission of partial dislocations on successive { 111 } planes from free surface. The present work employed a twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel with a low stacking fault energy to systematically investigate the twin evolution in small-sized FCC single crystals. Micrometre-sized single crystal pillars of TWIP steel were fabricated by focus ion beam and then strained to different levels by compression experiments. Detailed transmission electron microscopy characterization was carried out to obtain a quantitative evaluation of the deformation twins, which contribute to most of the plastic strain. Emissions of partial dislocations from free surface (surface sources) and pre-existing perfect dislocations inside the pillar (inner sources) are found as the essential processes for the formation of deformation twins. Accordingly, a physically-based model, which integrates source introduction methods and source activation criterions for partial dislocation emission, is developed to quantitatively predict the twin evolution. The model is able to reproduce the experimental twin evolution, in terms of the total twin formation, the twin morphology and the occurrence of twinning burst.

  17. Association of Overweight with Food Portion Size among Adults of São Paulo – Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Aline; Crispim, Sandra Patricia; Marchioni, Dirce Maria; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2016-01-01

    Background Although studies show that portion size affects energy intake, few have demonstrated a link between portion size and weight status, especially in free-living populations. The objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between food portion sizes and overweight in a representative population of adults of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional population-based study with 1005 adults from São Paulo, Brazil. Dietary data were obtained from two 24-hour recalls. Reported foods were classified into groups and energy contribution, prevalence of consumers and portion sizes were calculated. Individuals were classified according to BMI in with and without overweight. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between food portion sizes and being overweight. Results The most consumed food groups were: beans, breads/rolls, coffee/tea, milk, rice, and sugar. Rice, red meat, breads/rolls, and white meat were the groups with the highest percentage of contribution to total energy intake. Butter/margarine, toasts/biscuits, sugar, and cakes were the groups with the highest energy density. After adjustment for confounding variables, overweight was associated with larger portions of pizza (OR = 1.052; p = 0.048), red meat (OR = 1.025; p = 0.043), rice (OR = 1.033; p<0.001), salted snacks (OR = 1.078; p = 0.022), and soft drinks (OR = 1.016; p = 0.007). Conclusions Larger portions of few food groups with different energy densities were associated with being overweight, suggesting that overweight may be related to the consumption of larger portion sizes of a series of food groups, not a food group alone. Additionally, we highlight the importance of considering underreporting as a confounding factor in these associations. PMID:27706222

  18. Scale-Dependent Habitat Selection and Size-Based Dominance in Adult Male American Alligators.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Bradley A; Vilella, Francisco J; Belant, Jerrold L

    2016-01-01

    Habitat selection is an active behavioral process that may vary across spatial and temporal scales. Animals choose an area of primary utilization (i.e., home range) then make decisions focused on resource needs within patches. Dominance may affect the spatial distribution of conspecifics and concomitant habitat selection. Size-dependent social dominance hierarchies have been documented in captive alligators, but evidence is lacking from wild populations. We studied habitat selection for adult male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis; n = 17) on the Pearl River in central Mississippi, USA, to test whether habitat selection was scale-dependent and individual resource selectivity was a function of conspecific body size. We used K-select analysis to quantify selection at the home range scale and patches within the home range to determine selection congruency and important habitat variables. In addition, we used linear models to determine if body size was related to selection patterns and strengths. Our results indicated habitat selection of adult male alligators was a scale-dependent process. Alligators demonstrated greater overall selection for habitat variables at the patch level and less at the home range level, suggesting resources may not be limited when selecting a home range for animals in our study area. Further, diurnal habitat selection patterns may depend on thermoregulatory needs. There was no relationship between resource selection or home range size and body size, suggesting size-dependent dominance hierarchies may not have influenced alligator resource selection or space use in our sample. Though apparent habitat suitability and low alligator density did not manifest in an observed dominance hierarchy, we hypothesize that a change in either could increase intraspecific interactions, facilitating a dominance hierarchy. Due to the broad and diverse ecological roles of alligators, understanding the factors that influence their social dominance

  19. Scale-Dependent Habitat Selection and Size-Based Dominance in Adult Male American Alligators

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Bradley A.; Vilella, Francisco J.; Belant, Jerrold L.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat selection is an active behavioral process that may vary across spatial and temporal scales. Animals choose an area of primary utilization (i.e., home range) then make decisions focused on resource needs within patches. Dominance may affect the spatial distribution of conspecifics and concomitant habitat selection. Size-dependent social dominance hierarchies have been documented in captive alligators, but evidence is lacking from wild populations. We studied habitat selection for adult male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis; n = 17) on the Pearl River in central Mississippi, USA, to test whether habitat selection was scale-dependent and individual resource selectivity was a function of conspecific body size. We used K-select analysis to quantify selection at the home range scale and patches within the home range to determine selection congruency and important habitat variables. In addition, we used linear models to determine if body size was related to selection patterns and strengths. Our results indicated habitat selection of adult male alligators was a scale-dependent process. Alligators demonstrated greater overall selection for habitat variables at the patch level and less at the home range level, suggesting resources may not be limited when selecting a home range for animals in our study area. Further, diurnal habitat selection patterns may depend on thermoregulatory needs. There was no relationship between resource selection or home range size and body size, suggesting size-dependent dominance hierarchies may not have influenced alligator resource selection or space use in our sample. Though apparent habitat suitability and low alligator density did not manifest in an observed dominance hierarchy, we hypothesize that a change in either could increase intraspecific interactions, facilitating a dominance hierarchy. Due to the broad and diverse ecological roles of alligators, understanding the factors that influence their social dominance

  20. Adult Body Size, Hormone Receptor Status, and Premenopausal Breast Cancer Risk in a Multiethnic Population

    PubMed Central

    John, Esther M.; Sangaramoorthy, Meera; Phipps, Amanda I.; Koo, Jocelyn; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.

    2011-01-01

    Large body size has been associated with a reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer in non-Hispanic white women. Data on other racial/ethnic populations are limited. The authors examined the association between premenopausal breast cancer risk and adult body size in 672 cases and 808 controls aged ≥35 years from a population-based case-control study conducted in 1995–2004 in the San Francisco Bay Area (Hispanics: 375 cases, 483 controls; African Americans: 154 cases, 160 controls; non-Hispanic whites: 143 cases, 165 controls). Multivariate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Height was associated with increased breast cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quartile: odds ratio = 1.77, 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 2.53; Ptrend < 0.01); the association did not vary by hormone receptor status or race/ethnicity. Body mass index (measured as weight (kg) divided by height (m) squared) was inversely associated with risk in all 3 racial/ethnic groups, but only for estrogen receptor– and progesterone receptor–positive tumors (body mass index ≥30 vs. <25: odds ratio = 0.42; 95% confidence interval: 0.29, 0.61). Other body size measures (current weight, body build, adult weight gain, young adult weight and body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio) were similarly inversely associated with risk of estrogen receptor– and progesterone receptor–positive breast cancer but not estrogen receptor– and progesterone receptor–negative disease. Despite racial/ethnic differences in body size, inverse associations were similar across the 3 racial/ethnic groups when stratified by hormone receptor status. PMID:21084558

  1. Estimating the Correlation in Bivariate Normal Data with Known Variances and Small Sample Sizes1

    PubMed Central

    Fosdick, Bailey K.; Raftery, Adrian E.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of estimating the correlation in bivariate normal data when the means and variances are assumed known, with emphasis on the small sample case. We consider eight different estimators, several of them considered here for the first time in the literature. In a simulation study, we found that Bayesian estimators using the uniform and arc-sine priors outperformed several empirical and exact or approximate maximum likelihood estimators in small samples. The arc-sine prior did better for large values of the correlation. For testing whether the correlation is zero, we found that Bayesian hypothesis tests outperformed significance tests based on the empirical and exact or approximate maximum likelihood estimators considered in small samples, but that all tests performed similarly for sample size 50. These results lead us to suggest using the posterior mean with the arc-sine prior to estimate the correlation in small samples when the variances are assumed known. PMID:23378667

  2. Increasing body size among adult cook islanders between 1966 and 1996.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, S J

    2001-01-01

    There is limited evidence of a secular trend toward increased body size among populations in the Pacific Region, although some populations have shown a clear rise in overweight and obesity across the past 30 years or so. Mean height, weight and body mass index (BMI) of adults surveyed in 1996 on Rarotonga, the Cook Islands, are reported by age group and compared with data collected in 1966 by Evans and Prior, to determine the extent to which a secular trend in increasing body size has taken place across this 30-year period. In addition, a comparison of these anthropometric variables between subjects born on the most modernized island of Rarotonga with those born on other less-modernized islands is made, to determine the extent to which adult body size differs according to place of origin. Comparing the sample of those born on Rarotonga, the most modernized island, with those born on other, less modernized islands shows those born on Rarotonga to be taller, but not relatively heavier than those born elsewhere in the Cook Islands. Both males and females of the 1996 sample of adults are significantly taller, heavier, with higher BMI compared with the 1966 sample, indicating a secular trend toward increased body size across this 30-year period. The mean BMIs of the younger age groups in 1996 are greater than those of the same age groups in 1966, indicating a secular trend toward greater body fatness. There has been a significant increase in obesity among both males and females. In 1966, 14% of males had a BMI greater than 30, while in 1996, the proportion was 52%. Among females, 44% of those measured in 1966 had a BMI greater than 30, while in 1996 the proportion was 57%. The higher mean stature of younger adult males relative to older ones suggests that the secular trend toward increasing height may have been underway prior to 1966. The mean statures and weights of adults aged 60 years and older in the 1996 sample are more similar to values given for most age groups

  3. Pen size and parity effects on maternal behaviour of Small-Tail Han sheep.

    PubMed

    Lv, S-J; Yang, Y; Dwyer, C M; Li, F-K

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of pen size and parity on maternal behaviour of twin-bearing Small-Tail Han ewes. A total of 24 ewes were allocated to a 2×2 design (six per pen), with parity (primiparous or multiparous) and pen size (large: 6.0×3.0 m; small: 6.0×1.5 m) as main effects at Linyi University, Shandong Province, China. Behaviour was observed from after parturition until weaning. All ewes were observed for 6 h every 5 days from 0700 to1000 h and from 1400 to 1700 h. Continuous focal animal sampling was used to quantify the duration of maternal behaviours: sucking, grooming and following as well as the frequency of udder accepting, udder refusing and low-pitched bleating. Oestradiol and cortisol concentrations in the faeces (collected in the morning every 5 days) were detected using EIA kits. All lambs were weighed 24 h after parturition and again at weaning at 35 days of age. The small pen size significantly reduced following (P<0.005), grooming (P<0.001) and suckling durations (P<0.05), as well as the frequency of udder refusals (P<0.001). However, there was a significant interaction with ewe parity, with decreased grooming and suckling in the small pen largely seen in the multiparous ewes (P<0.001). Independent of pen size, multiparous ewes accepted more sucking attempts by their lambs (P<0.05) and made more low-pitched bleats than primiparous ewes (P<0.001). Multiparous ewes had higher faecal oestradiol concentrations than primiparous ewes (P<0.001), and ewes in small pens had higher faecal cortisol levels compared with ewes in larger pens (P<0.001). As lambs increased in age, the duration of maternal grooming, following and suckling as well as frequency of udder acceptance and low-pitched bleating all declined, and the frequency of udder refusing increased (P<0.001 for all). Ewe parity, but not pen size, affected lamb weight gain during the period of observation (P<0.001). This is the first study to show that pen size

  4. The sexual identity of adult intestinal stem cells controls organ size and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Hudry, Bruno; Khadayate, Sanjay; Miguel-Aliaga, Irene

    2016-02-18

    Sex differences in physiology and disease susceptibility are commonly attributed to developmental and/or hormonal factors, but there is increasing realization that cell-intrinsic mechanisms play important and persistent roles. Here we use the Drosophila melanogaster intestine to investigate the nature and importance of cellular sex in an adult somatic organ in vivo. We find that the adult intestinal epithelium is a cellular mosaic of different sex differentiation pathways, and displays extensive sex differences in expression of genes with roles in growth and metabolism. Cell-specific reversals of the sexual identity of adult intestinal stem cells uncovers the key role this identity has in controlling organ size, reproductive plasticity and response to genetically induced tumours. Unlike previous examples of sexually dimorphic somatic stem cell activity, the sex differences in intestinal stem cell behaviour arise from intrinsic mechanisms that control cell cycle duration and involve a new doublesex- and fruitless-independent branch of the sex differentiation pathway downstream of transformer. Together, our findings indicate that the plasticity of an adult somatic organ is reversibly controlled by its sexual identity, imparted by a new mechanism that may be active in more tissues than previously recognized. PMID:26887495

  5. The sexual identity of adult intestinal stem cells controls organ size and plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Hudry, Bruno; Khadayate, Sanjay; Miguel-Aliaga, Irene

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Sex differences in physiology and disease susceptibility are commonly attributed to developmental and/or hormonal factors, but there is increasing realisation that cell-intrinsic mechanisms play important and persistent roles1,2. Here we use the Drosophila melanogaster intestine to investigate the nature and significance of cellular sex in an adult somatic organ in vivo. We find that the adult intestinal epithelium is a cellular mosaic of different sex differentiation pathways, and displays extensive sex differences in expression of genes with roles in growth and metabolism. Cell-specific reversals of the sexual identity of adult intestinal stem cells uncover its key roles in controlling organ size, its reproductive plasticity and its response to genetically induced tumours. Unlike previous examples of sexually dimorphic somatic stem cell activity, the sex differences in intestinal stem cell behaviour arise from intrinsic mechanisms, which control cell cycle duration and involve a new doublesex- and fruitless-independent branch of the sex differentiation pathway downstream of transformer. Together, our findings indicate that the plasticity of an adult somatic organ is reversibly controlled by its sexual identity, imparted by a new mechanism that may be active in more tissues than previously recognised. PMID:26887495

  6. Small and large size for gestational age and neighborhood deprivation measured within increasing proximity to homes

    PubMed Central

    Wentz, Anna E.; Messer, Lynne C.; Nguyen, Thuan; Boone-Heinonen, Janne

    2015-01-01

    Neighborhood deprivation is consistently associated with greater risk of low birthweight. However, large birth size is increasingly relevant but overlooked in neighborhood health research, and proximity within which neighborhood deprivation may affect birth outcomes is unknown. We estimated race/ethnic-specific effects of neighborhood deprivation index (NDI) within 1, 3, 5, and 8 km buffers around Oregon Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (n=3,716; 2004-2007) respondents’ homes on small and large for gestational age (SGA, LGA). NDI was positively associated with LGA and SGA in most race/ethnic groups. The results varied little across the four buffer sizes. PMID:25240489

  7. Communication: Kirkwood-Buff integrals in the thermodynamic limit from small-sized molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortes-Huerto, R.; Kremer, K.; Potestio, R.

    2016-10-01

    We present an accurate and efficient method to obtain Kirkwood-Buff (KB) integrals in the thermodynamic limit from small-sized molecular dynamics simulations. By introducing finite size effects into integral equations of statistical mechanics, we derive an analytical expression connecting the KB integrals of the bulk system with the fluctuations of the number of molecules in the corresponding closed system. We validate the method by calculating the activity coefficients of aqueous urea mixtures and the KB integrals of Lennard-Jones fluids. Moreover, our results demonstrate how to identify simulation conditions under which computer simulations reach the thermodynamic limit.

  8. Occupational safety and health in small and medium-sized enterprises during social and economic transformation.

    PubMed

    Koradecka, D

    2001-01-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Central and Eastern Europe at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s were characterised by many people exposed to hazardous working conditions. Statistics recorded a considerable increase in the number of occupational diseases. They also showed that it was more dangerous to work for a small company. The transition from planned to market economy has brought about an increase in the number of SMEs in Poland. Data on them are provided. The role of the Central Institute for Labour Protection in studying SMEs is presented. A pilot study of employers and employees is discussed.

  9. Estimating total population size for adult female sea turtles: Accounting for non-nesters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, W.L.; Richardson, J.I.; Rees, Alan F.

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of population size and changes therein is important to sea turtle management and population or life history research. Investigators might be interested in testing hypotheses about the effect of current population size or density (number of animals per unit resource) on future population processes. Decision makers might want to determine a level of allowable take of individual turtles of specified life stage. Nevertheless, monitoring most stages of sea turtle life histories is difficult, because obtaining access to individuals is difficult. Although in-water assessments are becoming more common, nesting females and their hatchlings remain the most accessible life stages. In some cases adult females of a given nesting population are sufficiently philopatric that the population itself can be well defined. If a well designed tagging study is conducted on this population, survival, breeding probability, and the size of the nesting population in a given year can be estimated. However, with published statistical methodology the size of the entire breeding population (including those females skipping nesting in that year) cannot be estimated without assuming that each adult female in this population has the same probability of nesting in a given year (even those that had just nested in the previous year). We present a method for estimating the total size of a breeding population (including nesters those skipping nesting) from a tagging study limited to the nesting population, allowing for the probability of nesting in a given year to depend on an individual's nesting status in the previous year (i.e., a Markov process). From this we further develop estimators for rate of growth from year to year in both nesting population and total breeding population, and the proportion of the breeding population that is breeding in a given year. We also discuss assumptions and apply these methods to a breeding population of hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) from

  10. Services Supporting Knowledge Maturing in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Ronald

    The hype around Web 2.0 has again sparked tremendous interest in IT-supported knowledge management and technology-enhanced learning in organizations. Although there has been abundant evidence of how to benefit from Web 2.0 technologies, information on how to go about deploying these in small and medium-sized enterprises in a coordinated manner are scarce. Based on the findings of an empirical study and an ethnographically informed study on knowledge maturing, this paper suggests a set of knowledge services to support a series of knowledge actions chained with the help of the knowledge maturing model. This set of services can be used by small and medium-sized enterprises for analyzing IT tools and systems which currently support their employees’ knowledge maturing activities, to foster knowledge cooperation with customers, suppliers and partners in their business environment and to find gaps which can be filled particularly by consuming services over the Web.

  11. Cancer Bioinformatic Methods to Infer Meaningful Data From Small-Size Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Bennani-Baiti, Nabila; Bennani-Baiti, Idriss M

    2015-01-01

    Whole-genome analyses have uncovered that most cancer-relevant genes cluster into 12 signaling pathways. Knowledge of the signaling pathways and associated gene signatures not only allows us to understand the mechanisms of oncogenesis inherent to specific cancers but also provides us with drug targets, molecular diagnostic and prognosis factors, as well as biomarkers for patient risk stratification and treatment. Publicly available genomic data sets constitute a wealth of gene mining opportunities for hypothesis generation and testing. However, the increasingly recognized genetic and epigenetic inter- and intratumor heterogeneity, combined with the preponderance of small-size cohorts, hamper reliable analysis and discovery. Here, we review two methods that are used to infer meaningful biological events from small-size data sets and discuss some of their applications and limitations.

  12. Resilient campuses: leveraging resources among small- and moderate-sized institutions of higher education.

    PubMed

    Green, Rebekah

    2014-01-01

    Universities and colleges provide students with an opportunity to grow personally and professionally through a structured series of learning experiences. Yet disasters can interrupt traditional place-based education and prove to be intractable policy problems. The challenges of developing robust plans and drilling them extensively are most pronounced among smaller public colleges and universities. This article describes how three small- to moderate-sized higher education institutions formed a consortium to better prepare for emergencies, despite limited resources. Together the institutions built common templates, hired joint staff, and created a suit of joint exercises appropriate for their small size and campus-specific needs. In the process, they shared unique perspectives that improved resilience across the institutions.

  13. Using hyperspectral image enhancement method for small size object detection on the sea surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lu; Noro, Naoki; Takara, Yohei; Ando, Fuminori; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2015-10-01

    Small size object detection in vast ocean plays an important role in rescues after accident or disaster. One of the promising approach is a hyperspectral imaging system (HIS). However, due to the limitation of HIS sensor's resolution, interested target might occupy only several pixels or less in the image, it's difficult to detect small object, moreover the sun glint of the sea surface make it even more difficult. In this paper, we propose an image analysis technique suitable for the computer aided detection of small objects on the sea surface, especially humans. We firstly separate objects from background by adapting a previously proposed image enhancement method and then apply a linear unmixing method to define the endmember's spectrum. At last, we use spectral angle mapping method to classify presented objects and thus detect small size object. The proposed system provides the following results for supporting the detection of humans and other small objects on the sea surface; an image with spectral color enhancement, alerts of various objects, and the human detection results. This multilayered approach is expected to reduce the oversight, i.e., false negative error. Results of the proposed technique have been compared with existent methods, and our method has successfully enhance the hyperspectral image, and detect small object from the sea surface with high human detection rate, shows the ability to further detection of human in this study). The result are less influenced by the sun glint effects. This study helps recognizing small objects on the sea surface, and it leads to advances in the rescuing system using aircraft equipped HIS technology.

  14. Pore size distribution of shaley rock by small angle neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, P. L.; Mildner, D. F. R.; Borst, R. L.

    1983-08-01

    Information concerning pore microstructure of shaly rocks is of considerable relevance to petroleum exploration and production. Pore sizes and distributions within shaly samples have been determined by small angle neutron scattering. The data are indicative of a considerable spread of pore dimension, showing inhomogeneities with a range from 20 Å and greater. The cumulative pore volumes are compared with those derived from mercury intrusion porosimetry and nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms.

  15. Pore size distribution of shaly rock by small angle neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, P.L.; Mildner, D.F.R.; Borst, R.L.

    1983-08-01

    Information concerning pore microstructure of shaly rocks is of considerable relevance to petroleum exploration and production. Pore sizes and distributions within shaly samples have been determined by small angle neutron scattering. The data are indicative of a considerable spread of pore dimension, showing inhomogeneities with a range from 20 A and greater. The cumulative pore volumes are compared with those derived from mercury intrusion porosimetry and nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms.

  16. The Role of Body Size in Mate Selection among African American Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Leslie G.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2016-01-01

    A profusion of studies have demonstrated that body size is a major factor in mate selection for both men and women. The particular role played by weight, however, has been subject to some debate, particularly with respect to the types of body sizes deemed most attractive, and scholars have questioned the degree to which body size preferences are constant across groups. In this paper, we drew from two perspectives on this issue, Sexual Strategies Theory and what we termed the cultural variability perspective, and used survey data to examine how body size was associated with both casual dating and serious romantic relationships. We used a United States sample of 386 African American adolescents and young adults between ages 16 and 21, living in the Midwest and Southeast, and who were enrolled in either high school or college. Results showed that overweight women were more likely to report casually dating than women in the thinnest weight category. Body size was not related to dating status among men. Among women, the results suggest stronger support for the cultural variability argument than for Sexual Strategies Theory. Potential explanations for these findings are discussed. PMID:26973377

  17. Consultant-Client Relationship and Knowledge Transfer in Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises Change Processes.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Luis F; Ferreira, Aristides I; Can, Amina B

    2016-04-01

    Based on Szulanski's knowledge transfer model, this study examined how the communicational, motivational, and sharing of understanding variables influenced knowledge transfer and change processes in small- and medium-sized enterprises, particularly under projects developed by funded programs. The sample comprised 144 entrepreneurs, mostly male (65.3%) and mostly ages 35 to 45 years (40.3%), who filled an online questionnaire measuring the variables of "sharing of understanding," "motivation," "communication encoding competencies," "source credibility," "knowledge transfer," and "organizational change." Data were collected between 2011 and 2012 and measured the relationship between clients and consultants working in a Portuguese small- and medium-sized enterprise-oriented action learning program. To test the hypotheses, structural equation modeling was conducted to identify the antecedents of sharing of understanding, motivational, and communicational variables, which were positively correlated with the knowledge transfer between consultants and clients. This transfer was also positively correlated with organizational change. Overall, the study provides important considerations for practitioners and academicians and establishes new avenues for future studies concerning the issues of consultant-client relationship and the efficacy of Government-funded programs designed to improve performance of small- and medium-sized enterprises.

  18. Consultant-Client Relationship and Knowledge Transfer in Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises Change Processes.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Luis F; Ferreira, Aristides I; Can, Amina B

    2016-04-01

    Based on Szulanski's knowledge transfer model, this study examined how the communicational, motivational, and sharing of understanding variables influenced knowledge transfer and change processes in small- and medium-sized enterprises, particularly under projects developed by funded programs. The sample comprised 144 entrepreneurs, mostly male (65.3%) and mostly ages 35 to 45 years (40.3%), who filled an online questionnaire measuring the variables of "sharing of understanding," "motivation," "communication encoding competencies," "source credibility," "knowledge transfer," and "organizational change." Data were collected between 2011 and 2012 and measured the relationship between clients and consultants working in a Portuguese small- and medium-sized enterprise-oriented action learning program. To test the hypotheses, structural equation modeling was conducted to identify the antecedents of sharing of understanding, motivational, and communicational variables, which were positively correlated with the knowledge transfer between consultants and clients. This transfer was also positively correlated with organizational change. Overall, the study provides important considerations for practitioners and academicians and establishes new avenues for future studies concerning the issues of consultant-client relationship and the efficacy of Government-funded programs designed to improve performance of small- and medium-sized enterprises. PMID:27154382

  19. Born small, die young: Intrinsic, size-selective mortality in marine larval fish.

    PubMed

    Garrido, S; Ben-Hamadou, R; Santos, A M P; Ferreira, S; Teodósio, M A; Cotano, U; Irigoien, X; Peck, M A; Saiz, E; Ré, P

    2015-11-24

    Mortality during the early stages is a major cause of the natural variations in the size and recruitment strength of marine fish populations. In this study, the relation between the size-at-hatch and early survival was assessed using laboratory experiments and on field-caught larvae of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus). Larval size-at-hatch was not related to the egg size but was significantly, positively related to the diameter of the otolith-at-hatch. Otolith diameter-at-hatch was also significantly correlated with survival-at-age in fed and unfed larvae in the laboratory. For sardine larvae collected in the Bay of Biscay during the spring of 2008, otolith radius-at-hatch was also significantly related to viability. Larval mortality has frequently been related to adverse environmental conditions and intrinsic factors affecting feeding ability and vulnerability to predators. Our study offers evidence indicating that a significant portion of fish mortality occurs during the endogenous (yolk) and mixed (yolk /prey) feeding period in the absence of predators, revealing that marine fish with high fecundity, such as small pelagics, can spawn a relatively large amount of eggs resulting in small larvae with no chances to survive. Our findings help to better understand the mass mortalities occurring at early stages of marine fish.

  20. Born small, die young: Intrinsic, size-selective mortality in marine larval fish

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, S.; Ben-Hamadou, R.; Santos, A.M.P.; Ferreira, S.; Teodósio, M.A.; Cotano, U.; Irigoien, X.; Peck, M.A.; Saiz, E.; Ré, P.

    2015-01-01

    Mortality during the early stages is a major cause of the natural variations in the size and recruitment strength of marine fish populations. In this study, the relation between the size-at-hatch and early survival was assessed using laboratory experiments and on field-caught larvae of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus). Larval size-at-hatch was not related to the egg size but was significantly, positively related to the diameter of the otolith-at-hatch. Otolith diameter-at-hatch was also significantly correlated with survival-at-age in fed and unfed larvae in the laboratory. For sardine larvae collected in the Bay of Biscay during the spring of 2008, otolith radius-at-hatch was also significantly related to viability. Larval mortality has frequently been related to adverse environmental conditions and intrinsic factors affecting feeding ability and vulnerability to predators. Our study offers evidence indicating that a significant portion of fish mortality occurs during the endogenous (yolk) and mixed (yolk /prey) feeding period in the absence of predators, revealing that marine fish with high fecundity, such as small pelagics, can spawn a relatively large amount of eggs resulting in small larvae with no chances to survive. Our findings help to better understand the mass mortalities occurring at early stages of marine fish. PMID:26597385

  1. Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous ZnS with narrow size distribution of small pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nistor, L. C.; Mateescu, C. D.; Birjega, R.; Nistor, S. V.

    2008-08-01

    Pure, nanocrystalline cubic ZnS forming a stable mesoporous structure was synthesized at room temperature by a non-toxic surfactant-assisted liquid liquid reaction, in the 9.5 10.5 pH range of values. The appearance of an X-ray diffraction (XRD) peak in the region of very small angles (˜ 2°) reveals the presence of a porous material with a narrow pore size distribution, but with an irregular arrangement of the pores, a so-called worm hole or sponge-like material. The analysis of the wide angle XRD diffractograms shows the building blocks to be ZnS nanocrystals with cubic structure and average diameter of 2 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations confirm the XRD results; ZnS crystallites of 2.5 nm with cubic (blende) structure are the building blocks of the pore walls with pore sizes from 1.9 to 2.5 nm, and a broader size distribution for samples with smaller pores. Textural measurements (N2 adsorption desorption isotherms) confirm the presence of mesoporous ZnS with a narrow range of small pore sizes. The relatively lower surface area of around 100 m2/g is attributed to some remaining organic molecules, which are filling the smallest pores. Their presence, confirmed by IR spectroscopy, seems to be responsible for the high stability of the resulting mesoporous ZnS as well.

  2. Enhanced Z-LDA for Small Sample Size Training in Brain-Computer Interface Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Dongrui; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Tiejun; Li, Fali; Ma, Teng; Lv, Xulin; Li, Peiyang; Yao, Dezhong; Xu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Background. Usually the training set of online brain-computer interface (BCI) experiment is small. For the small training set, it lacks enough information to deeply train the classifier, resulting in the poor classification performance during online testing. Methods. In this paper, on the basis of Z-LDA, we further calculate the classification probability of Z-LDA and then use it to select the reliable samples from the testing set to enlarge the training set, aiming to mine the additional information from testing set to adjust the biased classification boundary obtained from the small training set. The proposed approach is an extension of previous Z-LDA and is named enhanced Z-LDA (EZ-LDA). Results. We evaluated the classification performance of LDA, Z-LDA, and EZ-LDA on simulation and real BCI datasets with different sizes of training samples, and classification results showed EZ-LDA achieved the best classification performance. Conclusions. EZ-LDA is promising to deal with the small sample size training problem usually existing in online BCI system. PMID:26550023

  3. A Study of Work and Emotionality in a Small Adult Instructional Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portal-Foster, Charles William George

    Objectives of the study were to investigate relationships between and among qualities of emotion and types or levels of work orientation in small adult instructional group interaction; to discern relationships and/or behavior patterns which would be tested under laboratory conditions; and to test the consistency and utility of the…

  4. A Handbook for a Small Halfway House for the Male Adolescent-Adult Retardate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Russell W.; Melanphy, Robert F.

    Presented are guidelines on planning and establishing a small, residential halfway house for the male adolescent/adult retardate in which mental health and use of the halfway house to replace institutionalization of selected retardates are emphasized. The halfway house is explained to be planned on premises of community participation and program…

  5. Adult and Continuing Education in Small and Island States: The Case of Malta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldacchino, Godfrey; Mayo, Peter

    1996-01-01

    From the experiences of a small island state such as Malta are derived features affecting adult continuing education: (1) emigration; (2) the urgency to retool labor; (3) need for flexible specialization or multifunctionality; (4) ease with which expert status can be assumed; and (5) cosmopolitan character. (SK)

  6. Adult Marketing Education for the Small Business Sector: A Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, William T., Jr.

    A study identified and analyzed adult marketing education services that have been and are currently being provided for the small business sector. The methodology involved a literature review and a mail survey of all secondary and postsecondary marketing education state supervisors listed in the 1985-86 State Supervisors Directory. Of the 54…

  7. Small sample sizes in the study of ontogenetic allometry; implications for palaeobiology

    PubMed Central

    Vavrek, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative morphometric analyses, particularly ontogenetic allometry, are common methods used in quantifying shape, and changes therein, in both extinct and extant organisms. Due to incompleteness and the potential for restricted sample sizes in the fossil record, palaeobiological analyses of allometry may encounter higher rates of error. Differences in sample size between fossil and extant studies and any resulting effects on allometric analyses have not been thoroughly investigated, and a logical lower threshold to sample size is not clear. Here we show that studies based on fossil datasets have smaller sample sizes than those based on extant taxa. A similar pattern between vertebrates and invertebrates indicates this is not a problem unique to either group, but common to both. We investigate the relationship between sample size, ontogenetic allometric relationship and statistical power using an empirical dataset of skull measurements of modern Alligator mississippiensis. Across a variety of subsampling techniques, used to simulate different taphonomic and/or sampling effects, smaller sample sizes gave less reliable and more variable results, often with the result that allometric relationships will go undetected due to Type II error (failure to reject the null hypothesis). This may result in a false impression of fewer instances of positive/negative allometric growth in fossils compared to living organisms. These limitations are not restricted to fossil data and are equally applicable to allometric analyses of rare extant taxa. No mathematically derived minimum sample size for ontogenetic allometric studies is found; rather results of isometry (but not necessarily allometry) should not be viewed with confidence at small sample sizes. PMID:25780770

  8. Only a small population of adult Sertoli cells actively proliferates in culture.

    PubMed

    Kulibin, Andrey Yu; Malolina, Ekaterina A

    2016-10-01

    Adult mammalian Sertoli cells (SCs) have been considered to be quiescent terminal differentiated cells for many years, but recently, proliferation of adult SCs was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo We further examined mouse SC behavior in culture and found that there are two populations of adult SCs. The first population is SCs from seminiferous tubules that hardly proliferate in vitro The second population is small and consists of SCs with atypical nuclear morphology from the terminal segments of seminiferous tubules, a transitional zone (TZ). TZ SCs multiply in culture and form colonies, display mixture of mature and immature SC characteristics, and generate cord-like structures in a collagen matrix. The specific features of TZ SCs are ACTA2 expression in vitro and DMRT1 low levels in vivo and in vitro Although the in vivo function of TZ SCs still remains unclear, this finding has significant implications for our understanding of SC differentiation and functioning in adult mammals.

  9. Sizes of abdominal organs in adults with severe short stature due to severe, untreated, congenital GH deficiency caused by a homozygous mutation in the GHRH receptor gene

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Carla R. P.; Salvatori, Roberto; Nóbrega, Luciana M. A.; Carvalho, Erick O. M.; Menezes, Menilson; Farias, Catarine T.; Britto, Allan V. O.; Pereira, Rossana M. C.; Aguiar-Oliveira, Manuel H.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Objective To assess the sizes of intra-abdominal organs of adult subjects with untreated severe congenital isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) due to lack of functional GHRH receptor (GHRH-R), and to verify whether there is proportionality between size of organ and adult stature and body surface area (BSA). Subjects and methods By using ultrasound, we studied the sizes (absolute and corrected by height, weight and BSA) of the intra-abdominal organs of 18 adult subjects with IGHD (eight females, IGHD group) who have never received GH replacement therapy. They were all homozygous for the same null mutation (IVS1 + 1G → A) in the GHRH receptor gene (GHRH-R). They were compared with normal controls from the same region. Results After correction for BSA, subjects lacking a functional GHRH-R have normal prostate and ovaries size, small spleen and uterus, and large liver, pancreas and kidney. Conclusions Size of individual abdominal organs is influenced in different ways by severe and congenital lack of GH due to a GHRH-R mutation. PMID:18034778

  10. [Application of health questionnaires for health management in small- and medium-sized enterprises].

    PubMed

    Kishida, K; Saito, M; Hasegawa, T; Aoki, S; Suzuki, S

    1986-01-01

    Two kinds of health questionnaires, the Todai Health Index (THI) and Cumulative Fatigue Index (CFI), were applied as a screening device for health management of workers belonging to small-medium sized enterprises. A total of 495 workers composed of 452 male workers of a glass-bottle manufacturing factory and 43 male workers of a soft-drink bottling factory were the subjects of the present study. It was found that the two kinds of health questionnaires were different from each other and have their own characteristics. Twelve scales of THI were grouped into two, the first consisting of ten scales (SUSY, RESP, EYSK, MOUT, DIGE, IMPU, MENT, DEPR, NERV, and LIFE) and the second consisting of two scales (AGGR and LISC). Nine categories of CFI were grouped into one by using principal factor analysis. It was confirmed that the twelve scale scores of THI obtained at small-medium sized factories differed from those scale scores of a reference group investigated at a large-sized enterprise. It is on the basis of the scales of aggressiveness and lies and also of the scale of mental unstability which characterizes workers, locality, job (clerical or field work), and size of industry (large or small sized) that the difference could be evaluated. Urban life characterized by a life style of staying up late at night and waking up late in the morning has been reflected on the scale of life irregularity. Irregularity of life induced by transformation of working schedule, such as two or three shifts of work and overtime, was also reflected on this scale. Two scales of THI test, i.e., many subjective symptoms and digestive organ complaints, seemed to be the representative scales indicating a close relation between work load and health level. The discriminant score for diagnosis of psychosomatic diseases is considered to be one of the most useful assessments of the individual's health condition. As mentioned above, THI is recommended as a convenient assessment method for health

  11. Size, distribution and sediment biodeposition of prolific bivalves in small estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callaway, Ruth; Grenfell, Suzanne; Bertelli, Chiara; Mendzil, Anouska; Moore, Jon

    2014-10-01

    The growth and distribution of bivalves in estuaries is generally driven by access to food, hydrodynamic forces and sedimentary conditions that facilitate recruitment and allow persistent settlement. Factors such as site elevation or sediment properties have a significant impact, but there are few studies quantifying the relative importance of different factors in an entire estuary. We carried out an estuary-wide survey of the cockle Cerastoderma edule L. by sampling 343 sites in a small estuary, the Burry Inlet in South Wales, UK. We determined the extent to which site elevation, as an indicator for the duration of feeding, sediment properties and position inside the estuary, explained variation in the size and density of the bivalve. We also analysed the production of faeces and pseudo-faeces per cockle. The population consisted almost entirely of 1-year old cockles, the average size was 14.7 ± 2.7 mm and the average density was 56 ± 189 cockles 0.1 m-2 (mean ± SD). Altogether 37% of the variation in size was explained by two factors: elevation of site (15%) and amount of clay & silt in sediments (22%). Variation in density appeared to play no significant role in determining size. Density was significantly linked to sediment properties (32%) and position inside the estuary (4%). Sediment biodeposition, the amount of material discharged per cockle, was 0.032 ± 0.017 g dry weight, the whole population thereby producing an estimated 387 tonnes of faeces and pseudo-faeces in the entire estuary per day. The study confirmed that access to food is a principal driver of growth, but the relatively small proportion of the variation in size explained by site elevation highlights that other factors play an important role. Sediment characteristics in particular were of importance to variation in size as well as density. It seems plausible that sediment properties were a proxy for factors such as bedload movement and exposure, which are more likely causal factors for

  12. Prognostic factors and survival in late adolescent and adult patients with small round cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Eralp, Yeşim; Bavbek, Sevil; Başaran, Mert; Kaytan, Esra; Yaman, Fulya; Bilgiç, Bilge; Darendeliler, Emin; Onat, Haluk

    2002-08-01

    The primary objective of this study is to review the clinical characteristics of 25 patients in the adult and late adolescent age group, diagnosed and treated with small round cell tumors involving soft tissues (extraosseous Ewing sarcoma, rhabdo-myosarcoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and undiffer-entiated small round cell tumors). Additionally, survival and prognostic factors influencing the outcome with multimodality treatment are evaluated. There were 19 males (76%) and 6 females (24%). The median age was 26 years (range: 15-56 years). In 9 patients (36%), the tumor was located at an extremity, whereas 16 patients (64%) had central localizations. Tumor size was larger than 10 cm in 7 patients (29.2%). Six patients (24%) had metastatic disease. Twelve patients (48%) received radiation and 16 patients (64%) underwent surgery. Among the resected tumors, 2 were resected with contaminated margins (12.5%), whereas 2 were radically resected and 12 (75%) were resected with wide margins. All patients were given a median of 4 cycles of multiagent chemotherapy (1-14 cycles). With preoperative chemotherapy, complete regression (CR) of the tumor was achieved in 6 patients (24%). In 4 patients (16%), a partial response was obtained. After the completion of multimodality treatment, 12 patients (48%) had a CR. Progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for the entire group was 25.0 +/- 10.8% at 1 year and 30.5 +/- 15.5% at 3 years, respectively. Nonmetastatic disease, wide and radical resection, and presence of CR to multimodality treatment were associated with a significantly longer PFS and OS by univariate analysis. By multivariate analysis, CR to multimodality treat-ment was the only independent predictive factor for a longer OS (p: 0.0036, relative risk [RR]: 23.6, 95% CI: 2.8; 198.7) and metastatic presentation was the only independent factor predic-tive for a shorter PFS (p: 0.017, RR. 15, 95% CI: 1.6; 141.2). Large-scale, multicenter studies are required for

  13. The relationship between organ dose and patient size in tube current modulated adult thoracic CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatonabadi, Maryam; Zhang, Di; Yang, Jeffrey; DeMarco, John J.; Cagnon, Chris C.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.

