Science.gov

Sample records for adult sizes small

  1. Small body size in an insect shifts development, prior to adult eclosion, towards early reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Ashley D; Pexton, John J; Dytham, Calvin; Mayhew, Peter J

    2006-01-01

    Life-history theory has suggested that individual body size can strongly affect the allocation of resources to reproduction and away from other traits such as survival. In many insects, adults eclose with a proportion of their potential lifetime egg production that is already mature (the ovigeny index). We establish for the solitary parasitoid wasp Aphaereta genevensis that the ovigeny index decreases with adult body size, despite both initial egg load and potential lifetime fecundity increasing with body size. This outcome is predicted by adaptive models and is the first unequivocal intraspecific demonstration. Evidence suggests that a high ovigeny index carries a cost of reduced longevity in insects. Our results therefore contribute to the emerging evidence that small body size can favour a developmental shift in juveniles that favours early reproduction, but which has adverse late-life consequences. These findings are likely to have important implications for developmental biologists and population biologists. PMID:16600887

  2. Outcomes of Adult Patients with Small Body Size Supported with a Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Jason N.; Jorde, Ulrich P.; Moazami, Nader; John, Ranjit; Sundareswaran, Kartik S.; Farrar, David J.; Frazier, O. H.

    2016-01-01

    There is insufficient data on patients with small body size to determine if this should be considered a risk factor for continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) support. We sought to evaluate survival outcomes, adverse events, and functional status of CF-LVAD patients with body surface area (BSA) <1.5 m2 in a large national registry. Adults with BSA < 1.5 m2 (n = 128) implanted with a HeartMate II (HMII)-LVAD from the Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support registry from April 2008 to December 2012 formed this cohort. Outcomes were compared with HMII bridge to transplant (BTT) and destination therapy (DT) post approval studies. The majority of patients were female (n = 106, 83%). A total of 64% (n = 82) were implanted for BTT and 36% (n = 46) for DT. The median BSA (range) was 1.44 (1.19–1.49) and 1.45 (1.25–1.49) m2 for BTT and DT, respectively. Overall survival 1 year post implant was 81% ± 5% for BTT and 84% ± 6% for DT. The most common adverse events for BTT and DT patients were bleeding (0.91, 0.88 events/patient year) and driveline infection (16%, 0.28 events/patient year). Six months post implantation, 87% of BTT and 77% of DT patients were New York Heart Association functional class I or II. Post implant survival, functional status improvement, and adverse event profile for adult BTT and DT HMII patients with BSA < 1.5 m2 are favorable and comparable with outcomes published in the overall patient population. PMID:27556150

  3. Small-particle-size cement

    SciTech Connect

    Ewert, D.P.; Almond, S.W.; Blerhaus, W.M. II )

    1991-05-01

    Successful remedial cementing has historically been difficult in wells with large-interval, multizone, gravel-packed completions. The reason is the inability of conventional oilfield cements to penetrate gravel packs adequately. Small-particle-size cement (SPSC) was developed to penetrate gravel packs and to provide the zonal isolation required. This paper details the laboratory work, job design, and field implementation of this new cement.

  4. A phylogenetic analysis of egg size, clutch size, spawning mode, adult body size, and latitude in reef fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimatis, Katja; Riginos, Cynthia

    2016-06-01

    Theoretical treatments of egg size in fishes suggest that constraints on reproductive output should create trade-offs between the size and number of eggs produced per spawn. For marine reef fishes, the observation of distinct reproductive care strategies (demersal guarding, egg scattering, and pelagic spawning) has additionally prompted speculation that these strategies reflect alternative fitness optima with selection on egg size differing by reproductive mode and perhaps latitude. Here, we aggregate data from 278 reef fish species and test whether clutch size, reproductive care, adult body size, and latitudinal bands (i.e., tropical, subtropical, and temperate) predict egg size, using a statistically unified framework that accounts for phylogenetic correlations among traits. We find no inverse relationship between species egg size and clutch size, but rather that egg size differs by reproductive mode (mean volume for demersal eggs = 1.22 mm3, scattered eggs = 0.18 mm3, pelagic eggs = 0.52 mm3) and that clutch size is strongly correlated with adult body size. Larger eggs were found in temperate species compared with tropical species in both demersal guarders and pelagic spawners, but this difference was not strong when accounting for phylogenetic correlations, suggesting that differences in species composition underlies regional differences in egg size. In summary, demersal guarders are generally small fishes with small clutch sizes that produce large eggs. Pelagic spawners and egg scatterers are variable in adult and clutch size. Although pelagic spawned eggs are variable in size, those of scatterers are consistently small.

  5. Small Class Size and Its Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddle, Bruce J.; Berliner, David C.

    2002-01-01

    Describes several prominent early grades small-class-size projects and their effects on student achievement: Indiana's Project Prime Time, Tennessee's Project STAR (Student/Teacher Achievement Ratio), Wisconsin's SAGE (Student Achievement Guarantee in Education) Program, and the California class-size-reduction program. Lists several conclusions,…

  6. 77 FR 30227 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... to amend its regulations governing size and eligibility for the Small Business Innovation...

  7. Statistical Analysis Techniques for Small Sample Sizes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navard, S. E.

    1984-01-01

    The small sample sizes problem which is encountered when dealing with analysis of space-flight data is examined. Because of such a amount of data available, careful analyses are essential to extract the maximum amount of information with acceptable accuracy. Statistical analysis of small samples is described. The background material necessary for understanding statistical hypothesis testing is outlined and the various tests which can be done on small samples are explained. Emphasis is on the underlying assumptions of each test and on considerations needed to choose the most appropriate test for a given type of analysis.

  8. Argon-pumped tunable dye laser therapy for facial port-wine stain hemangiomas in adults--a new technique using small spot size and minimal power

    SciTech Connect

    Scheibner, A.; Wheeland, R.G.

    1989-03-01

    A low power, argon-pumped tunable dye laser was used to deliver yellow light of 577 nm. Individual blood vessels within port-wine stain hemangiomas were treated with a 0.1-mm beam of light using 8 X magnification. This technique permits excellent resolution of facial and nuchal port-wine stain hemangiomas in adults without the adverse complications of textural change, permanent pigmentation abnormality, or hypertrophic scarring.

  9. 77 FR 13329 - Information Collection; Small Business Size Representation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ...; Small Business Size Representation AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... of a previously approved information collection requirement regarding small business size... Information Collection 9000- 0163, Small Business Size Representation, by any of the following...

  10. 78 FR 11745 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... / Wednesday, February 20, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG46 Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Program; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Small Business...

  11. Three dimensional fabrication at small size scales

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Timothy G.; Zarafshar, Aasiyeh M.; Gracias, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the fact that we live in a three-dimensional (3D) world and macroscale engineering is 3D, conventional sub-mm scale engineering is inherently two-dimensional (2D). New fabrication and patterning strategies are needed to enable truly three-dimensionally-engineered structures at small size scales. Here, we review strategies that have been developed over the last two decades that seek to enable such millimeter to nanoscale 3D fabrication and patterning. A focus of this review is the strategy of self-assembly, specifically in a biologically inspired, more deterministic form known as self-folding. Self-folding methods can leverage the strengths of lithography to enable the construction of precisely patterned 3D structures and “smart” components. This self-assembling approach is compared with other 3D fabrication paradigms, and its advantages and disadvantages are discussed. PMID:20349446

  12. 77 FR 42441 - Small Business Size Standards: Utilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ...; ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG25 Small Business Size Standards: Utilities AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) proposes to revise the small business size standards for nine industries in North...

  13. 78 FR 36083 - Small Business Size Standards; Educational Services; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... 3245-AG29 Small Business Size Standards; Educational Services; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Small Business..., effective October 24, 2012, increased small business size standards for nine industries in North American... ``611519'' to read as follows: Sec. 121.201 What size standards has SBA identified by North...

  14. 78 FR 37701 - Small Business Size Standards; Educational Services; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... / Monday, June 24, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG29 Small Business Size Standards; Educational Services; Correction Correction In rule document... System codes? On page 36083, in the table entitled ``SMALL BUSINESS SIZE STANDARDS BY NAICS...

  15. String Theory: Big Problem for Small Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahoo, S.

    2009-01-01

    String theory is the most promising candidate theory for a unified description of all the fundamental forces that exist in nature. It provides a mathematical framework that combines quantum theory with Einstein's general theory of relativity. The typical size of a string is of the order of 10[superscript -33] cm, called the Planck length. But due…

  16. Exploratory Factor Analysis with Small Sample Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Winter, J. C. F.; Dodou, D.; Wieringa, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is generally regarded as a technique for large sample sizes ("N"), with N = 50 as a reasonable absolute minimum. This study offers a comprehensive overview of the conditions in which EFA can yield good quality results for "N" below 50. Simulations were carried out to estimate the minimum required "N" for different…

  17. 77 FR 39442 - Receipts-Based, Small Business Size Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ..., which are administrative in nature, include updating the receipts-based, small business size standard... protection, Nuclear materials, Nuclear power plants and reactors, Penalties, Sex discrimination,...

  18. 78 FR 70847 - Small Business Size Standards; Manufacturing; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... / Wednesday, November 27, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG47 Small Business Size Standards; Manufacturing; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Correcting amendment. SUMMARY: This document corrects an error in the U.S. Small...

  19. 75 FR 61591 - Small Business Size Standards; Other Services.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AF70 Small Business Size Standards; Other Services. AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The United States Small Business Administration...

  20. 78 FR 77334 - Small Business Size Standards: Construction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG37 Small Business Size Standards: Construction AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The United States Small Business Administration...

  1. 77 FR 72702 - Small Business Size Standards: Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG26 Small Business Size Standards: Information AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The United States Small Business Administration...

  2. 78 FR 77343 - Small Business Size Standards: Utilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG25 Small Business Size Standards: Utilities AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The United States Small Business Administration (SBA) is...

  3. 77 FR 28520 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... businesses to understand and a bright-line test by which small businesses can easily determine whether they..., bright-line test for SBIR and STTR applicants to apply when determining eligibility with respect to size... owns 33% or more of the company) in order to create a bright-line test for applicants; (2)...

  4. 76 FR 8221 - Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... February 11, 2011 Part VII Small Business Administration 13 CFR Parts 121 and 124 Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status Determinations; Final Rule #0;#0... BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 121 and 124 RIN 3245-AF53 Small Business Size Regulations;...

  5. 77 FR 10943 - Small Business Size Standards: Transportation and Warehousing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... Federal Regulations, which is published #0;under 50 titles pursuant to 44 U.S.C. 1510. #0; #0;The Code of... RIN 3245-AG08 Small Business Size Standards: Transportation and Warehousing AGENCY: U.S. Small... definitions (referred to as size standards) for private sector industries in the United States. SBA's...

  6. Relation of adult size to movements and distribution of smallmouth bass in a central Maine Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, M.B.; Moring, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Forty-four smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu of three size-classes were radiotracked in Green Lake, Maine, during summer 1993 (10 June-1 September) to determine whether adult size influenced distribution and movement. Large smallmouth bass (>406 mm) used deep water (>8 m) more often than did small (248-279 mm) or medium-sized (305-356 mm) smallmouth bass during the late summer (15 July-1 September). Large smallmouth bass also were found at middepths (4-8 m) significantly more often than were small individuals during late summer. Small fish used cover more frequently than large ones during early summer (10 June-13 July). Both small and medium-sized individuals were associated with cover more frequently than large smallmouth bass were during the late summer. Small smallmouth bass exhibited significantly smaller summer total ranges than did large individuals, and mean active displacement differed among all three size-classes.

  7. Adult Education in Small States: The Case of Malta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Peter; Pace, Paul J.; Zammit, Edward

    2008-01-01

    A small state faces several challenges with regard to adult continuing education and training. The paper discusses some of these challenges with specific reference to the Mediterranean small island state of Malta. It starts with a general discussion of some of the issues affecting adult education in a small state such as Malta that paves the way…

  8. 75 FR 1296 - Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 121 and 124 Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status Determinations AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice...

  9. 77 FR 28237 - Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... / Monday, May 14, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 124 RIN 3245-AF53 Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status Determinations; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION:...

  10. Character Size and Reading to Remember from Small Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Christopher A.; Goolsbee, James Z.

    2010-01-01

    An under-addressed question regarding the usage of small devices is how information gathering from such devices is limited or changed relative to a full-size display? This study explores how factual recall from a text interacts with display size and other text characteristics. In this experiment, participants read several expository texts on…

  11. 76 FR 27935 - Small Business Size Standards: Transportation and Warehousing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... Administration (SBA) proposes to increase small business size standards ] for 22 industries in North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Sector 48-49, Transportation and Warehousing. As part of its ongoing initiative to review all size standards, SBA has evaluated all industries in NAICS Sector 48-49 that...

  12. 76 FR 69154 - Small Business Size and Status Integrity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... October 7, 2011. In that rule SBA proposed to amend its regulations to implement provisions of the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010 (Jobs Act) pertaining to small business size and status integrity. SBA proposed to amend its program regulations to implement statutory provisions establishing that there is...

  13. Design of haptic master featuring small-sized MR brakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gang, Han Gyeol; Choi, Seung-Bok; Sohn, Jung Woo

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a new type of haptic master featuring small-sized MR brake is proposed and its performances are evaluated. The proposed haptic master consists of base frame, stick grip and small-sized four MR brakes for 3-DOF rotational motion and 1-DOF gripper motion. To obtain large braking torque under limited small size of MR brake, dual tapered shape inner magnetic core is proposed and its performance is evaluated via both numerical estimation and experimental test. After design and implementation of control algorithm, it has been demonstrated through experiment that the proposed actuator has good performances on tracking control of desired torques. Then, a new haptic master device is designed and constructed by adopting the proposed MR brakes and light weight frame structures. It is verified that the proposed haptic master device is effective for the real application in the field.

  14. Practical considerations for electron beam small field size dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Subhash C.; Johnson, Martin W.; Gossman, Michael S. . E-mail: GossmanMS@erlanger.org

    2005-06-30

    Special care of superficial lesions surrounding critical structures, such as an eye, may require tight margins. When this is the case, small megavoltage electron treatment fields and nonstandard treatment distances become necessary. When the field size is found to be less than the practical range of the electron beam, dosimetric measurements should be performed. This research includes data proving that very small electron fields can be employed for treatment with appropriate beam flatness and penumbra. This is accomplished by first coning down the incident beam to a small field size, then secondly by adding a single lead sheet to the patient's skin surface. The aperture of the sheet is required to be greater than 2 x 2 cm{sup 2} in size, and must be cut properly to adequately confine the treatment area.

  15. Size & Flow: Adult Education Issues in the Senate Immigration Bill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Garrett; Spangenberg, Gail

    2014-01-01

    In this essay Garrett Murphy and Gail Spangenberg report on the need for understanding better than in the past, the number of undocumented immigrants likely to need adult education services under provisions of Senate Immigration Bill S.744. The essay looks at why the issues of "size and flow" are important for planners, providers, and…

  16. Lake warming favours small-sized planktonic diatom species

    PubMed Central

    Winder, Monika; Reuter, John E.; Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    Diatoms contribute to a substantial portion of primary production in the oceans and many lakes. Owing to their relatively heavy cell walls and high nutrient requirements, planktonic diatoms are expected to decrease with climate warming because of reduced nutrient redistribution and increasing sinking velocities. Using a historical dataset, this study shows that diatoms were able to maintain their biovolume with increasing stratification in Lake Tahoe over the last decades; however, the diatom community structure changed. Increased stratification and reduced nitrogen to phosphorus ratios selected for small-celled diatoms, particularly within the Cyclotella genus. An empirical model showed that a shift in phytoplankton species composition and cell size was consistent within different depth strata, indicating that altered nutrient concentrations were not responsible for the change. The increase in small-celled species was sufficient to decrease the average diatom size and thus sinking velocity, which strongly influences energy transfer through the food web and carbon cycling. Our results show that within the diverse group of diatoms, small-sized species with a high surface area to volume ratio were able to adapt to a decrease in mixing intensity, supporting the hypotheses that abiotic drivers affect the size structure of planktonic communities and that warmer climate favours small-sized diatom cells. PMID:18812287

  17. Lake warming favours small-sized planktonic diatom species.

    PubMed

    Winder, Monika; Reuter, John E; Schladow, S Geoffrey

    2009-02-07

    Diatoms contribute to a substantial portion of primary production in the oceans and many lakes. Owing to their relatively heavy cell walls and high nutrient requirements, planktonic diatoms are expected to decrease with climate warming because of reduced nutrient redistribution and increasing sinking velocities. Using a historical dataset, this study shows that diatoms were able to maintain their biovolume with increasing stratification in Lake Tahoe over the last decades; however, the diatom community structure changed. Increased stratification and reduced nitrogen to phosphorus ratios selected for small-celled diatoms, particularly within the Cyclotella genus. An empirical model showed that a shift in phytoplankton species composition and cell size was consistent within different depth strata, indicating that altered nutrient concentrations were not responsible for the change. The increase in small-celled species was sufficient to decrease the average diatom size and thus sinking velocity, which strongly influences energy transfer through the food web and carbon cycling. Our results show that within the diverse group of diatoms, small-sized species with a high surface area to volume ratio were able to adapt to a decrease in mixing intensity, supporting the hypotheses that abiotic drivers affect the size structure of planktonic communities and that warmer climate favours small-sized diatom cells.

  18. Trainable fusion rules. II. Small sample-size effects.

    PubMed

    Raudys, Sarunas

    2006-12-01

    Profound theoretical analysis is performed of small-sample properties of trainable fusion rules to determine in which situations neural network ensembles can improve or degrade classification results. We consider small sample effects, specific only to multiple classifiers system design in the two-category case of two important fusion rules: (1) linear weighted average (weighted voting), realized either by the standard Fisher classifier or by the single-layer perceptron, and (2) the non-linear Behavior-Knowledge-Space method. The small sample effects include: (i) training bias, i.e. learning sample size influence on generalization error of the base experts or of the fusion rule, (ii) optimistic biased outputs of the experts (self-boasting effect) and (iii) sample size impact on determining optimal complexity of the fusion rule. Correction terms developed to reduce the self-boasting effect are studied. It is shown that small learning sets increase classification error of the expert classifiers and damage correlation structure between their outputs. If the sizes of learning sets used to develop the expert classifiers are too small, non-trainable fusion rules can outperform more sophisticated trainable ones. A practical technique to fight sample size problems is a noise injection technique. The noise injection reduces the fusion rule's complexity and diminishes the expert's boasting bias.

  19. Small-size dust particles near Halley's Comet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagdeev, R. Z.; Evlanov, E. N.; Fomenkova, M. N.; Prilutskii, O. F.; Zubkov, B. V.

    Dust-impact PUMA mass-analyzers aboard the spacecrafts VEGA-1 and VEGA-2 allow to conduct the first direct measurements of mass-spectra of comet Halley's dust envelope particles with masses higher than 10 to the -17th g. The analysis of spectra measured by the PUMA instruments showed that unindentified peaks in this spectra could be associated with very small particles. Detection of small-size particles in the dust envelope of comet Halley agrees with the idea that the comet's nucleus is an interstellar dust aggregate which contains very small particles.

  20. Illusions of having small or large invisible bodies influence visual perception of object size

    PubMed Central

    van der Hoort, Björn; Ehrsson, H. Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The size of our body influences the perceived size of the world so that objects appear larger to children than to adults. The mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. It has been difficult to dissociate visual rescaling of the external environment based on an individual’s visible body from visual rescaling based on a central multisensory body representation. To differentiate these potential causal mechanisms, we manipulated body representation without a visible body by taking advantage of recent developments in body representation research. Participants experienced the illusion of having a small or large invisible body while object-size perception was tested. Our findings show that the perceived size of test-objects was determined by the size of the invisible body (inverse relation), and by the strength of the invisible body illusion. These findings demonstrate how central body representation directly influences visual size perception, without the need for a visible body, by rescaling the spatial representation of the environment. PMID:27708344

  1. Workplace Health Promotion within Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Ann; Parahoo, Kader; Fleming, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore managers' understanding of workplace health promotion (WHP) and experiences of WHP activity within small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in a Health and Social Care Trust area of Northern Ireland. The paper aims to focus on engagement with activities within the context of prevention of…

  2. 78 FR 38811 - Small Business Size and Status Integrity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... thereto (such as the System for Award Management (SAM) database) at least annually shall no longer be... procurement databases? (a) In order to be identified as a small business concern in the System for Award Management (SAM) database (or any successor thereto), a concern must certify its size in connection...

  3. Can Small Class Sizes Help Retain Teachers to the Profession?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, William; Terry, Ernest, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    School districts across the nation annually experience frequent teacher turnover and loss of teachers to the profession. The primary cause contributing to this condition is low teacher job satisfaction. This study examined the relationship between small class size in early elementary grades and teacher job satisfaction in a single school district…

  4. A method of approximating range size of small mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1965-01-01

    In summary, trap success trends appear to provide a useful approximation to range size of easily trapped small mammals such as Peromyscus. The scale of measurement can be adjusted as desired. Further explorations of the usefulness of the plan should be made and modifications possibly developed before adoption.

  5. Promoting Learning in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Maria; Gray, Sue

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, small and medium-sized enterprises constituted 99% of all businesses in the United Kingdom in all but the electricity, gas, and water supply sector, providing 46% of nongovernment employment. SMEs' concern with day-to-day demands leaves them with limited time and resources to consider their training needs. Although providing support and…

  6. Small, Mid-Sized Businesses Power Up with Workforce Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WorkAmerica, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Increasingly, small and mid-sized businesses are becoming just as focused on work force training as large corporations are. The training being provided by smaller companies is extending beyond nuts-and-bolts instruction into the area of core business skills, such as leading, managing, thinking creatively, and solving problems. States are…

  7. INITIAL PLANETESIMAL SIZES AND THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF SMALL KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Schlichting, Hilke E.; Fuentes, Cesar I.; Trilling, David E.

    2013-08-01

    The Kuiper Belt is a remnant from the early solar system and its size distribution contains many important constraints that can be used to test models of planet formation and collisional evolution. We show, by comparing observations with theoretical models, that the observed Kuiper Belt size distribution is well matched by coagulation models, which start with an initial planetesimal population with radii of about 1 km, and subsequent collisional evolution. We find that the observed size distribution above R {approx} 30 km is primordial, i.e., it has not been modified by collisional evolution over the age of the solar system, and that the size distribution below R {approx} 30 km has been modified by collisions and that its slope is well matched by collisional evolution models that use published strength laws. We investigate in detail the resulting size distribution of bodies ranging from 0.01 km to 30 km and find that its slope changes several times as a function of radius before approaching the expected value for an equilibrium collisional cascade of material strength dominated bodies for R {approx}< 0.1 km. Compared to a single power-law size distribution that would span the whole range from 0.01 km to 30 km, we find in general a strong deficit of bodies around R {approx} 10 km and a strong excess of bodies around 2 km in radius. This deficit and excess of bodies are caused by the planetesimal size distribution left over from the runaway growth phase, which left most of the initial mass in small planetesimals while only a small fraction of the total mass is converted into large protoplanets. This excess mass in small planetesimals leaves a permanent signature in the size distribution of small bodies that is not erased after 4.5 Gyr of collisional evolution. Observations of the small Kuiper Belt Object (KBO) size distribution can therefore test if large KBOs grew as a result of runaway growth and constrained the initial planetesimal sizes. We find that results from

  8. Metal oxide porous ceramic membranes with small pore sizes

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Marc A.; Xu, Qunyin

    1991-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

  9. Metal oxide porous ceramic membranes with small pore sizes

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Marc A.; Xu, Qunyin

    1992-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

  10. Bank Size and Small- and Medium-sized Enterprise (SME) Lending: Evidence from China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Shen, Minggao; Xu, Zhong; Bai, Ying

    2009-04-01

    Using panel data collected in 2005, we evaluate how bank size, discretion over credit, incentive schemes, competition, and the institutional environment affect lending to small- and medium-sized enterprises in China. We deal with the endogeneity problem using instrumental variables, and a reduced-form approach is also applied to allow for weak instruments in estimation. We find that total bank asset is an insignificant factor for banks' decision on small- and medium-enterprise (SME) lending, but more local lending authority, more competition, carefully designed incentive schemes, and stronger law enforcement encourage commercial banks to lend to SMEs.

  11. The Size Frequency Distribution of Small Main-Belt Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, Brian J.; Trilling, David E.; Hines, Dean C.; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Rebull, Luisa M.; Fuentes, Cesar I.; Hulsebus, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The asteroid size distribution informs us about the formation and composition of the Solar System. We build on our previous work in which we harvest serendipitously observed data of the Taurus region and measure the brightness and size distributions of Main-belt asteroids. This is accomplished with the highly sensitive MIPS 24 micron channel. We expect to catalog 104 asteroids, giving us a statistically significant data set. Results from this investigation will allow us to characterize the total population of small, Main-belt asteroids. Here we will present new results on the completeness of our study; on the presence of size distribution variations with inclination and radial distance in the belt; and early result on other archival fields.

  12. Oligomeric viral proteins: small in size, large in presence

    PubMed Central

    Jayaraman, Bhargavi; Smith, Amber M.; Fernandes, Jason D.; Frankel, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    Viruses are obligate parasites that rely heavily on host cellular processes for replication. The small number of proteins typically encoded by a virus is faced with selection pressures that lead to the evolution of distinctive structural properties, allowing each protein to maintain its function under constraints such as small genome size, high mutation rate, and rapidly changing fitness conditions. One common strategy for this evolution is to utilize small building blocks to generate protein oligomers that assemble in multiple ways, thereby diversifying protein function and regulation. In this review, we discuss specific cases that illustrate how oligomerization is used to generate a single defined functional state, to modulate activity via different oligomeric states, or to generate multiple functional forms via different oligomeric states. PMID:27685368

  13. [Indications and results of small bowel transplantation in adults].

    PubMed

    Joly, Francisca; Panis, Yves

    2012-02-01

    immunosuppression to control rejection. By 1990, the development of tacrolimus-based immunosuppression, as well as improved surgical techniques, the increased array of potent immunosuppressive medications, infection prophylaxis, and better patient selection helped to improve actuarial graft and patient survival rates for all types of intestine transplantation. In adult intestinal transplantation, three kinds of graft can be proposed: isolated small bowel, combined liver and small bowel, and multivisceral transplantation. In isolated small bowel transplantation, the length of the graft ranges between 1.5 and 2 meters, but depends on the size of the recipient (and the abdominal cavity volume, which is reduced). The graft is anastomosed with the recipient's duodenum or remnant proximal jejunum. the distal part of the small bowel graft is on a temporary stoma, in order to allow biopsies for early detection of rejection. Vascular anastomoses are usually performed directly on the aorta for the superior mesenteric artery and either the recipient's portal vein or vena cava for the donor superior mesenteric vein. In combined liver and intestinal transplantation, one venous anastomosis is avoided because the graft is in one piece. Finally, one specificity of this transplantation is the fact that it usually concerns patients with numerous previous abdominal operations and with total or subtotal enterectomy. Thus, the residual abdominal cavity is usually very small, and this can be a major problem for graft insertion. For this reason, abdominal closure is performed with a temporary prosthesis, because even cutaneous closure remains impossible if a compartment syndrome is to be avoided.

  14. Size-varying small target detection for infrared image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Miao; Zhu, Ran; Long, Yunli; An, Wei; Zhou, Yiyu

    2015-10-01

    IRST (Infrared Search and Track) has been applied to many military or civil fields such as precise guidance, aerospace, early warning. As a key technique, small target detection based on infrared image plays an important role. However, infrared targets have their own characteristics, such as target size variation, which make the detection work quite difficult. In practical application, the target size may vary due to many reasons, such as optic angle of sensors, imaging distance, environment and so on. For conventional detection methods, it is difficult to detect such size-varying targets, especially when the backgrounds have strong clutters. This paper presents a novel method to detect size-varying infrared targets in a cluttered background. It is easy to find that the target region is salient in infrared images. It means that target region have a signature of discontinuity with its neighboring regions and concentrates in a relatively small region, which can be considered as a homogeneous compact region, and the background is consistent with its neighboring regions. Motivated by the saliency feature and gradient feature, we introduce minimum target intensity (MTI) to measure the dissimilarity between different scales, and use mean gradient to restrict the target scale in a reasonable range. They are integrated to be multiscale MTI filter. The proposed detection method is designed based on multiscale MTI filter. Firstly, salient region is got by morphological low-pass filtering, where the potential target exists in. Secondly, the candidate target regions are extracted by multiscale minimum target intensity filter, which can effectively give the optimal target size. At last, signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) is used to segment targets, which is computed based on optimal scale of candidate targets. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method can achieve both higher detection precision and robustness in complex background.

  15. Relationship between regolith particle size and porosity on small bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiuchi, M.; Nakamura, A.

    2014-07-01

    Small planetary bodies are covered by a particle layer called the regolith. The particle size and porosity of the regolith surface of the small bodies are important physical properties. The responses of the surface to solar irradiation depend on the particle size and porosity. The particle size and porosity have influences on the dynamic responses of the surface, such as cratering efficiency. In previous studies, these two quantities were measured or estimated by various methods. Here we propose a semi-empirical relationship between the particle size and porosity for small bodies' surfaces. An empirical relationship between the porosity of granular materials in loose packing state under 1G and the ratio of the magnitudes of the interparticle force and gravity which act on a particle was presented in a previous study [1]. In this study, we assume that the van der Waals force F_{V} is predominant in the interparticle forces and adopt a model formula [2] which is different from that adopted in the previous study [1]: F_{V} = {AS^{2}}/{48Ω ^{2}}r, where A is the Hamaker constant, r is the particle radius, Ω is the diameter of an O^{-2} ion, and S is the cleanliness ratio which shows the smallness of a number of the adsorbate molecules [2]. It was shown that the cleanliness ratio S is approximately 0.1 on the Earth, and is almost unity in the interplanetary space. In addition to the data of the several previous studies, our own measurement result for micron-sized fly-ash particles in atmospheric conditions is used in the present analysis. We calculate F_{V} using Eq. (1), and obtain a relationship between porosity and the ratio R_{F} = F_{V}/F_{g}, where F_{g} is gravity. An empirical formula used in the previous study [1], p = p_{0}+(1-p_{0})exp(-m{R_{F}}^{-n}), is applied to fit the data, where p is the porosity and p_{0}, m and n are constants. We assume that p_{0} is 0.36. By substituting Eq. (1) to Eq. 2, we obtain p = p_{0}+(1-p_{0})exp {-m({AS^{2}}/{64πΩ ^{2

  16. Small Sample Sizes Yield Biased Allometric Equations in Temperate Forests

    PubMed Central

    Duncanson, L.; Rourke, O.; Dubayah, R.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate quantification of forest carbon stocks is required for constraining the global carbon cycle and its impacts on climate. The accuracies of forest biomass maps are inherently dependent on the accuracy of the field biomass estimates used to calibrate models, which are generated with allometric equations. Here, we provide a quantitative assessment of the sensitivity of allometric parameters to sample size in temperate forests, focusing on the allometric relationship between tree height and crown radius. We use LiDAR remote sensing to isolate between 10,000 to more than 1,000,000 tree height and crown radius measurements per site in six U.S. forests. We find that fitted allometric parameters are highly sensitive to sample size, producing systematic overestimates of height. We extend our analysis to biomass through the application of empirical relationships from the literature, and show that given the small sample sizes used in common allometric equations for biomass, the average site-level biomass bias is ~+70% with a standard deviation of 71%, ranging from −4% to +193%. These findings underscore the importance of increasing the sample sizes used for allometric equation generation. PMID:26598233

  17. Small Sample Sizes Yield Biased Allometric Equations in Temperate Forests.

    PubMed

    Duncanson, L; Rourke, O; Dubayah, R

    2015-11-24

    Accurate quantification of forest carbon stocks is required for constraining the global carbon cycle and its impacts on climate. The accuracies of forest biomass maps are inherently dependent on the accuracy of the field biomass estimates used to calibrate models, which are generated with allometric equations. Here, we provide a quantitative assessment of the sensitivity of allometric parameters to sample size in temperate forests, focusing on the allometric relationship between tree height and crown radius. We use LiDAR remote sensing to isolate between 10,000 to more than 1,000,000 tree height and crown radius measurements per site in six U.S. forests. We find that fitted allometric parameters are highly sensitive to sample size, producing systematic overestimates of height. We extend our analysis to biomass through the application of empirical relationships from the literature, and show that given the small sample sizes used in common allometric equations for biomass, the average site-level biomass bias is ~+70% with a standard deviation of 71%, ranging from -4% to +193%. These findings underscore the importance of increasing the sample sizes used for allometric equation generation.

  18. Concept of Small Sized Integrated PWR with Double Pressure Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, I.; Ueda, N.; Nishi, Y.; Matsumura, T.

    2002-07-01

    For early deployment of small sized nuclear reactors, it is better to reduce the BOP cost with new ideas than introducing innovative technologies for core, fuel and materials. In this report, a concept of the integrated, forced convective and small PWR with double pressure vessels has been proposed. The electric output of this reactor is 150 MW. Conventional technologies are adopted for core and fuel. Refueling, maintenance and repairing are made in a special ship with complete facilities and skilled experts. The pressure vessel with the core, control rod drive mechanisms (CRDM), main circulating pumps (MCP), steam generators (SG) and other reactor internals are transferred between the reactor building and the ship. Technical feasibility for safety and maintainability has been discussed qualitatively. The construction cost has been roughly estimated. (authors)

  19. A small-size sensor for pressure measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Skuba, B.N.; Bestuzhev, E.A.; Kisel', V.D.

    1982-09-01

    This article describes attempts being made to develop reasonably simple pressure sensors which will be reliable in operation, have large sensitivity, and have small gross dimensions. In the GIREDMET, an elastic-sensitive element of the ChED type has been devised; this is a silicon diaphragm having strain elements made directly on the surface of the diaphragm by a diffusion mechanism. At the VNIIAEN, based on a sensitive element of the ChED type, a small-size sensor has been developed for study of the pressure pulsations of a liquid (water) in pump assemblies. In order to reduce the gross dimensions of the sensor, it is necessary to use a silicon diaphragm whose diameter should not exceed 5 mm.

  20. Time and size at metamorphosis related to adult fitness in Ambystoma talpoideum

    SciTech Connect

    Semlitsch, R.D.; Scott, D.E.; Pechmann, J.H.K.

    1988-02-01

    The relationships among timing of metamorphosis, size at metamorphosis, and traits related to adult fitness were studied for 8 yr in the salamander Ambystoma talpoideum at a temporary pond. Among years, the modal time of metamorphosis and mean body size at metamorphosis were positively correlated with the date the pond dried. In years that the pond dried late, one group of larvae metamorphosed well before the pond dried, whereas the other group metamorphosed just before pond drying. Mean body size of late-metamorphosing individuals was not greater than that of individuals metamorphosing early. Early-metamorphosing males and females were larger at first and second reproduction than were late-metamorphosing individuals. Independent of timing of metamorphosis, larger juveniles at metamorphosis were also larger adults at first reproduction. Age at first reproduction for males was not associated with timing of or size at metamorphosis but large early-metamorphosing females reproduced at a younger age than did small early-metamorphosing females. Neither time of metamorphosis nor size at metamorphosis was associated with survival to first reproduction. These results demonstrate a direct relationship between phenotypic variation generated in the larval stage and adult traits closely associated with an individual's fitness.

  1. 77 FR 76215 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-27

    ... tests for SBIR and STTR participants to apply when ] determining eligibility with respect to size and... person owns 33% or more of the company) in order to create a bright-line test for awardees; (2) find... creation of a bright line test for determining affiliation. One respondent stated that the proposed...

  2. [Clinicopathologic analysis of small-sized non-small cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Tsubochi, Hiroyoshi; Sakaguchi, Hirozo; Yamasaki, Nobuhiro; Nitanda, Hiroyuki; Ishida, Hironori; Kaneko, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    We reviewed the data on 149 patients who underwent complete resection for small-sized (≤ 2 cm)peripheral non-small cell lung cancer at our institution between January 2002 and July 2010. Patients with small-sized lung cancer underwent a lobectomy in 121, segmentectomy in 13, and wedge resection in 15 cases. The overall and 5-year disease-free survivals were 89% and 82%, respectively. The 5-year disease-free survival of patients with tumors exceeding 1.5 cm was lower than that of patients with tumors 1.5 cm or smaller (p=0.01). The 5-year disease-free survival for patients without pleulal invasion was 87%, whereas it was 45% for those with pleulal invasion (p=0.004). The 5-year disease-free survival according to the serum level of carcinoembrionic antigen( CEA) were 82% for the normal group and 70% for the high group( p=0.007). Although the results were not significantly different, patients with tumors with high maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) on FDG-PET/CT showed a trend toward a lower 5-year disease-free survival rate( p=0.10). There were no recurrences in patients with ground-glass opacity (GGO) or GGO-dominant lesion including those who underwent sublober resection. Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size and pleural invasion were independent prognostic factors. Indication of sublober resection for solid-type small-sized non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) should be carefully determined considering tumor size, pleural involvement, serum carcinoembryonic antigen( CEA) level, and maximum SUV.

  3. 76 FR 63509 - Small Business Size Standards: Administrative and Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... additional factors that SBA should consider; whether SBA's approach to small business size standards makes... Small Business Administration 13 CFR Part 121 Small Business Size Standards: Administrative and Support... / Wednesday, October 12, 2011 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; [[Page 63510

  4. Ultracapacitors for fuel saving in small size hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solero, L.; Lidozzi, A.; Serrao, V.; Martellucci, L.; Rossi, E.

    The main purpose of the paper is to describe a small size hybrid vehicle having ultracapacitors as on-board storage unit. The vehicle on-board main power supply is achieved by a genset being formed of a 250 cm 3 internal combustion engine and a permanent magnet synchronous electric generator, whereas 4 16V-500F ultracapacitors modules are connected in series in order to supply as well as to store the power peaks during respectively acceleration and braking vehicle modes of operation. The traction power is provided by a permanent magnet synchronous electric motor, whereas a distributed power electronic interface is in charge of all the required electronic conversions as well of controlling the operating conditions for each power unit. The paper discusses the implemented control strategy and shows experimental results on the modes of operation of both generation unit and storage unit.

  5. Small testicles with impaired production of sperm in adult male survivors of childhood malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Siimes, M.A.; Rautonen, J. )

    1990-03-15

    Testicular size has been studied in 66 adult men who survived leukemia (n = 14) or cancer (n = 52) in childhood. Mean follow-up time was 14.5 years. The testicular size was measured as the length and breadth in mm; testicular volume index was calculated. Serum concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, and prolactin were measured. A sperm sample was obtained from 46 men. The patients had smaller testicles than healthy medical students; 51 had small testicles. The size was the smallest in patients who survived leukemia. Multivariate analysis showed that the variables with independent effects on testicular size were cranial and testicular irradiation and therapy with cyclophosphamide. Sperm production was dependent on testicular size. We conclude that determination of serum FSH combined with testicular size may offer a practical approach for predicting the subsequent testicular damage in boys with malignancies.

  6. Durability of small-for-size living donor allografts.

    PubMed

    Au, Kin Pan; Chan, See Ching; Chok, Kenneth Siu Ho; Chan, Albert Chi Yan; Wong, Tiffany Cho Lam; Sharr, William Wei; Lo, Chung Mau

    2015-11-01

    Our aim was to study the long-term outcomes of living donor liver transplantation using small-for-size (SFS) grafts. From July 2002 to July 2009, 233 patients received a right liver graft with a middle hepatic vein from a living donor in our center. Recipients were stratified according to the graft weight to recipient standard liver volume (GW/SLV) ratio into 4 groups: >50% (n = 89), >40% to 50% (n = 85), >35% to 40% (n = 38), and ≤ 35% (n = 21). They were compared in terms of graft survivals, biliary stricture rates, renal function in terms of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), platelet counts, and graft function in terms of serum bilirubin and international normalized ratio (INR). The 5-year graft survivals for patients with GW/SLV of >50%, >40% to 50%, >35% to 40% and ≤ 35% were 88.8%, 88.2%, 81.5%, and 81.0%, respectively. Transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma affected graft survivals (P = 0.02), but graft size did not (P = 0.66). There were no differences in frequency of biliary stricture (21.3% versus 17.1% versus 21.1% versus 28.6%; P = 0.75). At each year after transplant, their platelet counts (P = 0.12-0.65), eGFR (P = 0.49-0.91), bilirubin (P = 0.14-0.51), and INR (P = 0.20-0.98) remained comparable. SFS grafts with GW/SLV ≤ 35% and >35% to 40% had comparable long-term outcomes with larger liver grafts. Graft size did not affect long-term graft survivals.

  7. Metastable structures and size effects in small group dynamics.

    PubMed

    Lauro Grotto, Rosapia; Guazzini, Andrea; Bagnoli, Franco

    2014-01-01

    In his seminal works on group dynamics Bion defined a specific therapeutic setting allowing psychoanalytic observations on group phenomena. In describing the setting he proposed that the group was where his voice arrived. This physical limit was later made operative by assuming that the natural dimension of a therapeutic group is around 12 people. Bion introduced a theory of the group aspects of the mind in which proto-mental individual states spontaneously evolve into shared psychological states that are characterized by a series of features: (1) they emerge as a consequence of the natural tendency of (both conscious and unconscious) emotions to combine into structured group patterns; (2) they have a certain degree of stability in time; (3) they tend to alternate so that the dissolution of one is rapidly followed by the emergence of another; (4) they can be described in qualitative terms according to the nature of the emotional mix that dominates the state, in structural terms by a kind of typical "leadership" pattern, and in "cognitive" terms by a set of implicit expectations that are helpful in explaining the group behavior (i.e., the group behaves "as if" it was assuming that). Here we adopt a formal approach derived from Socio-physics in order to explore some of the structural and dynamic properties of this small group dynamics. We will described data from an analytic DS model simulating small group interactions of agents endowed with a very simplified emotional and cognitive dynamic in order to assess the following main points: (1) are metastable collective states allowed to emerge in the model and if so, under which conditions in the parameter space? (2) can these states be differentiated in structural terms? (3) to what extent are the emergent dynamic features of the systems dependent of the system size? We will finally discuss possible future applications of the quantitative descriptions of the interaction structure in the small group clinical setting.

  8. Metastable structures and size effects in small group dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Lauro Grotto, Rosapia; Guazzini, Andrea; Bagnoli, Franco

    2014-01-01

    In his seminal works on group dynamics Bion defined a specific therapeutic setting allowing psychoanalytic observations on group phenomena. In describing the setting he proposed that the group was where his voice arrived. This physical limit was later made operative by assuming that the natural dimension of a therapeutic group is around 12 people. Bion introduced a theory of the group aspects of the mind in which proto-mental individual states spontaneously evolve into shared psychological states that are characterized by a series of features: (1) they emerge as a consequence of the natural tendency of (both conscious and unconscious) emotions to combine into structured group patterns; (2) they have a certain degree of stability in time; (3) they tend to alternate so that the dissolution of one is rapidly followed by the emergence of another; (4) they can be described in qualitative terms according to the nature of the emotional mix that dominates the state, in structural terms by a kind of typical “leadership” pattern, and in “cognitive” terms by a set of implicit expectations that are helpful in explaining the group behavior (i.e., the group behaves “as if” it was assuming that). Here we adopt a formal approach derived from Socio-physics in order to explore some of the structural and dynamic properties of this small group dynamics. We will described data from an analytic DS model simulating small group interactions of agents endowed with a very simplified emotional and cognitive dynamic in order to assess the following main points: (1) are metastable collective states allowed to emerge in the model and if so, under which conditions in the parameter space? (2) can these states be differentiated in structural terms? (3) to what extent are the emergent dynamic features of the systems dependent of the system size? We will finally discuss possible future applications of the quantitative descriptions of the interaction structure in the small group clinical

  9. 78 FR 37397 - Small Business Size Standards: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... June 20, 2013 Part V Small Business Administration 13 CFR Part 121 Small Business Size Standards; Final...; ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG43 Small Business Size Standards: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY:...

  10. Salary Management System for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Zhang; Guangli, Xu; Yuhuan, Zhang; Yilong, Lei

    Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in the process of wage entry, calculation, the total number are needed to be done manually in the past, the data volume is quite large, processing speed is low, and it is easy to make error, which is resulting in low efficiency. The main purpose of writing this paper is to present the basis of salary management system, establish a scientific database, the computer payroll system, using the computer instead of a lot of past manual work in order to reduce duplication of staff labor, it will improve working efficiency.This system combines the actual needs of SMEs, through in-depth study and practice of the C/S mode, PowerBuilder10.0 development tools, databases and SQL language, Completed a payroll system needs analysis, database design, application design and development work. Wages, departments, units and personnel database file are included in this system, and have data management, department management, personnel management and other functions, through the control and management of the database query, add, delete, modify, and other functions can be realized. This system is reasonable design, a more complete function, stable operation has been tested to meet the basic needs of the work.

  11. A small size continuous run industrial gamma irradiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, Wilson A. P.; Rela, Paulo R.; Springer, Francisco E.; Costa, Fábio E. da; Omi, Nelson M.; Silva, Leonardo G. A. e.

    2004-09-01

    A new small size gamma irradiator is being set up at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Brazil, with a revolutionary design. The developed technology for this facility consists of continuous tote box transport system, comprising a single concrete vault, where the automated transport system of products inside and outside of the irradiator utilizes a rotating door, integrated with the shielding, avoiding the traditional maze configuration. Covering 76 m 2 of floor area, the irradiator design is product overlap sources and the maximum capacity of Cobalt-60 wet sources is 37 PBq (1 MCi). The irradiator is being installed in a Governmental Institution and it will be used as a demonstration facility for manufacturers, who need an economic and logistic in-house irradiation system alternative. Also, it will be useful for supporting the local scientific community on development of products and process using gamma radiation, assisting the traditional and potential users on process validation, training and qualification of operators and radioprotection officers.

  12. Measuring the Size of a Small, Frost World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-01-01

    Observing a very rare occultation of a star by Pluto's satellite Charon from three different sites, including Paranal, home of the VLT, astronomers were able to determine with great accuracy the radius and density of the satellite to the farthest planet. The density, 1.71 that of water, is indicative of an icy body with about slightly more than half of rocks. The observations also put strong constraints on the existence of an atmosphere around Charon. ESO PR Photo 02a/06 ESO PR Photo 02a/06 Artist's Impression of the Pluto-Charon system Since its discovery in 1978, Charon and Pluto have appeared to form a double planet, rather than a planet-satellite couple. Actually, Charon is about twice as small as Pluto in size, and about eight times less massive. However, there have been considerable discussions concerning the precise radii of Pluto and Charon, as well as about the presence of a tenuous atmosphere around Charon. In August 2004, Australian amateur astronomer Dave Herald predicted that the 15-magnitude star UCAC2 26257135 should be occulted by Charon on 11 July 2005. The occultation would be observable from some parts of South America, including Cerro Paranal, in the northern Atacama Desert, the location of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). Stellar occultations have proved to be powerful tools to both measure sizes - at km-level accuracy, i.e. a factor ten better than what is feasible with other techniques - and detect very tenuous atmosphere - at microbar levels or less. Unfortunately, in the case of Charon, such occultations are extremely rare, owing to the very small angular diameter of the satellite on the sky: 55 milli-arcsec, i.e. the size of a one Euro coin observed from 100 km away! This explains why only one occultation by Charon was ever observed before 2005, namely on 7 April 1980 by Alistair Walker, from the South Africa Astronomical Observatory. Similarly, only in 1985, 1988 and 2002 could astronomers observe stellar occultations by Pluto. Quite

  13. Should We Try To Keep Class Sizes Small?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilman, David Alan; Kiger, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Class-size reduction is the subject of much debate in the education community. Findings from research studies on three top class-size reduction programs can help states and schools decide whether reducing class size will work for them. Provided are background information, research findings, and a prognosis for the future for Indiana's Project…

  14. 76 FR 70667 - Small Business Size Standards: Educational Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... comments; or (2) Mail/Hand Delivery/Courier: Khem R. Sharma, Ph.D., Chief, Size Standards Division, 409.... Sharma, Ph.D., Chief, Size Standards Division, 409 Third Street SW., Mail Code 6530, Washington, DC 20416... INFORMATION CONTACT: Khem R. Sharma, Ph.D., Chief, Size Standards Division, (202) 205-6618 or...

  15. Birth size and adult size in same-sex siblings discordant for fetal growth in the Early Determinants of Adult Health study

    PubMed Central

    Lumey, L. H.; Susser, E.; Andrews, H.; Gillman, M. W.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have reported on relations between birth size and adult size but the findings to date are hard to compare due to the lack of uniform measures across studies. Interpretation of findings is also hampered by potential confounding by ethnic, socioeconomic and family factors. The purpose of this study is to explore these relationships in a comprehensive fashion, with multiple measures of birth size and adult size, using same-sex sibling controls discordant in birth weight to address potential confounding at the family level. Study subjects include pregnant women enrolled during 1959–1966 in the Child Health and Development Study in Oakland, CA and the Boston, MA, and providence, RI, sites of the Collaborative Perinatal Project in New England, currently combined into the New England Family Study. We assessed 392 offspring (mean age 43 years), the great majority as sibships as available. Our analyses confirm the positive association between birth weight and adult length reported in other studies, with a change in adult height of 1.25 cm (95% CI: 0.79 to 1.70 cm) for each quintile change in standardized birth weight. No associations were seen between birth weight and adult fatness for which findings in other studies are highly variable. As adult weight is likely to reflect recent variations in the adult nutritional environment rather than the early environment, it may be more useful for studies of birth size and adult size to focus on adult length rather than weight measures in evaluating the role of early influences on adult health. PMID:24683446

  16. Lobectomy and limited resection in small-sized peripheral non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Koike, Terumoto; Sato, Seijiro; Hashimoto, Takehisa; Aoki, Tadashi; Yoshiya, Katsuo; Yamato, Yasushi; Watanabe, Takehiro; Akazawa, Kohei; Toyabe, Shin-Ichi; Tsuchida, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Background Although lobectomy is the standard surgical procedure for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), recent studies show favorable outcomes after limited resection in patients with small-sized peripheral tumors. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of such patients to estimate postoperative outcomes and pulmonary function following these surgical techniques. Methods Between 2005 and 2008, eligible patients with tumors of 2 cm or less were randomly assigned 1:1 to undergo lobectomy or limited resection; 32 and 33 NSCLC patients in each group, respectively, were analyzed. The primary end points were 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS), while the secondary end points were postoperative pulmonary function including forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1). Results The 5-year OS rates were 93.8% and 90.9% in the lobectomy and limited resection groups, respectively (P=0.921). The 5-year DFS rates were 93.8% and 90.9% in the lobectomy and limited resection groups, respectively (P=0.714). These rates did not differ significantly between the two resection groups. The median postoperative/preoperative FVC ratios were 84.1% and 90.0% in the lobectomy and limited resection groups, respectively, while the median postoperative/preoperative FEV1 ratios were 81.9% and 89.1%, respectively. Both ratios were significantly higher in the limited resection group (P=0.032 and P=0.005 for FVC and FEV1 ratios, respectively). Conclusions A similar outcome, with more preserved postoperative pulmonary function, was observed in patients who underwent limited resection compared to those who underwent lobectomy. Ongoing large-scale multi-institutional prospective randomized trials of lobar versus sublobar resection in patients with small peripheral NSCLCs will hopefully provide definitive information about intentional limited resection of small peripheral tumors. PMID:28066606

  17. 77 FR 42197 - Small Business Size Standards: Construction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... the instructions for submitting comments; or (2) Mail/Hand Delivery/Courier: Khem R. Sharma, Ph.D... Administration, Khem R. Sharma, Ph.D., Chief, Size Standards Division, 409 Third Street SW., Mail Code 6530... INFORMATION CONTACT: Jorge Laboy-Bruno, Ph.D., Economist, Size Standards Division, (202) 205-6618...

  18. How Small Is Big: Sample Size and Skewness.

    PubMed

    Piovesana, Adina; Senior, Graeme

    2016-09-21

    Sample sizes of 50 have been cited as sufficient to obtain stable means and standard deviations in normative test data. The influence of skewness on this minimum number, however, has not been evaluated. Normative test data with varying levels of skewness were compiled for 12 measures from 7 tests collected as part of ongoing normative studies in Brisbane, Australia. Means and standard deviations were computed from sample sizes of 10 to 100 drawn with replacement from larger samples of 272 to 973 cases. The minimum sample size was determined by the number at which both mean and standard deviation estimates remained within the 90% confidence intervals surrounding the population estimates. Sample sizes of greater than 85 were found to generate stable means and standard deviations regardless of the level of skewness, with smaller samples required in skewed distributions. A formula was derived to compute recommended sample size at differing levels of skewness.

  19. 75 FR 61597 - Small Business Size Standards: Retail Trade

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS... 454111--Electronic Shopping 25.0 30.0 $30.0 454112--Electronic Auctions 25.0 35.5 $35.5 454113--Mail...) database and certify at least annually that they are small in the Online Representations and...

  20. Podocyte Number in Children and Adults: Associations with Glomerular Size and Numbers of Other Glomerular Resident Cells.

    PubMed

    Puelles, Victor G; Douglas-Denton, Rebecca N; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A; Li, Jinhua; Hughson, Michael D; Hoy, Wendy E; Kerr, Peter G; Bertram, John F

    2015-09-01

    Increases in glomerular size occur with normal body growth and in many pathologic conditions. In this study, we determined associations between glomerular size and numbers of glomerular resident cells, with a particular focus on podocytes. Kidneys from 16 male Caucasian-Americans without overt renal disease, including 4 children (≤3 years old) to define baseline values of early life and 12 adults (≥18 years old), were collected at autopsy in Jackson, Mississippi. We used a combination of immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy, and design-based stereology to estimate individual glomerular volume (IGV) and numbers of podocytes, nonepithelial cells (NECs; tuft cells other than podocytes), and parietal epithelial cells (PECs). Podocyte density was calculated. Data are reported as medians and interquartile ranges (IQRs). Glomeruli from children were small and contained 452 podocytes (IQR=335-502), 389 NECs (IQR=265-498), and 146 PECs (IQR=111-206). Adult glomeruli contained significantly more cells than glomeruli from children, including 558 podocytes (IQR=431-746; P<0.01), 1383 NECs (IQR=998-2042; P<0.001), and 367 PECs (IQR=309-673; P<0.001). However, large adult glomeruli showed markedly lower podocyte density (183 podocytes per 10(6) µm(3)) than small glomeruli from adults and children (932 podocytes per 10(6) µm(3); P<0.001). In conclusion, large adult glomeruli contained more podocytes than small glomeruli from children and adults, raising questions about the origin of these podocytes. The increased number of podocytes in large glomeruli does not match the increase in glomerular size observed in adults, resulting in relative podocyte depletion. This may render hypertrophic glomeruli susceptible to pathology.

  1. 77 FR 58739 - Small Business Size Standards: Educational Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... contracts, including simulator based training, instructional training, simulator maintenance, courseware... modification to the aircraft platforms and simulators. The commenter argued that the size standard for NAICS..., according to the commenter, simulator based training, instructional training, courseware development...

  2. The REVEILLE Clock Genes Inhibit Growth of Juvenile and Adult Plants by Control of Cell Size.

    PubMed

    Gray, Jennifer A; Shalit-Kaneh, Akiva; Chu, Dalena Nhu; Hsu, Polly Yingshan; Harmer, Stacey L

    2017-04-01

    The circadian clock is a complex regulatory network that enhances plant growth and fitness in a constantly changing environment. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the clock is composed of numerous regulatory feedback loops in which REVEILLE8 (RVE8) and its homologs RVE4 and RVE6 act in a partially redundant manner to promote clock pace. Here, we report that the remaining members of the RVE8 clade, RVE3 and RVE5, play only minor roles in the regulation of clock function. However, we find that RVE8 clade proteins have unexpected functions in the modulation of light input to the clock and the control of plant growth at multiple stages of development. In seedlings, these proteins repress hypocotyl elongation in a daylength- and sucrose-dependent manner. Strikingly, adult rve4 6 8 and rve3 4 5 6 8 mutants are much larger than wild-type plants, with both increased leaf area and biomass. This size phenotype is associated with a faster growth rate and larger cell size and is not simply due to a delay in the transition to flowering. Gene expression and epistasis analysis reveal that the growth phenotypes of rve mutants are due to the misregulation of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) and PIF5 expression. Our results show that even small changes in PIF gene expression caused by the perturbation of clock gene function can have large effects on the growth of adult plants.

  3. TiN nanoparticles: small size-selected fabrication and their quantum size effect

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Size-selected TiN nanoclusters in the range of 4 to 20 nm have been produced by an ionized cluster beam, which combines a glow-discharge sputtering with an inert gas condensation technique. With this method, by controlling the experimental conditions, it was possible to produce nanoparticles with a high control in size. The size distribution of TiN nanoparticles was determined before deposition by mass spectroscopy and confirmed by atomic force microscopy. The size distribution was also analyzed using a high-resolution transmission electron micrograph. The photoluminescence [PL] spectra of TiN nanoparticles at different sizes were also experimentally investigated. We reported, for the first time, the strong visible luminescence of TiN nanoparticles on Si (111) wafer due to the reduced size. We also discussed the PL intensity as a function of the nanoparticle size distribution. PMID:22252375

  4. Exploring Organizational Learning Mechanisms in Small-Size Business Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Carroll M.; Nafukho, Fredrick M.

    2008-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the importance of existing organizational learning mechanisms and establish the size and magnitude of the relationship among the organizational learning mechanisms. Of great import also was to determine whether statistically significant relationships existed among the organizational learning…

  5. Primary School Size and Pupil Attitudes: Small Is Happy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie J.

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes findings of a study exploring student attitudes to schools of different size. A semantic differentiate scale of attitude toward school was completed by 4,746 (British) pupils from 192 primary or junior schools. Those attending schools of 60 or fewer showed more positive attitudes than those attending larger schools. (45 references) (MLH)

  6. School Size as a Factor in Financing Small Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alspaugh, John W.

    This paper examines the effects of enrollment on the financing of small rural K-8 versus K-12 school districts in Missouri and compares the educational outcomes of K-8 and K-12 districts. The sample included 48 K-8 and 48 K-12 districts with K-8 enrollments ranging from 70 to 370 students. Findings indicate that it is more difficult to financially…

  7. Precision of Student Growth Percentiles with Small Sample Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    States in the Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Central region serve a largely rural population with many states enrolling fewer than 350,000 students. A common challenge identified among REL Central educators is identifying appropriate methods for analyzing data with small samples of students. In particular, members of the REL Central…

  8. Small molecule-based approaches to adult stem cell therapies.

    PubMed

    Lairson, Luke L; Lyssiotis, Costas A; Zhu, Shoutian; Schultz, Peter G

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the development of stem cell-based strategies for the treatment of a broad range of human diseases, including neurodegenerative, autoimmune, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal diseases. To date, such regenerative approaches have focused largely on the development of cell transplantation therapies using cells derived from pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Although there have been exciting preliminary reports describing the efficacy of ESC-derived replacement therapies, approaches involving ex vivo manipulated ESCs are hindered by issues of mutation, immune rejection, and ethical controversy. An alternative approach involves direct in vivo modulation or ex vivo expansion of endogenous adult stem cell populations using drug-like small molecules. Here we describe chemical approaches to the regulation of somatic stem cell biology that are yielding new biological insights and that may ultimately lead to innovative new medicines.

  9. 76 FR 35263 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice: correction. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business Administration...

  10. 78 FR 42817 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule AGENCY: U.S. Small Business.... Small Business Administration (SBA) intends to rescind a class waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule...

  11. Technology needs of small and medium size manufacturers

    SciTech Connect

    Kohls, J.B.

    1986-03-01

    The equipment needs and technical requirements of both large and small manufacturers are similar but the application and integration of them is different. The peaks and valleys of the manufacturing business cause greater risks for the small manufacturers. Therefore, equipment purchases must be justified over relatively short payback periods. Most of the real benefit from implementing new manufacturing equipment comes from the organization and discipline required by the planning and control functions of these new systems. These types of benefits, if understood, can be utilized without extensive purchases of new equipment and the related financial risks. Therefore, in marketing technology to these companies today, it is imperative to remember the importance of marketing the traditional mission of business management: planning and control.

  12. Endocranial volume of Australopithecus africanus: new CT-based estimates and the effects of missing data and small sample size.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Simon; Gunz, Philipp; Weber, Gerhard W; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2012-04-01

    Estimation of endocranial volume in Australopithecus africanus is important in interpreting early hominin brain evolution. However, the number of individuals available for investigation is limited and most of these fossils are, to some degree, incomplete and/or distorted. Uncertainties of the required reconstruction ('missing data uncertainty') and the small sample size ('small sample uncertainty') both potentially bias estimates of the average and within-group variation of endocranial volume in A. africanus. We used CT scans, electronic preparation (segmentation), mirror-imaging and semilandmark-based geometric morphometrics to generate and reconstruct complete endocasts for Sts 5, Sts 60, Sts 71, StW 505, MLD 37/38, and Taung, and measured their endocranial volumes (EV). To get a sense of the reliability of these new EV estimates, we then used simulations based on samples of chimpanzees and humans to: (a) test the accuracy of our approach, (b) assess missing data uncertainty, and (c) appraise small sample uncertainty. Incorporating missing data uncertainty of the five adult individuals, A. africanus was found to have an average adult endocranial volume of 454-461 ml with a standard deviation of 66-75 ml. EV estimates for the juvenile Taung individual range from 402 to 407 ml. Our simulations show that missing data uncertainty is small given the missing portions of the investigated fossils, but that small sample sizes are problematic for estimating species average EV. It is important to take these uncertainties into account when different fossil groups are being compared.

  13. Data acquisition system for small to medium size experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaat, C. Th. A. M.; Kuijer, P. G.

    1994-02-01

    A flexible distributed data acquisition system, for use in various small to medium scale experiments has been developed. The system can use a variety of standard host computers, among them common workstation UNIX-flavor and VAX-VMS systems, and commercial real time kernels VAXELN, VxWorks, and DECElx. The software system includes modules for analysis, run control and list directed read-out function. Communication between the various process are done via TCP/IP sockets and/or DECNET. In this contribution the structure of the host and front-end software is explained.

  14. A new small-sized Theloderma (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Laos.

    PubMed

    Sivongxay, Niane; Davankham, Monekham; Phimmachak, Somphouthone; Phoumixay, Keochay; Stuart, Bryan L

    2016-08-05

    A new species of the rhacophorid frog genus Theloderma is described from the forested shoreline of the Nam Lik Reservoir, Vientiane Province, Laos. The new species differs from its congeners by having the combination of males with SVL 17.0-20.6; pearly asperities on dorsum; no vomerine teeth; disc diameter of finger III ca. 40% of tympanum diameter; uniformly gray venter; light brown dorsum with darker brown and black markings; and a uniformly bronze iris with small black reticulations. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequence data infers that the new species is most closely related to T. lateriticum from northern Vietnam. Evidence for the monophyly of Theloderma is reviewed.

  15. Substrate size and heterogeneity control anomalous transport in small streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubeneau, A. F.; Hanrahan, Brittany; Bolster, Diogo; Tank, Jennifer L.

    2014-12-01

    In alluvial systems, substrate characteristics play a critical role in slowing downstream transport of both water and solutes. We present results from solute injection experiments testing the influence of sediment size (pea gravel versus coarse gravel) and heterogeneity (alternating sections versus well-mixed reaches) on solute transport dynamics in four experimental streams at the Notre Dame Linked Experimental Ecosystem Facility. The stream with pea gravel resulted in more long-term retention than the stream with coarse gravel, whereas both streams with heterogeneous substrate (alternated and mixed) fell between with similar late-time scaling. Inverse modeling of solute breakthrough curves suggested that residence times were distributed according to a truncated power law. While conservative solute transport in all four streams was anomalous, truncation times were influenced by sediment size, with the smaller pea gravel exhibiting a later truncation time than the coarse gravel, and the two streams with heterogeneous substrate having an intermediate cutoff. These results uniquely associate transport scaling with substrate characteristics in fluvial systems, revealing truncation time scales that had been previously predicted but not observed and quantified in field conditions. Because both benthic (i.e., substrate-water interface) and subsurface hyporheic regions are known biogeochemical hot spots, relating physical characteristics to the macroscopic transport behavior could be crucial to improve our estimates of solute export from fluvial systems.

  16. Small Effective Population Sizes and Rare Nonsynonymous Variants in Potyviruses

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Austin L.

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of nucleotide sequence polymorphism in complete genomes of 12 species of potyviruses (single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses, family Potyviridae) revealed evidence that long-term effective population sizes of these viruses are on the order of 104. Comparison of nucleotide diversity in non-coding regions and at synonymous and nonsynonymous sites in coding regions showed that purifying selection has acted to eliminate numerous deleterious mutations both at nonsynonymous sites and in non-coding regions. The ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous polymorphic sites increased as a function of the number of genomes sampled, whereas mean gene diversity at nonsynonymous polymorphic sites decreased with increasing sample size at a substantially faster rate than does mean gene diversity at synonymous polymorphic sites. Very similar relationships were observed both in available genomic sequences of 12 potyvirus species and in subsets created by randomly sampling from among 98 TuMV genomes. Taken together, these observations imply that a greater proportion of nonsynonymous than of synonymous variants are relatively rare as the result of ongoing purifying selection, and thus many nonsynonymous variants are unlikely to be discovered without extensive sampling. PMID:19695658

  17. Ethanol production in small- to medium-size facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiler, E. A.; Coble, C. G.; Oneal, H. P.; Sweeten, J. M.; Reidenbach, V. G.; Schelling, G. T.; Lawhon, J. T.; Kay, R. D.; Lepori, W. A.; Aldred, W. H.

    1982-04-01

    In early 1980 system design criteria were developed for a small-scale ethanol production plant. The plant was eventually installed on November 1, 1980. It has a production capacity of 30 liters per hour; this can be increased easily (if desired) to 60 liters per hour with additional fermentation tanks. Sixty-six test runs were conducted to date in the alcohol production facility. Feedstocks evaluated in these tests include: corn (28 runs); grain sorghum (33 runs); grain sorghum grits (1 run); half corn/half sorghum (1 run); and sugarcane juice (3 runs). In addition, a small bench-scale fermentation and distillation system was used to evaluate sugarcane and sweet sorghum feedstocks prior to their evaluation in the larger unit. In each of these tests, evaluation of the following items was conducted: preprocessing requirements; operational problems; conversion efficiency (for example, liters of alcohol produced per kilogram of feedstock); energy balance and efficiency; nutritional recovery from stillage; solids separation by screw press; chemical characterization of stillage including liquid and solids fractions; wastewater requirements; and air pollution potential.

  18. Landscape Simplification Constrains Adult Size in a Native Ground-Nesting Bee

    PubMed Central

    Renauld, Miles; Hutchinson, Alena; Loeb, Gregory; Poveda, Katja; Connelly, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Bees provide critical pollination services to 87% of angiosperm plants; however, the reliability of these services may become threatened as bee populations decline. Agricultural intensification, resulting in the simplification of environments at the landscape scale, greatly changes the quality and quantity of resources available for female bees to provision their offspring. These changes may alter or constrain the tradeoffs in maternal investment allocation between offspring size, number and sex required to maximize fitness. Here we investigate the relationship between landscape scale agricultural intensification and the size and number of individuals within a wild ground nesting bee species, Andrena nasonii. We show that agricultural intensification at the landscape scale was associated with a reduction in the average size of field collected A. nasonii adults in highly agricultural landscapes but not with the number of individuals collected. Small females carried significantly smaller (40%) pollen loads than large females, which is likely to have consequences for subsequent offspring production and fitness. Thus, landscape simplification is likely to constrain allocation of resources to offspring through a reduction in the overall quantity, quality and distribution of resources. PMID:26943127

  19. Managers' Understanding of Workplace Health Promotion within Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Ann; Parahoo, Kader; Fleming, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed at exploring managers' understanding of workplace health promotion and experiences of workplace health promotion activity within small and medium-sized enterprises. Design: A Heideggerian interpretive phenomenological methodology was adopted. Setting: This study was undertaken with small and medium-sized enterprise…

  20. Effects of Group Size on Students Mathematics Achievement in Small Group Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enu, Justice; Danso, Paul Amoah; Awortwe, Peter K.

    2015-01-01

    An ideal group size is hard to obtain in small group settings; hence there are groups with more members than others. The purpose of the study was to find out whether group size has any effects on students' mathematics achievement in small group settings. Two third year classes of the 2011/2012 academic year were selected from two schools in the…

  1. Design and implementation of web server soft load balancing in small and medium-sized enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Liu

    2011-12-01

    With the expansion of business scale, small and medium-sized enterprises began to use information platform to improve their management and competition ability, the server becomes the core factor which restricts the enterprise's infomationization construction. This paper puts forward a suitable design scheme for small and medium-sized enterprise web server soft load balancing, and proved it effective through experiment.

  2. Using the Student's "t"-Test with Extremely Small Sample Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Winter, J. C .F.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers occasionally have to work with an extremely small sample size, defined herein as "N" less than or equal to 5. Some methodologists have cautioned against using the "t"-test when the sample size is extremely small, whereas others have suggested that using the "t"-test is feasible in such a case. The present…

  3. Correlation of elastomer material properties from small specimen tests and scale-size bearing tests

    SciTech Connect

    Kulak, R.F.; Hughes, T.H.

    1994-06-01

    Tests were performed on small-size elastomer specimens and scale-size laminated elastomeric bearings to correlate the material properties in shear between the two types of tests. An objective of the tests was to see how well the material properties that were determined from specimen tests could predict the response of scale-size laminated elastomeric bearings. Another objective was to compare the results of specimen test and scale-size bearing test conducted by different testing organizations. A comparison between the test results from different organizations on small specimens showed very good agreement. In contrast, the correlation of scale-size bearing tests showed differences in bearing stiffness.

  4. Comparing Server Energy Use and Efficiency Using Small Sample Sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, Henry C.; Qin, Yong; Price, Phillip N.

    2014-11-01

    This report documents a demonstration that compared the energy consumption and efficiency of a limited sample size of server-type IT equipment from different manufacturers by measuring power at the server power supply power cords. The results are specific to the equipment and methods used. However, it is hoped that those responsible for IT equipment selection can used the methods described to choose models that optimize energy use efficiency. The demonstration was conducted in a data center at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California. It was performed with five servers of similar mechanical and electronic specifications; three from Intel and one each from Dell and Supermicro. Server IT equipment is constructed using commodity components, server manufacturer-designed assemblies, and control systems. Server compute efficiency is constrained by the commodity component specifications and integration requirements. The design freedom, outside of the commodity component constraints, provides room for the manufacturer to offer a product with competitive efficiency that meets market needs at a compelling price. A goal of the demonstration was to compare and quantify the server efficiency for three different brands. The efficiency is defined as the average compute rate (computations per unit of time) divided by the average energy consumption rate. The research team used an industry standard benchmark software package to provide a repeatable software load to obtain the compute rate and provide a variety of power consumption levels. Energy use when the servers were in an idle state (not providing computing work) were also measured. At high server compute loads, all brands, using the same key components (processors and memory), had similar results; therefore, from these results, it could not be concluded that one brand is more efficient than the other brands. The test results show that the power consumption variability caused by the key components as a

  5. The Structure and Climate of Size: Small Scale Schooling in an Urban District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeChasseur, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    This study explores mechanisms involved in small scale schooling and student engagement. Specifically, this study questions the validity of arguments for small scale schooling reforms that confound the promised effects of small scale schooling "structures" (such as smaller enrollments, schools-within-schools, and smaller class sizes)…

  6. 76 FR 14323 - Small Business Size Standards: Professional, Scientific and Technical Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG07 Small Business Size Standards: Professional, Scientific and Technical Services AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The...

  7. 77 FR 56755 - Small Business Size Standards; Adoption of 2012 North American Industry Classification System for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... / Friday, September 14, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121... System for Size Standards; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Interim final rule; correction. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is correcting an interim...

  8. The Small Nuclear Genomes of Selaginella Are Associated with a Low Rate of Genome Size Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Baniaga, Anthony E.; Arrigo, Nils; Barker, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    The haploid nuclear genome size (1C DNA) of vascular land plants varies over several orders of magnitude. Much of this observed diversity in genome size is due to the proliferation and deletion of transposable elements. To date, all vascular land plant lineages with extremely small nuclear genomes represent recently derived states, having ancestors with much larger genome sizes. The Selaginellaceae represent an ancient lineage with extremely small genomes. It is unclear how small nuclear genomes evolved in Selaginella. We compared the rates of nuclear genome size evolution in Selaginella and major vascular plant clades in a comparative phylogenetic framework. For the analyses, we collected 29 new flow cytometry estimates of haploid genome size in Selaginella to augment publicly available data. Selaginella possess some of the smallest known haploid nuclear genome sizes, as well as the lowest rate of genome size evolution observed across all vascular land plants included in our analyses. Additionally, our analyses provide strong support for a history of haploid nuclear genome size stasis in Selaginella. Our results indicate that Selaginella, similar to other early diverging lineages of vascular land plants, has relatively low rates of genome size evolution. Further, our analyses highlight that a rapid transition to a small genome size is only one route to an extremely small genome. PMID:27189987

  9. The Small Nuclear Genomes of Selaginella Are Associated with a Low Rate of Genome Size Evolution.

    PubMed

    Baniaga, Anthony E; Arrigo, Nils; Barker, Michael S

    2016-06-03

    The haploid nuclear genome size (1C DNA) of vascular land plants varies over several orders of magnitude. Much of this observed diversity in genome size is due to the proliferation and deletion of transposable elements. To date, all vascular land plant lineages with extremely small nuclear genomes represent recently derived states, having ancestors with much larger genome sizes. The Selaginellaceae represent an ancient lineage with extremely small genomes. It is unclear how small nuclear genomes evolved in Selaginella We compared the rates of nuclear genome size evolution in Selaginella and major vascular plant clades in a comparative phylogenetic framework. For the analyses, we collected 29 new flow cytometry estimates of haploid genome size in Selaginella to augment publicly available data. Selaginella possess some of the smallest known haploid nuclear genome sizes, as well as the lowest rate of genome size evolution observed across all vascular land plants included in our analyses. Additionally, our analyses provide strong support for a history of haploid nuclear genome size stasis in Selaginella Our results indicate that Selaginella, similar to other early diverging lineages of vascular land plants, has relatively low rates of genome size evolution. Further, our analyses highlight that a rapid transition to a small genome size is only one route to an extremely small genome.

  10. Prey size selection and distance estimation in foraging adult dragonflies.

    PubMed

    Olberg, R M; Worthington, A H; Fox, J L; Bessette, C E; Loosemore, M P

    2005-09-01

    To determine whether perching dragonflies visually assess the distance to potential prey items, we presented artificial prey, glass beads suspended from fine wires, to perching dragonflies in the field. We videotaped the responses of freely foraging dragonflies (Libellula luctuosa and Sympetrum vicinum-Odonata, suborder Anisoptera) to beads ranging from 0.5 mm to 8 mm in diameter, recording whether or not the dragonflies took off after the beads, and if so, at what distance. Our results indicated that dragonflies were highly selective for bead size. Furthermore, the smaller Sympetrum preferred beads of smaller size and the larger Libellula preferred larger beads. Each species rejected beads as large or larger than their heads, even when the beads subtended the same visual angles as the smaller, attractive beads. Since bead size cannot be determined without reference to distance, we conclude that dragonflies are able to estimate the distance to potential prey items. The range over which they estimate distance is about 1 m for the larger Libellula and 70 cm for the smaller Sympetrum. The mechanism of distance estimation is unknown, but it probably includes both stereopsis and the motion parallax produced by head movements.

  11. Birth weight, Early Life Course BMI, and Body Size Change: Chains of Risk to Adult Inflammation?

    PubMed Central

    Goosby, Bridget J.; Cheadle, Jacob E.; McDade, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how body size changes over the early life course predict high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in a U.S. based sample. Using three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we test the chronic disease epidemiological models of fetal origins, sensitive periods, and chains of risk from birth into adulthood. Few studies link birth weight and changes in obesity status over adolescence and early adulthood to adult obesity and inflammation. Consistent with fetal origins and sensitive periods hypotheses, body size and obesity status at each developmental period, along with increasing body size between periods, are highly correlated with adult CRP. However, the predictive power of earlier life course periods is mediated by body size and body size change at later periods in a pattern consistent with the chains of risk model. Adult increases in obesity had effect sizes of nearly .3sd, and effect sizes from overweight to the largest obesity categories were between .3–1sd. There was also evidence that risk can be offset by weight loss, which suggests that interventions can reduce inflammation and cardiovascular risk, that females are more sensitive to body size changes, and that body size trajectories over the early life course account for African American-and Hispanic-white disparities in adult inflammation. PMID:26685708

  12. Effects of YORP-induced rotational fission on the small size end of the Main Belt asteroid size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Alessandro; Jacobson, S.; Marzari, F.; Scheeres, D.; Davis, D. R.

    2013-10-01

    From the results of a comprehensive asteroid population evolution model, we conclude that the YORP-induced rotational fission hypothesis has strong repercussions for the small size end of the Main Belt asteroid size frequency distribution. These results are consistent with observed asteroid population statistics. The foundation of this model is the asteroid rotation model of Marzari et al. (2011), which incorporates both the YORP effect and collisional evolution. This work adds to that model the rotational fission hypothesis (i.e. when the rotation rate exceeds a critical value, erosion and binary formation occur). The YORP effect timescale for large asteroids with diameters D > ~6 km is longer than the collision timescale in the Main Belt, thus the frequency of large asteroids is determined by a collisional equilibrium (e.g. Bottke 2005), but for small asteroids with diameters D < ~6 km, the asteroid population evolution model confirms that YORP-induced rotational fission destroys small asteroids more frequently than collisions. Therefore, the frequency of these small asteroids is determined by an equilibrium between the creation of new asteroids out of the impact debris of larger asteroids and the destruction of these asteroids by YORP-induced rotational fission. By introducing a new source of destruction that varies strongly with size, YORP-induced rotational fission alters the slope of the size frequency distribution. Using the outputs of the asteroid population evolution model and a 1-D collision evolution model, we can generate this new size frequency distribution and it matches the change in slope observed by the SKADS survey (Gladman 2009). This agreement is achieved with both an accretional power-law or a truncated “Asteroids were Born Big” size frequency distribution (Weidenschilling 2010, Morbidelli 2009).

  13. A Study of Developmental Collaborative Diagnosis in Small Groups of Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rominger, Roger Kyle

    The author developed a theory of developmental collaborative diagnosis for small groups of adult learners, constructed a procedural model, and identified possible advantages of such diagnosis. Data were gathered from the fields of adult education, diagnosis, and social psychology, from consultations with adult education professors, and from…

  14. Small portion sizes in worksite cafeterias: do they help consumers to reduce their food intake?

    PubMed Central

    Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Leeuwis, F H; Heymans, M W; Seidell, J C

    2011-01-01

    Background: Environmental interventions directed at portion size might help consumers to reduce their food intake. Objective: To assess whether offering a smaller hot meal, in addition to the existing size, stimulates people to replace their large meal with a smaller meal. Design: Longitudinal randomized controlled trial assessing the impact of introducing small portion sizes and pricing strategies on consumer choices. Setting/participants: In all, 25 worksite cafeterias and a panel consisting of 308 consumers (mean age=39.18 years, 50% women). Intervention: A small portion size of hot meals was offered in addition to the existing size. The meals were either proportionally priced (that is, the price per gram was comparable regardless of the size) or value size pricing was employed. Main outcome measures: Daily sales of small and the total number of meals, consumers' self-reported compensation behavior and frequency of purchasing small meals. Results: The ratio of small meals sales in relation to large meals sales was 10.2%. No effect of proportional pricing was found B=−0.11 (0.33), P=0.74, confidence interval (CI): −0.76 to 0.54). The consumer data indicated that 19.5% of the participants who had selected a small meal often-to-always purchased more products than usual in the worksite cafeteria. Small meal purchases were negatively related to being male (B=−0.85 (0.20), P=0.00, CI: −1.24 to −0.46, n=178). Conclusion: When offering a small meal in addition to the existing size, a percentage of consumers that is considered reasonable were inclined to replace the large meal with the small meal. Proportional prices did not have an additional effect. The possible occurrence of compensation behavior is an issue that merits further attention. PMID:21224829

  15. [Obesity in adults: a population based study in a small town in South of Brazil, 2005].

    PubMed

    Sarturi, Juliana Barbosa; das Neves, Janaina; Peres, Karen Glazer

    2010-01-01

    Changes in nutritional pattern in Brazilian population have been observed mainly in relation to obesity increase. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of obesity and associated factors in adult population in Santo Angelo, Rio Grande do Sul State, 2005. A cross sectional study was carried out involving adult subjects from 20 to 59 years old (n=434), of both sexes. People with Body Mass Index equal to or higher than 30 kg/m(2) were considered obese. A questionnaire was applied to collect data related to socioeconomic, demographic, and behavioral conditions. The multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the associated factors. The response rate was 95.0% and the prevalence of obesity was equal to 16.6% (CI 95% 13.120.1). Presence of obesity was positively associated with lack of physical activity, none feeding habits care, and some individuals that mentioned current health problems regardless of sex. The prevalence of obesity found was similar to other Brazilian population based studies. The results may support planning and implementing prevention actions as well as obesity control in adult population taking into account the relevant details of a small size town.

  16. Large- and small-size advantages in sneaking behaviour in the dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takegaki, Takeshi; Kaneko, Takashi; Matsumoto, Yukio

    2012-04-01

    Sneaking tactic, a male alternative reproductive tactic involving sperm competition, is generally adopted by small individuals because of its inconspicuousness. However, large size has an advantage when competition occurs between sneakers for fertilization of eggs. Here, we suggest that both large- and small-size advantages of sneaker males are present within the same species. Large sneaker males of the dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus showed a high success rate in intruding into spawning nests because of their advantage in competition among sneaker males in keeping a suitable position to sneak, whereas small sneakers had few chances to sneak. However, small sneaker males were able to stay in the nests longer than large sneaker males when they succeeded in sneak intrusion. This suggests the possibility of an increase in their paternity. The findings of these size-specific behavioural advantages may be important in considering the evolution of size-related reproductive traits.

  17. Large- and small-size advantages in sneaking behaviour in the dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus.

    PubMed

    Takegaki, Takeshi; Kaneko, Takashi; Matsumoto, Yukio

    2012-04-01

    Sneaking tactic, a male alternative reproductive tactic involving sperm competition, is generally adopted by small individuals because of its inconspicuousness. However, large size has an advantage when competition occurs between sneakers for fertilization of eggs. Here, we suggest that both large- and small-size advantages of sneaker males are present within the same species. Large sneaker males of the dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus showed a high success rate in intruding into spawning nests because of their advantage in competition among sneaker males in keeping a suitable position to sneak, whereas small sneakers had few chances to sneak. However, small sneaker males were able to stay in the nests longer than large sneaker males when they succeeded in sneak intrusion. This suggests the possibility of an increase in their paternity. The findings of these size-specific behavioural advantages may be important in considering the evolution of size-related reproductive traits.

  18. Small-size, high-resolution angular displacement measurement technology based on an imaging detector.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hai; Wan, Qiuhua; Lu, Xinran; Du, Yingcai; Yang, Shouwang

    2017-01-20

    It is challenging to design a photoelectric encoder that is small in size while ensuring it has sufficiently high resolution and accuracy. Traditional displacement measurement via the moiré fringe signal does not facilitate high resolution at small grate sizes; photoelectric and digital photo processing can significantly improve the angle measurement resolution over traditional techniques. The primary focus of this paper includes grating displacement coding and decoding, as well as the corresponding high-resolution subdivision and measurement error factors. A small-size absolute photographic encoder was designed (50 mm diameter) that exhibits resolution of 1.24'' (20 bit) with a standard deviation of error of 14.3''. The results presented here may provide a theoretical and technological foundation for further research on small-size, high-resolution photographic rotary encoders.

  19. Thermodynamics of small systems embedded in a reservoir: a detailed analysis of finite size effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnell, Sondre K.; Vlugt, Thijs J. H.; Simon, Jean-Marc; Bedeaux, Dick; Kjelstrup, Signe

    2012-06-01

    We present a detailed study on the finite size scaling behaviour of thermodynamic properties for small systems of particles embedded in a reservoir. Previously, we derived that the leading finite size effects of thermodynamic properties for small systems scale with the inverse of the linear length of the small system, and we showed how this can be used to describe systems in the thermodynamic limit [Chem. Phys. Lett. 504, 199 (2011)]. This approach takes into account an effective surface energy, as a result of the non-periodic boundaries of the small embedded system. Deviations from the linear behaviour occur when the small system becomes very small, i.e. smaller than three times the particle diameter in each direction. At this scale, so-called nook- and corner effects will become important. In this work, we present a detailed analysis to explain this behaviour. In addition, we present a model for the finite size scaling when the size of the small system is of the same order of magnitude as the reservoir. The developed theory is validated using molecular simulations of systems containing Lennard-Jones and WCA particles, and leads to significant improvements over our previous approach. Our approach eventually leads to an efficient method to compute the thermodynamic factor of macroscopic systems from finite size scaling, which is for example required for converting Fick and Maxwell-Stefan transport diffusivities.

  20. Completeness of the fossil record: Estimating losses due to small body size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Roger A.; Maxwell, Phillip A.; Crampton, James S.; Beu, Alan G.; Jones, Craig M.; Marshall, Bruce A.

    2006-04-01

    Size bias in the fossil record limits its use for interpreting patterns of past biodiversity and ecological change. Using comparative size frequency distributions of exceptionally good regional records of New Zealand Holocene and Cenozoic Mollusca in museum archive collections, we derive first-order estimates of the magnitude of the bias against small body size and the effect of this bias on completeness of the fossil record. Our database of 3907 fossil species represents an original living pool of 9086 species, from which ˜36% have been removed by size culling, 27% from the smallest size class (<5 mm). In contrast, non-size-related losses compose only 21% of the total. In soft rocks, the loss of small taxa can be reduced by nearly 50% through the employment of exhaustive collection and preparation techniques.

  1. The Future of Small- and Medium-Sized Communities in the Prairie Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellar, Barry S., Ed.

    Four papers are featured. The first is a statistical overview and analysis of past, present and future happenings to small communities in the Region; it focuses on two indicators: (1) population growth or declining community class size and, (2) the changing distribution of commercial outlets by community class size. The other three papers report…

  2. 78 FR 37409 - Small Business Size Standards: Finance and Insurance and Management of Companies and Enterprises

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG45 Small Business Size Standards: Finance and Insurance and Management... two industries in NAICS Sector 55, Management of Companies and Enterprises. In addition, SBA is... Investment Trusts, from its table of size standards. The U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB)...

  3. 77 FR 58755 - Small Business Size Standards: Health Care and Social Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG30 Small Business Size Standards: Health Care and Social Assistance... Classification System (NAICS) Sector 62, Health Care and Social Assistance, and retaining the current standards..., Health Care and Social Assistance, to determine whether the existing size standards should be retained...

  4. Sustainability and Small to Medium Sized Enterprises--How to Engage Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condon, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have a major advantage over larger organisations in regard to addressing sustainability issues--their size means they are able to react very quickly to changes in the business environment. They are disadvantaged, however, by lack of information on marketplace changes that make sustainability an opportunity…

  5. Can adult and juvenile European rabbits be differentiated by their pellet sizes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delibes-Mateos, Miguel; Rouco, Carlos; Villafuerte, Rafael

    2009-03-01

    Recently, a new method for differentiating juvenile and adult rabbits based on faecal pellet size was published. According to this method, pellets >6 mm diameter are inferred to be deposited by adults, while those <6 mm are inferred to be from juveniles or kittens. In this study, we designed a simple experiment to test the accuracy of this methodology. Twelve adult rabbits were housed in individual outdoor cages and their pellets were removed every day for 10 consecutive days. Pellets were separated using a sieve according to their size and counted. Results showed that adult rabbits produce pellets >6 mm diameter in the same proportion as those <6 mm. We also observed a strong influence of the individual rabbit on pellet size; some rabbits produce a high proportion of pellets >6 mm, whereas others deposit mostly pellets <6 mm in size. Our findings demonstrate that pellet size is unsuitable for aging wild rabbits. Field biologists should therefore be cautious when employing the pellet size method of age determination in other wild animals in the absence of validating studies.

  6. Attributes and Statuses of College Students Associated with Classroom Cheating on a Small-Sized Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, Russell L.

    2004-01-01

    This exploratory study examines self-reported acts of academic dishonesty for a sample of 858 undergraduate, graduate, and professional students on a small college campus (8,350 students). The study raises awareness to the occurrences, and challenges of academic dishonesty at small-sized institutions, somewhat overlooked in empirical research.…

  7. 78 FR 45051 - Small Business Size Standards; Support Activities for Mining; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG44 Small Business Size Standards; Support Activities for Mining... System (NAICS) Subsector 213, Support Activities for Mining, that are based on average annual...

  8. Successful E-Learning in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    So far, e-learning has primarily been used when there are many learners involved. The up-front investments related to e-learning are relatively high, and may be perceived as prohibitive for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Some e-learning is, however, getting less expensive, and some e-learning models are more suited for small-scale…

  9. Size Matters: An Exploratory Comparison of Small- and Large-Class University Lecture Introductions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joseph J.

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the impact of class size on the rhetorical move structures and lexico-grammatical features of academic lecture introductions. From the MICASE corpus (The Michigan Corpus of Academic Spoken English), two small corpora of lecture introductions of small- and large-class lectures were compiled. Using a genre-based…

  10. Assessing the Effects of Small School Size on Mathematics Achievement: A Propensity Score-Matching Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Keesler, Venessa; Schneider, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Background: Small schools have been promoted as an educational reform that is capable of improving student outcomes. However, a survey of the research on small schools indicates that much of the movement for decreasing school size is based primarily on correlational methods that do not control for selection effects in the data. In addition,…

  11. 77 FR 49991 - Small Business Size Standards; Adoption of 2012 North American Industry Classification System for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... 3245-AG47 Small Business Size Standards; Adoption of 2012 North American Industry Classification System... North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), identified as NAICS 2012, into its table of small..., replacing the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) System, effective October 1, 2000 (65 FR 30836 (May...

  12. Novel estimates of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) population size and adult survival based on Wolbachia releases.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Scott A; Montgomery, Brian L; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2013-05-01

    The size of Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquito populations and adult survival rates have proven difficult to estimate because of a lack of consistent quantitative measures to equate sampling methods, such as adult trapping, to actual population size. However, such estimates are critical for devising control methods and for modeling the transmission of dengue and other infectious agents carried by this species. Here we take advantage of recent releases of Wolbachia-infected Ae. aegypti coupled with the results of ongoing monitoring to estimate the size of adult Ae. aegypti populations around Cairns in far north Queensland, Australia. Based on the association between released adults infected with Wolbachia and data from Biogents Sentinel traps, we show that data from two locations are consistent with population estimates of approximately 5-10 females per house and daily survival rates of 0.7-0.9 for the released Wolbachia-infected females. Moreover, we estimate that networks of Biogents Sentinel traps at a density of one per 15 houses capture around 5-10% of the adult population per week, and provide a rapid estimate of the absolute population size of Ae. aegypti. These data are discussed with respect to release rates and monitoring in future Wolbachia releases and also the levels of suppression required to reduce dengue transmission.

  13. Effects of corridors on home range sizes and interpatch movements of three small mammal species.

    SciTech Connect

    Mabry, Karen, E.; Barrett, Gary, W.

    2002-04-30

    Mabry, K.E., and G.W. Barrett. 2002. Effects of corridors on home range sizes and interpatch movements of three small mammal species. Landscape Ecol. 17:629-636. Corridors are predicted to benefit populations in patchy habitats by promoting movement, which should increase population densities, gene flow, and recolonization of extinct patch populations. However, few investigators have considered use of the total landscape, particularly the possibility of interpatch movement through matrix habitat, by small mammals. This study compares home range sizes of 3 species of small mammals, the cotton mouse, old field mouse and cotton rat between patches with and without corridors. Corridor presence did not have a statistically significant influence on average home range size. Habitat specialization and sex influenced the probability of an individual moving between 2 patches without corridors. The results of this study suggest that small mammals may be more capable of interpatch movement without corridors than is frequently assumed.

  14. Small, medium, large or supersize? The development and evaluation of interventions targeted at portion size.

    PubMed

    Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Poelman, M P

    2014-07-01

    In the past decades, portion sizes of high-caloric foods and drinks have increased and can be considered an important environmental obesogenic factor. This paper describes a research project in which the feasibility and effectiveness of environmental interventions targeted at portion size was evaluated. The studies that we conducted revealed that portion size labeling, offering a larger variety of portion sizes, and proportional pricing (that is, a comparable price per unit regardless of the size) were considered feasible to implement according to both consumers and point-of-purchase representatives. Studies into the effectiveness of these interventions demonstrated that the impact of portion size labeling on the (intended) consumption of soft drinks was, at most, modest. Furthermore, the introduction of smaller portion sizes of hot meals in worksite cafeterias in addition to the existing size stimulated a moderate number of consumers to replace their large meals by a small meal. Elaborating on these findings, we advocate further research into communication and marketing strategies related to portion size interventions; the development of environmental portion size interventions as well as educational interventions that improve people's ability to deal with a 'super-sized' environment; the implementation of regulation with respect to portion size labeling, and the use of nudges to stimulate consumers to select healthier portion sizes.

  15. Small, medium, large or supersize? The development and evaluation of interventions targeted at portion size

    PubMed Central

    Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Poelman, M P

    2014-01-01

    In the past decades, portion sizes of high-caloric foods and drinks have increased and can be considered an important environmental obesogenic factor. This paper describes a research project in which the feasibility and effectiveness of environmental interventions targeted at portion size was evaluated. The studies that we conducted revealed that portion size labeling, offering a larger variety of portion sizes, and proportional pricing (that is, a comparable price per unit regardless of the size) were considered feasible to implement according to both consumers and point-of-purchase representatives. Studies into the effectiveness of these interventions demonstrated that the impact of portion size labeling on the (intended) consumption of soft drinks was, at most, modest. Furthermore, the introduction of smaller portion sizes of hot meals in worksite cafeterias in addition to the existing size stimulated a moderate number of consumers to replace their large meals by a small meal. Elaborating on these findings, we advocate further research into communication and marketing strategies related to portion size interventions; the development of environmental portion size interventions as well as educational interventions that improve people's ability to deal with a ‘super-sized' environment; the implementation of regulation with respect to portion size labeling, and the use of nudges to stimulate consumers to select healthier portion sizes. PMID:25033959

  16. Palaeogenomics of pterosaurs and the evolution of small genome size in flying vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Organ, Chris L; Shedlock, Andrew M

    2009-02-23

    The two living groups of flying vertebrates, birds and bats, both have constricted genome sizes compared with their close relatives. But nothing is known about the genomic characteristics of pterosaurs, which took to the air over 70 Myr before birds and were the first group of vertebrates to evolve powered flight. Here, we estimate genome size for four species of pterosaurs and seven species of basal archosauromorphs using a Bayesian comparative approach. Our results suggest that small genomes commonly associated with flight in bats and birds also evolved in pterosaurs, and that the rate of genome-size evolution is proportional to genome size within amniotes, with the fastest rates occurring in lineages with the largest genomes. We examine the role that drift may have played in the evolution of genome size within tetrapods by testing for correlated evolution between genome size and body size, but find no support for this hypothesis. By contrast, we find evidence suggesting that a combination of adaptation and phylogenetic inertia best explains the correlated evolution of flight and genome-size contraction. These results suggest that small genome/cell size evolved prior to or concurrently with flight in pterosaurs. We predict that, similar to the pattern seen in theropod dinosaurs, genome-size contraction preceded flight in pterosaurs and bats.

  17. The influence of small field sizes, penumbra, spot size and measurement depth on perturbation factors for microionization chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crop, F.; Reynaert, N.; Pittomvils, G.; Paelinck, L.; DeWagter, C.; Vakaet, L.; Thierens, H.

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was the investigation of perturbation factors for microionization chambers in small field dosimetry and the influence of penumbra for different spot sizes. To this purpose, correlated sampling was implemented in the EGSnrc Monte Carlo (MC) user code cavity: CScavity. CScavity was first benchmarked against results in the literature for an NE2571 chamber. An efficiency increase of 17 was attained for the calculation of a realistic chamber perturbation factor in a water phantom. Calculations have been performed for microionization chambers of type PinPoint 31006 and PinPoint 31016 in full BEAMnrc linac simulations. Investigating the physical backgrounds of the differences for these small field settings, perturbation factors have been split up into (1) central electrode perturbation, (2) wall perturbation, (3) air-to-water perturbation (chamber volume air-to-water) and (4) water volume perturbation (water chamber volume to 1 mm3 voxel). The influence of different spot sizes, position in penumbra, measuring depth and detector geometry on these perturbation factors has been investigated, in a 0.8 × 0.8 cm2 field setting. pcel for the PP31006 steel electrode shows a variation of up to 1% in the lateral position, but only 0.4% for the PP31016 with an Al electrode. The air-to-water perturbation in the optimal scanning direction for both profiles and depth is most influenced by the radiation field, and only to a small extent the chamber geometry. The PP31016 geometry (shorter, larger radius) requires less total perturbation within the central axis of the field, but results in slightly larger variations off axis in the optimal scanning direction. Smaller spot sizes (0.6 mm FWHM) and sharper penumbras, compared to larger spot sizes (2 mm FWHM), result in larger perturbation starting in the penumbra. The longer geometries of the PP31006/14/15 exhibit in the non-optimal scanning direction large variations in total perturbation (ptot 1.201(4) (0.6 mm

  18. Influence of Small-Scale Drop Size Variability on the Estimation of Cloud Optical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyazikhin, Y.; Marshak, A.; Wiscombe, W. J.; Martonchik, J. V.

    2004-05-01

    Most of the existing cloud radiation models and conventional techniques of data processing assume that the mean number of drops with a given radius varies proportionally to volume. The analysis of microphysical data on liquid water drop sizes acquired during the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Regional Experiment (FIRE), July 1987, and the Atmosphere Radiation Measurements (ARM) Cloud Intensive Operational Period (IOP), March, 2000, shows that, for sufficiently small volumes, the number is proportional to the drop size dependent power of the volume. The drop size dependent coefficient of proportionality, or a generalized drop concentration, and the exponent are determined solely by the smallest sampling volume; they are independent of the volume drops occupy and differentiate spatial distributions of drops with different sizes. For abundant small drops (r > 14 μm) present, the exponent is 1 as assumed in the conventional approach. However, for rarer large drops (r > 14 μm), the exponents fall below unity for scales between the smallest sampling volume and a "saturation" scale. At these scales, therefore, the mean number of large drops decreases with volume at a slower rate than the conventional approach assumes, suggesting more large drops at small scales than conventional models account for; their impact is consequently underestimated. The analysis presented here indicates that depending on cloud size, the neglect of small-scale drop size variability can result in a systematic underestimation of cloud horizontal optical path.

  19. Population Variation Reveals Independent Selection toward Small Body Size in Chinese Debao Pony

    PubMed Central

    Kader, Adiljan; Li, Yan; Dong, Kunzhe; Irwin, David M.; Zhao, Qianjun; He, Xiaohong; Liu, Jianfeng; Pu, Yabin; Gorkhali, Neena Amatya; Liu, Xuexue; Jiang, Lin; Li, Xiangchen; Guan, Weijun; Zhang, Yaping; Wu, Dong-Dong; Ma, Yuehui

    2016-01-01

    Body size, one of the most important quantitative traits under evolutionary scrutiny, varies considerably among species and among populations within species. Revealing the genetic basis underlying this variation is very important, particularly in humans where there is a close relationship with diseases and in domestic animals as the selective patterns are associated with improvements in production traits. The Debao pony is a horse breed with small body size that is unique to China; however, it is unknown whether the size-related candidate genes identified in Western breeds also account for the small body size of the Debao pony. Here, we compared individual horses from the Debao population with other two Chinese horse populations using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified with the Equine SNP 65 Bead Chip. The previously reported size-related candidate gene HMGA2 showed a significant signature for selection, consistent with its role observed in human populations. More interestingly, we found a candidate gene TBX3, which had not been observed in previous studies on horse body size that displayed the highest differentiation and most significant association, and thus likely is the dominating factor for the small stature of the Debao pony. Further comparison between the Debao pony and other breeds of horses from around the world demonstrated that TBX3 was selected independently in the Debao pony, suggesting that there were multiple origins of small stature in the horse. PMID:26637467

  20. Presynaptic size of associational/commissural CA3 synapses is controlled by fibroblast growth factor 22 in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Pasaoglu, Taliha; Schikorski, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Associational/commissural CA3-CA3 synapses define the recurrent CA3 network that generates the input to CA1 pyramidal neurons. We quantified the fine structure of excitatory synapses in the stratum radiatum of the CA3d area in adult wild type (WT) and fibroblast growth factor 22 knock-out (FGF22KO) mice by using serial 3D electron microscopy. WT excitatory CA3 synapses are rather small yet range 10 fold in size. Spine size, however, was small and uniform and did not correlate with the size of the synaptic junction. To reveal mechanisms that regulate presynaptic structure, we investigated the role of FGF22, a target-derived signal specific for the distal part of area CA3 (CA3d). In adult FGF22KO mice, postsynaptic properties of associational CA3 synapses were unaltered. Presynaptically, the number of synaptic vesicles (SVs), the bouton volume, and the number of vesicles in axonal regions (the super pool) were reduced. This concurrent decrease suggests concerted control by FGF22 of presynaptic size. This hypothesis is supported by the finding that WT presynapses in the proximal part of area CA3 (CA3p) that do not receive FGF22 signaling in WT mice were smaller than presynapses in CA3d in WT but of comparable size in CA3d of FGF22KO mice. Docked SV density was decreased in CA1, CA3d, and CA3p in FGF22KO mice. Because CA1 and CA3p are not directly affected by the loss of FGF22, the smaller docked SV density may be an adaptation to activity changes in the CA3 network. Thus, docked SV density potentially is a long-term regulator for the synaptic release probability and/or the strength of short-term depression in vivo.

  1. Adult and larval traits as determinants of geographic range size among tropical reef fishes

    PubMed Central

    Luiz, Osmar J.; Allen, Andrew P.; Robertson, D. Ross; Floeter, Sergio R.; Kulbicki, Michel; Vigliola, Laurent; Becheler, Ronan; Madin, Joshua S.

    2013-01-01

    Most marine organisms disperse via ocean currents as larvae, so it is often assumed that larval-stage duration is the primary determinant of geographic range size. However, empirical tests of this relationship have yielded mixed results, and alternative hypotheses have rarely been considered. Here we assess the relative influence of adult and larval-traits on geographic range size using a global dataset encompassing 590 species of tropical reef fishes in 47 families, the largest compilation of such data to date for any marine group. We analyze this database using linear mixed-effect models to control for phylogeny and geographical limits on range size. Our analysis indicates that three adult traits likely to affect the capacity of new colonizers to survive and establish reproductive populations (body size, schooling behavior, and nocturnal activity) are equal or better predictors of geographic range size than pelagic larval duration. We conclude that adult life-history traits that affect the postdispersal persistence of new populations are primary determinants of successful range extension and, consequently, of geographic range size among tropical reef fishes. PMID:24065830

  2. Ethylcellulose nanoparticles with bimodal size distribution as precursors for the production of very small nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wachsmann, Philip; Lamprecht, Alf

    2015-01-01

    A common technique for the preparation of polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) from preformed polymers is the emulsification solvent evaporation (ESE) method. However, the particle size of such carriers can typically not reduced below 100 nm. A bimodal distribution of particle size when applying ESE to the preparation of ethylcellulose (EC) NPs was intended to obtain very small particles in a size range below 50 nm. The proportion and size of the small particle fraction (SPF) depended on the surfactant as well as on the EC type and concentration. The preparation was conducted with different pharmaceutically relevant surfactants (polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether, sodium dodecyl sulfate, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, polyvinyl alcohol and polysorbate 20) and all permitted obtaining very small NPs. After purification from excess surfactant by diafiltration and separation of the SPF by centrifugation, monodispersed particles with mean sizes between 20.6 ± 2.3 nm and 49.7 ± 4.8 nm could be isolated. The entrapment of a lipophilic model drug led to encapsulation rates between 34.0 ± 2.4% and 78.2 ± 12.6%, which were size and surfactant dependent. The preparation of polymeric NPs in a size below 50 nm by a simple centrifugation step holds promise for therapeutic applications where larger particles would be inefficient.

  3. 40 CFR 428.50 - Applicability; description of the small-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... small-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.50 Section 428.50... (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Small-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber Plants Subcategory § 428.50 Applicability; description of the small-sized general molded,...

  4. 40 CFR 428.50 - Applicability; description of the small-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... small-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.50 Section 428.50... (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Small-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber Plants Subcategory § 428.50 Applicability; description of the small-sized general molded,...

  5. 40 CFR 428.50 - Applicability; description of the small-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... small-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.50 Section 428.50... (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Small-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber Plants Subcategory § 428.50 Applicability; description of the small-sized general molded,...