    2012-03-01

    Recently published AAPM Task Group 204 developed conversion coefficients that use scanner reported CTDIvol to estimate dose to the center of patient undergoing fixed tube current body exam. However, most performed CT exams use TCM to reduce dose to patients. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between organ dose and a variety of patient size metrics in adult chest CT scans that use tube current modulation (TCM). Monte Carlo simulations were performed for 32 voxelized models with contoured lungs and glandular breasts tissue, consisting of females and males. These simulations made use of patient's actual TCM data to estimate organ dose. Using image data, different size metrics were calculated, these measurements were all performed on one slice, at the level of patient's nipple. Estimated doses were normalized by scanner-reported CTDIvol and plotted versus different metrics. CTDIvol values were plotted versus different metrics to look at scanner's output versus size. The metrics performed similarly in terms of correlating with organ dose. Looking at each gender separately, for male models normalized lung dose showed a better linear correlation (r2=0.91) with effective diameter, while female models showed higher correlation (r2=0.59) with the anterior-posterior measurement. There was essentially no correlation observed between size and CTDIvol-normalized breast dose. However, a linear relationship was observed between absolute breast dose and size. Dose to lungs and breasts were consistently higher in females with similar size as males which could be due to shape and composition differences between genders in the thoracic region.

  14. Condensation on surface energy gradient shifts drop size distribution toward small drops.

    PubMed

    Macner, Ashley M; Daniel, Susan; Steen, Paul H

    2014-02-25

    During dropwise condensation from vapor onto a cooled surface, distributions of drops evolve by nucleation, growth, and coalescence. Drop surface coverage dictates the heat transfer characteristics and depends on both drop size and number of drops present on the surface at any given time. Thus, manipulating drop distributions is crucial to maximizing heat transfer. On earth, manipulation is achieved with gravity. However, in applications with small length scales or in low gravity environments, other methods of removal, such as a surface energy gradient, are required. This study examines how chemical modification of a cooled surface affects drop growth and coalescence, which in turn influences how a population of drops evolves. Steam is condensed onto a horizontally oriented surface that has been treated by silanization to deliver either a spatially uniform contact angle (hydrophilic, hydrophobic) or a continuous radial gradient of contact angles (hydrophobic to hydrophilic). The time evolution of number density and associated drop size distributions are measured. For a uniform surface, the shape of the drop size distribution is unique and can be used to identify the progress of condensation. In contrast, the drop size distribution for a gradient surface, relative to a uniform surface, shifts toward a population of small drops. The frequent sweeping of drops truncates maturation of the first generation of large drops and locks the distribution shape at the initial distribution. The absence of a shape change indicates that dropwise condensation has reached a steady state. Previous reports of heat transfer enhancement on chemical gradient surfaces can be explained by this shift toward smaller drops, from which the high heat transfer coefficients in dropwise condensation are attributed to. Terrestrial applications using gravity as the primary removal mechanism also stand to benefit from inclusion of gradient surfaces because the critical threshold size required for

  15. SU-E-T-611: Effective Treatment Volume of the Small Size IORT Applicators

    SciTech Connect

    Krechetov, A.S.; Goer, D.A.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose Mobile electron linear accelerators are gaining more attention recently, providing a lower cost and simpler way to perform intraoperative treatment. However, the simplicity of the treatment process does not eliminate the need for proper attention to the technical aspects of the treatment. One of the potential pitfalls is incorrect selection of the appropriate applicator size to adequately cover the tumor bed to the prescription dose. When treating tumor beds in the pelvis, the largest applicator that fits into the pelvis is usually selected as there is concern about microscopic extension of the disease along the sidewalls of the pelvis. But when treating early stage breast tumors, there is a natural tendency to select an applicator as small as possible so as not to jeopardize cosmesis. Methods This investigation questions how much of the typical breast treatment volume gets adequate exposure and what is the correct strategy in selecting the proper applicator size. Actual data from isodose scans were analyzed. Results We found that typical treatment dose prescriptions can cover as much as 80% and as little as 20% of the nominal treatment volume depending on the applicator size and energy of the beam and whether the dose is prescribed to the 80 or 90% isodose level. Treatment volume is defined as a cylinder with diameter equal to applicator and height equal to the corresponding D80 or D90 depth. Conclusion If mobile linear accelerators are used, there can be significant amount of “cold volume” depending on the applicator size and this should be taken into account when selecting the applicator that is needed. Using too small of an applicator could result in significant under-dosing to the tissue at risk. Long-term clinical data demonstrates that selecting an adequate field size results in good ontological control as well as excellent cosmesis. Intraop Medical Corp was providing facilities and equipment for this research.

  16. Reconstructing the size distribution of the small body population in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrechts, Michiel; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2016-10-01

    The size distributions of the populations of small bodies in the solar system (the asteroid belt, the hot Kuiper belt and the cold Kuiper belt) show a striking similarity: they all show an elbow at a diameter of about D=100km. At D<100km, all size distributions have the same slope, dictated by collisional equilibrium. At D>100km, the slopes are different, the cold Kuiper belt having the steepest slope, while the hot Kuiper belt and the asteroid belt have progressively more shallow slopes. Moreover, the asteroid belt and hot Kuiper belt show a turnover to a shallow size distribution at sizes larger than D=300-500km. Johansen et al. (2015) explained the elbow and the transition to a steeper slope assuming that the original planetesimals had D<100km and that they grew further by the process of pebble accretion, the sweep up of small particles aided by gas drag. However, the origin of the differences between the slopes of the three populations remained unclear.Here we investigate the problem using a particle-in-a-box code, that treats collisional coagulation, fragmentation, dynamical stirring and damping, to which we have added growth by pebble accretion for objects with possibly eccentric and inclined orbits.We show that the size distribution above D=100km is set by a combination of planetesimal collisions and the sweeping up of pebbles. Thus, the final slopes are diagnostic of the collisionial rate and the initial total mass of the planetesimal population. The size distribution for the largest asteroids and hot Kuiper belt objects are consistent with growth dominated by the accretion of pebbles. The observed size distributions also places constraints on the dominant particle size, the level of midplane turbulence and nebular conditions at different orbital radii in the Solar nebula. Our findings hint that the asteroid belt largely formed close to the dissipation of the gas disc and that its final total mass was comparable to that of the Earth.

  17. High-speed atomic force microscopy for large scan sizes using small cantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunsmann, Christoph; Schäffer, Tilman E.

    2010-06-01

    We present a high-speed atomic force microscope that exhibits a number of practical advantages over previous designs. Its central component is a high-speed scanner with a maximum scan size of 23 µm × 23 µm and a conveniently large sample stage area (6.5 mm × 6.5 mm). In combination with small cantilevers, image rates of up to 46 images s - 1 in air and 13 images s - 1 in liquid are reached under z-feedback control. By large scan size imaging of collagen fibrils in air, sample velocities of 8.8 mm s - 1 in the xy-direction and 11 mm s - 1 in the z-direction are reached. To provide optimized imaging conditions for both large and small scan sizes, a modular scanner design allows easily exchanging the x- and y-piezos. The scanner is therefore also suited for investigations on the molecular and atomic scale, which is demonstrated by imaging the step dynamics of a calcite surface during dissolution and the hexagonal lattice of a mica surface in liquid.

  18. Miniaturized orb-weaving spiders: behavioural precision is not limited by small size.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, William G

    2007-09-01

    The special problems confronted by very small animals in nervous system design that may impose limitations on their behaviour and evolution are reviewed. Previous attempts to test for such behavioural limitations have suffered from lack of detail in behavioural observations of tiny species and unsatisfactory measurements of their behavioural capacities. This study presents partial solutions to both problems. The orb-web construction behaviour of spiders provided data on the comparative behavioural capabilities of tiny animals in heretofore unparalleled detail; species ranged about five orders of magnitude in weight, from approximately 50-100mg down to some of the smallest spiders known (less than 0.005mg), whose small size is a derived trait. Previous attempts to quantify the 'complexity' of behaviour were abandoned in favour of using comparisons of behavioural imprecision in performing the same task. The prediction of the size limitation hypothesis that very small spiders would have a reduced ability to repeat one particular behaviour pattern precisely was not confirmed. The anatomical and physiological mechanisms by which these tiny animals achieve this precision and the possibility that they are more limited in the performance of higher-order behaviour patterns await further investigation.

  19. Scalloped depressions and small-sized polygons in western Utopia Planitia, Mars: A new formation hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Séjourné, A.; Costard, F.; Gargani, J.; Soare, R. J.; Fedorov, A.; Marmo, C.

    2011-04-01

    Flat-floored depressions with scalloped-shapes and spatially associated small-sized polygons (diameter <˜100 m) dot the landscape of western Utopia Planitia (centered at 45°N-95°E). The scalloped depressions are thought to be the result of ice-rich regolith undergoing degradation by sublimation or thaw. Current models suggest that the formation and development of the depressions occur in a poleward direction due to the enhanced sublimation of their equator-facing slopes. By contrast, we propose a conceptual model that shows the equatorward growth of depressions due to preferential degradation by sublimation of their pole-facing slopes. Our model is based on a geomorphological study of the depressions and small-sized polygons in western Utopia Planitia (80°-110°E, 35°-50°N), using images from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) and topographical data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and a HiRISE stereo Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Here we describe (i) a morphological evolution of small-sized polygons within the depressions, from low-centered to high-centered, that facilitates one's understanding of depression growth and development; and (ii) occurrence of v-shaped alcoves, failure cracks and semicircular hollows that point to a retrogressive degradation of the pole-facing slopes of depressions. We propose that the development of the depressions is due to heightened insolation of their pole-facing slopes, leading to enhanced sublimation of ground-ice. Based upon the inferred asymmetric insolation, we suggest that the equatorward expansion of depressions occurred during recent high-obliquity periods of Mars.

  20. Requirement analysis to promote small-sized E-waste collection from consumers.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Kuniko; Nishimura, Hidekazu

    2016-02-01

    The collection and recycling of small-sized waste electrical and electronic equipment is an emerging problem, since these products contain certain amounts of critical metals and rare earths. Even if the amount is not large, having a few supply routes for such recycled resources could be a good strategy to be competitive in a world of finite resources. The small-sized e-waste sometimes contains personal information, therefore, consumers are often reluctant to put them into recycling bins. In order to promote the recycling of E-waste, collection of used products from the consumer becomes important. Effective methods involving incentives for consumers might be necessary. Without such methods, it will be difficult to achieve the critical amounts necessary for an efficient recycling system. This article focused on used mobile phones among information appliances as the first case study, since it contains relatively large amounts of valuable metals compared with other small-sized waste electrical and electronic equipment and there are a large number of products existing in the market. The article carried out surveys to determine what kind of recycled material collection services are preferred by consumers. The results clarify that incentive or reward money alone is not a driving force for recycling behaviour. The article discusses the types of effective services required to promote recycling behaviour. The article concludes that securing information, transferring data and providing proper information about resources and environment can be an effective tool to encourage a recycling behaviour strategy to promote recycling, plus the potential discount service on purchasing new products associated with the return of recycled mobile phones. PMID:26608902

  1. Requirement analysis to promote small-sized E-waste collection from consumers.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Kuniko; Nishimura, Hidekazu

    2016-02-01

    The collection and recycling of small-sized waste electrical and electronic equipment is an emerging problem, since these products contain certain amounts of critical metals and rare earths. Even if the amount is not large, having a few supply routes for such recycled resources could be a good strategy to be competitive in a world of finite resources. The small-sized e-waste sometimes contains personal information, therefore, consumers are often reluctant to put them into recycling bins. In order to promote the recycling of E-waste, collection of used products from the consumer becomes important. Effective methods involving incentives for consumers might be necessary. Without such methods, it will be difficult to achieve the critical amounts necessary for an efficient recycling system. This article focused on used mobile phones among information appliances as the first case study, since it contains relatively large amounts of valuable metals compared with other small-sized waste electrical and electronic equipment and there are a large number of products existing in the market. The article carried out surveys to determine what kind of recycled material collection services are preferred by consumers. The results clarify that incentive or reward money alone is not a driving force for recycling behaviour. The article discusses the types of effective services required to promote recycling behaviour. The article concludes that securing information, transferring data and providing proper information about resources and environment can be an effective tool to encourage a recycling behaviour strategy to promote recycling, plus the potential discount service on purchasing new products associated with the return of recycled mobile phones.

  2. Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

    SciTech Connect

    Wimple, C., LLNL

    1998-04-01

    This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX{sup TM}) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to identify opportunities for cost effective enhanced information technology use by small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for the specific DAMA Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) effort are discussed in this section. The approach used to gather information about current opportunities or needs is outlined in Section 2 Approach, and relevant findings are identified and a brief analysis of the information gathered is presented in Section 3 Findings. Recommendations based on the analysis, are offered in Section 4 Recommendations, and plans are suggested for DAMA follow-on in Section 5 Future Plans. Trip reports for each of the companies visited are contained in Appendix E - Company Trip Reports. These individual reports contain the data upon which the analysis presented in Section 3 Findings is based.

  3. Spatial filtering velocimetry revisited: exact short-time detecting schemes from arbitrarily small-size reticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, S.; Nara, T.; Kurihara, T.

    2014-08-01

    Spatial filtering velocimetry was proposed in 1963 by Ator as a velocity-sensing technique for aerial camera-control systems. The total intensity of a moving surface is observed through a set of parallel-slit reticles, resulting in a narrow-band temporal signal whose frequency is directly proportional to the image velocity. However, even despite its historical importance and inherent technical advantages, the mathematical formulation of this technique is only valid when infinite-length observation in both space and time is possible, which causes significant errors in most applications where a small receptive window and high resolution in both axes are desired. In this study, we apply a novel mathematical technique, the weighted integral method, to solve this problem, and obtain exact sensing schemes and algorithms for finite (arbitrarily small but non-zero) size reticles and short-time estimation. Practical considerations for utilizing these schemes are also explored both theoretically and experimentally.

  4. Size-dependent behavior of electrospun polymer nanofibers under small deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arinstein, Arkadii; Zussman, Eyal

    2011-03-01

    A model describing a mechanism resulting in size-dependent behavior of electrospun polymer nanofibers under small deformation is proposed. According this model, the polymer matrix of the nanofibers consists of correlated groups of chains/subchains, partially orientated along the fiber. These supermolecular structures which were formed during electrospinning are confined by the fiber boundary. Thus, when the fiber elongates under external force the relative rotations of these correlated regions are hindered. As a result the elastic modulus depends on the diameter of the deformed fiber. In case of small fiber diameters this restriction is dominant while this effect decreases with increase of fiber diameter, and tends to zero for large fiber diameters according to square-law which was verified by experimental observations.

  5. Think locally, act locally: Detection of small, medium-sized, and large communities in large networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeub, Lucas G. S.; Balachandran, Prakash; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.; Mahoney, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    It is common in the study of networks to investigate intermediate-sized (or "meso-scale") features to try to gain an understanding of network structure and function. For example, numerous algorithms have been developed to try to identify "communities," which are typically construed as sets of nodes with denser connections internally than with the remainder of a network. In this paper, we adopt a complementary perspective that communities are associated with bottlenecks of locally biased dynamical processes that begin at seed sets of nodes, and we employ several different community-identification procedures (using diffusion-based and geodesic-based dynamics) to investigate community quality as a function of community size. Using several empirical and synthetic networks, we identify several distinct scenarios for "size-resolved community structure" that can arise in real (and realistic) networks: (1) the best small groups of nodes can be better than the best large groups (for a given formulation of the idea of a good community); (2) the best small groups can have a quality that is comparable to the best medium-sized and large groups; and (3) the best small groups of nodes can be worse than the best large groups. As we discuss in detail, which of these three cases holds for a given network can make an enormous difference when investigating and making claims about network community structure, and it is important to take this into account to obtain reliable downstream conclusions. Depending on which scenario holds, one may or may not be able to successfully identify "good" communities in a given network (and good communities might not even exist for a given community quality measure), the manner in which different small communities fit together to form meso-scale network structures can be very different, and processes such as viral propagation and information diffusion can exhibit very different dynamics. In addition, our results suggest that, for many large realistic

  6. Amino acid substitution at the Adh locus of Drosophila is facilitated by small population size.

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, T

    1993-01-01

    The number of amino acid replacement substitutions and that of synonymous substitutions are examined by using DNA sequences of the Adh locus of Drosophila. The ratio of replacement to synonymous substitutions is higher in sequence comparisons between species than in polymorphisms within species. The ratio for the between-species comparisons is highest in the Hawaiian group and lowest in the obscura group. These observations suggest that amino acid substitutions are facilitated by small population size. The result is in accord with the nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution. PMID:8506297

  7. The polysiloxane cyclization equilibrium constant: a theoretical focus on small and intermediate size rings.

    PubMed

    Madeleine-Perdrillat, Claire; Delor-Jestin, Florence; de Sainte Claire, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The nonlinear dependence of polysiloxane cyclization constants (log(K(x))) with ring size (log(x)) is explained by a thermodynamic model that treats specific torsional modes of the macromolecular chains with a classical coupled hindered rotor model. Several parameters such as the dependence of the internal rotation kinetic energy matrix with geometry, the effect of potential energy hindrance, anharmonicity, and the couplings between internal rotors were investigated. This behavior arises from the competing effects of local molecular entropy that is mainly driven by the intrinsic transformation of vibrations in small cycles into hindered rotations in larger cycles and configurational entropy.

  8. Small-sized granules of biphasic bone substitutes support fast implant bed vascularization.

    PubMed

    Barbeck, M; Dard, M; Kokkinopoulou, M; Markl, J; Booms, P; Sader, R A; Kirkpatrick, C J; Ghanaati, S

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of granule size of 2 biphasic bone substitutes (BoneCeramic® 400-700 μm and 500-1000 μm) on the induction of multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs) and implant bed vascularization in a subcutaneous implantation model in rats. Furthermore, degradation mechanisms and particle phagocytosis of both materials were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Both granule types induced tissue reactions involving primarily mononuclear cells and only small numbers of MNGCs. Higher numbers of MNGCs were detected in the group with small granules starting on day 30, while higher vascularization was observed only at day 10 in this group. TEM analysis revealed that both mono- and multinucleated cells were involved in the phagocytosis of the materials. Additionally, the results allowed recognition of the MNGCs as the foreign body giant cell phenotype. Histomorphometrical analysis of the size of phagocytosed particles showed no differences between the 2 granule types. The results indicate that granule size seems to have impact on early implant bed vascularization and also on the induction of MNGCs in the late phase of the tissue reaction. Furthermore, the results revealed that a synthetic bone substitute material can induce tissue reactions similar to those of some xenogeneic materials, thus pointing to a need to elucidate their "ideal" physical characteristics. The results also show that granule size in the range studied did not alter phagocytosis by mononuclear cells. Finally, the investigation substantiates the differentiation of material-induced MNGCs, which are of the foreign body giant cell type. PMID:26083163

  9. Small-sized granules of biphasic bone substitutes support fast implant bed vascularization

    PubMed Central

    Barbeck, M; Dard, M; Kokkinopoulou, M; Markl, J; Booms, P; Sader, RA; Kirkpatrick, CJ; Ghanaati, S

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of granule size of 2 biphasic bone substitutes (BoneCeramic® 400–700 μm and 500–1000 μm) on the induction of multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs) and implant bed vascularization in a subcutaneous implantation model in rats. Furthermore, degradation mechanisms and particle phagocytosis of both materials were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Both granule types induced tissue reactions involving primarily mononuclear cells and only small numbers of MNGCs. Higher numbers of MNGCs were detected in the group with small granules starting on day 30, while higher vascularization was observed only at day 10 in this group. TEM analysis revealed that both mono- and multinucleated cells were involved in the phagocytosis of the materials. Additionally, the results allowed recognition of the MNGCs as the foreign body giant cell phenotype. Histomorphometrical analysis of the size of phagocytosed particles showed no differences between the 2 granule types. The results indicate that granule size seems to have impact on early implant bed vascularization and also on the induction of MNGCs in the late phase of the tissue reaction. Furthermore, the results revealed that a synthetic bone substitute material can induce tissue reactions similar to those of some xenogeneic materials, thus pointing to a need to elucidate their “ideal” physical characteristics. The results also show that granule size in the range studied did not alter phagocytosis by mononuclear cells. Finally, the investigation substantiates the differentiation of material-induced MNGCs, which are of the foreign body giant cell type. PMID:26083163

  10. Small-sized granules of biphasic bone substitutes support fast implant bed vascularization.

    PubMed

    Barbeck, M; Dard, M; Kokkinopoulou, M; Markl, J; Booms, P; Sader, R A; Kirkpatrick, C J; Ghanaati, S

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of granule size of 2 biphasic bone substitutes (BoneCeramic® 400-700 μm and 500-1000 μm) on the induction of multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs) and implant bed vascularization in a subcutaneous implantation model in rats. Furthermore, degradation mechanisms and particle phagocytosis of both materials were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Both granule types induced tissue reactions involving primarily mononuclear cells and only small numbers of MNGCs. Higher numbers of MNGCs were detected in the group with small granules starting on day 30, while higher vascularization was observed only at day 10 in this group. TEM analysis revealed that both mono- and multinucleated cells were involved in the phagocytosis of the materials. Additionally, the results allowed recognition of the MNGCs as the foreign body giant cell phenotype. Histomorphometrical analysis of the size of phagocytosed particles showed no differences between the 2 granule types. The results indicate that granule size seems to have impact on early implant bed vascularization and also on the induction of MNGCs in the late phase of the tissue reaction. Furthermore, the results revealed that a synthetic bone substitute material can induce tissue reactions similar to those of some xenogeneic materials, thus pointing to a need to elucidate their "ideal" physical characteristics. The results also show that granule size in the range studied did not alter phagocytosis by mononuclear cells. Finally, the investigation substantiates the differentiation of material-induced MNGCs, which are of the foreign body giant cell type.

  11. Effect size of memory deficits in mice with adult-onset P301L tau expression.

    PubMed

    Hunsberger, Holly C; Rudy, Carolyn C; Weitzner, Daniel S; Zhang, Chong; Tosto, David E; Knowlan, Kevin; Xu, Ying; Reed, Miranda N

    2014-10-01

    Transgenic mice expressing mutations in tau have yielded essential discoveries for Alzheimer's disease. One of the most commonly used tau mouse models is the tet-off Tg(tauP301L)4510 model that expresses P301L human tau driven by the calcium-calmodulin kinase IIα (CaMKIIα) promoter system. Tau expression in this model is regulatable, allowing for suppression of mutant tau expression until adulthood and prevention of possible developmental alterations resulting from P301L tau expression during development. Here, we compared the effect and sample sizes needed for three learning and memory tasks in mice with adult-onset P301L tau expression. Our findings indicate that the Incremental Repeated Acquisition (IRA) and trace fear conditioning tasks, neither of which have previously been published with these mice, were highly sensitive to P301L tau expression, whereas the Morris water maze, the most commonly used task with this model, was the least sensitive. Memory deficits were observed at a time when tau pathology was subtle and prior to readily detectable neuronal loss. Thus, we provide essential information (effect and sample sizes needed) for establishing experimental designs at a time point when memory deficits are likely to go undetected if inadequate sample sizes are used. Our work also suggests the tet-off Tg4510 model provides a way to avoid mutant tau expression during the perinatal and early postnatal stages, thereby preventing possible developmental alterations unrelated to Alzheimer's disease.

  12. Relationships among vocabulary size, nonverbal cognition, and spoken word recognition in adults with cochlear implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collison, Elizabeth A.; Munson, Benjamin; Carney, Arlene E.

    2002-05-01

    Recent research has attempted to identify the factors that predict speech perception performance among users of cochlear implants (CIs). Studies have found that approximately 20%-60% of the variance in speech perception scores can be accounted for by factors including duration of deafness, etiology, type of device, and length of implant use, leaving approximately 50% of the variance unaccounted for. The current study examines the extent to which vocabulary size and nonverbal cognitive ability predict CI listeners' spoken word recognition. Fifteen postlingually deafened adults with nucleus or clarion CIs were given standardized assessments of nonverbal cognitive ability and expressive vocabulary size: the Expressive Vocabulary Test, the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-III, and the Woodcock-Johnson-III Test of Cognitive Ability, Verbal Comprehension subtest. Two spoken word recognition tasks were administered. In the first, listeners identified isophonemic CVC words. In the second, listeners identified gated words varying in lexical frequency and neighborhood density. Analyses will examine the influence of lexical frequency and neighborhood density on the uniqueness point in the gating task, as well as relationships among nonverbal cognitive ability, vocabulary size, and the two spoken word recognition measures. [Work supported by NIH Grant P01 DC00110 and by the Lions 3M Hearing Foundation.

  13. Meet the parents? Family size and the geographic proximity between adult children and older mothers in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Holmlund, Helena; Rainer, Helmut; Siedler, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the causal effect of family size on the proximity between older mothers and adult children by using a large administrative data set from Sweden. Our main results show that adult children in Sweden are not constrained by sibship size in choosing where to live: for families with more than one child, sibship size does not affect child-mother proximity. For aging parents, however, having fewer children reduces the probability of having at least one child living nearby, which is likely to have consequences for the intensity of intergenerational contact and eldercare.

  14. Biointeractions of ultrasmall glutathione-coated gold nanoparticles: effect of small size variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Alioscka A.; Hassan, Sergio A.; Knittel, Luiza L.; Balbo, Andrea; Aronova, Maria A.; Brown, Patrick H.; Schuck, Peter; Leapman, Richard D.

    2016-03-01

    Recent in vivo studies have established ultrasmall (<3 nm) gold nanoparticles coated with glutathione (AuGSH) as a promising platform for applications in nanomedicine. However, systematic in vitro investigations to gain a more fundamental understanding of the particles' biointeractions are still lacking. Herein we examined the behavior of ultrasmall AuGSH in vitro, focusing on their ability to resist aggregation and adsorption from serum proteins. Despite having net negative charge, AuGSH particles were colloidally stable in biological media and able to resist binding from serum proteins, in agreement with the favorable bioresponses reported for AuGSH in vivo. However, our results revealed disparate behaviors depending on nanoparticle size: particles between 2 and 3 nm in core diameter were found to readily aggregate in biological media, whereas those strictly under 2 nm were exceptionally stable. Molecular dynamics simulations provided microscopic insight into interparticle interactions leading to aggregation and their sensitivity to the solution composition and particle size. These results have important implications, in that seemingly small variations in size can impact the biointeractions of ultrasmall AuGSH, and potentially of other ultrasmall nanoparticles as well.Recent in vivo studies have established ultrasmall (<3 nm) gold nanoparticles coated with glutathione (AuGSH) as a promising platform for applications in nanomedicine. However, systematic in vitro investigations to gain a more fundamental understanding of the particles' biointeractions are still lacking. Herein we examined the behavior of ultrasmall AuGSH in vitro, focusing on their ability to resist aggregation and adsorption from serum proteins. Despite having net negative charge, AuGSH particles were colloidally stable in biological media and able to resist binding from serum proteins, in agreement with the favorable bioresponses reported for AuGSH in vivo. However, our results revealed disparate

  15. An Effective Approach for NRSFM of Small-Size Image Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ya-Ping; Sun, Zhan-Li; Lam, Kin-Man

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, non-rigid structure from motion (NRSFM) has become one of the hottest issues in computer vision due to its wide applications. In practice, the number of available high-quality images may be limited in many cases. Under such a condition, the performances may not be satisfactory when existing NRSFM algorithms are applied directly to estimate the 3D coordinates of a small-size image sequence. In this paper, a sub-sequence-based integrated algorithm is proposed to deal with the NRSFM problem with small sequence sizes. In the proposed method, sub-sequences are first extracted from the original sequence. In order to obtain diversified estimations, multiple weaker estimators are constructed by applying the extracted sub-sequences to a recent NRSFM algorithm with a rotation-invariant kernel (RIK). Compared to other first-order statistics, the trimmed mean is a relatively robust statistic. Considering the fact that the estimations of some weaker estimators may have large errors, the trimmed means of the outputs for all the weaker estimators are computed to determine the final estimated 3D shapes. Compared to some existing methods, the proposed algorithm can achieve a higher estimation accuracy, and has better robustness. Experimental results on several widely used image sequences demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed algorithm. PMID:26161521

  16. Small body size and extreme cortical bone remodeling indicate phyletic dwarfism in Magyarosaurus dacus (Sauropoda: Titanosauria)

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Koen; Csiki, Zoltan; Rogers, Kristina Curry; Weishampel, David B.; Redelstorff, Ragna; Carballido, Jose L.; Sander, P. Martin

    2010-01-01

    Sauropods were the largest terrestrial tetrapods (>105 kg) in Earth's history and grew at rates that rival those of extant mammals. Magyarosaurus dacus, a titanosaurian sauropod from the Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) of Romania, is known exclusively from small individuals (<103 kg) and conflicts with the idea that all sauropods were massive. The diminutive M. dacus was a classical example of island dwarfism (phyletic nanism) in dinosaurs, but a recent study suggested that the small Romanian titanosaurs actually represent juveniles of a larger-bodied taxon. Here we present strong histological evidence that M. dacus was indeed a dwarf (phyletic nanoid). Bone histological analysis of an ontogenetic series of Magyarosaurus limb bones indicates that even the smallest Magyarosaurus specimens exhibit a bone microstructure identical to fully mature or old individuals of other sauropod taxa. Comparison of histologies with large-bodied sauropods suggests that Magyarosaurus had an extremely reduced growth rate, but had retained high basal metabolic rates typical for sauropods. The uniquely decreased growth rate and diminutive body size in Magyarosaurus were adaptations to life on a Cretaceous island and show that sauropod dinosaurs were not exempt from general ecological principles limiting body size. PMID:20435913

  17. Nuclear design of small-sized high temperature gas-cooled reactor for developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, M.; Seki, Y.; Inaba, Y.; Ohashi, H.; Sato, H.; Fukaya, Y.; Tachibana, Y.

    2012-07-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has started a conceptual design of a small-sized HTGR with 50 MW thermal power (HTR50S), which is a first-of-a-kind commercial or demonstration plant of a small-sized HTGR to be deployed in developing countries such as Kazakhstan in the 2020's. The nuclear design of the HTR50S is performed by upgrading the proven technology of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) to reduce the cost for the construction. In the HTTR design, twelve kinds of fuel enrichment was used to optimize the power distribution, which is required to make the maximum fuel temperature below the thermal limitation during the burn-up period. However, manufacture of many kinds of fuel enrichment causes increase of the construction cost. To solve this problem, the present study challenges the nuclear design by reducing the number of fuel enrichment to as few as possible. The nuclear calculations were performed with SRAC code system whose validity was proven by the HTTR burn-up data. The calculation results suggested that the optimization of the power distribution was reasonably achieved and the maximum fuel temperature was kept below the limitation by using three kinds of fuel enrichment. (authors)

  18. A small-size pulsed lidar designed for obstacles detection in natural underwater environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xianjiang; Xia, Min; Cheng, Zao; Li, Lei; Chen, Junyao; Du, Peng; Yang, Kecheng

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we designed a pint-sized underwater pulsed lidar system for underwater obstacles detection based on a 532nm Nd-YAG pulsed laser as a source and a Hamamatsu photomultiplier tube (PMT) as a detector. In order to acquire the location of the obstacles, an algorithm was devised to handle the echo signal. Through this algorithm, the background noise was suppressed and the accurate range information of the target was obtained. A high-capacity lithium battery was employed to support this lidar system operating as long as eight hours continuously. To ensure our lidar system working steady in the natural underwater environment, a stable waterproof housing was designed for the system which has good water-tightness at 40m depth underwater. This system is small, compact and hand-held. An experiment was conducted in laboratory which proof that the system can achieve target detection within 25m. At last, this lidar system was tested in natural underwater environment of Fuxian Lake in Yunnan Province. There are lots of organic particles and other impurity particles in Fuxian Lake and the attenuation coefficient of the lake is about 0.67m-1. The results showed that this small-size lidar system was able to catch sight of the target within 20 meters and perform smoothly in the natural underwater environment.

  19. Detection of Clostridium difficile in small and medium-sized wild Mammals in Southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Claire M; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Rousseau, Joyce; Weese, J Scott

    2013-04-01

    We sampled 325 small and medium-sized wild mammals in Ontario, Canada in 2007 and 2010 to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Clostridium difficile in wild mammals living in proximity to captive wildlife and livestock. Clostridium difficile was isolated from five of 109 animals (4.6%) on four of 25 farms (16%), but was not isolated from any of the 216 samples from raccoons (Procyon lotor) living on the grounds of the Toronto Zoo. The positive animals included two raccoons from one beef farm, one raccoon from a different beef farm, one raccoon from a swine farm, and a shrew (Blarina brevicauda) from a dairy farm. None had evidence of gastrointestinal disease. Three of the five isolates were toxinotype variants (II, IV, and XIII) that are rarely identified in humans and domestic animals. The other two were toxinotype 0, a common toxinotype in humans and animals; however, all five isolates were of different ribotypes. None of the recovered ribotypes were recognized as ribotypes present in the authors' reference library of over 3,000 human and domestic animal C. difficile isolates. Neither the public health nor the animal health relevance of these findings is clear. It is not known whether C. difficile is a pathogen of small and medium-sized wild mammals, although the susceptibility of various laboratory species suggests it could cause disease. PMID:23568920

  20. In situ detection of small-size insect pests sampled on traps using multifractal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Chunlei; Lee, Jang-Myung; Li, Yan; Chung, Bu-Keun; Chon, Tae-Soo

    2012-02-01

    We introduce a multifractal analysis for detecting the small-size pest (e.g., whitefly) images from a sticky trap in situ. An automatic attraction system is utilized for collecting pests from greenhouse plants. We applied multifractal analysis to segment action of whitefly images based on the local singularity and global image characteristics. According to the theory of multifractal dimension, the candidate blobs of whiteflies are initially defined from the sticky-trap image. Two schemes, fixed thresholding and regional minima obtainment, were utilized for feature extraction of candidate whitefly image areas. The experiment was conducted with the field images in a greenhouse. Detection results were compared with other adaptive segmentation algorithms. Values of F measuring precision and recall score were higher for the proposed multifractal analysis (96.5%) compared with conventional methods such as Watershed (92.2%) and Otsu (73.1%). The true positive rate of multifractal analysis was 94.3% and the false positive rate minimal level at 1.3%. Detection performance was further tested via human observation. The degree of scattering between manual and automatic counting was remarkably higher with multifractal analysis (R2=0.992) compared with Watershed (R2=0.895) and Otsu (R2=0.353), ensuring overall detection of the small-size pests is most feasible with multifractal analysis in field conditions.

  1. Secular trends in reported portion size of food and beverages consumed by Irish adults.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Sinead A; Livingstone, M Barbara E; McNulty, Breige A; Lyons, Jacqueline; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Segurado, Ricardo; Dean, Moira; Spence, Michelle; McCaffrey, Tracy A; Pourshahidi, L Kirsty; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Eileen R

    2015-04-14

    The present analysis aimed to investigate the changes in the reported portion sizes (PS) of foods and beverages commonly consumed by Irish adults (18-64 years) from the North South Ireland Food Consumption Survey (NSIFCS) (1997-2001) and the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) (2008-10). Food PS, which are defined as the weight of food (g) consumed per eating occasion, were calculated for comparable foods and beverages in two nationally representative cross-sectional Irish food consumption surveys and were published in NSIFCS and NANS. Repeated measure mixed model analysis compared reported food PS at the total population level as well as subdivided by sex, age, BMI and social class. A total of thirteen commonly consumed foods were examined. The analysis demonstrated that PS significantly increased for five foods ('white sliced bread', 'brown/wholemeal breads', 'all meat, cooked', 'poultry, roasted' and 'milk'), significantly decreased for three ('potatoes', 'chips/wedges' and 'ham, sliced') and did not significantly change for five foods ('processed potato products', 'bacon/ham', 'cheese', 'yogurt' and 'butter/spreads') between the NSIFCS and the NANS. The present study demonstrates that there was considerable variation in the trends in reported food PS over this period. PMID:25789856

  2. A concealed small bowel perforation in an adult secondary to bicycle handlebar trauma

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, GJ; Simpson, RR

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH) secondary to bicycle handlebar is a rare injury. The majority of the literature describes abdominal wall herniation in children. We present a rare case of TAWH in an adult with a concealed small bowel perforation. Although clinical examination in conjunction with computed tomography can exclude the majority of solid organ injuries, small bowel injuries can often be missed. Our case initially revealed a serosal tear in the small bowel but, on close inspection, a separate 3mm perforation was identified, hidden in the small bowel mesentery. We strongly support a low threshold for operative intervention if there is any suspicion. Moreover, we stress the importance of meticulous examination during laparotomy as this injury could have been easily missed, resulting in potential morbidity or mortality in a patient sustaining such an injury. PMID:23676803

  3. Biointeractions of ultrasmall glutathione-coated gold nanoparticles: effect of small size variations.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Alioscka A; Hassan, Sergio A; Knittel, Luiza L; Balbo, Andrea; Aronova, Maria A; Brown, Patrick H; Schuck, Peter; Leapman, Richard D

    2016-03-28

    Recent in vivo studies have established ultrasmall (<3 nm) gold nanoparticles coated with glutathione (AuGSH) as a promising platform for applications in nanomedicine. However, systematic in vitro investigations to gain a more fundamental understanding of the particles' biointeractions are still lacking. Herein we examined the behavior of ultrasmall AuGSH in vitro, focusing on their ability to resist aggregation and adsorption from serum proteins. Despite having net negative charge, AuGSH particles were colloidally stable in biological media and able to resist binding from serum proteins, in agreement with the favorable bioresponses reported for AuGSH in vivo. However, our results revealed disparate behaviors depending on nanoparticle size: particles between 2 and 3 nm in core diameter were found to readily aggregate in biological media, whereas those strictly under 2 nm were exceptionally stable. Molecular dynamics simulations provided microscopic insight into interparticle interactions leading to aggregation and their sensitivity to the solution composition and particle size. These results have important implications, in that seemingly small variations in size can impact the biointeractions of ultrasmall AuGSH, and potentially of other ultrasmall nanoparticles as well. PMID:26934984

  4. The influence of detector size relative to field size in small-field photon-beam dosimetry using synthetic diamond crystals as sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ade, N.; Nam, T. L.