  6. 46 CFR 160.171-17 - Approval testing for adult size immersion suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Approval testing for adult size immersion suit. Caution: During each of the in-water tests prescribed in this section, a person ready to render assistance when needed should be near each subject in the water... being immersed in water at 5 °C (41 °F) for a period of one hour, each subject must be able to pick up...

  7. 46 CFR 160.171-17 - Approval testing for adult size immersion suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Approval testing for adult size immersion suit. Caution: During each of the in-water tests prescribed in this section, a person ready to render assistance when needed should be near each subject in the water... being immersed in water at 5 °C (41 °F) for a period of one hour, each subject must be able to pick up...

  8. Spatial distribution and size of small canopy gaps created by Japanese black bears: estimating gap size using dropped branch measurements

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Japanese black bears, a large-bodied omnivore, frequently create small gaps in the tree crown during fruit foraging. However, there are no previous reports of black bear-created canopy gaps. To characterize physical canopy disturbance by black bears, we examined a number of parameters, including the species of trees in which canopy gaps were created, gap size, the horizontal and vertical distribution of gaps, and the size of branches broken to create gaps. The size of black bear-created canopy gaps was estimated using data from branches that had been broken and dropped on the ground. Results The disturbance regime was characterized by a highly biased distribution of small canopy gaps on ridges, a large total overall gap area, a wide range in gap height relative to canopy height, and diversity in gap size. Surprisingly, the annual rate of bear-created canopy gap formation reached 141.3 m2 ha–1 yr–1 on ridges, which were hot spots in terms of black bear activity. This rate was approximately 6.6 times that of tree-fall gap formation on ridges at this study site. Furthermore, this rate was approximately two to three times that of common tree-fall gap formation in Japanese forests, as reported in other studies. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the ecological interaction between black bears and fruit-bearing trees may create a unique light regime, distinct from that created by tree falls, which increases the availability of light resources to plants below the canopy. PMID:23758683

  9. Fabrication of Aluminum Foams with Small Pore Size by Melt Foaming Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ying; Li, Yanxiang; Chen, Xiang; Shi, Tong; Liu, Zhiyong; Wang, Ningzhen

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces an improvement to the fabrication of aluminum foams with small pore size by melt foaming method. Before added to the melt, the foaming agent (titanium hydride) was pretreated in two steps. It firstly went through the traditional pre-oxidation treatment, which delayed the decomposition of titanium hydride and made sure the dispersion stage was controllable. Then such pre-oxidized titanium hydride powder was mixed with copper powder in a planetary ball mill. This treatment can not only increase the number of foaming agent particles and make them easier to disperse in the melt, which helps to increase the number of pores, but also reduce the amount of hydrogen released in the foaming stage. Therefore, the pore size could be decreased. Using such a ball-milled foaming agent in melt foaming method, aluminum foams with small pore size (average size of 1.6 mm) were successfully fabricated.

  10. Fabrication of Aluminum Foams with Small Pore Size by Melt Foaming Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ying; Li, Yanxiang; Chen, Xiang; Shi, Tong; Liu, Zhiyong; Wang, Ningzhen

    2017-04-01

    This article introduces an improvement to the fabrication of aluminum foams with small pore size by melt foaming method. Before added to the melt, the foaming agent (titanium hydride) was pretreated in two steps. It firstly went through the traditional pre-oxidation treatment, which delayed the decomposition of titanium hydride and made sure the dispersion stage was controllable. Then such pre-oxidized titanium hydride powder was mixed with copper powder in a planetary ball mill. This treatment can not only increase the number of foaming agent particles and make them easier to disperse in the melt, which helps to increase the number of pores, but also reduce the amount of hydrogen released in the foaming stage. Therefore, the pore size could be decreased. Using such a ball-milled foaming agent in melt foaming method, aluminum foams with small pore size (average size of 1.6 mm) were successfully fabricated.

  11. Educational Practice for Small Size Class in Fundamental Education of Faculty of Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Hirano, Kimitaka; Honda, Chikahisa

    An educational practice for small size class in fundamental education of our faculty has been carried out using a special fund from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology since fiscal year 2005. The fundamental subjects such as Mathematics and Physics are very important for the students of Faculty of Engineering. In order to achieve the aim of each subject for students with insufficient understanding, we wrestle with the project of the education for small size class. Some projects are described in this paper.

  12. The bat genome: GC-biased small chromosomes associated with reduction in genome size.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Fumio; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A

    2013-12-01

    Bats are distinct from other mammals in their small genome size as well as their high metabolic rate, possibly related to flight ability. Although the genome sequence has been published in two species, the data lack cytogenetic information. In this study, the size and GC content of each chromosome are measured from the flow karyotype of the mouse-eared bat, Myotis myotis (MMY). The smaller chromosomes are GC-rich compared to the larger chromosomes, and the relative proportions of homologous segments between MMY and human differ among the MMY chromosomes. The MMY genome size calculated from the sum of the chromosome sizes is 2.25 Gb, and the total GC content is 42.3%, compared to human and dog with 41.0 and 41.2%, respectively. The GC-rich small MMY genome is characterised by GC-biased smaller chromosomes resulting from preferential loss of AT-rich sequences. Although the association between GC-rich small chromosomes and small genome size has been reported only in birds so far, we show in this paper, for the first time, that the same phenomenon is observed in at least one group of mammals, implying that this may be a mechanism common to genome evolution in general.

  13. The role of micro size computing clusters for small physics groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevel, A. Y.

    2014-06-01

    A small physics group (3-15 persons) might use a number of computing facilities for the analysis/simulation, developing/testing, teaching. It is discussed different types of computing facilities: collaboration computing facilities, group local computing cluster (including colocation), cloud computing. The author discuss the growing variety of different computing options for small groups and does emphasize the role of the group owned computing cluster of micro size.

  14. Impact characteristics of female children running in adult versus youth shoes of the same size.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Dana; Dufek, Janet S; Mercer, John A

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if ground reaction forces were influenced by shoe design (adult vs. youth) for female children when running. Subjects (n = 10, 12.0 ± 1.1 years old; 154 ± 4.9 cm; 46.2 ± 14.3 kg; shoe size 3.5-7 youth) were fit with a shoe model available in youth and adult sizes. Subjects ran 10 trials per shoe condition across a force platform placed in the middle of a 9-m runway. Impact force, second maximum force, loading rate, stance time and average vertical ground reaction forces were recorded for each trial. Shoes underwent a mechanical impact test with peak force, peak acceleration, and percent energy returned recorded. Each variable was compared between shoe conditions. From the impact testing, it was determined that peak force, peak acceleration and percent energy return were 7.1%, 7.1%, and 18.9% greater, respectively, for the youth vs. adult shoe (p < .001). From the running tests, it was determined that loading rate was different (p = .009) between shoe conditions whereas impact force, second maximum force, average force and stance time were not different between shoes (p > .01). Young girls had a greater loading rate when running in youth vs. adult shoes even though the shoe size was the same.

  15. Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense: wide egg size variation in 32 molecularly confirmed adult specimens from Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seoyun; Cho, Jaeeun; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Kim, Deok-Gyu; Jeon, Sarah Jiyoun; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Eom, Keeseon S; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2015-06-01

    The eggs of Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense were reported to be smaller than those of the classical Diphyllobothrium latum in general. However, verification using a large number of adult tapeworms is required. We assessed the egg size variation in 32 adult specimens of D. nihonkaiense recovered from Korean patients in 1975-2014. The diagnosis of individual specimens was based on analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene sequence. Uterine eggs (n = 10) were obtained from each specimen, and their length and width were measured by micrometry. The results indicated that the egg size of D. nihonkaiense (total number of eggs measured, 320) was widely variable according to individual specimens, 54-76 μm long (mean 64) and 35-58 μm wide (mean 45), with a length-width ratio of 1.32-1.70 (mean 1.46). The worm showing the smallest egg size had a length range of 54-62 μm, whereas the one showing the largest egg size had a length range of 68-76 μm. The two ranges did not overlap, and a similar pattern was observed for the egg width. Mapping of each egg size (n = 320) showed a wide variation in length and width. The widely variable egg size of D. nihonkaiense cannot be used for specific diagnosis of diphyllobothriid tapeworm infections in human patients.

  16. Small-size controlled vacuum spark-gap in an external magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Asyunin, V. I. Davydov, S. G.; Dolgov, A. N. Pshenichnyi, A. A.; Yakubov, R. Kh.

    2015-02-15

    It is demonstrated that the operation of a small-size controlled spark-gap can be controlled by applying a uniform external magnetic field. It is shown that the magnetic field of such a simple configuration efficiently suppresses the effect of localization of the discharge current after multiple actuations of the spark-gap.

  17. Key Influencing Factors behind Moodle Adoption in Irish Small to Medium Sized Higher Education Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, David; Livadas, Lelia; Miles, Gail

    2011-01-01

    This research investigated Irish Small to Medium Sized Educational Institutions (SMSEs) involved in Higher Education (HE) that adopted Moodle, the OSS (Open Source Software) course management system (CMS). As Moodle has only been adopted in the Irish HE sector in the last 5-7 years, this research crucially studied the attitudes of the SMSEs that…

  18. Supporting the E-Business Readiness of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Approaches and Metrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jutla, Dawn; Bodorik, Peter; Dhaliwal, Jasbir

    2002-01-01

    Presents a conceptual model for governments in creating a climate that facilitates the national adoption of e-business. Focuses on the needs of small and medium-sized enterprises, suggests measures to assess how a country is performing in providing a positive e-business climate, and provides examples from Canada, The Netherlands, Norway, and…

  19. 78 FR 42484 - Small Entity Size Standards Under the Regulatory Flexibility Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board 49 CFR Chapter X Small Entity Size Standards Under the Regulatory Flexibility... standards for purposes of the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA) and request for public comment. SUMMARY:...

  20. The Dynamics of Small-Sized Ensembles of the Phase-Locked Loops with Unidirectional Couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleshin, K. N.; V. Matrosov, V.; Shalfeev, V. D.

    2016-06-01

    We study collective dynamics of a small-sized chain of the unidirectionally coupled phase-locked loop. The conditions for the synchronous-regime existence are found, the asynchronous selfoscillation regimes and the transitions among them are studied, and the property of inheriting the structure of the parameter space of the chain when a new element is added to it is established.

  1. 77 FR 53769 - Receipts-Based, Small Business Size Standard; Confirmation of Effective Date

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... and 171 RIN 3150-AJ14 Receipts-Based, Small Business Size Standard; Confirmation of Effective Date AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Direct final rule; confirmation of effective date. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is confirming the effective date of August 22, 2012,...

  2. Toward a Singleton Undergraduate Computer Graphics Course in Small and Medium-Sized Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shesh, Amit

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the evolution of a single undergraduate computer graphics course over five semesters, driven by a primary question: if one could offer only one undergraduate course in graphics, what would it include? This constraint is relevant to many small and medium-sized colleges that lack resources, adequate expertise, and enrollment…

  3. Small and Medium-Sized Information Technology Firms: Assessment of Non-Local Partnership Facilitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findikoglu, Melike Nur

    2012-01-01

    A two-phased qualitative study was conducted to explore the facilitators of non-local (i.e. domestic or international) partnerships formed by small- and medium-sized firms (SME). Rooted in trust, proximity and dynamic capabilities lenses, the study focused on behaviors of SMEs performing in dynamic, competitive and highly interlinked industry, the…

  4. A Bare Bones Reference Collection for Small and Medium-Sized Public Libraries in Maine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Maine Library District, Portland.

    This reference list was compiled to offer Maine librarians who serve communities with the resources of small- or medium-sized libraries a starting point to assess their reference collections for breadth and depth. Initially based on a list distributed by the Vermont Department of Libraries in 1987, this guide evaluates reference materials on the…

  5. Parameter Estimation with Small Sample Size: A Higher-Order IRT Model Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Torre, Jimmy; Hong, Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Sample size ranks as one of the most important factors that affect the item calibration task. However, due to practical concerns (e.g., item exposure) items are typically calibrated with much smaller samples than what is desired. To address the need for a more flexible framework that can be used in small sample item calibration, this article…

  6. Business Continuity Planning Resources for Small- and Medium-Sized Businesses

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Lesperance, Ann M.

    2010-05-14

    This document/memo summarizes existing resources and guidance on business continuity planning for small- to medium-sized businesses. DTRA will share this information with large commercial businesses who identified the need to help their suppliers and other key collaborators prepare business continuity plans in order to speed recovery from a wide-area bioterrorism incident.

  7. Regularization Methods for Fitting Linear Models with Small Sample Sizes: Fitting the Lasso Estimator Using R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, W. Holmes; Finch, Maria E. Hernandez

    2016-01-01

    Researchers and data analysts are sometimes faced with the problem of very small samples, where the number of variables approaches or exceeds the overall sample size; i.e. high dimensional data. In such cases, standard statistical models such as regression or analysis of variance cannot be used, either because the resulting parameter estimates…

  8. An Agile Methodology for Implementing Service-Oriented Architecture in Small and Medium Sized Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laidlaw, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of Lean/Agile principles, using action research to develop and deploy new technology for Small and Medium sized enterprises. The research case was conducted at the Lapeer County Sheriff's Department and involves the initial deployment of a Service Oriented Architecture to alleviate the data…

  9. 77 FR 72691 - Small Business Size Standards: Administrative and Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    .... In addition, on September 27, 2010, the President of the United States signed the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010 (Jobs Act), Public Law 111-240. The Jobs Act directs SBA to conduct a detailed review of... Jobs Act requires SBA to review at least one-third of all size standards during every 18-month...

  10. 77 FR 72766 - Small Business Size Standards: Support Activities for Mining

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG44 Small Business Size Standards: Support Activities for Mining AGENCY... Industry Classification System (NAICS) Subsector 213, Support Activities for Mining, within NAICS Sector 21, Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction. NAICS Sector 21 contains four industries with...

  11. 78 FR 37404 - Small Business Size Standards: Support Activities for Mining

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG44 Small Business Size Standards: Support Activities for Mining AGENCY... American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Subsector 213, Support Activities for Mining, that are... evaluated the four receipts based standards in NAICs Subsector 213 under NAICS Sector 21, Mining,...

  12. 77 FR 11001 - Small Business Size Standards: Health Care and Social Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG30 Small Business Size Standards: Health Care and Social Assistance... Industry Classification System (NAICS) Sector 62, Health Care and Social Assistance. As part of its ongoing... Subsector 621(Ambulatory Health Care Services), NAICS Subsector 622 (Hospitals), and NAICS Subsector...

  13. Low-noise small-size microring ultrasonic detectors for high-resolution photoacoustic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sung-Liang; Ling, Tao; Guo, L. Jay

    2011-01-01

    Small size polymer microring resonators have been exploited for photoacoustic (PA) imaging. To demonstrate the advantages of the wide acceptance angle of ultrasound detection of small size microrings, photoacoustic tomography (PAT), and delay-and-sum beamforming PA imaging was conducted. In PAT, we compared the imaging quality using different sizes of detectors with similar noise-equivalent pressures and the same wideband response: 500 μm hydrophone and 100, 60, and 40 μm microrings. The results show significantly improved imaging contrast and high resolution over the whole imaging region using smaller size detectors. The uniform high resolution in PAT imaging using 40 μm microrings indicates the potential to resolve microvasculature over a large imaging region. The improved lateral resolution of two-dimensional and three-dimensional delay-and-sum beamforming PA imaging using a synthetic array demonstrate another advantageous application of small microrings. The small microrings can also be applied to other ultrasound-related imaging applications. PMID:21639569

  14. Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

    SciTech Connect

    Wipple, C.; Vosti, E.

    1997-11-01

    This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to address needs that are characterized of small to medium sized apparel manufactures and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for this specific efforts are discussed.

  15. Barriers to Employee Training in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises: Insights and Evidences from Mauritius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padachi, Kesseven; Bhiwajee, Soolakshna Lukea

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Training is an important component of successful business concerns. However, although there is growing acceptance amongst scholars that small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are engines that drive economies across nations, through their contribution in terms of job creation and poverty reduction; extant research portray that these…

  16. The Size Distribution of the Small Near Earth Asteroids from Spacewatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskell, Halford; Larsen, J.

    2009-01-01

    We are currently in the process of analyzing five years of near earth asteroid detections from the Spacewatch 0.9 meter mosaic camera. These data represent images of approximately 80,000 square degrees which have been surveyed to a limiting magnitude of 21.5 using 20 second integrations. Over 1800 detections of NEAs have been made in a consistent automated fashion with attention to observing conditions. In this poster, we present a careful debiasing of the Spacewatch pointing history following the methods outlined in Jedicke, Larsen and Spahr (2003) and use the data from the survey to calculate the size distribution of small (H > 22) near earth asteroids. For these small sizes we have needed to expand the size of our survey simulations by approximately 100 orders of magnitude in order to represent very small, very hard to detect NEAs. We use the simulations to model the biases of our survey and use the actual detections to explore the size distribution. We present a detailed examination of the "dip" in the size distribution first noticed by Harris (2008) between H=19 and H= 26. Spacewatch is funded by grants from NASA's Near Earth Object Observation and Planetary Astronomy Programs, The Brinson Foundation, the estates of Richard S. Vail and Robert L. Waland and other private individuals.

  17. Body size and the small branch niche: using marsupial ontogeny to model primate locomotor evolution.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Liza J; Young, Jesse W; VandeBerg, John L

    2014-03-01

    Recently proposed ancestral locomotor and morphological 'stages' leading to the evolution of primates have emphasized small body size, and a transition from a clawed non-grasping stage, to a clawed, grasping stage with clawless opposable hallux, to a fully-nailed primate with grasping extremities. This evolutionary transition was presumably associated with frequent use of the small branch niche. To model elements of these evolutionary transitions, we investigate how body size, substrate size, substrate orientation and grasping morphology interact to influence quadrupedal kinematics within and between ontogenetic samples of two small-bodied marsupials, one arboreal (Petaurus breviceps) and the other mainly terrestrial (Monodelphis domestica). Longitudinal morphometric and kinematic data were collected from four juvenile P. breviceps (33-75 g) and two juvenile M. domestica (18-95 g) walking across poles of three diameters (2.5, 1.0, and 0.5 cm) and three orientations (horizontal, 30° incline, 30° decline). The two species responded similarly to some substrate conditions, but diverged in response to others. Kinematic divergence between the two species reflects Monodelphis' relatively shorter digits, reduced grasping ability and greater need for stabilizing mechanisms on narrow substrates. At a given relative body size or pole orientation, Monodelphis used higher limb duty factors, more limbs in support per stride, lower limb phases, and in some conditions, faster speeds compared with Petaurus. Interspecific differences were the least distinct on declined poles, highlighting the particular challenge of this substrate condition, even for arboreally adapted species. Small-bodied, arboreal primate ancestors would likely have employed the kinematic mechanisms common to our model taxa, but those with enhanced grasping adaptations would most likely not have required the increased level of stabilizing mechanisms exhibited by Monodelphis. Thus, using these two species

  18. Growth rates, seed size, and physiology: do small-seeded species really grow faster?

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Lindsay A; Paul-Victor, Cloé; Schmid, Bernhard; Purves, Drew W

    2008-05-01

    Relative growth rate (RGR) is currently the most commonly used method for measuring and comparing species' intrinsic growth potential. Comparative studies have, for example, revealed that small-seeded species have higher RGR, leading to the common belief that small-seeded species possess physiological adaptations for rapid growth that would allow them to outgrow large-seeded species, given sufficient time. We show that, because RGR declines as individual plants grow, it is heavily biased by initial size and does not measure the size-corrected growth potential that determines the outcome of competition in the long-term. We develop a daily growth model that includes a simple mechanistic representation of aboveground and belowground growth and its dependency on plant size and environmental factors. Intrinsic growth potential is encapsulated by the size-independent growth coefficient, G. We parameterized the model using repeated-harvest data from 1724 plants of nine species growing in contrasting nutrient and temperature regimes. Using information-theoretic criteria, we found evidence for interspecific differences in only three of nine model parameters: G, aboveground allocation, and frost damage. With other parameters shared between species, the model accurately reproduced above- and belowground biomass trajectories for all nine species in each set of environmental conditions. In contrast to conventional wisdom, the relationship between G and seed size was positive, despite a strong negative correlation between seed size and average RGR, meaning that large-seeded rather than small-seeded species have higher size-corrected growth potential. Further, we found a significant positive correlation between G and frost damage that, according to simulations, causes rank reversals in final biomass under daily temperature changes of +/- 5 degrees C. We recommend the wider use of this new kind of plant growth analysis as a better way of understanding underlying differences in

  19. Role of media and peers on body change strategies among adult men: is body size important?

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; McGreevy, Shauna J

    2011-01-01

    There has been limited previous research that has examined the role of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult men. The current study investigated the role of specific types of messages (encouragement, teasing and modelling) from peers and the media on the strategies to change weight among adult men. Differences were evaluated between 526 men aged from 18 to 60 years from three groups (normal weight, overweight and obese) on body image, body change strategies and messages about their body received from peers and the media. Men were primarily drawn from United States, Australia and Europe. Results showed that messages received by men regarding losing weight or increasing muscle size differed according to weight. Body image and media messages were the strongest predictors of losing weight, whereas body image importance and messages from peers were the strongest predictors of increasing muscles. These findings highlight the importance of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult males.

  20. Spontaneous free perforation of the small intestine in adults

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Hugh James

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous free perforation of the small intestine is uncommon, especially if there is no prior history of visceral trauma. However, free, even recurrent, perforation may complicate a defined and established clinical disorder, such as Crohn’s disease. In addition, free perforation may be the initial clinical presentation of an occult intestinal disorder, such as a lymphoma complicating celiac disease, causing diffuse peritonitis and an acute abdomen. Initial diagnosis of the precise cause may be difficult, but now has been aided by computerized tomographic imaging. The site of perforation may be helpful in defining a cause (e.g., ileal perforation in Crohn’s disease, jejunal perforation in celiac disease, complicated by lymphoma or collagenous sprue). Urgent surgical intervention, however, is usually required for precise diagnosis and treatment. During evaluation, an expanding list of other possible causes should be considered, even after surgery, as subsequent management may be affected. Free perforation may not only complicate an established intestinal disorder, but also a new acute process (e.g., caused by different infectious agents) or a longstanding and unrecognized disorder (e.g., congenital, metabolic and vascular causes). Moreover, new endoscopic therapeutic and medical therapies, including use of emerging novel biological agents, have been complicated by intestinal perforation. Recent studies also support the hypothesis that perforation of the small intestine may be genetically-based with different mutations causing altered connective tissue structure, synthesis and repair. PMID:25110427

  1. Small- and Medium-Sized Commercial Building Monitoring and Controls Needs: A Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Underhill, Ronald M.; Goddard, James K.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Piette, M. A.; Granderson, J.; Brown, Rich E.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; Kuruganti, T.

    2012-10-31

    Buildings consume over 40% of the total energy consumption in the U.S. A significant portion of the energy consumed in buildings is wasted because of the lack of controls or the inability to use existing building automation systems (BASs) properly. Much of the waste occurs because of our inability to manage and controls buildings efficiently. Over 90% of the buildings are either small-size (<5,000 sf) or medium-size (between 5,000 sf and 50,000 sf); these buildings currently do not use BASs to monitor and control their building systems from a central location. According to Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), about 10% of the buildings in the U.S. use BASs or central controls to manage their building system operations. Buildings that use BASs are typically large (>100,000 sf). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP) to identify monitoring and control needs for small- and medium-sized commercial buildings and recommend possible solutions. This study documents the needs and solutions for small- and medium-sized buildings.

  2. Subureteral Injection with Small-Size Dextranomer/Hyaluronic Acid Copolymer: Is It Really Efficient?

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Özgür; Farahvash, Amirali; Senol, Cem; Gümüstas, Hüseyin; Atay, Irfan; Deniz, Nuri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical results of patients with vesicoureteral reflux, which were treated with subureteral injection of small-size (80–120 μm) dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Dx/HA). Data of 75 children (105 renal units) who underwent STING procedure with small-size Dx/HA for the treatment of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in our clinic between 2008 and 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Preoperative reflux grade and side, injection indication, postoperative urinary infections and urinary symptoms, voiding cystourethrogram, and renal scintigraphy results were evaluated. The success rate of the procedure was 100% in patients with grades 1 and 2 reflux, 91% in patients with grade 3 reflux, and 82.6% in patients with grade 4. Overall success rate of the treated patients was 97%. Endoscopic subureteric injection with Dx/HA procedure has become a reasonable minimally invasive alternative technique to open surgery, long-term antibiotic prophylaxis, and surveillance modalities in treatment of VUR in terms of easy application, low costs and complication rates, and high success rates. Injection material composed of small-size dextranomer microspheres seems superior to normal size Dx/HA, together with offering similar success with low cost. PMID:28105412

  3. Estimating the Correlation in Bivariate Normal Data with Known Variances and Small Sample Sizes1

    PubMed Central

    Fosdick, Bailey K.; Raftery, Adrian E.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of estimating the correlation in bivariate normal data when the means and variances are assumed known, with emphasis on the small sample case. We consider eight different estimators, several of them considered here for the first time in the literature. In a simulation study, we found that Bayesian estimators using the uniform and arc-sine priors outperformed several empirical and exact or approximate maximum likelihood estimators in small samples. The arc-sine prior did better for large values of the correlation. For testing whether the correlation is zero, we found that Bayesian hypothesis tests outperformed significance tests based on the empirical and exact or approximate maximum likelihood estimators considered in small samples, but that all tests performed similarly for sample size 50. These results lead us to suggest using the posterior mean with the arc-sine prior to estimate the correlation in small samples when the variances are assumed known. PMID:23378667

  4. Physiological responses to increased brood size and ectoparasite infestation: Adult great tits favour self-maintenance.

    PubMed

    Wegmann, Michele; Voegeli, Beatrice; Richner, Heinz

    2015-03-15

    Different types of stressors trigger responses of different physiological systems, and these responses may contribute differentially to the maintenance of homeostasis, to trade-offs and the evolution of life-history traits. To manipulate two common stressors during reproduction, we infested half of the nests in a naturally breeding great tit population with ectoparasites and simultaneously manipulated brood size, using a 2×2 experimental design. Parents in this model species commonly compensate for ectoparasites by an increase in food provisioning. We assessed parental responses to these concurrent stressors by measuring several physiological stress parameters such as changes in metabolic rate, oxidative stress and expression of heat-shock proteins (Hsp), and explored how these stressors affect the trade-off between self-maintenance and reproduction. Neither flea infestation nor brood size manipulation affected adult metabolic rate, oxidative damage or Hsp levels. Furthermore, we found no interactive effect of the two treatments on adults. However, nestlings in infested nests had lower body mass and lower survival. Nestlings in enlarged broods were lighter and had lower survival, although parents of enlarged broods increased food provisioning rate. The findings suggest that adults favour maintenance of cellular homeostasis, and physiological equilibrium over current reproduction, and that the costs induced by both stressors, flea infestation and increased brood size, are carried by the offspring. It emphasizes the importance of self-maintenance over reproduction in life-history decisions, and more generally the need of including physiological traits for understanding the evolution of life-histories.

  5. Pen size and parity effects on maternal behaviour of Small-Tail Han sheep.

    PubMed

    Lv, S-J; Yang, Y; Dwyer, C M; Li, F-K

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of pen size and parity on maternal behaviour of twin-bearing Small-Tail Han ewes. A total of 24 ewes were allocated to a 2×2 design (six per pen), with parity (primiparous or multiparous) and pen size (large: 6.0×3.0 m; small: 6.0×1.5 m) as main effects at Linyi University, Shandong Province, China. Behaviour was observed from after parturition until weaning. All ewes were observed for 6 h every 5 days from 0700 to1000 h and from 1400 to 1700 h. Continuous focal animal sampling was used to quantify the duration of maternal behaviours: sucking, grooming and following as well as the frequency of udder accepting, udder refusing and low-pitched bleating. Oestradiol and cortisol concentrations in the faeces (collected in the morning every 5 days) were detected using EIA kits. All lambs were weighed 24 h after parturition and again at weaning at 35 days of age. The small pen size significantly reduced following (P<0.005), grooming (P<0.001) and suckling durations (P<0.05), as well as the frequency of udder refusals (P<0.001). However, there was a significant interaction with ewe parity, with decreased grooming and suckling in the small pen largely seen in the multiparous ewes (P<0.001). Independent of pen size, multiparous ewes accepted more sucking attempts by their lambs (P<0.05) and made more low-pitched bleats than primiparous ewes (P<0.001). Multiparous ewes had higher faecal oestradiol concentrations than primiparous ewes (P<0.001), and ewes in small pens had higher faecal cortisol levels compared with ewes in larger pens (P<0.001). As lambs increased in age, the duration of maternal grooming, following and suckling as well as frequency of udder acceptance and low-pitched bleating all declined, and the frequency of udder refusing increased (P<0.001 for all). Ewe parity, but not pen size, affected lamb weight gain during the period of observation (P<0.001). This is the first study to show that pen size

  6. Adaptive sample size modification in clinical trials: start small then ask for more?

    PubMed

    Jennison, Christopher; Turnbull, Bruce W

    2015-12-20

    We consider sample size re-estimation in a clinical trial, in particular when there is a significant delay before the measurement of patient response. Mehta and Pocock have proposed methods in which sample size is increased when interim results fall in a 'promising zone' where it is deemed worthwhile to increase conditional power by adding more subjects. Our analysis reveals potential pitfalls in applying this approach. Mehta and Pocock use results of Chen, DeMets and Lan to identify when increasing sample size, but applying a conventional level α significance test at the end of the trial does not inflate the type I error rate: we have found the greatest gains in power per additional observation are liable to lie outside the region defined by this method. Mehta and Pocock increase sample size to achieve a particular conditional power, calculated under the current estimate of treatment effect: this leads to high increases in sample size for a small range of interim outcomes, whereas we have found it more efficient to make moderate increases in sample size over a wider range of cases. If the aforementioned pitfalls are avoided, we believe the broad framework proposed by Mehta and Pocock is valuable for clinical trial design. Working in this framework, we propose sample size rules that apply explicitly the principle of adding observations when they are most beneficial. The resulting trial designs are closely related to efficient group sequential tests for a delayed response proposed by Hampson and Jennison.

  7. Iterative CT reconstruction with small pixel size: distance-driven forward projector versus Joseph's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, K.; Rassner, U.; Davidson, H. C.; Schöndube, H.; Stierstorfer, K.; Hornegger, J.; Noo, F.

    2015-03-01

    Over the last few years, iterative reconstruction methods have become an important research topic in x-ray CT imaging. This effort is motivated by increasing evidence that such methods may enable significant savings in terms of dose imparted to the patient. Conceptually, iterative reconstruction methods involve two important ingredients: the statistical model, which includes the forward projector, and a priori information in the image domain, which is expressed using a regularizer. Most often, the image pixel size is chosen to be equal (or close) to the detector pixel size (at field-of-view center). However, there are applications for which a smaller pixel size is desired. In this investigation, we focus on reconstruction with a pixel size that is twice smaller than the detector pixel size. Using such a small pixel size implies a large increase in computational effort when using the distance-driven method for forward projection, which models the detector size. On the other hand, the more efficient method of Joseph will create imbalances in the reconstruction of each pixel, in the sense that there will be large differences in the way each projection contributes to the pixels. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the impact of these imbalances on image quality in comparison with utilization of the distance-driven method. The evaluation involves computational effort, bias and noise metrics, and LROC analysis using human observers. The results show that Joseph's method largely remains attractive.

  8. Interband π plasmon of graphene: strong small-size and field-enhancement effects.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinlian; Zeng, Haibo; Wang, Cong; Li, Zhigang; Kan, Caixia; Liu, Youwen

    2014-11-14

    The interband π plasmon of graphene has energy corresponding to the ultraviolet (UV) wave band, and hence is promising for UV nanophotonics and nanooptoelectronics. However, its special size effect and electric field-enhancement effect have not been well understood. Here, we have investigated the far-field optical extinction and near-field enhancement features of the interband π plasmon in a graphene nanodisk using discrete dipole approximation and finite-difference time-domain methods. Very interestingly, it has been found that the in-plane (transverse mode) optical extinction peak of monolayer graphene firstly significantly red shifts with increasing diameter, but then tends to a saturation value when the diameter is above 20 nm, showing a strong small-size-sensitive effect. Furthermore, the transverse mode optical extinction peak obviously blue shifts with increasing thickness when the thickness is relatively small. Significantly, the corresponding local electric field enhancement factor produced by the plasmon, which can be found to be as large as several tens, firstly increases with the increase of the size and then reaches a maximum value at only several nanometers in size. Such an ultrasmall-size-sensitive plasmon in the UV region endows graphene dots with new promising potential uses in ultrasmall photo-electric devices and nanoantennas, and in UV enhancers.

  9. The REVEILLE Clock Genes Inhibit Growth of Juvenile and Adult Plants by Control of Cell Size1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Jennifer A.; Chu, Dalena Nhu

    2017-01-01

    The circadian clock is a complex regulatory network that enhances plant growth and fitness in a constantly changing environment. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the clock is composed of numerous regulatory feedback loops in which REVEILLE8 (RVE8) and its homologs RVE4 and RVE6 act in a partially redundant manner to promote clock pace. Here, we report that the remaining members of the RVE8 clade, RVE3 and RVE5, play only minor roles in the regulation of clock function. However, we find that RVE8 clade proteins have unexpected functions in the modulation of light input to the clock and the control of plant growth at multiple stages of development. In seedlings, these proteins repress hypocotyl elongation in a daylength- and sucrose-dependent manner. Strikingly, adult rve4 6 8 and rve3 4 5 6 8 mutants are much larger than wild-type plants, with both increased leaf area and biomass. This size phenotype is associated with a faster growth rate and larger cell size and is not simply due to a delay in the transition to flowering. Gene expression and epistasis analysis reveal that the growth phenotypes of rve mutants are due to the misregulation of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) and PIF5 expression. Our results show that even small changes in PIF gene expression caused by the perturbation of clock gene function can have large effects on the growth of adult plants. PMID:28254761

  10. Communication: Kirkwood-Buff integrals in the thermodynamic limit from small-sized molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortes-Huerto, R.; Kremer, K.; Potestio, R.

    2016-10-01

    We present an accurate and efficient method to obtain Kirkwood-Buff (KB) integrals in the thermodynamic limit from small-sized molecular dynamics simulations. By introducing finite size effects into integral equations of statistical mechanics, we derive an analytical expression connecting the KB integrals of the bulk system with the fluctuations of the number of molecules in the corresponding closed system. We validate the method by calculating the activity coefficients of aqueous urea mixtures and the KB integrals of Lennard-Jones fluids. Moreover, our results demonstrate how to identify simulation conditions under which computer simulations reach the thermodynamic limit.

  11. Method of making metal oxide ceramic membranes with small pore sizes

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Marc A.; Xu, Qunyin

    1992-01-01

    A method for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes is composed of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

  12. Children and Adults Use Physical Size and Numerical Alliances in Third-Party Judgments of Dominance

    PubMed Central

    Lourenco, Stella F.; Bonny, Justin W.; Schwartz, Bari L.

    2016-01-01

    Humans and other social animals interact regularly with conspecifics as part of affiliative groups. Many of these interactions are cooperative, but many others involve competition for resources. Competitive exchanges are often resolved on the basis of dominance relationships, with higher-ranking individuals receiving priority access to desired goods. Although no single cue can establish permanent dominance relationships, there are some cues that predict dominance fairly reliably across context. In the present study, we focused on two such cues relevant to competing groups: (i) the physical sizes of individual members, and (ii) their relative number. Using a social competition task, we examined whether, and how, preschool-aged children and adults used differences in physical size and numerical alliances to judge which of two groups should prevail in a competitive exchange for a desired object. These judgments were made when either physical size or number differed between groups (Experiment 1), and when both were available but pitted against each other (Experiments 1 and 2). Our findings revealed that by 3 years of age, humans use multiple perceptible cues in third-party judgments of dominance. Our findings also revealed that 3-year-olds, like adults, weighted these cues flexibly according to the additional factor of overall group size, with the physical sizes of individuals determining dominance in smaller groups (e.g., 2 vs. 4 characters) and the relative number of individuals determining dominance in larger groups (e.g., 15 vs. 30 characters). Taken together, our findings suggest that a basic formula for determining dominance in competitive exchanges, which weights physical size of individuals and numerical alliances as a function of overall group size, is available to young children and appears fairly stable through to adulthood. PMID:26793158

  13. Occupational safety and health in small and medium-sized enterprises during social and economic transformation.

    PubMed

    Koradecka, D

    2001-01-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Central and Eastern Europe at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s were characterised by many people exposed to hazardous working conditions. Statistics recorded a considerable increase in the number of occupational diseases. They also showed that it was more dangerous to work for a small company. The transition from planned to market economy has brought about an increase in the number of SMEs in Poland. Data on them are provided. The role of the Central Institute for Labour Protection in studying SMEs is presented. A pilot study of employers and employees is discussed.

  14. Smaller food item sizes of snack foods influence reduced portions and caloric intake in young adults.

    PubMed

    Marchiori, David; Waroquier, Laurent; Klein, Olivier

    2011-05-01

    Studies considering the impact of food-size variations on consumption have predominantly focused on portion size, whereas very little research has investigated variations in food-item size, especially at snacking occasions, and results have been contradictory. This study evaluated the effect of altering the size of food items (ie, small vs large candies) of equal-size food portions on short-term energy intake while snacking. The study used a between-subjects design (n=33) in a randomized experiment conducted in spring 2008. In a psychology laboratory (separate cubicles), participants (undergraduate psychology students, 29 of 33 female, mean age 20.3±2 years, mean body mass index 21.7±3.7) were offered unlimited consumption of candies while participating in an unrelated computerized experiment. For half of the subjects, items were cut in two to make the small food-item size. Food intake (weight in grams, kilocalories, and number of food items) was examined using analysis of variance. Results showed that decreasing the item size of candies led participants to decrease by half their gram weight intake, resulting in an energy intake decrease of 60 kcal compared to the other group. Appetite ratings and subject and food characteristics had no moderating effect. A cognitive bias could explain why people tend to consider that one unit of food (eg, 10 candies) is the appropriate amount to consume, regardless of the size of the food items in the unit. This study suggests a simple dietary strategy, decreasing food-item size without having to alter the portion size offered, may reduce energy intake at snacking occasions.

  15. Resilient campuses: leveraging resources among small- and moderate-sized institutions of higher education.

    PubMed

    Green, Rebekah

    2014-01-01

    Universities and colleges provide students with an opportunity to grow personally and professionally through a structured series of learning experiences. Yet disasters can interrupt traditional place-based education and prove to be intractable policy problems. The challenges of developing robust plans and drilling them extensively are most pronounced among smaller public colleges and universities. This article describes how three small- to moderate-sized higher education institutions formed a consortium to better prepare for emergencies, despite limited resources. Together the institutions built common templates, hired joint staff, and created a suit of joint exercises appropriate for their small size and campus-specific needs. In the process, they shared unique perspectives that improved resilience across the institutions.

  16. Cancer Bioinformatic Methods to Infer Meaningful Data From Small-Size Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Bennani-Baiti, Nabila; Bennani-Baiti, Idriss M

    2015-01-01

    Whole-genome analyses have uncovered that most cancer-relevant genes cluster into 12 signaling pathways. Knowledge of the signaling pathways and associated gene signatures not only allows us to understand the mechanisms of oncogenesis inherent to specific cancers but also provides us with drug targets, molecular diagnostic and prognosis factors, as well as biomarkers for patient risk stratification and treatment. Publicly available genomic data sets constitute a wealth of gene mining opportunities for hypothesis generation and testing. However, the increasingly recognized genetic and epigenetic inter- and intratumor heterogeneity, combined with the preponderance of small-size cohorts, hamper reliable analysis and discovery. Here, we review two methods that are used to infer meaningful biological events from small-size data sets and discuss some of their applications and limitations. PMID:26568679

  17. Classification improvement by optimal dimensionality reduction when training sets are of small size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starks, S. A.; Defigueiredo, R. J. P.; Vanrooy, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    A computer simulation was performed to test the conjecture that, when the sizes of the training sets are small, classification in a subspace of the original data space may give rise to a smaller probability of error than the classification in the data space itself; this is because the gain in the accuracy of estimation of the likelihood functions used in classification in the lower dimensional space (subspace) offsets the loss of information associated with dimensionality reduction (feature extraction). A number of pseudo-random training and data vectors were generated from two four-dimensional Gaussian classes. A special algorithm was used to create an optimal one-dimensional feature space on which to project the data. When the sizes of the training sets are small, classification of the data in the optimal one-dimensional space is found to yield lower error rates than the one in the original four-dimensional space.

  18. New idea of a small-sized neutron detector with a plastic fibre.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Harano, Hideki; Masuda, Akihiko; Nishiyama, Jun; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Uritani, Akira

    2011-07-01

    A small-sized thermal neutron detector based on a (6)Li-glass scintillator and a plastic optical fibre has been developed for precise measurement of the spatial distribution of thermal neutron fluence rate. This detector was tested in experiments performed using thermal neutrons. The detector is useful in a thermal neutron field. However, the gamma-ray discrimination ability of the (6)Li-glass scintillator is not good in a low-intensity thermal neutron field. A new idea using a gamma-ray suppression method is proposed to reduce the uncertainty in the neutron counts due to the gamma-ray background. A novel small-sized thermal neutron detector consists of a (6)Li-glass scintillator, a hollow CsI(Tl) scintillator and plastic optical fibres. The evaluation of the gamma-ray suppression ability of the detector using the EGS4 code indicates that the gamma-ray suppression is effective.

  19. Targeting Triple Negative Breast Cancer with a Small-sized Paramagnetic Nanoparticle

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Varma, Nadimpalli RS; Gang, Zhang Z.; Ewing, James R.; Arbab, Ali S; Ali, Meser M

    2016-01-01

    There is no available targeted therapy or imaging agent for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). We developed a small-sized dendrimer-based nanoparticle containing a clinical relevant MRI contrast agent, GdDOTA and a NIR fluorescent dye, DL680. Systemic delivery of dual-modal nanoparticles led to accumulation of the agents in a flank mouse model of TNBC that were detected by both optical and MR imaging. In-vivo fluorescence images, as well as ex-vivo fluorescence images of individual organs, demonstrated that nanoparticles accumulated into tumor selectively. A dual modal strategy resulted in a selective delivery of a small-sized (GdDOTA)42-G4-DL680 dendrimeric agent to TNBC tumors, avoiding other major organs. PMID:28018751

  20. Analysis of energy-efficiency investment decisions by small and medium-sized manufacturers

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, M.G.; Roop, J.M.; Seely, H.E.; Muller, M.R.; Jones, T.W.; Dowd, J.

    1996-05-01

    This report highlights the results of a comprehensive analysis of investment decisions regarding energy-efficiency measures at small and medium-sized manufacturing plants. The analysis is based on the experiences of companies participating in the DOE Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) program. The IAC program is a network of university-based centers that provides energy and waste assessments to small and medium-sized manufacturing plants. The purposes of this report are to do the following: (1) Examine what the data collected reveal about patterns of implementation of recommended energy- efficiency measures, (2) Evaluate how various factors, such as the type of industry, the characteristics of the manufacturing plants, or the cost of the measures, appear to effect implementation rates, (3) Examine reasons why recommended energy-saving measures are accepted or rejected.

  1. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hum Na, Yong; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George

    2010-07-01

    Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals' size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms—modeled entirely in mesh surfaces—of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte

  2. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms.

    PubMed

    Na, Yong Hum; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F; Xu, X George

    2010-07-07

    Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals' size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms--modeled entirely in mesh surfaces--of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte Carlo

  3. Characterization of Hardening by Design Techniques on Commercial, Small Feature Sized Field-Programmable Gate Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    AFIT/GE/ENG/09-43 CHARACTERIZATION OF HARDENING BY DESIGN TECHNIQUES ON COMMERCIAL, SMALL FEATURE SIZED FIELD-PROGRAMMABLE GATE ARRAYS THESIS...The purpose of which is to determine the radiation effects and characterize the improvements of various hardening by design techniques. The...Distributed RAM memory elements that are loaded both with ECC and non-error corrected data. The circuit is designed to check for errors in memory data, stuck

  4. Computational assessment of the entropy of solvation of small-sized hydrophobic entities.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Reema; Kranzlmüller, Dieter; Volkert, Jens; Hansmann, Ulrich H E; Höfinger, Siegfried

    2006-12-21

    A high level polarizable force field is used to study the temperature dependence of hydrophobic hydration of small-sized molecules from computer simulations. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of liquid water at various temperatures form the basis of free energy perturbation calculations that consider the onset and growth of a repulsive sphere. This repulsive sphere acts as a model construct for the hydrophobic species. In the present study, an extension is pursued for seven independent target temperatures, ranging from close to the freezing point almost up to the boiling point of liquid water under standard conditions. Care is taken to maintain proper physico-chemical model descriptions by cross-checking with experimental water densities at the selected target temperatures. The polarizable force field description of molecular water turns out to be suitable throughout the entire temperature domain considered. Derivatives of the computed free energies of hydrophobic hydration with respect to the temperature give access to the changes in entropy. In practice the entropy differential is determined from the negative of the slope of tangential lines formed at a certain target temperature in the free energy profile. The obtained changes in entropy are negative for small-sized cavities, and hence reconfirm the basic ideas of the Lum-Chandler-Weeks theory on hydrophobic hydration of small-sized solutes.

  5. Consultant-Client Relationship and Knowledge Transfer in Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises Change Processes.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Luis F; Ferreira, Aristides I; Can, Amina B

    2016-04-01

    Based on Szulanski's knowledge transfer model, this study examined how the communicational, motivational, and sharing of understanding variables influenced knowledge transfer and change processes in small- and medium-sized enterprises, particularly under projects developed by funded programs. The sample comprised 144 entrepreneurs, mostly male (65.3%) and mostly ages 35 to 45 years (40.3%), who filled an online questionnaire measuring the variables of "sharing of understanding," "motivation," "communication encoding competencies," "source credibility," "knowledge transfer," and "organizational change." Data were collected between 2011 and 2012 and measured the relationship between clients and consultants working in a Portuguese small- and medium-sized enterprise-oriented action learning program. To test the hypotheses, structural equation modeling was conducted to identify the antecedents of sharing of understanding, motivational, and communicational variables, which were positively correlated with the knowledge transfer between consultants and clients. This transfer was also positively correlated with organizational change. Overall, the study provides important considerations for practitioners and academicians and establishes new avenues for future studies concerning the issues of consultant-client relationship and the efficacy of Government-funded programs designed to improve performance of small- and medium-sized enterprises.

  6. Scale-dependent habitat selection and size-based dominance in adult male American alligators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strickland, Bradley A.; Vilella, Francisco; Belant, Jerrold L.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat selection is an active behavioral process that may vary across spatial and temporal scales. Animals choose an area of primary utilization (i.e., home range) then make decisions focused on resource needs within patches. Dominance may affect the spatial distribution of conspecifics and concomitant habitat selection. Size-dependent social dominance hierarchies have been documented in captive alligators, but evidence is lacking from wild populations. We studied habitat selection for adult male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis; n = 17) on the Pearl River in central Mississippi, USA, to test whether habitat selection was scale-dependent and individual resource selectivity was a function of conspecific body size. We used K-select analysis to quantify selection at the home range scale and patches within the home range to determine selection congruency and important habitat variables. In addition, we used linear models to determine if body size was related to selection patterns and strengths. Our results indicated habitat selection of adult male alligators was a scale-dependent process. Alligators demonstrated greater overall selection for habitat variables at the patch level and less at the home range level, suggesting resources may not be limited when selecting a home range for animals in our study area. Further, diurnal habitat selection patterns may depend on thermoregulatory needs. There was no relationship between resource selection or home range size and body size, suggesting size-dependent dominance hierarchies may not have influenced alligator resource selection or space use in our sample. Though apparent habitat suitability and low alligator density did not manifest in an observed dominance hierarchy, we hypothesize that a change in either could increase intraspecific interactions, facilitating a dominance hierarchy. Due to the broad and diverse ecological roles of alligators, understanding the factors that influence their social dominance

  7. Association of Overweight with Food Portion Size among Adults of São Paulo – Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Aline; Crispim, Sandra Patricia; Marchioni, Dirce Maria; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2016-01-01

    Background Although studies show that portion size affects energy intake, few have demonstrated a link between portion size and weight status, especially in free-living populations. The objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between food portion sizes and overweight in a representative population of adults of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional population-based study with 1005 adults from São Paulo, Brazil. Dietary data were obtained from two 24-hour recalls. Reported foods were classified into groups and energy contribution, prevalence of consumers and portion sizes were calculated. Individuals were classified according to BMI in with and without overweight. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between food portion sizes and being overweight. Results The most consumed food groups were: beans, breads/rolls, coffee/tea, milk, rice, and sugar. Rice, red meat, breads/rolls, and white meat were the groups with the highest percentage of contribution to total energy intake. Butter/margarine, toasts/biscuits, sugar, and cakes were the groups with the highest energy density. After adjustment for confounding variables, overweight was associated with larger portions of pizza (OR = 1.052; p = 0.048), red meat (OR = 1.025; p = 0.043), rice (OR = 1.033; p<0.001), salted snacks (OR = 1.078; p = 0.022), and soft drinks (OR = 1.016; p = 0.007). Conclusions Larger portions of few food groups with different energy densities were associated with being overweight, suggesting that overweight may be related to the consumption of larger portion sizes of a series of food groups, not a food group alone. Additionally, we highlight the importance of considering underreporting as a confounding factor in these associations. PMID:27706222

  8. Scale-Dependent Habitat Selection and Size-Based Dominance in Adult Male American Alligators

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Bradley A.; Vilella, Francisco J.; Belant, Jerrold L.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat selection is an active behavioral process that may vary across spatial and temporal scales. Animals choose an area of primary utilization (i.e., home range) then make decisions focused on resource needs within patches. Dominance may affect the spatial distribution of conspecifics and concomitant habitat selection. Size-dependent social dominance hierarchies have been documented in captive alligators, but evidence is lacking from wild populations. We studied habitat selection for adult male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis; n = 17) on the Pearl River in central Mississippi, USA, to test whether habitat selection was scale-dependent and individual resource selectivity was a function of conspecific body size. We used K-select analysis to quantify selection at the home range scale and patches within the home range to determine selection congruency and important habitat variables. In addition, we used linear models to determine if body size was related to selection patterns and strengths. Our results indicated habitat selection of adult male alligators was a scale-dependent process. Alligators demonstrated greater overall selection for habitat variables at the patch level and less at the home range level, suggesting resources may not be limited when selecting a home range for animals in our study area. Further, diurnal habitat selection patterns may depend on thermoregulatory needs. There was no relationship between resource selection or home range size and body size, suggesting size-dependent dominance hierarchies may not have influenced alligator resource selection or space use in our sample. Though apparent habitat suitability and low alligator density did not manifest in an observed dominance hierarchy, we hypothesize that a change in either could increase intraspecific interactions, facilitating a dominance hierarchy. Due to the broad and diverse ecological roles of alligators, understanding the factors that influence their social dominance

  9. Born small, die young: Intrinsic, size-selective mortality in marine larval fish

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, S.; Ben-Hamadou, R.; Santos, A.M.P.; Ferreira, S.; Teodósio, M.A.; Cotano, U.; Irigoien, X.; Peck, M.A.; Saiz, E.; Ré, P.

    2015-01-01

    Mortality during the early stages is a major cause of the natural variations in the size and recruitment strength of marine fish populations. In this study, the relation between the size-at-hatch and early survival was assessed using laboratory experiments and on field-caught larvae of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus). Larval size-at-hatch was not related to the egg size but was significantly, positively related to the diameter of the otolith-at-hatch. Otolith diameter-at-hatch was also significantly correlated with survival-at-age in fed and unfed larvae in the laboratory. For sardine larvae collected in the Bay of Biscay during the spring of 2008, otolith radius-at-hatch was also significantly related to viability. Larval mortality has frequently been related to adverse environmental conditions and intrinsic factors affecting feeding ability and vulnerability to predators. Our study offers evidence indicating that a significant portion of fish mortality occurs during the endogenous (yolk) and mixed (yolk /prey) feeding period in the absence of predators, revealing that marine fish with high fecundity, such as small pelagics, can spawn a relatively large amount of eggs resulting in small larvae with no chances to survive. Our findings help to better understand the mass mortalities occurring at early stages of marine fish. PMID:26597385

  10. Parity and litter size effects on maternal behavior of Small Tail Han sheep in China.

    PubMed

    Lv, Shen-Jin; Yang, Yan; Li, Fu-Kuan

    2016-03-01

    The effects of parity and litter size on maternal behavior of Small Tail Han sheep was investigated at Linyi University, China. Sixty-eight ewes were observed from parturition to weaning. Continuous focal animal sampling was used to quantify the duration of maternal behaviors. Ewe feces were collected every 2 days and estradiol concentration was measured with an enzyme immunoassay kit. All lambs were weighed 24 h after parturition and again at 35 days of age. Parity increased sucking, following, grooming, low-pitched bleat, head-up and udder-refusal behavior and decreased aggressive behavior (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P < 0.05, P < 0.05, P < 0.05, P < 0.05, P < 0.01, respectively), and litter size showed significant effect on sucking, following and low-pitched bleat behavior (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively). The lambs of multiparous ewes were significantly heavier than primiparous ewes at birth (P < 0.01) and were significantly heavier at weaning age (P < 0.01). Similar results were founded for birth weight and weaning weight gain in litter size (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, respectively). Estradiol concentration in feces was higher in multiparous ewes than primiparous ewes. Parity and litter size may have effects on maternal behavior during lactation. Ewes that have 2-3 lambs may be more suitable for production of Small Tail Han sheep in China.

  11. Rotavirus Infection Is Not Associated with Small Intestinal Fluid Secretion in the Adult Mouse▿

    PubMed Central

    Kordasti, Shirin; Istrate, Claudia; Banasaz, Mahanez; Rottenberg, Martin; Sjövall, Henrik; Lundgren, Ove; Svensson, Lennart

    2006-01-01

    In contrast to humans, adult but not infant small animals are resistant to rotavirus diarrhea. The pathophysiological mechanism behind this age-restricted diarrhea is currently unresolved, and this question was investigated by studying the secretory state of the small intestines of adult mice infected with rotavirus. Immunohistochemistry and histological examinations revealed that rotavirus (strain EDIM) infects all parts of the small intestines of adult mice, with significant numbers of infected cells in the ilea at 2 and 4 days postinfection. Furthermore, quantitative PCR revealed that 100-fold more viral RNA was produced in the ilea than in the jejuna or duodena of adult mice. In vitro perfusion experiments of the small intestine did not reveal any significant changes in net fluid secretion among mice infected for 3 days or 4 days or in those that were noninfected (37 ± 9 μl · h−1 · cm−1, 22 ± 13 μl · h−1 · cm−1, and 33 ± 6 μl · h−1 · cm−1, respectively) or in transmucosal potential difference (4.0 ± 0.3 mV versus 3.9 ± 0.4 mV), a marker for active chloride secretion, between control and rotavirus-infected mice. In vivo experiments also did not show any differences in potential difference between uninfected and infected small intestines. Furthermore, no significant differences in weight between infected and uninfected small intestines were found, nor were any differences in fecal output observed between infected and control mice. Altogether, these data suggest that rotavirus infection is not sufficient to stimulate chloride and water secretion from the small intestines of adult mice. PMID:16943290

  12. The small volume particle microsampler (SVPM): a new approach to particle size distribution and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archambault, Marie-Claude; Grant, Jon; Hatcher, Annamarie

    2001-10-01

    The characterization of trophically and geochemically important suspended particulate matter (SPM) has traditionally relied on bottle sampling and subsequent analysis with Coulter Multisizers and other instruments, which are not sufficient in preserving the in situ size, shape and composition of aggregated particles. The small volume particle microsampler (SVPM) is a sampling device that captures individual particles on filters with minimal disturbance for microscope image analysis of size distribution and composition. Sand grains, microalga ( Dunaliella tertiolecta) and laboratory cultivated flocs were used to test the SVPM's ability to determine particle size. For statistical analysis of the SVPM's capabilities, sand grain and algal size distribution, calculated as equivalent spherical diameter (ESD), were compared to Multisizer data while video images provided a comparison for the flocs. Non-aggregated sand particles sampled by the SVPM showed a size distribution that was similar to that of the Multisizer. Aggregated D. tertiolecta flocs were broken up by the Multisizer, and SVPM data indicated a significantly greater mean ESD. The SVPM showed significantly smaller mean ESDs than the video images because of the higher resolution of the sampler for small particles. In terms of particle concentration, the microsampler measured values similar to those of the Multisizer and video camera. The most important feature of the SVPM is its ability to capture aggregates for the analysis of composition, by histological stains or other means. The SVPM is an alternative method of sampling that is more effective in preserving aggregates for laboratory analyses and is less complicated and expensive than in situ optical sampling techniques, especially in documenting the lower end of the particle size spectrum.

  13. Small sample sizes in the study of ontogenetic allometry; implications for palaeobiology

    PubMed Central

    Vavrek, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative morphometric analyses, particularly ontogenetic allometry, are common methods used in quantifying shape, and changes therein, in both extinct and extant organisms. Due to incompleteness and the potential for restricted sample sizes in the fossil record, palaeobiological analyses of allometry may encounter higher rates of error. Differences in sample size between fossil and extant studies and any resulting effects on allometric analyses have not been thoroughly investigated, and a logical lower threshold to sample size is not clear. Here we show that studies based on fossil datasets have smaller sample sizes than those based on extant taxa. A similar pattern between vertebrates and invertebrates indicates this is not a problem unique to either group, but common to both. We investigate the relationship between sample size, ontogenetic allometric relationship and statistical power using an empirical dataset of skull measurements of modern Alligator mississippiensis. Across a variety of subsampling techniques, used to simulate different taphonomic and/or sampling effects, smaller sample sizes gave less reliable and more variable results, often with the result that allometric relationships will go undetected due to Type II error (failure to reject the null hypothesis). This may result in a false impression of fewer instances of positive/negative allometric growth in fossils compared to living organisms. These limitations are not restricted to fossil data and are equally applicable to allometric analyses of rare extant taxa. No mathematically derived minimum sample size for ontogenetic allometric studies is found; rather results of isometry (but not necessarily allometry) should not be viewed with confidence at small sample sizes. PMID:25780770

  14. The sexual identity of adult intestinal stem cells controls organ size and plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Hudry, Bruno; Khadayate, Sanjay; Miguel-Aliaga, Irene

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Sex differences in physiology and disease susceptibility are commonly attributed to developmental and/or hormonal factors, but there is increasing realisation that cell-intrinsic mechanisms play important and persistent roles1,2. Here we use the Drosophila melanogaster intestine to investigate the nature and significance of cellular sex in an adult somatic organ in vivo. We find that the adult intestinal epithelium is a cellular mosaic of different sex differentiation pathways, and displays extensive sex differences in expression of genes with roles in growth and metabolism. Cell-specific reversals of the sexual identity of adult intestinal stem cells uncover its key roles in controlling organ size, its reproductive plasticity and its response to genetically induced tumours. Unlike previous examples of sexually dimorphic somatic stem cell activity, the sex differences in intestinal stem cell behaviour arise from intrinsic mechanisms, which control cell cycle duration and involve a new doublesex- and fruitless-independent branch of the sex differentiation pathway downstream of transformer. Together, our findings indicate that the plasticity of an adult somatic organ is reversibly controlled by its sexual identity, imparted by a new mechanism that may be active in more tissues than previously recognised. PMID:26887495

  15. One size does not fit all: older adults benefit from redundant text in multimedia instruction

    PubMed Central

    Fenesi, Barbara; Vandermorris, Susan; Kim, Joseph A.; Shore, David I.; Heisz, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    The multimedia design of presentations typically ignores that younger and older adults have varying cognitive strengths and weaknesses. We examined whether differential instructional design may enhance learning in these populations. Younger and older participants viewed one of three computer-based presentations: Audio only (narration), Redundant (audio narration with redundant text), or Complementary (audio narration with non-redundant text and images). Younger participants learned better when audio narration was paired with relevant images compared to when audio narration was paired with redundant text. However, older participants learned best when audio narration was paired with redundant text. Younger adults, who presumably have a higher working memory capacity (WMC), appear to benefit more from complementary information that may drive deeper conceptual processing. In contrast, older adults learn better from presentations that support redundant coding across modalities, which may help mitigate the effects of age-related decline in WMC. Additionally, several misconceptions of design quality appeared across age groups: both younger and older participants positively rated less effective designs. Findings suggest that one-size does not fit all, with older adults requiring unique multimedia design tailored to their cognitive abilities for effective learning. PMID:26284000

  16. Size, distribution and sediment biodeposition of prolific bivalves in small estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callaway, Ruth; Grenfell, Suzanne; Bertelli, Chiara; Mendzil, Anouska; Moore, Jon

    2014-10-01

    The growth and distribution of bivalves in estuaries is generally driven by access to food, hydrodynamic forces and sedimentary conditions that facilitate recruitment and allow persistent settlement. Factors such as site elevation or sediment properties have a significant impact, but there are few studies quantifying the relative importance of different factors in an entire estuary. We carried out an estuary-wide survey of the cockle Cerastoderma edule L. by sampling 343 sites in a small estuary, the Burry Inlet in South Wales, UK. We determined the extent to which site elevation, as an indicator for the duration of feeding, sediment properties and position inside the estuary, explained variation in the size and density of the bivalve. We also analysed the production of faeces and pseudo-faeces per cockle. The population consisted almost entirely of 1-year old cockles, the average size was 14.7 ± 2.7 mm and the average density was 56 ± 189 cockles 0.1 m-2 (mean ± SD). Altogether 37% of the variation in size was explained by two factors: elevation of site (15%) and amount of clay & silt in sediments (22%). Variation in density appeared to play no significant role in determining size. Density was significantly linked to sediment properties (32%) and position inside the estuary (4%). Sediment biodeposition, the amount of material discharged per cockle, was 0.032 ± 0.017 g dry weight, the whole population thereby producing an estimated 387 tonnes of faeces and pseudo-faeces in the entire estuary per day. The study confirmed that access to food is a principal driver of growth, but the relatively small proportion of the variation in size explained by site elevation highlights that other factors play an important role. Sediment characteristics in particular were of importance to variation in size as well as density. It seems plausible that sediment properties were a proxy for factors such as bedload movement and exposure, which are more likely causal factors for

  17. AIUB Efforts to Survey, Track, and Characterize Small-Size Objects at High Altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildknecht, T.; Früh, C.; Herzog, J.; Hinze, A.; Vananti, A.

    2010-09-01

    Since more than a decade the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) is investigating the small-size space debris environment in high-altitude orbit regions. Originally the efforts concentrated on statistical optical surveys with the primary goal to derive fluxes as input data for statistical environment models. It became, however, obvious that important characteristics of the debris population could not be determined by this technique. The sparse surveys did not yield orbital elements for the debris objects, and it was very difficult to assess the total number of objects for a given region. One essential task of the space debris research is to find and understand the sources of debris, which in turn will enable to devise efficient mitigation measures - a prerequisite for the sustainable use of outer space. In order to understand the nature and eventually the origin of small-size debris objects, observations allowing to derive orbital parameters and physical characteristics like size, shape and material are required. This paper discusses the AIUB activities to build-up and maintain an orbit catalogue of small-size debris. AIUB uses its dedicated 0.3m robotic telescope ZimSMART-2 to constantly survey the GEO, the GTO and the MEO region. The data from this telescope is fused with observations from AIUB's 1-meter ZIMLAT telescope and ESA's 1-meter telescope in Tenerife and shared with international partners. The resulting catalogue of orbital elements enables physical characterization of the debris objects trough photometry, light curve and reflectance spectroscopy observations.

  18. Small Size at Birth or Abnormal Intrauterine Growth Trajectory: Which Matters More for Child Growth?

    PubMed

    Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Jacobsen, Geir W; Kramer, Michael S; Martinussen, Marit; Platt, Robert W

    2016-06-15

    Small size at birth is linked with lifelong adverse health implications. However, small size is only a proxy for the pathological process of interest, intrauterine growth restriction. We examined the extent to which information on intrauterine growth patterns improved prediction of childhood anthropometry, above and beyond birth weight alone. We obtained fetal weights estimated via serial ultrasound for 478 children in the Scandinavian Successive Small-for-Gestational-Age Births Study (1986-1988). Size at birth was classified using birth weight-for-gestational-age z scores and conditional fetal growth z scores (reflecting growth between 25 weeks' gestation and birth) using internal references. Conditional z scores were also expressed as residuals of birth weight z scores. Growth measures were linked with age-5-years anthropometric characteristics using linear regression. In univariable analyses, conditional fetal growth z scores were positively associated with z scores for child height, body mass index, total skinfold thickness, and head circumference (β = 0.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.18, 0.31), β = 0.16 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.23), β = 0.08 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.16), and β = 0.37 (95% CI: 0.22, 0.52), respectively). However, conditional z scores were highly correlated with birth weight z scores (r = 0.9), and residuals explained minimal additional variation in anthropometric factors (null coefficients; adjusted R(2) increases < 0.01). Information on the intrauterine trajectory through which birth weight was attained provided little additional insight into child growth beyond that obtained from absolute size at birth.

  19. Analysis of small sample size studies using nonparametric bootstrap test with pooled resampling method.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Alok Kumar; Mallawaarachchi, Indika; Alvarado, Luis A

    2017-03-09

    Experimental studies in biomedical research frequently pose analytical problems related to small sample size. In such studies, there are conflicting findings regarding the choice of parametric and nonparametric analysis, especially with non-normal data. In such instances, some methodologists questioned the validity of parametric tests and suggested nonparametric tests. In contrast, other methodologists found nonparametric tests to be too conservative and less powerful and thus preferred using parametric tests. Some researchers have recommended using a bootstrap test; however, this method also has small sample size limitation. We used a pooled method in nonparametric bootstrap test that may overcome the problem related with small samples in hypothesis testing. The present study compared nonparametric bootstrap test with pooled resampling method corresponding to parametric, nonparametric, and permutation tests through extensive simulations under various conditions and using real data examples. The nonparametric pooled bootstrap t-test provided equal or greater power for comparing two means as compared with unpaired t-test, Welch t-test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and permutation test while maintaining type I error probability for any conditions except for Cauchy and extreme variable lognormal distributions. In such cases, we suggest using an exact Wilcoxon rank sum test. Nonparametric bootstrap paired t-test also provided better performance than other alternatives. Nonparametric bootstrap test provided benefit over exact Kruskal-Wallis test. We suggest using nonparametric bootstrap test with pooled resampling method for comparing paired or unpaired means and for validating the one way analysis of variance test results for non-normal data in small sample size studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Estimating total population size for adult female sea turtles: Accounting for non-nesters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, W.L.; Richardson, J.I.; Rees, Alan F.

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of population size and changes therein is important to sea turtle management and population or life history research. Investigators might be interested in testing hypotheses about the effect of current population size or density (number of animals per unit resource) on future population processes. Decision makers might want to determine a level of allowable take of individual turtles of specified life stage. Nevertheless, monitoring most stages of sea turtle life histories is difficult, because obtaining access to individuals is difficult. Although in-water assessments are becoming more common, nesting females and their hatchlings remain the most accessible life stages. In some cases adult females of a given nesting population are sufficiently philopatric that the population itself can be well defined. If a well designed tagging study is conducted on this population, survival, breeding probability, and the size of the nesting population in a given year can be estimated. However, with published statistical methodology the size of the entire breeding population (including those females skipping nesting in that year) cannot be estimated without assuming that each adult female in this population has the same probability of nesting in a given year (even those that had just nested in the previous year). We present a method for estimating the total size of a breeding population (including nesters those skipping nesting) from a tagging study limited to the nesting population, allowing for the probability of nesting in a given year to depend on an individual's nesting status in the previous year (i.e., a Markov process). From this we further develop estimators for rate of growth from year to year in both nesting population and total breeding population, and the proportion of the breeding population that is breeding in a given year. We also discuss assumptions and apply these methods to a breeding population of hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) from

  1. Increased juvenile predation is not associated with evolved differences in adult brain size in Trinidadian killifish (Rivulus hartii).

    PubMed

    Beston, Shannon M; Broyles, Whitnee; Walsh, Matthew R

    2017-02-01

    Vertebrates exhibit extensive variation in brain size. The long-standing assumption is that this variation is driven by ecologically mediated selection. Recent work has shown that an increase in predator-induced mortality is associated with evolved increases and decreases in brain size. Thus, the manner in which predators induce shifts in brain size remains unclear. Increased predation early in life is a key driver of many adult traits, including life-history and behavioral traits. Such results foreshadow a connection between age-specific mortality and selection on adult brain size. Trinidadian killifish, Rivulus hartii, are found in sites with and without guppies, Poecilia reticulata. The densities of Rivulus drop dramatically in sites with guppies because guppies prey upon juvenile Rivulus. Previous work has shown that guppy predation is associated with the evolution of adult life-history traits in Rivulus. In this study, we compared second-generation laboratory-born Rivulus from sites with and without guppies for differences in brain size and associated trade-offs between brain size and other components of fitness. Despite the large amount of existing research on the importance of early-life events on the evolution of adult traits, and the role of predation on both behavior and brain size, we did not find an association between the presence of guppies and evolutionary shifts in Rivulus brain size. Such results argue that increased rates of juvenile mortality may not alter selection on adult brain size.

  2. The Role of Body Size in Mate Selection among African American Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Leslie G.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2016-01-01

    A profusion of studies have demonstrated that body size is a major factor in mate selection for both men and women. The particular role played by weight, however, has been subject to some debate, particularly with respect to the types of body sizes deemed most attractive, and scholars have questioned the degree to which body size preferences are constant across groups. In this paper, we drew from two perspectives on this issue, Sexual Strategies Theory and what we termed the cultural variability perspective, and used survey data to examine how body size was associated with both casual dating and serious romantic relationships. We used a United States sample of 386 African American adolescents and young adults between ages 16 and 21, living in the Midwest and Southeast, and who were enrolled in either high school or college. Results showed that overweight women were more likely to report casually dating than women in the thinnest weight category. Body size was not related to dating status among men. Among women, the results suggest stronger support for the cultural variability argument than for Sexual Strategies Theory. Potential explanations for these findings are discussed. PMID:26973377

  3. SU-E-T-611: Effective Treatment Volume of the Small Size IORT Applicators

    SciTech Connect

    Krechetov, A.S.; Goer, D.A.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose Mobile electron linear accelerators are gaining more attention recently, providing a lower cost and simpler way to perform intraoperative treatment. However, the simplicity of the treatment process does not eliminate the need for proper attention to the technical aspects of the treatment. One of the potential pitfalls is incorrect selection of the appropriate applicator size to adequately cover the tumor bed to the prescription dose. When treating tumor beds in the pelvis, the largest applicator that fits into the pelvis is usually selected as there is concern about microscopic extension of the disease along the sidewalls of the pelvis. But when treating early stage breast tumors, there is a natural tendency to select an applicator as small as possible so as not to jeopardize cosmesis. Methods This investigation questions how much of the typical breast treatment volume gets adequate exposure and what is the correct strategy in selecting the proper applicator size. Actual data from isodose scans were analyzed. Results We found that typical treatment dose prescriptions can cover as much as 80% and as little as 20% of the nominal treatment volume depending on the applicator size and energy of the beam and whether the dose is prescribed to the 80 or 90% isodose level. Treatment volume is defined as a cylinder with diameter equal to applicator and height equal to the corresponding D80 or D90 depth. Conclusion If mobile linear accelerators are used, there can be significant amount of “cold volume” depending on the applicator size and this should be taken into account when selecting the applicator that is needed. Using too small of an applicator could result in significant under-dosing to the tissue at risk. Long-term clinical data demonstrates that selecting an adequate field size results in good ontological control as well as excellent cosmesis. Intraop Medical Corp was providing facilities and equipment for this research.

  4. Condensation on surface energy gradient shifts drop size distribution toward small drops.

    PubMed

    Macner, Ashley M; Daniel, Susan; Steen, Paul H

    2014-02-25

    During dropwise condensation from vapor onto a cooled surface, distributions of drops evolve by nucleation, growth, and coalescence. Drop surface coverage dictates the heat transfer characteristics and depends on both drop size and number of drops present on the surface at any given time. Thus, manipulating drop distributions is crucial to maximizing heat transfer. On earth, manipulation is achieved with gravity. However, in applications with small length scales or in low gravity environments, other methods of removal, such as a surface energy gradient, are required. This study examines how chemical modification of a cooled surface affects drop growth and coalescence, which in turn influences how a population of drops evolves. Steam is condensed onto a horizontally oriented surface that has been treated by silanization to deliver either a spatially uniform contact angle (hydrophilic, hydrophobic) or a continuous radial gradient of contact angles (hydrophobic to hydrophilic). The time evolution of number density and associated drop size distributions are measured. For a uniform surface, the shape of the drop size distribution is unique and can be used to identify the progress of condensation. In contrast, the drop size distribution for a gradient surface, relative to a uniform surface, shifts toward a population of small drops. The frequent sweeping of drops truncates maturation of the first generation of large drops and locks the distribution shape at the initial distribution. The absence of a shape change indicates that dropwise condensation has reached a steady state. Previous reports of heat transfer enhancement on chemical gradient surfaces can be explained by this shift toward smaller drops, from which the high heat transfer coefficients in dropwise condensation are attributed to. Terrestrial applications using gravity as the primary removal mechanism also stand to benefit from inclusion of gradient surfaces because the critical threshold size required for

  5. Reconstructing the size distribution of the small body population in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrechts, Michiel; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2016-10-01

    The size distributions of the populations of small bodies in the solar system (the asteroid belt, the hot Kuiper belt and the cold Kuiper belt) show a striking similarity: they all show an elbow at a diameter of about D=100km. At D<100km, all size distributions have the same slope, dictated by collisional equilibrium. At D>100km, the slopes are different, the cold Kuiper belt having the steepest slope, while the hot Kuiper belt and the asteroid belt have progressively more shallow slopes. Moreover, the asteroid belt and hot Kuiper belt show a turnover to a shallow size distribution at sizes larger than D=300-500km. Johansen et al. (2015) explained the elbow and the transition to a steeper slope assuming that the original planetesimals had D<100km and that they grew further by the process of pebble accretion, the sweep up of small particles aided by gas drag. However, the origin of the differences between the slopes of the three populations remained unclear.Here we investigate the problem using a particle-in-a-box code, that treats collisional coagulation, fragmentation, dynamical stirring and damping, to which we have added growth by pebble accretion for objects with possibly eccentric and inclined orbits.We show that the size distribution above D=100km is set by a combination of planetesimal collisions and the sweeping up of pebbles. Thus, the final slopes are diagnostic of the collisionial rate and the initial total mass of the planetesimal population. The size distribution for the largest asteroids and hot Kuiper belt objects are consistent with growth dominated by the accretion of pebbles. The observed size distributions also places constraints on the dominant particle size, the level of midplane turbulence and nebular conditions at different orbital radii in the Solar nebula. Our findings hint that the asteroid belt largely formed close to the dissipation of the gas disc and that its final total mass was comparable to that of the Earth.

  6. Reduced size and starvation resistance in adult mosquitoes, Aedes notoscriptus, exposed to predation cues as larvae.

    PubMed

    van Uitregt, Vincent O; Hurst, Timothy P; Wilson, Robbie S

    2012-01-01

    1. Many prey organisms exhibit adaptive phenotypic plasticity in life-history traits that facilitate a better chance of survival in the presence of predators. The evolution of such plastic traits requires that the defensive phenotype incurs a cost in the absence of predation. 2. Model systems that are used to examine predator-induced defences are often organisms with complex life histories that only induce defences during the larval stage. While many studies have detected costs of inducible defences during the larval stage, detecting the costs of larval defences after metamorphosis is also important. 3. We examine the benefits and costs of inducible larval defences in the urban mosquito, Aedes notoscriptus, by rearing them in the presence and absence of predation cues. We compared survival of larvae inducing behavioural defences, when exposed to predation cues, in predation trials with predatory fish Hypseleotris galii to that of larvae reared in the absence predation cues. We also compared life-history traits of predator-exposed larvae to larvae reared in control conditions. 4. Larvae exposed to chemical predation cues limited activity and were able to avoid predation for longer in trials with H. galii. However, predator-exposed larvae suffered retarded larval growth and development, were smaller at metamorphosis and less resistant to starvation as adults. 5. While it is difficult to understand the 'fitness costs' that poorer starvation resistance might confer to adult mosquitoes, it is likely that smaller adult size of predator-exposed individuals would reduce fitness, particularly for females where body size limits the size of blood meal they could take to facilitate egg production. We suggest that the demonstrable costs of inducible defences in mosquito larvae make this a good system for testing theoretical models for the evolutionary maintenance of adaptive phenotypic plasticity.

  7. Adult Marketing Education for the Small Business Sector: A Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, William T., Jr.

    A study identified and analyzed adult marketing education services that have been and are currently being provided for the small business sector. The methodology involved a literature review and a mail survey of all secondary and postsecondary marketing education state supervisors listed in the 1985-86 State Supervisors Directory. Of the 54…

  8. 75 FR 9431 - Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: U.S. and EU Export Activities, and Barriers and Opportunities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: U.S. and EU Export Activities, and Barriers and Opportunities... investigations, investigation No. 332-509, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: U.S. and EU Export Activities,...

  9. 40 CFR 428.50 - Applicability; description of the small-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... small-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.50 Section 428.50... RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Small-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber... fabricated rubber plants subcategory. The following provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  10. 40 CFR 428.50 - Applicability; description of the small-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... small-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.50 Section 428.50... RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Small-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber... fabricated rubber plants subcategory. The following provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  11. Incoming synapses and size of small granule-containing cells in a rat sympathetic ganglion after post-ganglionic axotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Case, C P; Matthews, M R

    1986-01-01

    A quantitative ultrastructural study has been made of the reaction of the incoming synapses of small granule-containing cells after axotomy of the major post-ganglionic branches of the superior cervical ganglion of the young adult rat. These cells are intrinsic and interneurone-like in this ganglion, receiving a preganglionic input and giving outgoing synapses to principal post-ganglionic neurones. Unlike their outgoing synapses, which are lost after post-ganglionic axotomy (Case & Matthews, 1986), the incoming synapses of the small granule-containing cells in axotomized ganglia increased in incidence post-operatively. The increase first became clearly evident 5-7 days post-operatively and was greater, being both more sustained and progressive, after bilateral than after unilateral axotomy. After bilateral axotomy the incidence of incoming synapses rose to more than four times that of normal ganglia and was still elevated at 128 days post-operatively, but was within normal limits at 390 days. After a unilateral lesion, increases of similar extent and time course to those in the axotomized ganglia were seen in the incoming synapses of small granule-containing cells in the uninjured contralateral ganglia. The incoming synapses of the small granule-containing cells are multifocal, i.e. show several points or active foci of synaptic specialization. The increase in synapses expressed itself both through an increased incidence of these synaptic active foci per nerve terminal and through an increase in the number of presynaptic nerve terminal profiles associated with the cells. Control observations indicated that the increase in synapses was not due to surgical stress, nor was it attributable solely to post-operative ageing. The nerve terminals which were presynaptic to the small granule-containing cells post-operatively were all of preganglionic origin: no incoming synapses or presynaptic nerve terminals remained at 2 days after a preganglionic denervation of axotomized

  12. Knowledge and psychosocial effects of the film super size me on young adults.

    PubMed

    Cottone, Ellen; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2007-07-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity has risen dramatically over the past 2 decades. Among the many contributing factors is increased consumption of fast foods. Mass media outlets have cited the potential of the film Super Size Me to alter this behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of this film on young adults' fast-food knowledge and psychosocial measures (ie, attitudes, self-efficacy, healthy weight locus of control, and stage of change) and evaluate the effectiveness of this film as a form of emotional arousal and consciousness-raising. A pretest-posttest follow-up control group design with random assignment was used. Young adults (n=135; 54% female) completed the pretest; approximately 10 days later viewed a film then completed the posttest; and about 9 days later completed the follow-up test. The experimental group (n=80) viewed Super Size Me. The control group (n=55) viewed an unrelated film. Unpaired t tests revealed that the study groups did not differ significantly (P>0.05) at pretest on any measure. Analysis of covariance, with pretest score as the covariate, revealed the experimental group scored substantially better than the control group at posttest on knowledge and nearly all psychosocial measures. In addition, the experimental group continued to score substantially higher than the control group at follow-up on knowledge, stage of change, and consciousness-raising and lower on external: chance health locus of control. Super Size Me represents a potentially powerful tool for nutrition education. Nutrition practitioners should consider using Super Size Me as a consciousness-raising and emotional arousal change process with patients in pre-action stages of change for reducing fast-food intake.

  13. Scalloped depressions and small-sized polygons in western Utopia Planitia, Mars: A new formation hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Séjourné, A.; Costard, F.; Gargani, J.; Soare, R. J.; Fedorov, A.; Marmo, C.

    2011-04-01

    Flat-floored depressions with scalloped-shapes and spatially associated small-sized polygons (diameter <˜100 m) dot the landscape of western Utopia Planitia (centered at 45°N-95°E). The scalloped depressions are thought to be the result of ice-rich regolith undergoing degradation by sublimation or thaw. Current models suggest that the formation and development of the depressions occur in a poleward direction due to the enhanced sublimation of their equator-facing slopes. By contrast, we propose a conceptual model that shows the equatorward growth of depressions due to preferential degradation by sublimation of their pole-facing slopes. Our model is based on a geomorphological study of the depressions and small-sized polygons in western Utopia Planitia (80°-110°E, 35°-50°N), using images from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) and topographical data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and a HiRISE stereo Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Here we describe (i) a morphological evolution of small-sized polygons within the depressions, from low-centered to high-centered, that facilitates one's understanding of depression growth and development; and (ii) occurrence of v-shaped alcoves, failure cracks and semicircular hollows that point to a retrogressive degradation of the pole-facing slopes of depressions. We propose that the development of the depressions is due to heightened insolation of their pole-facing slopes, leading to enhanced sublimation of ground-ice. Based upon the inferred asymmetric insolation, we suggest that the equatorward expansion of depressions occurred during recent high-obliquity periods of Mars.

  14. Requirement analysis to promote small-sized E-waste collection from consumers.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Kuniko; Nishimura, Hidekazu

    2016-02-01

    The collection and recycling of small-sized waste electrical and electronic equipment is an emerging problem, since these products contain certain amounts of critical metals and rare earths. Even if the amount is not large, having a few supply routes for such recycled resources could be a good strategy to be competitive in a world of finite resources. The small-sized e-waste sometimes contains personal information, therefore, consumers are often reluctant to put them into recycling bins. In order to promote the recycling of E-waste, collection of used products from the consumer becomes important. Effective methods involving incentives for consumers might be necessary. Without such methods, it will be difficult to achieve the critical amounts necessary for an efficient recycling system. This article focused on used mobile phones among information appliances as the first case study, since it contains relatively large amounts of valuable metals compared with other small-sized waste electrical and electronic equipment and there are a large number of products existing in the market. The article carried out surveys to determine what kind of recycled material collection services are preferred by consumers. The results clarify that incentive or reward money alone is not a driving force for recycling behaviour. The article discusses the types of effective services required to promote recycling behaviour. The article concludes that securing information, transferring data and providing proper information about resources and environment can be an effective tool to encourage a recycling behaviour strategy to promote recycling, plus the potential discount service on purchasing new products associated with the return of recycled mobile phones.

  15. Multiple size scale structures in silica/siloxane composites studied by small-angle scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Beaucage, G.; Schaefer, D.W.; Ulibarri, T.; Black, E.

    1993-12-31

    The physical properties of in-situ produced composites, such as the TEOS-polysiloxane based systems, are directly related to the complex interaction of structural features from the nano- to macro-scopic scales. The nature of these structural interactions are a key element in understanding and controlling mechanical properties in these systems. We believe that the smallest scale structures, in the nanometer range, correlate with properties such as the modulus while large-scale structures on the micron scale effect failure in these materials. This paper discusses techniques for analysis of structural features and interrelation of structural features over these wide ranges of size using small-angle light, x-ray and neutron scattering. Combination of data from different instruments allows for characterization of the interaction between these different size scale features.

  16. Dermoscopic Features of Small, Medium, and Large-Sized Congenital Melanocytic Nevi

    PubMed Central

    Emiroglu, Nazan; Ozkaya, Dilek Biyik; Su, Ozlem; Onsun, Nahide

    2017-01-01

    Background Congenital melanocytic nevi (CMN) are present at birth. It is well known that the presence of large-sized congenital nevus in early life could predict a major risk of developing melanoma. Objective To investigate the clinical and dermoscopic features of the CMN, to search for and highlight any differences between small-sized, medium-sized, large-sized CMN. Methods A nonrandomized observational study was performed. A total of 108 melanocytic nevi were analysed by clinical and dermoscopic examination. Results Of the subjects, 57.4% were aged less than 16 years, 42.6% were aged 16 and more. Of the nevi, 26 had reticular pattern (24.1%), 35 had globular pattern (32.4%), 13 had reticular-globular pattern (12.0%), 16 had homogeneous pattern (14.8%), 6 had reticular-homogeneous pattern (5.6%), 2 had globular-homogeneous pattern (1.9%), 7 had cobblestone pattern (6.5%), 3 had reticular patchy pattern (2.8%). Atypical dots and globules, focal hypopigmentation and perifollicular hypopigmentation are the most common dermoscopic features of CMN. The rarest dermoscopic feature is the blue-whitish veil. Conclusion Most of the dermoscopic features related with dysplastic nevi up to the present, such as atypical dots and globules, focal hypopigmentation, perifollicular hypopigmentation were observed in CMN, in our study. Congenital nevus and dysplastic nevi may share the same dermoscopic features, therefore it is important to know it is found at birth or not. PMID:28223743

  17. Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

    SciTech Connect

    Wimple, C., LLNL

    1998-04-01

    This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX{sup TM}) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to identify opportunities for cost effective enhanced information technology use by small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for the specific DAMA Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) effort are discussed in this section. The approach used to gather information about current opportunities or needs is outlined in Section 2 Approach, and relevant findings are identified and a brief analysis of the information gathered is presented in Section 3 Findings. Recommendations based on the analysis, are offered in Section 4 Recommendations, and plans are suggested for DAMA follow-on in Section 5 Future Plans. Trip reports for each of the companies visited are contained in Appendix E - Company Trip Reports. These individual reports contain the data upon which the analysis presented in Section 3 Findings is based.

  18. Impact of New Nuclear Data Libraries on Small Sized Long Life CANDLE HTGR Design Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liem, Peng Hong; Hartanto, Donny; Tran, Hoai Nam

    2017-01-01

    The impact of new evaluated nuclear data libraries (JENDL-4.0, ENDF/B-VII.0 and JEFF-3.1) on the core characteristics of small-sized long-life CANDLE High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) with uranium and thorium fuel cycles was investigated. The most important parameters of the CANDLE core characteristics investigated here covered (1) infinite multiplication factor of the fresh fuel containing burnable poison, (2) the effective multiplication factor of the equilibrium core, (3) the moving velocity of the burning region, (4) the attained discharge burnup, and (5) the maximum power density. The reference case was taken from the current JENDL-3.3 results. For the uranium fuel cycle, the impact of the new libraries was small, while significant impact was found for thorium fuel cycle. The findings indicated the needs of more accurate nuclear data libraries for nuclides involved in thorium fuel cycle in the future.

  19. An analytical solution for determination of small contact angles from sessile drops of arbitrary size.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jeffrey S

    2003-05-15

    An analytical solution to the capillary equation of Young and Laplace is derived that allows determination of the static contact angle based on the volume of a sessile drop and the wetted area of the substrate. This solution does not require numerical integration to determine the drop profile and accounts for surface deformation due to gravitational effects. Calculation of the static contact angle by this method is remarkably simple and accurate when the contact angle is less than 30 degrees. A natural scaling arises in the solution, which provides indication of when a drop is small enough so as to neglect gravitational influences on the surface shape which, for small contact angles, is generally less than 1 microl. The technique described has the simplicity of the spherical cap approximation but remains accurate for any size of sessile drop.

  20. SEC-SANS: size exclusion chromatography combined in situ with small-angle neutron scattering1

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Ashley; Jacques, Mark; Merrick, Catherine; Devos, Juliette; Forsyth, V. Trevor; Porcar, Lionel; Martel, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The first implementation and use of an in situ size exclusion chromatography (SEC) system on a small-angle neutron scattering instrument (SANS) is described. The possibility of deploying such a system for biological solution scattering at the Institut Laue–Langevin (ILL) has arisen from the fact that current day SANS instruments at ILL now allow datasets to be acquired using small sample volumes with exposure times that are often shorter than a minute. This capability is of particular importance for the study of unstable biological macromolecules where aggregation or denaturation issues are a major problem. The first use of SEC-SANS on ILL’s instrument D22 is described for a variety of proteins including one particularly aggregation-prone system. PMID:27980509

  1. Think locally, act locally: Detection of small, medium-sized, and large communities in large networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeub, Lucas G. S.; Balachandran, Prakash; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.; Mahoney, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    It is common in the study of networks to investigate intermediate-sized (or "meso-scale") features to try to gain an understanding of network structure and function. For example, numerous algorithms have been developed to try to identify "communities," which are typically construed as sets of nodes with denser connections internally than with the remainder of a network. In this paper, we adopt a complementary perspective that communities are associated with bottlenecks of locally biased dynamical processes that begin at seed sets of nodes, and we employ several different community-identification procedures (using diffusion-based and geodesic-based dynamics) to investigate community quality as a function of community size. Using several empirical and synthetic networks, we identify several distinct scenarios for "size-resolved community structure" that can arise in real (and realistic) networks: (1) the best small groups of nodes can be better than the best large groups (for a given formulation of the idea of a good community); (2) the best small groups can have a quality that is comparable to the best medium-sized and large groups; and (3) the best small groups of nodes can be worse than the best large groups. As we discuss in detail, which of these three cases holds for a given network can make an enormous difference when investigating and making claims about network community structure, and it is important to take this into account to obtain reliable downstream conclusions. Depending on which scenario holds, one may or may not be able to successfully identify "good" communities in a given network (and good communities might not even exist for a given community quality measure), the manner in which different small communities fit together to form meso-scale network structures can be very different, and processes such as viral propagation and information diffusion can exhibit very different dynamics. In addition, our results suggest that, for many large realistic

  2. Attitude angle anti-windup control of small size unmanned helicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Taizhou; Long, Haihui; Zhao, Jiankang; Xia, Xuan; Yang, Guang

    2017-01-01

    This paper researches the small-size unmanned helicopter attitude control problem with actuator saturation limit. Traditional approach for this problem is often based on an accurate dynamic model which is complicated and difficult to achieve in engineering. In this paper, we propose an anti-windup PID approach which does not rely on sophicated helicopter dynamic model. The anti-windup PID controller is established by adding a phase-lead compensator to the conventional PID controller. The performance and merits of this proposed controller are exemplified by the simulations between the conventional PID controller and the anti-windup PID controller.

  3. The polysiloxane cyclization equilibrium constant: a theoretical focus on small and intermediate size rings.

    PubMed

    Madeleine-Perdrillat, Claire; Delor-Jestin, Florence; de Sainte Claire, Pascal

    2014-01-09

    The nonlinear dependence of polysiloxane cyclization constants (log(K(x))) with ring size (log(x)) is explained by a thermodynamic model that treats specific torsional modes of the macromolecular chains with a classical coupled hindered rotor model. Several parameters such as the dependence of the internal rotation kinetic energy matrix with geometry, the effect of potential energy hindrance, anharmonicity, and the couplings between internal rotors were investigated. This behavior arises from the competing effects of local molecular entropy that is mainly driven by the intrinsic transformation of vibrations in small cycles into hindered rotations in larger cycles and configurational entropy.

  4. A 10-step safety management framework for construction small and medium-sized enterprises.

    PubMed

    Gunduz, Murat; Laitinen, Heikki

    2016-07-20

    It is of great importance to develop an occupational health and safety management system (OHS MS) to form a systemized approach to improve health and safety. It is a known fact that thousands of accidents and injuries occur in the construction industry. Most of these accidents occur in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This article provides a 10-step user-friendly OHS MS for the construction industry. A quantitative OHS MS indexing method is also introduced in the article. The practical application of the system to real SMEs and its promising results are also presented.

  5. Origin of sample size effect: Stochastic dislocation formation in crystalline metals at small scales

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guan-Rong; Huang, J. C.; Tsai, W. Y.

    2016-01-01

    In crystalline metals at small scales, the dislocation density will be increased by stochastic events of dislocation network, leading to a universal power law for various material structures. In this work, we develop a model obeyed by a probability distribution of dislocation density to describe the dislocation formation in terms of a chain reaction. The leading order terms of steady-state of probability distribution gives physical and quantitative insight to the scaling exponent n values in the power law of sample size effect. This approach is found to be consistent with experimental n values in a wide range. PMID:27976740

  6. Origin of sample size effect: Stochastic dislocation formation in crystalline metals at small scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Guan-Rong; Huang, J. C.; Tsai, W. Y.

    2016-12-01

    In crystalline metals at small scales, the dislocation density will be increased by stochastic events of dislocation network, leading to a universal power law for various material structures. In this work, we develop a model obeyed by a probability distribution of dislocation density to describe the dislocation formation in terms of a chain reaction. The leading order terms of steady-state of probability distribution gives physical and quantitative insight to the scaling exponent n values in the power law of sample size effect. This approach is found to be consistent with experimental n values in a wide range.

  7. Size matters: Predator outbreaks threaten foundation species in small Marine Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Clements, Cody S; Hay, Mark E

    2017-01-01

    The unanticipated impacts of consumers in fragmented habitats are frequently a challenge for ecosystem management. On Indo-Pacific coral reefs, crown-of-thorns sea stars (Acanthaster spp.) are coral predators whose outbreaks cause precipitous coral decline. Across large spatial scales, Acanthaster densities are lower in large no-take Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and reefs subject to limited human exploitation. However, using a combination of observational and manipulative experiments, we found that Acanthaster densities within a network of small, no-take MPAs on reef flats in Fiji were ~2-3.4 times greater inside MPAs than in adjacent fished areas and ~2-2.5 times greater than the upper threshold density indicative of an outbreak. This appeared to result from selective Acanthaster migration to the coral-rich MPAs from fished areas that are coral-poor and dominated by macroalgae. Small MPAs can dramatically increase the cover of foundation species like corals, but may selectively attract coral predators like Acanthaster due to greater food densities within MPAs or because the MPAs are too small to support Acanthaster enemies. As coral cover increases, their chemical and visual cues may concentrate Acanthaster to outbreak densities that cause coral demise, compromising the value of small MPAs. An understanding of predator dynamics as a function of habitat type, size, and fragmentation needs to be incorporated into MPA design and management.

  8. Size matters: Predator outbreaks threaten foundation species in small Marine Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The unanticipated impacts of consumers in fragmented habitats are frequently a challenge for ecosystem management. On Indo-Pacific coral reefs, crown-of-thorns sea stars (Acanthaster spp.) are coral predators whose outbreaks cause precipitous coral decline. Across large spatial scales, Acanthaster densities are lower in large no-take Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and reefs subject to limited human exploitation. However, using a combination of observational and manipulative experiments, we found that Acanthaster densities within a network of small, no-take MPAs on reef flats in Fiji were ~2–3.4 times greater inside MPAs than in adjacent fished areas and ~2–2.5 times greater than the upper threshold density indicative of an outbreak. This appeared to result from selective Acanthaster migration to the coral-rich MPAs from fished areas that are coral-poor and dominated by macroalgae. Small MPAs can dramatically increase the cover of foundation species like corals, but may selectively attract coral predators like Acanthaster due to greater food densities within MPAs or because the MPAs are too small to support Acanthaster enemies. As coral cover increases, their chemical and visual cues may concentrate Acanthaster to outbreak densities that cause coral demise, compromising the value of small MPAs. An understanding of predator dynamics as a function of habitat type, size, and fragmentation needs to be incorporated into MPA design and management. PMID:28166257

  9. Breeding durations as estimators of adult sex ratios and population size.

    PubMed

    Payne, Nicholas Leslie; Gillanders, Bronwyn May; Semmens, Jayson

    2011-02-01

    Adult sex ratios (ASRs) and population size are two of the most fundamental parameters in population biology, as they are the main determinants of genetic and demographic viability, and vulnerability of a population to stochastic events. Underpinning the application of population viability analysis for predicting the extinction risk of populations is the need to accurately estimate parameters that determine the viability of populations (i.e. the ASR and population size). Here we demonstrate that a lack of temporal information can confound estimation of both parameters. Using acoustic telemetry, we compared differences in breeding durations of both sexes for a giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama breeding aggregation to the strongly male-biased operational sex ratio (4:1), in order to estimate the population ASR. The ratio of breeding durations between sexes was equal to the operational sex ratio, suggesting that the ASR is not strongly male-biased, but balanced. Furthermore, the short residence times of individuals at the breeding aggregation suggests that previous density-based abundance estimates have significantly underestimated population size. With the current wide application of population viability analysis for predicting the extinction risk of populations, tools to improve the accuracy of such predictions are vital. Here we provide a new approach to estimating the fundamental ASR parameter, and call for temporal considerations when estimating population size.

  10. Pharmacological Stimulation of Edar Signaling in the Adult Enhances Sebaceous Gland Size and Function

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczyk-Quintas, Christine; Schuepbach-Mallepell, Sonia; Willen, Laure; Smith, Terry K.; Huttner, Kenneth; Kirby, Neil; Headon, Denis J.; Schneider, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Impaired Ectodysplasin A (EDA) – EDA receptor (EDAR) signaling affects ectodermally derived structures including teeth, hair follicles and cutaneous glands. X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED), resulting from EDA deficiency, can be rescued with lifelong benefits in animal models by stimulation of ectodermal appendage development with EDAR agonists. Treatments initiated later in the developmental period restore progressively fewer of the affected structures. It is unknown whether EDAR stimulation in adults with XLHED might have beneficial effects. In adult Eda mutant mice treated for several weeks with agonist anti-EDAR antibodies, we find that sebaceous glands size and function can be restored to wild type levels. This effect is maintained upon chronic treatment but reverses slowly upon cessation of treatment. Sebaceous glands in all skin regions respond to treatment, though to varying degrees, and this is accompanied in both Eda mutant and wild type mice by sebum secretion to levels higher than those observed in untreated controls. Edar is expressed at the periphery of the glands, suggesting a direct homeostatic effect of Edar stimulation on the sebaceous gland. Sebaceous gland size and sebum production may serve as biomarkers for EDAR stimulation, and EDAR agonists may improve skin dryness and eczema frequently observed in XLHED. PMID:25207818

  11. The relationship between organ dose and patient size in tube current modulated adult thoracic CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatonabadi, Maryam; Zhang, Di; Yang, Jeffrey; DeMarco, John J.; Cagnon, Chris C.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.

    2012-03-01

    Recently published AAPM Task Group 204 developed conversion coefficients that use scanner reported CTDIvol to estimate dose to the center of patient undergoing fixed tube current body exam. However, most performed CT exams use TCM to reduce dose to patients. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between organ dose and a variety of patient size metrics in adult chest CT scans that use tube current modulation (TCM). Monte Carlo simulations were performed for 32 voxelized models with contoured lungs and glandular breasts tissue, consisting of females and males. These simulations made use of patient's actual TCM data to estimate organ dose. Using image data, different size metrics were calculated, these measurements were all performed on one slice, at the level of patient's nipple. Estimated doses were normalized by scanner-reported CTDIvol and plotted versus different metrics. CTDIvol values were plotted versus different metrics to look at scanner's output versus size. The metrics performed similarly in terms of correlating with organ dose. Looking at each gender separately, for male models normalized lung dose showed a better linear correlation (r2=0.91) with effective diameter, while female models showed higher correlation (r2=0.59) with the anterior-posterior measurement. There was essentially no correlation observed between size and CTDIvol-normalized breast dose. However, a linear relationship was observed between absolute breast dose and size. Dose to lungs and breasts were consistently higher in females with similar size as males which could be due to shape and composition differences between genders in the thoracic region.

  12. Initial size of cleft does not correlate with size and function of nasal airway in adults with unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Reiser, Erika; Andlin-Sobocki, Anna; Mani, Maria; Holmström, Mats

    2011-06-01

    The noses of patients with clefts are often functionally inadequate. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between size of the maxillary cleft in infancy and size and function of the nasal airway in adults with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP). This is a long-term follow up study including 53 patients with UCLP born between 1960 and 1987 and treated at the Cleft Lip and Palate Centre, Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden. Lip repair was performed at 3-4 months of age followed by either a one-stage or a two-stage palatal closure. The size of the cleft was measured on infant maxillary dental casts. Nasal minimum cross-sectional area (cm(2)) and volume (cm(3)) (acoustic rhinometry), air flow resistance (Pa s/cm(3)) (rhinomanometry), peak inspiratory flow (l/min) (peak nasal inspiratory flow) and number of identified odours (Scandinavian odor-identification test) were assessed in adulthood. The size of the maxillary cleft varied considerably at infancy. The size of the nasal airway and its function on the cleft side in adulthood were reduced compared with the non-cleft side, but no correlations were found between size of the initial cleft in infancy and size and function of the nasal airway in adulthood. In adults born with UCLP, therefore, size of the maxillary cleft in infancy does not seem to affect size and function of the nasal airway in adulthood.

  13. Biointeractions of ultrasmall glutathione-coated gold nanoparticles: effect of small size variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Alioscka A.; Hassan, Sergio A.; Knittel, Luiza L.; Balbo, Andrea; Aronova, Maria A.; Brown, Patrick H.; Schuck, Peter; Leapman, Richard D.

    2016-03-01

    Recent in vivo studies have established ultrasmall (<3 nm) gold nanoparticles coated with glutathione (AuGSH) as a promising platform for applications in nanomedicine. However, systematic in vitro investigations to gain a more fundamental understanding of the particles' biointeractions are still lacking. Herein we examined the behavior of ultrasmall AuGSH in vitro, focusing on their ability to resist aggregation and adsorption from serum proteins. Despite having net negative charge, AuGSH particles were colloidally stable in biological media and able to resist binding from serum proteins, in agreement with the favorable bioresponses reported for AuGSH in vivo. However, our results revealed disparate behaviors depending on nanoparticle size: particles between 2 and 3 nm in core diameter were found to readily aggregate in biological media, whereas those strictly under 2 nm were exceptionally stable. Molecular dynamics simulations provided microscopic insight into interparticle interactions leading to aggregation and their sensitivity to the solution composition and particle size. These results have important implications, in that seemingly small variations in size can impact the biointeractions of ultrasmall AuGSH, and potentially of other ultrasmall nanoparticles as well.Recent in vivo studies have established ultrasmall (<3 nm) gold nanoparticles coated with glutathione (AuGSH) as a promising platform for applications in nanomedicine. However, systematic in vitro investigations to gain a more fundamental understanding of the particles' biointeractions are still lacking. Herein we examined the behavior of ultrasmall AuGSH in vitro, focusing on their ability to resist aggregation and adsorption from serum proteins. Despite having net negative charge, AuGSH particles were colloidally stable in biological media and able to resist binding from serum proteins, in agreement with the favorable bioresponses reported for AuGSH in vivo. However, our results revealed disparate

  14. Do Low-Achieving Students Benefit More from Small Classes? Evidence from the Tennessee Class Size Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Barbara; Hedges, Larry V.; Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2002-01-01

    Studied possible effects of small classes on achievement using data from Project STAR, a 4-year, large-scale randomized experiment on the effects of class size. There were unambiguous positive effects of small classes on achievement, but no evidence for differentially larger effects of small classes for lower achieving students. (SLD)

  15. The single mirror small size telescope (SST-1M) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Bilnik, W.; Borkowski, J.; Cadoux, F.; Christov, A.; della Volpe, D.; Favre, Y.; Heller, M.; Kasperek, J.; Lyard, E.; Marszałek, A.; Moderski, R.; Montaruli, T.; Porcelli, A.; Prandini, E.; Rajda, P.; Rameez, M.; Schioppa, E., Jr.; Troyano Pujadas, I.; Zietara, K.; Blocki, J.; Bogacz, L.; Bulik, T.; Frankowski, A.; Grudzinska, M.; Idźkowski, B.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Lalik, K.; Mach, E.; Mandat, D.; Michałowski, J.; Neronov, A.; Niemiec, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Paśko, P.; Pech, M.; Schovanek, P.; Seweryn, K.; Skowron, K.; Sliusar, V.; Stawarz, L.; Stodulska, M.; Stodulski, M.; Toscano, S.; Walter, R.; WiÈ©cek, M.; Zagdański, A.

    2016-07-01

    The Small Size Telescope with Single Mirror (SST-1M) is one of the proposed types of Small Size Telescopes (SST) for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The CTA south array will be composed of about 100 telescopes, out of which about 70 are of SST class, which are optimized for the detection of gamma rays in the energy range from 5 TeV to 300 TeV. The SST-1M implements a Davies-Cotton optics with a 4 m dish diameter with a field of view of 9°. The Cherenkov light produced in atmospheric showers is focused onto a 88 cm wide hexagonal photo-detection plane, composed of 1296 custom designed large area hexagonal silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) and a fully digital readout and trigger system. The SST-1M camera has been designed to provide high performance in a robust as well as compact and lightweight design. In this contribution, we review the different steps that led to the realization of the telescope prototype and its innovative camera.