    2015-08-01

    The choice of a detector for small-field dosimetry remains a challenge due to the size/volume effect of detectors in small fields. Aimed at selecting a suitable crystal type and detector size for small-field dosimetry, this study investigates the relationship between detector and field size by analysing output factors (OFs) measured with a Diode E (reference detector), a Farmer chamber and synthetic diamond detectors of various types and sizes in the dosimetry of a 6 MV photon beam with small fields between 0.3×0.3 cm2 and 10×10 cm2. The examined diamond sensors included two HPHT samples (HP1 and HP2) and six polycrystalline CVD specimens of optical grade (OG) and detector grade (DG) qualities with sizes between 0.3 and 1.0 cm. Each diamond was encapsulated in a tissue-equivalent probe housing which can hold crystals of various dimensions up to 1.0×1.0×0.1 cm3 and has different exposure geometries ('edge-on' and 'flat-on') for impinging radiation. The HPHT samples were found to show an overall better performance compared to the CVD crystals with the 'edge-on' orientation being a preferred geometry for OF measurement especially for very small fields. For instance, down to a 0.4×0.4 cm2 field a maximum deviation of 1.9% was observed between the OFs measured with Diode E and HP2 in the 'edge-on' orientation compared to a 4.6% deviation in the 'flat-on' geometry. It was observed that for fields below 4×4 cm2, the dose deviation between the OFs measured with the detectors and Diode E increase with increasing detector size. It was estimated from an established relationship between the dose deviation and the ratio of detector size to field size for the detectors that the dose deviation probably due to the volume averaging effect would be >3% when the detector size is >3/4 of the field size. A sensitivity value of 223 nC Gy-1 mm-3 was determined in a 0.5×0.5 cm2 field with HP2 compared to a value of 159.2 nC Gy-1 mm-3 obtained with the diode. The results of this

  5. Correlation Between Aneurysm Size and Hemodynamics in One Individual with Multiple Small Intracranial Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Jou, Liangder; Britz, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Objective A large number of cases are needed in the patient-specific modeling of intracranial aneurysms to establish the statistical significance due to individual variation of risk factors that are difficult to account for. However, these risk factors are critical in hemorrhage risk as demonstrated in large clinical studies. Rupture risks for aneurysms in an individual are easier to compare because these aneurysms are under the same physiological environment, and their only differences are the local hemodynamic factors associated with their anatomic locations. Methods Eight small aneurysms (< 7 mm) from one individual were analyzed using patient-specific hemodynamic modeling. Four scenarios with different perfusion assumptions were performed to account for the flow rate at two smaller communicating arteries. Wall shear stresses (WSS) at these aneurysms were compared to determine their relationship with the aneurysm size. Results Each of the three largest aneurysms is either the most proximal or distal aneurysm in a given artery so that blood pressure does not have a direct influence on aneurysm size. No wall shear stress-derived hemodynamic variables are found to be related to aneurysm size. Discussion A study of multiple aneurysms from one individual offers a unique opportunity to examine various hemodynamic factors without selection biases. Aneurysms greater than 4 mm (Group 1) have a higher product of maximum WSS and area of low WSS; aneurysms smaller than 4 mm (Group 2) have a lower product of maximum WSS and area of low WSS. In addition, aneurysm size is linearly correlated with the flow rate at the parent artery in each group. PMID:27555981

  6. Correlation Between Aneurysm Size and Hemodynamics in One Individual with Multiple Small Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Britz, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Objective A large number of cases are needed in the patient-specific modeling of intracranial aneurysms to establish the statistical significance due to individual variation of risk factors that are difficult to account for. However, these risk factors are critical in hemorrhage risk as demonstrated in large clinical studies. Rupture risks for aneurysms in an individual are easier to compare because these aneurysms are under the same physiological environment, and their only differences are the local hemodynamic factors associated with their anatomic locations. Methods Eight small aneurysms (< 7 mm) from one individual were analyzed using patient-specific hemodynamic modeling. Four scenarios with different perfusion assumptions were performed to account for the flow rate at two smaller communicating arteries. Wall shear stresses (WSS) at these aneurysms were compared to determine their relationship with the aneurysm size. Results Each of the three largest aneurysms is either the most proximal or distal aneurysm in a given artery so that blood pressure does not have a direct influence on aneurysm size. No wall shear stress-derived hemodynamic variables are found to be related to aneurysm size. Discussion A study of multiple aneurysms from one individual offers a unique opportunity to examine various hemodynamic factors without selection biases. Aneurysms greater than 4 mm (Group 1) have a higher product of maximum WSS and area of low WSS; aneurysms smaller than 4 mm (Group 2) have a lower product of maximum WSS and area of low WSS. In addition, aneurysm size is linearly correlated with the flow rate at the parent artery in each group. PMID:27555981

  7. Body size dissatisfaction among young adults from the 1982 Pelotas birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Mintem, G C; Horta, B L; Domingues, M R; Gigante, D P

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To identify the prevalence and factors associated with body dissatisfaction. Subjects/Methods: Birth cohort study investigating 4100 subjects (2187 men and 1913 women) aged between 22 and 23 years who answered questionnaires, including the body satisfaction Stunkard Scale were included in the study; they were weighed and measured. Multinomial logistic regression was used in the crude and adjusted analyses. Results: The prevalence of body dissatisfaction was 64% (95% CI, 62.7–65.6); 42% (95% CI, 40.6–43.6) of the subjects reported feeling larger than the desired body size, and 22% (95% CI, 20.7–23.3) reported feeling smaller than desired. Underweight subjects, subjects with less schooling, poor and sedentary male subjects with low psychological well-being and female subjects who were already mothers were more likely to express body dissatisfaction, perceiving their body as smaller than the desirable body size. The prevalence of body dissatisfaction was also high among overweight subjects, subjects with a high socioeconomic status and married female subjects, who perceived their body size as too large. Minor psychiatric disorders were associated with body dissatisfaction in all subjects, regardless of perceiving themselves as larger or smaller than the desired body size. Most women perceived themselves as larger, but similar proportions of men perceived themselves as too small or too large. Conclusions: Body dissatisfaction was observed among men and women with normal weight, but it was more evident in the obese individuals. Regardless of the nutritional status, both men and women should be appropriately counseled because body size perception can lead to unhealthy behaviors in relation to diet and physical activity. PMID:25074390

  8. Adult and offspring size in the ocean over 17 orders of magnitude follows two life history strategies.

    PubMed

    Neuheimer, A B; Hartvig, M; Heuschele, J; Hylander, S; Kiørboe, T; Olsson, K H; Sainmont, J; Andersen, K H

    2015-12-01

    Explaining variability in offspring vs. adult size among groups is a necessary step to determine the evolutionary and environmental constraints shaping variability in life history strategies. This is of particular interest for life in the ocean where a diversity of offspring development strategies is observed along with variability in physical and biological forcing factors in space and time. We compiled adult and offspring size for 407 pelagic marine species covering more than 17 orders of magnitude in body mass including Cephalopoda, Cnidaria, Crustaceans, Ctenophora, Elasmobranchii, Mammalia, Sagittoidea, and Teleost. We find marine life following one of two distinct strategies, with offspring size being either proportional to adult size (e.g., Crustaceans, Elasmobranchii, and Mammalia) or invariant with adult size (e.g., Cephalopoda, Cnidaria, Sagittoidea, Teleosts, and possibly Ctenophora). We discuss where these two strategies occur and how these patterns (along with the relative size of the offspring) may be shaped by physical and biological constraints in the organism's environment. This adaptive environment along with the evolutionary history of the different groups shape observed life history strategies and possible group-specific responses to changing environmental conditions (e.g., production and distribution). PMID:26909435

  9. Detection, characterization, and spontaneous differentiation in vitro of very small embryonic-like putative stem cells in adult mammalian ovary.

    PubMed

    Parte, Seema; Bhartiya, Deepa; Telang, Jyoti; Daithankar, Vinita; Salvi, Vinita; Zaveri, Kusum; Hinduja, Indira

    2011-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to detect, characterize, and study differentiation potential of stem cells in adult rabbit, sheep, monkey, and menopausal human ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). Two distinct populations of putative stem cells (PSCs) of variable size were detected in scraped OSE, one being smaller and other similar in size to the surrounding red blood cells in the scraped OSE. The smaller 1-3 μm very small embryonic-like PSCs were pluripotent in nature with nuclear Oct-4 and cell surface SSEA-4, whereas the bigger 4-7 μm cells with cytoplasmic localization of Oct-4 and minimal expression of SSEA-4 were possibly the tissue committed progenitor stem cells. Pluripotent gene transcripts of Oct-4, Oct-4A, Nanog, Sox-2, TERT, and Stat-3 in human and sheep OSE were detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The PSCs underwent spontaneous differentiation into oocyte-like structures, parthenote-like structures, embryoid body-like structures, cells with neuronal-like phenotype, and embryonic stem cell-like colonies, whereas the epithelial cells transformed into mesenchymal phenotype by epithelial-mesenchymal transition in 3 weeks of OSE culture. Germ cell markers like c-Kit, DAZL, GDF-9, VASA, and ZP4 were immuno-localized in oocyte-like structures. In conclusion, as opposed to the existing view of OSE being a bipotent source of oocytes and granulosa cells, mammalian ovaries harbor distinct very small embryonic-like PSCs and tissue committed progenitor stem cells population that have the potential to develop into oocyte-like structures in vitro, whereas mesenchymal fibroblasts appear to form supporting granulosa-like somatic cells. Research at the single-cell level, including complete gene expression profiling, is required to further confirm whether postnatal oogenesis is a conserved phenomenon in adult mammals.

  10. Impact of host plant connectivity, crop border and patch size on adult Colorado potato beetle retention.

    PubMed

    Boiteau, Gilles; Vincent, Charles; Leskey, Tracy C; Colpitts, Bruce G; MacKinley, Pamela; Lee, Doo-Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Tagged Colorado potato beetles (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), were released on potato plants, Solanum tuberosum L., and tracked using a portable harmonic radar system to determine the impact of host plant spatial distribution on the tendency of the pest to remain on the colonized host plant or patch. Results confirmed the long residency time on the host plant and showed that close connection of the plant to neighboring plants hastened dispersal between plants. Tracking walking CPB for over 6 h in small potato plots revealed that all types of mixed borders tested (potato/bare ground, potato/timothy and potato/woodland) acted as a strong barrier and retained beetles within the patch. In another experiment in potato patches surrounded by bare ground borders, tracked walking CPB displayed similar behaviour for up to four days. The distribution of turning angles in the CPB walking paths was not uniform and corresponded to beetles following the edge rows of potato patches in response to the crop border barrier or reversing their direction as they reached the end of a row and therefore a border. Patch size had no or little effect on beetle retention in the patch. The relative distribution of counts of tagged beetles detected among small (16 m2), medium (64 m2) and large size (256 m2) patches of potato four days after initial release remained similar to that of numbers released. Even though mixed crop borders were a strong barrier to walking CPB emigrating from potato patches, the departure rate of beetles over time was high. Results suggest that the effect of mixed borders is largely limited to dispersal by walking and does not apply to beetles leaving host patches by flight. The manipulation of crop borders and patch size seem to have limited potential for the management of CPB emigrating from potato fields. PMID:24816717

  11. Impact of host plant connectivity, crop border and patch size on adult Colorado potato beetle retention.

    PubMed

    Boiteau, Gilles; Vincent, Charles; Leskey, Tracy C; Colpitts, Bruce G; MacKinley, Pamela; Lee, Doo-Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Tagged Colorado potato beetles (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), were released on potato plants, Solanum tuberosum L., and tracked using a portable harmonic radar system to determine the impact of host plant spatial distribution on the tendency of the pest to remain on the colonized host plant or patch. Results confirmed the long residency time on the host plant and showed that close connection of the plant to neighboring plants hastened dispersal between plants. Tracking walking CPB for over 6 h in small potato plots revealed that all types of mixed borders tested (potato/bare ground, potato/timothy and potato/woodland) acted as a strong barrier and retained beetles within the patch. In another experiment in potato patches surrounded by bare ground borders, tracked walking CPB displayed similar behaviour for up to four days. The distribution of turning angles in the CPB walking paths was not uniform and corresponded to beetles following the edge rows of potato patches in response to the crop border barrier or reversing their direction as they reached the end of a row and therefore a border. Patch size had no or little effect on beetle retention in the patch. The relative distribution of counts of tagged beetles detected among small (16 m2), medium (64 m2) and large size (256 m2) patches of potato four days after initial release remained similar to that of numbers released. Even though mixed crop borders were a strong barrier to walking CPB emigrating from potato patches, the departure rate of beetles over time was high. Results suggest that the effect of mixed borders is largely limited to dispersal by walking and does not apply to beetles leaving host patches by flight. The manipulation of crop borders and patch size seem to have limited potential for the management of CPB emigrating from potato fields.

  12. Flexible and elastic metamaterial absorber for low frequency, based on small-size unit cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Y. J.; Zheng, H. Y.; Kim, Y. J.; Rhee, J. Y.; Kang, J.-H.; Kim, K. W.; Cheong, H.; Kim, Y. H.; Lee, Y. P.

    2014-07-01

    Using a planar and flexible metamaterial (MM), we obtained the low-frequency perfect absorption even with very small unit-cell size in snake-shape structure. These shrunken, deep-sub-wavelength and thin MM absorbers were numerically and experimentally investigated by increasing the inductance. The periodicity/thickness (the figure of merit for perfect absorption) is achieved to be 10 and 2 for single-snake-bar and 5-snake-bar structures, respectively. The ratio between periodicity and resonance wavelength (in mm) is close to 1/12 and 1/30 at 2 GHz and 400 MHz, respectively. The absorbers are specially designed for absorption peaks around 2 GHz and 400 MHz, which can be used for depressing the electromagnetic noise from everyday electronic devices and mobile phones.

  13. Flexible and elastic metamaterial absorber for low frequency, based on small-size unit cell

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Y. J.; Zheng, H. Y.; Kim, Y. J.; Lee, Y. P.; Rhee, J. Y.; Kang, J.-H.; Kim, K. W.; Cheong, H.; Kim, Y. H.

    2014-07-28

    Using a planar and flexible metamaterial (MM), we obtained the low-frequency perfect absorption even with very small unit-cell size in snake-shape structure. These shrunken, deep-sub-wavelength and thin MM absorbers were numerically and experimentally investigated by increasing the inductance. The periodicity/thickness (the figure of merit for perfect absorption) is achieved to be 10 and 2 for single-snake-bar and 5-snake-bar structures, respectively. The ratio between periodicity and resonance wavelength (in mm) is close to 1/12 and 1/30 at 2 GHz and 400 MHz, respectively. The absorbers are specially designed for absorption peaks around 2 GHz and 400 MHz, which can be used for depressing the electromagnetic noise from everyday electronic devices and mobile phones.

  14. Using the IAT to predict ethnic and racial discrimination: small effect sizes of unknown societal significance.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Frederick L; Mitchell, Gregory; Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James; Tetlock, Philip E

    2015-04-01

    Greenwald, Banaji, and Nosek (2015) present a reanalysis of the meta-analysis by Oswald, Mitchell, Blanton, Jaccard, and Tetlock (2013) that examined the effect sizes of Implicit Association Tests (IATs) designed to predict racial and ethnic discrimination. We discuss points of agreement and disagreement with respect to methods used to synthesize the IAT studies, and we correct an error by Greenwald et al. that obscures a key contribution of our meta-analysis. In the end, all of the meta-analyses converge on the conclusion that, across diverse methods of coding and analyzing the data, IAT scores are not good predictors of ethnic or racial discrimination, and explain, at most, small fractions of the variance in discriminatory behavior in controlled laboratory settings. The thought experiments presented by Greenwald et al. go well beyond the lab to claim systematic IAT effects in noisy real-world settings, but these hypothetical exercises depend crucially on untested and, arguably, untenable assumptions.

  15. Propagation of small size magnetic holes in the magnetospheric plasma sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, S. T.; Shi, Q. Q.; Li, Z. Y.; Wang, X. G.; Tian, A. M.; Sun, W. J.; Hamrin, M.; Wang, M. M.; Pitkänen, T.; Bai, S. C.; Shen, X. C.; Ji, X. F.; Pokhotelov, D.; Yao, Z. H.; Xiao, T.; Pu, Z. Y.; Fu, S. Y.; Zong, Q. G.; De Spiegeleer, A.; Liu, W.; Zhang, H.; Rème, H.

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic holes (MHs), characteristic structures where the magnetic field magnitude decreases significantly, have been frequently observed in space plasmas. Particularly, small size magnetic holes (SSMHs) which the scale is less than or close to the proton gyroradius are recently detected in the magnetospheric plasma sheet. In this study of Cluster observations, by the timing method, the minimum directional difference (MDD) method, and the spatiotemporal difference (STD) method, we obtain the propagation velocity of SSMHs in the plasma flow frame. Furthermore, based on electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) theory we calculate the velocity, width, and depth of the electron solitary wave and compare it to SSMH observations. The result shows a good accord between the theory and the observation.

  16. Benchmarking Density Functionals on Structural Parameters of Small-/Medium-Sized Organic Molecules.

    PubMed

    Brémond, Éric; Savarese, Marika; Su, Neil Qiang; Pérez-Jiménez, Ángel José; Xu, Xin; Sancho-García, Juan Carlos; Adamo, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    In this Letter we report the error analysis of 59 exchange-correlation functionals in evaluating the structural parameters of small- and medium-sized organic molecules. From this analysis, recently developed double hybrids, such as xDH-PBE0, emerge as the most reliable methods, while global hybrids confirm their robustness in reproducing molecular structures. Notably the M06-L density functional is the only semilocal method reaching an accuracy comparable to hybrids'. A comparison with errors obtained on energetic databases (including thermochemistry, reaction barriers, and interaction energies) indicate that most of the functionals have a coherent behavior, showing low (or high) deviations on both energy and structure data sets. Only a few of them are more prone toward one of these two properties. PMID:26730741

  17. IT Governance Practices in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Recommendations from an Empirical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rui; Zmud, Robert W.; Price, R. Leon

    Much has been learned through IT governance research about the nature of IT-related decisions, the location of decision rights for these decisions, and governance mechanisms applied to facilitate associated decision processes in large organisations. Our knowledge about IT governance structures in small and medium-sized enterprises (SME), on the other hand, is quite limited. Adopting a qualitative and inductive approach, this study examines the nature and influence of IT governance in SMEs through interviews with executives from three SMEs. Our results demonstrate that IT decision authority was centralized in all three SMEs but that senior management involvement in governance procedures and communication practices about governance policies were observed to explain differences in these organisations’ IT use. We propose recommendations based on the findings of this study.

  18. Estimation of Fracture Toughness of Small-Sized Ultrafine-Grained Specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deryugin, E. E.; Suvorov, B. I.

    2015-10-01

    The results obtained from measurements of the crack resistance of a VT6 alloy (Ti-6.46Al-3.84V in wt.%) produced by refining coarse-crystalline structure down to an ultrafine-grained state, using a triaxial forging technique, are presented. The specific fracture energy γc is calculated by means of a new procedure developed for small-sized chevron-notched specimens. Severe plastic deformation is shown to cause a substantial reduction in γc at room temperature. Fracture surface structure found in the ultrafine-grained alloy under study contains local zones of a severely deformed material characterized by high pore concentration. This type of structure cannot be formed solely by crystallographic shearing along densely packed lattice planes. This is evidence for a significant role of rotation deformation modes in crack nucleation and growth on different structural scales of the material.

  19. Research on efficient and stable milling using CNC small size tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yongxin; Zhao, Beichen; Long, Hua; Yu, Nanlin

    2011-05-01

    In order to mill efficiently and stably using small size tool on computer numerical control machine(CNC machine), the paper establishes dual-objective function on the basis of the minimum tool wear and the largest cutting efficiency. Meanwhile, the influence of diameter and length of tool suspended on stability is considered under the guidance of chatter stability analysis relationship. Research results show that, Pareto solution set which has two factors into account conflicting can be obtained by Genetic Algorithms, combined Pareto solution set with the frequency response function (FRF) chatter stability diagram, Pareto solutions of the smaller range of options, the milling parameters which meet the requirements of efficient and stable milling of CNC machine tools can be optimized conveniently and accurately. When the tool suspended length increases, the system stiffness decreases and the chatter stability domain graphic drops down, Stability region narrows.

  20. Reducing Size, Weight, and Power (SWaP) of Perception Systems in Small Autonomous Aerial Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kennie H.; Gross, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The objectives are to examine recent trends in the reduction of size, weight, and power (SWaP) requirements of sensor systems for environmental perception and to explore new technology that may overcome limitations in current systems. Improving perception systems to facilitate situation awareness is critical in the move to introduce increasing autonomy in aerial systems. Whether the autonomy is in the current state-of-the-art of increasing automation or is enabling cognitive decisions that facilitate adaptive behavior, collection of environmental information and fusion of that information into knowledge that can direct actuation is imperative to decisions resulting in appropriate behavior. Artificial sensory systems such as cameras, radar, LIDAR, and acoustic sensors have been in use on aircraft for many years but, due to the large size and weight of the airplane and electrical power made available through powerful engines, the SWaP requirements of these sensors was inconsequential. With the proliferation of Remote Piloted Vehicles (RPV), the trend is in significant reduction in SWaP of the vehicles. This requires at least an equivalent reduction in SWaP for the sensory systems. A survey of some currently available sensor systems and changing technology will reveal the trend toward reduction of SWaP of these systems and will predict future reductions. A new technology will be introduced that provides an example of a desirable new trend. A new device replaces multiple conventional sensory devices facilitating synchronization, localization, altimetry, collision avoidance, terrain mapping, and data communication in a single integrated, small form-factor, extremely lightweight, and low power device that it is practical for integration into small autonomous vehicles and can facilitate cooperative behavior. The technology is based on Ultra WideBand (UWB) radio using short pulses of energy rather than continuous sine waves. The characteristics of UWB yield several

  1. Survey of food safety practices on small to medium-sized farms and in farmers markets.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Judy A; Gaskin, Julia W; Harrison, Mark A; Cannon, Jennifer L; Boyer, Renee R; Zehnder, Geoffrey W

    2013-11-01

    As produce consumption has increased, so have foodborne disease outbreaks associated with fresh produce. Little research has addressed food safety practices used on small to medium-sized farms selling locally or in farmers markets. This study evaluated current food safety practices used by farmers on small to medium-sized farms and managers of farmers markets in Georgia, Virginia, and South Carolina based on responses to surveys. Surveys were developed, pretested, and revised before implementation with target audiences and were implemented via mail and the Web to maximize participation, with reminders sent to nonrespondents. Data were collected from 226 farmers and 45 market managers. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for all response variables. Responses from farmers indicated that more than 56% of them use manures. Of those who use manures, 34% use raw or mixtures of raw and composted manure, and over 26% wait fewer than 90 days between application of raw manure and harvest. Over 27% use water sources that have not been tested for safety for irrigation, and 16% use such water sources for washing produce. Over 43% do not sanitize surfaces that touch produce at the farm. Only 33% of farmers always clean transport containers between uses. Responses from market managers indicated that over 42% have no food safety standards in place for the market. Only 2 to 11% ask farmers specific questions about conditions on the farm that could affect product safety. Less than 25% of managers sanitize market surfaces. Only 11% always clean market containers between uses. Over 75% of markets offer no sanitation training to workers or vendors. While farmers and market managers are using many good practices, the results indicate that some practices being used may put consumers at risk of foodborne illness. Consequently, there is a need for training for both farmers and market managers.

  2. Innovation Gateways for SMEs: Finding the Formula for Successful Interaction between Universities and Small and Medium-Size Firms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Peter T.

    1995-01-01

    The University of Warwick's Breakthrough Technologies program links with small and medium-sized businesses to stimulate awareness of innovations. The Manufacturing Excellence Initiative provides postgraduate training for company staff that focuses on best practices and change management. (SK)

  3. How small is pedogenic magnetite? Size estimates for loessic soils based on remanence and hysteresis measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiss, C. E.; Machac, T.

    2005-12-01

    Pedogenic magnetite (or maghemite) is generally believed to be fine-grained, consisting mainly of superparamagnetic (SP) and single-domain (SD) particles. These grain size estimates are based on increased values of ARM/IRM or frequency dependent susceptibility (χFD) in the magnetically enhanced horizons. However, these changes in grain size dependent parameters are generally quite small, compared to the often large increase in concentration dependent parameters, such as low field susceptibility, saturation magnetization (J_S), or various remanence parameters (RM). In addition, a recent study by Dunlop (2002b) suggested that hysteresis properties of several Chinese soils (modern and buried) do not suggest a fining of the magnetic component in the magnetically enhanced soil horizons. We used the model of Dunlop (2002a)to analyze hysteresis data from twenty modern soil profiles from the Midwestern United States. In contrast to the data analyzed by Dunlop (2002b), our data can be modeled equally well with binary mixtures of SD-MD and SD-SP particles. To complement the ambiguous hysteresis data we generated a simple mixing model to constrain the size distribution of pedogenic magnetite. Our model assumes remanence acquisition efficiencies f = RM / J_S for coarse (MD - PSD) and fine (SD-SP) magnetite for ARM and IRM. It then uses ARM/IRM ratios to estimate the relative abundances of coarse and fine magnetite. The validity of our grain size distribution estimates can be checked by comparing measured J_S values to J_S calculated from our model output and measured values of IRM (or ARM). A comparison of our ARM/IRM modeling and hysteresis data shows that the magnetic properties of magnetically enhanced soil horizons can be explained with the addition of a fine grained magnetite component. This component, however, has a wide grain size distribution which includes SP, SD and likely PSD particles. Dunlop, D. J. (2002a). Theory and application of the Day plot (Mrs/M_s versus

  4. Place and type of meals consumed by adults in medium sized cities

    PubMed Central

    Carús, Juliana Pires; França, Giovanny V A; Barros, Aluísio J D

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the meals consumed by adults living in a midsize city in the South of Brazil, according to the place and preparation. METHODS A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 2012. The two-stage sampling design used the 2010 census tracts as primary sampling units. Data were collected on the place of meals (at home or out) and on the kind of preparations consumed at home (homemade, snacks, take away food) covering the two days prior to the interview, using a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS The study included 2,927 adults, of which 59.0% were female, 60.0% were below 50 years of age and 58.0% were in work. Data were collected on 11,581 meals consumed on the two days preceding the interview, 25.0% were consumed outside of the home at lunchtime, and 10.0% at dinnertime. Considering home meals, most participants reported eating food prepared at home at both lunch and dinner. The majority of out-of-home meals (64.0% for lunch and 61.0% for dinner) were consumed in the work place, mostly based on food prepared at home. Individuals eating out of home were mostly male, young and highly educated. The occupational categories that ate at restaurants more often were trade workers, businessmen, teachers and graduate professionals. CONCLUSIONS Despite the changes in eating patterns described in Brazil in recent years, residents of medium-sized towns still mostly eat at home, consuming homemade food. PMID:24789639

  5. The molecular nature of very small embryonic-like stem cells in adult tissues.

    PubMed

    Kim, YongHwan; Jeong, Jaeho; Kang, Hyunsook; Lim, Jisun; Heo, Jinbeom; Ratajczak, Janina; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z; Shin, Dong-Myung

    2014-11-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have been considered as the most important cells in regenerative medicine as they are able to differentiate into all types of cells in the human body. PSCs have been established from several sources of embryo tissue or by reprogramming of terminally differentiated adult tissue by transduction of so-called Yamanaka factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and cMyc). Interestingly, accumulating evidence has demonstrated the residence of PSCs in adult tissue and with the ability to differentiate into multiple types of tissue-committed stem cells (TCSCs). We also recently demonstrated that a population of pluripotent Oct4(+) SSEA-1(+)Sca-1(+)Lin(-)CD45(-) very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) resides in the adult murine bone marrow (BM) and in other murine tissue. These very small (∼3-6 μm) cells express pluripotent markers such as Oct4, Nanog, and SSEA-1. VSELs could be specified into several tissue-residing TCSCs in response to tissue/organ injury, and thus suggesting that these cells have a physiological role in the rejuvenation of a pool of TCSCs under steady-state conditions. In this review article, we discuss the molecular nature of the rare population of VSELs which have a crucial role in regulating the pluripotency, proliferation, differentiation, and aging of these cells. PMID:25473442

  6. Development of efficient, small particle size luminescent oxides using combustion synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, Lauren Elizabeth

    Luminescent materials (phosphors) find application in cathode-ray tubes (CRTs), medical and industrial equipment monitors, fluorescent lamps, xerography, and many types of flat panel displays. Many commercially available phosphors were optimized in the 1960s for high voltage (>10 kV) CRT applications. Recently, a great deal of emphasis has been placed on the development and improvement of phosphors for flat panel displays that operate at low voltages (<5 kV). In addition to high efficiency at low voltages, these displays demand high resolution phosphor screens which can only be realized using phosphors with smaller particle size (<3 mum). Conventional methods of preparing phosphors (e.g., high temperature solid-state reaction) cannot easily produce a homogeneous product with uniform, small particle size. In this work, a novel ceramic synthesis technique, combustion synthesis, was used for the first time to produce submicron-sized oxide phosphors more efficiently for use in flat panel displays. This technique exploits the exothermic redox reaction of metal nitrates (oxidizers) with an organic fuel (reducing agent). Typical fuels include urea (CHsb4Nsb2O), carbohydrazide (CHsb6Nsb4O), or glycine (Csb2Hsb5NOsb2). Resulting powders were well-crystallized, with a large surface area and small particle size. Phosphor powders were exposed to photoluminescence excitation by high energy (254 nm, E = 4.88 eV) and low energy photons (365 nm, E = 3.4 eV and 435 nm, E = 2.85 eV) and cathodoluminescence excitation by a low-voltage (100-1000 V) electron beam. Photoluminescence (PL) techniques resulted in the measurement of spectral energy distribution and relative intensities. Phosphor efficiencies in lumens per watt (lm/W) were obtained by low-voltage cathodoluminescence measurements. The effects of processing parameters such as type of fuel, fuel to oxidizer ratio, and heating rate were studied. The combustion process was optimized based on these processing parameters in order

  7. Non-contact method for characterization of small size thermoelectric modules.

    PubMed

    Manno, Michael; Yang, Bao; Bar-Cohen, Avram

    2015-08-01

    Conventional techniques for characterization of thermoelectric performance require bringing measurement equipment into direct contact with the thermoelectric device, which is increasingly error prone as device size decreases. Therefore, the novel work presented here describes a non-contact technique, capable of accurately measuring the maximum ΔT and maximum heat pumping of mini to micro sized thin film thermoelectric coolers. The non-contact characterization method eliminates the measurement errors associated with using thermocouples and traditional heat flux sensors to test small samples and large heat fluxes. Using the non-contact approach, an infrared camera, rather than thermocouples, measures the temperature of the hot and cold sides of the device to determine the device ΔT and a laser is used to heat to the cold side of the thermoelectric module to characterize its heat pumping capacity. As a demonstration of the general applicability of the non-contact characterization technique, testing of a thin film thermoelectric module is presented and the results agree well with those published in the literature.

  8. Nonlinear Effects of Nanoparticles: Biological Variability From Hormetic Doses, Small Particle Sizes, and Dynamic Adaptive Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Iris R.; Ives, John A.; Jonas, Wayne B.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly focused on the nanoscale level of organization where biological processes take place in living systems. Nanoparticles (NPs, e.g., 1–100 nm diameter) are small forms of natural or manufactured source material whose properties differ markedly from those of the respective bulk forms of the “same” material. Certain NPs have diagnostic and therapeutic uses; some NPs exhibit low-dose toxicity; other NPs show ability to stimulate low-dose adaptive responses (hormesis). Beyond dose, size, shape, and surface charge variations of NPs evoke nonlinear responses in complex adaptive systems. NPs acquire unique size-dependent biological, chemical, thermal, optical, electromagnetic, and atom-like quantum properties. Nanoparticles exhibit high surface adsorptive capacity for other substances, enhanced bioavailability, and ability to cross otherwise impermeable cell membranes including the blood-brain barrier. With super-potent effects, nano-forms can evoke cellular stress responses or therapeutic effects not only at lower doses than their bulk forms, but also for longer periods of time. Interactions of initial effects and compensatory systemic responses can alter the impact of NPs over time. Taken together, the data suggest the need to downshift the dose-response curve of NPs from that for bulk forms in order to identify the necessarily decreased no-observed-adverse-effect-level and hormetic dose range for nanoparticles. PMID:24910581

  9. Only a small population of adult Sertoli cells actively proliferates in culture.

    PubMed

    Kulibin, Andrey Yu; Malolina, Ekaterina A

    2016-10-01

    Adult mammalian Sertoli cells (SCs) have been considered to be quiescent terminal differentiated cells for many years, but recently, proliferation of adult SCs was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo We further examined mouse SC behavior in culture and found that there are two populations of adult SCs. The first population is SCs from seminiferous tubules that hardly proliferate in vitro The second population is small and consists of SCs with atypical nuclear morphology from the terminal segments of seminiferous tubules, a transitional zone (TZ). TZ SCs multiply in culture and form colonies, display mixture of mature and immature SC characteristics, and generate cord-like structures in a collagen matrix. The specific features of TZ SCs are ACTA2 expression in vitro and DMRT1 low levels in vivo and in vitro Although the in vivo function of TZ SCs still remains unclear, this finding has significant implications for our understanding of SC differentiation and functioning in adult mammals. PMID:27512121

  10. Empowering Adult Stem Cells for Myocardial Regeneration V2.0: Success in Small Steps.

    PubMed

    Broughton, Kathleen M; Sussman, Mark A

    2016-03-01

    Much has changed since our survey of the landscape for myocardial regeneration powered by adult stem cells 4 years ago.(1) The intervening years since that first review has witnessed an explosive expansion of studies that advance both understanding and implementation of adult stem cells in promoting myocardial repair. Painstaking research from innumerable laboratories throughout the world is prying open doors that may lead to restoration of myocardial structure and function in the wake of pathological injury. This global effort has produced deeper mechanistic comprehension coupled with an evolving appreciation for the complexity of myocardial regeneration in the adult context. Undaunted by both known and (as yet) unknown challenges, pursuit of myocardial regenerative medicine mediated by adult stem cell therapy has gathered momentum fueled by tantalizing clues and visionary goals. This concise review takes a somewhat different perspective than our initial treatise, taking stock of the business sector that has become an integral part of the field while concurrently updating state of affairs in cutting edge research. Looking retrospectively at advancement over the years as all reviews eventually must, the fundamental lesson to be learned is best explained by Jonatan Mårtensson: "Success will never be a big step in the future. Success is a small step taken just now."

  11. Susceptibility and size quantification of small human veins from an MRI method.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ching-Yi; Cheng, Yu-Chung N; Xie, He; Haacke, E Mark; Neelavalli, Jaladhar

    2015-12-01

    Recently a method called CISSCO (Complex Image Summation around a Spherical or a Cylindrical Object) was introduced for accurately quantifying the susceptibility and the radius of any narrow cylindrical object at any orientation using a typical two-echo gradient echo sequence. This work further optimizes the method for quantifying oxygen saturation in small cerebral veins in the human brain. The revised method is first validated through numerical simulations and then applied to data from phantom and human brain. The effect of phase high pass filtering on the quantified parameters is studied and procedures for mitigating its adverse effects are suggested. Uncertainty of each measurement is estimated from the error propagation method. It is shown that the revised method allows for accurate quantification of both the vessel size and its oxygen saturation even in the case of a low SNR (signal to noise ratio) in the vein. The results are self consistent across different veins within a given subject with a variation of less than 6%. Finally, imaging parameters and some procedures are suggested for accurate susceptibility and radius quantifications of small human veins. PMID:26248271

  12. Why size counts: children's spatial reorientation in large and small enclosures.

    PubMed

    Learmonth, Amy E; Newcombe, Nora S; Sheridan, Natalie; Jones, Meredith

    2008-05-01

    When mobile organisms are spatially disoriented, for instance by rapid repetitive movement, they must re-establish orientation. Past research has shown that the geometry of enclosing spaces is consistently used for reorientation by a wide variety of species, but that non-geometric features are not always used. Based on these findings, some investigators have postulated a species-universal 'geometric module' that is transcended by the acquisition of spatial language at 6 years. This conclusion has been challenged, however, by findings that children as young as 18 months actually do use features to reorient in larger enclosures than those used in the original experiments. The reason for the room size effect is explored here in five experiments. Collectively, the data on age at which features are first used point to the importance of both restriction of movement in the small space and the fact that features are closer in the small space. In addition, success is seen at younger ages when the target object is adjacent to the feature. These results favor an adaptive combination model of spatial reorientation over a 'module-plus-language' view.

  13. Hybrid neural intelligent system to predict business failure in small-to-medium-size enterprises.

    PubMed

    Borrajo, M Lourdes; Baruque, Bruno; Corchado, Emilio; Bajo, Javier; Corchado, Juan M

    2011-08-01

    During the last years there has been a growing need of developing innovative tools that can help small to medium sized enterprises to predict business failure as well as financial crisis. In this study we present a novel hybrid intelligent system aimed at monitoring the modus operandi of the companies and predicting possible failures. This system is implemented by means of a neural-based multi-agent system that models the different actors of the companies as agents. The core of the multi-agent system is a type of agent that incorporates a case-based reasoning system and automates the business control process and failure prediction. The stages of the case-based reasoning system are implemented by means of web services: the retrieval stage uses an innovative weighted voting summarization of self-organizing maps ensembles-based method and the reuse stage is implemented by means of a radial basis function neural network. An initial prototype was developed and the results obtained related to small and medium enterprises in a real scenario are presented. PMID:21809475

  14. Resource efficiency and culture--workplace training for small and medium-sized enterprises.

    PubMed

    Bliesner, Anna; Liedtke, Christa; Rohn, Holger

    2014-05-15

    Although there are already some qualification offers available for enterprises to support resource efficiency innovations, the high potentials that can be identified especially for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have not been activated until now. As successful change lies in the hands of humans, the main aim of vocational education has to be the promotion of organisational and cultural changes in the enterprises. As there is already a small but increasing number of enterprises that perform very well in resource efficiency innovations one question arises: What are typical characteristics of those enterprises? Leaning on a good-practice approach, the project "ResourceCulture" is going to prove or falsify the hypothesis that enterprises being successful with resource efficiency innovations have a specific culture of trust, which substantially contributes to innovation processes, or even initially enables them. Detailed empirical field research will light up which correlations between resource efficiency, innovation and cultures of trust can be found and will offer important aspects for the improvement of management instruments and qualification concepts for workplace training. The project seizes qualification needs that were likewise mentioned by enterprises and consultants, regarding the implementation of resource efficiency. This article - based on first empirical field research results - derives preliminary indications for the design of the qualification module for the target groups resource efficiency consultants and managers. On this basis and in order to implement "ResourceCulture" conceptual and methodological starting points for workplace training are outlined. PMID:24364995

  15. A general mechanism for stabilizing the small sizes of precious metal nanoparticles on oxide supports

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wei-Zhen; Kovarik, Libor; Mei, Donghai; Engelhard, Mark H.; Gao, Feng; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong; Peden, Charles HF

    2014-09-02

    We recently discovered that MgAl2O4 spinel {111} nano-facets optimally stabilize the small sizes of platinum nanoparticles even after severe high temperature aging treatments. Here we report the thermal stabilities of other precious metals with various physical and chemical properties on the MgAl2O4 spinel {111} facets, providing important new insights into the stabilization mechanisms. Besides Pt, Rh and Ir can also be successfully stabilized as small (1-3 nm) nanoparticles and even as single atomic species after extremely severe (800 °C, 1 week) oxidative aging. However, other metals either aggregate (Ru, Pd, Ag, and Au) or sublimate (Os) even during initial catalyst synthesis. On the basis of ab initio theoretical calculations and experimental observations, we rationalize that the exceptional stabilization originates from lattice matching, and the correspondingly strong attractive interactions at interfaces between the spinel {111} surface oxygens and epitaxial metals\\metal oxides. On this basis, design principles for catalyst support oxide materials that are capable in stabilizing precious metals are proposed.

  16. Hybrid neural intelligent system to predict business failure in small-to-medium-size enterprises.

    PubMed

    Borrajo, M Lourdes; Baruque, Bruno; Corchado, Emilio; Bajo, Javier; Corchado, Juan M

    2011-08-01

    During the last years there has been a growing need of developing innovative tools that can help small to medium sized enterprises to predict business failure as well as financial crisis. In this study we present a novel hybrid intelligent system aimed at monitoring the modus operandi of the companies and predicting possible failures. This system is implemented by means of a neural-based multi-agent system that models the different actors of the companies as agents. The core of the multi-agent system is a type of agent that incorporates a case-based reasoning system and automates the business control process and failure prediction. The stages of the case-based reasoning system are implemented by means of web services: the retrieval stage uses an innovative weighted voting summarization of self-organizing maps ensembles-based method and the reuse stage is implemented by means of a radial basis function neural network. An initial prototype was developed and the results obtained related to small and medium enterprises in a real scenario are presented.

  17. Resource efficiency and culture--workplace training for small and medium-sized enterprises.

    PubMed

    Bliesner, Anna; Liedtke, Christa; Rohn, Holger

    2014-05-15

    Although there are already some qualification offers available for enterprises to support resource efficiency innovations, the high potentials that can be identified especially for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have not been activated until now. As successful change lies in the hands of humans, the main aim of vocational education has to be the promotion of organisational and cultural changes in the enterprises. As there is already a small but increasing number of enterprises that perform very well in resource efficiency innovations one question arises: What are typical characteristics of those enterprises? Leaning on a good-practice approach, the project "ResourceCulture" is going to prove or falsify the hypothesis that enterprises being successful with resource efficiency innovations have a specific culture of trust, which substantially contributes to innovation processes, or even initially enables them. Detailed empirical field research will light up which correlations between resource efficiency, innovation and cultures of trust can be found and will offer important aspects for the improvement of management instruments and qualification concepts for workplace training. The project seizes qualification needs that were likewise mentioned by enterprises and consultants, regarding the implementation of resource efficiency. This article - based on first empirical field research results - derives preliminary indications for the design of the qualification module for the target groups resource efficiency consultants and managers. On this basis and in order to implement "ResourceCulture" conceptual and methodological starting points for workplace training are outlined.