  16. Small body size and extreme cortical bone remodeling indicate phyletic dwarfism in Magyarosaurus dacus (Sauropoda: Titanosauria).

    PubMed

    Stein, Koen; Csiki, Zoltan; Rogers, Kristina Curry; Weishampel, David B; Redelstorff, Ragna; Carballido, Jose L; Sander, P Martin

    2010-05-18

    Sauropods were the largest terrestrial tetrapods (>10(5) kg) in Earth's history and grew at rates that rival those of extant mammals. Magyarosaurus dacus, a titanosaurian sauropod from the Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) of Romania, is known exclusively from small individuals (<10(3) kg) and conflicts with the idea that all sauropods were massive. The diminutive M. dacus was a classical example of island dwarfism (phyletic nanism) in dinosaurs, but a recent study suggested that the small Romanian titanosaurs actually represent juveniles of a larger-bodied taxon. Here we present strong histological evidence that M. dacus was indeed a dwarf (phyletic nanoid). Bone histological analysis of an ontogenetic series of Magyarosaurus limb bones indicates that even the smallest Magyarosaurus specimens exhibit a bone microstructure identical to fully mature or old individuals of other sauropod taxa. Comparison of histologies with large-bodied sauropods suggests that Magyarosaurus had an extremely reduced growth rate, but had retained high basal metabolic rates typical for sauropods. The uniquely decreased growth rate and diminutive body size in Magyarosaurus were adaptations to life on a Cretaceous island and show that sauropod dinosaurs were not exempt from general ecological principles limiting body size.

  17. DRME: Count-based differential RNA methylation analysis at small sample size scenario.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lian; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Gao, Fan; Zhang, Yixin; Huang, Yufei; Chen, Runsheng; Meng, Jia

    2016-04-15

    Differential methylation, which concerns difference in the degree of epigenetic regulation via methylation between two conditions, has been formulated as a beta or beta-binomial distribution to address the within-group biological variability in sequencing data. However, a beta or beta-binomial model is usually difficult to infer at small sample size scenario with discrete reads count in sequencing data. On the other hand, as an emerging research field, RNA methylation has drawn more and more attention recently, and the differential analysis of RNA methylation is significantly different from that of DNA methylation due to the impact of transcriptional regulation. We developed DRME to better address the differential RNA methylation problem. The proposed model can effectively describe within-group biological variability at small sample size scenario and handles the impact of transcriptional regulation on RNA methylation. We tested the newly developed DRME algorithm on simulated and 4 MeRIP-Seq case-control studies and compared it with Fisher's exact test. It is in principle widely applicable to several other RNA-related data types as well, including RNA Bisulfite sequencing and PAR-CLIP. The code together with an MeRIP-Seq dataset is available online (https://github.com/lzcyzm/DRME) for evaluation and reproduction of the figures shown in this article.

  18. In situ detection of small-size insect pests sampled on traps using multifractal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Chunlei; Lee, Jang-Myung; Li, Yan; Chung, Bu-Keun; Chon, Tae-Soo

    2012-02-01

    We introduce a multifractal analysis for detecting the small-size pest (e.g., whitefly) images from a sticky trap in situ. An automatic attraction system is utilized for collecting pests from greenhouse plants. We applied multifractal analysis to segment action of whitefly images based on the local singularity and global image characteristics. According to the theory of multifractal dimension, the candidate blobs of whiteflies are initially defined from the sticky-trap image. Two schemes, fixed thresholding and regional minima obtainment, were utilized for feature extraction of candidate whitefly image areas. The experiment was conducted with the field images in a greenhouse. Detection results were compared with other adaptive segmentation algorithms. Values of F measuring precision and recall score were higher for the proposed multifractal analysis (96.5%) compared with conventional methods such as Watershed (92.2%) and Otsu (73.1%). The true positive rate of multifractal analysis was 94.3% and the false positive rate minimal level at 1.3%. Detection performance was further tested via human observation. The degree of scattering between manual and automatic counting was remarkably higher with multifractal analysis (R2=0.992) compared with Watershed (R2=0.895) and Otsu (R2=0.353), ensuring overall detection of the small-size pests is most feasible with multifractal analysis in field conditions.

  19. Small body size and extreme cortical bone remodeling indicate phyletic dwarfism in Magyarosaurus dacus (Sauropoda: Titanosauria)

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Koen; Csiki, Zoltan; Rogers, Kristina Curry; Weishampel, David B.; Redelstorff, Ragna; Carballido, Jose L.; Sander, P. Martin

    2010-01-01

    Sauropods were the largest terrestrial tetrapods (>105 kg) in Earth's history and grew at rates that rival those of extant mammals. Magyarosaurus dacus, a titanosaurian sauropod from the Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) of Romania, is known exclusively from small individuals (<103 kg) and conflicts with the idea that all sauropods were massive. The diminutive M. dacus was a classical example of island dwarfism (phyletic nanism) in dinosaurs, but a recent study suggested that the small Romanian titanosaurs actually represent juveniles of a larger-bodied taxon. Here we present strong histological evidence that M. dacus was indeed a dwarf (phyletic nanoid). Bone histological analysis of an ontogenetic series of Magyarosaurus limb bones indicates that even the smallest Magyarosaurus specimens exhibit a bone microstructure identical to fully mature or old individuals of other sauropod taxa. Comparison of histologies with large-bodied sauropods suggests that Magyarosaurus had an extremely reduced growth rate, but had retained high basal metabolic rates typical for sauropods. The uniquely decreased growth rate and diminutive body size in Magyarosaurus were adaptations to life on a Cretaceous island and show that sauropod dinosaurs were not exempt from general ecological principles limiting body size. PMID:20435913

  20. Experimental selection for body size at age modifies early life-history traits and muscle gene expression in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Ian P G; Johnston, Ian A

    2012-11-15

    The short generation time of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) was exploited to investigate the effects of selection for body size at age on early life-history traits and on the transcriptional response to a growth stimulus in skeletal muscle of adult fish. Replicate populations were either unselected (U-lineage) or subjected to four generations of experimental selection for small (S-lineage) or large (L-lineage) body size at 90 days post-fertilization. Body mass was on average 16.3% and 41.0% higher in the L- than in the U- and S-lineages, respectively. Egg diameter was 6.4% lower with 13% less yolk in the S-lineage compared with the other lineages. Maternal transcripts for igf2r, bmpr1aa, igf1ar, igf2a, igfbp5a, ghra and igfbp3 in 2-4 cell stage embryos were higher in the L- than in the S-lineage. Larvae from the L-lineage were significantly larger, but survivorship at the end of the first month was similar between lineages. Gene expression was measured in the fast muscle of adult fish fasted for 7 days and then re-fed to satiation for 48 h. The expression of 11 insulin-like growth factor pathway genes and 12 other nutritionally responsive genes was similar for the S- and L-lineages as was gut fullness with feeding. Transcript abundance for four genes (igf1a, igf2r, igfbp1a and igfbp1b) showed either regulated or constitutive differences between the S- and L-lineages. For example, igf2 receptor transcript abundance was higher and igbp1a/b transcript abundance was lower in the L- than in the S-lineage, consistent with an effect of selection on insulin-like growth factor signalling.

  1. Progression of MRI markers in cerebral small vessel disease: Sample size considerations for clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Zeestraten, Eva; Lambert, Christian; Chis Ster, Irina; Williams, Owen A; Lawrence, Andrew J; Patel, Bhavini; MacKinnon, Andrew D; Barrick, Thomas R; Markus, Hugh S

    2016-01-01

    Detecting treatment efficacy using cognitive change in trials of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) has been challenging, making the use of surrogate markers such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) attractive. We determined the sensitivity of MRI to change in SVD and used this information to calculate sample size estimates for a clinical trial. Data from the prospective SCANS (St George’s Cognition and Neuroimaging in Stroke) study of patients with symptomatic lacunar stroke and confluent leukoaraiosis was used (n = 121). Ninety-nine subjects returned at one or more time points. Multimodal MRI and neuropsychologic testing was performed annually over 3 years. We evaluated the change in brain volume, T2 white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume, lacunes, and white matter damage on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Over 3 years, change was detectable in all MRI markers but not in cognitive measures. WMH volume and DTI parameters were most sensitive to change and therefore had the smallest sample size estimates. MRI markers, particularly WMH volume and DTI parameters, are more sensitive to SVD progression over short time periods than cognition. These markers could significantly reduce the size of trials to screen treatments for efficacy in SVD, although further validation from longitudinal and intervention studies is required. PMID:26036939

  2. The influence of detector size relative to field size in small-field photon-beam dosimetry using synthetic diamond crystals as sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ade, N.; Nam, T. L.

    2015-08-01

    The choice of a detector for small-field dosimetry remains a challenge due to the size/volume effect of detectors in small fields. Aimed at selecting a suitable crystal type and detector size for small-field dosimetry, this study investigates the relationship between detector and field size by analysing output factors (OFs) measured with a Diode E (reference detector), a Farmer chamber and synthetic diamond detectors of various types and sizes in the dosimetry of a 6 MV photon beam with small fields between 0.3×0.3 cm2 and 10×10 cm2. The examined diamond sensors included two HPHT samples (HP1 and HP2) and six polycrystalline CVD specimens of optical grade (OG) and detector grade (DG) qualities with sizes between 0.3 and 1.0 cm. Each diamond was encapsulated in a tissue-equivalent probe housing which can hold crystals of various dimensions up to 1.0×1.0×0.1 cm3 and has different exposure geometries ('edge-on' and 'flat-on') for impinging radiation. The HPHT samples were found to show an overall better performance compared to the CVD crystals with the 'edge-on' orientation being a preferred geometry for OF measurement especially for very small fields. For instance, down to a 0.4×0.4 cm2 field a maximum deviation of 1.9% was observed between the OFs measured with Diode E and HP2 in the 'edge-on' orientation compared to a 4.6% deviation in the 'flat-on' geometry. It was observed that for fields below 4×4 cm2, the dose deviation between the OFs measured with the detectors and Diode E increase with increasing detector size. It was estimated from an established relationship between the dose deviation and the ratio of detector size to field size for the detectors that the dose deviation probably due to the volume averaging effect would be >3% when the detector size is >3/4 of the field size. A sensitivity value of 223 nC Gy-1 mm-3 was determined in a 0.5×0.5 cm2 field with HP2 compared to a value of 159.2 nC Gy-1 mm-3 obtained with the diode. The results of this

  3. Design of small-size pouch motors for rat gait rehabilitation device.

    PubMed

    Shih-Yin Chang; Takashima, Kenta; Nishikawa, Satoshi; Niiyama, Ryuma; Someya, Takao; Onodera, Hiroshi; Kuniyoshi, Yasuo

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that active gait training can recover voluntary locomotive ability of paralyzed rats. Rehabilitation devices used for studying spinal cord injury to date are usually fixed on a treadmill, but they have been used only slightly for active training. To process active rehabilitation, a wearable, lightweight device with adequate output is needed. Pouch motors, soft pneumatic actuators, are extremely light and have other benefits such as low cost, easy fabrication, and highly customizable design. They can be used to develop active gait rehabilitation devices. However, performance details of different motor designs have not been examined. As described herein, to build a wearable gait assistive device for rat study, we specifically examine how to design small pouch motors with a good contraction ratio and force output. Results show that pouch performance decreases dramatically with size, but better output is obtainable by separation into small 0.8 length-to-width ratio rooms. We used this knowledge to produce an assistive robot suit for gait rehabilitation and to test it with paralyzed rats. Results show that these small pouches can produce sufficient power to control hip joint movements during gait training. They can reveal the potential for new pouch motor applications for spinal cord injury studies.

  4. Relationships among vocabulary size, nonverbal cognition, and spoken word recognition in adults with cochlear implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collison, Elizabeth A.; Munson, Benjamin; Carney, Arlene E.

    2002-05-01

    Recent research has attempted to identify the factors that predict speech perception performance among users of cochlear implants (CIs). Studies have found that approximately 20%-60% of the variance in speech perception scores can be accounted for by factors including duration of deafness, etiology, type of device, and length of implant use, leaving approximately 50% of the variance unaccounted for. The current study examines the extent to which vocabulary size and nonverbal cognitive ability predict CI listeners' spoken word recognition. Fifteen postlingually deafened adults with nucleus or clarion CIs were given standardized assessments of nonverbal cognitive ability and expressive vocabulary size: the Expressive Vocabulary Test, the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-III, and the Woodcock-Johnson-III Test of Cognitive Ability, Verbal Comprehension subtest. Two spoken word recognition tasks were administered. In the first, listeners identified isophonemic CVC words. In the second, listeners identified gated words varying in lexical frequency and neighborhood density. Analyses will examine the influence of lexical frequency and neighborhood density on the uniqueness point in the gating task, as well as relationships among nonverbal cognitive ability, vocabulary size, and the two spoken word recognition measures. [Work supported by NIH Grant P01 DC00110 and by the Lions 3M Hearing Foundation.

  5. Size at birth and adult fat mass in twin sheep are determined in early gestation

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, S N; Oliver, M H; McLean, C; Jaquiery, A L; Bloomfield, F H

    2012-01-01

    Size at birth is related to adult health outcomes. Twins are born smaller than singletons; this has been assumed to be secondary to limited nutrient supply in late gestation. We hypothesised that growth trajectory in twins, and the adult consequences of being conceived a twin, are determined in early gestation. Twin pregnancies in sheep were randomised to reduction of one twin on day 42 of a 148 day pregnancy by intra-thoracic KCl (Reductions, n = 46) or a sham procedure (Twins, n = 22). Singleton-bearing ewes also underwent a sham procedure (n = 27). Ewes lambed spontaneously. Linear measures of size at birth were similar in Twins and Reductions, and significantly less than in Singletons. Birthweight was lower in Twins and Reductions than in Singletons, and less in Twins than in Reductions (means (SEM): Singletons, liveborn n = 23: 6.59 (0.17) kg; Twins, liveborn n = 36: 5.23 (0.16) kg; Reductions, liveborn n = 27: 5.76 (0.15) kg; all comparisons P < 0.05). Reductions grew most rapidly between birth and weaning (Singletons, 20.0 (0.4) g kg−1 day−1; Twins, 20.0 (0.3) g kg−1 day−1; Reductions, 21.0 (0.3) g kg−1 day−1, P < 0.05) and were of similar weight as Singletons by weaning; Twins remained smaller by weaning but grew most rapidly thereafter (Singletons, 1.6 (0.1) g kg−1 day−1; Twins, 2.1 (0.1) g kg−1 day−1; Reductions, 1.6 (0.1) g kg−1 day−1, P < 0.01), so that all groups had similar weight at 2 years. However, Twins and Reductions had greater percentage fat mass than Singletons at 2 years (Singletons, 11.1 (1.1)%; Twins, 14.8 (1.2)%; Reductions, 15.5 (1.1)%, P < 0.05). Thus, in twins, fetal growth trajectory, linear size at birth and adult fat mass are largely determined in early gestation. If this is also true in humans, there are important implications for interventions aimed at optimising fetal growth and pregnancy outcome. PMID:22183720

  6. Correlation Between Aneurysm Size and Hemodynamics in One Individual with Multiple Small Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Britz, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Objective A large number of cases are needed in the patient-specific modeling of intracranial aneurysms to establish the statistical significance due to individual variation of risk factors that are difficult to account for. However, these risk factors are critical in hemorrhage risk as demonstrated in large clinical studies. Rupture risks for aneurysms in an individual are easier to compare because these aneurysms are under the same physiological environment, and their only differences are the local hemodynamic factors associated with their anatomic locations. Methods Eight small aneurysms (< 7 mm) from one individual were analyzed using patient-specific hemodynamic modeling. Four scenarios with different perfusion assumptions were performed to account for the flow rate at two smaller communicating arteries. Wall shear stresses (WSS) at these aneurysms were compared to determine their relationship with the aneurysm size. Results Each of the three largest aneurysms is either the most proximal or distal aneurysm in a given artery so that blood pressure does not have a direct influence on aneurysm size. No wall shear stress-derived hemodynamic variables are found to be related to aneurysm size. Discussion A study of multiple aneurysms from one individual offers a unique opportunity to examine various hemodynamic factors without selection biases. Aneurysms greater than 4 mm (Group 1) have a higher product of maximum WSS and area of low WSS; aneurysms smaller than 4 mm (Group 2) have a lower product of maximum WSS and area of low WSS. In addition, aneurysm size is linearly correlated with the flow rate at the parent artery in each group. PMID:27555981

  7. Correlation Between Aneurysm Size and Hemodynamics in One Individual with Multiple Small Intracranial Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Jou, Liangder; Britz, Gavin

    2016-07-12

    Objective A large number of cases are needed in the patient-specific modeling of intracranial aneurysms to establish the statistical significance due to individual variation of risk factors that are difficult to account for. However, these risk factors are critical in hemorrhage risk as demonstrated in large clinical studies. Rupture risks for aneurysms in an individual are easier to compare because these aneurysms are under the same physiological environment, and their only differences are the local hemodynamic factors associated with their anatomic locations. Methods Eight small aneurysms (< 7 mm) from one individual were analyzed using patient-specific hemodynamic modeling. Four scenarios with different perfusion assumptions were performed to account for the flow rate at two smaller communicating arteries. Wall shear stresses (WSS) at these aneurysms were compared to determine their relationship with the aneurysm size. Results Each of the three largest aneurysms is either the most proximal or distal aneurysm in a given artery so that blood pressure does not have a direct influence on aneurysm size. No wall shear stress-derived hemodynamic variables are found to be related to aneurysm size. Discussion A study of multiple aneurysms from one individual offers a unique opportunity to examine various hemodynamic factors without selection biases. Aneurysms greater than 4 mm (Group 1) have a higher product of maximum WSS and area of low WSS; aneurysms smaller than 4 mm (Group 2) have a lower product of maximum WSS and area of low WSS. In addition, aneurysm size is linearly correlated with the flow rate at the parent artery in each group.

  8. Stress evolution in southern California and triggering of moderate-, small-, and micro-size earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jishu; Sykes, Lynn R.

    1997-11-01

    We calculate the evolution of stresses in southern California, extending the study of Deng and Sykes [1997] by increasing from 6 to 36 the number of earthquakes for which coseismic changes in stress are computed and by expanding from M≥6 to M≥1.8 the range of magnitudes M of events whose focal mechanism solutions are examined in the context of the evolving stress field. The cumulative stress on a given date is calculated with respect to an arbitrary zero baseline just before the 1812 Wrightwood earthquake. By taking into account the long-term stress loading associated with 98 fault segments and coseismic stress changes for 36 significant earthquakes, our calculations indicate that more than 85% of M≥5 earthquakes from 1932-1995 occurred in regions of positive change in Coulomb failure function (ΔCFF). Most of the remaining about 15% earthquakes that occurred in areas of negative ΔCFF fall very close to boundaries between positive and negative ΔCFF, some of which are sensitive to the less well controlled slip distributions of the earliest historic events. Calculations also show that from 1981 until just before the 1992 Landers earthquake more than 85% of small- (M≥3) and micro-size (M≥1.8) shocks in the Seeber and Armbruster [1995] catalog with mechanisms involving either NW trending right-lateral or NE trending left-lateral strike-slip faulting occurred in regions of positive ΔCFF. The ratio of encouraged to all small- and micro-size events reaches a high value of about 88% if an apparent coefficient of friction μ between 0.0 and 0.6 is used. The highest percentage of earthquakes occurred in areas where stress is about 1 MPa above the 1812 baseline. Most (66%) events occurred in regions of ΔCFF between 0.0 and 2.0 MPa. The upper limit indicates that the approximate range of stress variation in the earthquake cycle is of the order of 2.0 MPa. The fact that the locations of most moderate-, small-, and micro-size earthquakes are still related to stress

  9. Preschoolers' knowledge of their classroom environment: evidence from small-scale and life-size spatial tasks.

    PubMed

    Liben, L S; Moore, M L; Golbeck, S L

    1982-10-01

    Preschoolers (N = 20) and student teachers (N = 10) were asked to reconstruct the complete layout of their familiar classroom using a small-scale model as well as using life-size furniture in their actual classroom. Children were given the model task once within a testing room (standard model) and once within their normally arranged classroom (cued model). Subjects were also given an isolated-location task in which they were asked to show the location of individual pieces of furniture, 1 at a time. Adults performed virtually perfectly on all tasks. Children demonstrated more knowledge about their classroom when no scale reduction was necessary (i.e., performance was significantly better in the classroom than on the model) and when information about spatial arrangement was available (i.e., performance on the cued model surpassed performance on the standard model). Nevertheless, some children still performed inaccurately, even with these additional aids. Results from the isolated-location task demonstrated that, when possible children rely on relational information in determining locations. Implications for conclusions about children's spatial competence are discussed.

  10. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) increases litter size in normal adult female mice

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Luna, Ana C; Salazar, Stephanie; Aspajo, Norma J; Rubio, Julio; Gasco, Manuel; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2005-01-01

    Background Lepidium meyenii, known as Maca, grows exclusively in the Peruvian Andes over 4000 m altitude. It has been used traditionally to increase fertility. Previous scientific studies have demonstrated that Maca increases spermatogenesis and epididymal sperm count. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Maca on several fertility parameters of female mice at reproductive age. Methods Adult female Balb/C mice were divided at random into three main groups: i) Reproductive indexes group, ii) Implantation sites group and iii) Assessment of uterine weight in ovariectomized mice. Animals received an aqueous extract of lyophilized Yellow Maca (1 g/Kg BW) or vehicle orally as treatment. In the fertility indexes study, animals received the treatment before, during and after gestation. The fertility index, gestation index, post-natal viability index, weaning viability index and sex ratio were calculated. Sexual maturation was evaluated in the female pups by the vaginal opening (VO) day. In the implantation study, females were checked for implantation sites at gestation day 7 and the embryos were counted. In ovariectomized mice, the uterine weight was recorded at the end of treatment. Results Implantation sites were similar in mice treated with Maca and in controls. All reproductive indexes were similar in both groups of treatment. The number of pups per dam at birth and at postnatal day 4 was significantly higher in the group treated with Maca. VO day occurred earlier as litter size was smaller. Maca did not affect VO day. In ovariectomized mice, the treatment with Maca increased significantly the uterine weights in comparison to their respective control group. Conclusion Administration of aqueous extract of Yellow Maca to adult female mice increases the litter size. Moreover, this treatment increases the uterine weight in ovariectomized animals. Our study confirms for the first time some of the traditional uses of Maca to enhance female fertility. PMID

  11. The influence of body size on adult skeletal age estimation methods.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Catherine E

    2015-01-01

    Accurate age estimations are essential to archaeological and forensic analyses. However, reliability for adult skeletal age estimations is poor, especially for individuals over the age of 40 years. This is the first study to show that body size influences skeletal age estimation. The İşcan et al., Lovejoy et al., Buckberry and Chamberlain, and Suchey-Brooks age methods were tested on 764 adult skeletons from the Hamann-Todd and William Bass Collections. Statures ranged from 1.30 to 1.93 m and body masses ranged from 24.0 to 99.8 kg. Transition analysis was used to evaluate the differences in the age estimations. For all four methods, the smallest individuals have the lowest ages at transition and the largest individuals have the highest ages at transition. Short and light individuals are consistently underaged, while tall and heavy individuals are consistently overaged. When femoral length and femoral head diameter are compared with the log-age model, results show the same trend as the known stature and body mass measurements. The skeletal remains of underweight individuals have fewer age markers while those of obese individuals have increased surface degeneration and osteophytic lipping. Tissue type and mechanical loading have been shown to affect bone turnover rates, and may explain the differing patterns of skeletal aging. From an archaeological perspective, the underaging of light, short individuals suggests the need to revisit the current research consensus on the young mortality rates of past populations. From a forensic perspective, understanding the influence of body size will impact efforts to identify victims of mass disasters, genocides, and homicides.

  12. Brain system size and adult-adult play in primates: a comparative analysis of the roles of the non-visual neocortex and the amygdala.

    PubMed

    Pellis, Sergio M; Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2002-08-21

    Recent studies have shown that contrary to expectation, larger-brained species within mammalian orders are not more likely to engage in play. This is true for juvenile rodents, juvenile marsupials and adult primates. Neither does the relative size of the neocortex predict the prevalence of play in species of marsupials and primates. Two methodological limitations may account for the lack of such relationships. Firstly, play may only vary systematically with specific brain areas, not overall size increases in brain tissue. Secondly, the play indices used to measure the variation in play across species may be insufficiently sensitive to the effects of changes in brain size. In this study, we attempt to deal with the first methodological problem. The adult-adult play fighting among species of primates was correlated with the relative size of the non-visual cortex and the amygdala. The statistical analyses used took into account the problems of scaling and corrected for degree of phylogenetic relatedness among the species. The size of the non-visual cortex failed to predict the prevalence of play fighting occurring in either sexual or non-sexual contexts. In contrast, the size of the amygdala significantly predicted the prevalence of sexual play, but not non-sexual play. That is, species with larger sized amygdala are more likely to engage in sexual play. These findings provide new insights into the role of different brain systems in the regulation of play behavior.

  13. Empowering Adult Stem Cells for Myocardial Regeneration V2.0: Success in Small Steps

    PubMed Central

    Broughton, Kathleen; Sussman, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Much has changed since our survey of the landscape for myocardial regeneration powered by adult stem cells four years ago (Mohsin et al., Empowering adult stem cells for myocardial regeneration. Circ Res. 2011; 109(12):1415–1428) [1]. The intervening years since that first review has witnessed an explosive expansion of studies that advance both understanding and implementation of adult stem cells in promoting myocardial repair. Painstaking research from innumerable laboratories throughout the world is prying open doors that may lead to restoration of myocardial structure and function in the wake of pathologic injury. This global effort has produced deeper mechanistic comprehension coupled with an evolving appreciation for the complexity of myocardial regeneration in the adult context. Undaunted by both known and (as yet) unknown challenges, pursuit of myocardial regenerative medicine mediated by adult stem cell therapy has gathered momentum fueled by tantalizing clues and visionary goals. This concise review takes a somewhat different perspective than our initial treatise, taking stock of the business sector that has become an integral part of the field while concurrently updating “state of affairs” in cutting edge research. Looking retrospectively at advancement over the years as all reviews eventually must, the fundamental lesson to be learned is best explained by Jonatan Mårtensson: “Success will never be a big step in the future. Success is a small step taken just now.” PMID:26941423

  14. Flexible and elastic metamaterial absorber for low frequency, based on small-size unit cell

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Y. J.; Zheng, H. Y.; Kim, Y. J.; Lee, Y. P.; Rhee, J. Y.; Kang, J.-H.; Kim, K. W.; Cheong, H.; Kim, Y. H.

    2014-07-28

    Using a planar and flexible metamaterial (MM), we obtained the low-frequency perfect absorption even with very small unit-cell size in snake-shape structure. These shrunken, deep-sub-wavelength and thin MM absorbers were numerically and experimentally investigated by increasing the inductance. The periodicity/thickness (the figure of merit for perfect absorption) is achieved to be 10 and 2 for single-snake-bar and 5-snake-bar structures, respectively. The ratio between periodicity and resonance wavelength (in mm) is close to 1/12 and 1/30 at 2 GHz and 400 MHz, respectively. The absorbers are specially designed for absorption peaks around 2 GHz and 400 MHz, which can be used for depressing the electromagnetic noise from everyday electronic devices and mobile phones.

  15. Selecting Sustainability Indicators for Small to Medium Sized Urban Water Systems Using Fuzzy-ELECTRE.

    PubMed

    Chhipi-Shrestha, Gyan; Hewage, Kasun; Sadiq, Rehan

    2017-03-01

      Urban water systems (UWSs) are challenged by the sustainability perspective. Certain limitations of the sustainability of centralized UWSs and decentralized household level wastewater treatments can be overcome by managing UWSs at an intermediate scale, referred to as small to medium sized UWSs (SMUWSs). SMUWSs are different from large UWSs, mainly in terms of smaller infrastructure, data limitation, smaller service area, and institutional limitations. Moreover, sustainability assessment systems to evaluate the sustainability of an entire UWS are very limited and confined only to large UWSs. This research addressed the gap and has developed a set of 38 applied sustainability performance indicators (SPIs) by using fuzzy-Elimination and Choice Translating Reality (ELECTRE) I outranking method to assess the sustainability of SMUWSs. The developed set of SPIs can be applied to existing and new SMUWSs and also provides a flexibility to include additional SPIs in the future based on the same selection criteria.

  16. Designing a Small-Sized Engineering Model of Solar EUV Telescopr for a Korean Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jung-Hoon; Jang, Min-Hwan; Kim, Sang-Joon

    2001-11-01

    For the research of solar EUV (extreme ultraviolet) radiation, we have designed a small-sized engineering model of solar EUV telescope, which is suitable for a Korean satellite. The EUV solar telescope was designed to observe the sun at 584.3Å (He¥°) and 629.7Å (O¥´). The optical system is an f/8 Ritchey-Chrètien, and the effective diameter and focal length are 80§® and 640§®, respectively. The He¥°and O¥´ filters are loaded in a filter wheel. In the detection part, the MCP (MicroChannel Plate) type is Z-stack, and the channel-to-diameter ratio is 40:1. MCP and CCD are connected by fiber optic taper. A commercial optical design software is used for the analysis of the optical system design.

  17. Small-Size Waveguide Diplexer Based on E-Plane Quasi-Planar Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuilov, M. B.; Kobrin, K. V.

    2016-09-01

    We propose a new small-size version of a waveguide diplexer based on quasi-planar filters with E-plane ridge sections and inductive diaphragms on a single metal inset made of a thin foil. The diplexer contains an E-plane waveguide bifurcation and a matching stepwise transition. The effective hybrid method, which is based on the Galerkin method allowing for the field singularity at the edges, the mode matching method, and the generalized scattering matrix method, has been developed for electrodynamic analysis of the given class of diplexers. We present characteristics of the optimized version of the design of a centimeter-wave diplexer, whose length is approximately 1.5 times shorter compared with known counerparts.

  18. IT Governance Practices in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Recommendations from an Empirical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rui; Zmud, Robert W.; Price, R. Leon

    Much has been learned through IT governance research about the nature of IT-related decisions, the location of decision rights for these decisions, and governance mechanisms applied to facilitate associated decision processes in large organisations. Our knowledge about IT governance structures in small and medium-sized enterprises (SME), on the other hand, is quite limited. Adopting a qualitative and inductive approach, this study examines the nature and influence of IT governance in SMEs through interviews with executives from three SMEs. Our results demonstrate that IT decision authority was centralized in all three SMEs but that senior management involvement in governance procedures and communication practices about governance policies were observed to explain differences in these organisations’ IT use. We propose recommendations based on the findings of this study.

  19. Low-frequency metamaterial absorber with small-size unit cell based on corrugated surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Nan; Dong, Xiaochun; Zhou, Weicheng; He, Chuanwang; Jiang, Wei; Hu, Song

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we report the design, analysis, and simulation of the low-frequency perfect metamaterial absorber (MMA) based on corrugated surface, which has very small unit-cell size. The proposed MMA consist of a regular square-array and a metallic background plane, separated by a corrugated surface with periodic square-pillar-array. Through the optimized design, the ratios between lattice constant and resonance wavelength for nearly-perfect and high absorption MMA are close to 1/15 and 1/21, respectively. To explain the absorption mechanism of suggested structures, the surface current and electromagnetic field distributions are given. Moreover, the absorption peaks remain high with large angles of incidence for both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations, which provide more efficient absorptions for oblique incident electromagnetic wave.

  20. Networked Virtual Organizations: A Chance for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises on Global Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cellary, Wojciech

    Networked Virtual Organizations (NVOs) are a right answer to challenges of globalized, diversified, and dynamic contemporary economy. NVOs need more than e-trade and outsourcing, namely, they need out-tasking and e-collaboration. To out-task, but retain control on the way a task is performed by an external partner, two integrations are required: (1) integration of computer management systems of enterprises cooperating within an NVO; and (2) integration of cooperating representatives of NVO member enterprises into a virtual team. NVOs provide a particular chance to Small and Medium size Enterprises (SMEs) to find their place on global markets and to play a significant role on them. Requirements for SMEs to be able to successfully join an NVO are analyzed in the paper.

  1. The size of sebaceous glands in relation to the size of hair follicles on the heads of some small mammals (Insectivora, Chiroptera, Rodentia).

    PubMed

    Haffner, M

    1998-04-01

    Many large sebaceous glands have been described, and functions such as scent production suggested, but gland size has seldom been studied in relation to the surface area of their hair follicles. However, investigating this relationship is essential for establishing whether glands produce more sebum than would be required for lubricating associated hair alone. Here, the relationship between sebaceous gland size and the surface area of the associated hair follicles has been studied. Glands on the heads of 20 species from three orders were compared with those associated with fur hairs. In all species, the fur hairs had small hair follicles with small sebaceous glands, as had the mystacial and submandibular hairs of Rodentia. Medium-sized glands and hairs were found in the mystacial and submandibular region in Insectivora, and in the circumoral region in Chiroptera and Rodentia. Large glands and hairs were found on a pad in the corner of the mouth in Rodentia. Although the size of glands was not directly proportional to hair size, some gross trends were noted. Vibrissae had either no or very small sebaceous glands. It is likely that sebum has to be provided from elsewhere to lubricate their surfaces. The glands on the snout of Insectivora and Chiroptera are clearly enlarged and could probably produce more sebum than would be required for grooming vibrissae alone. In Rodentia, vibrissae were surrounded by small hair and glands, and the nearest glands large enough to provide sebum were the glands on the pad in the mouth corner.

  2. Reducing Size, Weight, and Power (SWaP) of Perception Systems in Small Autonomous Aerial Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kennie H.; Gross, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The objectives are to examine recent trends in the reduction of size, weight, and power (SWaP) requirements of sensor systems for environmental perception and to explore new technology that may overcome limitations in current systems. Improving perception systems to facilitate situation awareness is critical in the move to introduce increasing autonomy in aerial systems. Whether the autonomy is in the current state-of-the-art of increasing automation or is enabling cognitive decisions that facilitate adaptive behavior, collection of environmental information and fusion of that information into knowledge that can direct actuation is imperative to decisions resulting in appropriate behavior. Artificial sensory systems such as cameras, radar, LIDAR, and acoustic sensors have been in use on aircraft for many years but, due to the large size and weight of the airplane and electrical power made available through powerful engines, the SWaP requirements of these sensors was inconsequential. With the proliferation of Remote Piloted Vehicles (RPV), the trend is in significant reduction in SWaP of the vehicles. This requires at least an equivalent reduction in SWaP for the sensory systems. A survey of some currently available sensor systems and changing technology will reveal the trend toward reduction of SWaP of these systems and will predict future reductions. A new technology will be introduced that provides an example of a desirable new trend. A new device replaces multiple conventional sensory devices facilitating synchronization, localization, altimetry, collision avoidance, terrain mapping, and data communication in a single integrated, small form-factor, extremely lightweight, and low power device that it is practical for integration into small autonomous vehicles and can facilitate cooperative behavior. The technology is based on Ultra WideBand (UWB) radio using short pulses of energy rather than continuous sine waves. The characteristics of UWB yield several

  3. Survey of food safety practices on small to medium-sized farms and in farmers markets.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Judy A; Gaskin, Julia W; Harrison, Mark A; Cannon, Jennifer L; Boyer, Renee R; Zehnder, Geoffrey W

    2013-11-01

    As produce consumption has increased, so have foodborne disease outbreaks associated with fresh produce. Little research has addressed food safety practices used on small to medium-sized farms selling locally or in farmers markets. This study evaluated current food safety practices used by farmers on small to medium-sized farms and managers of farmers markets in Georgia, Virginia, and South Carolina based on responses to surveys. Surveys were developed, pretested, and revised before implementation with target audiences and were implemented via mail and the Web to maximize participation, with reminders sent to nonrespondents. Data were collected from 226 farmers and 45 market managers. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for all response variables. Responses from farmers indicated that more than 56% of them use manures. Of those who use manures, 34% use raw or mixtures of raw and composted manure, and over 26% wait fewer than 90 days between application of raw manure and harvest. Over 27% use water sources that have not been tested for safety for irrigation, and 16% use such water sources for washing produce. Over 43% do not sanitize surfaces that touch produce at the farm. Only 33% of farmers always clean transport containers between uses. Responses from market managers indicated that over 42% have no food safety standards in place for the market. Only 2 to 11% ask farmers specific questions about conditions on the farm that could affect product safety. Less than 25% of managers sanitize market surfaces. Only 11% always clean market containers between uses. Over 75% of markets offer no sanitation training to workers or vendors. While farmers and market managers are using many good practices, the results indicate that some practices being used may put consumers at risk of foodborne illness. Consequently, there is a need for training for both farmers and market managers.

  4. Innovation Gateways for SMEs: Finding the Formula for Successful Interaction between Universities and Small and Medium-Size Firms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Peter T.

    1995-01-01

    The University of Warwick's Breakthrough Technologies program links with small and medium-sized businesses to stimulate awareness of innovations. The Manufacturing Excellence Initiative provides postgraduate training for company staff that focuses on best practices and change management. (SK)

  5. Development of efficient, small particle size luminescent oxides using combustion synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, Lauren Elizabeth

    Luminescent materials (phosphors) find application in cathode-ray tubes (CRTs), medical and industrial equipment monitors, fluorescent lamps, xerography, and many types of flat panel displays. Many commercially available phosphors were optimized in the 1960s for high voltage (>10 kV) CRT applications. Recently, a great deal of emphasis has been placed on the development and improvement of phosphors for flat panel displays that operate at low voltages (<5 kV). In addition to high efficiency at low voltages, these displays demand high resolution phosphor screens which can only be realized using phosphors with smaller particle size (<3 mum). Conventional methods of preparing phosphors (e.g., high temperature solid-state reaction) cannot easily produce a homogeneous product with uniform, small particle size. In this work, a novel ceramic synthesis technique, combustion synthesis, was used for the first time to produce submicron-sized oxide phosphors more efficiently for use in flat panel displays. This technique exploits the exothermic redox reaction of metal nitrates (oxidizers) with an organic fuel (reducing agent). Typical fuels include urea (CHsb4Nsb2O), carbohydrazide (CHsb6Nsb4O), or glycine (Csb2Hsb5NOsb2). Resulting powders were well-crystallized, with a large surface area and small particle size. Phosphor powders were exposed to photoluminescence excitation by high energy (254 nm, E = 4.88 eV) and low energy photons (365 nm, E = 3.4 eV and 435 nm, E = 2.85 eV) and cathodoluminescence excitation by a low-voltage (100-1000 V) electron beam. Photoluminescence (PL) techniques resulted in the measurement of spectral energy distribution and relative intensities. Phosphor efficiencies in lumens per watt (lm/W) were obtained by low-voltage cathodoluminescence measurements. The effects of processing parameters such as type of fuel, fuel to oxidizer ratio, and heating rate were studied. The combustion process was optimized based on these processing parameters in order

  6. Nonlinear Effects of Nanoparticles: Biological Variability From Hormetic Doses, Small Particle Sizes, and Dynamic Adaptive Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Iris R.; Ives, John A.; Jonas, Wayne B.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly focused on the nanoscale level of organization where biological processes take place in living systems. Nanoparticles (NPs, e.g., 1–100 nm diameter) are small forms of natural or manufactured source material whose properties differ markedly from those of the respective bulk forms of the “same” material. Certain NPs have diagnostic and therapeutic uses; some NPs exhibit low-dose toxicity; other NPs show ability to stimulate low-dose adaptive responses (hormesis). Beyond dose, size, shape, and surface charge variations of NPs evoke nonlinear responses in complex adaptive systems. NPs acquire unique size-dependent biological, chemical, thermal, optical, electromagnetic, and atom-like quantum properties. Nanoparticles exhibit high surface adsorptive capacity for other substances, enhanced bioavailability, and ability to cross otherwise impermeable cell membranes including the blood-brain barrier. With super-potent effects, nano-forms can evoke cellular stress responses or therapeutic effects not only at lower doses than their bulk forms, but also for longer periods of time. Interactions of initial effects and compensatory systemic responses can alter the impact of NPs over time. Taken together, the data suggest the need to downshift the dose-response curve of NPs from that for bulk forms in order to identify the necessarily decreased no-observed-adverse-effect-level and hormetic dose range for nanoparticles. PMID:24910581

  7. Assessing and improving the stability of chemometric models in small sample size situations.

    PubMed

    Beleites, Claudia; Salzer, Reiner

    2008-03-01

    Small sample sizes are very common in multivariate analysis. Sample sizes of 10-100 statistically independent objects (rejects from processes or loading dock analysis, or patients with a rare disease), each with hundreds of data points, cause unstable models with poor predictive quality. Model stability is assessed by comparing models that were built using slightly varying training data. Iterated k-fold cross-validation is used for this purpose. Aggregation stabilizes models. It is possible to assess the quality of the aggregated model without calculating further models. The validation and aggregation methods investigated in this study apply to regression as well as to classification. These techniques are useful for analyzing data with large numbers of variates, e.g., any spectral data like FT-IR, Raman, UV/VIS, fluorescence, AAS, and MS. FT-IR images of tumor tissue were used in this study. Some tissue types occur frequently, while some are very rare. They are classified using LDA. Initial models were severely unstable. Aggregation stabilizes the predictions. The hit rate increased from 67% to 82%.

  8. Nonlinear effects of nanoparticles: biological variability from hormetic doses, small particle sizes, and dynamic adaptive interactions.

    PubMed

    Bell, Iris R; Ives, John A; Jonas, Wayne B

    2014-05-01

    Researchers are increasingly focused on the nanoscale level of organization where biological processes take place in living systems. Nanoparticles (NPs, e.g., 1-100 nm diameter) are small forms of natural or manufactured source material whose properties differ markedly from those of the respective bulk forms of the "same" material. Certain NPs have diagnostic and therapeutic uses; some NPs exhibit low-dose toxicity; other NPs show ability to stimulate low-dose adaptive responses (hormesis). Beyond dose, size, shape, and surface charge variations of NPs evoke nonlinear responses in complex adaptive systems. NPs acquire unique size-dependent biological, chemical, thermal, optical, electromagnetic, and atom-like quantum properties. Nanoparticles exhibit high surface adsorptive capacity for other substances, enhanced bioavailability, and ability to cross otherwise impermeable cell membranes including the blood-brain barrier. With super-potent effects, nano-forms can evoke cellular stress responses or therapeutic effects not only at lower doses than their bulk forms, but also for longer periods of time. Interactions of initial effects and compensatory systemic responses can alter the impact of NPs over time. Taken together, the data suggest the need to downshift the dose-response curve of NPs from that for bulk forms in order to identify the necessarily decreased no-observed-adverse-effect-level and hormetic dose range for nanoparticles.

  9. Non-contact method for characterization of small size thermoelectric modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manno, Michael; Yang, Bao; Bar-Cohen, Avram

    2015-08-01

    Conventional techniques for characterization of thermoelectric performance require bringing measurement equipment into direct contact with the thermoelectric device, which is increasingly error prone as device size decreases. Therefore, the novel work presented here describes a non-contact technique, capable of accurately measuring the maximum ΔT and maximum heat pumping of mini to micro sized thin film thermoelectric coolers. The non-contact characterization method eliminates the measurement errors associated with using thermocouples and traditional heat flux sensors to test small samples and large heat fluxes. Using the non-contact approach, an infrared camera, rather than thermocouples, measures the temperature of the hot and cold sides of the device to determine the device ΔT and a laser is used to heat to the cold side of the thermoelectric module to characterize its heat pumping capacity. As a demonstration of the general applicability of the non-contact characterization technique, testing of a thin film thermoelectric module is presented and the results agree well with those published in the literature.

  10. Evaluating shock absorption behavior of small-sized systems under programmable electric field.

    PubMed

    Jagtap, Piyush; Kumar, Praveen

    2014-11-01

    A simple ball-drop impact tester is developed for studying the dynamic response of hierarchical, complex, small-sized systems and materials. The developed algorithm and set-up have provisions for applying programmable potential difference along the height of a test specimen during an impact loading; this enables us to conduct experiments on various materials and smart structures whose mechanical behavior is sensitive to electric field. The software-hardware system allows not only acquisition of dynamic force-time data at very fast sampling rate (up to 2 × 10(6) samples/s), but also application of a pre-set potential difference (up to ±10 V) across a test specimen for a duration determined by feedback from the force-time data. We illustrate the functioning of the set-up by studying the effect of electric field on the energy absorption capability of carbon nanotube foams of 5 × 5 × 1.2 mm(3) size under impact conditions.

  11. Changing resonator geometry to boost sound power decouples size and song frequency in a small insect.

    PubMed

    Mhatre, Natasha; Montealegre-Z, Fernando; Balakrishnan, Rohini; Robert, Daniel

    2012-05-29

    Despite their small size, some insects, such as crickets, can produce high amplitude mating songs by rubbing their wings together. By exploiting structural resonance for sound radiation, crickets broadcast species-specific songs at a sharply tuned frequency. Such songs enhance the range of signal transmission, contain information about the signaler's quality, and allow mate choice. The production of pure tones requires elaborate structural mechanisms that control and sustain resonance at the species-specific frequency. Tree crickets differ sharply from this scheme. Although they use a resonant system to produce sound, tree crickets can produce high amplitude songs at different frequencies, varying by as much as an octave. Based on an investigation of the driving mechanism and the resonant system, using laser Doppler vibrometry and finite element modeling, we show that it is the distinctive geometry of the crickets' forewings (the resonant system) that is responsible for their capacity to vary frequency. The long, enlarged wings enable the production of high amplitude songs; however, as a mechanical consequence of the high aspect ratio, the resonant structures have multiple resonant modes that are similar in frequency. The drive produced by the singing apparatus cannot, therefore, be locked to a single frequency, and different resonant modes can easily be engaged, allowing individual males to vary the carrier frequency of their songs. Such flexibility in sound production, decoupling body size and song frequency, has important implications for conventional views of mate choice, and offers inspiration for the design of miniature, multifrequency, resonant acoustic radiators.

  12. Hybrid neural intelligent system to predict business failure in small-to-medium-size enterprises.

    PubMed

    Borrajo, M Lourdes; Baruque, Bruno; Corchado, Emilio; Bajo, Javier; Corchado, Juan M

    2011-08-01

    During the last years there has been a growing need of developing innovative tools that can help small to medium sized enterprises to predict business failure as well as financial crisis. In this study we present a novel hybrid intelligent system aimed at monitoring the modus operandi of the companies and predicting possible failures. This system is implemented by means of a neural-based multi-agent system that models the different actors of the companies as agents. The core of the multi-agent system is a type of agent that incorporates a case-based reasoning system and automates the business control process and failure prediction. The stages of the case-based reasoning system are implemented by means of web services: the retrieval stage uses an innovative weighted voting summarization of self-organizing maps ensembles-based method and the reuse stage is implemented by means of a radial basis function neural network. An initial prototype was developed and the results obtained related to small and medium enterprises in a real scenario are presented.

  13. Resource efficiency and culture--workplace training for small and medium-sized enterprises.

    PubMed

    Bliesner, Anna; Liedtke, Christa; Rohn, Holger

    2014-05-15

    Although there are already some qualification offers available for enterprises to support resource efficiency innovations, the high potentials that can be identified especially for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have not been activated until now. As successful change lies in the hands of humans, the main aim of vocational education has to be the promotion of organisational and cultural changes in the enterprises. As there is already a small but increasing number of enterprises that perform very well in resource efficiency innovations one question arises: What are typical characteristics of those enterprises? Leaning on a good-practice approach, the project "ResourceCulture" is going to prove or falsify the hypothesis that enterprises being successful with resource efficiency innovations have a specific culture of trust, which substantially contributes to innovation processes, or even initially enables them. Detailed empirical field research will light up which correlations between resource efficiency, innovation and cultures of trust can be found and will offer important aspects for the improvement of management instruments and qualification concepts for workplace training. The project seizes qualification needs that were likewise mentioned by enterprises and consultants, regarding the implementation of resource efficiency. This article - based on first empirical field research results - derives preliminary indications for the design of the qualification module for the target groups resource efficiency consultants and managers. On this basis and in order to implement "ResourceCulture" conceptual and methodological starting points for workplace training are outlined.

  14. Susceptibility and size quantification of small human veins from an MRI method.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ching-Yi; Cheng, Yu-Chung N; Xie, He; Haacke, E Mark; Neelavalli, Jaladhar

    2015-12-01

    Recently a method called CISSCO (Complex Image Summation around a Spherical or a Cylindrical Object) was introduced for accurately quantifying the susceptibility and the radius of any narrow cylindrical object at any orientation using a typical two-echo gradient echo sequence. This work further optimizes the method for quantifying oxygen saturation in small cerebral veins in the human brain. The revised method is first validated through numerical simulations and then applied to data from phantom and human brain. The effect of phase high pass filtering on the quantified parameters is studied and procedures for mitigating its adverse effects are suggested. Uncertainty of each measurement is estimated from the error propagation method. It is shown that the revised method allows for accurate quantification of both the vessel size and its oxygen saturation even in the case of a low SNR (signal to noise ratio) in the vein. The results are self consistent across different veins within a given subject with a variation of less than 6%. Finally, imaging parameters and some procedures are suggested for accurate susceptibility and radius quantifications of small human veins.

  15. Why size counts: children's spatial reorientation in large and small enclosures.

    PubMed

    Learmonth, Amy E; Newcombe, Nora S; Sheridan, Natalie; Jones, Meredith

    2008-05-01

    When mobile organisms are spatially disoriented, for instance by rapid repetitive movement, they must re-establish orientation. Past research has shown that the geometry of enclosing spaces is consistently used for reorientation by a wide variety of species, but that non-geometric features are not always used. Based on these findings, some investigators have postulated a species-universal 'geometric module' that is transcended by the acquisition of spatial language at 6 years. This conclusion has been challenged, however, by findings that children as young as 18 months actually do use features to reorient in larger enclosures than those used in the original experiments. The reason for the room size effect is explored here in five experiments. Collectively, the data on age at which features are first used point to the importance of both restriction of movement in the small space and the fact that features are closer in the small space. In addition, success is seen at younger ages when the target object is adjacent to the feature. These results favor an adaptive combination model of spatial reorientation over a 'module-plus-language' view.

  16. A general mechanism for stabilizing the small sizes of precious metal nanoparticles on oxide supports

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wei-Zhen; Kovarik, Libor; Mei, Donghai; Engelhard, Mark H.; Gao, Feng; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong; Peden, Charles HF

    2014-09-02

    We recently discovered that MgAl2O4 spinel {111} nano-facets optimally stabilize the small sizes of platinum nanoparticles even after severe high temperature aging treatments. Here we report the thermal stabilities of other precious metals with various physical and chemical properties on the MgAl2O4 spinel {111} facets, providing important new insights into the stabilization mechanisms. Besides Pt, Rh and Ir can also be successfully stabilized as small (1-3 nm) nanoparticles and even as single atomic species after extremely severe (800 °C, 1 week) oxidative aging. However, other metals either aggregate (Ru, Pd, Ag, and Au) or sublimate (Os) even during initial catalyst synthesis. On the basis of ab initio theoretical calculations and experimental observations, we rationalize that the exceptional stabilization originates from lattice matching, and the correspondingly strong attractive interactions at interfaces between the spinel {111} surface oxygens and epitaxial metals\\metal oxides. On this basis, design principles for catalyst support oxide materials that are capable in stabilizing precious metals are proposed.

  17. Using multi-theory model to predict initiation and sustenance of small portion size consumption among college students

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manoj; Catalano, Hannah Priest; Nahar, Vinayak K.; Lingam, Vimala; Johnson, Paul; Ford, M. Allison

    2016-01-01

    Background: Consumption of large portion sizes is contributing to overweight and obesity.College students are a vulnerable group in this regard. The purpose of this study was to use multi-theory model (MTM) to predict initiation and sustenance of small portion size consumption in college students. Methods: A total of 135 students at a large Southern US University completed a 35-item valid (face, content, and construct) and reliable (internally consistent) survey electronically in a cross-sectional design. The main outcome measures were intention to start eating small portion sizes and continuing to eat small portion sizes. Only those students who ate large portion sizes during the past 24 hours were included. Results: Step wise multiple regression showed that initiation of small portion size consumption was explained by participatory dialogue (advantages outweighing disadvantages), behavioral confidence, age, and gender (adjusted R2 = 0.37, P < 0.001). Males were less likely to initiate small portion size consumption than females (β = -0.185, 95% CI = -0.71– -0.11). Regarding sustenance, emotional transformation, changes in social environment, and race were the significant predictors (adjusted R2 = 0.20, P < 0.001). Whites were less likely to sustain small portion size change than other races (β = -0.269, 95% CI = -0.97 – -0.26). Conclusion: Based on this study’s findings, MTM appears to be a robust theoretical framework for predicting small portion size consumption behavior change. Interventions in this regard need to be designed. PMID:27579257

  18. Body size dissatisfaction among young adults from the 1982 Pelotas birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Mintem, G C; Horta, B L; Domingues, M R; Gigante, D P

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To identify the prevalence and factors associated with body dissatisfaction. Subjects/Methods: Birth cohort study investigating 4100 subjects (2187 men and 1913 women) aged between 22 and 23 years who answered questionnaires, including the body satisfaction Stunkard Scale were included in the study; they were weighed and measured. Multinomial logistic regression was used in the crude and adjusted analyses. Results: The prevalence of body dissatisfaction was 64% (95% CI, 62.7–65.6); 42% (95% CI, 40.6–43.6) of the subjects reported feeling larger than the desired body size, and 22% (95% CI, 20.7–23.3) reported feeling smaller than desired. Underweight subjects, subjects with less schooling, poor and sedentary male subjects with low psychological well-being and female subjects who were already mothers were more likely to express body dissatisfaction, perceiving their body as smaller than the desirable body size. The prevalence of body dissatisfaction was also high among overweight subjects, subjects with a high socioeconomic status and married female subjects, who perceived their body size as too large. Minor psychiatric disorders were associated with body dissatisfaction in all subjects, regardless of perceiving themselves as larger or smaller than the desired body size. Most women perceived themselves as larger, but similar proportions of men perceived themselves as too small or too large. Conclusions: Body dissatisfaction was observed among men and women with normal weight, but it was more evident in the obese individuals. Regardless of the nutritional status, both men and women should be appropriately counseled because body size perception can lead to unhealthy behaviors in relation to diet and physical activity. PMID:25074390

  19. Albedo, Size and Taxonomy of the Small Body Populations Outside the Main Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grav, Tommy; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J. M.; Masiero, J. R.; Nugent, C. R.; Stevenson, R. A.

    2013-10-01

    Using the data from the WISE/NEOWISE mission we have derived albedo and size distribution of more than ~1200 Cybeles, ~1000 Hildas, ~1700 Jovian Trojans and a dozen irregular satellites of Jupiter and Saturn. This dataset increases by an order of magnitude our knowledge of the makeup of the small body populations between the Main Belt and Saturn. We find that all these populations are dominated by low albedo objects, with only the Cybele and Hilda populations having a small (less than 10% among the Cybeles and less than 1% among the Hildas, Trojans and irregular satellites) fraction of objects with albedos higher than 15%. Using the near-infrared albedos (in the 3.4 and 4.6 micron bands) we were also able to derive the taxonomic classifications of the largest objects in each populations, showing that they are dominated by C-, P- and D-type surfaces. The dominance of these dark bodies indicate two possible formation scenarios. The small body populations may have been formed in situ beyond the snow line, potentially serving as primitive bodies that can provide significant insight into the composition of the early Solar Nebula in the region of the Giant Planets. Alternatively, they may be captured bodies that were perturbed from the region outside the Giant Planets as the planets migrated during the early stages of Solar System formation. This allows for insight into the composition of the Trans-Neptunian population by study of populations that are closer, brighter and more accessible. The low percentages of the more stony objects common in the Main Asteroid Belt indicates that few of these objects were embedded in the populations, imposing significant constraints on the migration of Jupiter inside its current orbit.

  20. Controlled traffic conservation tillage using small to middle sized machinery in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Li, Hongwen; Gao, Huanwen; Du, Bing; He, Jin; Li, Wenying

    2005-09-01

    Research and farmers' experiences have demonstrated that reduced tillage helps maintain surface residues and provide substantial benefits in terms of water use efficiency, soil condition and productivity. However, the impact of field traffic and its influence on the soil when tillage is reduced or eliminated have been ignored, for small to middle-sized machinery are mostly used in Chinese agriculture. There is a need to study on wheel traffic impacts and to test controlled traffic farming system for Chinese conditions. This paper reports the five-year controlled traffic conservation tillage experiment in North China. Two trial plots (Spring Maize and Winter wheat) with four treatments and five replications were set up. The results indicated that controlled traffic conservation tillage could minimize the compaction of wheel traffic, make field operation timely and precisely, improve soil structure and increase soil moisture on crop zone which is beneficial to crop establishment and growth. With the accumulation of damages year after year, the impacts of random wheeling are becoming more notable. Heavier machinery appeared to compact soil to a greater depth, but even small tractors could compact the surface 10cm, critical to rainfall infiltration, to a remarkable degree. For the small-scaled controlled traffic system tested in this study, traffic lanes occupy about 20% of the land, but the yields were similar to those in the non-controlled traffic fields. Further test is needed for the long-term impacts of the traffic lanes on soil structure and crop yield and detailed analysis is necessary to develop a suitable controlled traffic farming system.

  1. Small-size two-axis mechanical devices for FPM and PAM using piezoelectronic actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuya, Mamoru; Araki, Tomohiro; Yamakawa, Shiro; Hisada, Yasumasa; Kondo, Fumika; Akiba, Toshikatsu

    1998-05-01

    We have developed two kinds of small size and light weight mechanical devices which consist of 2-axis piezoelectronic driving actuators and elastic hinges for fine pointing mechanism (FPM) and point ahead mechanism (PAM) optical inter- orbit communication (optical IOC) equipment. These are 'Beam Trapping Mechanism (BTM)' and 'Beam Scanning Mechanism (BSM)' respectively. High sensitivity receive system using single- mode optical fiber should be needed to increase communication data rate, which are a receiver of heterodyne detection in optical fiber and a receiver using optical pre-amplifier (for example, Er doped fiber amplifier). Therefore, both improvement of precision of FPM and control of the end of optical fiber are needed. In order to realize these requirements, we have designed, developed and tested two kinds of mechanical devices. At first, results of BTM, which consists of an optical fiber, four piezoelectric actuators, elastic hinges and a housing which mounts them, are described. The end facet of optical fiber supported by elastic hinges is controlled by piezoelectronic actuators in order to trap spatial received beam into optical fiber with high efficiency and high speed. The functional test results of BTM show a moving range of 140 (mu) rad, a resolution of less than 0.2 (mu) rad and natural frequency of 390 Hz. These values show BTM has enough performance for low-loss received beam trapping into optical fiber core. Furthermore, small-sized and lightweight BTM was realized using piezoelectronic actuators. We designed a BSM which has function of piezoelectronic driving 2-axis FPM in order to improve FPM. BSM have mirror of which size is 15 * 12 mm2. The mechanical concept of BSM is as same as BTM. In BSM, mirror is supported by elastic hinges, replace with optical fiber. Function test results show scanning angle range of more than 2.8 mrad at azimuth direction, 2.0 mrad at elevation direction, scanning resolution of 1.0 (mu) rad and natural frequency is

  2. Detection, Characterization, and Spontaneous Differentiation In Vitro of Very Small Embryonic-Like Putative Stem Cells in Adult Mammalian Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Parte, Seema; Telang, Jyoti; Daithankar, Vinita; Salvi, Vinita; Zaveri, Kusum; Hinduja, Indira

    2011-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to detect, characterize, and study differentiation potential of stem cells in adult rabbit, sheep, monkey, and menopausal human ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). Two distinct populations of putative stem cells (PSCs) of variable size were detected in scraped OSE, one being smaller and other similar in size to the surrounding red blood cells in the scraped OSE. The smaller 1–3 μm very small embryonic-like PSCs were pluripotent in nature with nuclear Oct-4 and cell surface SSEA-4, whereas the bigger 4–7 μm cells with cytoplasmic localization of Oct-4 and minimal expression of SSEA-4 were possibly the tissue committed progenitor stem cells. Pluripotent gene transcripts of Oct-4, Oct-4A, Nanog, Sox-2, TERT, and Stat-3 in human and sheep OSE were detected by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction. The PSCs underwent spontaneous differentiation into oocyte-like structures, parthenote-like structures, embryoid body-like structures, cells with neuronal-like phenotype, and embryonic stem cell-like colonies, whereas the epithelial cells transformed into mesenchymal phenotype by epithelial–mesenchymal transition in 3 weeks of OSE culture. Germ cell markers like c-Kit, DAZL, GDF-9, VASA, and ZP4 were immuno-localized in oocyte-like structures. In conclusion, as opposed to the existing view of OSE being a bipotent source of oocytes and granulosa cells, mammalian ovaries harbor distinct very small embryonic-like PSCs and tissue committed progenitor stem cells population that have the potential to develop into oocyte-like structures in vitro, whereas mesenchymal fibroblasts appear to form supporting granulosa-like somatic cells. Research at the single-cell level, including complete gene expression profiling, is required to further confirm whether postnatal oogenesis is a conserved phenomenon in adult mammals. PMID:21291304

  3. Detection, characterization, and spontaneous differentiation in vitro of very small embryonic-like putative stem cells in adult mammalian ovary.

    PubMed

    Parte, Seema; Bhartiya, Deepa; Telang, Jyoti; Daithankar, Vinita; Salvi, Vinita; Zaveri, Kusum; Hinduja, Indira

    2011-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to detect, characterize, and study differentiation potential of stem cells in adult rabbit, sheep, monkey, and menopausal human ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). Two distinct populations of putative stem cells (PSCs) of variable size were detected in scraped OSE, one being smaller and other similar in size to the surrounding red blood cells in the scraped OSE. The smaller 1-3 μm very small embryonic-like PSCs were pluripotent in nature with nuclear Oct-4 and cell surface SSEA-4, whereas the bigger 4-7 μm cells with cytoplasmic localization of Oct-4 and minimal expression of SSEA-4 were possibly the tissue committed progenitor stem cells. Pluripotent gene transcripts of Oct-4, Oct-4A, Nanog, Sox-2, TERT, and Stat-3 in human and sheep OSE were detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The PSCs underwent spontaneous differentiation into oocyte-like structures, parthenote-like structures, embryoid body-like structures, cells with neuronal-like phenotype, and embryonic stem cell-like colonies, whereas the epithelial cells transformed into mesenchymal phenotype by epithelial-mesenchymal transition in 3 weeks of OSE culture. Germ cell markers like c-Kit, DAZL, GDF-9, VASA, and ZP4 were immuno-localized in oocyte-like structures. In conclusion, as opposed to the existing view of OSE being a bipotent source of oocytes and granulosa cells, mammalian ovaries harbor distinct very small embryonic-like PSCs and tissue committed progenitor stem cells population that have the potential to develop into oocyte-like structures in vitro, whereas mesenchymal fibroblasts appear to form supporting granulosa-like somatic cells. Research at the single-cell level, including complete gene expression profiling, is required to further confirm whether postnatal oogenesis is a conserved phenomenon in adult mammals.

  4. Hybrid Guidance Control for a Hypervelocity Small Size Asteroid Interceptor Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebenay, Melak M.; Lyzhoft, Joshua R.; Barbee, Brent W.

    2017-01-01

    Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are comets and/or asteroids that have orbits in proximity with Earth's own orbit. NEOs have collided with the Earth in the past, which can be seen at such places as Chicxulub crater, Barringer crater, and Manson crater, and will continue in the future with potentially significant and devastating results. Fortunately such NEO collisions with Earth are infrequent, but can happen at any time. Therefore it is necessary to develop and validate techniques as well as technologies necessary to prevent them. One approach to mitigate future NEO impacts is the concept of high-speed interceptor. This concept is to alter the NEO's trajectory via momentum exchange by using kinetic impactors as well as nuclear penetration devices. The interceptor has to hit a target NEO at relative velocity which imparts a sufficient change in NEO velocity. NASA's Deep Impact mission has demonstrated this scenario by intercepting Comet Temple 1, 5 km in diameter, with an impact relative speed of approximately 10 km/s. This paper focuses on the development of hybrid guidance navigation and control (GNC) algorithms for precision hypervelocity intercept of small sized NEOs. The spacecraft's hypervelocity and the NEO's small size are critical challenges for a successful mission as the NEO will not fill the field of view until a few seconds before intercept. The investigation needs to consider the error sources modeled in the navigation simulation such as spacecraft initial state uncertainties in position and velocity. Furthermore, the paper presents three selected spacecraft guidance algorithms for asteroid intercept and rendezvous missions. The selected algorithms are classical Proportional Navigation (PN) based guidance that use a first order difference to compute the derivatives, Three Plane Proportional Navigation (TPPN), and the Kinematic Impulse (KI). A manipulated Bennu orbit that has been changed to impact Earth will be used as a demonstrative example to compare the

  5. Pro-TRH and pro-CRF expression in paraventricular nucleus of small litter-reared fasted adult rats.

    PubMed

    Aréchiga-Ceballos, F; Alvarez-Salas, E; Matamoros-Trejo, G; Amaya, M I; García-Luna, C; de Gortari, P

    2014-04-01

    Neuroendocrine axes adapt to nutrient availability. During fasting, the function of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT) is reduced, whereas that of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) is increased. Overfeeding-induced hyperleptinemia during lactation may alter the regulatory set point of neuroendocrine axes and their adaptability to fasting in adulthood. Hyperleptinemia is developed in rodents by litter size reduction during lactation; adult rats from small litters become overweight, but their paraventricular nucleus (PVN) TRH synthesis is unchanged. It is unclear whether peptide expression still responds to nutrient availability. PVN corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) expression has not been evaluated in this model. We analyzed adaptability of HPT and HPA axes to fasting-induced low leptin levels of reduced-litter adult rats. Offspring litters were reduced to 2-3/dam (early-overfed) or maintained at 8/dam (controls, C). At 10 weeks old, a subset of animals from each group was fasted for 48 h and leptin, corticosterone, and thyroid hormones serum levels were analyzed. In brain, expressions of leptin receptor, NPY and SOCS3, were evaluated in arcuate nucleus, and those of proTRH and proCRF in PVN by real-time PCR. ProTRH expression in anterior and medial PVN subcompartments was assayed by in situ hybridization. Early-overfed adults developed hyperphagia and excessive weight, together with decreased proTRH expression in anterior PVN, supporting the anorexigenic effects of TRH. Early-overfed rats presented low PVN proTRH synthesis, whereas fasting did not induce a further reduction. Fasting-induced stress was unable to increase corticosterone levels, contributing to reduced body weight loss in early-overfed rats. We concluded that early overfeeding impaired the adaptability of HPT and HPA axes to excess weight and fasting in adults.

  6. Extracting magnetic cluster size and its distributions in advanced perpendicular recording media with shrinking grain size using small angle x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Virat; Wang, Tianhan; Ikeda, Yoshihiro; Takano, Ken; Terris, Bruce D.; Wu, Benny; Graves, Catherine; Dürr, Hermann A.; Scherz, Andreas; Stöhr, Jo; Hellwig, Olav

    2015-05-01

    We analyze the magnetic cluster size (MCS) and magnetic cluster size distribution (MCSD) in a variety of perpendicular magnetic recording (PMR) media designs using resonant small angle x-ray scattering at the Co L3 absorption edge. The different PMR media flavors considered here vary in grain size between 7.5 and 9.5 nm as well as in lateral inter-granular exchange strength, which is controlled via the segregant amount. While for high inter-granular exchange, the MCS increases rapidly for grain sizes below 8.5 nm, we show that for increased amount of segregant with less exchange the MCS remains relatively small, even for grain sizes of 7.5 and 8 nm. However, the MCSD still increases sharply when shrinking grains from 8 to 7.5 nm. We show evidence that recording performance such as signal-to-noise-ratio on the spin stand correlates well with the product of magnetic cluster size and magnetic cluster size distribution.

  7. Extracting magnetic cluster size and its distributions in advanced perpendicular recording media with shrinking grain size using small angle x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, Virat; Ikeda, Yoshihiro; Takano, Ken; Terris, Bruce D.; Hellwig, Olav; Wang, Tianhan; Wu, Benny; Graves, Catherine; Dürr, Hermann A.; Scherz, Andreas; Stöhr, Jo

    2015-05-18

    We analyze the magnetic cluster size (MCS) and magnetic cluster size distribution (MCSD) in a variety of perpendicular magnetic recording (PMR) media designs using resonant small angle x-ray scattering at the Co L{sub 3} absorption edge. The different PMR media flavors considered here vary in grain size between 7.5 and 9.5 nm as well as in lateral inter-granular exchange strength, which is controlled via the segregant amount. While for high inter-granular exchange, the MCS increases rapidly for grain sizes below 8.5 nm, we show that for increased amount of segregant with less exchange the MCS remains relatively small, even for grain sizes of 7.5 and 8 nm. However, the MCSD still increases sharply when shrinking grains from 8 to 7.5 nm. We show evidence that recording performance such as signal-to-noise-ratio on the spin stand correlates well with the product of magnetic cluster size and magnetic cluster size distribution.

  8. A comparison of two methods of measuring particle size of Al2O3 produced by a small rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobbins, R. A.; Strand, L. D.

    1969-01-01

    The size of aluminum oxide particles produced by small rocket motors is determined by tank collection and spectrophotometry. The size of the particulate determines loss in thrust due to particle lag, particulate radiant heat transfer, acoustic attenuation and impingement and rocket plume structure and properties.

  9. Big School, Small School: (Re)Testing Assumptions about High School Size, School Engagement and Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Christopher C.; Carolan, Brian V.; Baker-Smith, E. Christine

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to increase both adolescents' engagement with school and academic achievement, school districts across the United States have created small high schools. However, despite the widespread adoption of size reduction reforms, relatively little is known about the relationship between size, engagement and outcomes in high school. In…

  10. Sertraline exposure leads to small left heart syndrome in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Haskell, Sarah E.; Hermann, Gregory M.; Reinking, Benjamin E.; Volk, Kenneth A.; Peotta, Veronica A.; Zhu, Vivian; Roghair, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Sertraline, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), is the most commonly prescribed therapy for maternal depression. Epidemiologic studies have linked SSRI exposure with decreased fetal growth, altered autonomic regulation, and cardiac malformations. We hypothesized SSRI exposure decreases left ventricular volumes and increases adult sympathetic nervous system activation, resulting in increased adult heart rates. Methods C57BL/6 mice received saline or sertraline (5 or 15 mg/kg/day i.p.) on postnatal days 1–14. Adult phenotypes were assessed at 5 months. Results Sertraline-exposed mice had smaller left ventricular internal diameters in diastole (control 4.0 ± 0.1 mm, SSRI 3.7 ± 0.1 mm, p < 0.05), decreased stroke volumes (control 46 ± 2.6 μL, SSRI 37 ± 2.3 μL, p < 0.05), higher heart rates (control 530 ± 13 beats per minute (bpm), SSRI 567 ± 6 bpm, p <0.05) and increased urinary excretion of noradrenaline (control 174 ± 29.4 ng/mL, SSRI 276 ± 35.1 ng/mL, p<0.05). These changes were associated with increased cerebral serotonin transporter (5-HTT) expression. Conclusion Neonatal sertraline exposure causes long term changes in cardiac morphology and physiology. We speculate that early life SSRI exposure impairs cardiomyocyte growth and central serotonin signaling, leading to a small left heart syndrome in adult mice. PMID:23232669

  11. Empowering Adult Stem Cells for Myocardial Regeneration V2.0: Success in Small Steps.

    PubMed

    Broughton, Kathleen M; Sussman, Mark A

    2016-03-04

    Much has changed since our survey of the landscape for myocardial regeneration powered by adult stem cells 4 years ago.(1) The intervening years since that first review has witnessed an explosive expansion of studies that advance both understanding and implementation of adult stem cells in promoting myocardial repair. Painstaking research from innumerable laboratories throughout the world is prying open doors that may lead to restoration of myocardial structure and function in the wake of pathological injury. This global effort has produced deeper mechanistic comprehension coupled with an evolving appreciation for the complexity of myocardial regeneration in the adult context. Undaunted by both known and (as yet) unknown challenges, pursuit of myocardial regenerative medicine mediated by adult stem cell therapy has gathered momentum fueled by tantalizing clues and visionary goals. This concise review takes a somewhat different perspective than our initial treatise, taking stock of the business sector that has become an integral part of the field while concurrently updating state of affairs in cutting edge research. Looking retrospectively at advancement over the years as all reviews eventually must, the fundamental lesson to be learned is best explained by Jonatan Mårtensson: "Success will never be a big step in the future. Success is a small step taken just now."

  12. Place and type of meals consumed by adults in medium sized cities

    PubMed Central

    Carús, Juliana Pires; França, Giovanny V A; Barros, Aluísio J D

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the meals consumed by adults living in a midsize city in the South of Brazil, according to the place and preparation. METHODS A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 2012. The two-stage sampling design used the 2010 census tracts as primary sampling units. Data were collected on the place of meals (at home or out) and on the kind of preparations consumed at home (homemade, snacks, take away food) covering the two days prior to the interview, using a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS The study included 2,927 adults, of which 59.0% were female, 60.0% were below 50 years of age and 58.0% were in work. Data were collected on 11,581 meals consumed on the two days preceding the interview, 25.0% were consumed outside of the home at lunchtime, and 10.0% at dinnertime. Considering home meals, most participants reported eating food prepared at home at both lunch and dinner. The majority of out-of-home meals (64.0% for lunch and 61.0% for dinner) were consumed in the work place, mostly based on food prepared at home. Individuals eating out of home were mostly male, young and highly educated. The occupational categories that ate at restaurants more often were trade workers, businessmen, teachers and graduate professionals. CONCLUSIONS Despite the changes in eating patterns described in Brazil in recent years, residents of medium-sized towns still mostly eat at home, consuming homemade food. PMID:24789639

  13. The role of ejecta in the small crater populations on the mid-sized saturnian satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierhaus, Edward B.; Dones, Luke; Alvarellos, José Luis; Zahnle, Kevin

    2012-03-01

    We find evidence, by both observation and analysis, that primary crater ejecta play an important role in the small crater (less than a few km) populations on the saturnian satellites, and more broadly, on cratered surfaces throughout the Solar System. We measure crater populations in Cassini images of Enceladus, Rhea, and Mimas, focusing on image data with scales less than 500 m/pixel. We use recent updates to crater scaling laws and their constants (Housen, K.R., Holsapple, K.A. [2011]. Icarus 211, 856-875) to estimate the amount of mass ejected in three different velocity ranges: (i) greater than escape velocity, (ii) less than escape velocity and faster than the minimum velocity required to make a secondary crater (vmin), and (iii) velocities less than vmin. Although the vast majority of mass on each satellite is ejected at speeds less than vmin, our calculations demonstrate that the differences in mass available in the other two categories should lead to observable differences in the small crater populations; the predictions are borne out by the measurements we have made to date. In particular, Rhea, Tethys, and Dione have sufficient surface gravities to retain ejecta moving fast enough to make secondary crater populations. The smaller satellites, such as Enceladus but especially Mimas, are expected to have little or no traditional secondary populations because their escape velocities are near the threshold velocity necessary to make a secondary crater. Our work clarifies why the Galilean satellites have extensive secondary crater populations relative to the saturnian satellites. The presence, extent, and sizes of sesquinary craters (craters formed by ejecta that escape into temporary orbits around Saturn before re-impacting the surface, see Dobrovolskis, A.R., Lissauer, J.J. [2004]. Icarus 169, 462-473; Alvarellos, J.L., Zahnle, K.J., Dobrovolskis, A.R., Hamill, P. [2005]. Icarus 178, 104-123; Zahnle, K., Alvarellos, J.L., Dobrovolskis, A.R., Hamill, P. [2008

  14. Small sized EGFR1 and HER2 specific bifunctional antibody for targeted cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Ding, Li; Tian, Caiping; Feng, Song; Fida, Guissi; Zhang, Congying; Ma, Yuxiang; Ai, Guanhua; Achilefu, Samuel; Gu, Yueqing

    2015-01-01

    Targeting tumors using miniature antibodies is a novel and attractive therapeutic approach, as these biomolecules exhibit low immunogenicity, rapid clearance, and high targeting specificity. However, most of the small-sized antibodies in existence do not exhibit marked anti-tumor effects, which limit their use in targeted cancer immunotherapy. To overcome this difficulty in targeting multiple biomarkers by combination therapies, we designed a new bifunctional antibody, named MaAbNA (multivalent antibody comprised of nanobody and affibody moieties), capable of targeting EGFR1 and HER2, which are widely overexpressed in a variety of tumor types. The small-sized (29 kDa) MaAbNA, which was expressed in E.coli, consists of one anti-EGFR1 nanobody and two anti-HER2 affibodies, and possesses high affinity (KD) for EGFR1 (~4.1 nM) and HER2 (~4.7 nM). In order to enhance its anti-tumor activity, MaAbNA was conjugated with adriamycin (ADM) using a PEG2000 linker, forming a new complex anticancer drug, MaAbNA-PEG2000-ADM. MaAbNA exhibited high inhibitory effects on tumor cells over-expressing both EGFR1 and HER2, but displayed minimal cytotoxicity in cells expressing low levels of EGFR1 and HER2. Moreover, MaAbNA-PEG2000-ADM displayed increased tumoricidal effects than ADM or MaAbNA alone, as well exhibited greater antitumor efficacy than EGFR1 (Cetuximab) and HER2 (Herceptin) antibody drugs. The ability of MaAbNA to regulate expression of downstream oncogenes c-jun, c-fos, c-myc, as well as AEG-1 for therapeutic potential was evaluated by qPCR and western-blot analyses. The antitumor efficacy of MaAbNA and its derivative MaAbNA-PEG2000-ADM were validated in vivo, highlighting the potential for use of MaAbNA as a highly tumor-specific dual molecular imaging probe and targeted cancer therapeutic.

  15. Development of Small-sized Fluid Control Valve with Self-holding Function Using Permanent Magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akagi, Tetsuya; Dohta, Shujiro; Ueda, Hirofumi

    Recently, force feedback devices in virtual reality and power assisted nursing care systems have received much attention and active research. In such a control system, an actuator and a driving device such as a control valve are mounted on the human body. In this condition, the size and weight of the control valve become serious problems. At the same time, the valve should be operated with lower energy consumption because of using a limited electrical power. The typical electro magnetic solenoid valve drives its spool using a larger solenoid to open the valve. The complex construction of the valve for sealing makes its miniaturization and the fabrication of a low cost valve more difficult. In addition, the solenoid in the valve consumes more electrical power while the valve is kept opening. The purpose of our study is to develop a small-sized, lightweight, lower energy consumption and flexible control valve that can be safe enough to mount on the human body at a lower cost. In our pervious study, we proposed and tested the control valve that can open using a vibration motor. In this study, we propose and test a new type of fluid control valve with a self-holding function. The new valve uses a permanent magnet ball. It has a cylindrical magnet and two solenoids. The self-holding function of the valve is done as follows. When one side of the solenoid is stimulated by the current momentarily, the solenoid gives a repulsive force to the cylindrical magnet. The magnet moves toward the opposite side of the solenoid and is attracted to the iron core. Then, the magnet ball moves toward the cylindrical magnet and opens the orifice. The valve can keep open without electrical energy. As a result, the valve with the extremely lower energy consumption can be developed.

  16. Albedo, Size and Taxonomy of the Small Body Populations Outside the Main Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grav, Tommy; Mainzer, Amy; Bauer, James; Masiero, Joseph R.; Cutri, Roc; Nugent, Carrie; Sonnett, Sarah; Kramer, Emily A.

    2015-11-01

    Using the data from the WISE/NEOWISE mission we have derived albedo and size distributions of ~1200 Cybeles, ~1000 Hildas, ~1700 Jovian Trojans and a dozen irregular satellites of Jupiter and Saturn. These data increases by an order of magnitude our knowledge of the makeup of the small body populations between the Main Belt and Saturn. We find that all these populations are dominated by low albedo objects, with only the Cybeles (with less than 10%) having any significant fraction of possible interloper objects with albedo higher than 15%. Using the near-infrared albedos (in the 3.4 and 4.6μm bands, denoted W1 and W2 respectively) we were able to derive the taxonomic classifications of the largest objects in each population, showing that they are dominated by surfaces that are similar to C-, P- and D-type asteroids. The dominance of these dark, primitive surfaces indicate two possible formation scenarios. These small body populations may have been formed in situ beyond the snow line, potentially serving as bodies that can provide significant insight into the composition of the early Solar Nebula in the region of the current Giant Planets. Alternatively, they may be captured bodies that were perturbed from the region outside the Giant Planets as the planets migrated during the early stages of Solar System formation. This allows for insight into the composition of the Trans-Neptunian population by study of populations that are significantly closer, brighter and more accessible. The low percentages of potentially higher albedo, stony objects common in the Main Asteroid Belt indicates that only a few of these objects have embedded themselves into these populations, potentially imposing significant constraints on the migration of Jupiter inside its current orbit.

  17. Variable size small targets detection using density-based clustering combined with backtracking strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haiying; Lin, Yonggui; Xiao, Fangxiong

    2016-10-01

    The series problem of infrared small target detection in heavy clutter is a challenging work in active vision. During different imaging environments the size and gray intensity of target will keep changing which lead to unstable detection. Focus on mining more robust feature of small targets and following the sequential detection framework, we propose a novel research scheme based on density-based clustering and backtracking strategy in this paper. First, point of interest is extracted by the speeded up robust feature (SURF) detector for its better performance in digging features invariant to uniform scaling, orientation and illumination changes. Second, due to the local aggregation property of target trajectory in space, a new proposed density-based clustering method is introduced to segment the target trajectory, so that the target detection problem is transformed into the extract the target trajectory. Then, In order to keep the integral and independence of the trace as much as possible, two factors: percent and are exploited to help deciding the clustering granularity. Later, the backtracking strategy is adopted to search for the target trajectory with pruning function on the basis of the consistence and continuity of the short-time target trajectory in temporal-spatial. Extended experiments show the validity of our method. Compared with the data association methods executed on the huge candidate trajectory space, the time-consuming is reduced obviously. Additional, the feature detection is more stable for the use of SURF and the false alarm suppression rate is superior to most baseline and state-of-arts methods.

  18. Long term outcome of small versus appropriate size for gestational age co-twins/triplets

    PubMed Central

    Monset-Couchard, M; de Bethmann, O; Relier, J

    2004-01-01

    Background: Small for gestational age (SGA) extremely low birthweight (ELBW < 1000 g) survivors often remain small and/or have subnormal school performance. Some are twins/triplets with larger appropriate size for gestational age (AGA) co-twins/triplets. Objective: To assess whether SGA ELBW twins/triplets remain different from their AGA co-twins/triplets. Design, setting: During 1981–1999, 353 SGA ELBW neonates were admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit: 267 survived, 54/267 were twins/triplets, and 36/54 had AGA surviving co-twins/triplets. This longitudinal study describes the growth, neurodevelopmental outcome, and school performance of these 36 sets (3–17 years). The children were classified as normal, or having minor, moderate, or severe deficiencies. Results: Values for birth weight (mean intrapair z score difference 2.26), length (2.74), and head circumference (2.62) were lower in SGA neonates than in AGA co-twins/triplets. SGA survivors remained smaller at 3–6 years of age: mean intrapair z score difference in weight, 1.37, height, 1.54, head circumference, 1.21. From 6 to 17 years, smaller differences persisted. Former SGA children had a tendency to have motor deficiencies (nine SGA v three AGA) and mental retardation (seven v four), same hearing loss (two v two), but significantly more visual abnormalities (15 v 11), behavioural disturbances (14 v five), and speech problems (14 v eight). Twenty four sets were in the same normal level class, often supported by familial/professional help. Conclusions: Although raised in the same environment, SGA ELBW survivors remained smaller and had more visual/behavioural/speech problems, but most maintained grade level parity with their AGA siblings, with appropriate help. PMID:15210662

  19. Intestinal mast cells and eosinophils in relation to Strongyloides ratti adult expulsion from the small and large intestines of rats.

    PubMed

    Shintoku, Y; Kadosaka, T; Kimura, E; Takagi, H; Kondo, S; Itoh, M

    2013-04-01

    Mucosal mast cells (MMC) play a crucial role in the expulsion of Strongyloides ratti adults from the small intestine of mice. We reported the large intestinal parasitism of S. ratti in rats, and there has been no report on MMC in the large intestine of the natural host. We studied kinetics of MMC, together with eosinophils, in the upper and lower small intestines, caecum and colon of infected rats. Two distinct phases of mastocytosis were revealed: one in the upper small intestine triggered by stimulation of 'ordinary' adults, and the other in the colon stimulated by 'immune-resistant' adults that started parasitizing the colon around 19 days post-infection. In all 4 intestinal sites, the MMC peaks were observed 5-7 days after the number of adult worms became the maximum and the height of MMC peaks appeared to be dependent on the number of parasitic adults, suggesting an important role played by worms themselves in the MMC buildup.

  20. Small-Scale Drop-Size Variability: Empirical Models for Drop-Size-Dependent Clustering in Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, Alexander; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Larsen, Michael L.; Wiscombe, Warren J.

    2005-01-01

    By analyzing aircraft measurements of individual drop sizes in clouds, it has been shown in a companion paper that the probability of finding a drop of radius r at a linear scale l decreases as l(sup D(r)), where 0 less than or equals D(r) less than or equals 1. This paper shows striking examples of the spatial distribution of large cloud drops using models that simulate the observed power laws. In contrast to currently used models that assume homogeneity and a Poisson distribution of cloud drops, these models illustrate strong drop clustering, especially with larger drops. The degree of clustering is determined by the observed exponents D(r). The strong clustering of large drops arises naturally from the observed power-law statistics. This clustering has vital consequences for rain physics, including how fast rain can form. For radiative transfer theory, clustering of large drops enhances their impact on the cloud optical path. The clustering phenomenon also helps explain why remotely sensed cloud drop size is generally larger than that measured in situ.

  1. Functional and mechanistic exploration of an adult neurogenesis-promoting small molecule

    PubMed Central

    Petrik, David; Jiang, Yindi; Birnbaum, Shari G.; Powell, Craig M.; Kim, Mi-Sung; Hsieh, Jenny; Eisch, Amelia J.

    2012-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis occurs throughout life in the mammalian hippocampus and is essential for memory and mood control. There is significant interest in identifying ways to promote neurogenesis and ensure maintenance of these hippocampal functions. Previous work with a synthetic small molecule, isoxazole 9 (Isx-9), highlighted its neuronal-differentiating properties in vitro. However, the ability of Isx-9 to drive neurogenesis in vivo or improve hippocampal function was unknown. Here we show that Isx-9 promotes neurogenesis in vivo, enhancing the proliferation and differentiation of hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) neuroblasts, and the dendritic arborization of adult-generated dentate gyrus neurons. Isx-9 also improves hippocampal function, enhancing memory in the Morris water maze. Notably, Isx-9 enhances neurogenesis and memory without detectable increases in cellular or animal activity or vascularization. Molecular exploration of Isx-9-induced regulation of neurogenesis (via FACS and microarray of SGZ stem and progenitor cells) suggested the involvement of the myocyte-enhancer family of proteins (Mef2). Indeed, transgenic-mediated inducible knockout of all brain-enriched Mef2 isoforms (Mef2a/c/d) specifically from neural stem cells and their progeny confirmed Mef2's requirement for Isx-9-induced increase in hippocampal neurogenesis. Thus, Isx-9 enhances hippocampal neurogenesis and memory in vivo, and its effects are reliant on Mef2, revealing a novel cell-intrinsic molecular pathway regulating adult neurogenesis.—Petrik, D., Jiang, Y., Birnbaum, S. G., Powell, C. M., Kim, M.-S., Hsieh, J., Eisch, A. J. Functional and mechanistic exploration of an adult neurogenesis-promoting small molecule. PMID:22542682

  2. Small-molecule screen in adult Drosophila identifies VMAT as a regulator of sleep.

    PubMed

    Nall, Aleksandra H; Sehgal, Amita

    2013-05-08

    Sleep is an important physiological state, but its function and regulation remain elusive. In Drosophila melanogaster, a useful model organism for studying sleep, forward genetic screens have identified important sleep-modulating genes and pathways; however, the results of such screens may be limited by developmental abnormalities or lethality associated with mutation of certain genes. To circumvent these limitations, we used a small-molecule screen to identify sleep-modulating genes and pathways. We administered 1280 pharmacologically active small molecules to adult flies and monitored their sleep. We found that administration of reserpine, a small-molecule inhibitor of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) that repackages monoamines into presynaptic vesicles, resulted in an increase in sleep. Supporting the idea that VMAT is the sleep-relevant target of reserpine, we found that VMAT-null mutants have an increased sleep phenotype, as well as an increased arousal threshold and resistance to the effects of reserpine. However, although the VMAT mutants are consistently resistant to reserpine, other aspects of their sleep phenotype are dependent on genetic background. These findings indicate that small-molecule screens can be used effectively to identify sleep-modulating genes whose phenotypes may be suppressed in traditional genetic screens. Mutations affecting single monoamine pathways did not affect reserpine sensitivity, suggesting that effects of VMAT/reserpine on sleep are mediated by multiple monoamines. Overall, we identify VMAT as an important regulator of sleep in Drosophila and demonstrate that small-molecule screens provide an effective approach to identify genes and pathways that impact adult Drosophila behavior.

  3. Are Small Classes Better? Understanding Relationships between Class Size, Classroom Processes and Pupils' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedder, David

    2006-01-01

    Twelve years ago Blatchford and Mortimore's authoritative review of class size research appeared in this journal. They concluded that a major problem with class size research was the lack of detailed studies of complex classroom processes that might mediate class size effects on pupils' learning. This article reviews two UK class size reviews and…

  4. Gastrointestinal nematodes in grazing dairy cattle from small and medium-sized farms in southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Piekarska, J; Płoneczka-Janeczko, K; Kantyka, M; Kuczaj, M; Gorczykowski, M; Janeczko, K

    2013-11-15

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes and the intensity of infection in grazing dairy cattle from small and medium-sized farms in southern Poland. The level of antibodies against Ostertagia ostertagi in the bulk tank milk (BTM) from the animals was also assessed. Rectal fecal samples collected from 361 cows on 20 farms were examined using Willis-Schlaaf flotation and the McMaster method. BTM samples were tested for the presence of O. ostertagi antibodies using ELISA. Multiplex PCR was used to identify the third-stage larvae (L3) of gastrointestinal nematodes derived from the culture of pooled fecal samples from sampled farms. Gastrointestinal nematode eggs were found in the samples from 18 of the 20 herds with a prevalence range from 20.4 to 94.5%. The average number of eggs excreted in the feces of the herds was 200 eggs per gram (EPG). Antibodies to O. ostertagi were found in 20 of the examined herds (100%), of which 6 had optical density ratios (ODR) greater than 0.5. PCR results showed the presence of three nematode species: Ostertagia ostertagi, Cooperia oncophora and Oesophagostomum radiatum.

  5. An effective physical fitness program for small and medium-sized enterprises.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Han Hui; Peng, Shu Mei; Yeh, Ching Ying; Chen, Chiou Jong; Chen, Ruey Yu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a practicable worksite physical fitness program for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Community-based intervention consisting of a three-month exercise course was conducted, and its benefits evaluated. A self-administrated structured questionnaire and physical fitness examination were designed to compare the difference between pre and post intervention. A total of 133 SME workers completed the lifestyle/exercise course and filled out the questionnaire, but 16 were excluded from the exercise group due to health reasons. After the intervention, health indicators such as weight, blood pressure, resting heart rate, waistline, BMI, front and back trunk flexibility, abdominal muscle durability and back muscle strength were significantly improved, and improvements in musculoskeletal disorders were seen in reduced neck pain (18.8%), wrist pain (17.4%), and upper/lower back pain (8.7% and 21.7%, respectively). Cardiovascular risk factors (BMI and resting heart rate) showed a significant improvement related to frequent participation in the program (p=0.02), and the exercise group reported a significant difference in overall health (p=0.02). This study has demonstrated an effective approach to community-based fitness intervention through SMEs.

  6. Quantitative evaluation of waste prevention on the level of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs).

    PubMed

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut

    2009-02-01

    Waste prevention is a principle means of achieving the goals of waste management and a key element for developing sustainable economies. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) contribute substantially to environmental degradation, often not even being aware of their environmental effects. Therefore, several initiatives have been launched in Austria aimed at supporting waste prevention measures on the level of SMEs. To promote the most efficient projects, they have to be evaluated with respect to their contribution to the goals of waste management. It is the aim of this paper to develop a methodology for evaluating waste prevention measures in SMEs based on their goal orientation. At first, conceptual problems of defining and delineating waste prevention activities are briefly discussed. Then an approach to evaluate waste prevention activities with respect to their environmental performance is presented and benchmarks which allow for an efficient use of the available funds are developed. Finally the evaluation method is applied to a number of former projects and the calculated results are analysed with respect to shortcomings and limitations of the model. It is found that the developed methodology can provide a tool for a more objective and comprehensible evaluation of waste prevention measures.

  7. Experimental Setup for Magnetic-Field Tests of Small-Size Light Sensors at Jefferson Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickle, Cameron

    2013-10-01

    In preparation for the Electron Ion Collider, small-size sensors, such as Silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM) and Multi-Channel Plate (MCP) photo-multipliers are being considered for use in a Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov Light (DIRC) detector. Since DIRC will be operated in the strong field of a magnetic spectrometer, the gain of the sensors must be evaluated in high magnetic fields. A dedicated test facility, which makes use of a solenoid magnet with magnetic fields of up to 4.7 T, is being developed at Jefferson Labs. This paper describes the configuration and operation of an entirely non-magnetic dark box that will house the sensors during the tests and allows the sensors to be rotated about two axes relative to the field. This paper also describes the development of a ROOT-based analysis method to extract the gain of SiPMs from raw Analog-to-Digital-Converter (ADC) spectra as a function of the intensity of the magnetic field and the sensor's relative to angle to the field. The dark box and analysis method was tested with Hamamatsu mulitpixel SiPMs and our results are consistent with previous measurements of the same sensors. The methodology developed in this work will be routinely used for the upcoming high-B field tests.

  8. Life cycle assessment of cheese production process in a small-sized dairy industry in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Hudson Carlos Maia; Maranduba, Henrique Leonardo; de Almeida Neto, José Adolfo; Rodrigues, Luciano Brito

    2017-02-01

    Current research identifies, analyzes, and suggests improvements for minimizing environmental impacts in the manufacture of cheese using the life cycle assessment. Data collection and development of the inventory were performed in a small-sized dairy industry in Brazil. A cradle-to-gate approach was conducted based on the primary data from cheese production and secondary data from databases. The ReCiPe method was used for the impact assessment, considering the categories climate change, ozone depletion, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, water depletion, and fossil depletion. A sensitivity analysis was performed including evaluations of different fuels for generating thermal energy, strategies for cleaning of dairy plant and utensils, variations in the way of cheese production based on the fat content, and production percentage changes. The results showed that the skimmed milk and thermal energy productions, electricity usage, and water consumptions were the main elementary flows. The pallet residues showed the best to be used as fuel for thermal energy. Detergent combinations did not influence the impact categories. There was a direct relationship between fat content range (20 to 30%) and the contribution in six impact categories. Changes from 20% in cheese allocation factor influenced the impact assessment results. LCA allowed identifying the main elementary flow of cheese production, providing valuable information with the potential to verify opportunities for on-site improvements.

  9. Use of recycling through medium size granular filters to treat small food processing industry effluents.

    PubMed

    Ménoret, C; Boutin, C; Liénard, A; Brissaud, F

    2002-01-01

    Currently there are no suitable wastewater treatment systems for effluents from small food processing industries (dairy, cheese, wine production). Such raw sewages are characterized by high organic matter concentrations (about 10 g COD L-1) and relatively low daily volumes (about 2 m3). An adaptation of attached-growth cultures on fine media processes, known to be easy and inexpensive to use, could fit both the technical and economical context of those industries. Coarser filter particle size distributions than those normally used allow a better aeration and reduce clogging risk. The transit time of the effluent through the porous filter materials is shortened and requires recycling to increase the contact time between the biomass and the substrate. A pilot plant was built to compare the efficiency of two kinds of filter materials, gravel (2-5 mm) and pozzolana (3-7 mm). Two measurement campaigns were undertaken on a full-scale unit dealing with cheese dairy effluents. Both pilot-scale and full-scale plants show high COD removal rates (> 95%). Pilot-scale experiments show that accumulation of organic matter leads to the clogging of the recycling filter. To prevent early clogging, a better definition of feeding cycles is needed.

  10. Parrotfish size as a useful indicator of fishing effects in a small Caribbean island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallès, Henri; Gill, David; Oxenford, Hazel A.

    2015-09-01

    There is an urgent need to develop simple indicators of fishing effects for the implementation of ecosystem-based fisheries management in the Caribbean. In this study, we compare the ability of three simple metrics (average individual fish weight, fish density, and fish biomass) derived from the parrotfish assemblage and from an assemblage of highly valued commercial fish species to track changes in fishing pressure at spatial scales relevant to small Caribbean islands. Between June and August 2011, we conducted five consecutive visual fish surveys at six reefs ≤10 km apart along the west coast of Barbados, representing a spatial gradient in fishing pressure. We used these data to identify the fish metrics most strongly correlated with fishing pressure and describe their functional relationship with fishing pressure. Overall, average individual parrotfish weight and biomass and density of commercial fish species were the metrics most strongly correlated with fishing pressure, although for the latter two, such correlations depended on the range of fish body sizes analyzed. Fishing pressure accounted for most of the variability in all correlated fish metrics (adj R 2 ≥ 0.75). However, functional relationships with fishing pressure differed qualitatively between metrics. In particular, average individual parrotfish weight was the metric most sensitive to incremental changes in fishing pressure. Overall, our study highlights that assemblage-level average individual parrotfish weight deserves a place in the toolbox of Caribbean reef managers as a simple indicator of both fishing effects on parrotfish assemblages and overall fishing pressure on the reef fish community.

  11. Experimental testing of centrifugal pump: small and medium sized enterprise product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, R.; Paddiyatu, F.; Khafidh, M.; Nugroho, S.; Sugiyanto, S.; Jamari, J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports the experimental testing for centrifugal pump for fisherman ship, manufactured by small and medium sized enterprises in Central Java Province, Indonesia. The research covers material analysis, component observation, endurance and vibration test. Six centrifugal pumps are tested and three main pump components are discussed: shaft, bearings and seals. The results show that the material of the shaft is predicted to support and transmit the load from the engine to impeller. The problem found in the tolerance and geometry accuracy of the shaft which causes difficulties during assembling process, excessive wear and leakage during testing. From the endurance and vibration test, the ball bearings fail and lock the shaft due to the fatigue on the rolling elements and raceways. The oil seal and water seal also fail in maintaining the oil and water in the chamber and induce the unlubricated system for the ball bearings. Some suggestions are delivered to improve the product quality of the centrifugal pump. A good quality of the centrifugal pump for fishermen ship and long life span is expected to be produced by local SMEs to win the free trade competition in the Indonesian market.

  12. Drivers for OSH interventions in small and medium-sized enterprises.

    PubMed

    Cagno, Enrico; Masi, Donato; Leão, Celina Pinto

    2016-01-01

    The debate concerning occupational safety and health (OSH) interventions has recently focused on the need of improving the evaluation of interventions, and in particular on the need for providing information about why the intervention worked or not, under what circumstances and in which context. Key concepts in the analysis of the context are the drivers, i.e., those factors enabling, fostering or facilitating OSH interventions. However, the concept of driver for an OSH intervention is both confused and contested. Although the term is widely used, there is little consensus on how drivers should be understood, how important they are in different contexts and how they can facilitate interventions. This exploratory study based on interviews with the owner-managers and the safety officers of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) gives an overview of the most characteristic drivers for OSH interventions. The results will be used to make an initial evaluation of SMEs' needs, and will help orient interventions and future research.

  13. TELICS—A Telescope Instrument Control System for Small/Medium Sized Astronomical Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Mudit K.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Burse, Mahesh P.; Chordia, Pravin A.; Chillal, Kalpesh S.; Mestry, Vilas B.; Das, Hillol K.; Kohok, Abhay A.

    2009-10-01

    For any modern astronomical observatory, it is essential to have an efficient interface between the telescope and its back-end instruments. However, for small and medium-sized observatories, this requirement is often limited by tight financial constraints. Therefore a simple yet versatile and low-cost control system is required for such observatories to minimize cost and effort. Here we report the development of a modern, multipurpose instrument control system TELICS (Telescope Instrument Control System) to integrate the controls of various instruments and devices mounted on the telescope. TELICS consists of an embedded hardware unit known as a common control unit (CCU) in combination with Linux-based data acquisition and user interface. The hardware of the CCU is built around the ATmega 128 microcontroller (Atmel Corp.) and is designed with a backplane, master-slave architecture. A Qt-based graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed and the back-end application software is based on C/C++. TELICS provides feedback mechanisms that give the operator good visibility and a quick-look display of the status and modes of instruments as well as data. TELICS has been used for regular science observations since 2008 March on the 2 m, f/10 IUCAA Telescope located at Girawali in Pune, India.

  14. Adult stem cells in the small intestine are intrinsically programmed with their location-specific function.

    PubMed

    Middendorp, Sabine; Schneeberger, Kerstin; Wiegerinck, Caroline L; Mokry, Michal; Akkerman, Ronald D L; van Wijngaarden, Simone; Clevers, Hans; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E S

    2014-05-01

    Differentiation and specialization of epithelial cells in the small intestine are regulated in two ways. First, there is differentiation along the crypt-villus axis of the intestinal stem cells into absorptive enterocytes, Paneth, goblet, tuft, enteroendocrine, or M cells, which is mainly regulated by WNT. Second, there is specialization along the cephalocaudal axis with different absorptive and digestive functions in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum that is controlled by several transcription factors such as GATA4. However, so far it is unknown whether location-specific functional properties are intrinsically programmed within stem cells or if continuous signaling from mesenchymal cells is necessary to maintain the location-specific identity of the small intestine. Using the pure epithelial organoid technique, we show that region-specific gene expression profiles are conserved throughout long-term cultures of both mouse and human intestinal stem cells and correlated with differential Gata4 expression. Furthermore, the human organoid culture system demonstrates that Gata4-regulated gene expression is only allowed in absence of WNT signaling. These data show that location-specific function is intrinsically programmed in the adult stem cells of the small intestine and that their differentiation fate is independent of location-specific extracellular signals. In light of the potential future clinical application of small intestine-derived organoids, our data imply that it is important to generate GATA4-positive and GATA4-negative cultures to regenerate all essential functions of the small intestine.

  15. Geographical variations in adult body size and reproductive life history traits in an invasive anuran, Discoglossus pictus.

    PubMed

    Oromi, Neus; Pujol-Buxó, Eudald; San Sebastián, Olatz; Llorente, Gustavo A; Hammou, Mohamed Aït; Sanuy, Delfi

    2016-06-01

    Variability in life history traits positively affects the establishment and expansive potential of invasive species. In the present study, we analysed the variation of body size in seven populations - two native and five invasive - of the painted frog (Discoglossus pictus, Anura: Discoglossidae), native to North Africa and introduced in southern France and the north-east of the Iberian Peninsula. Other life history traits (age at maturity, size at maturity, longevity, median age and potential reproductive lifespan) were analysed in a native and an invasive population. We observed geographic variations in adult body size, related mainly to mean annual precipitation. Thus, populations had greater body size as mean annual precipitation increased, resulting in bigger specimens in the invasive populations. Adult body size and growth rates also varied between sexes in all studied populations, with males significantly larger than females. Age distribution varied between native (1-5 years) and invasive populations (2-4 years) and also between sexes. Our results suggest that higher precipitation promotes faster growth rates and larger adult body size that could facilitate the successful establishment of invasive populations.