  18. Somatostatin therapy protects porcine livers in small-for-size liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hessheimer, A J; Escobar, B; Muñoz, J; Flores, E; Gracia-Sancho, J; Taurá, P; Fuster, J; Rimola, A; García-Valdecasas, J C; Fondevila, C

    2014-08-01

    Small-for-size (SFS) injury occurs in partial liver transplantation due to several factors, including excessive portal inflow and insufficient intragraft responses. We aim to determine the role somatostatin plays in reducing portal hyperperfusion and preventing the cascade of deleterious events produced in small grafts. A porcine model of 20% liver transplantation is performed. Perioperatively treated recipients receive somatostatin and untreated controls standard intravenous fluids. Recipients are followed for up to 5 days. In vitro studies are also performed to determine direct protective effects of somatostatin on hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and sinusoidal endothelial cells (SEC). At reperfusion, portal vein flow (PVF) per gram of tissue increased fourfold in untreated animals versus approximately threefold among treated recipients (p = 0.033). Postoperatively, markers of hepatocellular, SEC and HSC injury were improved among treated animals. Hepatic regeneration occurred in a slower but more orderly fashion among treated grafts; functional recovery was also significantly better. In vitro studies revealed that somatostatin directly reduces HSC activation, though no direct effect on SEC was found. In SFS transplantation, somatostatin reduces PVF and protects SEC in the critical postreperfusion period. Somatostatin also exerts a direct cytoprotective effect on HSC, independent of changes in PVF. PMID:24935350

  19. Using multi-theory model to predict initiation and sustenance of small portion size consumption among college students

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manoj; Catalano, Hannah Priest; Nahar, Vinayak K.; Lingam, Vimala; Johnson, Paul; Ford, M. Allison

    2016-01-01

    Background: Consumption of large portion sizes is contributing to overweight and obesity.College students are a vulnerable group in this regard. The purpose of this study was to use multi-theory model (MTM) to predict initiation and sustenance of small portion size consumption in college students. Methods: A total of 135 students at a large Southern US University completed a 35-item valid (face, content, and construct) and reliable (internally consistent) survey electronically in a cross-sectional design. The main outcome measures were intention to start eating small portion sizes and continuing to eat small portion sizes. Only those students who ate large portion sizes during the past 24 hours were included. Results: Step wise multiple regression showed that initiation of small portion size consumption was explained by participatory dialogue (advantages outweighing disadvantages), behavioral confidence, age, and gender (adjusted R2 = 0.37, P < 0.001). Males were less likely to initiate small portion size consumption than females (β = -0.185, 95% CI = -0.71– -0.11). Regarding sustenance, emotional transformation, changes in social environment, and race were the significant predictors (adjusted R2 = 0.20, P < 0.001). Whites were less likely to sustain small portion size change than other races (β = -0.269, 95% CI = -0.97 – -0.26). Conclusion: Based on this study’s findings, MTM appears to be a robust theoretical framework for predicting small portion size consumption behavior change. Interventions in this regard need to be designed. PMID:27579257

  20. Patients With Small Left Ventricular Size Undergoing Balloon Aortic Valvuloplasty Have Worse Intraprocedural Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Don, Creighton; Gupta, Pritha P.; Witzke, Christian; Kesarwani, Manoj; Cubeddu, Roberto J.; Inglessis, Ignacio; Palacios, Igor F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the impact of left ventricular (LV) chamber size on procedural and hospital outcomes of patients undergoing aortic valvuloplasty. Background Balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) is used as an integral step during transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Patients with small, thickened ventricles are thought to have more complications during and following BAV. Methods Retrospective study of consecutive patients with severe, symptomatic calcific aortic stenosis who underwent retrograde BAV at Massachusetts General Hospital. We compared patients with left ventricular end-diastolic diameters (LVEDD) <4.0 cm (n = 31) to those with LVEDD ≥4.0 cm (n = 78). Baseline and procedural characteristics as well as clinical outcomes were compared. Multivariate logistic regression was used for the adjusted analysis. Results Patients with smaller LV chamber size were mostly women (80.7% vs. 19.4%, P < 0.01) and had a smaller body surface area (BSA), (1.61 ± 0.20 m2 vs. 1.79 ± 0.25 m2, P < 0.01). Patients with smaller LV chamber size had higher ejection fractions and thicker ventricles. Otherwise, baseline characteristics were similar. The intraprocedural composite of death, cardiopulmonary arrest, intubation, hemodynamic collapse, and tamponade was higher for patients with LVEDD < 4.0 cm (32.3% v. 11.5%, P = 0.01). Adjusting for age, gender, BSA, LV pressure, and New York Heart Association class, LVEDD < 4.0 cm remained an independent predictor of procedural (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.4– 18.2) and in-hospital complications (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.2–11.6). Conclusions Compared to patients undergoing BAV with LVEDD ≥4.0 cm, those with smaller LV chambers had worse procedural and in-hospital outcomes. PMID:22926957

  1. A bootstrap test for comparing two variances: simulation of size and power in small samples.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiajing; Chernick, Michael R; LaBudde, Robert A

    2011-11-01

    An F statistic was proposed by Good and Chernick ( 1993 ) in an unpublished paper, to test the hypothesis of the equality of variances from two independent groups using the bootstrap; see Hall and Padmanabhan ( 1997 ), for a published reference where Good and Chernick ( 1993 ) is discussed. We look at various forms of bootstrap tests that use the F statistic to see whether any or all of them maintain the nominal size of the test over a variety of population distributions when the sample size is small. Chernick and LaBudde ( 2010 ) and Schenker ( 1985 ) showed that bootstrap confidence intervals for variances tend to provide considerably less coverage than their theoretical asymptotic coverage for skewed population distributions such as a chi-squared with 10 degrees of freedom or less or a log-normal distribution. The same difficulties may be also be expected when looking at the ratio of two variances. Since bootstrap tests are related to constructing confidence intervals for the ratio of variances, we simulated the performance of these tests when the population distributions are gamma(2,3), uniform(0,1), Student's t distribution with 10 degrees of freedom (df), normal(0,1), and log-normal(0,1) similar to those used in Chernick and LaBudde ( 2010 ). We find, surprisingly, that the results for the size of the tests are valid (reasonably close to the asymptotic value) for all the various bootstrap tests. Hence we also conducted a power comparison, and we find that bootstrap tests appear to have reasonable power for testing equivalence of variances.

  2. Changes of size and shape of small, unruptured intracranial aneurysms in repeated computed tomography angiography studies

    PubMed Central

    Kunert, Przemysław; Jaworski, Maciej; Rosiak, Grzegorz; Marchel, Andrzej; Rowiński, Olgierd

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) are frequently detected in noninvasive imaging studies such as computed tomography angiography (CTA) or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). If small, UIAs are observed in these modalities in order to detect growth or shape change, but there are many questions about proper protocol of the follow-up. Aim To assess changes of small (< 7 mm) UIAs dome size and shape in repeated CTA studies as predictors of growth and rupture. Material and methods One hundred and ten UIAs (10 posterior circulation) in 70 patients (55 women) were observed, with a cumulative observation time of 333.32 years. Aneurysms’ dome and neck perpendicular dimensions were measured in the first and the last CTA study at least twice with the developed application. Confidence intervals (CI) for measurements and dome shape parameters were calculated. For aneurysms ruptured during follow-up intermediate studies were analyzed. Patients’ clinical information was recorded. The aneurysm growth detection algorithm integrated CI and spatial resolution of the CT scanner. Results Twenty-three aneurysms increased in volume, 10 in height and 14 in dome width. Volume increased in 90% of cases of height and 93% of width increase. Posterior circulation aneurysms grew faster than anterior ones (p < 0.003), but calculated time to significant size increase (eT) did not differ between the groups due to higher CI in the posterior circulation. Analysis of eT with Kaplan-Meier curves showed that 75% of growing aneurysms could be detected in the first 3 years of observation. During the follow-up 3 aneurysms bled, and they grew faster than other growing aneurysms. Two of the bleeding aneurysms formed daughter sacs. Conclusions Dome volume assessment is superior to single dimension assessment in aneurysm growth detection. Confidence intervals assessment helps to avoid overestimation of growth. Seventy-five percent of growing aneurysms could be detected in the first 3

  3. Extracting magnetic cluster size and its distributions in advanced perpendicular recording media with shrinking grain size using small angle x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, Virat; Ikeda, Yoshihiro; Takano, Ken; Terris, Bruce D.; Hellwig, Olav; Wang, Tianhan; Wu, Benny; Graves, Catherine; Dürr, Hermann A.; Scherz, Andreas; Stöhr, Jo

    2015-05-18

    We analyze the magnetic cluster size (MCS) and magnetic cluster size distribution (MCSD) in a variety of perpendicular magnetic recording (PMR) media designs using resonant small angle x-ray scattering at the Co L{sub 3} absorption edge. The different PMR media flavors considered here vary in grain size between 7.5 and 9.5 nm as well as in lateral inter-granular exchange strength, which is controlled via the segregant amount. While for high inter-granular exchange, the MCS increases rapidly for grain sizes below 8.5 nm, we show that for increased amount of segregant with less exchange the MCS remains relatively small, even for grain sizes of 7.5 and 8 nm. However, the MCSD still increases sharply when shrinking grains from 8 to 7.5 nm. We show evidence that recording performance such as signal-to-noise-ratio on the spin stand correlates well with the product of magnetic cluster size and magnetic cluster size distribution.

  4. Intestinal mast cells and eosinophils in relation to Strongyloides ratti adult expulsion from the small and large intestines of rats.

    PubMed

    Shintoku, Y; Kadosaka, T; Kimura, E; Takagi, H; Kondo, S; Itoh, M

    2013-04-01

    Mucosal mast cells (MMC) play a crucial role in the expulsion of Strongyloides ratti adults from the small intestine of mice. We reported the large intestinal parasitism of S. ratti in rats, and there has been no report on MMC in the large intestine of the natural host. We studied kinetics of MMC, together with eosinophils, in the upper and lower small intestines, caecum and colon of infected rats. Two distinct phases of mastocytosis were revealed: one in the upper small intestine triggered by stimulation of 'ordinary' adults, and the other in the colon stimulated by 'immune-resistant' adults that started parasitizing the colon around 19 days post-infection. In all 4 intestinal sites, the MMC peaks were observed 5-7 days after the number of adult worms became the maximum and the height of MMC peaks appeared to be dependent on the number of parasitic adults, suggesting an important role played by worms themselves in the MMC buildup.

  5. Applying the results of experiments on small models in the wind tunnel to the calculation of full-sized aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ROBERT

    1922-01-01

    This report presents the attempt to develop a law which will permit the use of results obtained on small models in a tunnel for the calculation of full-sized airplanes, or if it exists, a law of similitude relating air forces on a full-sized plane to those on a reduced scale model.

  6. Big School, Small School: (Re)Testing Assumptions about High School Size, School Engagement and Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Christopher C.; Carolan, Brian V.; Baker-Smith, E. Christine

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to increase both adolescents' engagement with school and academic achievement, school districts across the United States have created small high schools. However, despite the widespread adoption of size reduction reforms, relatively little is known about the relationship between size, engagement and outcomes in high school. In…

  7. What can we learn from studies based on small sample sizes? Comment on Regan, Lakhanpal, and Anguiano (2012).

    PubMed

    Johnson, David R; Bachan, Lauren K

    2013-08-01

    In a recent article, Regan, Lakhanpal, and Anguiano (2012) highlighted the lack of evidence for different relationship outcomes between arranged and love-based marriages. Yet the sample size (n = 58) used in the study is insufficient for making such inferences. This reply discusses and demonstrates how small sample sizes reduce the utility of this research.

  8. Functional and mechanistic exploration of an adult neurogenesis-promoting small molecule

    PubMed Central

    Petrik, David; Jiang, Yindi; Birnbaum, Shari G.; Powell, Craig M.; Kim, Mi-Sung; Hsieh, Jenny; Eisch, Amelia J.

    2012-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis occurs throughout life in the mammalian hippocampus and is essential for memory and mood control. There is significant interest in identifying ways to promote neurogenesis and ensure maintenance of these hippocampal functions. Previous work with a synthetic small molecule, isoxazole 9 (Isx-9), highlighted its neuronal-differentiating properties in vitro. However, the ability of Isx-9 to drive neurogenesis in vivo or improve hippocampal function was unknown. Here we show that Isx-9 promotes neurogenesis in vivo, enhancing the proliferation and differentiation of hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) neuroblasts, and the dendritic arborization of adult-generated dentate gyrus neurons. Isx-9 also improves hippocampal function, enhancing memory in the Morris water maze. Notably, Isx-9 enhances neurogenesis and memory without detectable increases in cellular or animal activity or vascularization. Molecular exploration of Isx-9-induced regulation of neurogenesis (via FACS and microarray of SGZ stem and progenitor cells) suggested the involvement of the myocyte-enhancer family of proteins (Mef2). Indeed, transgenic-mediated inducible knockout of all brain-enriched Mef2 isoforms (Mef2a/c/d) specifically from neural stem cells and their progeny confirmed Mef2's requirement for Isx-9-induced increase in hippocampal neurogenesis. Thus, Isx-9 enhances hippocampal neurogenesis and memory in vivo, and its effects are reliant on Mef2, revealing a novel cell-intrinsic molecular pathway regulating adult neurogenesis.—Petrik, D., Jiang, Y., Birnbaum, S. G., Powell, C. M., Kim, M.-S., Hsieh, J., Eisch, A. J. Functional and mechanistic exploration of an adult neurogenesis-promoting small molecule. PMID:22542682

  9. Geographical variations in adult body size and reproductive life history traits in an invasive anuran, Discoglossus pictus.

    PubMed

    Oromi, Neus; Pujol-Buxó, Eudald; San Sebastián, Olatz; Llorente, Gustavo A; Hammou, Mohamed Aït; Sanuy, Delfi

    2016-06-01

    Variability in life history traits positively affects the establishment and expansive potential of invasive species. In the present study, we analysed the variation of body size in seven populations - two native and five invasive - of the painted frog (Discoglossus pictus, Anura: Discoglossidae), native to North Africa and introduced in southern France and the north-east of the Iberian Peninsula. Other life history traits (age at maturity, size at maturity, longevity, median age and potential reproductive lifespan) were analysed in a native and an invasive population. We observed geographic variations in adult body size, related mainly to mean annual precipitation. Thus, populations had greater body size as mean annual precipitation increased, resulting in bigger specimens in the invasive populations. Adult body size and growth rates also varied between sexes in all studied populations, with males significantly larger than females. Age distribution varied between native (1-5 years) and invasive populations (2-4 years) and also between sexes. Our results suggest that higher precipitation promotes faster growth rates and larger adult body size that could facilitate the successful establishment of invasive populations.

  10. Effect of energetic cost to maintain the trap for Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae) in its development and adult size.

    PubMed

    Lima, T N; Silva, D C R

    2016-07-25

    Antlion larvae Myrmeleon brasiliensis Návas, 1914 (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae) are sit-and-wait predators who build traps to catch their prey. The aim of this study was to observe under laboratory conditions, how the energy cost spent on maintenance of their traps affects: the larval developmental time, time spent as a pupa, mortality rate of larvae and adult size. M. brasiliensis larvae were collected in the municipality of Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil and were individually maintained in plastic containers and subjected to two treatments. In the control treatment larvae did not have their traps disturbed while in the manipulated treatment, larvae had their traps disturbed three times a week. The experiments were followed until adult emergence. When the adults emerged, their body size (head-abdomen), anterior and posterior wing span and width were measured. Furthermore, the number of larvae that died during the experiment was recorded. The results showed that the larvae whose traps were manipulated had longer larval development time, smaller pupal development time and were smaller adults. It can be concluded that the energy expenditure spent on maintenance of the trap constructed by M. brasiliensis larvae can affect the development of negative ways, represented by a longer larval development and reduced adult size. PMID:27463831

  11. Adult stem cells in the small intestine are intrinsically programmed with their location-specific function.

    PubMed

    Middendorp, Sabine; Schneeberger, Kerstin; Wiegerinck, Caroline L; Mokry, Michal; Akkerman, Ronald D L; van Wijngaarden, Simone; Clevers, Hans; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E S

    2014-05-01

    Differentiation and specialization of epithelial cells in the small intestine are regulated in two ways. First, there is differentiation along the crypt-villus axis of the intestinal stem cells into absorptive enterocytes, Paneth, goblet, tuft, enteroendocrine, or M cells, which is mainly regulated by WNT. Second, there is specialization along the cephalocaudal axis with different absorptive and digestive functions in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum that is controlled by several transcription factors such as GATA4. However, so far it is unknown whether location-specific functional properties are intrinsically programmed within stem cells or if continuous signaling from mesenchymal cells is necessary to maintain the location-specific identity of the small intestine. Using the pure epithelial organoid technique, we show that region-specific gene expression profiles are conserved throughout long-term cultures of both mouse and human intestinal stem cells and correlated with differential Gata4 expression. Furthermore, the human organoid culture system demonstrates that Gata4-regulated gene expression is only allowed in absence of WNT signaling. These data show that location-specific function is intrinsically programmed in the adult stem cells of the small intestine and that their differentiation fate is independent of location-specific extracellular signals. In light of the potential future clinical application of small intestine-derived organoids, our data imply that it is important to generate GATA4-positive and GATA4-negative cultures to regenerate all essential functions of the small intestine.

  12. Exposure to celebrity-endorsed small cigar promotions and susceptibility to use among young adult cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Sterling, Kymberle L; Moore, Roland S; Pitts, Nicole; Duong, Melissa; Ford, Kentya H; Eriksen, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Small cigar smoking among young adult cigarette smokers may be attributed to their exposure to its advertisements and promotions. We examined the association between exposure to a celebrity music artist's endorsement of a specific brand of small cigars and young adult cigarette smokers' susceptibility to smoking that brand. Venue-based sampling procedures were used to select and survey a random sample of 121 young adult cigarette smokers, aged 18-35. Fourteen percent reported exposure to the artist's endorsement of the small cigar and 45.4% reported an intention to smoke the product in the future. The odds of small cigar smoking susceptibility increased threefold for those who reported exposure to the endorsement compared to those not exposed (OR = 3.64, 95% CI 1.06 to 12.54). Past 30-day small cigar use (OR = 3.30, 95% CI 1.24 to 8.74) and past 30-day cigar use (OR = 5.08, 95% CI 1.23, 21.08) were also associated with susceptibility to smoke a small cigar. An association between young adult cigarette smokers' exposure to the music artist's small cigar endorsement and their susceptibility to smoke small cigars was found. This association underscores the importance of monitoring small cigar promotions geared toward young people and their impact on small cigar product smoking.

  13. Exposure to Celebrity-Endorsed Small Cigar Promotions and Susceptibility to Use among Young Adult Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, Kymberle L.; Moore, Roland S.; Pitts, Nicole; Duong, Melissa; Ford, Kentya H.; Eriksen, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Small cigar smoking among young adult cigarette smokers may be attributed to their exposure to its advertisements and promotions. We examined the association between exposure to a celebrity music artist's endorsement of a specific brand of small cigars and young adult cigarette smokers' susceptibility to smoking that brand. Venue-based sampling procedures were used to select and survey a random sample of 121 young adult cigarette smokers, aged 18–35. Fourteen percent reported exposure to the artist's endorsement of the small cigar and 45.4% reported an intention to smoke the product in the future. The odds of small cigar smoking susceptibility increased threefold for those who reported exposure to the endorsement compared to those not exposed (OR = 3.64, 95% CI 1.06 to 12.54). Past 30-day small cigar use (OR = 3.30, 95% CI 1.24 to 8.74) and past 30-day cigar use (OR = 5.08, 95% CI 1.23, 21.08) were also associated with susceptibility to smoke a small cigar. An association between young adult cigarette smokers' exposure to the music artist's small cigar endorsement and their susceptibility to smoke small cigars was found. This association underscores the importance of monitoring small cigar promotions geared toward young people and their impact on small cigar product smoking. PMID:24371444

  14. Effects of eye size on adults' aesthetic ratings of faces and 5-month-olds' looking times.

    PubMed

    Geldart, S; Maurer, D; Carney, K

    1999-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated the influence of eye size on adults' ratings of faces' attractiveness and 5-month-olds' looking times. Subjects viewed four pairs of female faces that were identical except for the size of the eyes. Whether they saw black-and-white drawings (experiment 1) or coloured photographs (experiment 2), adults rated the faces with larger eyes as more attractive than the faces with smaller eyes. Babies looked equally long at the drawn faces with larger and smaller eyes (experiment 1), but with the more realistic photographed faces, they looked slightly but significantly longer at the versions with larger eyes (experiment 2). Overall, our results suggest that a modest preference for larger eyes that has emerged by 5 months of age may contribute to the development of adult aesthetic preferences. PMID:10615473

  15. Flow management and fish density regulate salmonid recruitment and adult size in tailwaters across western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dibble, Kimberly L.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Budy, Phaedra E.

    2015-01-01

    The mean lengths of adult rainbow and brown trout were influenced by similar flow and catch metrics. Length in both species was positively correlated with high annual flow but declined in tailwaters with high daily fluctuations in flow, high catch rates of conspecifics, and when large cohorts recruited to adult size. Whereas brown trout did not respond to the proportion of water allocated between seasons, rainbow trout length increased in rivers that released more water during winter than in spring. Rainbow trout length was primarily related to high catch rates of conspecifics, whereas brown trout length was mainly related to large cohorts recruiting to the adult size class. Species-specific responses to flow management are likely attributable to differences in seasonal timing of key life history events such as spawning, egg hatching, and fry emergence.

  16. Small sized EGFR1 and HER2 specific bifunctional antibody for targeted cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Ding, Li; Tian, Caiping; Feng, Song; Fida, Guissi; Zhang, Congying; Ma, Yuxiang; Ai, Guanhua; Achilefu, Samuel; Gu, Yueqing

    2015-01-01

    Targeting tumors using miniature antibodies is a novel and attractive therapeutic approach, as these biomolecules exhibit low immunogenicity, rapid clearance, and high targeting specificity. However, most of the small-sized antibodies in existence do not exhibit marked anti-tumor effects, which limit their use in targeted cancer immunotherapy. To overcome this difficulty in targeting multiple biomarkers by combination therapies, we designed a new bifunctional antibody, named MaAbNA (multivalent antibody comprised of nanobody and affibody moieties), capable of targeting EGFR1 and HER2, which are widely overexpressed in a variety of tumor types. The small-sized (29 kDa) MaAbNA, which was expressed in E.coli, consists of one anti-EGFR1 nanobody and two anti-HER2 affibodies, and possesses high affinity (KD) for EGFR1 (~4.1 nM) and HER2 (~4.7 nM). In order to enhance its anti-tumor activity, MaAbNA was conjugated with adriamycin (ADM) using a PEG2000 linker, forming a new complex anticancer drug, MaAbNA-PEG2000-ADM. MaAbNA exhibited high inhibitory effects on tumor cells over-expressing both EGFR1 and HER2, but displayed minimal cytotoxicity in cells expressing low levels of EGFR1 and HER2. Moreover, MaAbNA-PEG2000-ADM displayed increased tumoricidal effects than ADM or MaAbNA alone, as well exhibited greater antitumor efficacy than EGFR1 (Cetuximab) and HER2 (Herceptin) antibody drugs. The ability of MaAbNA to regulate expression of downstream oncogenes c-jun, c-fos, c-myc, as well as AEG-1 for therapeutic potential was evaluated by qPCR and western-blot analyses. The antitumor efficacy of MaAbNA and its derivative MaAbNA-PEG2000-ADM were validated in vivo, highlighting the potential for use of MaAbNA as a highly tumor-specific dual molecular imaging probe and targeted cancer therapeutic. PMID:25699098

  17. Small Sized EGFR1 and HER2 Specific Bifunctional Antibody for Targeted Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Li; Tian, Caiping; Feng, Song; Fida, Guissi; Zhang, Congying; Ma, Yuxiang; Ai, Guanhua; Achilefu, Samuel; Gu, Yueqing

    2015-01-01

    Targeting tumors using miniature antibodies is a novel and attractive therapeutic approach, as these biomolecules exhibit low immunogenicity, rapid clearance, and high targeting specificity. However, most of the small-sized antibodies in existence do not exhibit marked anti-tumor effects, which limit their use in targeted cancer immunotherapy. To overcome this difficulty in targeting multiple biomarkers by combination therapies, we designed a new bifunctional antibody, named MaAbNA (multivalent antibody comprised of nanobody and affibody moieties), capable of targeting EGFR1 and HER2, which are widely overexpressed in a variety of tumor types. The small-sized (29 kDa) MaAbNA, which was expressed in E.coli, consists of one anti-EGFR1 nanobody and two anti-HER2 affibodies, and possesses high affinity (KD) for EGFR1 (~4.1 nM) and HER2 (~4.7 nM). In order to enhance its anti-tumor activity, MaAbNA was conjugated with adriamycin (ADM) using a PEG2000 linker, forming a new complex anticancer drug, MaAbNA-PEG2000-ADM. MaAbNA exhibited high inhibitory effects on tumor cells over-expressing both EGFR1 and HER2, but displayed minimal cytotoxicity in cells expressing low levels of EGFR1 and HER2. Moreover, MaAbNA-PEG2000-ADM displayed increased tumoricidal effects than ADM or MaAbNA alone, as well exhibited greater antitumor efficacy than EGFR1 (Cetuximab) and HER2 (Herceptin) antibody drugs. The ability of MaAbNA to regulate expression of downstream oncogenes c-jun, c-fos, c-myc, as well as AEG-1 for therapeutic potential was evaluated by qPCR and western-blot analyses. The antitumor efficacy of MaAbNA and its derivative MaAbNA-PEG2000-ADM were validated in vivo, highlighting the potential for use of MaAbNA as a highly tumor-specific dual molecular imaging probe and targeted cancer therapeutic. PMID:25699098

  18. Development of Small-sized Fluid Control Valve with Self-holding Function Using Permanent Magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akagi, Tetsuya; Dohta, Shujiro; Ueda, Hirofumi

    Recently, force feedback devices in virtual reality and power assisted nursing care systems have received much attention and active research. In such a control system, an actuator and a driving device such as a control valve are mounted on the human body. In this condition, the size and weight of the control valve become serious problems. At the same time, the valve should be operated with lower energy consumption because of using a limited electrical power. The typical electro magnetic solenoid valve drives its spool using a larger solenoid to open the valve. The complex construction of the valve for sealing makes its miniaturization and the fabrication of a low cost valve more difficult. In addition, the solenoid in the valve consumes more electrical power while the valve is kept opening. The purpose of our study is to develop a small-sized, lightweight, lower energy consumption and flexible control valve that can be safe enough to mount on the human body at a lower cost. In our pervious study, we proposed and tested the control valve that can open using a vibration motor. In this study, we propose and test a new type of fluid control valve with a self-holding function. The new valve uses a permanent magnet ball. It has a cylindrical magnet and two solenoids. The self-holding function of the valve is done as follows. When one side of the solenoid is stimulated by the current momentarily, the solenoid gives a repulsive force to the cylindrical magnet. The magnet moves toward the opposite side of the solenoid and is attracted to the iron core. Then, the magnet ball moves toward the cylindrical magnet and opens the orifice. The valve can keep open without electrical energy. As a result, the valve with the extremely lower energy consumption can be developed.

  19. Same size--same niche? Foraging niche separation between sympatric juvenile Galapagos sea lions and adult Galapagos fur seals.

    PubMed

    Jeglinski, Jana W E; Goetz, Kimberley T; Werner, Christiane; Costa, Daniel P; Trillmich, Fritz

    2013-05-01

    1. In vertebrates, patterns of resource utilization change throughout development according to age- and or size-specific abilities and requirements. Thus, interspecific competition affects different age classes differently. 2. Adults of sympatric species often show distinct foraging niche segregation, but juvenile resource use might overlap with adult competitors of similar body size. Resultant negative effects on juveniles can have important consequences for population dynamics, yet such interactions have received little attention in studies of mammalian communities. 3. Using GPS tracking devices, time-depth recorders and stable isotope data, we compared diving depth, activity time, trophic position and foraging habitat characteristics to investigate foraging niche overlap between similar-sized sympatric juvenile Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki) and adult Galapagos fur seals (Arctocephalus galapagoensis) and compared each group with much larger-bodied adult Galapagos sea lions. 4. We found little indication for direct competition but a complex pattern of foraging niche segregation: juvenile sea lions and adult fur seals dived to shallow depths at night, but foraged in different habitats with limited spatial overlap. Conversely, juvenile and adult sea lions employed different foraging patterns, but their foraging areas overlapped almost completely. 5. Consistency of foraging habitat characteristics between juvenile and adult sea lions suggests that avoidance of competition may be important in shaping foraging habitat utilization. Resultant specialization on a limited habitat could contribute to low sea lion numbers that contrast with high fur seal abundance. Our data suggest that exploitation by multiple predators within spatially restricted foraging ranges of juveniles might negatively impact juvenile foraging success and ultimately influence population dynamics.

  20. Albedo, Size and Taxonomy of the Small Body Populations Outside the Main Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grav, Tommy; Mainzer, Amy; Bauer, James; Masiero, Joseph R.; Cutri, Roc; Nugent, Carrie; Sonnett, Sarah; Kramer, Emily A.

    2015-11-01

    Using the data from the WISE/NEOWISE mission we have derived albedo and size distributions of ~1200 Cybeles, ~1000 Hildas, ~1700 Jovian Trojans and a dozen irregular satellites of Jupiter and Saturn. These data increases by an order of magnitude our knowledge of the makeup of the small body populations between the Main Belt and Saturn. We find that all these populations are dominated by low albedo objects, with only the Cybeles (with less than 10%) having any significant fraction of possible interloper objects with albedo higher than 15%. Using the near-infrared albedos (in the 3.4 and 4.6μm bands, denoted W1 and W2 respectively) we were able to derive the taxonomic classifications of the largest objects in each population, showing that they are dominated by surfaces that are similar to C-, P- and D-type asteroids. The dominance of these dark, primitive surfaces indicate two possible formation scenarios. These small body populations may have been formed in situ beyond the snow line, potentially serving as bodies that can provide significant insight into the composition of the early Solar Nebula in the region of the current Giant Planets. Alternatively, they may be captured bodies that were perturbed from the region outside the Giant Planets as the planets migrated during the early stages of Solar System formation. This allows for insight into the composition of the Trans-Neptunian population by study of populations that are significantly closer, brighter and more accessible. The low percentages of potentially higher albedo, stony objects common in the Main Asteroid Belt indicates that only a few of these objects have embedded themselves into these populations, potentially imposing significant constraints on the migration of Jupiter inside its current orbit.

  1. Predictability in a highly stochastic system: final size of measles epidemics in small populations.

    PubMed

    Caudron, Q; Mahmud, A S; Metcalf, C J E; Gottfreðsson, M; Viboud, C; Cliff, A D; Grenfell, B T

    2015-01-01

    A standard assumption in the modelling of epidemic dynamics is that the population of interest is well mixed, and that no clusters of metapopulations exist. The well-known and oft-used SIR model, arguably the most important compartmental model in theoretical epidemiology, assumes that the disease being modelled is strongly immunizing, directly transmitted and has a well-defined period of infection, in addition to these population mixing assumptions. Childhood infections, such as measles, are prime examples of diseases that fit the SIR-like mechanism. These infections have been well studied for many systems with large, well-mixed populations with endemic infection. Here, we consider a setting where populations are small and isolated. The dynamics of infection are driven by stochastic extinction-recolonization events, producing large, sudden and short-lived epidemics before rapidly dying out from a lack of susceptible hosts. Using a TSIR model, we fit prevaccination measles incidence and demographic data in Bornholm, the Faroe Islands and four districts of Iceland, between 1901 and 1965. The datasets for each of these countries suffer from different levels of data heterogeneity and sparsity. We explore the potential for prediction of this model: given historical incidence data and up-to-date demographic information, and knowing that a new epidemic has just begun, can we predict how large it will be? We show that, despite a lack of significant seasonality in the incidence of measles cases, and potentially severe heterogeneity at the population level, we are able to estimate the size of upcoming epidemics, conditioned on the first time step, to within reasonable confidence. Our results have potential implications for possible control measures for the early stages of new epidemics in small populations.

  2. Small-Scale Drop-Size Variability: Empirical Models for Drop-Size-Dependent Clustering in Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, Alexander; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Larsen, Michael L.; Wiscombe, Warren J.

    2005-01-01

    By analyzing aircraft measurements of individual drop sizes in clouds, it has been shown in a companion paper that the probability of finding a drop of radius r at a linear scale l decreases as l(sup D(r)), where 0 less than or equals D(r) less than or equals 1. This paper shows striking examples of the spatial distribution of large cloud drops using models that simulate the observed power laws. In contrast to currently used models that assume homogeneity and a Poisson distribution of cloud drops, these models illustrate strong drop clustering, especially with larger drops. The degree of clustering is determined by the observed exponents D(r). The strong clustering of large drops arises naturally from the observed power-law statistics. This clustering has vital consequences for rain physics, including how fast rain can form. For radiative transfer theory, clustering of large drops enhances their impact on the cloud optical path. The clustering phenomenon also helps explain why remotely sensed cloud drop size is generally larger than that measured in situ.

  3. Are Small Classes Better? Understanding Relationships between Class Size, Classroom Processes and Pupils' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedder, David

    2006-01-01

    Twelve years ago Blatchford and Mortimore's authoritative review of class size research appeared in this journal. They concluded that a major problem with class size research was the lack of detailed studies of complex classroom processes that might mediate class size effects on pupils' learning. This article reviews two UK class size reviews and…

  4. Evolutionary divergence of adult body size and juvenile growth in sympatric subpopulations of a top predator in aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Tibblin, Petter; Forsman, Anders; Koch-Schmidt, Per; Nordahl, Oscar; Johannessen, Peter; Nilsson, Jonas; Larsson, Per

    2015-07-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that different selective regimes may contribute to divergent evolution of body size and growth rate among populations, but most studies have focused on allopatric populations. Here, we studied five sympatric subpopulations of anadromous northern pike (Esox lucius) in the Baltic Sea subjected to allopatric habitats for a short period of their life cycle due to homing behavior. We report differences in adult body size among subpopulations that were in part due to variation in growth rate. Body size of emigrating juveniles also differed among subpopulations, and differences remained when individuals were reared in a common environment, thus indicating evolutionary divergence among subpopulations. Furthermore, a QST-FST comparison indicated that differences had evolved due to divergent selection rather than genetic drift, possibly in response to differences in selective mortality among spawning habitats during the allopatric life stage. Adult and juvenile size were negatively correlated across subpopulations, and reconstruction of growth trajectories of adult fishes suggested that body size differences developed gradually and became accentuated throughout the first years of life. These results represent rare evidence that sympatric subpopulations can evolve differences in key life-history traits despite being subjected to allopatric habitats during only a very short fraction of their life.

  5. Drivers for OSH interventions in small and medium-sized enterprises.

    PubMed

    Cagno, Enrico; Masi, Donato; Leão, Celina Pinto

    2016-01-01

    The debate concerning occupational safety and health (OSH) interventions has recently focused on the need of improving the evaluation of interventions, and in particular on the need for providing information about why the intervention worked or not, under what circumstances and in which context. Key concepts in the analysis of the context are the drivers, i.e., those factors enabling, fostering or facilitating OSH interventions. However, the concept of driver for an OSH intervention is both confused and contested. Although the term is widely used, there is little consensus on how drivers should be understood, how important they are in different contexts and how they can facilitate interventions. This exploratory study based on interviews with the owner-managers and the safety officers of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) gives an overview of the most characteristic drivers for OSH interventions. The results will be used to make an initial evaluation of SMEs' needs, and will help orient interventions and future research.

  6. Quantitative evaluation of waste prevention on the level of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs).

    PubMed

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut

    2009-02-01

    Waste prevention is a principle means of achieving the goals of waste management and a key element for developing sustainable economies. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) contribute substantially to environmental degradation, often not even being aware of their environmental effects. Therefore, several initiatives have been launched in Austria aimed at supporting waste prevention measures on the level of SMEs. To promote the most efficient projects, they have to be evaluated with respect to their contribution to the goals of waste management. It is the aim of this paper to develop a methodology for evaluating waste prevention measures in SMEs based on their goal orientation. At first, conceptual problems of defining and delineating waste prevention activities are briefly discussed. Then an approach to evaluate waste prevention activities with respect to their environmental performance is presented and benchmarks which allow for an efficient use of the available funds are developed. Finally the evaluation method is applied to a number of former projects and the calculated results are analysed with respect to shortcomings and limitations of the model. It is found that the developed methodology can provide a tool for a more objective and comprehensible evaluation of waste prevention measures.

  7. Subspace Leakage Analysis and Improved DOA Estimation With Small Sample Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaghaghi, Mahdi; Vorobyov, Sergiy A.

    2015-06-01

    Classical methods of DOA estimation such as the MUSIC algorithm are based on estimating the signal and noise subspaces from the sample covariance matrix. For a small number of samples, such methods are exposed to performance breakdown, as the sample covariance matrix can largely deviate from the true covariance matrix. In this paper, the problem of DOA estimation performance breakdown is investigated. We consider the structure of the sample covariance matrix and the dynamics of the root-MUSIC algorithm. The performance breakdown in the threshold region is associated with the subspace leakage where some portion of the true signal subspace resides in the estimated noise subspace. In this paper, the subspace leakage is theoretically derived. We also propose a two-step method which improves the performance by modifying the sample covariance matrix such that the amount of the subspace leakage is reduced. Furthermore, we introduce a phenomenon named as root-swap which occurs in the root-MUSIC algorithm in the low sample size region and degrades the performance of the DOA estimation. A new method is then proposed to alleviate this problem. Numerical examples and simulation results are given for uncorrelated and correlated sources to illustrate the improvement achieved by the proposed methods. Moreover, the proposed algorithms are combined with the pseudo-noise resampling method to further improve the performance.

  8. Use of recycling through medium size granular filters to treat small food processing industry effluents.

    PubMed

    Ménoret, C; Boutin, C; Liénard, A; Brissaud, F

    2002-01-01

    Currently there are no suitable wastewater treatment systems for effluents from small food processing industries (dairy, cheese, wine production). Such raw sewages are characterized by high organic matter concentrations (about 10 g COD L-1) and relatively low daily volumes (about 2 m3). An adaptation of attached-growth cultures on fine media processes, known to be easy and inexpensive to use, could fit both the technical and economical context of those industries. Coarser filter particle size distributions than those normally used allow a better aeration and reduce clogging risk. The transit time of the effluent through the porous filter materials is shortened and requires recycling to increase the contact time between the biomass and the substrate. A pilot plant was built to compare the efficiency of two kinds of filter materials, gravel (2-5 mm) and pozzolana (3-7 mm). Two measurement campaigns were undertaken on a full-scale unit dealing with cheese dairy effluents. Both pilot-scale and full-scale plants show high COD removal rates (> 95%). Pilot-scale experiments show that accumulation of organic matter leads to the clogging of the recycling filter. To prevent early clogging, a better definition of feeding cycles is needed. PMID:12201106

  9. A small-size transfer blackbody cavity for calibration of infrared ear thermometers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gen Jung; Yoo, Yong Shim; Kim, Bong Hak; Lim, Sun Do; Hyun Song, Jong

    2014-05-01

    A small-size transfer blackbody cavity for calibration of infrared ear thermometers (IRETs) was developed and characterized at the Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science. This blackbody cavity consists of a reflector exposed to the air and a radiator with three-step curves immersed in a water-bath, and has an angularly uniform emissivity of higher than 0.9993. The radiance temperature of the blackbody cavity was measured with an IRET. We also calculated the effective emissivity by using the software STEEP322, considering the influence of the shape and temperature of the probe-tip of the IRET on the effective emissivity of the blackbody cavity. The measured and calculated radiance temperatures of the blackbody cavity were compared to those of the ASTM-type blackbody cavity and are in good agreement. Uncertainties (k = 1) of the blackbody cavity are estimated to be less than 44 mK in the temperature range 35-42 °C.

  10. Realization of a small-size high resolution linear neutron scintillation detector

    SciTech Connect

    Engels, R.; Reinartz, R.; Reinhart, P.; Schelten, J.; Jansen, E.; Schaefer, W.

    1998-06-01

    The spectrum of position sensitive neutron scintillation detectors, which have been developed and designed in the institute during the last decade, comprises several high resolution linear detectors. The design of the small size high resolution detector is based on a modified Anger technology using a linear array of 24 HAMAMATSU type R1770 rectangular photomultipliers and a 1 mm {sup 6}Li glass scintillator. The sensitive detector area is 200 x 20 mm{sup 2} and the spatial resolution is 1.2 mm. The neutron sensitivity at 1{angstrom} is about 65% and the residual gamma sensitivity is less than 10{sup {minus}4} and the maximum count rate is about 100 kHz. The detector is linked to a highly flexible PC-based data acquisition system with 12 bit position and 16 bit time resolution. The stand alone detector and data acquisition system is aimed preferably at pulsed sources performing high resolution angle-dispersive time-of-flight experiments.

  11. Weighted piecewise LDA for solving the small sample size problem in face verification.

    PubMed

    Kyperountas, Marios; Tefas, Anastasios; Pitas, Ioannis

    2007-03-01

    A novel algorithm that can be used to boost the performance of face-verification methods that utilize Fisher's criterion is presented and evaluated. The algorithm is applied to similarity, or matching error, data and provides a general solution for overcoming the "small sample size" (SSS) problem, where the lack of sufficient training samples causes improper estimation of a linear separation hyperplane between the classes. Two independent phases constitute the proposed method. Initially, a set of weighted piecewise discriminant hyperplanes are used in order to provide a more accurate discriminant decision than the one produced by the traditional linear discriminant analysis (LDA) methodology. The expected classification ability of this method is investigated throughout a series of simulations. The second phase defines proper combinations for person-specific similarity scores and describes an outlier removal process that further enhances the classification ability. The proposed technique has been tested on the M2VTS and XM2VTS frontal face databases. Experimental results indicate that the proposed framework greatly improves the face-verification performance.

  12. Quantitative evaluation of waste prevention on the level of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs)

    SciTech Connect

    Laner, David Rechberger, Helmut

    2009-02-15

    Waste prevention is a principle means of achieving the goals of waste management and a key element for developing sustainable economies. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) contribute substantially to environmental degradation, often not even being aware of their environmental effects. Therefore, several initiatives have been launched in Austria aimed at supporting waste prevention measures on the level of SMEs. To promote the most efficient projects, they have to be evaluated with respect to their contribution to the goals of waste management. It is the aim of this paper to develop a methodology for evaluating waste prevention measures in SMEs based on their goal orientation. At first, conceptual problems of defining and delineating waste prevention activities are briefly discussed. Then an approach to evaluate waste prevention activities with respect to their environmental performance is presented and benchmarks which allow for an efficient use of the available funds are developed. Finally the evaluation method is applied to a number of former projects and the calculated results are analysed with respect to shortcomings and limitations of the model. It is found that the developed methodology can provide a tool for a more objective and comprehensible evaluation of waste prevention measures.

  13. TELICS—A Telescope Instrument Control System for Small/Medium Sized Astronomical Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Mudit K.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Burse, Mahesh P.; Chordia, Pravin A.; Chillal, Kalpesh S.; Mestry, Vilas B.; Das, Hillol K.; Kohok, Abhay A.

    2009-10-01

    For any modern astronomical observatory, it is essential to have an efficient interface between the telescope and its back-end instruments. However, for small and medium-sized observatories, this requirement is often limited by tight financial constraints. Therefore a simple yet versatile and low-cost control system is required for such observatories to minimize cost and effort. Here we report the development of a modern, multipurpose instrument control system TELICS (Telescope Instrument Control System) to integrate the controls of various instruments and devices mounted on the telescope. TELICS consists of an embedded hardware unit known as a common control unit (CCU) in combination with Linux-based data acquisition and user interface. The hardware of the CCU is built around the ATmega 128 microcontroller (Atmel Corp.) and is designed with a backplane, master-slave architecture. A Qt-based graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed and the back-end application software is based on C/C++. TELICS provides feedback mechanisms that give the operator good visibility and a quick-look display of the status and modes of instruments as well as data. TELICS has been used for regular science observations since 2008 March on the 2 m, f/10 IUCAA Telescope located at Girawali in Pune, India.

  14. Experimental testing of centrifugal pump: small and medium sized enterprise product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, R.; Paddiyatu, F.; Khafidh, M.; Nugroho, S.; Sugiyanto, S.; Jamari, J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports the experimental testing for centrifugal pump for fisherman ship, manufactured by small and medium sized enterprises in Central Java Province, Indonesia. The research covers material analysis, component observation, endurance and vibration test. Six centrifugal pumps are tested and three main pump components are discussed: shaft, bearings and seals. The results show that the material of the shaft is predicted to support and transmit the load from the engine to impeller. The problem found in the tolerance and geometry accuracy of the shaft which causes difficulties during assembling process, excessive wear and leakage during testing. From the endurance and vibration test, the ball bearings fail and lock the shaft due to the fatigue on the rolling elements and raceways. The oil seal and water seal also fail in maintaining the oil and water in the chamber and induce the unlubricated system for the ball bearings. Some suggestions are delivered to improve the product quality of the centrifugal pump. A good quality of the centrifugal pump for fishermen ship and long life span is expected to be produced by local SMEs to win the free trade competition in the Indonesian market.

  15. Energy conserved and costs saved by small and medium-size manufacturers, 1988--1989

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, F.W.

    1991-05-01

    Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Centers (EADCs) provided energy-conserving and cost saving assistance in 339 small and medium-size manufacturing plants nationwide during 1988-89. This report presents the results of what was recommended to those manufacturers, the record of what was implemented by them, and an analysis of the financial rewards gained by them. It also includes an accounting of the financial returns to the federal government, derived from taxes upon the cost savings, or incremental income, of the manufacturers who implement the EADCs` recommendations. EADCs collect implementation data within a year of the energy audit, and for these results that time period extended through 1990. The EADCs are located at accredited engineering departments of universities and staffed by faculty and students. At present there are 18 EADCs serving manufacturers in 37 states; of these, two were established as a result of the 1989 competition, and five more were chosen competitively in 1990. Most of the results in this report were generated by 11 EADCs (named in the Appendix); two others withdrew voluntarily after completing only 10 energy audits during 1988-89. Primary responsibility for selecting, training, evaluating, and managing the EADCs belongs to the Industrial Technology and Energy Management (ITEM) division of University City Science Center (UCSC). The Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technologies sponsors the EADC program through an agreement with UCSC.

  16. Drivers for OSH interventions in small and medium-sized enterprises.

    PubMed

    Cagno, Enrico; Masi, Donato; Leão, Celina Pinto

    2016-01-01

    The debate concerning occupational safety and health (OSH) interventions has recently focused on the need of improving the evaluation of interventions, and in particular on the need for providing information about why the intervention worked or not, under what circumstances and in which context. Key concepts in the analysis of the context are the drivers, i.e., those factors enabling, fostering or facilitating OSH interventions. However, the concept of driver for an OSH intervention is both confused and contested. Although the term is widely used, there is little consensus on how drivers should be understood, how important they are in different contexts and how they can facilitate interventions. This exploratory study based on interviews with the owner-managers and the safety officers of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) gives an overview of the most characteristic drivers for OSH interventions. The results will be used to make an initial evaluation of SMEs' needs, and will help orient interventions and future research. PMID:26654679

  17. Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Demonstrates Similar Nanostructure in Cortical Bone from Young Adult Animals of Different Species.

    PubMed

    Kaspersen, Jørn Døvling; Turunen, Mikael Juhani; Mathavan, Neashan; Lages, Sebastian; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Olsson, Ulf; Isaksson, Hanna

    2016-07-01

    Despite the vast amount of studies focusing on bone nanostructure that have been performed for several decades, doubts regarding the detailed structure of the constituting hydroxyapatite crystal still exist. Different experimental techniques report somewhat different sizes and locations, possibly due to different requirements for the sample preparation. In this study, small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering is used to investigate the nanostructure of femur samples from young adult ovine, bovine, porcine, and murine cortical bone, including three different orthogonal directions relative to the long axis of the bone. The radially averaged scattering from all samples reveals a remarkable similarity in the entire q range, which indicates that the nanostructure is essentially the same in all species. Small differences in the data from different directions confirm that the crystals are elongated in the [001] direction and that this direction is parallel to the long axis of the bone. A model consisting of thin plates is successfully employed to describe the scattering and extract the plate thicknesses, which are found to be in the range of 20-40 Å for most samples but 40-60 Å for the cow samples. It is demonstrated that the mineral plates have a large degree of polydispersity in plate thickness. Additionally, and equally importantly, the scattering data and the model are critically evaluated in terms of model uncertainties and overall information content.

  18. Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Demonstrates Similar Nanostructure in Cortical Bone from Young Adult Animals of Different Species.

    PubMed

    Kaspersen, Jørn Døvling; Turunen, Mikael Juhani; Mathavan, Neashan; Lages, Sebastian; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Olsson, Ulf; Isaksson, Hanna

    2016-07-01

    Despite the vast amount of studies focusing on bone nanostructure that have been performed for several decades, doubts regarding the detailed structure of the constituting hydroxyapatite crystal still exist. Different experimental techniques report somewhat different sizes and locations, possibly due to different requirements for the sample preparation. In this study, small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering is used to investigate the nanostructure of femur samples from young adult ovine, bovine, porcine, and murine cortical bone, including three different orthogonal directions relative to the long axis of the bone. The radially averaged scattering from all samples reveals a remarkable similarity in the entire q range, which indicates that the nanostructure is essentially the same in all species. Small differences in the data from different directions confirm that the crystals are elongated in the [001] direction and that this direction is parallel to the long axis of the bone. A model consisting of thin plates is successfully employed to describe the scattering and extract the plate thicknesses, which are found to be in the range of 20-40 Å for most samples but 40-60 Å for the cow samples. It is demonstrated that the mineral plates have a large degree of polydispersity in plate thickness. Additionally, and equally importantly, the scattering data and the model are critically evaluated in terms of model uncertainties and overall information content. PMID:26914607

  19. The Drosophila melanogaster Muc68E Mucin Gene Influences Adult Size, Starvation Tolerance, and Cold Recovery.

    PubMed

    Reis, Micael; Silva, Ana C; Vieira, Cristina P; Vieira, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Mucins have been implicated in many different biological processes, such as protection from mechanical damage, microorganisms, and toxic molecules, as well as providing a luminal scaffold during development. Nevertheless, it is conceivable that mucins have the potential to modulate food absorption as well, and thus contribute to the definition of several important phenotypic traits. Here we show that the Drosophila melanogaster Muc68E gene is 40- to 60-million-yr old, and is present in Drosophila species of the subgenus Sophophora only. The central repeat region of this gene is fast evolving, and shows evidence for repeated expansions/contractions. This and/or frequent gene conversion events lead to the homogenization of its repeats. The amino acid pattern P[ED][ED][ST][ST][ST] is found in the repeat region of Muc68E proteins from all Drosophila species studied, and can occur multiple times within a single conserved repeat block, and thus may have functional significance. Muc68E is a nonessential gene under laboratory conditions, but Muc68E mutant flies are smaller and lighter than controls at birth. However, at 4 d of age, Muc68E mutants are heavier, recover faster from chill-coma, and are more resistant to starvation than control flies, although they have the same percentage of lipids as controls. Mutant flies have enlarged abdominal size 1 d after chill-coma recovery, which is associated with higher lipid content. These results suggest that Muc68E has a role in metabolism modulation, food absorption, and/or feeding patterns in larvae and adults, and under normal and stress conditions. Such biological function is novel for mucin genes. PMID:27172221

  20. The Drosophila melanogaster Muc68E Mucin Gene Influences Adult Size, Starvation Tolerance, and Cold Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Micael; Silva, Ana C.; Vieira, Cristina P.; Vieira, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Mucins have been implicated in many different biological processes, such as protection from mechanical damage, microorganisms, and toxic molecules, as well as providing a luminal scaffold during development. Nevertheless, it is conceivable that mucins have the potential to modulate food absorption as well, and thus contribute to the definition of several important phenotypic traits. Here we show that the Drosophila melanogaster Muc68E gene is 40- to 60-million-yr old, and is present in Drosophila species of the subgenus Sophophora only. The central repeat region of this gene is fast evolving, and shows evidence for repeated expansions/contractions. This and/or frequent gene conversion events lead to the homogenization of its repeats. The amino acid pattern P[ED][ED][ST][ST][ST] is found in the repeat region of Muc68E proteins from all Drosophila species studied, and can occur multiple times within a single conserved repeat block, and thus may have functional significance. Muc68E is a nonessential gene under laboratory conditions, but Muc68E mutant flies are smaller and lighter than controls at birth. However, at 4 d of age, Muc68E mutants are heavier, recover faster from chill-coma, and are more resistant to starvation than control flies, although they have the same percentage of lipids as controls. Mutant flies have enlarged abdominal size 1 d after chill-coma recovery, which is associated with higher lipid content. These results suggest that Muc68E has a role in metabolism modulation, food absorption, and/or feeding patterns in larvae and adults, and under normal and stress conditions. Such biological function is novel for mucin genes. PMID:27172221

  1. An Experimental Study of Small-Scale Variability of Raindrop Size Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokay, Ali; Bashor, Paul G.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental study of small-scale variability of raindrop size distributions (DSDs) has been carried out at Wallops Island, Virginia. Three Joss-Waldvogel disdrometers were operated at a distance of 0.65, 1.05, and 1.70 km in a nearly straight line. The main purpose of the study was to examine the variability of DSDs and its integral parameters of liquid water content, rainfall, and reflectivity within a 2-km array: a typical size of Cartesian radar pixel. The composite DSD of rain events showed very good agreement among the disdrometers except where there were noticeable differences in midsize and large drops in a few events. For consideration of partial beam filling where the radar pixel was not completely covered by rain, a single disdrometer reported just over 10% more rainy minutes than the rainy minutes when all three disdrometers reported rainfall. Similarly two out of three disdrometers reported5%more rainy minutes than when all three were reporting rainfall. These percentages were based on a 1-min average, and were less for longer averaging periods. Considering only the minutes when all three disdrometers were reporting rainfall, just over one quarter of the observations showed an increase in the difference in rainfall with distance. This finding was based on a 15-min average and was even less for shorter averaging periods. The probability and cumulative distributions of a gamma-fitted DSD and integral rain parameters between the three disdrometers had a very good agreement and no major variability. This was mainly due to the high percentage of light stratiform rain and to the number of storms that traveled along the track of the disdrometers. At a fixed time step, however, both DSDs and integral rain parameters showed substantial variability. The standard deviation (SD) of rain rate was near 3 mm/h, while the SD of reflectivity exceeded 3 dBZ at the longest separation distance. These standard deviations were at 6-min average and were higher at shorter

  2. Thermal evolution of pre-adult life history traits, geometric size and shape, and developmental stability in Drosophila subobscura.

    PubMed

    Santos, M; Brites, D; Laayouni, H

    2006-11-01

    Replicated lines of Drosophila subobscura originating from a large outbred stock collected at the estimated Chilean epicentre (Puerto Montt) of the original New World invasion were allowed to evolve under controlled conditions of larval crowding for 3.5 years at three temperature levels (13, 18 and 22 degrees C). Several pre-adult life history traits (development time, survival and competitive ability), adult life history related traits (wing size, wing shape and wing-aspect ratio), and wing size and shape asymmetries were measured at the three temperatures. Cold-adapted (13 degrees C) populations evolved longer development times and showed lower survival at the highest developmental temperature. No divergence for wing size was detected following adaptation to temperature extremes (13 and 22 degrees C), in agreement with earlier observations, but wing shape changes were obvious as a result of both thermal adaptation and development at different temperatures. However, the evolutionary trends observed for the wing-aspect ratio were inconsistent with an adaptive hypothesis. There was some indication that wing shape asymmetry has evolutionarily increased in warm-adapted populations, which suggests that there is additive genetic variation for fluctuating asymmetry and that it can evolve under rapid environmental changes caused by thermal stress. Overall, our results cast strong doubts on the hypothesis that body size itself is the target of selection, and suggest that pre-adult life history traits are more closely related to thermal adaptation.

  3. Small Family, Smart Family? Family Size and the IQ Scores of Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses Norwegian data to estimate the effect of family size on IQ scores of men. Instrumental variables (IV) estimates using sex composition as an instrument show no significant negative effect of family size; however, IV estimates using twins imply that family size has a negative effect on IQ scores. Our results suggest that the effect…

  4. Why "Small" Can Be Better: An Exploration of the Relationships between Class Size and Pedagogical Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harfitt, Gary James

    2013-01-01

    A central issue in the class size debate is that while cutting class size might lead to improved teaching and learning, it is also possible that it may not if teachers do not seek to exploit the advantages of a smaller class size through an alternative pedagogy. Research suggests that teachers do not change their pedagogy when moving from large…

  5. Provision and perception of occupational health in small and medium-sized enterprises in Sheffield, UK.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, L M; Curran, A D; Eskin, F; Fishwick, D

    2001-02-01

    A random sample of managers of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) was selected from a database of businesses in Sheffield, UK. They were invited to take part in a study to evaluate the provision and perception of occupational health in SMEs in Sheffield. The study used an interviewer-led questionnaire, which collected quantitative and qualitative data; each interview took approximately 40 min to complete. Several approaches to recruitment were adopted during the study. Twenty-eight managers were interviewed over the 6 month study period. All of the SMEs employed <250 people; 43.2% did not have or had never reviewed a written health and safety policy. Only 18% had a written occupational health policy; 14.4% employed the services of a part-time occupational health physician; 7.2% employed a health and safety advisor; and 10.8% employed a part-time occupational health nurse. Twenty-five per cent had a nominated person responsible for occupational health and 67% thought that a doctor or nurse would be the best person to provide an occupational health service. Twenty-eight per cent of the companies carried out some form of pre-employment screening and 14.2% carried out health promotion. Fifteen (53.5%) collected some form of health related absence data. Eight companies (28.6%) organized a formal induction programme for all new employees. Further work should be undertaken in an attempt to improve access to local industry and particularly to SMEs. This study has clearly shown that access is possible, but different strategies of approach were required before a workable strategy could be found. Undoubtedly, this access can be improved by better understanding of the interaction between researchers, occupational health providers and local managers of SMEs.

  6. Size And Shape of Detergent Micelles Determined By Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, Jan; Columbus, Linda; Chu, Vincent B.; Lesley, Scott A.; Doniach, Sebastian; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /SLAC, SSRL /Pasteur Inst., Paris /Scripps Res. Inst. /Novartis Res. Found.

    2009-04-29

    We present a systematic analysis of the aggregation number and shape of micelles formed by nine detergents commonly used in the study of membrane proteins. Small-angle X-ray scattering measurements are reported for glucosides with 8 and 9 alkyl carbons (OG/NG), maltosides and phosphocholines with 10 and 12 alkyl carbons (DM/DDM and FC-10/FC-12), 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-phosphocholine (DHPC), 1-palmitoyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)] (LPPG), and 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propane sulfonate (CHAPS). The SAXS intensities are well described by two-component ellipsoid models, with a dense outer shell corresponding to the detergent head groups and a less electron dense hydrophobic core. These models provide an intermediate resolution view of micelle size and shape. In addition, we show that Guinier analysis of the forward scattering intensity can be used to obtain an independent and model-free measurement of the micelle aggregation number and radius of gyration. This approach has the advantage of being easily generalizable to protein-detergent complexes, where simple geometric models are inapplicable. Furthermore, we have discovered that the position of the second maximum in the scattering intensity provides a direct measurement of the characteristic head group-head group spacing across the micelle core. Our results for the micellar aggregation numbers and dimensions agree favorably with literature values as far as they are available. We de novo determine the shape of FC-10, FC-12, DM, LPPG, and CHAPS micelles and the aggregation numbers of FC-10 and OG to be ca. 50 and 250, respectively. Combined, these data provide a comprehensive view of the determinants of micelle formation and serve as a starting point to correlate detergent properties with detergent-protein interactions.

  7. Meiofauna as food source for small-sized demersal fish in the southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schückel, Sabine; Sell, Anne F.; Kihara, Terue C.; Koeppen, Annemarie; Kröncke, Ingrid; Reiss, Henning

    2013-06-01

    Meiofauna play an essential role in the diet of small and juvenile fish. However, it is less well documented which meiofaunal prey groups in the sediment are eaten by fish. Trophic relationships between five demersal fish species (solenette, goby, scaldfish, dab <20 cm and plaice <20 cm) and meiofaunal prey were investigated by means of comparing sediment samples and fish stomach contents collected seasonally between January 2009 and January 2010 in the German Bight. In all seasons, meiofauna in the sediment was numerically dominated by nematodes, whereas harpacticoids dominated in terms of occurrence and biomass. Between autumn and spring, the harpacticoid community was characterized by Pseudobradya minor and Halectinosoma canaliculatum, and in summer by Longipedia coronata. Meiofaunal prey dominated the diets of solenette and gobies in all seasons, occurred only seasonally in the diet of scaldfish and dab, and was completely absent in the diet of plaice. For all fish species (excluding plaice) and in each season, harpacticoids were the most important meiofauna prey group in terms of occurrence, abundance and biomass. High values of Ivlev's index of selectivity for Pseudobradya spp. in winter and Longipedia spp. in summer provided evidence that predation on harpacticoids was species-selective, even though both harpacticoids co-occurred in high densities in the sediments. Most surficial feeding strategies of the studied fish species and emergent behaviours of Pseudobradya spp. and Longipedia spp. might have caused this prey selection. With increasing fish sizes, harpacticoid prey densities decreased in the fish stomachs, indicating a diet change towards larger benthic prey during the ontogeny of all fish species investigated.

  8. PicoBots -A small-sized exploration rover standard for universities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiß, André

    This paper will introduce a pico-class robotic platform primarily intended for future lunar exploration. Inspired by the Cubesat standard, an affordable and easy to fabricate design will be introduced allowing universities to develop and perform own rover-based missions. As all major space agencies have set the goal to go to Earths natural satellite in the near future, several opportunities will arise to piggyback to the moon. With a maximum weight of 1 kg, one or multiple PicoBots, plus an eventually needed base station, could easily fill mass budget margins. By utilizing the alternating tripod gait, adapted from simple insects like the cockroach, locomotion can be realized with only two actuators. In comparison to most exploration rovers, the chosen propulsion system leads to a lower number in `degrees of freedom' and therefore a much higher demand for a simple environment. Main advantage, on the other hand, is that it minimizes the complexity of the control-algorithm and reduces the mass as well as the cost. Thanks to the progress in the field of MEMS-based technologies, subsystem components and instruments are available in small sizes, are lightweight and with low power requirements. PicoBots could either be specifically designed for a single mechanical task, e.g. sampling and analysis of rocks, or numerous sensoric payloads, like the seismo-or gravimeter. Swarm intelligence and behavior could also be an interesting field of research. To protect the electronics from radiation, a complementary, multi-layered `spacesuit' will be offered. If needed the suit can also be pressurized thus allowing the use of components not functioning in the vacuum environment.

  9. Reliable calculation in probabilistic logic: Accounting for small sample size and model uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Ferson, S.

    1996-12-31

    A variety of practical computational problems arise in risk and safety assessments, forensic statistics and decision analyses in which the probability of some event or proposition E is to be estimated from the probabilities of a finite list of related subevents or propositions F,G,H,.... In practice, the analyst`s knowledge may be incomplete in two ways. First, the probabilities of the subevents may be imprecisely known from statistical estimations, perhaps based on very small sample sizes. Second, relationships among the subevents may be known imprecisely. For instance, there may be only limited information about their stochastic dependencies. Representing probability estimates as interval ranges on has been suggested as a way to address the first source of imprecision. A suite of AND, OR and NOT operators defined with reference to the classical Frochet inequalities permit these probability intervals to be used in calculations that address the second source of imprecision, in many cases, in a best possible way. Using statistical confidence intervals as inputs unravels the closure properties of this approach however, requiring that probability estimates be characterized by a nested stack of intervals for all possible levels of statistical confidence, from a point estimate (0% confidence) to the entire unit interval (100% confidence). The corresponding logical operations implied by convolutive application of the logical operators for every possible pair of confidence intervals reduces by symmetry to a manageably simple level-wise iteration. The resulting calculus can be implemented in software that allows users to compute comprehensive and often level-wise best possible bounds on probabilities for logical functions of events.

  10. Job Stress in the United Kingdom: Are Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and Large Enterprises Different?

    PubMed

    Lai, Yanqing; Saridakis, George; Blackburn, Robert

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the relationships between firm size and employees' experience of work stress. We used a matched employer-employee dataset (Workplace Employment Relations Survey 2011) that comprises of 7182 employees from 1210 private organizations in the United Kingdom. Initially, we find that employees in small and medium-sized enterprises experience lower level of overall job stress than those in large enterprises, although the effect disappears when we control for individual and organizational characteristics in the model. We also find that quantitative work overload, job insecurity and poor promotion opportunities, good work relationships and poor communication are strongly associated with job stress in the small and medium-sized enterprises, whereas qualitative work overload, poor job autonomy and employee engagements are more related with larger enterprises. Hence, our estimates show that the association and magnitude of estimated effects differ significantly by enterprise size.

  11. Job Stress in the United Kingdom: Are Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and Large Enterprises Different?

    PubMed

    Lai, Yanqing; Saridakis, George; Blackburn, Robert

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the relationships between firm size and employees' experience of work stress. We used a matched employer-employee dataset (Workplace Employment Relations Survey 2011) that comprises of 7182 employees from 1210 private organizations in the United Kingdom. Initially, we find that employees in small and medium-sized enterprises experience lower level of overall job stress than those in large enterprises, although the effect disappears when we control for individual and organizational characteristics in the model. We also find that quantitative work overload, job insecurity and poor promotion opportunities, good work relationships and poor communication are strongly associated with job stress in the small and medium-sized enterprises, whereas qualitative work overload, poor job autonomy and employee engagements are more related with larger enterprises. Hence, our estimates show that the association and magnitude of estimated effects differ significantly by enterprise size. PMID:24302431

  12. 78 FR 30384 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ..., Procurement Analyst, Small Business Administration, Office ] of Government Contracting, 409 3rd Street SW..., Director, Office of Government Contracting. BILLING CODE 8025-01-P ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL...

  13. Desmoplastic small round-cell tumor: an adult with previous exposure to agent orange.

    PubMed

    Baz, Walid; El-Soueidi, Raymond; Nakhl, Fadi; Aoun, Nelly; Chin, Nena; Dhar, Meeko

    2010-06-01

    Desmoplastic small round-cell tumor is an uncommon, highly aggressive tumor with a predilection for pediatric age groups and young adults. It is very unusual in the elderly population. Although Agent Orange has been associated with soft-tissue sarcoma, an association with desmoplastic small round-cell tumor has not been reported. A 52-year-old male presented with abdominal distention, dyspnea, and a 9 kg weight loss. Prior history was significant for hepatitis C and diabetes. He was a Vietnam veteran and he admitted being exposed to Agent Orange. On physical examination, the abdomen was distended and tense. Computed tomography scan of the chest, abdomen and pelvis demonstrated extensive mediastinal and retroperitoneal adenopathy, diffuse omental masses and extensive pleural, intra-abdominal and pelvic ascites. Omental core needle biopsy was consistent with desmoplastic small round-cell tumor based on morphology and immunohistochemistry. He responded poorly to chemotherapy with high-dose cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and vincristine and died 5 months after presentation secondary to neutropenic sepsis despite G-CSF support and antibiotics. PMID:20382635

  14. Methotrexate and etanercept-induced primary cutaneous CD4 positive small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma*

    PubMed Central

    MA, Han; Qiu, Shu; Lu, Rongbiao; Feng, Peiying; Lu, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs and biological agents may represent a potential risk of lymphoma development in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. But most cases are diffuse, large B-cell lymphomas. Primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma, a provisional entity in the 2005 WHO-EORTC classification of cutaneous lymphomas, is only described in a limited number of reports. To our knowledge, our case is a rare instance of primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma, after associated treatment with methotrexate and etanercept, in a patient with moderate rheumatoid arthritis who had undergone an orchidectomy incorrectly. PMID:27438209

  15. Methotrexate and etanercept-induced primary cutaneous CD4 positive small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ma, Han; Qiu, Shu; Lu, Rongbiao; Feng, Peiying; Lu, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs and biological agents may represent a potential risk of lymphoma development in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. But most cases are diffuse, large B-cell lymphomas. Primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma, a provisional entity in the 2005 WHO-EORTC classification of cutaneous lymphomas, is only described in a limited number of reports. To our knowledge, our case is a rare instance of primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma, after associated treatment with methotrexate and etanercept, in a patient with moderate rheumatoid arthritis who had undergone an orchidectomy incorrectly. PMID:27438209

  16. Genetic effective size is three orders of magnitude smaller than adult census size in an abundant, Estuarine-dependent marine fish (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Turner, Thomas F; Wares, John P; Gold, John R

    2002-11-01

    Using eight microsatellite loci and a variety of analytical methods, we estimated genetic effective size (N(e)) of an abundant and long-lived marine fish species, the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), in the northern Gulf of Mexico (Gulf). The ratio N(e)/N, where short-term variance N(e) was estimated via the temporal method from shifts in allele-frequency data over four cohorts and where N reflected a current estimate of adult census size in the northern Gulf, was approximately 0.001. In an idealized population, this ratio should approximate unity. The extraordinarily low value of N(e)/N appears to arise from high variance in individual reproductive success and perhaps more importantly from variance in productivity of critical spawning and nursery habitats located in spatially discrete bays and estuaries throughout the northern Gulf. An estimate of N(e) based on a coalescent approach, which measures long-term, inbreeding effective size, was four orders of magnitude lower than the estimate of current census size, suggesting that factors presently driving N(e)/N to low values among red drum in the northern Gulf may have operated similarly in the past. Models that predict N(e)/N exclusively from demographic and life-history features will seriously overestimate N(e) if variance in reproductive success and variance in productivity among spatially discrete demes is underestimated. Our results indicate that these variances, especially variance in productivity among demes, must be large for red drum. Moreover, our study indicates that vertebrate populations with enormous adult census numbers may still be at risk relative to decline and extinction from genetic factors.

  17. Genetic effective size is three orders of magnitude smaller than adult census size in an abundant, Estuarine-dependent marine fish (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Thomas F; Wares, John P; Gold, John R

    2002-01-01

    Using eight microsatellite loci and a variety of analytical methods, we estimated genetic effective size (N(e)) of an abundant and long-lived marine fish species, the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), in the northern Gulf of Mexico (Gulf). The ratio N(e)/N, where short-term variance N(e) was estimated via the temporal method from shifts in allele-frequency data over four cohorts and where N reflected a current estimate of adult census size in the northern Gulf, was approximately 0.001. In an idealized population, this ratio should approximate unity. The extraordinarily low value of N(e)/N appears to arise from high variance in individual reproductive success and perhaps more importantly from variance in productivity of critical spawning and nursery habitats located in spatially discrete bays and estuaries throughout the northern Gulf. An estimate of N(e) based on a coalescent approach, which measures long-term, inbreeding effective size, was four orders of magnitude lower than the estimate of current census size, suggesting that factors presently driving N(e)/N to low values among red drum in the northern Gulf may have operated similarly in the past. Models that predict N(e)/N exclusively from demographic and life-history features will seriously overestimate N(e) if variance in reproductive success and variance in productivity among spatially discrete demes is underestimated. Our results indicate that these variances, especially variance in productivity among demes, must be large for red drum. Moreover, our study indicates that vertebrate populations with enormous adult census numbers may still be at risk relative to decline and extinction from genetic factors. PMID:12454077

  18. Intentional genetic introgression influences survival of adults and subadults in a small, inbred felid population.

    PubMed

    Benson, John F; Hostetler, Jeffrey A; Onorato, David P; Johnson, Warren E; Roelke, Melody E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Jansen, Deborah; Oli, Madan K

    2011-09-01

    1. Inbreeding and low genetic diversity can cause reductions in individual fitness and increase extinction risk in animal populations. Intentional introgression, achieved by releasing genetically diverse individuals into inbred populations, has been used as a conservation tool to improve demographic performance in endangered populations. 2. By the 1980s, Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi) had been reduced to a small, inbred population that appeared to be on the brink of extinction. In 1995, female pumas from Texas (P. c. stanleyana) were released in occupied panther range as part of an intentional introgression programme to restore genetic variability and improve demographic performance of panthers. 3. We used 25 years (1981-2006) of continuous radiotelemetry and genetic data to estimate and model subadult and adult panther survival and cause-specific mortality to provide rigorous sex and age class-specific survival estimates and evaluate the effect of the introgression programme on these parameters. 4. Genetic ancestry influenced annual survival of subadults and adults after introgression, as F(1) generation admixed panthers ( = 0·98) survived better than pre-introgression type panthers ( = 0·77) and other admixed individuals ( = 0·82). Furthermore, heterozygosity was higher for admixed panthers relative to pre-introgression type panthers and positively influenced survival. 5. Our results are consistent with hybrid vigour; however, extrinsic factors such as low density of males in some areas of panther range may also have contributed to higher survival of F(1) panthers. Regardless, improved survival of F(1) subadults and adults likely contributed to the numerical increase in panthers following introgression, and our results indicate that intentional admixture, achieved here by releasing individuals from another population, appears to have been successful in improving demographic performance in this highly endangered population. PMID:21338353

  19. Intentional genetic introgression influences survival of adults and subadults in a small, inbred felid population.

    PubMed

    Benson, John F; Hostetler, Jeffrey A; Onorato, David P; Johnson, Warren E; Roelke, Melody E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Jansen, Deborah; Oli, Madan K

    2011-09-01

    1. Inbreeding and low genetic diversity can cause reductions in individual fitness and increase extinction risk in animal populations. Intentional introgression, achieved by releasing genetically diverse individuals into inbred populations, has been used as a conservation tool to improve demographic performance in endangered populations. 2. By the 1980s, Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi) had been reduced to a small, inbred population that appeared to be on the brink of extinction. In 1995, female pumas from Texas (P. c. stanleyana) were released in occupied panther range as part of an intentional introgression programme to restore genetic variability and improve demographic performance of panthers. 3. We used 25 years (1981-2006) of continuous radiotelemetry and genetic data to estimate and model subadult and adult panther survival and cause-specific mortality to provide rigorous sex and age class-specific survival estimates and evaluate the effect of the introgression programme on these parameters. 4. Genetic ancestry influenced annual survival of subadults and adults after introgression, as F(1) generation admixed panthers ( = 0·98) survived better than pre-introgression type panthers ( = 0·77) and other admixed individuals ( = 0·82). Furthermore, heterozygosity was higher for admixed panthers relative to pre-introgression type panthers and positively influenced survival. 5. Our results are consistent with hybrid vigour; however, extrinsic factors such as low density of males in some areas of panther range may also have contributed to higher survival of F(1) panthers. Regardless, improved survival of F(1) subadults and adults likely contributed to the numerical increase in panthers following introgression, and our results indicate that intentional admixture, achieved here by releasing individuals from another population, appears to have been successful in improving demographic performance in this highly endangered population.

  20. Neuropsychological deficits in young adults born small-for-gestational age (SGA) at term.

    PubMed

    Østgård, Heidi Furre; Skranes, Jon; Martinussen, Marit; Jacobsen, Geir W; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Vik, Torstein; Pripp, Are H; Løhaugen, Gro C C

    2014-03-01

    Reduced IQ, learning difficulties and poor school performance have been reported in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) subjects. However, few studies include a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. Our aim was to study neuropsychological functioning in young adults born SGA at term. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was administered to 58 SGA subjects (birth weight <10th centile) born at term, and 81 term non-SGA controls (birth weight ≥10th centile). The SGA group obtained significantly (p < .01) lower scores on the attention, executive and memory domains compared to non-SGA controls and showed higher risk of obtaining scores below -1.5 SD on the memory domain (odds ratio = 13.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.57, 112.47). At a subtest level, the SGA group obtained lower scores on most neuropsychological tests, with significant differences on 6 of 46 measures: the Trail Making Test 3 (letter sequencing), the Wechsler Memory Scale mental control and the auditory immediate memory scale, the Design Fluency, the Stroop 3 (inhibition) and the Visual Motor Integration (VMI) motor coordination subtest. Young adults born SGA score more poorly on neuropsychological tests compared with non-SGA controls. Differences were modest, with more significant differences in the memory domain.

  1. Neuropsychological deficits in young adults born small-for-gestational age (SGA) at term.

    PubMed

    Østgård, Heidi Furre; Skranes, Jon; Martinussen, Marit; Jacobsen, Geir W; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Vik, Torstein; Pripp, Are H; Løhaugen, Gro C C

    2014-03-01

    Reduced IQ, learning difficulties and poor school performance have been reported in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) subjects. However, few studies include a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. Our aim was to study neuropsychological functioning in young adults born SGA at term. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was administered to 58 SGA subjects (birth weight <10th centile) born at term, and 81 term non-SGA controls (birth weight ≥10th centile). The SGA group obtained significantly (p < .01) lower scores on the attention, executive and memory domains compared to non-SGA controls and showed higher risk of obtaining scores below -1.5 SD on the memory domain (odds ratio = 13.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.57, 112.47). At a subtest level, the SGA group obtained lower scores on most neuropsychological tests, with significant differences on 6 of 46 measures: the Trail Making Test 3 (letter sequencing), the Wechsler Memory Scale mental control and the auditory immediate memory scale, the Design Fluency, the Stroop 3 (inhibition) and the Visual Motor Integration (VMI) motor coordination subtest. Young adults born SGA score more poorly on neuropsychological tests compared with non-SGA controls. Differences were modest, with more significant differences in the memory domain. PMID:24559531

  2. Assessment of metal exposure, ecological status and required water quality monitoring strategies in small- to medium-size temperate rivers.

    PubMed

    Marijić, Vlatka Filipović; Perić, Mirela Sertić; Kepčija, Renata Matoničkin; Dragun, Zrinka; Kovarik, Ivana; Gulin, Vesna; Erk, Marijana

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to obtain a better understanding of the seasonal variability of total dissolved metal/metalloid levels and physicochemical parameters within small- to medium-size freshwater ecosystems in temperate climate region. The research was conducted in four seasons in the Sutla River, medium-size polluted, and the Črnomerec Stream, small-size unpolluted watercourse in Croatia. In the Sutla River, characterized by the rural/industrial catchment, physicochemical parameters and total dissolved metal concentrations of 21 trace and 4 macro elements were analysed downstream of the point source of pollution, the glass production facility, indicating for the first time their variability across four seasons. Based on dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids, nutrient concentrations, conductivity and total chemical oxygen demand, quality status of the Sutla River was good, but moderate to poor during summer, what was additionally confirmed by the highest levels of the most of 25 measured metals/metalloids in summer. Comparison with the reference small-size watercourse, the Črnomerec Stream, indicated significant anthropogenic impact on the Sutla River, most evident for Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb and Tl levels (3-70-fold higher in the Sutla River across all seasons). Generally, presented results indicated significant decrease of the water quality in the anthropogenically impacted small- to medium-size watercourses in summer, regarding physicochemical water parameters and total dissolved metal/metalloid concentrations, and pointed to significant seasonality of these parameters. Confirmed seasonality of river ecological status indicates that seasonal assessment represents a prerequisite for proper classification of the water quality in small- to medium-size temperate rivers.