  16. Exposure to Celebrity-Endorsed Small Cigar Promotions and Susceptibility to Use among Young Adult Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, Kymberle L.; Moore, Roland S.; Pitts, Nicole; Duong, Melissa; Ford, Kentya H.; Eriksen, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Small cigar smoking among young adult cigarette smokers may be attributed to their exposure to its advertisements and promotions. We examined the association between exposure to a celebrity music artist's endorsement of a specific brand of small cigars and young adult cigarette smokers' susceptibility to smoking that brand. Venue-based sampling procedures were used to select and survey a random sample of 121 young adult cigarette smokers, aged 18–35. Fourteen percent reported exposure to the artist's endorsement of the small cigar and 45.4% reported an intention to smoke the product in the future. The odds of small cigar smoking susceptibility increased threefold for those who reported exposure to the endorsement compared to those not exposed (OR = 3.64, 95% CI 1.06 to 12.54). Past 30-day small cigar use (OR = 3.30, 95% CI 1.24 to 8.74) and past 30-day cigar use (OR = 5.08, 95% CI 1.23, 21.08) were also associated with susceptibility to smoke a small cigar. An association between young adult cigarette smokers' exposure to the music artist's small cigar endorsement and their susceptibility to smoke small cigars was found. This association underscores the importance of monitoring small cigar promotions geared toward young people and their impact on small cigar product smoking. PMID:24371444

  17. Exposure to celebrity-endorsed small cigar promotions and susceptibility to use among young adult cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Sterling, Kymberle L; Moore, Roland S; Pitts, Nicole; Duong, Melissa; Ford, Kentya H; Eriksen, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Small cigar smoking among young adult cigarette smokers may be attributed to their exposure to its advertisements and promotions. We examined the association between exposure to a celebrity music artist's endorsement of a specific brand of small cigars and young adult cigarette smokers' susceptibility to smoking that brand. Venue-based sampling procedures were used to select and survey a random sample of 121 young adult cigarette smokers, aged 18-35. Fourteen percent reported exposure to the artist's endorsement of the small cigar and 45.4% reported an intention to smoke the product in the future. The odds of small cigar smoking susceptibility increased threefold for those who reported exposure to the endorsement compared to those not exposed (OR = 3.64, 95% CI 1.06 to 12.54). Past 30-day small cigar use (OR = 3.30, 95% CI 1.24 to 8.74) and past 30-day cigar use (OR = 5.08, 95% CI 1.23, 21.08) were also associated with susceptibility to smoke a small cigar. An association between young adult cigarette smokers' exposure to the music artist's small cigar endorsement and their susceptibility to smoke small cigars was found. This association underscores the importance of monitoring small cigar promotions geared toward young people and their impact on small cigar product smoking.

  18. HDL efflux capacity, HDL particle size, and high-risk carotid atherosclerosis in a cohort of asymptomatic older adults: the Chicago Healthy Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Mutharasan, R Kannan; Thaxton, C Shad; Berry, Jarett; Daviglus, Martha L; Yuan, Chun; Sun, Jie; Ayers, Colby; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Wilkins, John T

    2017-03-01

    HDL efflux capacity and HDL particle size are associated with atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) events in middle-aged individuals; however, it is unclear whether these associations are present in older adults. We sampled 402 Chicago Healthy Aging Study participants who underwent a dedicated carotid MRI assessment for lipid-rich necrotic core (LRNC) plaque. We measured HDL particle size, HDL particle number, and LDL particle number with NMR spectroscopy, as well as HDL efflux capacity. We quantified the associations between HDL particle size and HDL efflux using adjusted linear regression models. We quantified associations between the presence of LRNC and HDL and LDL particle number, HDL particle size, and HDL efflux capacity using adjusted logistic regression models. HDL efflux capacity was directly associated with large (β = 0.037, P < 0.001) and medium (β = 0.0065, P = 0.002) HDL particle concentration and inversely associated with small (β = -0.0049, P = 0.018) HDL particle concentration in multivariable adjusted models. HDL efflux capacity and HDL particle number were inversely associated with prevalent LRNC plaque in unadjusted models (odds ratio: 0.5; 95% confidence interval: 0.26, 0.96), but not after multivariable adjustment. HDL particle size was not associated with prevalent LRNC. HDL particle size was significantly associated with HDL efflux capacity, suggesting that differences in HDL efflux capacity may be due to structural differences in HDL particles. Future research is needed to determine whether HDL efflux is a marker of ASCVD risk in older populations.

  19. Flow management and fish density regulate salmonid recruitment and adult size in tailwaters across western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dibble, Kimberly L.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Budy, Phaedra E.

    2015-01-01

    The mean lengths of adult rainbow and brown trout were influenced by similar flow and catch metrics. Length in both species was positively correlated with high annual flow but declined in tailwaters with high daily fluctuations in flow, high catch rates of conspecifics, and when large cohorts recruited to adult size. Whereas brown trout did not respond to the proportion of water allocated between seasons, rainbow trout length increased in rivers that released more water during winter than in spring. Rainbow trout length was primarily related to high catch rates of conspecifics, whereas brown trout length was mainly related to large cohorts recruiting to the adult size class. Species-specific responses to flow management are likely attributable to differences in seasonal timing of key life history events such as spawning, egg hatching, and fry emergence.

  20. Same size--same niche? Foraging niche separation between sympatric juvenile Galapagos sea lions and adult Galapagos fur seals.

    PubMed

    Jeglinski, Jana W E; Goetz, Kimberley T; Werner, Christiane; Costa, Daniel P; Trillmich, Fritz

    2013-05-01

    1. In vertebrates, patterns of resource utilization change throughout development according to age- and or size-specific abilities and requirements. Thus, interspecific competition affects different age classes differently. 2. Adults of sympatric species often show distinct foraging niche segregation, but juvenile resource use might overlap with adult competitors of similar body size. Resultant negative effects on juveniles can have important consequences for population dynamics, yet such interactions have received little attention in studies of mammalian communities. 3. Using GPS tracking devices, time-depth recorders and stable isotope data, we compared diving depth, activity time, trophic position and foraging habitat characteristics to investigate foraging niche overlap between similar-sized sympatric juvenile Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki) and adult Galapagos fur seals (Arctocephalus galapagoensis) and compared each group with much larger-bodied adult Galapagos sea lions. 4. We found little indication for direct competition but a complex pattern of foraging niche segregation: juvenile sea lions and adult fur seals dived to shallow depths at night, but foraged in different habitats with limited spatial overlap. Conversely, juvenile and adult sea lions employed different foraging patterns, but their foraging areas overlapped almost completely. 5. Consistency of foraging habitat characteristics between juvenile and adult sea lions suggests that avoidance of competition may be important in shaping foraging habitat utilization. Resultant specialization on a limited habitat could contribute to low sea lion numbers that contrast with high fur seal abundance. Our data suggest that exploitation by multiple predators within spatially restricted foraging ranges of juveniles might negatively impact juvenile foraging success and ultimately influence population dynamics.

  1. An Experimental Study of Small-Scale Variability of Raindrop Size Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokay, Ali; Bashor, Paul G.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental study of small-scale variability of raindrop size distributions (DSDs) has been carried out at Wallops Island, Virginia. Three Joss-Waldvogel disdrometers were operated at a distance of 0.65, 1.05, and 1.70 km in a nearly straight line. The main purpose of the study was to examine the variability of DSDs and its integral parameters of liquid water content, rainfall, and reflectivity within a 2-km array: a typical size of Cartesian radar pixel. The composite DSD of rain events showed very good agreement among the disdrometers except where there were noticeable differences in midsize and large drops in a few events. For consideration of partial beam filling where the radar pixel was not completely covered by rain, a single disdrometer reported just over 10% more rainy minutes than the rainy minutes when all three disdrometers reported rainfall. Similarly two out of three disdrometers reported5%more rainy minutes than when all three were reporting rainfall. These percentages were based on a 1-min average, and were less for longer averaging periods. Considering only the minutes when all three disdrometers were reporting rainfall, just over one quarter of the observations showed an increase in the difference in rainfall with distance. This finding was based on a 15-min average and was even less for shorter averaging periods. The probability and cumulative distributions of a gamma-fitted DSD and integral rain parameters between the three disdrometers had a very good agreement and no major variability. This was mainly due to the high percentage of light stratiform rain and to the number of storms that traveled along the track of the disdrometers. At a fixed time step, however, both DSDs and integral rain parameters showed substantial variability. The standard deviation (SD) of rain rate was near 3 mm/h, while the SD of reflectivity exceeded 3 dBZ at the longest separation distance. These standard deviations were at 6-min average and were higher at shorter

  2. Adult marrow-derived very small embryonic-like stem cells and tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Kucia, Magda; Zuba-Surma, Ewa K; Wysoczynski, Marcin; Wu, Wan; Ratajczak, Janina; Machalinski, Boguslaw; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z

    2007-10-01

    A population of CXCR4(+) lin(-) CD45(-) cells that express SSEA, Oct-4 and Nanog has been identified in adult bone marrow. These cells are very small and display several features typical for primary embryonic stem cells such as: i) a large nuclei surrounded by a narrow rim of cytoplasm; ii) open-type chromatin (euchromatin); and iii) high telomerase activity. These cells were named very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSEL-SC). The authors hypothesized that they are direct descendants of the germ lineage. Germ lineage, in order to pass genes on to the next generation, has to create soma and thus becomes a 'mother lineage' for all somatic cell lineages present in the adult body. Germ potential is established after conception in a totipotent zygote and retained subsequently during development in blastomers of morula, cells form the inner cell mass of blastocyst, epiblast and population of primordial germ cells. The authors envision that VSEL-SC are epiblast-derived pluripotent stem cells and could potentially become a less-controversial source of stem cells for regeneration.

  3. Urachal Cyst Causing Small Bowel Obstruction in an Adult with a Virgin Abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Ashman, Zane W.; Plurad, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. A patent urachus is a rare congenital or acquired pathology, which can lead to complications later in life. We describe a case of urachal cystitis as the etiology of small bowel obstruction in an adult without prior intra-abdominal surgery. Case Report. A 64-year-old male presented to the acute care surgery team with a 5-day history of right lower quadrant abdominal pain, distention, nausea, and vomiting. He had a two-month history of urinary retention and his past medical history was significant for benign prostate hyperplasia. On exam, he had evidence of small bowel obstruction. Computed tomography revealed high-grade small bowel obstruction secondary to presumed ruptured appendicitis. In the operating room, an infected urachal cyst was identified with adhesions to the proximal ileum. After lysis of adhesions and resection of the cyst, the patient was subsequently discharged without further issues. Conclusion. Although rare, urachal pathology should be considered in the differential diagnosis when evaluating a patient with small bowel obstruction without prior intraabdominal surgery, hernia, or malignancy. PMID:27900227

  4. Urachal Cyst Causing Small Bowel Obstruction in an Adult with a Virgin Abdomen.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Michael P; Ashman, Zane W; Plurad, David S; Kim, Dennis Y

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. A patent urachus is a rare congenital or acquired pathology, which can lead to complications later in life. We describe a case of urachal cystitis as the etiology of small bowel obstruction in an adult without prior intra-abdominal surgery. Case Report. A 64-year-old male presented to the acute care surgery team with a 5-day history of right lower quadrant abdominal pain, distention, nausea, and vomiting. He had a two-month history of urinary retention and his past medical history was significant for benign prostate hyperplasia. On exam, he had evidence of small bowel obstruction. Computed tomography revealed high-grade small bowel obstruction secondary to presumed ruptured appendicitis. In the operating room, an infected urachal cyst was identified with adhesions to the proximal ileum. After lysis of adhesions and resection of the cyst, the patient was subsequently discharged without further issues. Conclusion. Although rare, urachal pathology should be considered in the differential diagnosis when evaluating a patient with small bowel obstruction without prior intraabdominal surgery, hernia, or malignancy.

  5. Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Demonstrates Similar Nanostructure in Cortical Bone from Young Adult Animals of Different Species.

    PubMed

    Kaspersen, Jørn Døvling; Turunen, Mikael Juhani; Mathavan, Neashan; Lages, Sebastian; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Olsson, Ulf; Isaksson, Hanna

    2016-07-01

    Despite the vast amount of studies focusing on bone nanostructure that have been performed for several decades, doubts regarding the detailed structure of the constituting hydroxyapatite crystal still exist. Different experimental techniques report somewhat different sizes and locations, possibly due to different requirements for the sample preparation. In this study, small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering is used to investigate the nanostructure of femur samples from young adult ovine, bovine, porcine, and murine cortical bone, including three different orthogonal directions relative to the long axis of the bone. The radially averaged scattering from all samples reveals a remarkable similarity in the entire q range, which indicates that the nanostructure is essentially the same in all species. Small differences in the data from different directions confirm that the crystals are elongated in the [001] direction and that this direction is parallel to the long axis of the bone. A model consisting of thin plates is successfully employed to describe the scattering and extract the plate thicknesses, which are found to be in the range of 20-40 Å for most samples but 40-60 Å for the cow samples. It is demonstrated that the mineral plates have a large degree of polydispersity in plate thickness. Additionally, and equally importantly, the scattering data and the model are critically evaluated in terms of model uncertainties and overall information content.

  6. Why "Small" Can Be Better: An Exploration of the Relationships between Class Size and Pedagogical Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harfitt, Gary James

    2013-01-01

    A central issue in the class size debate is that while cutting class size might lead to improved teaching and learning, it is also possible that it may not if teachers do not seek to exploit the advantages of a smaller class size through an alternative pedagogy. Research suggests that teachers do not change their pedagogy when moving from large…

  7. Small-angle neutron scattering studies of hemoglobin confined inside silica tubes of varying sizes.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Soumit S; Cristiglio, Viviana; Lindner, Peter; Bhattacharyya, Aninda J

    2014-02-03

    In addition to the chemical nature of the surface, the dimensions of the confining host exert a significant influence on confined protein structures; this results in immense biological implications, especially those concerning the enzymatic activities of the protein. This study probes the structure of hemoglobin (Hb), a model protein, confined inside silica tubes with pore diameters that vary by one order of magnitude (≈20-200 nm). The effect of confinement on the protein structure is probed by comparison with the structure of the protein in solution. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), which provides information on protein tertiary and quaternary structures, is employed to study the influence of the tube pore diameter on the structure and configuration of the confined protein in detail. Confinement significantly influences the structural stability of Hb and the structure depends on the Si-tube pore diameter. The high radius of gyration (Rg) and polydispersity of Hb in the 20 nm diameter Si-tube indicates that Hb undergoes a significant amount of aggregation. However, for Si-tube diameters greater or equal to 100 nm, the Rg of Hb is found to be in very close proximity to that obtained from the protein data bank (PDB) reported structure (Rg of native Hb=23.8 Å). This strongly indicates that the protein has a preference for the more native-like non-aggregated state if confined inside tubes of diameter greater or equal to 100 nm. Further insight into the Hb structure is obtained from the distance distribution function, p(r), and ab initio models calculated from the SANS patterns. These also suggest that the Si-tube size is a key parameter for protein stability and structure.

  8. Meiofauna as food source for small-sized demersal fish in the southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schückel, Sabine; Sell, Anne F.; Kihara, Terue C.; Koeppen, Annemarie; Kröncke, Ingrid; Reiss, Henning

    2013-06-01

    Meiofauna play an essential role in the diet of small and juvenile fish. However, it is less well documented which meiofaunal prey groups in the sediment are eaten by fish. Trophic relationships between five demersal fish species (solenette, goby, scaldfish, dab <20 cm and plaice <20 cm) and meiofaunal prey were investigated by means of comparing sediment samples and fish stomach contents collected seasonally between January 2009 and January 2010 in the German Bight. In all seasons, meiofauna in the sediment was numerically dominated by nematodes, whereas harpacticoids dominated in terms of occurrence and biomass. Between autumn and spring, the harpacticoid community was characterized by Pseudobradya minor and Halectinosoma canaliculatum, and in summer by Longipedia coronata. Meiofaunal prey dominated the diets of solenette and gobies in all seasons, occurred only seasonally in the diet of scaldfish and dab, and was completely absent in the diet of plaice. For all fish species (excluding plaice) and in each season, harpacticoids were the most important meiofauna prey group in terms of occurrence, abundance and biomass. High values of Ivlev's index of selectivity for Pseudobradya spp. in winter and Longipedia spp. in summer provided evidence that predation on harpacticoids was species-selective, even though both harpacticoids co-occurred in high densities in the sediments. Most surficial feeding strategies of the studied fish species and emergent behaviours of Pseudobradya spp. and Longipedia spp. might have caused this prey selection. With increasing fish sizes, harpacticoid prey densities decreased in the fish stomachs, indicating a diet change towards larger benthic prey during the ontogeny of all fish species investigated.

  9. Innate-immunity cytokines induced by very small size proteoliposomes, a Neisseria-derived immunological adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Venier, C; Guthmann, M D; Fernández, L E; Fainboim, L

    2007-01-01

    Neisserial outer membrane proteins have been combined with monosialoganglioside GM3 to form very small size proteoliposomes (VSSP), a nanoparticulated formulation used as a cancer vaccine for the treatment of cancer patients with GM3-positive tumours. VSSP were shown to elicit anti-GM3 and anti-tumour immune responses. VSSP have also been shown to be an efficient adjuvant for tumour-cell and peptide-antigen vaccines in mice. In vitro studies showed that VSSP promote maturation of both murine and human dendritic cells, suggesting that VSSP could be used as efficient adjuvants. In order to study further the capacity of VSSP to elicit innate immune responses, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and monocytes derived thereof were assessed for in vitro secretion of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-6, IL-12 and interferon (IFN)-γ. VSSP most prominently induced the secretion of IL-6. IL-10 was secreted at a lower level. IL-12 p40 (but no p70) was also detected. IFN-γ response was observed in 56% of the tested samples. Cytokine secretion was not related to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) content and involved Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated signal transduction. VSSP also induced DC maturation and a cytokine secretion pattern (high IL-6/low IL-10) which differs from that induced by LPS. The observed proinflammatory cytokine secretion pattern and the capacity of VSSP to drive DC maturation are examined in the light of the properties of other bacterial derivatives currently being user for immunotherapy purposes. Our results suggest that VSSP could be tested in clinical settings where T helper 1-type immune responses would be beneficial. PMID:17223981

  10. Size And Shape of Detergent Micelles Determined By Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, Jan; Columbus, Linda; Chu, Vincent B.; Lesley, Scott A.; Doniach, Sebastian; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /SLAC, SSRL /Pasteur Inst., Paris /Scripps Res. Inst. /Novartis Res. Found.

    2009-04-29

    We present a systematic analysis of the aggregation number and shape of micelles formed by nine detergents commonly used in the study of membrane proteins. Small-angle X-ray scattering measurements are reported for glucosides with 8 and 9 alkyl carbons (OG/NG), maltosides and phosphocholines with 10 and 12 alkyl carbons (DM/DDM and FC-10/FC-12), 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-phosphocholine (DHPC), 1-palmitoyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)] (LPPG), and 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propane sulfonate (CHAPS). The SAXS intensities are well described by two-component ellipsoid models, with a dense outer shell corresponding to the detergent head groups and a less electron dense hydrophobic core. These models provide an intermediate resolution view of micelle size and shape. In addition, we show that Guinier analysis of the forward scattering intensity can be used to obtain an independent and model-free measurement of the micelle aggregation number and radius of gyration. This approach has the advantage of being easily generalizable to protein-detergent complexes, where simple geometric models are inapplicable. Furthermore, we have discovered that the position of the second maximum in the scattering intensity provides a direct measurement of the characteristic head group-head group spacing across the micelle core. Our results for the micellar aggregation numbers and dimensions agree favorably with literature values as far as they are available. We de novo determine the shape of FC-10, FC-12, DM, LPPG, and CHAPS micelles and the aggregation numbers of FC-10 and OG to be ca. 50 and 250, respectively. Combined, these data provide a comprehensive view of the determinants of micelle formation and serve as a starting point to correlate detergent properties with detergent-protein interactions.

  11. PicoBots -A small-sized exploration rover standard for universities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiß, André

    This paper will introduce a pico-class robotic platform primarily intended for future lunar exploration. Inspired by the Cubesat standard, an affordable and easy to fabricate design will be introduced allowing universities to develop and perform own rover-based missions. As all major space agencies have set the goal to go to Earths natural satellite in the near future, several opportunities will arise to piggyback to the moon. With a maximum weight of 1 kg, one or multiple PicoBots, plus an eventually needed base station, could easily fill mass budget margins. By utilizing the alternating tripod gait, adapted from simple insects like the cockroach, locomotion can be realized with only two actuators. In comparison to most exploration rovers, the chosen propulsion system leads to a lower number in `degrees of freedom' and therefore a much higher demand for a simple environment. Main advantage, on the other hand, is that it minimizes the complexity of the control-algorithm and reduces the mass as well as the cost. Thanks to the progress in the field of MEMS-based technologies, subsystem components and instruments are available in small sizes, are lightweight and with low power requirements. PicoBots could either be specifically designed for a single mechanical task, e.g. sampling and analysis of rocks, or numerous sensoric payloads, like the seismo-or gravimeter. Swarm intelligence and behavior could also be an interesting field of research. To protect the electronics from radiation, a complementary, multi-layered `spacesuit' will be offered. If needed the suit can also be pressurized thus allowing the use of components not functioning in the vacuum environment.

  12. Evolutionary divergence of adult body size and juvenile growth in sympatric subpopulations of a top predator in aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Tibblin, Petter; Forsman, Anders; Koch-Schmidt, Per; Nordahl, Oscar; Johannessen, Peter; Nilsson, Jonas; Larsson, Per

    2015-07-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that different selective regimes may contribute to divergent evolution of body size and growth rate among populations, but most studies have focused on allopatric populations. Here, we studied five sympatric subpopulations of anadromous northern pike (Esox lucius) in the Baltic Sea subjected to allopatric habitats for a short period of their life cycle due to homing behavior. We report differences in adult body size among subpopulations that were in part due to variation in growth rate. Body size of emigrating juveniles also differed among subpopulations, and differences remained when individuals were reared in a common environment, thus indicating evolutionary divergence among subpopulations. Furthermore, a QST-FST comparison indicated that differences had evolved due to divergent selection rather than genetic drift, possibly in response to differences in selective mortality among spawning habitats during the allopatric life stage. Adult and juvenile size were negatively correlated across subpopulations, and reconstruction of growth trajectories of adult fishes suggested that body size differences developed gradually and became accentuated throughout the first years of life. These results represent rare evidence that sympatric subpopulations can evolve differences in key life-history traits despite being subjected to allopatric habitats during only a very short fraction of their life.

  13. Job Stress in the United Kingdom: Are Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and Large Enterprises Different?

    PubMed

    Lai, Yanqing; Saridakis, George; Blackburn, Robert

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the relationships between firm size and employees' experience of work stress. We used a matched employer-employee dataset (Workplace Employment Relations Survey 2011) that comprises of 7182 employees from 1210 private organizations in the United Kingdom. Initially, we find that employees in small and medium-sized enterprises experience lower level of overall job stress than those in large enterprises, although the effect disappears when we control for individual and organizational characteristics in the model. We also find that quantitative work overload, job insecurity and poor promotion opportunities, good work relationships and poor communication are strongly associated with job stress in the small and medium-sized enterprises, whereas qualitative work overload, poor job autonomy and employee engagements are more related with larger enterprises. Hence, our estimates show that the association and magnitude of estimated effects differ significantly by enterprise size.

  14. Plasticity of interstitial cells of cajal: a study in the small intestine of adult Guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Mei, Feng; Han, Juan; Huang, Yue; Jiang, Zhong-Yong; Xiong, Cheng-Jie; Zhou, De-Shan

    2009-07-01

    Although it is well known that the reduction of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) is associated with several gastrointestinal motility disorders in clinic, it is unknown whether the mature ICCs still have an active plasticity in adult mammals. This study focused on the issues of the reduction of ICCs during Imatinib administration and the recovery of ICCs following drug withdrawal in the small intestine of adult guinea pigs. ICCs were revealed by immunofluorescence on whole mount preparations with anti-Kit, alpha-smooth muscle actin, (alpha-SMA), and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) antibodies. Moreover, the occurrence of apoptosis was also assayed. Imatinib treatment led to a gradual reduction of ICCs in number around the myenteric plexus and deep muscular plexus, which was dependent on the time but no apoptosis of ICCs was detected with the TUNEL method. During Imatinib treatment, some ICC-like cells were double labeled for Kit and alpha-SMA and a few ICC-like cells were only stained with alpha-SMA. When Imatinib was discontinued, the number of ICCs recovered to normal within 32 days. During this time, some proliferating ICCs were demonstrated by double labeling with Kit and BrdU antibodies. Our results indicated that Kit signaling was essential for the maintenance of survival and proliferation of the mature ICCs in the small intestine of adult guinea pigs. Moreover, ICCs might transdifferentiate to a type of alpha-SMA(+) cells, perhaps a phenotype of smooth muscle cells, when there is a loss-of-function of Kit.

  15. 76 FR 42157 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... for Optical Eyeglass Frames, Product Service Code (PSC) 6540 (Ophthalmic Instruments, Equipment, and... recipients of Federal contracts set aside for small businesses, Service-Disabled Veteran- Owned (SDVO) small...) concerns to provide the products of small business manufacturers or processors on such contracts, unless...

  16. Development of a small-sized generator of ozonated water using an electro-conductive diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Sekido, Kota; Kitaori, Noriyuki

    2008-12-01

    A small-sized generator of ozonated water was developed using an electro-conductive diamond. We studied the optimum conditions for producing ozonated water. As a result, we developed a small-sized generator of ozonated water driven by a dry-cell for use in the average household. This generator was easily able to produce ozonated water with an ozone concentration (over 4 mg/L) sufficient for disinfection. In addition, we verified the high disinfecting performance of the water produced in an actual hospital.

  17. Maternal immune activation affects litter success, size and neuroendocrine responses related to behavior in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    French, Susannah S; Chester, Emily M; Demas, Gregory E

    2013-07-02

    It is increasingly evident that influences other than genetics can contribute to offspring phenotype. In particular, maternal influences are an important contributing factor to offspring survival, development, physiology and behavior. Common environmental pathogens such as viral or bacterial microorganisms can induce maternal immune responses, which have the potential to alter the prenatal environment via multiple independent pathways. The effects of maternal immune activation on endocrine responses and behavior are less well studied and provide the basis for the current study. Our approach in the current study was two-pronged: 1) quantify sickness responses during pregnancy in adult female hamsters experiencing varying severity of immune responsiveness (i.e., differing doses of lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), and 2) assess the effects of maternal immune activation on offspring development, immunocompetence, hormone profiles, and social behavior during adulthood. Pregnancy success decreased with increasing doses of LPS, and litter size was reduced in LPS dams that managed to successfully reproduce. Unexpectedly, pregnant females treated with LPS showed a hypothermic response in addition to the more typical anorexic and body mass changes associated with sickness. Significant endocrine changes related to behavior were observed in the offspring of LPS-treated dams; these effects were apparent in adulthood. Specifically, offspring from LPS treated dams showed significantly greater cortisol responses to stressful resident-intruder encounters compared with offspring from control dams. Post-behavior cortisol was elevated in male LPS offspring relative to the offspring of control dams, and was positively correlated with the frequency of bites during agonistic interactions, and cortisol levels in both sexes were related to defensive behaviors, suggesting that changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness may play a regulatory role in the observed behavioral

  18. Small Business Management. Volume II: Business Analysis. Entrepreneurship Education for Adults--Program Development and Implementation. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., St. Paul. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    A practice problem in year-end business analysis is presented to provide experience with a system of single-entry bookkeeping as part of a small business management adult education program. The problem simulates an entire business year and includes transactions involving general business revenues and expenses pertaining to most small retailing…

  19. Small scale variations of the atmosphere and their implications for the size of noctilucent cloud particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgarten, Gerd; Fiedler, Jens; Lübken, Franz-Josef; Ridder, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Noctilucent clouds (NLC) in the summer mesopause region (about 83 km altitude) are well known since more than 130 years. They are primarily made of ice particles of a few tens of nanometers and thus much smaller than the wavelength of visible light. Nevertheless, lidar measurements allow calculating particle size and inferring particle shape when combined with optical and microphysical modeling of non-spherical ice particles. We use the ALOMAR RMR-lidar, located in Northern Norway at 69°N, that is able to measure NLC with sub-second resolution. The signal levels at three widely separated wavelengths from 335 nm to 1064 nm allow deriving particle sizes with a temporal resolution of two minutes. We will use lidar observations between 2008 and 2014 to investigate the shape of the size distribution. The fundamental question of the shape of the size distribution is a link to the microphysics but also to atmospheric variability by turbulence and waves. Due to large sounding volumes (compared to the lidar sounding volume) this shape of the size distribution is of essential importance for most optical remote sensing methods that depend on assumptions about the width of the size distribution when retrieving mean particle sizes. The actual shape of the size distribution is of essential importance for most optical remote sensing methods (which have larger sounding volumes than the lidar) that depend on assumptions about the width of the size distribution when retrieving mean particle sizes.

  20. Effect of larval host food substrate on egg load dynamics, egg size and adult female size in four species of braconid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Cicero, Lizette; Sivinski, John; Rull, Juan; Aluja, Martin

    2011-11-01

    Life history theory predicts that individuals will allocate resources to different traits so as to maximize overall fitness. Because conditions experienced during early development can have strong downstream effects on adult phenotype and fitness, we investigated how four species of synovigenic, larval-pupal parasitoids that vary sharply in their degree of specialization (niche breadth) and life history (Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, Doryctobracon crawfordi, Opius hirtus and Utetes anastrephae), allocate resources acquired during the larval stage towards adult reproduction. Parasitoid larvae developed in a single host species reared on four different substrates that differed in quality. We measured parasitoid egg load at the moment of emergence and at 24 h, egg numbers over time, egg size, and also adult size. We predicted that across species the most specialized would have a lower capacity to respond to changes in host substrate quality than wasps with a broad host range, and that within species, females that emerged from hosts that developed in better quality substrates would have the most resources to invest in reproduction. Consistent with our predictions, the more specialized parasitoids were less plastic in some responses to host diet than the more generalist. However, patterns of egg load and size were variable across species. In general, there was a remarkable degree of reproductive effort-allocation constancy within parasitoid species. This may reflect more "time-limited" rather than "egg-limited" foraging strategies where the most expensive component of reproductive success is to locate and handle patchily-distributed and fruit-sequestered hosts. If so, egg costs, independent of degree of specialization, are relatively trivial and sufficient resources are available in fly larvae stemming from all of the substrates tested.

  1. Small or far away? Size and distance perception in the praying mantis

    PubMed Central

    Bissianna, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Stereo or ‘3D’ vision is an important but costly process seen in several evolutionarily distinct lineages including primates, birds and insects. Many selective advantages could have led to the evolution of stereo vision, including range finding, camouflage breaking and estimation of object size. In this paper, we investigate the possibility that stereo vision enables praying mantises to estimate the size of prey by using a combination of disparity cues and angular size cues. We used a recently developed insect 3D cinema paradigm to present mantises with virtual prey having differing disparity and angular size cues. We predicted that if they were able to use these cues to gauge the absolute size of objects, we should see evidence for size constancy where they would strike preferentially at prey of a particular physical size, across a range of simulated distances. We found that mantises struck most often when disparity cues implied a prey distance of 2.5 cm; increasing the implied distance caused a significant reduction in the number of strikes. We, however, found no evidence for size constancy. There was a significant interaction effect of the simulated distance and angular size on the number of strikes made by the mantis but this was not in the direction predicted by size constancy. This indicates that mantises do not use their stereo vision to estimate object size. We conclude that other selective advantages, not size constancy, have driven the evolution of stereo vision in the praying mantis. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Vision in our three-dimensional world’. PMID:27269605

  2. Preparation of sintered degenerate n-type PbTe with a small grain size and its thermoelectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, Kengo; Koyanagi, Tsuyoshi

    2002-09-01

    Sintered degenerate n-type PbTe samples with small grain sizes ranging from 0.7 to 4 mum were prepared and the effects of grain size on their thermoelectric properties were then investigated. The Seebeck coefficient of the sintered samples increased almost double when the grain size decreased from 4 to 0.7 mum. On the other hand, their electrical and thermal conductivity decreased with decreasing grain size. Accordingly, decreasing their grain size increased their thermoelectric figure-of-merit. A maximum value of the figure-of-merit of the obtained small grain-size samples was significantly higher than that of large grain-size samples with the same carrier concentration reported. This favorable result was caused mainly by the increase in the Seebeck coefficient. The influences of grain boundaries on the increase in the Seebeck coefficient were discussed. It is concluded that the Seebeck coefficient was increased by potential barrier scattering, which occurred at the grain boundaries in the sintered samples.

  3. Development and Evaluation of Algorithms to Improve Small- and Medium-Size Commercial Building Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Woohyun; Katipamula, Srinivas; Lutes, Robert G.; Underhill, Ronald M.

    2016-10-31

    Small- and medium-sized (<100,000 sf) commercial buildings (SMBs) represent over 95% of the U.S. commercial building stock and consume over 60% of total site energy consumption. Many of these buildings use rudimentary controls that are mostly manual, with limited scheduling capability, no monitoring or failure management. Therefore, many of these buildings are operated inefficiently and consume excess energy. SMBs typically utilize packaged rooftop units (RTUs) that are controlled by an individual thermostat. There is increased urgency to improve the operating efficiency of existing commercial building stock in the U.S. for many reasons, chief among them is to mitigate the climate change impacts. Studies have shown that managing set points and schedules of the RTUs will result in up to 20% energy and cost savings. Another problem associated with RTUs is short-cycling, where an RTU goes through ON and OFF cycles too frequently. Excessive cycling can lead to excessive wear and lead to premature failure of the compressor or its components. The short cycling can result in a significantly decreased average efficiency (up to 10%), even if there are no physical failures in the equipment. Also, SMBs use a time-of-day scheduling is to start the RTUs before the building will be occupied and shut it off when unoccupied. Ensuring correct use of the zone set points and eliminating frequent cycling of RTUs thereby leading to persistent building operations can significantly increase the operational efficiency of the SMBs. A growing trend is to use low-cost control infrastructure that can enable scalable and cost-effective intelligent building operations. The work reported in this report describes three algorithms for detecting the zone set point temperature, RTU cycling rate and occupancy schedule detection that can be deployed on the low-cost infrastructure. These algorithms only require the zone temperature data for detection. The algorithms have been tested and validated using

  4. The Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises Office (SME Office) at the European Medicines Agency.

    PubMed

    Carr, M

    2010-01-01

    On 15 December 2005, the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) launched an "SME Office" to provide financial and administrative assistance to micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), with the aim of promoting innovation and the development of new human and veterinary medicinal products by SMEs. According to current EU definition of an SME, companies with fewer than 250 employees, and an annual turnover of not more than 50 million euro or an annual balance sheet total of not more than 43 million euro, are eligible for assistance from the SME Office. Incentives available from the EMEA for SMEs, include: Administrative and procedural assistance from SME Office within the Agency; Fee reductions (90%) for scientific advice and inspections; Fee exemptions for certain administrative services (excluding parallel distribution); Deferral of the fee payable for an application for marketing authorisation or related inspection until after the grant of the marketing authorisation; Conditional fee exemption where scientific advice followed and marketing application is unsuccessful; Assistance with translations of the product information documents. At the end of May 2009, more than 380 companies from 21 countries across the European Economic Area (EEA) had SME status assigned by the EMEA. The large majority of companies are developing medicinal products for human use, 16 are veterinary companies, 15 companies are developing products for both human and veterinary use and 38 are regulatory consultants. Since the SME initiative started the Agency has processed more than 130 requests for scientific advice with fee reductions totalling of 6.9 million euro. Regulatory assistance has been provided to more than 170 companies and 12 companies have benefited from the SME translation service. Stakeholders have acknowledged the significant role the SME Office now plays as a service provider. In the period between January 2006 and June 2009, 34 applications for marketing authorization

  5. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of... WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.81 Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps... review and approve the addition of a new source or long-term change in water treatment before it...

  6. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of... WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.81 Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps... review and approve the addition of a new source or long-term change in water treatment before it...

  7. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of... WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.81 Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps... review and approve the addition of a new source or long-term change in water treatment before it...

  8. Entrepreneurial Training for the Growth of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Lessons from Central and Eastern Europe. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report brings together a number of principles as to best practice in supporting, through training, growth of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Central and Eastern Europe. Chapter 2 identifies key principles to be drawn from the West through a literature review. Chapter 3 reviews the "practice" of entrepreneurial training…

  9. Using Computer-Based Continuing Professional Education of Training Staff to Develop Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sooraksa, Nanta

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a career development program for staff involved in providing training for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand. Most of these staff were professional vocational teachers in schools. The program uses information communication technology (ICT), and its main objective is to teach Moodle software as a tool for…

  10. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability of corrosion control... WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.81 Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. (a) Systems shall complete the applicable...

  11. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability of corrosion control... WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.81 Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. (a) Systems shall complete the applicable...

  12. Experiment and analysis for a small-sized flywheel energy storage system with a high-temperature superconductor bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bongsu; Ko, Junseok; Jeong, Sangkwon; Lee, Seung S.

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents a small-sized flywheel energy storage system that uses a high-temperature superconductor (HTS) bearing characterized by a non-contacting bearing with no active control. The small-sized flywheel is made up several magnets for a motor/generator as well as an HTS bearing, and they are fitted into a 34 mm diameter, 3 mm thick aluminium disc. For simplicity and miniaturization of the whole system, the small-sized flywheel takes torque directly from a planar stator, which consists of an axial flux-type brushless DC motor/generator. The small-sized flywheel successfully rotated up to 38 000 rpm in a vacuum while levitated above the stator with a gap of about 1 mm. However, there are some eddy current losses in the stator and non-axisymmetry in the magnetic field causing large drag torque. In order to solve these problems, an improved magnet array in the flywheel, including magnetic screening, is proposed and 3D electromagnetic simulations have been conducted.

  13. Virtual Class: Distance Learning for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in the Spanish Region of Castilla y Leon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Blanca; Perez, Maria Angeles; Verdu, Maria Jesus; Navazo, Maria Agustina; Lopez, Ricardo; Mompo, Rafael; Garcia, Joaquin

    Lifelong learning is becoming a necessity in the new Information Society where everyone, particularly small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), must keep up with new technologies. Education and training are of the most importance in this updating. An interdisciplinary and inter-university work group called "Canalejas" (Spain) has…

  14. Small Body Size at Birth and Behavioural Symptoms of ADHD in Children Aged Five to Six Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahti, J.; Raikkonen, K.; Kajantie, E.; Heinonen, K.; Pesonen, A.-K.; Jarvenpaa, A.-L.; Strandberg, T.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Behavioural disorders with a neurodevelopmental background, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), have been associated with a non-optimal foetal environment, reflected in small body size at birth. However, the evidence stems from highly selected groups with birth outcomes biased towards the extreme low end of the…

  15. A Bayesian Approach to International Distributor Selection for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Software Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lui, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying appropriate international distributors for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the software industry for overseas markets can determine a firm's future endeavors in international expansion. SMEs lack the complex skills in market research and decision analysis to identify suitable partners to engage in global market entry.…

  16. Graduate Transition into Work: The Bridging Role of Graduate Placement Programmes in the Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprise Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Pádraig

    2015-01-01

    This research looks at the role of graduate placement programmes in bridging the gap between higher education and the small- and medium-sized enterprise (SME) sector. The research design and methodology used in this study was exploratory, in-depth and qualitative in nature. The research took the form of a multiple case study and focused on seven…

  17. Workplace Education Programs in Small and Medium-Sized Michigan Firms. Staff Working Paper 92-13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenbeck, Kevin; Anderson, William

    A project collected data from small and medium-sized firms (employing fewer than 500) in Michigan concerning workplace education programs. It addressed why firms were or were not offering programs, program characteristics, and program impacts on firms and employees. Case studies of 28 businesses were undertaken from May 1991-July 1992 and a…

  18. Attitudes about OCLC in Small and Medium-Sized Libraries. Illinois Valley Library System OCLC Experimental Project. Report No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bills, Linda G.; Wilford, Valerie

    A project was conducted from 1980 to 1982 to determine the costs and benefits of OCLC use in 29 small and medium-sized member libraries of the Illinois Valley Library System (IVLS). Academic, school, public, and special libraries participated in the project. Based on written attitude surveys of and interviews with library directors, staff,…

  19. 77 FR 58747 - Small Business Size Standards: Real Estate and Rental and Leasing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... supportable by current data. Accordingly, in 2007, SBA began a comprehensive review of its size standards to determine whether existing size standards have supportable bases relative to the current data, and to revise... appropriate adjustments based on current data are also consistent with Executive Order 13563 on...

  20. 77 FR 7489 - Small Business Size Standards: Professional, Technical, and Scientific Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... services of architects, engineers, surveyors, etc. However, under the current $4.5 million size standard... consultants) account for 35 percent of the gross revenues of architects, engineers and surveyors and suggested... designers and landscape architects and a lower $4.5 million size standard for architects and engineers....

  1. Tectonic geomorphology at small catchment sizes - extensions of the stream-power approach and the χ method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hergarten, S.; Robl, J.; Stüwe, K.

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative tectonic geomorphology hinges on the analysis of longitudinal river profiles. The model behind almost all approaches in this field originates from an empirical relationship between channel slope and catchment size, often substantiated in the form of the stream-power model for fluvial incision. Significant methodological progress was recently achieved by introducing the χ transform. It defines a nonlinear length coordinate in such a way that the inherent curvature of river profiles due to the increase of catchment sizes in the downstream direction is removed from the analysis. However, the limitation to large catchment sizes inherited from the stream-power approach for fluvial incision persists. As a consequence, only a small fraction of all nodes of a digital elevation model (DEM) can be used for the analysis. In this study we present and discuss some empirically derived extensions of the stream power law towards small catchment sizes in order to overcome this limitation. Beyond this, we introduce a simple method for estimating the adjustable parameters in the original χ method as well as in our extended approaches. As a main result, an approach originally suggested for debris flow channels seems to be the best approximation if both large and small catchment sizes are included in the same analysis.

  2. Genetic effective size is three orders of magnitude smaller than adult census size in an abundant, Estuarine-dependent marine fish (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Turner, Thomas F; Wares, John P; Gold, John R

    2002-11-01

    Using eight microsatellite loci and a variety of analytical methods, we estimated genetic effective size (N(e)) of an abundant and long-lived marine fish species, the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), in the northern Gulf of Mexico (Gulf). The ratio N(e)/N, where short-term variance N(e) was estimated via the temporal method from shifts in allele-frequency data over four cohorts and where N reflected a current estimate of adult census size in the northern Gulf, was approximately 0.001. In an idealized population, this ratio should approximate unity. The extraordinarily low value of N(e)/N appears to arise from high variance in individual reproductive success and perhaps more importantly from variance in productivity of critical spawning and nursery habitats located in spatially discrete bays and estuaries throughout the northern Gulf. An estimate of N(e) based on a coalescent approach, which measures long-term, inbreeding effective size, was four orders of magnitude lower than the estimate of current census size, suggesting that factors presently driving N(e)/N to low values among red drum in the northern Gulf may have operated similarly in the past. Models that predict N(e)/N exclusively from demographic and life-history features will seriously overestimate N(e) if variance in reproductive success and variance in productivity among spatially discrete demes is underestimated. Our results indicate that these variances, especially variance in productivity among demes, must be large for red drum. Moreover, our study indicates that vertebrate populations with enormous adult census numbers may still be at risk relative to decline and extinction from genetic factors.

  3. Genetic effective size is three orders of magnitude smaller than adult census size in an abundant, Estuarine-dependent marine fish (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Thomas F; Wares, John P; Gold, John R

    2002-01-01

    Using eight microsatellite loci and a variety of analytical methods, we estimated genetic effective size (N(e)) of an abundant and long-lived marine fish species, the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), in the northern Gulf of Mexico (Gulf). The ratio N(e)/N, where short-term variance N(e) was estimated via the temporal method from shifts in allele-frequency data over four cohorts and where N reflected a current estimate of adult census size in the northern Gulf, was approximately 0.001. In an idealized population, this ratio should approximate unity. The extraordinarily low value of N(e)/N appears to arise from high variance in individual reproductive success and perhaps more importantly from variance in productivity of critical spawning and nursery habitats located in spatially discrete bays and estuaries throughout the northern Gulf. An estimate of N(e) based on a coalescent approach, which measures long-term, inbreeding effective size, was four orders of magnitude lower than the estimate of current census size, suggesting that factors presently driving N(e)/N to low values among red drum in the northern Gulf may have operated similarly in the past. Models that predict N(e)/N exclusively from demographic and life-history features will seriously overestimate N(e) if variance in reproductive success and variance in productivity among spatially discrete demes is underestimated. Our results indicate that these variances, especially variance in productivity among demes, must be large for red drum. Moreover, our study indicates that vertebrate populations with enormous adult census numbers may still be at risk relative to decline and extinction from genetic factors. PMID:12454077

  4. 75 FR 13802 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... waiver be granted for liquid propane gas (LPG), Product Service Code (PSC) 6830 (Compressed and Liquefied... Manufacturing). According to the request, no small business manufacturers supply these class of products to the... otherwise qualified small businesses to supply the products of any manufacturer on a Federal contract...

  5. 75 FR 1662 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Nonmanufacturer Rule for Compressed and Liquefied Gases, Product Service Code (PSC) 6830, North American Industry... product to the Federal Government. If granted, the waiver would allow otherwise qualified small businesses to supply the products of any manufacturer on a Federal contract set aside for small...

  6. 75 FR 42173 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... Nonmanufacturer Rule for Configured Tape Library Storage Equipment, Product Service Code (PSC) 7025 Automated Data... products to the Federal government. The effect of this waiver will be to allow otherwise qualified small businesses to supply the products of any manufacturer on a Federal contract set aside for small...

  7. 76 FR 23640 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... for Optical Eyeglass Frames, Product Service Code (PSC) 6540 (Ophthalmic Instruments, Equipment, and... product of any manufacturer on a Federal contract set aside for small businesses, Service-Disabled Veteran... Manufacturing). According to the request, no small business manufacturers supply this class of products to...

  8. 75 FR 38156 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) Systems under Product Service Code (PSC) 6640 (Laboratory Equipment and... classes of products to the Federal Government. Thus, SBA is seeking information on whether there are small... businesses to supply the product of any manufacturer on a Federal contract set aside for small...

  9. Undergraduates and Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Opportunities for a Symbiotic Partnership?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brindley, Clare; Ritchie, Bob

    2000-01-01

    A study of undergraduates before and after participation in partnership projects with small businesses found that (1) the majority preferred working for larger companies; (2) they felt small businesses were less desirable for promotion, pay, and job security; (3) businesses were slightly more inclined to hire graduates; and (4) employers felt…

  10. 75 FR 61604 - Small Business Size Standards; Accommodation and Food Services Industries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... 721110, Hotels and Motels, from $7.0 million to $30 million; NAICS 721120, Casino Hotels, from $7.0... increases will help more small hotels participate in Federal procurement opportunities reserved for small businesses. It will also help the Federal government meet its hotel and conference accommodation needs....

  11. Is Small Really Better? Testing Some Assumptions about High School Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Barbara L.; Wyse, Adam E.; Keesler, Venessa

    2007-01-01

    The case for small schools has been made in educational research since the 1960s, when scholars such as Barker and Gump argued that smaller schools provided students with greater opportunities for participation in various extracurricular activities. The value of small schools was further supported in the 1980s by research on public and private…

  12. Intentional genetic introgression influences survival of adults and subadults in a small, inbred felid population.

    PubMed

    Benson, John F; Hostetler, Jeffrey A; Onorato, David P; Johnson, Warren E; Roelke, Melody E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Jansen, Deborah; Oli, Madan K

    2011-09-01

    1. Inbreeding and low genetic diversity can cause reductions in individual fitness and increase extinction risk in animal populations. Intentional introgression, achieved by releasing genetically diverse individuals into inbred populations, has been used as a conservation tool to improve demographic performance in endangered populations. 2. By the 1980s, Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi) had been reduced to a small, inbred population that appeared to be on the brink of extinction. In 1995, female pumas from Texas (P. c. stanleyana) were released in occupied panther range as part of an intentional introgression programme to restore genetic variability and improve demographic performance of panthers. 3. We used 25 years (1981-2006) of continuous radiotelemetry and genetic data to estimate and model subadult and adult panther survival and cause-specific mortality to provide rigorous sex and age class-specific survival estimates and evaluate the effect of the introgression programme on these parameters. 4. Genetic ancestry influenced annual survival of subadults and adults after introgression, as F(1) generation admixed panthers ( = 0·98) survived better than pre-introgression type panthers ( = 0·77) and other admixed individuals ( = 0·82). Furthermore, heterozygosity was higher for admixed panthers relative to pre-introgression type panthers and positively influenced survival. 5. Our results are consistent with hybrid vigour; however, extrinsic factors such as low density of males in some areas of panther range may also have contributed to higher survival of F(1) panthers. Regardless, improved survival of F(1) subadults and adults likely contributed to the numerical increase in panthers following introgression, and our results indicate that intentional admixture, achieved here by releasing individuals from another population, appears to have been successful in improving demographic performance in this highly endangered population.

  13. Quality of life of mentally retarded adults transferred from large institutions to new small units.

    PubMed

    Hemming, H; Lavender, T; Pill, R

    1981-09-01

    Quality of life of mentally retarded adults was assessed in large institutions and after transfer to new small units. Environmental changes in management practices and staff-resident interaction for both types of living units indicated significant improvement after transfer. Total adaptive behavior of transferred residents increased in the new units, but only the increase 9 months after transfer was significant when compared with behavior of matched control subjects. Total maladaptive behavior and antipsychotic drug prescription increased initially, with the former declining at subsequent assessments. Higher ability residents from "free" wards decreased participation in culturally normative activities and did not significantly change their adaptive behavior. Both higher and lower ability residents from "restricted" wards increased their participation in culturally normative activities and improved with regard to adaptive behavior. Significant increases and decreases in adaptive behavior over time paralleled the lack and subsequent initiation of off-unit occupations for residents with IQs over 50.

  14. Protective effect of eNOS overexpression against ischemia/reperfusion injury in small-for-size liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bo; Liu, Qiu-Hua; Zhou, Cui-Jie; Hu, Ming-Zheng; Qian, Hai-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury can occur during small-for-size liver transplantation, resulting in delayed graft function and decreased long-term graft survival. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of genetic overexpression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in protecting hepatocytes against I/R injury in a rat model of small-for-size liver transplantation. L02 liver cells were transfected with the eNOS gene using an adenovirus (Ad-eNOS). eNOS expression was detected using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. To evaluate the effect of eNOS overexpression, L02 cells were placed in a hypoxic environment for 12 h and immediately transferred to an oxygen-enriched atmosphere. For in vivo testing, rats pretreated with Ad-eNOS or control underwent small-for-size liver transplantation. At 6 h after reperfusion, the bile quantity, serum transaminase and nitric oxide (NO) levels, and histological outcomes were evaluated. Cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry or TUNEL assay. In vitro, Ad-eNOS prevented apoptosis in L02 cells with an increase in the level of NO in culture supernatant. In vivo, Ad-eNOS pre-treatment significantly increased bile production, improved abnormal transaminase levels, diminished apoptosis among liver cells, and decreased hepatocellular damage at 6 h after I/R injury. The eNOS-mediated renal protective effects might be associated with the downregulation of tumor necrosis factor-α and a reduction in macrophage activation in the early stage of reperfusion in small-for-size liver allografts. eNOS-derived NO production significantly attenuates hepatic I/R injury. Thus, eNOS overexpression constitutes a promising therapeutic approach to prevent liver I/R injury following small-for-size liver transplantation. PMID:27882135

  15. Big school, small school: (re)testing assumptions about high school size, school engagement and mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Christopher C; Carolan, Brian V; Baker-Smith, E Christine

    2010-02-01

    In an effort to increase both adolescents' engagement with school and academic achievement, school districts across the United States have created small high schools. However, despite the widespread adoption of size reduction reforms, relatively little is known about the relationship between size, engagement and outcomes in high school. In response, this article employs a composite measure of engagement that combines organizational, sociological, and psychological theories. We use this composite measure with the most recent nationally-representative dataset of tenth graders, Educational Longitudinal Study: 2002, (N = 10,946, 46% female) to better assess a generalizable relationship among school engagement, mathematics achievement and school size with specific focus on cohort size. Findings confirm these measures to be highly related to student engagement. Furthermore, results derived from multilevel regression analysis indicate that, as with school size, moderately sized cohorts or grade-level groups provide the greatest engagement advantage for all students and that there are potentially harmful changes when cohorts grow beyond 400 students. However, it is important to note that each group size affects different students differently, eliminating the ability to prescribe an ideal cohort or school size.

  16. Small plants, large plants: the importance of plant size for the physiological ecology of vascular epiphytes.

    PubMed

    Zotz, G; Hietz, P; Schmidt, G

    2001-10-01

    Recently, a number of publications have reported that many physiological properties of vascular epiphytes are a function of plant size. This short review will summarize what is known to date about this phenomenon, describe the possible mechanism and will discuss the consequences for the present understanding of epiphyte biology. Size-related changes are also known from other plant groups and it is argued that close attention should be paid to the size of the organisms under study in order to understand the performance and survival of a species in the field. In the light of these findings, the results of many earlier studies on epiphyte ecophysiology are now difficult to interpret because essential information on the size of the specimens used is missing.

  17. Injection barrel with a tapered structure for a low speed and small size cryogenic hydrogen pellet in medium-sized plasma fusion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motojima, G.; Sakamoto, R.; Okada, H.; Nagasaki, K.; Yamada, H.; Nakamura, Y.; Kado, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Konoshima, S.; Minami, T.; Ohshima, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Mizuuchi, T.; Mutoh, T.