  3. Small or far away? Size and distance perception in the praying mantis

    PubMed Central

    Bissianna, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Stereo or ‘3D’ vision is an important but costly process seen in several evolutionarily distinct lineages including primates, birds and insects. Many selective advantages could have led to the evolution of stereo vision, including range finding, camouflage breaking and estimation of object size. In this paper, we investigate the possibility that stereo vision enables praying mantises to estimate the size of prey by using a combination of disparity cues and angular size cues. We used a recently developed insect 3D cinema paradigm to present mantises with virtual prey having differing disparity and angular size cues. We predicted that if they were able to use these cues to gauge the absolute size of objects, we should see evidence for size constancy where they would strike preferentially at prey of a particular physical size, across a range of simulated distances. We found that mantises struck most often when disparity cues implied a prey distance of 2.5 cm; increasing the implied distance caused a significant reduction in the number of strikes. We, however, found no evidence for size constancy. There was a significant interaction effect of the simulated distance and angular size on the number of strikes made by the mantis but this was not in the direction predicted by size constancy. This indicates that mantises do not use their stereo vision to estimate object size. We conclude that other selective advantages, not size constancy, have driven the evolution of stereo vision in the praying mantis. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Vision in our three-dimensional world’. PMID:27269605

  4. Small or far away? Size and distance perception in the praying mantis.

    PubMed

    Nityananda, Vivek; Bissianna, Geoffrey; Tarawneh, Ghaith; Read, Jenny

    2016-06-19

    Stereo or '3D' vision is an important but costly process seen in several evolutionarily distinct lineages including primates, birds and insects. Many selective advantages could have led to the evolution of stereo vision, including range finding, camouflage breaking and estimation of object size. In this paper, we investigate the possibility that stereo vision enables praying mantises to estimate the size of prey by using a combination of disparity cues and angular size cues. We used a recently developed insect 3D cinema paradigm to present mantises with virtual prey having differing disparity and angular size cues. We predicted that if they were able to use these cues to gauge the absolute size of objects, we should see evidence for size constancy where they would strike preferentially at prey of a particular physical size, across a range of simulated distances. We found that mantises struck most often when disparity cues implied a prey distance of 2.5 cm; increasing the implied distance caused a significant reduction in the number of strikes. We, however, found no evidence for size constancy. There was a significant interaction effect of the simulated distance and angular size on the number of strikes made by the mantis but this was not in the direction predicted by size constancy. This indicates that mantises do not use their stereo vision to estimate object size. We conclude that other selective advantages, not size constancy, have driven the evolution of stereo vision in the praying mantis.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'. PMID:27269605

  5. Effect of meal size reduction and protein enrichment on intake and satiety in vital community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Ziylan, Canan; Kremer, Stefanie; Eerens, Jessie; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2016-10-01

    Undernutrition risk among community-dwelling older adults is partly caused by inadequate protein intake. Enriching readymade meals with protein could be beneficial in increasing protein intake. Moreover, reduced-size meals could suit older adults with diminished appetite. In this single-blind randomized crossover study with 120 participants (age: 70.5 ± 4.5 y, BMI: 27.2 ± 4.4 kg/m(2)), 60 participants consumed four beef meals and another 60 consumed four chicken meals on four different days, once per week. These meals were produced according to a 2 × 2 factorial design: the protein content was either ∼25 g (lower) or ∼30 g (enriched), and the portion size was either 450 g (normal) or of 400 g (reduced). Palatability evaluation, meal intake, and subsequent satiety ratings after 120 min were measured. No significant differences in palatability among meals were found. While absolute intake (g) of the normal-size meals was significantly higher than that of the reduced-size meals, the relative intake (%) of the served meals did not differ between the four meals. Both protein and energy intakes were significantly higher for the enriched meals, regardless of portion size. Protein intakes were 5.4 g and 5.1 g higher in the normal-size and reduced-size enriched beef meals, respectively, and 6.1 g and 7.1 g higher in the enriched chicken meals, respectively. The normal-size enriched beef meal and reduced-size enriched chicken meal led to slightly but significantly higher ratings of satiety than the non-enriched meals. Due to these mixed satiety findings, separate effects of meal-size reduction and protein enrichment could not be distinguished in this study. The intake findings show that palatable protein-enriched meals support higher protein and energy intakes in vital community-dwelling older adults during a single meal.

  6. Migrate small, sound big: functional constraints on body size promote tracheal elongation in cranes.

    PubMed

    Jones, M R; Witt, C C

    2014-06-01

    Organismal traits often represent the outcome of opposing selection pressures. Although social or sexual selection can cause the evolution of traits that constrain function or survival (e.g. ornamental feathers), it is unclear how the strength and direction of selection respond to ecological shifts that increase the severity of the constraint. For example, reduced body size might evolve by natural selection to enhance flight performance in migratory birds, but social or sexual selection favouring large body size may provide a countervailing force. Tracheal elongation is a potential outcome of these opposing pressures because it allows birds to convey an auditory signal of exaggerated body size. We predicted that the evolution of migration in cranes has coincided with a reduction in body size and a concomitant intensification of social or sexual selection for apparent large body size via tracheal elongation. We used a phylogenetic comparative approach to examine the relationships among migration distance, body mass and trachea length in cranes. As predicted, we found that migration distance correlated negatively with body size and positively with proportional trachea length. This result was consistent with our hypothesis that evolutionary reductions in body size led to intensified selection for trachea length. The most likely ultimate causes of intensified positive selection on trachea length are the direct benefits of conveying a large body size in intraspecific contests for mates and territories. We conclude that the strength of social or sexual selection on crane body size is linked to the degree of functional constraint. PMID:24800977

  7. The Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises Office (SME Office) at the European Medicines Agency.

    PubMed

    Carr, M

    2010-01-01

    On 15 December 2005, the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) launched an "SME Office" to provide financial and administrative assistance to micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), with the aim of promoting innovation and the development of new human and veterinary medicinal products by SMEs. According to current EU definition of an SME, companies with fewer than 250 employees, and an annual turnover of not more than 50 million euro or an annual balance sheet total of not more than 43 million euro, are eligible for assistance from the SME Office. Incentives available from the EMEA for SMEs, include: Administrative and procedural assistance from SME Office within the Agency; Fee reductions (90%) for scientific advice and inspections; Fee exemptions for certain administrative services (excluding parallel distribution); Deferral of the fee payable for an application for marketing authorisation or related inspection until after the grant of the marketing authorisation; Conditional fee exemption where scientific advice followed and marketing application is unsuccessful; Assistance with translations of the product information documents. At the end of May 2009, more than 380 companies from 21 countries across the European Economic Area (EEA) had SME status assigned by the EMEA. The large majority of companies are developing medicinal products for human use, 16 are veterinary companies, 15 companies are developing products for both human and veterinary use and 38 are regulatory consultants. Since the SME initiative started the Agency has processed more than 130 requests for scientific advice with fee reductions totalling of 6.9 million euro. Regulatory assistance has been provided to more than 170 companies and 12 companies have benefited from the SME translation service. Stakeholders have acknowledged the significant role the SME Office now plays as a service provider. In the period between January 2006 and June 2009, 34 applications for marketing authorization

  8. The Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises Office (SME Office) at the European Medicines Agency.

    PubMed

    Carr, M

    2010-01-01

    On 15 December 2005, the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) launched an "SME Office" to provide financial and administrative assistance to micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), with the aim of promoting innovation and the development of new human and veterinary medicinal products by SMEs. According to current EU definition of an SME, companies with fewer than 250 employees, and an annual turnover of not more than 50 million euro or an annual balance sheet total of not more than 43 million euro, are eligible for assistance from the SME Office. Incentives available from the EMEA for SMEs, include: Administrative and procedural assistance from SME Office within the Agency; Fee reductions (90%) for scientific advice and inspections; Fee exemptions for certain administrative services (excluding parallel distribution); Deferral of the fee payable for an application for marketing authorisation or related inspection until after the grant of the marketing authorisation; Conditional fee exemption where scientific advice followed and marketing application is unsuccessful; Assistance with translations of the product information documents. At the end of May 2009, more than 380 companies from 21 countries across the European Economic Area (EEA) had SME status assigned by the EMEA. The large majority of companies are developing medicinal products for human use, 16 are veterinary companies, 15 companies are developing products for both human and veterinary use and 38 are regulatory consultants. Since the SME initiative started the Agency has processed more than 130 requests for scientific advice with fee reductions totalling of 6.9 million euro. Regulatory assistance has been provided to more than 170 companies and 12 companies have benefited from the SME translation service. Stakeholders have acknowledged the significant role the SME Office now plays as a service provider. In the period between January 2006 and June 2009, 34 applications for marketing authorization

  9. 40 CFR 142.303 - Which size public water systems can receive a small system variance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... receive a small system variance? (a) A State exercising primary enforcement responsibility for public..., a State exercising primary enforcement responsibility for public water systems may grant a...

  10. Using Computer-Based Continuing Professional Education of Training Staff to Develop Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sooraksa, Nanta

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a career development program for staff involved in providing training for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand. Most of these staff were professional vocational teachers in schools. The program uses information communication technology (ICT), and its main objective is to teach Moodle software as a tool for…

  11. Graduate Transition into Work: The Bridging Role of Graduate Placement Programmes in the Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprise Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Pádraig

    2015-01-01

    This research looks at the role of graduate placement programmes in bridging the gap between higher education and the small- and medium-sized enterprise (SME) sector. The research design and methodology used in this study was exploratory, in-depth and qualitative in nature. The research took the form of a multiple case study and focused on seven…

  12. A Bayesian Approach to International Distributor Selection for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Software Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lui, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying appropriate international distributors for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the software industry for overseas markets can determine a firm's future endeavors in international expansion. SMEs lack the complex skills in market research and decision analysis to identify suitable partners to engage in global market entry.…

  13. Concept of an Exchange Network for the Development of Vocational Training in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudet, Rene

    An examination of the ways in which vocational training can be extended to small and medium-sized enterprises in the European Economic Community, this document consists of: an introduction; four parts containing multiple chapters; 10 case studies; and a bibliography. Following the introduction, which is an update of a report made in 1985, part one…

  14. The Cooperation of Small and Middle-Sized Companies with Universities in Turkey: Acquiring Enterprising Skills Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalyan, Figen

    2004-01-01

    Higher education institutions are the places from where the societies base the information, deliver and apply it. Moreover, it is the place where the people who are required to bring innovations with required abilities, skills and attitudes are trained. Forming a network between the small and middle sized companies (SMSC) and higher education…

  15. Virtual Class: Distance Learning for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in the Spanish Region of Castilla y Leon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Blanca; Perez, Maria Angeles; Verdu, Maria Jesus; Navazo, Maria Agustina; Lopez, Ricardo; Mompo, Rafael; Garcia, Joaquin

    Lifelong learning is becoming a necessity in the new Information Society where everyone, particularly small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), must keep up with new technologies. Education and training are of the most importance in this updating. An interdisciplinary and inter-university work group called "Canalejas" (Spain) has developed a…

  16. Staying Competitive. How Small and Mid-Sized Companies Are Meeting the Challenge of a Global Economy. Workforce Brief #1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Terri; Kaufmann, Barbara

    Small and mid-sized businesses must change their production and service delivery methods if they are to remain competitive in a global economy. According to businesspersons, service providers, and employees who participated in 18 focus groups in 10 cities throughout the United States, businesses are being forced to change their ways of doing…

  17. Entrepreneurial Training for the Growth of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Lessons from Central and Eastern Europe. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report brings together a number of principles as to best practice in supporting, through training, growth of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Central and Eastern Europe. Chapter 2 identifies key principles to be drawn from the West through a literature review. Chapter 3 reviews the "practice" of entrepreneurial training in Central…

  18. [Relationships between spatial distribution of two dominant small-sized fishes and submerged macrophyte cover in Niushan Lake of China].

    PubMed

    Ye, Shao-Wen; Zhang, Tang-Lin; Li, Zhong-Jie; Liu, Jia-Shou

    2012-09-01

    By using a set of pelagic gillnets with eight mesh sizes, an investigation was made on the spatial distribution of small fishes in submerged macrophyte habitats in a shallow macrophytic lake (Niushan Lake) in the middle reach of Yangtze River in summer, 2005. The fish composition, abundance, and size structure were examined along a biomass gradient of the most dominant submerged macrophyte Potamogeton maackianus. A total of 1124 individuals from 13 fish species were caught during the study period. According to the abundance and occurrence, sharpbelly Hemiculter leucisculus and redfin culter Cultrichthys erythropterus were identified as the two dominant small pelagic fishes in the lake. There existed dome-like relationships between the fish species richness and Shannon diversity index and the submerged macrophyte biomass within its observed range. For the two dominant small fishes, their abundance was significantly positively correlated with macrophyte biomass, and the average sizes of the individuals of H. leucisculus and C. erythropterus were larger in un-vegetated habitat but smaller in heavily vegetated habitats, indicating that the young individuals tended to live in dense submerged macrophyte covers. Other two habitat factors, i. e., water depth and distance to shore, had little effects on the spatial distribution of the two fish species. It was inferred that P. maackianus cover should be the important refuge habitat for the two dominant small-sized fishes in Niushan Lake, and it would be necessary to protect or restore the submerged macrophyte covers including P. maackianus.

  19. Small Body Size at Birth and Behavioural Symptoms of ADHD in Children Aged Five to Six Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahti, J.; Raikkonen, K.; Kajantie, E.; Heinonen, K.; Pesonen, A.-K.; Jarvenpaa, A.-L.; Strandberg, T.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Behavioural disorders with a neurodevelopmental background, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), have been associated with a non-optimal foetal environment, reflected in small body size at birth. However, the evidence stems from highly selected groups with birth outcomes biased towards the extreme low end of the…

  20. Institutional Size and Professional Autonomy: The Death of the Small College Myth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldridge, J. Victor; And Others

    This study investigated the effect of institutional size and complexity on professional autonomy in academic institutions. Autonomy was defined as the ability to set goals and to structure the organization to maximize professional concerns; size was measured by the number of faculty members and students in the institutions. Data were gathered from…

  1. 77 FR 58747 - Small Business Size Standards: Real Estate and Rental and Leasing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237). SBA recognizes that changes in industry structure and the Federal marketplace... Register (76 FR 70680) on its proposal to increase the size standards for 20 industries and one sub... data for those industries do not support ] a size standard higher than $7 million (see 77 FR...

  2. 78 FR 37417 - Small Business Size Standards: Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... 18 sub-industry activities (i.e., ``exceptions'' in SBA's table of size standards). Of these, 31 were... 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237). SBA recognizes that changes in industry structure and the Federal marketplace... (77 FR 42211) on its proposal to increase the size standards for 17 industries in NAICS Sector 71....

  3. 78 FR 37397 - Small Business Size Standards: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ..., there were 41 different size levels, covering 1,141 NAICS industries and 18 sub-industry activities (i.e... published in the Federal Register on July 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237). SBA recognizes that changes in industry... FR 55755) seeking public comment on its proposal to increase the size standards for 11 industries...

  4. 77 FR 55755 - Small Business Size Standards: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and Hunting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... structure. The last time SBA conducted a comprehensive review of all size standards was during the late... Register on July 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237). NAICS 11, Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting, includes 46... and industry structure since the last comprehensive size standards review, SBA recognizes that...

  5. Tectonic geomorphology at small catchment sizes - extensions of the stream-power approach and the χ method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hergarten, S.; Robl, J.; Stüwe, K.

    2015-08-01

    Quantitative tectonic geomorphology hinges on the analysis of longitudinal river profiles. The model behind almost all approaches in this field originates from an empirical relationship between channel slope and catchment size, often substantiated in form of the stream-power model for fluvial incision. A significant methodological progress was recently achieved by introducing the χ transform. It defines a nonlinear length coordinate in such a way that the inherent curvature of river profiles due to the increase of catchment sizes in downstream direction is removed from the analysis. However, the limitation to large catchment sizes inherited from the stream power approach for fluvial incision persists. As a consequence, only a small fraction of all nodes of a DEM can be used for the analysis. In this study we present and discuss some empirically derived extensions of the stream power law towards small catchment sizes in order to overcome this limitation. Beyond this, we introduce a simple method for estimating the adjustable parameters in the original χ method as well as in our extended approaches. As a main result, an approach originally suggested for debris flow channels seems to be the best approximation if both large and small catchment sizes are included in the same analysis.

  6. Tectonic geomorphology at small catchment sizes - extensions of the stream-power approach and the χ method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hergarten, S.; Robl, J.; Stüwe, K.

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative tectonic geomorphology hinges on the analysis of longitudinal river profiles. The model behind almost all approaches in this field originates from an empirical relationship between channel slope and catchment size, often substantiated in the form of the stream-power model for fluvial incision. Significant methodological progress was recently achieved by introducing the χ transform. It defines a nonlinear length coordinate in such a way that the inherent curvature of river profiles due to the increase of catchment sizes in the downstream direction is removed from the analysis. However, the limitation to large catchment sizes inherited from the stream-power approach for fluvial incision persists. As a consequence, only a small fraction of all nodes of a digital elevation model (DEM) can be used for the analysis. In this study we present and discuss some empirically derived extensions of the stream power law towards small catchment sizes in order to overcome this limitation. Beyond this, we introduce a simple method for estimating the adjustable parameters in the original χ method as well as in our extended approaches. As a main result, an approach originally suggested for debris flow channels seems to be the best approximation if both large and small catchment sizes are included in the same analysis.

  7. Testosterone increases repertoire size in an open-ended learner: an experimental study using adult male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Van Hout, Alain J-M; Pinxten, Rianne; Darras, Veerle M; Eens, Marcel

    2012-11-01

    Song in songbirds is a learned secondary sexual behavior, first acquired during a sensitive phase of juvenile development, which is affected by hormones such as testosterone (T). While the latter has received much attention, the potential involvement of T in the adult repertoire changes observed in a number of species is much less understood. Yet, this may prove essential to understand the role of song as a sexually selected trait. We therefore performed a T-implantation experiment during the non-breeding season (when T is basal), using adult male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), a songbird species in which song repertoire size (and composition) changes seasonally and increases with age. Repertoire size increased rapidly in T-males, but not in control males, indicating a role for T in repertoire size changes. This increase resulted from a lower proportion of dropped song types in T-males than in control males, while the proportion of added song types did not differ between both groups. Interestingly, the observed repertoire turnover (adding and removing song types from the repertoire) in both groups, suggests that elevated plasma T levels were not essential for changes in repertoire composition (contrary to repertoire size). Finally, T-males (but not control males) significantly increased their song rate, while neither group showed a significant change in their song bout length and phrase repetition rate. Taken together, our results suggest a role for T in adult song learning and provide new insights into the information content of repertoire size and song bout length as sexually selected traits. PMID:23036784

  8. One man's tall is another man's small: how the framing of portion size influences food choice.

    PubMed

    Just, David R; Wansink, Brian

    2014-07-01

    Labels such as 'Large' or 'Super-size' are often used to describe portion sizes. How do these normative labels influence consumer choice and how much they ultimately either consume or waste? Although one might believe that firms use normative labels to impact choice behavior through loss aversion, a field experiment shows consumer's willingness to pay is inconsistent with a loss aversion explanation. Although portions were clearly visible, individuals appeared to use the labels as objective information about their size. Importantly, a second study showed these labels also led people to eat less when food was given a larger sounding name than a smaller name (double vs. regular; regular vs. half-size). If labels are used as size information, policies governing normative names could help reduce food consumption or reduce waste.

  9. Learning to Identify Near-Acuity Letters, either with or without Flankers, Results in Improved Letter Size and Spacing Limits in Adults with Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Susana T. L.; Li, Roger W.; Levi, Dennis M.

    2012-01-01

    Amblyopia is a developmental abnormality that results in deficits for a wide range of visual tasks, most notably, the reduced ability to see fine details, the loss in contrast sensitivity especially for small objects and the difficulty in seeing objects in clutter (crowding). The primary goal of this study was to evaluate whether crowding can be ameliorated in adults with amblyopia through perceptual learning using a flanked letter identification task that was designed to reduce crowding, and if so, whether the improvements transfer to untrained visual functions: visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and the size of visual span (the amount of information obtained in one fixation). To evaluate whether the improvements following this training task were specific to training with flankers, we also trained another group of adult observers with amblyopia using a single letter identification task that was designed to improve letter contrast sensitivity, not crowding. Following 10,000 trials of training, both groups of observers showed improvements in the respective training task. The improvements generalized to improved visual acuity, letter contrast sensitivity, size of the visual span, and reduced crowding. The magnitude of the improvement for each of these measurements was similar in the two training groups. Perceptual learning regimens aimed at reducing crowding or improving letter contrast sensitivity are both effective in improving visual acuity, contrast sensitivity for near-acuity objects and reducing the crowding effect, and could be useful as a clinical treatment for amblyopia. PMID:22558234

  10. Learning to identify near-acuity letters, either with or without flankers, results in improved letter size and spacing limits in adults with amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Chung, Susana T L; Li, Roger W; Levi, Dennis M

    2012-01-01

    Amblyopia is a developmental abnormality that results in deficits for a wide range of visual tasks, most notably, the reduced ability to see fine details, the loss in contrast sensitivity especially for small objects and the difficulty in seeing objects in clutter (crowding). The primary goal of this study was to evaluate whether crowding can be ameliorated in adults with amblyopia through perceptual learning using a flanked letter identification task that was designed to reduce crowding, and if so, whether the improvements transfer to untrained visual functions: visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and the size of visual span (the amount of information obtained in one fixation). To evaluate whether the improvements following this training task were specific to training with flankers, we also trained another group of adult observers with amblyopia using a single letter identification task that was designed to improve letter contrast sensitivity, not crowding. Following 10,000 trials of training, both groups of observers showed improvements in the respective training task. The improvements generalized to improved visual acuity, letter contrast sensitivity, size of the visual span, and reduced crowding. The magnitude of the improvement for each of these measurements was similar in the two training groups. Perceptual learning regimens aimed at reducing crowding or improving letter contrast sensitivity are both effective in improving visual acuity, contrast sensitivity for near-acuity objects and reducing the crowding effect, and could be useful as a clinical treatment for amblyopia.

  11. Is Small Really Better? Testing Some Assumptions about High School Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Barbara L.; Wyse, Adam E.; Keesler, Venessa

    2007-01-01

    The case for small schools has been made in educational research since the 1960s, when scholars such as Barker and Gump argued that smaller schools provided students with greater opportunities for participation in various extracurricular activities. The value of small schools was further supported in the 1980s by research on public and private…

  12. 75 FR 40857 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... to this notice. In addition, SBA conducted market research using the Dynamic Small Business Search database and no small business manufacturers that participate in the Federal market were identified. Thus... market. In order to be considered available to participate in the Federal market for a class of...

  13. 78 FR 35085 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... considered available to participate in the Federal market for a class of products, a small business... the previous two years. 78 FR 20371. The public comment period for the notice to rescind the class... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL...

  14. 78 FR 51263 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... Administration. ACTION: Reopen the public comment period for 78 FR 42817. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business..., 2013 (78 FR 42817,) and closed on August 1, 2013. A small business manufacturer requested the public... previous 24 months. 78 FR 42817. The public comment period for the notice to rescind the class waiver...

  15. 78 FR 20371 - Small Business Size Standards; Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ..., Associate Director for Government Contracting, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., 8th... Government Contracting, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., 8th Floor, Washington, DC... contract or received a contract from the Federal government within the last 24 months. See (13 CFR...

  16. Corpus callosum size and diffusion tensor anisotropy in adolescents and adults with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Balevich, Emily C; Haznedar, M Mehmet; Wang, Eugene; Newmark, Randall E; Bloom, Rachel; Schneiderman, Jason S; Aronowitz, Jonathan; Tang, Cheuk Y; Chu, King-Wai; Byne, William; Buchsbaum, Monte S; Hazlett, Erin A

    2015-03-30

    The corpus callosum has been implicated as a region of dysfunctional connectivity in schizophrenia, but the association between age and callosal pathology is unclear. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) were performed on adults (n=34) and adolescents (n=17) with schizophrenia and adult (n=33) and adolescent (n=15) age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The corpus callosum was manually traced on each participant׳s MRI, and the DTI scan was co-registered to the MRI. The corpus callosum was divided into five anteroposterior segments. Area and anisotropy were calculated for each segment. Both patient groups demonstrated reduced callosal anisotropy; however, the adolescents exhibited reductions mostly in anterior regions while the reductions were more prominent in posterior regions of the adults. The adolescent patients showed greater decreases in absolute area as compared with the adult patients, particularly in the anterior segments. However, the adults showed greater reductions when area was considered relative to whole brain white matter volume. Our results suggest that the initial stages of the illness are characterized by deficiencies in frontal connections, and the chronic phase is characterized by deficits in the posterior corpus callosum; or, alternatively, adolescent-onset schizophrenia may represent a different or more severe form of the illness.

  17. Body size and physical activity levels of adults on Rarotonga, the Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, S J

    2001-09-01

    Few studies of physical activity and energy expenditure have been carried out in the Pacific Region. In this study, the physical activity levels (PALs) of adult Cook Islanders living a largely modernised lifestyle by age group and occupation category were determined by a 3 day activity recall diary method. The period of observation included the previous Sunday, as a representative non-working day. A volunteer sample of 332 Cook Islanders aged 22 to 86 years was obtained from the total adult population of Rarotonga. Older adults are significantly less active than younger adults during the working week, but not during the weekend. Males are more physically active than females during the working week, but not on weekends. The mean weekday PAL of males engaged in traditional subsistence or who are unemployed is 1.88, while the mean weekday PAL of females engaged in traditional subsistence or who are housewives is 1.69. Male manual workers have a weekday PAL of 1.96, while female manual workers have a weekday PAL of 1.67. The weekday PAL values for those employed in clerical and administrative work are 1.82 (males) and 1.64 (females), while values for professionals are 1.76 (males) and 1.65 (females). Weekday physical activity is negatively associated with age, in nonlinear fashion. The PALs of adult Cook Islanders living a largely modernised lifestyle is lower in older age groups but does not vary by occupation category. PMID:11517738

  18. What keeps insects small? Time limitation during oviposition reduces the fecundity benefit of female size in a butterfly.

    PubMed

    Gotthard, Karl; Berger, David; Walters, Richard

    2007-06-01

    Laboratory studies of insects suggest that female fecundity may increase very rapidly with adult size and that mass may often increase close to exponentially with time during larval growth. These relationships make it difficult to see how realistic levels of larval mortality can outweigh the fecundity benefit of prolonged growth. Hence, it is unclear why many insects do not become bigger. In this study, we experimentally explore the relationship between female size and fecundity in the butterfly Pararge aegeria and show that thermally induced time limitation during oviposition may substantially reduce the fecundity benefit of larger females. We model time-limited oviposition under natural temperature conditions and show that fecundity is also likely to increase asymptotically with female size in the field. With realistic estimates of juvenile mortality, the model predicts optimal body sizes within the observed range even when larvae grow exponentially. We conclude that one important reason for why insects with a high capacity of larval growth do not evolve toward larger sizes may be that the fecundity benefit is in fact relatively limited under natural conditions. If so, these results may help resolve some of the inconsistencies between theory and empirical patterns in explaining optimal size in insects.

  19. Big school, small school: (re)testing assumptions about high school size, school engagement and mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Christopher C; Carolan, Brian V; Baker-Smith, E Christine

    2010-02-01

    In an effort to increase both adolescents' engagement with school and academic achievement, school districts across the United States have created small high schools. However, despite the widespread adoption of size reduction reforms, relatively little is known about the relationship between size, engagement and outcomes in high school. In response, this article employs a composite measure of engagement that combines organizational, sociological, and psychological theories. We use this composite measure with the most recent nationally-representative dataset of tenth graders, Educational Longitudinal Study: 2002, (N = 10,946, 46% female) to better assess a generalizable relationship among school engagement, mathematics achievement and school size with specific focus on cohort size. Findings confirm these measures to be highly related to student engagement. Furthermore, results derived from multilevel regression analysis indicate that, as with school size, moderately sized cohorts or grade-level groups provide the greatest engagement advantage for all students and that there are potentially harmful changes when cohorts grow beyond 400 students. However, it is important to note that each group size affects different students differently, eliminating the ability to prescribe an ideal cohort or school size.

  20. Injection barrel with a tapered structure for a low speed and small size cryogenic hydrogen pellet in medium-sized plasma fusion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motojima, G.; Sakamoto, R.; Okada, H.; Nagasaki, K.; Yamada, H.; Nakamura, Y.; Kado, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Konoshima, S.; Minami, T.; Ohshima, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Mizuuchi, T.; Mutoh, T.

    2016-10-01

    An injection barrel was designed and fabricated for a small size 0.8 mm cryogenic pellet with a low speed of 200-300 m/s in medium-sized plasma fusion devices. Pellet injection with pneumatic acceleration was examined using a conventional in situ technique. A tapered structure was applied in the downstream side of the injection barrel to satisfy the requirement of pellet speed reduction by expansion of the propellant gas. Shadowgraph and light gate measurements show that the intact pellets have speeds of 260 ± 30 m/s and a typical size of 1.1-1.2 mm. The pellet ablation code based on a neutral gas shielding model shows that the penetration depth of the measured pellet parameters does not cross the plasma center, even in medium-sized plasma devices such as the Heliotron J helical device. The injection barrel with a tapered structure developed in this study is feasible for low speed pellet injection.

  1. Effect of grid size in RCMs on the representation of floods in small and medium sized catchments in Austria: added value of convection-permitting simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reszler, Christian; Truhetz, Heimo; Switanek, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a small multi-model ensemble study of coupling two different ERA-Interim driven RCMs (WRF and COSMO-CLM) using different grid sizes (0.44°, 0.11°, 0.03°) with a hydrological model for representing floods in small to medium sized catchments in South-eastern Austria. The aim is to evaluate the benefit of grid size reduction and in particular, the added value of convection-permitting simulations with 0.03° (~ 3 km) resolution. The hydrological model is a spatially distributed model (1 km² grid), which was previously developed for operational flood forecasting and calibrated against data of more than 20 stream gauges with corresponding catchment sizes between 30 and 1000 km². The hindcast simulations (1989-2010) are evaluated in terms of accurately representing flood frequency, seasonality, as well as other flood event characteristics, such as weather type, antecedent soil moisture, etc. The results show, that for small catchments (< 200 km²) a resolution of 3 km is essential to accurately simulate the magnitude of flood events. Flood frequency and seasonality is represented well in all catchments. In the larger catchments a resolution of 0.11° (~ 12.5 km) already yields statistically satisfying results. Also, due to the short response times in the small sub-catchments a time step of 1 hour is required. However, in all setups a bias still exists in precipitation and temperature, which sometimes leads to unrealistic hydrological conditions. Ongoing work comprises the test a of novel statistical error correction method, which is expected to improve results particularly for higher quantiles. Also, a future run ("time-slice" experiment) is planned with the coupled model setup using the RCP8.5 emission scenario, the GCM of the Max-Planck-Institute Hamburg (MPI-ESM-LR), dynamically downscaled to 3 km by COSMO-CLM, and the novel error correction method. The study is funded by the Austrian Klima- und Energiefonds through the Austrian Climate

  2. Ecogeographic size variation in small-bodied subfossil primates from Ankilitelo, southwestern Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Muldoon, Kathleen M; Simons, Elwyn L

    2007-10-01

    Variation in body size is well documented for both extant and extinct Malagasy primates, and appears to be correlated with geographic patterns of resource seasonality. Less attention has been paid to extant lemurs in subfossil collections, although it has been suggested that subfossil forms of extant species are characterized by greater size than their modern counterpart. This trend of phyletic size change has been related to climate change, habitat fragmentation, or human hunting. However, space- and time-averaging in the subfossil samples of previous studies may have obscured more general ecogeographic patterns underlying these size differences. Our objective is to examine size variation in subfossil still-extant primates within a regional comparative context to determine if subfossil and living forms conform to similar ecogeographic patterns. We report on the subfossil still-extant primate assemblage from Ankilitelo, southwestern Madagascar (approximately 500 yr BP) to test this hypothesis. The Ankilitelo primates were compared with museum specimens of known locality. Extant taxa were assigned to one of five distinct ecogeographic regions, including spiny thicket, dry deciduous forest, succulent woodland, lowland and subhumid rainforest. Comparisons of tooth size in extant lemurs reveal significant geographical patterns of variation within genera. In general, the primates from Ankilitelo are indeed larger than their modern counterpart. However, these differences fit an ecoregional model of size variation, whereby Ankilitelo species are comparable in size to living forms inhabiting ecoregions present near the cave today. This suggests that Malagasy primates have been subjected to similar patterns of resource seasonality for at least 500 years.

  3. Exact off-resonance near fields of small-size extended hemielliptic 2-D lenses illuminated by plane waves.

    PubMed

    Boriskin, Artem V; Sauleau, Ronan; Nosich, Alexander I

    2009-02-01

    The near fields of small-size extended hemielliptic lenses made of rexolite and isotropic quartz and illuminated by E- and H-polarized plane waves are studied. Variations in the focal domain size, shape, and location are reported versus the angle of incidence of the incoming wave. The problem is solved numerically in a two-dimensional formulation. The accuracy of results is guaranteed by using a highly efficient numerical algorithm based on the combination of the Muller boundary integral equations, the method of analytical regularization, and the trigonometric Galerkin discretization scheme. The analysis fully accounts for the finite size of the lens as well as its curvature and thus can be considered as a reference solution for other electromagnetic solvers. Moreover, the trusted description of the focusing ability of a finite-size hemielliptic lens can be useful in the design of antenna receivers.

  4. 75 FR 1662 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Administration, Office of Government Contracting, 409 3rd Street, SW., Suite 8800, Washington, DC 20416. FOR..., Office of Government Contracting. BILLING CODE 8025-01-P ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SMALL...

  5. 75 FR 28077 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... Government Contracting and should specifically state the class (or classes) of products for which the waiver.... Karen Hontz, Director for Government Contracting. BILLING CODE 8025-01-P ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL...

  6. 75 FR 42173 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... Government Contracting. BILLING CODE 8025-01-P ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS... products to the Federal government. The effect of this waiver will be to allow otherwise qualified...

  7. 75 FR 32519 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Administration. ACTION: Notice of Waiver to the Nonmanufacturer Rule for Liquid Propane Gas (LPG), North American.... Small Business Administration (SBA) is granting a waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule for Liquid...

  8. Radiation-related small head sizes among prenatally exposed A-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Otake, M; Schull, W J

    1993-02-01

    Of 1566 individuals prenatally exposed to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1473 had the circumference of their head measured at least once between ages 9 and 19. Among these 1473 individuals, 62 had small heads--the circumference of the heads was two standard deviations or more below the observed specific-age-at measurement mean. Of 26 cases with severe mental retardation, 15 (58%) had small heads. Most (86%) of the individuals with small heads were exposed in the first trimester (about < 12 weeks postovulation) or second trimester (about 12-24 weeks postovulation)--55% in the former period and 31% in the latter. Various dose-response relationships, with and without a threshold, have been fitted to the data grouped by the trimester or postovulatory age (weeks after ovulation) at which exposure occurred. A significant effect of radiation on the frequency of individuals with atypically small heads is observed only in the first and second trimesters and for the intervals postovulation of 0-7 weeks and 8-15 weeks. Although the risk of a small head at 0-7 weeks postovulation increases significantly with increasing dose, no increase in risk for severe mental retardation is noted in this period. No excess risk of a small head was seen in the third trimester (about > or = 25 weeks postovulation) or among individuals exposed at 16 weeks or more postovulation. The mean IQ values of mentally retarded cases with and without small heads were 63.8 and 68.9, respectively. No significant difference exists between these two IQ means, but both were significantly smaller than 96.4, the IQ value for individuals with small heads without severe mental retardation and 107.8, the value for the overall sample.

  9. One Size Fits All? Promoting Condom Use for Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention among Heterosexual Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Visser, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this exploratory qualitative study were to increase our understanding of heterosexual young adults knowledge and beliefs about sexually transmitted infections (STIs) other than HIV, to explore their beliefs about the factors that influence condom use for STI prevention, and to explore their ideas about how best to promote condom use…

  10. Obesity and systolic blood pressure in young adult men born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Laganović, Mario; Lela, Ivana Vuković; Premuzić, Vedran; Karanović, Sandra; Vrdoljak, Ana; Jelaković, Bojan

    2013-09-01

    Individuals born small for gestational age (SGA) are supposed to be at higher risk to develop cardiovascular disorders, and recent report showed that concurrent obesity influences blood pressure (BP) in SGA children. Our aim was to investigate the impact of obesity and birth weight on blood pressure values in young adult men born SGA and controls born after normal pregnancy, Normotensive, non-treated adult men were enrolled (N = 185; mean age 21.29 +/- 0.9 years). Birth parameters were obtained from medical records and SGA was defined as birth weight (BW) under 10th percentile for gestational age and obesity as BMI > 25 kg/m2. According to the presence or absence of obesity and BW the subjects were divided into four groups: (1) non-obese with normal BW (N = 50), (2) non-obese SGA (N = 67), (3) obese with normal BW (N = 40), (4) obese SGA (N = 28). BP was measured using Omron M6 and Spacelab 90207 device following the ESH/ESC guidelines. Systolic BP, 24-hour BP variability and pulse pressure were significantly higher in SGA subjects than in those with normal BW (p < 0.05). The highest 24-hour and daytime systolic BP values as well as 24-hour pulse pressure were found in the subgroup of obese SGA subjects (p < 0.001). Significant differences for the above parameters were observed between obese SGA group and non-obese SGA group (p < 0.05). Obese SGA subjects had higher 24-hour and daytime systolic BP values compared to obese normal BW group. No difference was found in BP between non-obese SGA and non-obese group with normal BW (p > 0.05). In addition to BW and shorter pregnancy duration, obesity concurrently and significantly determines systolic BP in young normotensive men and point to a need for more aggressive implementation of healthy lifestyle as early as possible.

  11. Small population size and extremely low levels of genetic diversity in island populations of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus

    PubMed Central

    Furlan, Elise; Stoklosa, J; Griffiths, J; Gust, N; Ellis, R; Huggins, R M; Weeks, A R

    2012-01-01

    Genetic diversity generally underpins population resilience and persistence. Reductions in population size and absence of gene flow can lead to reductions in genetic diversity, reproductive fitness, and a limited ability to adapt to environmental change increasing the risk of extinction. Island populations are typically small and isolated, and as a result, inbreeding and reduced genetic diversity elevate their extinction risk. Two island populations of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, exist; a naturally occurring population on King Island in Bass Strait and a recently introduced population on Kangaroo Island off the coast of South Australia. Here we assessed the genetic diversity within these two island populations and contrasted these patterns with genetic diversity estimates in areas from which the populations are likely to have been founded. On Kangaroo Island, we also modeled live capture data to determine estimates of population size. Levels of genetic diversity in King Island platypuses are perilously low, with eight of 13 microsatellite loci fixed, likely reflecting their small population size and prolonged isolation. Estimates of heterozygosity detected by microsatellites (HE= 0.032) are among the lowest level of genetic diversity recorded by this method in a naturally outbreeding vertebrate population. In contrast, estimates of genetic diversity on Kangaroo Island are somewhat higher. However, estimates of small population size and the limited founders combined with genetic isolation are likely to lead to further losses of genetic diversity through time for the Kangaroo Island platypus population. Implications for the future of these and similarly isolated or genetically depauperate populations are discussed. PMID:22837830

  12. Applying Individual Tree Structure From Lidar to Address the Sensitivity of Allometric Equations to Small Sample Sizes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncanson, L.; Dubayah, R.

    2015-12-01

    Lidar remote sensing is widely applied for mapping forest carbon stocks, and technological advances have improved our ability to capture structural details from forests, even resolving individual trees. Despite these advancements, the accuracy of forest aboveground biomass models remains limited by the quality of field estimates of biomass. The accuracies of field estimates are inherently dependent on the accuracy of the allometric equations used to relate measurable attributes to biomass. These equations are calibrated with relatively small samples of often spatially clustered trees. This research focuses on one of many issues involving allometric equations - understanding how sensitive allometric parameters are to the sample sizes used to fit them. We capitalize on recent advances in lidar remote sensing to extract individual tree structural information from six high-resolution airborne lidar datasets in the United States. We remotely measure millions of tree heights and crown radii, and fit allometric equations to the relationship between tree height and radius at a 'population' level, in each site. We then extract samples from our tree database, and build allometries on these smaller samples of trees, with varying sample sizes. We show that for the allometric relationship between tree height and crown radius, small sample sizes produce biased allometric equations that overestimate height for a given crown radius. We extend this analysis using translations from the literature to address potential implications for biomass, showing that site-level biomass may be greatly overestimated when applying allometric equations developed with the typically small sample sizes used in popular allometric equations for biomass.

  13. A qualitative study of pandemic influenza preparedness among small and medium-sized businesses in New York City.

    PubMed

    Burton, Deron C; Confield, Evan; Gasner, Mary Rose; Weisfuse, Isaac

    2011-10-01

    Small businesses need to engage in continuity planning to assure delivery of goods and services and to sustain the economy during an influenza pandemic. This is especially true in New York City, where 98 per cent of businesses have fewer than 100 employees. It was an objective therefore, to determine pandemic influenza business continuity practices and strategies suitable for small and medium-sized NYC businesses. The study design used focus groups, and the participants were owners and managers of businesses with fewer than 500 employees in New York City. The main outcome measures looked for were the degree of pandemic preparedness, and the feasibility of currently proposed business continuity strategies. Most participants reported that their businesses had no pandemic influenza plan. Agreement with feasibility of specific business continuity strategies was influenced by the type of business represented, cost of the strategy, and business size. It was concluded that recommendations for pandemic-related business continuity plans for small and medium-sized businesses should be tailored to the type and size of business and should highlight the broad utility of the proposed strategies to address a range of business stressors. PMID:22308579

  14. A qualitative study of pandemic influenza preparedness among small and medium-sized businesses in New York City.

    PubMed

    Burton, Deron C; Confield, Evan; Gasner, Mary Rose; Weisfuse, Isaac

    2011-10-01

    Small businesses need to engage in continuity planning to assure delivery of goods and services and to sustain the economy during an influenza pandemic. This is especially true in New York City, where 98 per cent of businesses have fewer than 100 employees. It was an objective therefore, to determine pandemic influenza business continuity practices and strategies suitable for small and medium-sized NYC businesses. The study design used focus groups, and the participants were owners and managers of businesses with fewer than 500 employees in New York City. The main outcome measures looked for were the degree of pandemic preparedness, and the feasibility of currently proposed business continuity strategies. Most participants reported that their businesses had no pandemic influenza plan. Agreement with feasibility of specific business continuity strategies was influenced by the type of business represented, cost of the strategy, and business size. It was concluded that recommendations for pandemic-related business continuity plans for small and medium-sized businesses should be tailored to the type and size of business and should highlight the broad utility of the proposed strategies to address a range of business stressors.

  15. The effect of small class sizes on mortality through age 29 years: evidence from a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Muennig, Peter; Johnson, Gretchen; Wilde, Elizabeth Ty

    2011-06-15

    Limiting the number of students per classroom in the early years has been shown to improve educational outcomes. Improved education is, in turn, hypothesized to improve health. The authors examined whether smaller class sizes affect mortality through age 29 years and whether cognitive factors play a role. They used data from the Project Student Teacher Achievement Ratio, a 4-year multicenter randomized controlled trial of reduced class sizes in Tennessee involving 11,601 students between 1985 and 1989. Children randomized to small classes (13-17 students) experienced improved measures of cognition and academic performance relative to those assigned to regular classes (22-25 students). As expected, these cognitive measures were significantly inversely associated with mortality rates (P < 0.05). However, through age 29 years, students randomized to small class size nevertheless experienced higher mortality rates than those randomized to regular size classes (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07, 2.32). The groups at risk included males (HR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.85), whites/Asians (HR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.72), and higher income students (HR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.06, 4.57). The authors speculate that small classes might produce behavior changes that increase mortality through young adulthood that are stronger than the protective effects of enhanced cognition. PMID:21540326

  16. The effect of small class sizes on mortality through age 29 years: evidence from a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Muennig, Peter; Johnson, Gretchen; Wilde, Elizabeth Ty

    2011-06-15

    Limiting the number of students per classroom in the early years has been shown to improve educational outcomes. Improved education is, in turn, hypothesized to improve health. The authors examined whether smaller class sizes affect mortality through age 29 years and whether cognitive factors play a role. They used data from the Project Student Teacher Achievement Ratio, a 4-year multicenter randomized controlled trial of reduced class sizes in Tennessee involving 11,601 students between 1985 and 1989. Children randomized to small classes (13-17 students) experienced improved measures of cognition and academic performance relative to those assigned to regular classes (22-25 students). As expected, these cognitive measures were significantly inversely associated with mortality rates (P < 0.05). However, through age 29 years, students randomized to small class size nevertheless experienced higher mortality rates than those randomized to regular size classes (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07, 2.32). The groups at risk included males (HR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.85), whites/Asians (HR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.72), and higher income students (HR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.06, 4.57). The authors speculate that small classes might produce behavior changes that increase mortality through young adulthood that are stronger than the protective effects of enhanced cognition.

  17. The influence of patient size on dose conversion coefficients: a hybrid phantom study for adult cardiac catheterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Perry; Lee, Choonsik; Johnson, Kevin; Siragusa, Daniel; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2009-06-01

    In this study, the influence of patient size on organ and effective dose conversion coefficients (DCCs) was investigated for a representative interventional fluoroscopic procedure—cardiac catheterization. The study was performed using hybrid phantoms representing an underweight, average and overweight American adult male. Reference body sizes were determined using the NHANES III database and parameterized based on standing height and total body mass. Organ and effective dose conversion coefficients were calculated for anterior-posterior, posterior-anterior, left anterior oblique and right anterior oblique projections using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX 2.5.0 with the metric dose area product being used as the normalization factor. Results show body size to have a clear influence on DCCs which increased noticeably when body size decreased. It was also shown that if patient size is neglected when choosing a DCC, the organ and effective dose will be underestimated to an underweight patient and will be overestimated to an underweight patient, with errors as large as 113% for certain projections. Results were further compared with those published for a KTMAN-2 Korean patient-specific tomographic phantom. The published DCCs aligned best with the hybrid phantom which most closely matched in overall body size. These results highlighted the need for and the advantages of phantom-patient matching, and it is recommended that hybrid phantoms be used to create a more diverse library of patient-dependent anthropomorphic phantoms for medical dose reconstruction.

  18. Spatial attention and reading ability: ERP correlates of flanker and cue-size effects in good and poor adult phonological decoders.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Allison Jane; Martin, Frances Heritage

    2015-12-01

    To investigate facilitatory and inhibitory processes during selective attention among adults with good (n=17) and poor (n=14) phonological decoding skills, a go/nogo flanker task was completed while EEG was recorded. Participants responded to a middle target letter flanked by compatible or incompatible flankers. The target was surrounded by a small or large circular cue which was presented simultaneously or 500ms prior. Poor decoders showed a greater RT cost for incompatible stimuli preceded by large cues and less RT benefit for compatible stimuli. Poor decoders also showed reduced modulation of ERPs by cue-size at left hemisphere posterior sites (N1) and by flanker compatibility at right hemisphere posterior sites (N1) and frontal sites (N2), consistent with processing differences in fronto-parietal attention networks. These findings have potential implications for understanding the relationship between spatial attention and phonological decoding in dyslexia. PMID:26562794

  19. Spatial attention and reading ability: ERP correlates of flanker and cue-size effects in good and poor adult phonological decoders.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Allison Jane; Martin, Frances Heritage

    2015-12-01

    To investigate facilitatory and inhibitory processes during selective attention among adults with good (n=17) and poor (n=14) phonological decoding skills, a go/nogo flanker task was completed while EEG was recorded. Participants responded to a middle target letter flanked by compatible or incompatible flankers. The target was surrounded by a small or large circular cue which was presented simultaneously or 500ms prior. Poor decoders showed a greater RT cost for incompatible stimuli preceded by large cues and less RT benefit for compatible stimuli. Poor decoders also showed reduced modulation of ERPs by cue-size at left hemisphere posterior sites (N1) and by flanker compatibility at right hemisphere posterior sites (N1) and frontal sites (N2), consistent with processing differences in fronto-parietal attention networks. These findings have potential implications for understanding the relationship between spatial attention and phonological decoding in dyslexia.

  20. Life-history traits and effective population size in species with overlapping generations revisited: the importance of adult mortality.

    PubMed

    Waples, R S

    2016-10-01

    The relationship between life-history traits and the key eco-evolutionary parameters effective population size (Ne) and Ne/N is revisited for iteroparous species with overlapping generations, with a focus on the annual rate of adult mortality (d). Analytical methods based on populations with arbitrarily long adult lifespans are used to evaluate the influence of d on Ne, Ne/N and the factors that determine these parameters: adult abundance (N), generation length (T), age at maturity (α), the ratio of variance to mean reproductive success in one season by individuals of the same age (φ) and lifetime variance in reproductive success of individuals in a cohort (Vk•). Although the resulting estimators of N, T and Vk• are upwardly biased for species with short adult lifespans, the estimate of Ne/N is largely unbiased because biases in T are compensated for by biases in Vk• and N. For the first time, the contrasting effects of T and Vk• on Ne and Ne/N are jointly considered with respect to d and φ. A simple function of d and α based on the assumption of constant vital rates is shown to be a robust predictor (R(2)=0.78) of Ne/N in an empirical data set of life tables for 63 animal and plant species with diverse life histories. Results presented here should provide important context for interpreting the surge of genetically based estimates of Ne that has been fueled by the genomics revolution. PMID:27273324

  1. Engineering pollinator phenotypes: consequences of induced size variation on adult morphology and flight performance metrics in the solitary bee, Osmia lignaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Body size is an important trait because it strongly correlates with morphology, performance, and fitness. In insects, the body size model argues that adult size is determined during the larval stage by the mechanisms regulating growth rate and the duration of growth. Though explicit links have been ...

  2. Organ-Specific and Size-Dependent Ag Nanoparticle Toxicity in Gills and Intestines of Adult Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Olivia J; Lin, Sijie; Chang, Chong Hyun; Ji, Zhaoxia; Yu, Xuechen; Wang, Xiang; Lin, Shuo; Xia, Tian; Nel, André E

    2015-10-27

    We studied adult zebrafish to determine whether the size of 20 and 110 nm citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (AgC NPs) differentially impact the gills and intestines, known target organs for Ag toxicity in fish. Following exposure for 4 h, 4 days, or 4 days plus a 7 day depuration period, we obtained different toxicokinetic profiles for different particle sizes, as determined by Ag content of the tissues. Ionic AgNO3 served as a positive control. The gills showed a significantly higher Ag content for the 20 nm particles at 4 h and 4 days than the 110 nm particles, while the values were more similar in the intestines. Both particle types were retained in the intestines even after depuration. These toxicokinetics were accompanied by striking size-dependent differences in the ultrastructural features and histopathology in the target organs in response to the particulates. Ag staining of the gills and intestines confirmed prominent Ag deposition in the basolateral membranes for the 20 nm but not for the 110 nm particles. Furthermore, it was possible to link the site of tissue deposition to disruption of the Na(+)/K(+) ion channel, which is also localized to the basolateral membrane. This was confirmed by a reduction in ATPase activity and immunohistochemical detection of the α subunit of this channel in both target organs, with the 20 nm particles causing significantly higher inhibition and disruption than the larger size particles or AgNO3. These results demonstrate the importance of particle size in determining the hazardous impact of AgNPs in the gills and intestines of adult zebrafish.

  3. Organ-Specific and Size-Dependent Ag Nanoparticle Toxicity in Gills and Intestines of Adult Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Olivia J; Lin, Sijie; Chang, Chong Hyun; Ji, Zhaoxia; Yu, Xuechen; Wang, Xiang; Lin, Shuo; Xia, Tian; Nel, André E

    2015-10-27

    We studied adult zebrafish to determine whether the size of 20 and 110 nm citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (AgC NPs) differentially impact the gills and intestines, known target organs for Ag toxicity in fish. Following exposure for 4 h, 4 days, or 4 days plus a 7 day depuration period, we obtained different toxicokinetic profiles for different particle sizes, as determined by Ag content of the tissues. Ionic AgNO3 served as a positive control. The gills showed a significantly higher Ag content for the 20 nm particles at 4 h and 4 days than the 110 nm particles, while the values were more similar in the intestines. Both particle types were retained in the intestines even after depuration. These toxicokinetics were accompanied by striking size-dependent differences in the ultrastructural features and histopathology in the target organs in response to the particulates. Ag staining of the gills and intestines confirmed prominent Ag deposition in the basolateral membranes for the 20 nm but not for the 110 nm particles. Furthermore, it was possible to link the site of tissue deposition to disruption of the Na(+)/K(+) ion channel, which is also localized to the basolateral membrane. This was confirmed by a reduction in ATPase activity and immunohistochemical detection of the α subunit of this channel in both target organs, with the 20 nm particles causing significantly higher inhibition and disruption than the larger size particles or AgNO3. These results demonstrate the importance of particle size in determining the hazardous impact of AgNPs in the gills and intestines of adult zebrafish. PMID:26327297

  4. Stress-induced oxytocin release and oxytocin cell number and size in prepubertal and adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Minhas, Sumeet; Liu, Clarissa; Galdamez, Josselyn; So, Veronica M; Romeo, Russell D

    2016-08-01

    Studies indicate that adolescent exposure to stress is a potent environmental factor that contributes to psychological and physiological disorders, though the mechanisms that mediate these dysfunctions are not well understood. Periadolescent animals display greater stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses than adults, which may contribute to these vulnerabilities. In addition to the HPA axis, the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal tract (HNT) is also activated in response to stress. In adults, stress activates this system resulting in secretion of oxytocin from neurons in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei. However, it is currently unknown whether a similar or different response occurs in prepubertal animals. Given the influence of these hormones on a variety of emotional behaviors and physiological systems known to change as an animal transitions into adulthood, we investigated stress-induced HPA and HNT hormonal responses before and after stress, as well as the number and size of oxytocin-containing cells in the SON and PVN of prepubertal (30d) and adult (70d) male and female rats. Though we found the well-established protracted adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone response in prepubertal males and females, only adult males and prepubertal females showed a significant stress-induced increase in plasma oxytocin levels. Moreover, though we found no pubertal changes in the number of oxytocin cells, we did find a pubertal-related increase in oxytocin somal size in both the SON and PVN of males and females. Taken together, these data indicate that neuroendocrine systems can show different patterns of stress reactivity before and after adolescent development and that these responses can be further modified by sex. Given the impact of these hormones on a variety of systems, it will be imperative to further explore these changes in hormonal stress reactivity and their role in adolescent health. PMID:26972154

  5. Building Respectful Communities: Kensington Students Examine Adult-Student Relationships in their New Small Schools. Writing to be Heard Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, William; George, Antonia; Hatch, Ashley; Robinson, Rahdia; Thomas, Terrese

    2006-01-01

    Kensington High School is a neighborhood school located in the Kensington area of Philadelphia. After a successful campaign led by Youth United for Change, Kensington High School was broken up into three small schools, with a fourth to be built. Youth researchers explored the relationships between adults and students in all three of the new small…

  6. Genetic risk prediction in a small cohort of healthy adults in Atlanta.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Arafat, Dalia; Brigham, Kenneth L; Gibson, Greg

    2013-02-01

    Compared with single markers, polygenic scores that evaluate the joint effects of multiple trait-associated variants are more effective in explaining the variance of traits and risk of diseases. In total, 182 CHDWB (Emory-Georgia Tech Center for Health Discovery and Well Being study) adults were genotyped to investigate the common variant contributions to three traits (height, BMI, serum triglycerides) and three diseases (coronary artery disease (CAD), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and asthma). Association was contrasted between weighted and simple allelic sum polygenic scores with quantitative traits, and with the Framingham risk scores for CAD and T2D. Although the cohort size is two or three orders of magnitude smaller than typical discovery cohorts, we were able to detect significant associations and to explain up to 5% of the traits by the genetic risk scores, despite a strong influence of outliers. An unexpected finding was that CAD-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) explain a significant amount of the variation for total serum cholesterol. Forward step-wise sequential addition of SNPs into the regression model showed that the top-ranked SNPs explain a large proportion of variance, whereas inclusion of gender and ethnicity also affect the performance of polygenic scores. PMID:23442331

  7. 76 FR 14323 - Small Business Size Standards: Professional, Scientific and Technical Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... standards was published in the Federal Register on July 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237). SBA recognizes that changes... caused by a large number of varying receipts based size standards (see 69 FR 13130 (March 4, 2004) and 57 FR 62515 (December 31, 1992)). Currently, there are 31 different levels of receipts based...

  8. 77 FR 49991 - Small Business Size Standards; Adoption of 2012 North American Industry Classification System for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... footnote 1). solar, wind, 1). geothermal, and biomass electric power generation. 238190 Other Foundation, R..., replacing the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) System, effective October 1, 2000 (65 FR 30836 (May 5... modification, NAICS 2002 (66 FR 3825 (January 16, 2001)), into its table of size standards, effective October...

  9. Size-Selective Concentration of Chondrules and Other Small Particles in Protoplanetary Nebula Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Hogan, Robert C.; Paque, Julie M.; Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Size-selective concentration of particles in a weakly turbulent protoplanetary nebula may be responsible for the initial collection of chondrules and other constituents into primitive bodY precursors. This paper presents the main elements of this process of turbulent concentration. In the terrestrial planet region. both the characteristic size and size distribution of chondrules are explained. "Fluffier" particles would be concentrated in nebula regions which were at a lower density and/or more intensely turbulent. The spatial distribution of concentrated particle density obeys multifractal scaling, suggesting a close tie to the turbulent cascade process. This scaling behavior allows predictions of the probability distributions for concentration in the protoplanetary nebula to be made. Large concentration factors (less than 10(exp 5)) are readily obtained, implying that numerous zones of particle density significantly exceeding the gas density could exist. If most of the available solids were actually in chondrule sized particles, the ensuing particle mass density would become so large that the feedback effects on gas turbulence due to mass loading could no longer be neglected. This paper describes the process, presenting its basic elements and some implications, without including the effects of mass loading.

  10. 77 FR 7489 - Small Business Size Standards: Professional, Technical, and Scientific Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... the Federal Register on July 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237). SBA recognizes that changes in industry structure... on March 16, 2011 (76 FR 14323), which proposed to increase the size standards for 35 industries and... consistent with SBA's final rules covering NAICS Sector 44-45, Retail Trade (75 FR 61597, October 6,...

  11. Size evolution in Goodwin?s small-eared shrew, Cryptotis goodwini

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.; Merritt, J.F.; Churchfield, S.; Hutterer, R.; Sheftel, B.A.

    2005-01-01

    Fossils of Cryptotis goodwini from Honduras indicate that body sizes of modern individuals average at least 18% larger than among members of the late Pleistocene population of this species. Palynological and other paleoenvironmental studies provide evidence that the Neotropical montane environments that these shrews inhabit were cooler and drier in the late Pleistocene than at present and supported communities of plants without modern analog. Therefore, the most likely cause of this change in size ultimately was related to climatic change at the end of the Pleistocene?but to what specific factors did the species respond? I examined the possibilities that this species changed in size: to accommodate a change in temperature regime; to escape from predators; as a response to a change in intensity of interspecific competition; to take advantage of a newly abundant food resource. Based on evidence from studies of modern communities of shrews and niche partitioning, I hypothesized that size evolution in C. goodwini was directly related to changes in the community of soil and soil-surface invertebrates upon which the species depends, specifically an increase in the availability of earthworms (Annelida).

  12. 76 FR 70680 - Small Business Size Standards: Real Estate and Rental and Leasing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... in the Federal Register on July 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237). Because of changes in the Federal marketplace.... Concentration is a measure of inequality of distribution. To determine ] the degree of inequality of... a large number of varying receipts based size standards (see 69 FR 13130, March 4, 2004) and 57...

  13. 75 FR 61604 - Small Business Size Standards; Accommodation and Food Services Industries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... FR 41237). SBA recognizes that changes in industry structure and Federal marketplace over time have... public comment in the October 21, 2009 issue of the Federal Register (74 FR 53913) to increase the size... industries in NAICS Sector 44-45, Retail Trade (74 FR 53924) and for 18 industries in NAICS Sector 81,...

  14. Electrochemical synthesis of small-sized red fluorescent graphene quantum dots as a bioimaging platform.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiaoyun; Li, Yunchao; Li, Xiaohong; Zhou, Shixin; Fan, Louzhen; Yang, Shihe

    2015-02-14

    We report water-soluble, 3 nm uniform-sized graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with red emission prepared by electrochemical exfoliation of graphite in K2S2O8 solution. Such GQDs show a great potential as biological labels for cellular imaging.

  15. The Influence of Small Class Size, Duration, Intensity, and Heterogeneity on Head Start Fade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huss, Christopher D.

    2010-01-01

    The researcher conducted a nonexperimental study to investigate and analyze the influence of reduced class sizes, intensity (all day and every day), duration (five years), and heterogeneity (random class assignment) on the Head Start Fade effect. The researcher employed retrospective data analysis using a longitudinal explanatory design on data…

  16. 77 FR 72766 - Small Business Size Standards: Support Activities for Mining

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... FR 41237). Because of changes in the Federal marketplace and industry structure since the last... ``base'' or ``anchor'' size standards--$7.0 million in average annual receipts for industries that have..., annual payroll, and annual receipts of companies by, Industry (6-digit level), Industry Group...

  17. [Uncertainty in estimating short-term health effects of air pollution in small- and medium-size cities].

    PubMed

    Giannini, Simone; Zauli Sajani, Stefano; De Girolamo, Gianfranco; Goldoni, Carlo Alberto; Lauriola, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Over the years, a growing number of small- and medium-size cities have been included in meta-analytic studies on short-term health effects of air pollution in order to increase the statistical power of these studies. This has produced an increase in the precision of meta-analytic estimates, but also a growing interest in city-specific results. As a consequence, relevant differences in the estimates have been frequently found, even for nearby cities with similar environmental and sociodemographic characteristics. This article aims at showing the variability of effect estimates for small- to medium-size cities in relation to the extent of the considered time frame, highlighting quantitatively the caution that must be taken in interpreting and communicating the results derived from short time series of data. The study was based on the analysis of the data from two cities in Emilia-Romagna Region (Northern Italy): Ravenna and Reggio Emilia. PMID:27436256

  18. Air emission regulations for small to moderate sized wood-fired boilers: Final report: Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, M.J.; Tennis, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    Potential commercial wood burners in the Northeast hold the general perception that air pollution regulations pose special difficulties for them. This notion is based on incomplete information regarding the regulations in place and their applicability to small to moderate sized commercial faciliaties (ie. <100 mmBtu/hr). This study was commission by the Coalition of Northeastern Governors (CONEG) Policy Research Center, Inc., under the Northeast Regional Biomass Program, to provide a review of the air quality regulations effecting commercial wood burning installations, specifically identifying those regulations applying to the small to medium size units. This report provides an organized regulatory comparison to relate the different state emission rates with various levels of control techniques. 3 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Pore Size Effect on Methane Adsorption in Mesoporous Silica Materials Studied by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Wei-Shan; Fratini, Emiliano; Baglioni, Piero; Chen, Jin-Hong; Liu, Yun

    2016-09-01

    Methane adsorption in model mesoporous silica materials with the size range characteristic of shale is studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Size effect on the temperature-dependent gas adsorption at methane pressure about 100 kPa is investigated by SANS using MCM-41 and SBA-15 as adsorbents. Above the gas-liquid condensation temperature, the thickness of the adsorption layer is found to be roughly constant as a function of the temperature. Moreover, the gas adsorption properties, such as the adsorbed layer thickness and the specific amount of adsorbed gas, have little dependence on the pore size being studied, i.e., pore radius of 16.5 and 34.1 Å, but are mainly affected by the roughness of the pore surfaces. Hence, the surface properties of the pore wall are more dominant than the pore size in determining the methane gas adsorption of pores at the nanometer size range. Not surprisingly, the gas-liquid condensation temperature is observed to be sensitive to pore size and shifts to higher temperature when the pore size is smaller. Below the gas-liquid condensation temperature, even though the majority of gas adsorption experiments/simulations have assumed the density of confined liquid to be the same as the bulk density, the measured methane mass density in our samples is found to be appreciably smaller than the bulk methane density regardless of the pore sizes studied here. The mass density of liquid/solid methane in pores with different sizes shows different temperature dependence below the condensation temperature. With decreasing temperature, the methane density in larger pores (SBA-15) abruptly increases at approximately 65 K and then plateaus. In contrast, the density in smaller pores (MCM-41) monotonically increases with decreasing temperature before reaching a plateau at approximately 30 K.

  20. Pore Size Effect on Methane Adsorption in Mesoporous Silica Materials Studied by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Wei-Shan; Fratini, Emiliano; Baglioni, Piero; Chen, Jin-Hong; Liu, Yun

    2016-09-01

    Methane adsorption in model mesoporous silica materials with the size range characteristic of shale is studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Size effect on the temperature-dependent gas adsorption at methane pressure about 100 kPa is investigated by SANS using MCM-41 and SBA-15 as adsorbents. Above the gas-liquid condensation temperature, the thickness of the adsorption layer is found to be roughly constant as a function of the temperature. Moreover, the gas adsorption properties, such as the adsorbed layer thickness and the specific amount of adsorbed gas, have little dependence on the pore size being studied, i.e., pore radius of 16.5 and 34.1 Å, but are mainly affected by the roughness of the pore surfaces. Hence, the surface properties of the pore wall are more dominant than the pore size in determining the methane gas adsorption of pores at the nanometer size range. Not surprisingly, the gas-liquid condensation temperature is observed to be sensitive to pore size and shifts to higher temperature when the pore size is smaller. Below the gas-liquid condensation temperature, even though the majority of gas adsorption experiments/simulations have assumed the density of confined liquid to be the same as the bulk density, the measured methane mass density in our samples is found to be appreciably smaller than the bulk methane density regardless of the pore sizes studied here. The mass density of liquid/solid methane in pores with different sizes shows different temperature dependence below the condensation temperature. With decreasing temperature, the methane density in larger pores (SBA-15) abruptly increases at approximately 65 K and then plateaus. In contrast, the density in smaller pores (MCM-41) monotonically increases with decreasing temperature before reaching a plateau at approximately 30 K. PMID:27512895

  1. Management and outcomes of small bowel obstruction in older adult patients: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Jeremy E.; Bailey, Jonathan G.; Davis, Philip J.B.; Johnson, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this research was to examine the morbidity, mortality and rate of recurrent bowel obstruction associated with the treatment of small bowel obstruction (SBO) in older adults. Methods We prospectively enrolled all patients 70 years or older with an SBO who were admitted to a tertiary care teaching centre between Jul. 1, 2011, and Sept. 30, 2012. Data regarding presentation, investigations, treatment and outcomes were collected. Results Of the 104 patients admitted with an SBO, 49% were managed nonoperatively and 51% underwent surgery. Patients who underwent surgery experienced more complications (64% v. 27%, p = 0.002) and stayed in hospital longer (10 v. 3 d, p < 0.001) than patients managed nonoperatively. Nonoperative management was associated with a high rate of recurrent SBO: 31% after a median follow-up of 17 months. Of the patients managed operatively, 60% underwent immediate surgery and 40% underwent surgery after attempted nonoperative management. Patients in whom nonoperative management failed underwent surgery after a median of 2 days, and 89% underwent surgery within 5 days. The rate of bowel resection was high (29%) among those who underwent delayed surgery. Surgery after failed nonoperative management was associated with a mortality of 14% versus 3% for those who underwent immediate surgery; however, this difference was not significant. Conclusion These data suggest that some elderly patients with SBO may be waiting too long for surgery. PMID:25421079

  2. A Forecasting Methodology for Academic Manpower Requirements in a Small Sized Technical University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldosary, Adel S.

    1999-01-01

    Outlines a stepwise regression analysis technique for predicting faculty needs in a small technical university, using King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (Saudi Arabia) for illustration. Validation with microcomputer software suggests the method is an attractive option for college and university planners in forecasting manpower needs.…

  3. 75 FR 68394 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... waive the Nonmanufacturer Rule for the above listed item. 75 FR 38156 (2010). SBA explained in the... Dipped Rubber/Plastic Gloves. SUMMARY: The U. S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is granting a class waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule for Woven and Knit impregnated with Flat Dipped Rubber/Plastic...

  4. 75 FR 52789 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... Flat Dipped Rubber/Plastic Gloves. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is considering... rubber/plastic gloves, under the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code 315992 (Glove... business Woven and Knit impregnated with Flat Dipped Rubber/Plastic Gloves manufacturers. If granted,...

  5. 75 FR 52790 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule for Optical Instrument and Lens Manufacturing. On August 13, 2010, SBA... Industry Classification System (NAICS) code 333314 (Optical Instrument and Lens Manufacturing). According...'s 8(a) BD Program provide the product of a small business manufacturer or processor, if...

  6. 76 FR 23640 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... for Optical Eyeglass Frames, Product Service Code (PSC) 6540 (Ophthalmic Instruments, Equipment, and...) BD Program provide the product of a small business manufacturer or processor, if the recipient is other than the actual manufacturer or processor of the product. This requirement is commonly referred...

  7. 76 FR 42157 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... Register a notice of intent to waive the Nonmanufacturer Rule for Optical Eyeglass Frames (76 FR 10106... for Optical Eyeglass Frames, Product Service Code (PSC) 6540 (Ophthalmic Instruments, Equipment, and...) concerns to provide the products of small business manufacturers or processors on such contracts, unless...

  8. 76 FR 27372 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... Equipment under North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code 333314 (Optical Instrument and... manufacturer or processor, if the recipient is other than the actual manufacturer or processor of the product... ``class of products'' for which there are no small business manufacturers or processors available...

  9. A Small Group Model for Early Intervention in Literacy: Group Size and Program Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homan, Susan; King, James R.; Hogarty, Kris

    Over the last 2 years, Accelerated Literacy Learning (ALL) has experimented with the small group model in early literacy intervention, with success comparable to that in one-to-one intervention. There can be little doubt that intervention provided to struggling readers is most effectively initiated at an early stage. The ALL program was conceived…

  10. Capitalizando en los cursos pequenos (Capitalizing on Small Class Size). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Jessica; Smith, Stuart C.

    This digest in Spanish examines school districts' efforts to reap the greatest benefit from smaller classes. Although the report discusses teaching strategies that are most effective in small classes, research has shown that teachers do not significantly change their teaching practices when they move from larger to smaller classes. Although…

  11. 78 FR 26680 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... (78 FR 20371). The public comment period for the notice to rescind the class waiver for Aerospace Ball... considered available to participate in the Federal market for a class of products, a small business... the previous two years. 78 FR 20371. The public comment period for the notice to rescind the...

  12. 75 FR 20870 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... Administration, Office of Government Contracting, 409 3rd Street, SW., Suite 8800, Washington, DC 20416. FOR... a contract from the Federal government within the last 24 months. 13 CFR 121.1202(1). The SBA... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL...

  13. 75 FR 32231 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ..., Program Analyst, Small Business Administration, Office of Government Contracting, 409 3rd Street, SW... solicitation or received a contract from the Federal government within the last 24 months. 13 CFR 121.1202(c...BizOpps. Dated: May 26, 2010. Randall Johnston, Deputy Director, Office of Government...

  14. 75 FR 28077 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... Business Administration, Office of Government Contracting, 409 3rd Street, SW., Suite 8800, Washington, DC... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS... manufacturers supply these products to the Federal government. If granted, the waiver would allow an...

  15. The Relation of Training Practices and Organizational Performance in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Tung-Chun

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 144 small businesses in Taiwan used a comprehensive measure of training including organization, expenditure, duration, process, and delivery methods. Findings show that firms with sophisticated training systems and strong management support for training are most successful at maximizing their training programs. (Contains 14…

  16. Recommended Reference Books for Small and Medium-Sized Libraries and Media Centers, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynar, Bohdan S., Ed.

    This annual review source is designed to assist smaller libraries in the systematic selection of suitable reference materials for their collections. Approximately 500 unabridged reviews, written by over 250 practicing librarians and subject specialists, identify and describe the most useful and affordable reference sources available for small and…

  17. Distance Training for Management in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and Craft Undertakings in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarromona, Jaime; Ferrer, Julia Ferran

    This document on Spain is one of a series of five published by the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training. The document includes five chapters, three appendices, descriptive form sheets for five distance learning projects, and a summary. Chapter 1 provides the introduction to the report. Chapter 2 describes small and…

  18. Heat exchanges between a fluidized bed and small-sized bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Teplitskii, Yu.S.

    1995-06-01

    On the basis of the two-zone model, a procedure is developed for calculating the complex heat exchange of a probe of small dimensions (comparable with the diameter of the bed particles). The procedure takes into account the influence of the fluidizing agent pressure.

  19. Assessing the Dimensionality of Item Response Matrices with Small Sample Sizes and Short Test Lengths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Champlain, Andre; Gessaroli, Marc E.

    1998-01-01

    Type I error rates and rejection rates for three-dimensionality assessment procedures were studied with data sets simulated to reflect short tests and small samples. Results show that the G-squared difference test (D. Bock, R. Gibbons, and E. Muraki, 1988) suffered from a severely inflated Type I error rate at all conditions simulated. (SLD)

  20. Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and micropenis: effect of testosterone treatment on adult penile size why sex reversal is not indicated.

    PubMed

    Bin-Abbas, B; Conte, F A; Grumbach, M M; Kaplan, S L

    1999-05-01

    Micropenis is commonly due to fetal testosterone deficiency. The clinical management of this form of micropenis has been contentious, with disagreement about the capacity of testosterone treatment to induce a functionally adequate adult penis. As a consequence, some clinicians recommend sex reversal of affected male infants. We studied 8 male subjects with micropenis secondary to congenital pituitary gonadotropin deficiency from infancy or childhood to maturity (ages 18 to 27 years). Four patients were treated with testosterone before 2 years of age (group I) and four between age 6 and 13 years (group II). At presentation, the mean penile length in group I was 1.1 cm (-4 SD; range, 0.5 to 1.5 cm) and in group II it was 2.7 cm (-3.4 SD; range, 1.5 to 3.5 cm). All patients received one or more courses of 3 intramuscular injections of testosterone enanthate (25 or 50 mg) at 4-week intervals in infancy or childhood. At the age of puberty the dose was gradually increased to 200 mg monthly and later to an adult replacement regimen. As adults, both group I and II had attained a mean final penile length of 10.3 cm 2.7 cm with a range of 8 to 14 cm (mean adult stretched penile length for Caucasians is 12.4 2.7 cm). Six of 8 men were sexually active, and all reported normal male gender identity and psychosocial behavior. We conclude that 1 or 2 short courses of testosterone therapy in infancy and childhood augment penile size into the normal range for age in boys with micropenis secondary to fetal testosterone deficiency; replacement therapy at the age of puberty results in an adult size penis within 2 SD of the mean. We found no clinical, psychologic, or physiologic indications to support conversion of affected male infants to girls. Further, the results of this study do not support the notion, derived from data in the rat, that testosterone treatment in infancy or childhood impairs penile growth in adolescence and compromises adult penile length.

  1. Environmental education for small- and medium-sized enterprises: methodology and e-learning experience in the Valencian region.

    PubMed

    Cloquell-Ballester, Vicente-Agustín; Monterde-Díaz, Rafael; Cloquell-Ballester, Víctor-Andrés; Torres-Sibille, Ana Del Carmen

    2008-05-01

    The last decades have shown an increasing social demand for environmental awareness, which firms are inevitably required to adapt to. More and more, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are finding it necessary to train their staff in environmental issues if they wish to survive in a market where it is no longer sufficient to excel in price competitiveness exclusively, but where quality, service and environmental standards also play an important role.

  2. A small-sized MWPC with 1 mm wire spacing as a beam/target chamber for nuclear experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninomiya, M.; Arai, I.; Manabe, A.; Nunokawa, H.; Tanaka, M.; Tomizawa, K.; Yagi, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Chiba, J.; Nakai, K.; Sano, H.; Sasaki, S.; Nagae, T.; Tokushuku, K.; Sekimoto, M.

    1988-11-01

    We developed a small-sized multiwire proportional chamber with 1 mm wire spacing for a study of backward Λ production in high energy hadron-nucleus reactions. Two chambers were installed in a cylindrical drift chamber of the large aperture spectrometer FANCY in order to determine beam trajectories precisely. A position resolution of about 0.6 mm was obtained with a counting efficiency of 97%.

  3. Analyzing the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises of a national technology innovation research and development program.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungmin

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) of a national technology innovation research and development (R&D) program. In particular, an empirical analysis is presented that aims to answer the following question: "Is there a difference in the efficiency between R&D collaboration types and between government R&D subsidy sizes?" Methodologically, the efficiency of a government-sponsored R&D project (i.e., GSP) is measured by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), and a nonparametric analysis of variance method, the Kruskal-Wallis (KW) test is adopted to see if the efficiency differences between R&D collaboration types and between government R&D subsidy sizes are statistically significant. This study's major findings are as follows. First, contrary to our hypothesis, when we controlled the influence of government R&D subsidy size, there was no statistically significant difference in the efficiency between R&D collaboration types. However, the R&D collaboration type, "SME-University-Laboratory" Joint-Venture was superior to the others, achieving the largest median and the smallest interquartile range of DEA efficiency scores. Second, the differences in the efficiency were statistically significant between government R&D subsidy sizes, and the phenomenon of diseconomies of scale was identified on the whole. As the government R&D subsidy size increases, the central measures of DEA efficiency scores were reduced, but the dispersion measures rather tended to get larger. PMID:25120949

  4. Analyzing the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises of a national technology innovation research and development program.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungmin

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) of a national technology innovation research and development (R&D) program. In particular, an empirical analysis is presented that aims to answer the following question: "Is there a difference in the efficiency between R&D collaboration types and between government R&D subsidy sizes?" Methodologically, the efficiency of a government-sponsored R&D project (i.e., GSP) is measured by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), and a nonparametric analysis of variance method, the Kruskal-Wallis (KW) test is adopted to see if the efficiency differences between R&D collaboration types and between government R&D subsidy sizes are statistically significant. This study's major findings are as follows. First, contrary to our hypothesis, when we controlled the influence of government R&D subsidy size, there was no statistically significant difference in the efficiency between R&D collaboration types. However, the R&D collaboration type, "SME-University-Laboratory" Joint-Venture was superior to the others, achieving the largest median and the smallest interquartile range of DEA efficiency scores. Second, the differences in the efficiency were statistically significant between government R&D subsidy sizes, and the phenomenon of diseconomies of scale was identified on the whole. As the government R&D subsidy size increases, the central measures of DEA efficiency scores were reduced, but the dispersion measures rather tended to get larger.

  5. Pay-for-performance and public reporting program participation and administrative challenges among small- and medium-sized physician practices.

    PubMed

    Hearld, Larry R; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Shi, Yunfeng; Casalino, Lawrence P

    2014-06-01

    A key component of efforts to improve the quality of care in the United States is the use of public reporting and pay-for-performance programs. Little is known, however, about the extent to which small- and medium-sized physician practices are participating in these programs. This study examined the participation of small- and medium-sized physician practices in pay-for-performance and public reporting programs and the characteristics of the participating practices. Using cross-sectional data from a national sample of 1,734 small- and medium-sized physician practices throughout the United States, we found that many practices (61.2%) were participating in at least one program, while far fewer (19.2%) were participating in multiple programs. Among practices participating in multiple programs, relatively few (21.9%) reported high levels of administrative problems due to a lack of standardization on performance measures. The study also suggests that some structural features are associated with participation and may provide leverage points for fostering participation. PMID:24263052

  6. Independent Regulation of Basal Neurotransmitter Release Efficacy by Variable Ca2+ Influx and Bouton Size at Small Central Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Ermolyuk, Yaroslav S.; Alder, Felicity G.; Henneberger, Christian; Rusakov, Dmitri A.; Kullmann, Dimitri M.; Volynski, Kirill E.

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of action potential evoked neurotransmitter release varies widely even among synapses supplied by the same axon, and the number of release-ready vesicles at each synapse is a major determinant of this heterogeneity. Here we identify a second, equally important, mechanism for release heterogeneity at small hippocampal synapses, the inter-synaptic variation of the exocytosis probability of release-ready vesicles. Using concurrent measurements of vesicular pool sizes, vesicular exocytosis rates, and presynaptic Ca2+ dynamics, in the same small hippocampal boutons, we show that the average fusion probability of release-ready vesicles varies among synapses supplied by the same axon with the size of the spike-evoked Ca2+ concentration transient. We further show that synapses with a high vesicular release probability exhibit a lower Ca2+ cooperativity, arguing that this is a direct consequence of increased Ca2+ influx at the active zone. We conclude that variability of neurotransmitter release under basal conditions at small central synapses is accounted for not only by the number of release-ready vesicles, but also by their fusion probabilities, which are set independently of bouton size by variable spike-evoked presynaptic Ca2+ influx. PMID:23049481

  7. Characterization of DNA size determination of small fragments by flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, J.T.; Johnson, M.E.; Goodwin, P.M.; Martin, J.C.; Jett, J.H.; Keller, R.A.

    1995-05-15

    DNA fragment lengths were determined using the intensity of fluorescent bursts from single fragments stained with a thiazole orange derivative. The individual stained fragments were introduced into a sheath flow cuvette and passed through a low-power (30 mW), continuous-wave laser beam with transit times in the range 3-5 ms. As little as 50 fg of DNA was analyzed at a rate of 40 fragments/s for times ranging from 1 to 15 min. A detectable lower size limit of 1.5 kilobase pairs (kbp) was demonstrated, and a linear relationship between fluorescence intensity and fragment length was observed. Issues relating to size resolution in the 2-50 kbp range are discussed. 25 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Breakdown of the Hume-Rothery rules in sub-nanometer-sized Ta-containing bimetallic small clusters.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, Ken; Fukushima, Naoya; Himeno, Hidenori; Yamada, Akira; Mafuné, Fumitaka

    2009-12-01

    The Hume-Rothery rules are empirical rules to predict the solid solubility of metals. We examined whether the rules hold for sub-nanometer-sized small particles. We prepared bimetallic cluster ions in the gas phase by a double laser ablation technique. Taking advantage of the magic compositions of the bimetallic cluster ions relating to the distinguished stabilities, the coalescence or the segregation of Ta and another element in the sub-nanometer-sized clusters was discussed. It was found that W, Nb, and Mo readily coalesce with Ta, while Ag, Al, Au, Co, Cu, Fe, Hf, Ni, Pt, Ti, and V are segregated from Ta. On the basis of these results, we concluded that the Hume-Rothery rules do not hold for sub-nanometer-sized particles. PMID:19894706

  9. A simple non-invasive method for measuring gross brain size in small live fish with semi-transparent heads

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a non-invasive method for estimating gross brain size in small fish with semi-transparent heads, using system camera equipment. Macro-photographs were taken from above on backlit free-swimming fish undergoing light anaesthesia. From the photographs, the width of the optic tectum was measured. This measure (TeO-measure) correlates well with the width of the optic tectum as measured from out-dissected brains in both brown trout fry and zebrafish (Pearson r > 0.90). The TeO-measure also correlates well with overall brain wet weight in brown trout fry (r = 0.90), but less well for zebrafish (r = 0.79). A non-invasive measure makes it possible to quickly assess brain size from a large number of individuals, as well as repeatedly measuring brain size of live individuals allowing calculation of brain growth. PMID:25279266

  10. Breakdown of the Hume-Rothery rules in sub-nanometer-sized Ta-containing bimetallic small clusters.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, Ken; Fukushima, Naoya; Himeno, Hidenori; Yamada, Akira; Mafuné, Fumitaka

    2009-12-01

    The Hume-Rothery rules are empirical rules to predict the solid solubility of metals. We examined whether the rules hold for sub-nanometer-sized small particles. We prepared bimetallic cluster ions in the gas phase by a double laser ablation technique. Taking advantage of the magic compositions of the bimetallic cluster ions relating to the distinguished stabilities, the coalescence or the segregation of Ta and another element in the sub-nanometer-sized clusters was discussed. It was found that W, Nb, and Mo readily coalesce with Ta, while Ag, Al, Au, Co, Cu, Fe, Hf, Ni, Pt, Ti, and V are segregated from Ta. On the basis of these results, we concluded that the Hume-Rothery rules do not hold for sub-nanometer-sized particles.

  11. Juvenile frogs compensate for small metamorph size with terrestrial growth: Overcoming the effects of larval density and insecticide exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boone, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    I reared four species of anurans (Rana sphenocephala [Southern Leopard Frog], Rana blairi [Plains Leopard Frog], Rana clamitans [Green Frog], and Bufo woodhousii [Woodhouse's Toad]) for seven to 12 months in small, outdoor terrestrial enclosures (1 x 2 m) to examine the consequences of larval competition (via density) and contaminant exposure (via the insecticide carbaryl). I added six Rana clamitans, eight Rana sphenocephala, eight Rana blairi, and 10 Bufo woodhousii to terrestrial enclosures shortly after metamorphosis and recaptured them during the following spring. All anurans from low-density ponds were significantly larger than those from high-density ponds, but these size differences did not significantly affect survival to or size at spring emergence. However, R. sphenocephala, R. blairi, and R. clamitans that survived to spring had been larger at metamorphosis on average than those that did not survive; in contrast, B. woodhousii that survived the winter were smaller at metamorphosis on average than those that did not survive. Carbaryl exposure affected mass at metamorphosis of R. clamitans and B. woodhousii that were added to enclosures, but this difference disappeared or did not increase by spring emergence. Overall, exposure to carbaryl during the larval period did not have any apparent effects on survival or growth during the terrestrial phase. In my study, anurans were able to offset small size at metamorphosis with terrestrial growth, although there was a trend of reduced overwinter survival for ranid species that metamorphosed at a smaller size. Copyright 2005 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  12. Size breeds success: multiple paternity, multivariate selection and male semelparity in a small marsupial, Antechinus stuartii.

    PubMed

    Holleley, C E; Dickman, C R; Crowther, M S; Oldroyd, B P

    2006-10-01

    Mating in the marsupial genus Antechinus is a synchronous annual event that is characterized by monoestry in females and abrupt postmating mortality in males. Male semelparity (multiple copulations during a single breeding season per lifetime) is often assumed to occur as a consequence of the intense mating effort expended by males in the rut, but the forces selecting for this remain elusive. Here, we investigate selection in male brown antechinus, Antechinus stuartii, and test two hypotheses for the evolution of semelparity: intermale competition and sperm competition. If intermale competition drives semelparity, we predicted that males would be under strong selection for large body size. If sperm competition is important, we predicted that selection would be strongest on scrotal size, a surrogate for testes volume. Using microsatellite markers, we found that 92% of females in free-living conditions mated with multiple males, producing litters of eight that had up to four fathers. These observations confirm the potential for sperm competition. Using selection analysis, we then found paternity success in 119 males to be related most strongly to body mass and scrotal size, thus providing support for both hypotheses. Large males presumably experience increased paternity success by gaining more matings or prolonged copulations via mate guarding, while large testes may allow increased sperm investment per copulation. Increased levels of free corticosteroid hormones in males facilitate the extreme mating effort during the short period of rut, but lead to immune suppression and consequently to the phenomenon of postmating mortality. PMID:16968281

  13. Mid-term results of small-sized St. Jude Medical Regent prosthetic valves (21 mm or less) for small aortic annulus.

    PubMed

    Mizoguchi, Hiroki; Sakaki, Masayuki; Inoue, Kazushige; Iwata, Takashi; Tei, Keikou; Miura, Takuya

    2013-11-01

    Prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) is always of concern when performing aortic valve replacement (AVR) in patients with a small aortic annulus. Although bioprosthetic AVR is preferred in patients older than 65 years, we have experienced cases in elderly patients with a small aortic annulus whereby we could not implant small-sized bioprosthetic valves. We have implanted St. Jude Medical Regent (SJMR) mechanical valves (St. Jude Medical, St. Paul, MN, USA) as necessary, even in elderly patients with no aortic annulus enlargement. We investigated our experiences of AVR with SJMR mechanical valves of 21 mm or less in size. Between January 2006 and December 2009, 40 patients underwent AVR with SJMR mechanical valves ≤21 mm in size: 9 patients received 21-mm valves, 19 received 19-mm valves, and 12 received 17-mm valves. The mean age was 65.9 ± 9.5 years, and 25 patients (62.5 %) were 65 years or older. We evaluated the clinical outcome and the echocardiographic data for each valve size. There was no operative or hospital mortality. The mean duration of clinical follow-up was 31.2 ± 17.6 months. During follow-up, there were no hospitalizations due to heart failure. The cumulative valve-related event-free survival was 93 % at 33 months, and the cumulative hemorrhagic event-free survival was 93 % at 33 months and 84 % at 43 months, using the Kaplan-Meier method. At follow-up, the mean values of the measured effective orifice area (EOA) for the 21-, 19-, and 17-mm prostheses were 2.00 ± 0.22, 1.74 ± 0.37, and 1.25 ± 0.26 cm(2), and the mean measured EOA index (EOAI) were 1.17 ± 0.12, 1.11 ± 0.21 and 0.90 ± 0.22 cm(2)/m(2), respectively. A PPM (EOAI ≤0.85) was documented in 5 patients, all of whom had received a 17-mm SJMR valve. AVR with SJMR valves of 21 mm or less in size appears to show satisfactory clinical and hemodynamic results.

  14. Small Molecular-Sized Artesunate Attenuates Ocular Neovascularization via VEGFR2, PKCα, and PDGFR Targets.

    PubMed

    Zong, Yao; Yuan, Yongguang; Qian, Xiaobing; Huang, Zhen; Yang, Wei; Lin, Leilei; Zheng, Qishan; Li, Yujie; He, Huining; Gao, Qianying

    2016-08-02

    Ocular neovascularization (NV) is the primary cause of blindness in many ocular diseases. Large molecular weight anti- vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein drugs, such as Avastin and Lucentis, have saved the vision of millions. However, approximately 20-30% of patients respond poorly to anti-VEGF treatment. We found that artesunate (ART), a small molecular derivative of artemisinin, had a significant inhibitory effect on ocular NV by downregulating the expression of VEGFR2, PKCα, and PDGFR. ART significantly inhibited retinal NV in rabbits and macular edema in monkeys with greater anterior chamber penetrability and more durable efficacy than Avastin. Our pilot study showed that intravitreal injection of 80 μg ART significantly inhibited iris and corneal NV in a severe retinal detachment case. Our results suggest that ART might be a potential persistent small-molecule drug to manage ocular NV via multi-targets.

  15. Small Molecular-Sized Artesunate Attenuates Ocular Neovascularization via VEGFR2, PKCα, and PDGFR Targets

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Yao; Yuan, Yongguang; Qian, Xiaobing; Huang, Zhen; Yang, Wei; Lin, Leilei; Zheng, Qishan; Li, Yujie; He, Huining; Gao, Qianying

    2016-01-01

    Ocular neovascularization (NV) is the primary cause of blindness in many ocular diseases. Large molecular weight anti- vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein drugs, such as Avastin and Lucentis, have saved the vision of millions. However, approximately 20–30% of patients respond poorly to anti-VEGF treatment. We found that artesunate (ART), a small molecular derivative of artemisinin, had a significant inhibitory effect on ocular NV by downregulating the expression of VEGFR2, PKCα, and PDGFR. ART significantly inhibited retinal NV in rabbits and macular edema in monkeys with greater anterior chamber penetrability and more durable efficacy than Avastin. Our pilot study showed that intravitreal injection of 80 μg ART significantly inhibited iris and corneal NV in a severe retinal detachment case. Our results suggest that ART might be a potential persistent small-molecule drug to manage ocular NV via multi-targets. PMID:27480521

  16. Dosimetric parameters for small field sizes using Fricke xylenol gel, thermoluminescent and film dosimeters, and an ionization chamber.

    PubMed

    Calcina, Carmen S Guzmán; de Oliveira, Lucas N; de Almeida, Carlos E; de Almeida, Adelaide

    2007-03-01

    Dosimetric measurements in small therapeutic x-ray beam field sizes, such as those used in radiosurgery, that have dimensions comparable to or smaller than the build-up depth, require special care to avoid incorrect interpretation of measurements in regions of high gradients and electronic disequilibrium. These regions occur at the edges of any collimated field, and can extend to the centre of small fields. An inappropriate dosimeter can result in an underestimation, which would lead to an overdose to the patient. We have performed a study of square and circular small field sizes of 6 MV photons using a thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD), Fricke xylenol gel (FXG) and film dosimeters. PMMA phantoms were employed to measure lateral beam profiles (1 x 1, 3 x 3 and 5 x 5 cm2 for square fields and 1, 2 and 4 cm diameter circular fields), the percentage depth dose, the tissue maximum ratio and the output factor. An ionization chamber (IC) was used for calibration and comparison. Our results demonstrate that high resolution FXG, TLD and film dosimeters agree with each other, and that an ionization chamber, with low lateral resolution, underestimates the absorbed dose. Our results show that, when planning small field radiotherapy, dosimeters with adequate lateral spatial resolution and tissue equivalence are required to provide an accurate basic beam data set to correctly calculate the absorbed dose in regions of electronic disequilibrium.

  17. Morphometry of small recent impact craters on Mars: Size and terrain dependence, short-term modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watters, W. A.; Geiger, L. M.; Fendrock, M.; Gibson, R.

    2015-02-01

    Most recent studies of crater morphometry on Mars have addressed large craters (D>5 km) using elevation models derived from laser altimetry. In the present work, we examine a global population of small (25 m ≤D≤5 km), relatively well-preserved simple impact craters using HiRISE stereo-derived elevation models. We find that scaling laws from prior studies of large simple craters generally overestimate the depth and volume at small diameters. We show that crater rim curvature exhibits a strong diameter dependence that is well-described by scaling laws for D<1 km. Above this diameter, upper rim slopes begin to exceed typical repose angles and crater rims sharpen significantly. This transition is likely the result of gravity-driven collapse of the upper cavity walls during crater formation or short-term modification. In addition, we identify a tendency for small craters (D<500m) to be more conical than large craters, and we show that the average cavity cross section is well-described by a power law with exponent ˜1.75 (neither conical nor paraboloidal). We also conduct a statistical comparison of crater subpopulations to illuminate trends with increasing modification and target strength. These results have important implications for describing the "initial condition" of simple crater shape as a function of diameter and geological setting and for understanding how impact craters are modified on the Martian surface over time.

  18. On the Scaling of Small, Heat Simulated Jet Noise Measurements to Moderate Size Exhaust Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLaughlin, Dennis K.; Bridges, James; Kuo, Ching-Wen

    2010-01-01

    Modern military aircraft jet engines are designed with variable geometry nozzles to provide optimum thrust in different operating conditions, depending on the flight envelope. However, the acoustic measurements for such nozzles are scarce, due to the cost involved in making full scale measurements and the lack of details about the exact geometry of these nozzles. Thus the present effort at The Pennsylvania State University and the NASA Glenn Research Center- in partnership with GE Aviation is aiming to study and characterize the acoustic field produced by supersonic jets issuing from converging-diverging military style nozzles. An equally important objective is to validate methodology for using data obtained from small and moderate scale experiments to reliably predict the most important components of full scale engine noise. The experimental results presented show reasonable agreement between small scale and moderate scale jet acoustic data, as well as between heated jets and heat-simulated ones. Unresolved issues however are identified that are currently receiving our attention, in particular the effect of the small bypass ratio airflow. Future activities will identify and test promising noise reduction techniques in an effort to predict how well such concepts will work with full scale engines in flight conditions.

  19. Racial Differences in Left Atrial Size: Results from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study.

    PubMed

    Dewland, Thomas A; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Lin, Feng; Vittinghoff, Eric; Foster, Elyse; Ogunyankin, Kofo O; Lima, Joao A; Jacobs, David R; Hu, Donglei; Burchard, Esteban G; Marcus, Gregory M

    2016-01-01

    Whites have an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) compared to Blacks. The mechanism underlying this association is unknown. Left atrial (LA) size is an important AF risk factor, and studies in older adults suggest Whites have larger LA diameters. However, because AF itself causes LA dilation, LA size differences may be due to greater subclinical AF among older Whites. We therefore assessed for racial differences in LA size among young adults at low AF risk. The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study enrolled White and Black participants between 18 and 30 years of age. LA diameter was measured in a subset of participants using echocardiography at Year 5 (n = 4,201) and Year 25 (n = 3,373) of follow up. LA volume was also assessed at Year 5 (n = 2,489). Multivariate linear regression models were used to determine the adjusted association between race and LA size. In unadjusted analyses, mean LA diameter was significantly larger among Blacks compared to Whites both at Year 5 (35.5 ± 4.8 mm versus 35.1 ± 4.5 mm, p = 0.01) and Year 25 (37.4 ± 5.1 mm versus 36.8 ± 4.9 mm, p = 0.002). After adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, and echocardiographic parameters, Whites demonstrated an increased LA diameter (0.7 mm larger at Year 5, 95% CI 0.3-1.1, p<0.001; 0.6 mm larger at Year 25, 95% CI 0.3-1.0, p<0.001). There was no significant association between race and adjusted Year 5 LA volume. In conclusion, in a young, well-characterized cohort, the larger adjusted LA diameter among White participants suggests inherent differences in atrial structure may partially explain the higher risk of AF in Whites. The incongruent associations between race, LA diameter, and LA volume suggest that LA geometry, rather than size alone, may have implications for AF risk. PMID:26985672

  20. Understanding the Effect Size of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate for Treating ADHD in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraone, Stephen V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: An earlier meta-analysis of pediatric clinical trials indicated that lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) had a greater effect size than other stimulant medications. This work tested the hypothesis that the apparent increased efficacy was artifactual. Method: The authors assessed two potential artifacts: an unusually high precision of…

  1. Vocabulary Size Is Associated with Second-Language Vowel Perception Performance in Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, Rikke L.; Best, Catherine T.; Tyler, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Improvement in second-language (L2) perception has been posited to occur early in L2 learning when the L2 vocabulary is still small, whereas a large L2 vocabulary curtails perceptual learning (the perceptual assimilation model for SLA [PAM-L2]; Best & Tyler, 2007). This proposition is extended by suggesting that early L2 lexical development…

  2. Small size probe for inner profile measurement of pipes using optical fiber ring beam device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakayama, Toshitaka; Machi, Kizuku; Yoshizawa, Toru

    2012-11-01

    The requirements of inner profile measurement of pipes and holes become recently larger and larger, and applications of inner profile measurement have rapidly expanded to medical field as well as industrial fields such as mechanical, automobile and heavy industries. We have proposed measurement method by incorporating a ring beam device that produces a disk beam and have developed various probes for different inner profile measurement. To meet request for applying to smaller diameter pipes, we tried to improve the ring beam light source using a conical mirror, optical fiber collimator and a laser diode. At this moment a probe with the size of 5 mm in diameter has been realized.

  3. Flow management and fish density regulate salmonid recruitment and adult size in tailwaters across western North America.

    PubMed

    Dibble, Kimberly L; Yackulic, Charles B; Kennedy, Theodore A; Budy, Phaedra

    2015-12-01

    Rainbow and brown trout have been intentionally introduced into tailwaters downriver of dams globally and provide billions of dollars in economic benefits. At the same time, recruitment and maximum length of trout populations in tailwaters often fluctuate erratically, which negatively affects the value of fisheries. Large recruitment events may increase dispersal downriver where other fish species may be a priority (e.g., endangered species). There is an urgent need to understand the drivers of trout population dynamics in tailwaters, in particular the role of flow management. Here, we evaluate how flow, fish density, and other physical factors of the river influence recruitment and mean adult length in tailwaters across western North America, using data from 29 dams spanning 1-19 years. Rainbow trout recruitment was negatively correlated with high annual, summer, and spring flow and dam latitude, and positively correlated with high winter flow, subadult brown trout catch, and reservoir storage capacity. Brown trout recruitment was negatively correlated with high water velocity and daily fluctuations in flow (i.e., hydropeaking) and positively correlated with adult rainbow trout catch. Among these many drivers, rainbow trout recruitment was primarily correlated with high winter flow combined with low spring flow, whereas brown trout recruitment was most related to high water velocity. The mean lengths of adult rainbow and brown trout were influenced by similar flow and catch metrics. Length in both species was positively correlated with high annual flow but declined in tailwaters with high daily fluctuations in flow, high catch rates of conspecifics, and when large cohorts recruited to adult size. Whereas brown trout did not respond to the proportion of water allocated between seasons, rainbow trout length increased in rivers that released more water during winter than in spring. Rainbow trout length was primarily related to high catch rates of conspecifics

  4. Elevational variation in adult body size and growth rate but not in metabolic rate in the tree weta Hemideina crassidens.

    PubMed

    Bulgarella, Mariana; Trewick, Steven A; Godfrey, A Jonathan R; Sinclair, Brent J; Morgan-Richards, Mary

    2015-04-01

    Populations of the same species inhabiting distinct localities experience different ecological and climatic pressures that might result in differentiation in traits, particularly those related to temperature. We compared metabolic rate (and its thermal sensitivity), growth rate, and body size among nine high- and low-elevation populations of the Wellington tree weta, Hemideina crassidens, distributed from 9 to 1171 m a.s.l across New Zealand. Our results did not indicate elevational compensation in metabolic rates (metabolic cold adaptation). Cold acclimation decreased metabolic rate compared to warm-acclimated individuals from both high- and low-elevation populations. However, we did find countergradient variation in growth rates, with individuals from high-elevation populations growing faster and to a larger final size than individuals from low-elevation populations. Females grew faster to a larger size than males, although as adults their metabolic rates did not differ significantly. The combined physiological and morphological data suggest that high-elevation individuals grow quickly and achieve larger size while maintaining metabolic rates at levels not significantly different from low-elevation individuals. Thus, morphological differentiation among tree weta populations, in concert with genetic variation, might provide the material required for adaptation to changing conditions.

  5. Body mass index in young adults: Associations with parental body size and education in the CARDIA Study.

    PubMed Central

    Greenlund, K J; Liu, K; Dyer, A R; Kiefe, C I; Burke, G L; Yunis, C

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Associations of parental education, parental body size, and offspring's education with body mass index and 7-year change in body mass index were examined among participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. METHODS: CARDIA is a study of coronary artery disease risk factors in 5115 Black and White persons aged 18 to 30 at baseline. Analyses of covariance were carried out with body mass index and change in body mass index as the dependent variables, and with parental education, parental body size, and participant education as the major independent variables. RESULTS: Father's body size was positively associated with participant's baseline body mass index among Black men, White men, and White women. Mother's body size was positively associated with baseline body mass index among all race-sex groups, and with change in body mass index among White women. Father's education was inversely associated with baseline body mass index among Black men and White women, and with change among White women. CONCLUSIONS: Parental education may influence body mass index and changes in young adulthood, especially among White women. Such associations may be both genetic and environmental and may be important for obesity prevention efforts. PMID:8604777

  6. Sizing of "Mother Ship and Catcher" Concepts for LEO Small Debris Capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, John B.

    2009-01-01

    Most Low Earth Orbit (LEO) debris lies in a limited number of inclination "bands" associated with launch latitudes, or with specific useful orbit inclinations (such as polar orbits). Such narrow inclination bands generally have a uniform spread over all possible Right Ascensions of Ascending Node (RAANs), creating a different orbit plane for nearly every piece of debris. This complicates concept of rendezvous and capture for debris removal. However, a low-orbiting satellite will always phase in RAAN faster than debris objects in higher orbits at the same inclination, potentially solving the problem. Such a base can serve as a single space-based launch facility (a "mother ship") that can tend and then send tiny individual catcher devices for each debris object, as the facility drifts into the same RAAN as the higher object. This presentation will highlight characteristic system requirements of such an architecture, including structural and navigation requirements, power, mass and dV budgets for both the mother ship and the mass-produced common catcher devices that would clean out selected inclination bands. The altitude and inclination regime over which a band is to be cleared, the size distribution of the debris, and the inclusion of additional mission priorities all affect the sizing of the system. It is demonstrated that major LEO hazardous debris reductions can be realized in each band with a single LEO launch of a single mother ship, with simple attached catchers of total mass less than typical commercial LEO launch capability.

  7. X-ray analysis of fully depleted CCDs with small pixel size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotov, I. V.; Haupt, J.; Kubanek, P.; O`Connor, P.; Takacs, P.

    2015-07-01

    X-ray frames offer a lot of information about CCD. 55 Fe sources are traditionally being used for CCD gain and charge transfer efficiency (CTE) measurements. In addition X-rays can be used for the system linearity test. We demonstrate how spectral lines of 55Fe and 241Am rad. sources are used for system linearity measurements. The pixel size of modern scientific CCDs is getting smaller. The charge diffusion causes the charge spread among neighboring pixels especially in thick fully depleted sensors. This enables measurement of the charge diffusion using 55Fe X-rays. On the other hand, the usual CTE characterization method based on single pixel X-ray events becomes statistically deficient. A new way of measuring CTE using shape and amplitude analysis of X-ray clusters is presented and discussed. This method requires high statistical samples. Advances in test automation and express analysis technique allow for acquiring such statistical samples in a short period of time. The lateral diffusion measured using e2v CCD250 is presented and implications for X-ray cluster size and expected cluster shape are discussed. The CTE analysis using total X-ray cluster amplitude is presented. This analysis can reveal CTE problems for certain conditions. The statistical analysis of average X-ray cluster shape is presented. The details of our measurement procedure are presented.

  8. A simple one-step protocol for preparing small-sized doxorubicin-loaded liposomes.

    PubMed

    Sonar, Shailesh; D'Souza, Sandra E; Mishra, Kaushala Prasad

    2008-01-01

    A simple, single-step, extrusion-free protocol for preparing doxorubicin-loaded liposomes (100150 nm), based on the ethanol injection method (EIM), is described. Efficient encapsulation of doxorubicin (up to 98%) was obtained concomitantly with liposome preparation avoiding the need for an additional loading step. Parameters such as stock concentration of phospholipid, injection ratio, lipid composition, and drug-to-phospholipid ratio affected the resultant liposome size and magnitude of doxorubicin encapsulation. A lipid stock concentration (50 mM) and injection ratio (1:10) resulted in 96.0 +/- 2.92% encapsulation efficiency of doxorubicin (drug-to-lipid mole ratio: 0.192) and mean diameter of 135 +/- 2.32 nm for SCOL-2 formulation (DSPC/ cholesterol /oleic acid: 2/2/1; molar ratios). Replacement of phospholipid DSPC with DMPC or DPPC did not affect the mean liposome size and doxorubicin-encapsulation efficiency. These findings offer promise for scale-up and development on a large-scale production of doxorubicin-loaded liposomes for effective cancer therapy.

  9. Ethanol production in small- to medium-size facilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hiler, E.A.; Coble, C.G.; O'Neal, H.P.

    1982-04-01

    In early 1980 system design criteria were developed for a small-scale ethanol production plant. The plant was eventually acquired from Coulter Copper and Brass Company in Toronto and was installed on November 1, 1980. It has a production capacity of 30 liters per hour; this can be increased easily (if desired) to 60 liters per hour with additional fermentation tanks. Sixty-six test runs have been conducted to date in the alcohol production facility. Feedstocks evaluated in these tests include: corn (28 runs); grain sorghum (33 runs); grain sorghum grits (1 run); half corn/half sorghum (1 run); and sugarcane juice (3 runs). In addition, a small bench-scale fermentation and distillation system has been used to evaluate sugarcane and sweet sorghum feedstocks prior to their evaluation in the larger unit. In each of these tests, evaluation of the following items was conducted: preprocessing requirements; operational problems; conversion efficienty (for example, liters of alcohol produced per kilogram of feedstock); energy balance and efficiency; nutritional recovery from stillage; solids separation by screw press; chemical characterization of stillage including liquid and solids fractions; wastewater requirements; and air pollution potential.

  10. Design and analysis of serial limiting dilution assays with small sample sizes.

    PubMed

    Macken, C

    1999-01-01

    We study the design of serial limiting dilution assays (SLDAs) for estimation of effector cell frequency in settings that restrict severely the amount of material available for assay, and for which the assumption of a single-hit Poisson model is reasonable. For different designs (that is, dilution factor, number of dilution levels, and number of replicates at each level), we evaluate maximum likelihood and minimum chi-square estimators, using four quantitative criteria: probability of a non-informative assay (PNI), bias, coefficient of variation (CV), and mean squared error (MSE). Our results are exact, not simulation-based, nor approximations. We found that differences between these two estimators were insubstantial by comparison with the effect on the estimators of the experimental design. Bias was severe in small assays, and could lead, in extremely small designs, to overestimation of effector frequency by as much as 100%. These four criteria provide a rigorous basis for determining the most effective apportionment of total effort among replicates and dilution levels. By increasing the dilution factor and favoring the number of replicates over the number of dilution levels, the PNI is reduced while bias, CV and MSE are increased; and vice versa. Our study is easily extended to estimation of the density of biologically active particles per volume. It can also be extended to alternatives to the single-hit Poisson model for a serial limiting dilution assay.

  11. Small population size of Pribilof Rock Sandpipers confirmed through distance-sampling surveys in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Gill, Robert E.; Dementyev, Maksim N.; Handel, Colleen M.

    2012-01-01

    The Rock Sandpiper (Calidris ptilocnemis) is endemic to the Bering Sea region and unique among shorebirds in the North Pacific for wintering at high latitudes. The nominate subspecies, the Pribilof Rock Sandpiper (C. p. ptilocnemis), breeds on four isolated islands in the Bering Sea and appears to spend the winter primarily in Cook Inlet, Alaska. We used a stratified systematic sampling design and line-transect method to survey the entire breeding range of this population during springs 2001-2003. Densities were up to four times higher on the uninhabited and more northerly St. Matthew and Hall islands than on St. Paul and St. George islands, which both have small human settlements and introduced reindeer herds. Differences in density, however, appeared to be more related to differences in vegetation than to anthropogenic factors, raising some concern for prospective effects of climate change. We estimated the total population at 19 832 birds (95% CI 17 853–21 930), ranking it among the smallest of North American shorebird populations. To determine the vulnerability of C. p. ptilocnemis to anthropogenic and stochastic environmental threats, future studies should focus on determining the amount of gene flow among island subpopulations, the full extent of the subspecies' winter range, and the current trajectory of this small population.

  12. Small-sized vacuum-arc-discharge x-ray radiograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russkikh, A. G.; Shishlov, A. V.; Zhigalin, A. S.; Oreshkin, V. I.; Chaikovaskii, S. A.; Baksht, R. B.

    2011-06-01

    Experiments were performed aimed at developing a plasma soft-x-ray source of small spatial dimensions. Radiating hot plasma was produced on compression of a metal vapor by a current pulse with amplitude Im = 215 kA and rise time Tr = 200 ns. The metal vapor jet was generated by initiating a vacuum arc discharge (Im = 8.5 kA, Tr = 6 µs) with an aluminum, tin, copper or iron cathode. Due to the small longitudinal dimension of the compressed Z-pinch, a single flash of soft x-rays was detected in the electrode gap. The least spatial dimensions of the radiating region were attained for aluminum and tin vapor pinches. When tin vapor was used, the diameter of the radiating region was 7 ± 2 µm and its height was 17 ± 2 µm. The x-ray pulse FWHM was 2-3 ns. The radiation power in the spectral range 1.56-1.9 keV was 10-15 MW for the aluminum vapor pinch and 5-10 MW for the tin vapor pinch.

  13. Assessment of spectral Doppler in preclinical ultrasound using a small-size rotating phantom.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Sun, Chao; Anderson, Tom; Moran, Carmel M; Hadoke, Patrick W F; Gray, Gillian A; Hoskins, Peter R

    2013-08-01

    Preclinical ultrasound scanners are used to measure blood flow in small animals, but the potential errors in blood velocity measurements have not been quantified. This investigation rectifies this omission through the design and use of phantoms and evaluation of measurement errors for a preclinical ultrasound system (Vevo 770, Visualsonics, Toronto, ON, Canada). A ray model of geometric spectral broadening was used to predict velocity errors. A small-scale rotating phantom, made from tissue-mimicking material, was developed. True and Doppler-measured maximum velocities of the moving targets were compared over a range of angles from 10° to 80°. Results indicate that the maximum velocity was overestimated by up to 158% by spectral Doppler. There was good agreement (<10%) between theoretical velocity errors and measured errors for beam-target angles of 50°-80°. However, for angles of 10°-40°, the agreement was not as good (>50%). The phantom is capable of validating the performance of blood velocity measurement in preclinical ultrasound. PMID:23711503

  14. Body size dynamics in young adults: 8-year follow up of cohorts in Brazil and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Yiengprugsawan, V; Horta, B L; Motta, J V S; Gigante, D; Seubsman, S-A; Sleigh, A

    2016-01-01

    Increase in body size has appeared as an epidemic in Western countries and is now rapidly emerging in low- and middle-income countries, contributing to the rise in non-communicable diseases worldwide. Brazil and Thailand have gone through similar economic and health transitions, and this unique comparative study investigates changes in body size (body mass index) in relation to socioeconomic status in two cohorts of similar age followed from 2004/2005 to 2012/2013. At 20-24 years of age, Pelotas cohort members had a much higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (20.7 and 8.6%) than the Thai cohort (6.0 and 1.7%); these proportions rose to 34.6% and 22.9% vs 15.8% and 5.1%, respectively, in their early 30s. An association between a higher socioeconomic status and increase in overweight and obesity was observed among males; but an inverse pattern was noted for females in both cohorts and remained statistically significant after 8 years of follow up. Our comparative longitudinal analyses highlight the relationship between two middle-income settings facing rapid increases in body size (2-3 fold increase in the rate of overweight and obesity). Long-term follow up and a lifecourse approach for effective prevention of obesity will minimize adverse health burdens in later life.

  15. Body size dynamics in young adults: 8-year follow up of cohorts in Brazil and Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Yiengprugsawan, V; Horta, B L; Motta, J V S; Gigante, D; Seubsman, S-A; Sleigh, A

    2016-01-01

    Increase in body size has appeared as an epidemic in Western countries and is now rapidly emerging in low- and middle-income countries, contributing to the rise in non-communicable diseases worldwide. Brazil and Thailand have gone through similar economic and health transitions, and this unique comparative study investigates changes in body size (body mass index) in relation to socioeconomic status in two cohorts of similar age followed from 2004/2005 to 2012/2013. At 20–24 years of age, Pelotas cohort members had a much higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (20.7 and 8.6%) than the Thai cohort (6.0 and 1.7%); these proportions rose to 34.6% and 22.9% vs 15.8% and 5.1%, respectively, in their early 30s. An association between a higher socioeconomic status and increase in overweight and obesity was observed among males; but an inverse pattern was noted for females in both cohorts and remained statistically significant after 8 years of follow up. Our comparative longitudinal analyses highlight the relationship between two middle-income settings facing rapid increases in body size (2–3 fold increase in the rate of overweight and obesity). Long-term follow up and a lifecourse approach for effective prevention of obesity will minimize adverse health burdens in later life. PMID:27428871

  16. Detection of small-sized near-surface under-clad cracks for reactor pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, T.T.; Crawford, S.L.; Doctor, S.R.; Posakony, G.J.

    1983-02-01

    The analysis of pressurized thermal shock (PTS) shows it is necessary for nondestructive evaluation to demonstrate high probability of detecting evaluation to demonstrate high probability of detecting cracks 0.250 inches deep and deeper at the clad/base metal interface. Ultrasonic techniques developed and used in Europe are evaluated in this paper for their applicability to US reactor pressure vessels for detecting cracks of interest for PTS. Flaw detectability experiments were carried out by testing the inspection technique's ability to detect artificial flaws under several types of clad, including some Manual Metal Arc (MMA) clad. Both ground and unground clad surfaces were evaluated. Crack sizing tests of the inspection technique were made using a crack tip diffraction technique.

  17. Software-Defined Solutions for Managing Energy Use in Small to Medium Sized Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Peffer, Therese; Blumstein, Carl; Culler, David; Modera, Mark; Meier, Alan

    2015-09-10

    The Project uses state-of-the-art computer science to extend the benefits of Building Automation Systems (BAS) typically found in large buildings (>100,000 square foot) to medium-sized commercial buildings (<50,000 sq ft). The BAS developed in this project, termed OpenBAS, uses an open-source and open software architecture platform, user interface, and plug-and-play control devices to facilitate adoption of energy efficiency strategies in the commercial building sector throughout the United States. At the heart of this “turn key” BAS is the platform with three types of controllers—thermostat, lighting controller, and general controller—that are easily “discovered” by the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. The user interface showcases the platform and provides the control system set-up, system status display and means of automatically mapping the control points in the system.

  18. Thin-film sensors with small structure size on flat and curved surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmaljohann, F.; Hagedorn, D.; Buß, A.; Kumme, R.; Löffler, F.

    2012-07-01

    We have developed a fabrication technology for thin-film sensors on metallic substrates with flat and curved surfaces. Physical vapour deposition by means of a magnetron sputtering system is used to deposit an insulating layer and a following functional layer. This layer is structured by distinct photolithographic steps utilizing a self-developed spray coating technique, four-axis robotics with micrometer precision and a UV laser with a spot size below 10 μm. This highly flexible technique allows a rapid change of design to produce various sensor layouts in a short time. Besides the fabrication technology, we present two realized applications for thin-film sensor technology in this paper. First, a tool wear sensor for rotating cutting tools, directly detecting the flank-wear land width, and second, sputtered resistance strain gauges for force measurement. Measurement results showing the potential of thin-film sensors are given briefly.

  19. Evolutionary genetics and implications of small size and twinning in callitrichine primates.

    PubMed

    Harris, R Alan; Tardif, Suzette D; Vinar, Tomas; Wildman, Derek E; Rutherford, Julienne N; Rogers, Jeffrey; Worley, Kim C; Aagaard, Kjersti M

    2014-01-28

    New World monkeys (NWMs) are characterized by an extensive size range, with clawed NWMs (subfamily Callitrichinae, or callitrichines) such as the common marmoset manifesting diminutive size and unique reproductive adaptations. Perhaps the most notable of these adaptations is their propensity toward multiple gestations (i.e., dichorionic twins and trichorionic triplets). Indeed, with the exception of Goeldi's monkey (Callimico), callitrichine singleton pregnancies rarely occur. Multiple gestations seem to have coevolved with a suite of reproductive adaptations, including hematopoetic chimerism of siblings, suppression of reproduction in nondominant females, and cooperative alloparenting. The sequencing of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) genome offers the opportunity to explore the genetic basis of these unusual traits within this primate lineage. In this study, we hypothesized that genetic changes arising during callitrichine evolution resulted in multiple ovulated ova with each cycle, and that these changes triggered adaptations that minimized complications common to multiple gestations in other primates, including humans. Callitrichine-specific nonsynonymous substitutions were identified in GDF9, BMP15, BMP4, and WFIKKN1. WFIKKN1, a multidomain protease inhibitor that binds growth factors and bone morphogenetic proteins, has nonsynonymous changes found exclusively in common marmosets and other tested callitrichine species that twin. In the one callitrichine species that does not produce twins (Callimico), this change has reverted back to the ancestral (nontwinning) primate sequence. Polymorphisms in GDF9 occur among human cohorts with a propensity for dizygotic twins, and polymorphisms in GDF9 and BMP15 are associated with twinning in sheep. We postulate that positive selection affected NWM growth patterns, with callitrichine miniaturization coevolving with a series of reproductive adaptations. PMID:24379383

  20. Evolutionary genetics and implications of small size and twinning in callitrichine primates.

    PubMed

    Harris, R Alan; Tardif, Suzette D; Vinar, Tomas; Wildman, Derek E; Rutherford, Julienne N; Rogers, Jeffrey; Worley, Kim C; Aagaard, Kjersti M

    2014-01-28

    New World monkeys (NWMs) are characterized by an extensive size range, with clawed NWMs (subfamily Callitrichinae, or callitrichines) such as the common marmoset manifesting diminutive size and unique reproductive adaptations. Perhaps the most notable of these adaptations is their propensity toward multiple gestations (i.e., dichorionic twins and trichorionic triplets). Indeed, with the exception of Goeldi's monkey (Callimico), callitrichine singleton pregnancies rarely occur. Multiple gestations seem to have coevolved with a suite of reproductive adaptations, including hematopoetic chimerism of siblings, suppression of reproduction in nondominant females, and cooperative alloparenting. The sequencing of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) genome offers the opportunity to explore the genetic basis of these unusual traits within this primate lineage. In this study, we hypothesized that genetic changes arising during callitrichine evolution resulted in multiple ovulated ova with each cycle, and that these changes triggered adaptations that minimized complications common to multiple gestations in other primates, including humans. Callitrichine-specific nonsynonymous substitutions were identified in GDF9, BMP15, BMP4, and WFIKKN1. WFIKKN1, a multidomain protease inhibitor that binds growth factors and bone morphogenetic proteins, has nonsynonymous changes found exclusively in common marmosets and other tested callitrichine species that twin. In the one callitrichine species that does not produce twins (Callimico), this change has reverted back to the ancestral (nontwinning) primate sequence. Polymorphisms in GDF9 occur among human cohorts with a propensity for dizygotic twins, and polymorphisms in GDF9 and BMP15 are associated with twinning in sheep. We postulate that positive selection affected NWM growth patterns, with callitrichine miniaturization coevolving with a series of reproductive adaptations.