    2016-10-01

    An injection barrel was designed and fabricated for a small size 0.8 mm cryogenic pellet with a low speed of 200-300 m/s in medium-sized plasma fusion devices. Pellet injection with pneumatic acceleration was examined using a conventional in situ technique. A tapered structure was applied in the downstream side of the injection barrel to satisfy the requirement of pellet speed reduction by expansion of the propellant gas. Shadowgraph and light gate measurements show that the intact pellets have speeds of 260 ± 30 m/s and a typical size of 1.1-1.2 mm. The pellet ablation code based on a neutral gas shielding model shows that the penetration depth of the measured pellet parameters does not cross the plasma center, even in medium-sized plasma devices such as the Heliotron J helical device. The injection barrel with a tapered structure developed in this study is feasible for low speed pellet injection.

  18. Phase Separation of Binary Charged Particle Systems with Small Size Disparities using a Dusty Plasma.

    PubMed

    Killer, Carsten; Bockwoldt, Tim; Schütt, Stefan; Himpel, Michael; Melzer, André; Piel, Alexander

    2016-03-18

    The phase separation in binary mixtures of charged particles has been investigated in a dusty plasma under microgravity on parabolic flights. A method based on the use of fluorescent dust particles was developed that allows us to distinguish between particles of slightly different size. A clear trend towards phase separation even for smallest size (charge) disparities is observed. The diffusion flux is directly measured from the experiment and uphill diffusion coefficients have been determined.

  19. Effect of grid size in RCMs on the representation of floods in small and medium sized catchments in Austria: added value of convection-permitting simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reszler, Christian; Truhetz, Heimo; Switanek, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a small multi-model ensemble study of coupling two different ERA-Interim driven RCMs (WRF and COSMO-CLM) using different grid sizes (0.44°, 0.11°, 0.03°) with a hydrological model for representing floods in small to medium sized catchments in South-eastern Austria. The aim is to evaluate the benefit of grid size reduction and in particular, the added value of convection-permitting simulations with 0.03° (~ 3 km) resolution. The hydrological model is a spatially distributed model (1 km² grid), which was previously developed for operational flood forecasting and calibrated against data of more than 20 stream gauges with corresponding catchment sizes between 30 and 1000 km². The hindcast simulations (1989-2010) are evaluated in terms of accurately representing flood frequency, seasonality, as well as other flood event characteristics, such as weather type, antecedent soil moisture, etc. The results show, that for small catchments (< 200 km²) a resolution of 3 km is essential to accurately simulate the magnitude of flood events. Flood frequency and seasonality is represented well in all catchments. In the larger catchments a resolution of 0.11° (~ 12.5 km) already yields statistically satisfying results. Also, due to the short response times in the small sub-catchments a time step of 1 hour is required. However, in all setups a bias still exists in precipitation and temperature, which sometimes leads to unrealistic hydrological conditions. Ongoing work comprises the test a of novel statistical error correction method, which is expected to improve results particularly for higher quantiles. Also, a future run ("time-slice" experiment) is planned with the coupled model setup using the RCP8.5 emission scenario, the GCM of the Max-Planck-Institute Hamburg (MPI-ESM-LR), dynamically downscaled to 3 km by COSMO-CLM, and the novel error correction method. The study is funded by the Austrian Klima- und Energiefonds through the Austrian Climate

  20. 75 FR 32519 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Administration. ACTION: Notice of Waiver to the Nonmanufacturer Rule for Liquid Propane Gas (LPG), North American.... Small Business Administration (SBA) is granting a waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule for Liquid...

  1. [Profile distribution of sediment particle sizes at a check dam in a small watershed of Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Feng; Fu, Bo-Jie; Chen, Li-Ding; Lü, Yi-He; Wang, De; Song, Cheng-Jun

    2009-10-01

    Sediment gyration sampling was conducted in June 2006 to analyze the profile distribution of sediment particle sizes at a check-dam built in 1954 in a typical small watershed of hilly and gully Loess plateau. There were at least 28 layers of sediment gyration at the check-dam, with the layer depth varied from 2 cm to 60 cm. In the sediment profile, silt (0.05-0.002 mm) occupied > 60%, its particle size being mainly within the range of 0.01-0.05 mm, while coarse sand (> 0.05 mm) accounted for 23.09%. The variation degree of sediment particle sizes increased with increasing depth, and an abrupt change was observed at the depth 2 m. Both longitudinal gradient and hydrodynamic condition caused the variation of sediment particle sizes. There was an accumulated plough layer of 72 cm thickness in the profile, which had indicative role for the sediment erosion environment of check dam.

  2. Radiation-related small head sizes among prenatally exposed A-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Otake, M; Schull, W J

    1993-02-01

    Of 1566 individuals prenatally exposed to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1473 had the circumference of their head measured at least once between ages 9 and 19. Among these 1473 individuals, 62 had small heads--the circumference of the heads was two standard deviations or more below the observed specific-age-at measurement mean. Of 26 cases with severe mental retardation, 15 (58%) had small heads. Most (86%) of the individuals with small heads were exposed in the first trimester (about < 12 weeks postovulation) or second trimester (about 12-24 weeks postovulation)--55% in the former period and 31% in the latter. Various dose-response relationships, with and without a threshold, have been fitted to the data grouped by the trimester or postovulatory age (weeks after ovulation) at which exposure occurred. A significant effect of radiation on the frequency of individuals with atypically small heads is observed only in the first and second trimesters and for the intervals postovulation of 0-7 weeks and 8-15 weeks. Although the risk of a small head at 0-7 weeks postovulation increases significantly with increasing dose, no increase in risk for severe mental retardation is noted in this period. No excess risk of a small head was seen in the third trimester (about > or = 25 weeks postovulation) or among individuals exposed at 16 weeks or more postovulation. The mean IQ values of mentally retarded cases with and without small heads were 63.8 and 68.9, respectively. No significant difference exists between these two IQ means, but both were significantly smaller than 96.4, the IQ value for individuals with small heads without severe mental retardation and 107.8, the value for the overall sample.

  3. Fabrication of small-sized silver NPs/graphene sheets for high-quality surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong; Fu, Honggang; Zhao, Tianshou; Wang, Lei; Tan, Taixing

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, small-sized and highly dispersed Ag nanoparticles (NPs) supported on graphene nanosheets are fabricated via a strategy for etching a copper template with Ag(+). Firstly, big-sized Cu NPs are supported on graphene, and then the small-sized and highly dispersed Ag NPs are supported on graphene by replacement reaction, mainly making use of graphene passing electrons between Cu and Ag(+). The graphene used in the experiment is prepared by in situ self-generating template and has good dispersion, excellent crystallinity and little defects. Thus, in the process of Ag/graphene synthesis, there is no any intervention of surfactant, which ensures that SERS activity sites have not been passivated. And, the little defects of graphene benefit the excellent conductivity of graphene and ensured the replacement reaction between Cu and Ag(+). The obtained material exhibits significant high-quality and distinctive SERS activity. Especially, a serial new peak of p-aminothiophenol (PATP) is observed, this is suggested two reasons: one is "surface geometry" of the PATP on small-sized Ag NPs and another is the charge-transfer between Ag and graphene.

  4. A qualitative study of pandemic influenza preparedness among small and medium-sized businesses in New York City.

    PubMed

    Burton, Deron C; Confield, Evan; Gasner, Mary Rose; Weisfuse, Isaac

    2011-10-01

    Small businesses need to engage in continuity planning to assure delivery of goods and services and to sustain the economy during an influenza pandemic. This is especially true in New York City, where 98 per cent of businesses have fewer than 100 employees. It was an objective therefore, to determine pandemic influenza business continuity practices and strategies suitable for small and medium-sized NYC businesses. The study design used focus groups, and the participants were owners and managers of businesses with fewer than 500 employees in New York City. The main outcome measures looked for were the degree of pandemic preparedness, and the feasibility of currently proposed business continuity strategies. Most participants reported that their businesses had no pandemic influenza plan. Agreement with feasibility of specific business continuity strategies was influenced by the type of business represented, cost of the strategy, and business size. It was concluded that recommendations for pandemic-related business continuity plans for small and medium-sized businesses should be tailored to the type and size of business and should highlight the broad utility of the proposed strategies to address a range of business stressors.

  5. Applying Individual Tree Structure From Lidar to Address the Sensitivity of Allometric Equations to Small Sample Sizes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncanson, L.; Dubayah, R.

    2015-12-01

    Lidar remote sensing is widely applied for mapping forest carbon stocks, and technological advances have improved our ability to capture structural details from forests, even resolving individual trees. Despite these advancements, the accuracy of forest aboveground biomass models remains limited by the quality of field estimates of biomass. The accuracies of field estimates are inherently dependent on the accuracy of the allometric equations used to relate measurable attributes to biomass. These equations are calibrated with relatively small samples of often spatially clustered trees. This research focuses on one of many issues involving allometric equations - understanding how sensitive allometric parameters are to the sample sizes used to fit them. We capitalize on recent advances in lidar remote sensing to extract individual tree structural information from six high-resolution airborne lidar datasets in the United States. We remotely measure millions of tree heights and crown radii, and fit allometric equations to the relationship between tree height and radius at a 'population' level, in each site. We then extract samples from our tree database, and build allometries on these smaller samples of trees, with varying sample sizes. We show that for the allometric relationship between tree height and crown radius, small sample sizes produce biased allometric equations that overestimate height for a given crown radius. We extend this analysis using translations from the literature to address potential implications for biomass, showing that site-level biomass may be greatly overestimated when applying allometric equations developed with the typically small sample sizes used in popular allometric equations for biomass.

  6. Small population size and extremely low levels of genetic diversity in island populations of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus

    PubMed Central

    Furlan, Elise; Stoklosa, J; Griffiths, J; Gust, N; Ellis, R; Huggins, R M; Weeks, A R

    2012-01-01

    Genetic diversity generally underpins population resilience and persistence. Reductions in population size and absence of gene flow can lead to reductions in genetic diversity, reproductive fitness, and a limited ability to adapt to environmental change increasing the risk of extinction. Island populations are typically small and isolated, and as a result, inbreeding and reduced genetic diversity elevate their extinction risk. Two island populations of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, exist; a naturally occurring population on King Island in Bass Strait and a recently introduced population on Kangaroo Island off the coast of South Australia. Here we assessed the genetic diversity within these two island populations and contrasted these patterns with genetic diversity estimates in areas from which the populations are likely to have been founded. On Kangaroo Island, we also modeled live capture data to determine estimates of population size. Levels of genetic diversity in King Island platypuses are perilously low, with eight of 13 microsatellite loci fixed, likely reflecting their small population size and prolonged isolation. Estimates of heterozygosity detected by microsatellites (HE= 0.032) are among the lowest level of genetic diversity recorded by this method in a naturally outbreeding vertebrate population. In contrast, estimates of genetic diversity on Kangaroo Island are somewhat higher. However, estimates of small population size and the limited founders combined with genetic isolation are likely to lead to further losses of genetic diversity through time for the Kangaroo Island platypus population. Implications for the future of these and similarly isolated or genetically depauperate populations are discussed. PMID:22837830

  7. A retrospective comparison of blood transfusion requirements during cardiopulmonary bypass with two different small adult oxygenators.

    PubMed

    Lahanas, A; Argerakis, P W; Johnson, K A; Burdan, M L; Ozdirik, J E

    2013-11-01

    A low haematocrit during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is associated with adverse outcomes and often results in homologous blood transfusions. Oxygenators with improved venous reservoir designs aid in reducing the priming volume. Recently, we changed our small adult oxygenator model from the D905 EOS oxygenator (Dideco, Mirandola, Italy) to the Capiox FX1540 (Terumo Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). We conducted a retrospective study of 42 patents to evaluate the impact of the Capiox FX 1540 on blood transfusion requirements in small patients (body surface area (BSA) up to 1.8 m(2)). The D905 EOS group had a lower minimum intraoperative haematocrit than the FX1540 group (20 ± 3 v 22 ± 4, p = 0.029) with 73% of the patients receiving intraoperative blood transfusions compared with 30% in the FX 1540 group (p = 0.012). Patients in the D905 EOS group received one blood transfusion more during CPB than the FX 1540 patients (p = 0.002). The haematocrits at the end of CPB and in the early postoperative period were identical in both groups. The postoperative ventilation time, length of stay in the intensive care unit and postoperative chest drain bleeding were similar in both groups. In conclusion, the Capiox FX1540 was effective in reducing intraoperative packed red cell transfusions.

  8. The effect of in vivo hydrocortisone administration on the labelling index and size of chromaffin tissue in the postnatal and adult mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Monkhouse, W S

    1986-01-01

    Hydrocortisone administration in vivo to neonatal mice for seven days led to a significant increase in both the size and the labelling index of extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue (as represented by the para-aortic body) of 8 days old mice. In untreated animals at this age, the para-aortic body was in most cases too small to obtain a valid labelling index. In the para-aortic bodies of 14 days old, 21 days old and adult mice, the extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue was too dispersed to obtain values for either volumetric analysis or labelling indices, and hydrocortisone was without significant effect in promoting a hyperplastic response. In the postnatal adrenal medulla at all ages studied, hydrocortisone had no effect on the medullary size or on the labelling indices of either adrenaline- or noradrenaline-storing cells, although it led to a marked diminution of adrenocortical volume. The relative proportion of adrenaline-storing cells increased between the values for 8 days old animals and those for adults; this was unaffected by hydrocortisone. The cortico-medullary ratio remained unchanged from the eighth postnatal day onwards. The results are discussed and related to those of other workers. It is suggested that factors as yet unknown might modulate the response to corticosteroids of developing intra- and extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:3693040

  9. Learning to Identify Near-Acuity Letters, either with or without Flankers, Results in Improved Letter Size and Spacing Limits in Adults with Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Susana T. L.; Li, Roger W.; Levi, Dennis M.

    2012-01-01

    Amblyopia is a developmental abnormality that results in deficits for a wide range of visual tasks, most notably, the reduced ability to see fine details, the loss in contrast sensitivity especially for small objects and the difficulty in seeing objects in clutter (crowding). The primary goal of this study was to evaluate whether crowding can be ameliorated in adults with amblyopia through perceptual learning using a flanked letter identification task that was designed to reduce crowding, and if so, whether the improvements transfer to untrained visual functions: visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and the size of visual span (the amount of information obtained in one fixation). To evaluate whether the improvements following this training task were specific to training with flankers, we also trained another group of adult observers with amblyopia using a single letter identification task that was designed to improve letter contrast sensitivity, not crowding. Following 10,000 trials of training, both groups of observers showed improvements in the respective training task. The improvements generalized to improved visual acuity, letter contrast sensitivity, size of the visual span, and reduced crowding. The magnitude of the improvement for each of these measurements was similar in the two training groups. Perceptual learning regimens aimed at reducing crowding or improving letter contrast sensitivity are both effective in improving visual acuity, contrast sensitivity for near-acuity objects and reducing the crowding effect, and could be useful as a clinical treatment for amblyopia. PMID:22558234

  10. Corpus callosum size and diffusion tensor anisotropy in adolescents and adults with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Balevich, Emily C; Haznedar, M Mehmet; Wang, Eugene; Newmark, Randall E; Bloom, Rachel; Schneiderman, Jason S; Aronowitz, Jonathan; Tang, Cheuk Y; Chu, King-Wai; Byne, William; Buchsbaum, Monte S; Hazlett, Erin A

    2015-03-30

    The corpus callosum has been implicated as a region of dysfunctional connectivity in schizophrenia, but the association between age and callosal pathology is unclear. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) were performed on adults (n=34) and adolescents (n=17) with schizophrenia and adult (n=33) and adolescent (n=15) age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The corpus callosum was manually traced on each participant׳s MRI, and the DTI scan was co-registered to the MRI. The corpus callosum was divided into five anteroposterior segments. Area and anisotropy were calculated for each segment. Both patient groups demonstrated reduced callosal anisotropy; however, the adolescents exhibited reductions mostly in anterior regions while the reductions were more prominent in posterior regions of the adults. The adolescent patients showed greater decreases in absolute area as compared with the adult patients, particularly in the anterior segments. However, the adults showed greater reductions when area was considered relative to whole brain white matter volume. Our results suggest that the initial stages of the illness are characterized by deficiencies in frontal connections, and the chronic phase is characterized by deficits in the posterior corpus callosum; or, alternatively, adolescent-onset schizophrenia may represent a different or more severe form of the illness.

  11. Evaporation of Droplets on Superhydrophobic Surfaces: Surface Roughness and Small Droplet Size Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuemei; Ma, Ruiyuan; Li, Jintao; Hao, Chonglei; Guo, Wei; Luk, B. L.; Li, Shuai Cheng; Yao, Shuhuai; Wang, Zuankai

    2012-09-01

    Evaporation of a sessile droplet is a complex, nonequilibrium phenomenon. Although evaporating droplets upon superhydrophobic surfaces have been known to exhibit distinctive evaporation modes such as a constant contact line (CCL), a constant contact angle (CCA), or both, our fundamental understanding of the effects of surface roughness on the wetting transition remains elusive. We show that the onset time for the CCL-CCA transition and the critical base size at the Cassie-Wenzel transition exhibit remarkable dependence on the surface roughness. Through global interfacial energy analysis we reveal that, when the size of the evaporating droplet becomes comparable to the surface roughness, the line tension at the triple line becomes important in the prediction of the critical base size. Last, we show that both the CCL evaporation mode and the Cassie-Wenzel transition can be effectively inhibited by engineering a surface with hierarchical roughness.

  12. Evaporation of droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces: surface roughness and small droplet size effects.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuemei; Ma, Ruiyuan; Li, Jintao; Hao, Chonglei; Guo, Wei; Luk, B L; Li, Shuai Cheng; Yao, Shuhuai; Wang, Zuankai

    2012-09-14

    Evaporation of a sessile droplet is a complex, nonequilibrium phenomenon. Although evaporating droplets upon superhydrophobic surfaces have been known to exhibit distinctive evaporation modes such as a constant contact line (CCL), a constant contact angle (CCA), or both, our fundamental understanding of the effects of surface roughness on the wetting transition remains elusive. We show that the onset time for the CCL-CCA transition and the critical base size at the Cassie-Wenzel transition exhibit remarkable dependence on the surface roughness. Through global interfacial energy analysis we reveal that, when the size of the evaporating droplet becomes comparable to the surface roughness, the line tension at the triple line becomes important in the prediction of the critical base size. Last, we show that both the CCL evaporation mode and the Cassie-Wenzel transition can be effectively inhibited by engineering a surface with hierarchical roughness.

  13. Reducing Capsule Based on Electron Programming: Versatile Synthesizer for Size-Controlled Ultra-Small Metal Clusters.

    PubMed

    Kambe, Tetsuya; Imaoka, Takane; Yamamoto, Kimihisa

    2016-11-07

    Controlled reducing capsules with a specific number of reducing electrons were achieved by appropriately placed BH3 units in the dendritic polyphenylazomethines (DPAs). Using the 1:1 coordination fashion on their basic branches with radius affinity gradient, the 4th generation DPA (DPAG4) possessing four BH3 units in the central positions was prepared as a template synthesizer for size-controlled ultra-small metal clusters. This was well-demonstrated by reduction of Ag, Pt, and other metal ions resulting in monodispersed ultra-small clusters.

  14. Widespread rapid reductions in body size of adult salamanders in response to climate change.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Nicholas M; Sears, Michael W; Adams, Dean C; Lips, Karen R

    2014-06-01

    Reduction in body size is a major response to climate change, yet evidence in globally imperiled amphibians is lacking. Shifts in average population body size could indicate either plasticity in the growth response to changing climates through changes in allocation and energetics, or through selection for decreased size where energy is limiting. We compared historic and contemporary size measurements in 15 Plethodon species from 102 populations (9450 individuals) and found that six species exhibited significant reductions in body size over 55 years. Biophysical models, accounting for actual changes in moisture and air temperature over that period, showed a 7.1-7.9% increase in metabolic expenditure at three latitudes but showed no change in annual duration of activity. Reduced size was greatest at southern latitudes in regions experiencing the greatest drying and warming. Our results are consistent with a plastic response of body size to climate change through reductions in body size as mediated through increased metabolism. These rapid reductions in body size over the past few decades have significance for the susceptibility of amphibians to environmental change, and relevance for whether adaptation can keep pace with climate change in the future.

  15. Pupil size varies with word listening and response selection difficulty in older adults with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Kuchinsky, Stefanie E; Ahlstrom, Jayne B; Vaden, Kenneth I; Cute, Stephanie L; Humes, Larry E; Dubno, Judy R; Eckert, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    Listening to speech in noise can be exhausting, especially for older adults with impaired hearing. Pupil dilation is thought to track the difficulty associated with listening to speech at various intelligibility levels for young and middle-aged adults. This study examined changes in the pupil response with acoustic and lexical manipulations of difficulty in older adults with hearing loss. Participants identified words at two signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) among options that could include a similar-sounding lexical competitor. Growth Curve Analyses revealed that the pupil response was affected by an SNR × Lexical competition interaction, such that it was larger and more delayed and sustained in the harder SNR condition, particularly in the presence of lexical competition. Pupillometry detected these effects for correct trials and across reaction times, suggesting it provides additional evidence of task difficulty than behavioral measures alone.

  16. A Method for Sizing Small Fatigue Cracks in Stainless Steel Using Microwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saka, Masumi; Ju, Yang; Luo, Daying; Abé, Hiroyuki

    To evaluate the depth of small fatigue cracks under conditions of no contact and without using any coupling medium, a novel microwave technique was demonstrated. An open-ended coaxial line sensor was used to increase the spatial resolution and the ratio of signal to noise. Closed fatigue cracks were detected successfully and a W-shaped characteristic signal was obtained. A dual frequency technique was proposed to evaluate the depth of small fatigue cracks for which crack closure characteristics were unknown. The evaluated results are shown to agree well with the actual values.

  17. Small size transformer provides high power regulation with low ripple and maximum control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manoli, R.; Ulrich, B. R.

    1971-01-01

    Single, variable, transformer/choke device does work of several. Technique reduces drawer assembly physical size and design and manufacturing cost. Device provides power, voltage current and impedance regulation while maintaining maximum control of linearity and ensuring extremely low ripple. Nulling is controlled to very fine degree.

  18. Blattabacteria, the endosymbionts of cockroaches, have small genome sizes and high genome copy numbers.

    PubMed

    López-Sánchez, María José; Neef, Alexander; Patiño-Navarrete, Rafael; Navarro, Lara; Jiménez, Ricardo; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés

    2008-12-01

    Blattabacteria are intracellular endosymbionts of cockroaches and primitive termites that belong to the class Flavobacteria and live only in specialized cells in the abdominal fat body of their hosts. In the present study we determined genome sizes as well as genome copy numbers for the endosymbionts of three cockroach species, Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana and Blatta orientalis. The sole presence of blattabacteria in the fat body was demonstrated by rRNA-targeting techniques. The genome sizes of the three blattabacteria were determined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The resulting total genome sizes for the three symbionts were all approximately 650 +/- 15 kb. Comparison of the genome sizes with those of free-living Bacteroidetes shows extended reduction, as occurs in other obligatory insect endosymbionts. Genome copy numbers were determined based on cell counts and determination of DNA amounts via quantitative PCR. Values between 10.2 and 18.3 and between 323 and 353 were found for the symbionts of P. americana and B. orientalis respectively. Polyploidy in intracellular bacteria may play a significant role in the genome reduction process.

  19. Size evolution in Goodwin’s small-eared shrew, Cryptotis goodwini

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.; Merritt, J.F.; Churchfield, S.; Hutterer, R.; Sheftel, B.A.

    2005-01-01

    Fossils of Cryptotis goodwini from Honduras indicate that body sizes of modern individuals average at least 18% larger than among members of the late Pleistocene population of this species. Palynological and other paleoenvironmental studies provide evidence that the Neotropical montane environments that these shrews inhabit were cooler and drier in the late Pleistocene than at present and supported communities of plants without modern analog. Therefore, the most likely cause of this change in size ultimately was related to climatic change at the end of the Pleistocene?but to what specific factors did the species respond? I examined the possibilities that this species changed in size: to accommodate a change in temperature regime; to escape from predators; as a response to a change in intensity of interspecific competition; to take advantage of a newly abundant food resource. Based on evidence from studies of modern communities of shrews and niche partitioning, I hypothesized that size evolution in C. goodwini was directly related to changes in the community of soil and soil-surface invertebrates upon which the species depends, specifically an increase in the availability of earthworms (Annelida).

  20. [Uncertainty in estimating short-term health effects of air pollution in small- and medium-size cities].

    PubMed

    Giannini, Simone; Zauli Sajani, Stefano; De Girolamo, Gianfranco; Goldoni, Carlo Alberto; Lauriola, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Over the years, a growing number of small- and medium-size cities have been included in meta-analytic studies on short-term health effects of air pollution in order to increase the statistical power of these studies. This has produced an increase in the precision of meta-analytic estimates, but also a growing interest in city-specific results. As a consequence, relevant differences in the estimates have been frequently found, even for nearby cities with similar environmental and sociodemographic characteristics. This article aims at showing the variability of effect estimates for small- to medium-size cities in relation to the extent of the considered time frame, highlighting quantitatively the caution that must be taken in interpreting and communicating the results derived from short time series of data. The study was based on the analysis of the data from two cities in Emilia-Romagna Region (Northern Italy): Ravenna and Reggio Emilia.

  1. Size distribution of stranded small plastic debris on the coast of Guangdong, South China.

    PubMed

    Fok, Lincoln; Cheung, Pui Kwan; Tang, Guangda; Li, Wai Chin

    2017-01-01

    Beach environments are known to be conducive to fragmentation of plastic debris, and highly fragmented plastic particles can interact with smaller organisms. Even through stranded plastic debris may not interact directly with marine organisms, backwash processes may transport this debris back to coastal waters, where it may affect a wide range of marine life at different trophic levels. This study analysed the size distribution of stranded plastic debris (<10 mm) collected from eight coastal beaches in Guangdong Province, China. Polystyrene (PS) foams and fragments smaller than 7 mm were increasingly abundant in the smaller size classes, whereas resin pellets remained in their production sizes (∼3 mm). Microplastics (<5 mm) accounted for over 98% of the total plastic debris by abundance and 71% by weight, indicating that the plastic debris on these coastal beaches was highly fragmented and the majority of the plastic masses belonged to the microplastic size range. The observed size distributions of PS foams and fragments are believed to result from continued fragmentation. Previous studies found that the residence time of beached debris was less than one year on average, and no sign of plastic accumulation with depth in beach sediment was observed. Therefore, coastal beaches may represent a reservoir of highly fragmented and degraded microplastics that may be mobilised and returned to the sea during storm events. Further research on the dynamics and longevity of microplastics on beaches will help reveal the mass balance of microplastics on the shoreline and determine whether shorelines are sinks or sources of microplastics.

  2. 76 FR 32257 - Small Business Size Standards; Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... Administration. ACTION: Notice of proposed retraction of a Class Waiver from the Nonmanufacturer Rule for Product Service Code (PSC) 9130, Liquid Propellants--Petroleum Base, under North American Industry Classification..., women-owned small businesses, or Participants in the SBA's 8(a) BD Program provide the product of...

  3. 75 FR 20870 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... related accessories under Product Service Code (PSC) 8470 (Armor Personal) under North American Industry... products to the Federal government. If granted, the waiver would allow an otherwise qualified nonmanufacturer to supply the products of any manufacturer on a Federal contract set aside for small...

  4. 78 FR 61443 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... Classification System (NAICS) code 332991, Product Service Codes (PSC) 3110. Based on public comments and... Service Codes (PSCs) to further identify particular products within the NAICS code to which a waiver would... class waiver will require recipients of Federal contracts set aside for small businesses,...

  5. 75 FR 47036 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ..., Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) Systems under Product Service Code (PSC) 6640... are supplying these classes of products to the Federal government. The effect of this waiver will be to allow otherwise qualified small businesses to supply the products of any manufacturer on a...

  6. 75 FR 28077 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... Rule for Improved Outer Tactical Vests and related accessories under Product Service Code (PSC) 8470...'s NAICS codes and the General Services Administration's Product and Service Code Directory. Within... recipients of Federal contracts set aside for small businesses, service-disabled veteran- owned...

  7. 75 FR 32231 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... that an class waiver be granted for Configured Tape Library Storage Equipment, Product Service Code... manufacturers supply these classes of products to the Federal government. Thus, SBA is seeking information on... waiver would allow otherwise qualified small businesses to supply the products of any manufacturer on...

  8. 78 FR 30384 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... product of any manufacturer on a Federal contract set aside for small businesses, Service-Disabled Veteran... waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule for commercial-type ovens, gas ranges, and ranges, under Product Service Code (PSC) 7310 (Food Cooking, Baking, and Serving Equipment), under the North American...

  9. 75 FR 40857 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ..., under Product Service Code (PSC) 6840, under North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code... manufacturers are supplying this class of product to the Federal government. The effect of this waiver will be to allow otherwise qualified small businesses to supply the products of any manufacturer on a...

  10. 78 FR 20371 - Small Business Size Standards; Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ..., Product Service Code (PSC) 3110. SBA is reopening for Public Comment the above Class Waiver from the... classifications. In addition, SBA uses Product Service Codes (PSCs) to further identify particular products within..., women-owned small businesses, or Participants in the SBA's 8(a) BD Program provide the product of...

  11. 75 FR 52790 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... supply the products of any manufacturer on a Federal contract set aside for small businesses, Service... received a request that a class waiver be granted for GEN II and GEN III Image Intensifier Tubes, Product Service Code (PSC) 5855, Night Vision Equipment, Emitted and Reflected Radiation, under the North...

  12. 75 FR 28077 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... Fungicides, under Product Service Code (PSC) 6840, under North American Industry Classification System (NAICS... manufacturers supply these products to the Federal government. If granted, the waiver would allow an otherwise qualified small businesses to supply the products of any manufacturer on a Federal contract set aside...

  13. 78 FR 76886 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ...The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is granting a class waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule for Ovens, commercial-type, Ranges, commercial-type, and Gas ranges, commercial-type, Product or Service Code (PSC) 7310 (Food Cooking, Baking, and Serving Equipment), under NAICS code 333318 (Other Commercial and Service Industry Machinery Manufacturing). The basis for the waiver is that there......

  14. Heat exchanges between a fluidized bed and small-sized bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Teplitskii, Yu.S.

    1995-06-01

    On the basis of the two-zone model, a procedure is developed for calculating the complex heat exchange of a probe of small dimensions (comparable with the diameter of the bed particles). The procedure takes into account the influence of the fluidizing agent pressure.

  15. 75 FR 68394 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... Dipped Rubber/Plastic Gloves. SUMMARY: The U. S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is granting a class waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule for Woven and Knit impregnated with Flat Dipped Rubber/Plastic Gloves... with Flat Dipped Rubber/Plastic Gloves under PSC 9999 (Miscellaneous), NAICS code 315992 (Glove...

  16. 75 FR 52789 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... Flat Dipped Rubber/Plastic Gloves. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is considering... rubber/plastic gloves, under the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code 315992 (Glove... business Woven and Knit impregnated with Flat Dipped Rubber/Plastic Gloves manufacturers. If granted,...

  17. Assessing the Dimensionality of Item Response Matrices with Small Sample Sizes and Short Test Lengths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Champlain, Andre; Gessaroli, Marc E.

    1998-01-01

    Type I error rates and rejection rates for three-dimensionality assessment procedures were studied with data sets simulated to reflect short tests and small samples. Results show that the G-squared difference test (D. Bock, R. Gibbons, and E. Muraki, 1988) suffered from a severely inflated Type I error rate at all conditions simulated. (SLD)

  18. A Forecasting Methodology for Academic Manpower Requirements in a Small Sized Technical University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldosary, Adel S.

    1999-01-01

    Outlines a stepwise regression analysis technique for predicting faculty needs in a small technical university, using King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (Saudi Arabia) for illustration. Validation with microcomputer software suggests the method is an attractive option for college and university planners in forecasting manpower needs.…

  19. SU-E-T-432: Field Size Influence On the Electron and Photon Spectra Within Small MV Field Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Benmakhlouf, H; Andreo, P

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of photon field size on the electron and photon fluence spectra in the active volume of small field detectors. Methods: The PENELOPE MC system based usercode PenEasy was used to calculate the material influence on the spectra by scoring the differential fluence in inserts of silicon, carbon, phosphorus and aluminium having 3 mm diameter and height. The spectra were then calculated inside the active volume of eleven detectors (ion chambers and solid-state detectors) whose geometry was simulated with great detail. The inserts/detectors were placed at 10 cm depth in a 30 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm water phantom and irradiated with 2.5 MeV photons and Varian Clinac 6 MV beams of small, medium and large size. Results: For all configurations, photon spectra in the scoring volume were similar to that in a small water volume except for additional characteristic x-ray peaks resulting from the material itself and from the materials surrounding the detectors (i.e. high-Z shielding the silicon). Electron fluence calculated in the inserts were up to 60% larger than in water; the difference increased with material density and decreasing field size. MC-calculated doses were compared to analytically determined collision kerma and restricted cema (cut-off=15keV). For the inserts, with large and medium fields K-col agreed with MC-dose, but K-col overestimated the dose for small fields due to lack of lateral CPE. For the detectors, up to 15% differences between K-col and the MC-dose were found. For all configurations the C-delta and MC-dose agreed within ±2%. Conclusion: The most relevant findings were that shielding affects substantially the photon spectra and material conditions the electron spectra, their field size dependence varying with the geometry configuration. These affect the values of factors entering into relative dosimetry.

  20. VOLTTRON™: Tech-to-Market Best-Practices Guide for Small- and Medium-Sized Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.; Haack, Jereme N.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Nicholls, Andrew K.

    2016-07-11

    VOLTTRON™ is an open-source distributed control and sensing platform developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy. It was developed to be used by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to support transactive controls research and deployment activities. VOLTTRON is designed to be an overarching integration platform that could be used to bring together vendors, users, and developers and enable rapid application development and testing. The platform is designed to support modern control strategies, including the use of agent- and transaction-based controls. It also is designed to support the management of a wide range of applications, including heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems; electric vehicles; and distributed-energy and whole-building loads. This report was completed as part of the Building Technologies Office’s Technology-to-Market Initiative for VOLTTRON’s Market Validation and Business Case Development efforts. The report provides technology-to-market guidance and best practices related to VOLTTRON platform deployments and commercialization activities for use by entities serving small- and medium-sized commercial buildings. The report characterizes the platform ecosystem within the small- and medium-sized commercial building market and articulates the value proposition of VOLTTRON for three core participants in this ecosystem: 1) platform owners/adopters, 2) app developers, and 3) end-users. The report also identifies key market drivers and opportunities for open platform deployments in the small- and medium-sized commercial building market. Possible pathways to the market are described—laboratory testing to market adoption to commercialization. We also identify and address various technical and market barriers that could hinder deployment of VOLTTRON. Finally, we provide “best practice” tech-to-market guidance for building energy-related deployment efforts serving small- and

  1. The influence of patient size on dose conversion coefficients: a hybrid phantom study for adult cardiac catheterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Perry; Lee, Choonsik; Johnson, Kevin; Siragusa, Daniel; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2009-06-01

    In this study, the influence of patient size on organ and effective dose conversion coefficients (DCCs) was investigated for a representative interventional fluoroscopic procedure—cardiac catheterization. The study was performed using hybrid phantoms representing an underweight, average and overweight American adult male. Reference body sizes were determined using the NHANES III database and parameterized based on standing height and total body mass. Organ and effective dose conversion coefficients were calculated for anterior-posterior, posterior-anterior, left anterior oblique and right anterior oblique projections using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX 2.5.0 with the metric dose area product being used as the normalization factor. Results show body size to have a clear influence on DCCs which increased noticeably when body size decreased. It was also shown that if patient size is neglected when choosing a DCC, the organ and effective dose will be underestimated to an underweight patient and will be overestimated to an underweight patient, with errors as large as 113% for certain projections. Results were further compared with those published for a KTMAN-2 Korean patient-specific tomographic phantom. The published DCCs aligned best with the hybrid phantom which most closely matched in overall body size. These results highlighted the need for and the advantages of phantom-patient matching, and it is recommended that hybrid phantoms be used to create a more diverse library of patient-dependent anthropomorphic phantoms for medical dose reconstruction.

  2. One Size Fits All? Promoting Condom Use for Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention among Heterosexual Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Visser, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this exploratory qualitative study were to increase our understanding of heterosexual young adults knowledge and beliefs about sexually transmitted infections (STIs) other than HIV, to explore their beliefs about the factors that influence condom use for STI prevention, and to explore their ideas about how best to promote condom use…

  3. Analyzing the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises of a national technology innovation research and development program.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungmin

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) of a national technology innovation research and development (R&D) program. In particular, an empirical analysis is presented that aims to answer the following question: "Is there a difference in the efficiency between R&D collaboration types and between government R&D subsidy sizes?" Methodologically, the efficiency of a government-sponsored R&D project (i.e., GSP) is measured by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), and a nonparametric analysis of variance method, the Kruskal-Wallis (KW) test is adopted to see if the efficiency differences between R&D collaboration types and between government R&D subsidy sizes are statistically significant. This study's major findings are as follows. First, contrary to our hypothesis, when we controlled the influence of government R&D subsidy size, there was no statistically significant difference in the efficiency between R&D collaboration types. However, the R&D collaboration type, "SME-University-Laboratory" Joint-Venture was superior to the others, achieving the largest median and the smallest interquartile range of DEA efficiency scores. Second, the differences in the efficiency were statistically significant between government R&D subsidy sizes, and the phenomenon of diseconomies of scale was identified on the whole. As the government R&D subsidy size increases, the central measures of DEA efficiency scores were reduced, but the dispersion measures rather tended to get larger.

  4. Small-sized, stable lipid nanoparticle for the efficient delivery of siRNA to human immune cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Takashi; Kuroi, Moeka; Fujiwara, Yuki; Warashina, Shota; Sato, Yusuke; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Gene silencing by small interfering RNA (siRNA) is useful for analyzing the functions of human immune cells. However, the transfection of siRNA to human immune cells is difficult. Here, we used a multifunctional envelope-type nanodevice (MEND) containing YSK12-C4 (YSK12-MEND) to efficiently introduce siRNA to human immune cell lines, Jurkat, THP-1, KG-1 and NK92. The YSK12-MEND was transfected to human immune cell lines at a siRNA dose range of 1–30 nM, resulting that maximum gene silencing efficiencies at the mRNA level in Jurkat, THP-1, KG-1 and NK92 were 96%, 96%, 91% and 75%, respectively. The corresponding values for Lipofectamine RNAiMAX (RNAiMAX) were 37%, 56%, 43% and 19%, respectively. The process associated with cellular uptake played a role in effective gene silencing effect of the YSK12-MEND. The small size and high non-aggregability of the YSK12-MEND were advantageous for the cellular internalization of siRNA to immune cell lines. In the case of RNAiMAX, a drastic increase in particles size was observed in the medium used, which inhibited cellular uptake. The YSK12-MEND reported in herein appears to be appropriate for delivering siRNA to human immune cells, and the small particle size and non-aggregability are essential properties. PMID:27892533

  5. Small effective population size and genetic homogeneity in the Val Borbera isolate

    PubMed Central

    Colonna, Vincenza; Pistis, Giorgio; Bomba, Lorenzo; Mona, Stefano; Matullo, Giuseppe; Boano, Rosa; Sala, Cinzia; Viganò, Fiammetta; Torroni, Antonio; Achilli, Alessandro; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Malerba, Giovanni; Gambaro, Giovanni; Soranzo, Nicole; Toniolo, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Population isolates are a valuable resource for medical genetics because of their reduced genetic, phenotypic and environmental heterogeneity. Further, extended linkage disequilibrium (LD) allows accurate haplotyping and imputation. In this study, we use nuclear and mitochondrial DNA data to determine to what extent the geographically isolated population of the Val Borbera valley also presents features of genetic isolation. We performed a comparative analysis of population structure and estimated effective population size exploiting LD data. We also evaluated haplotype sharing through the analysis of segments of autozygosity. Our findings reveal that the valley has features characteristic of a genetic isolate, including reduced genetic heterogeneity and reduced effective population size. We show that this population has been subject to prolonged genetic drift and thus we expect many variants that are rare in the general population to reach significant frequency values in the valley, making this population suitable for the identification of rare variants underlying complex traits. PMID:22713810

  6. Breakdown of the Hume-Rothery Rules in Sub-Nanometer-Sized Ta-Containing Bimetallic Small Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyajima, Ken; Fukushima, Naoya; Himeno, Hidenori; Yamada, Akira; Mafuné, Fumitaka

    2009-11-01

    The Hume-Rothery rules are empirical rules to predict the solid solubility of metals. We examined whether the rules hold for sub-nanometer-sized small particles. We prepared bimetallic cluster ions in the gas phase by a double laser ablation technique. Taking advantage of the magic compositions of the bimetallic cluster ions relating to the distinguished stabilities, the coalescence or the segregation of Ta and another element in the sub-nanometer-sized clusters was discussed. It was found that W, Nb, and Mo readily coalesce with Ta, while Ag, Al, Au, Co, Cu, Fe, Hf, Ni, Pt, Ti, and V are segregated from Ta. On the basis of these results, we concluded that the Hume-Rothery rules do not hold for sub-nanometer-sized particles.

  7. Engineering pollinator phenotypes: consequences of induced size variation on adult morphology and flight performance metrics in the solitary bee, Osmia lignaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Body size is an important trait because it strongly correlates with morphology, performance, and fitness. In insects, the body size model argues that adult size is determined during the larval stage by the mechanisms regulating growth rate and the duration of growth. Though explicit links have been ...

  8. Fatigue-crack propagation in gamma-based titanium aluminide alloys at large and small crack sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Kruzic, J.J.; Campbell, J.P.; Ritchie, R.O.

    1999-07-01

    Most evaluations of the fracture and fatigue-crack propagation properties of {gamma}+{alpha}{sub 2} titanium aluminide alloys to date have been performed using standard large-crack samples, e.g., compact-tension specimens containing crack sizes which are on the order of tens of millimeters, i.e., large compared to microstructural dimensions. However, these alloys have been targeted for applications, such as blades in gas-turbine engines, where relevant crack sizes are much smaller ({lt}500 {micro}m) and where the small-crack fatigue threshold may be the most relevant design parameter. In this study, the authors compare and contrast the cyclic crack-growth behavior of both large (a {gt} 5 mm) and (c {approximately} 25--300 {micro}m) cracks in a {gamma}-TiAl based alloy, of composition Ti-47Al-2Nb-2Cr-0.2B (at.%), specifically for duplex (average grain size {approximately}17 {micro}m) and refined lamellar (average colony size {approximately}150 {micro}m) microstructures. It is found that, whereas the lamellar microstructure displays far superior fracture toughness and fatigue-crack growth resistance in the presence of large cracks, in small-crack testing the duplex microstructure exhibits a better combination of properties. The reasons for such contrasting behavior are examined in terms of the intrinsic and extrinsic (i.e., crack bridging) contributions to cyclic crack advance.

  9. Juvenile frogs compensate for small metamorph size with terrestrial growth: Overcoming the effects of larval density and insecticide exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boone, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    I reared four species of anurans (Rana sphenocephala [Southern Leopard Frog], Rana blairi [Plains Leopard Frog], Rana clamitans [Green Frog], and Bufo woodhousii [Woodhouse's Toad]) for seven to 12 months in small, outdoor terrestrial enclosures (1 x 2 m) to examine the consequences of larval competition (via density) and contaminant exposure (via the insecticide carbaryl). I added six Rana clamitans, eight Rana sphenocephala, eight Rana blairi, and 10 Bufo woodhousii to terrestrial enclosures shortly after metamorphosis and recaptured them during the following spring. All anurans from low-density ponds were significantly larger than those from high-density ponds, but these size differences did not significantly affect survival to or size at spring emergence. However, R. sphenocephala, R. blairi, and R. clamitans that survived to spring had been larger at metamorphosis on average than those that did not survive; in contrast, B. woodhousii that survived the winter were smaller at metamorphosis on average than those that did not survive. Carbaryl exposure affected mass at metamorphosis of R. clamitans and B. woodhousii that were added to enclosures, but this difference disappeared or did not increase by spring emergence. Overall, exposure to carbaryl during the larval period did not have any apparent effects on survival or growth during the terrestrial phase. In my study, anurans were able to offset small size at metamorphosis with terrestrial growth, although there was a trend of reduced overwinter survival for ranid species that metamorphosed at a smaller size. Copyright 2005 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  10. Lens apoptosis in the Astyanax blind cavefish is not triggered by its small size or defects in morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hinaux, Hélène; Recher, Gaëlle; Alié, Alexandre; Legendre, Laurent; Blin, Maryline

    2017-01-01

    Blindness is a convergent trait in many cave animals of various phyla. Astyanax mexicanus cavefish is one of the best studied cave animals; however the mechanisms underlying eye degeneration in this species are not yet completely understood. The lens seems to play a central role, but only relatively late differentiation defects have been implicated in the cavefish lens apoptosis phenotype so far. Here, we used genetic crosses between Astyanax cavefish and surface fish to confirm that during development, lens size is independent of retina size. We then investigated whether the small size of the cavefish lens could directly cause cell death. Laser ablation experiments of lens placode cells in surface fish embryos showed that a small lens size is not sufficient to trigger lens apoptosis. We further examined potential lens morphogenesis defects through classical histology and live-imaging microscopy. From lens placode to lens ball, we found that lens invagination and formation of the lens epithelium and fiber cells occur normally in cavefish. We conclude that the main and deleterious defect in the Astyanax cavefish lens must concern the molecular control of lens cell function. PMID:28235048

  11. Mid-term results of small-sized St. Jude Medical Regent prosthetic valves (21 mm or less) for small aortic annulus.

    PubMed

    Mizoguchi, Hiroki; Sakaki, Masayuki; Inoue, Kazushige; Iwata, Takashi; Tei, Keikou; Miura, Takuya

    2013-11-01

    Prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) is always of concern when performing aortic valve replacement (AVR) in patients with a small aortic annulus. Although bioprosthetic AVR is preferred in patients older than 65 years, we have experienced cases in elderly patients with a small aortic annulus whereby we could not implant small-sized bioprosthetic valves. We have implanted St. Jude Medical Regent (SJMR) mechanical valves (St. Jude Medical, St. Paul, MN, USA) as necessary, even in elderly patients with no aortic annulus enlargement. We investigated our experiences of AVR with SJMR mechanical valves of 21 mm or less in size. Between January 2006 and December 2009, 40 patients underwent AVR with SJMR mechanical valves ≤21 mm in size: 9 patients received 21-mm valves, 19 received 19-mm valves, and 12 received 17-mm valves. The mean age was 65.9 ± 9.5 years, and 25 patients (62.5 %) were 65 years or older. We evaluated the clinical outcome and the echocardiographic data for each valve size. There was no operative or hospital mortality. The mean duration of clinical follow-up was 31.2 ± 17.6 months. During follow-up, there were no hospitalizations due to heart failure. The cumulative valve-related event-free survival was 93 % at 33 months, and the cumulative hemorrhagic event-free survival was 93 % at 33 months and 84 % at 43 months, using the Kaplan-Meier method. At follow-up, the mean values of the measured effective orifice area (EOA) for the 21-, 19-, and 17-mm prostheses were 2.00 ± 0.22, 1.74 ± 0.37, and 1.25 ± 0.26 cm(2), and the mean measured EOA index (EOAI) were 1.17 ± 0.12, 1.11 ± 0.21 and 0.90 ± 0.22 cm(2)/m(2), respectively. A PPM (EOAI ≤0.85) was documented in 5 patients, all of whom had received a 17-mm SJMR valve. AVR with SJMR valves of 21 mm or less in size appears to show satisfactory clinical and hemodynamic results.

  12. Size breeds success: multiple paternity, multivariate selection and male semelparity in a small marsupial, Antechinus stuartii.

    PubMed

    Holleley, C E; Dickman, C R; Crowther, M S; Oldroyd, B P

    2006-10-01

    Mating in the marsupial genus Antechinus is a synchronous annual event that is characterized by monoestry in females and abrupt postmating mortality in males. Male semelparity (multiple copulations during a single breeding season per lifetime) is often assumed to occur as a consequence of the intense mating effort expended by males in the rut, but the forces selecting for this remain elusive. Here, we investigate selection in male brown antechinus, Antechinus stuartii, and test two hypotheses for the evolution of semelparity: intermale competition and sperm competition. If intermale competition drives semelparity, we predicted that males would be under strong selection for large body size. If sperm competition is important, we predicted that selection would be strongest on scrotal size, a surrogate for testes volume. Using microsatellite markers, we found that 92% of females in free-living conditions mated with multiple males, producing litters of eight that had up to four fathers. These observations confirm the potential for sperm competition. Using selection analysis, we then found paternity success in 119 males to be related most strongly to body mass and scrotal size, thus providing support for both hypotheses. Large males presumably experience increased paternity success by gaining more matings or prolonged copulations via mate guarding, while large testes may allow increased sperm investment per copulation. Increased levels of free corticosteroid hormones in males facilitate the extreme mating effort during the short period of rut, but lead to immune suppression and consequently to the phenomenon of postmating mortality.

  13. Small Molecular-Sized Artesunate Attenuates Ocular Neovascularization via VEGFR2, PKCα, and PDGFR Targets

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Yao; Yuan, Yongguang; Qian, Xiaobing; Huang, Zhen; Yang, Wei; Lin, Leilei; Zheng, Qishan; Li, Yujie; He, Huining; Gao, Qianying

    2016-01-01

    Ocular neovascularization (NV) is the primary cause of blindness in many ocular diseases. Large molecular weight anti- vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein drugs, such as Avastin and Lucentis, have saved the vision of millions. However, approximately 20–30% of patients respond poorly to anti-VEGF treatment. We found that artesunate (ART), a small molecular derivative of artemisinin, had a significant inhibitory effect on ocular NV by downregulating the expression of VEGFR2, PKCα, and PDGFR. ART significantly inhibited retinal NV in rabbits and macular edema in monkeys with greater anterior chamber penetrability and more durable efficacy than Avastin. Our pilot study showed that intravitreal injection of 80 μg ART significantly inhibited iris and corneal NV in a severe retinal detachment case. Our results suggest that ART might be a potential persistent small-molecule drug to manage ocular NV via multi-targets. PMID:27480521

  14. Combination of small size and carboxyl functionalisation causes cytotoxicity of short carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Fröhlich, Eleonore; Meindl, Claudia; Höfler, Anita; Leitinger, Gerd; Roblegg, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) could improve medical diagnosis and treatment provided they show no adverse effects in the organism. In this study, short CNTs with different diameters with and without carboxyl surface functionalisation were assessed. After physicochemical characterisation, cytotoxicity in phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells was determined. The role of oxidative stress was evaluated according to the intracellular glutathione levels and protection by N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). In addition to this, the mode of cell death was also investigated. CNTs <8 nm acted more cytotoxic than CNTs ≥20 nm and carboxylated CNTs more than pristine CNTs. Protection by NAC was maximal for large diameter pristine CNTs and minimal for small diameter carboxylated CNTs. Thin (<8 nm) CNTs acted mainly by disruption of membrane integrity and CNTs with larger diameter induced mainly apoptotic changes. It is concluded that cytotoxicity of small carboxylated CNTs occurs by necrosis and cannot be prevented by antioxidants. PMID:22963691

  15. Life-history traits and effective population size in species with overlapping generations revisited: the importance of adult mortality.

    PubMed

    Waples, R S

    2016-10-01

    The relationship between life-history traits and the key eco-evolutionary parameters effective population size (Ne) and Ne/N is revisited for iteroparous species with overlapping generations, with a focus on the annual rate of adult mortality (d). Analytical methods based on populations with arbitrarily long adult lifespans are used to evaluate the influence of d on Ne, Ne/N and the factors that determine these parameters: adult abundance (N), generation length (T), age at maturity (α), the ratio of variance to mean reproductive success in one season by individuals of the same age (φ) and lifetime variance in reproductive success of individuals in a cohort (Vk•). Although the resulting estimators of N, T and Vk• are upwardly biased for species with short adult lifespans, the estimate of Ne/N is largely unbiased because biases in T are compensated for by biases in Vk• and N. For the first time, the contrasting effects of T and Vk• on Ne and Ne/N are jointly considered with respect to d and φ. A simple function of d and α based on the assumption of constant vital rates is shown to be a robust predictor (R(2)=0.78) of Ne/N in an empirical data set of life tables for 63 animal and plant species with diverse life histories. Results presented here should provide important context for interpreting the surge of genetically based estimates of Ne that has been fueled by the genomics revolution.

  16. On the Scaling of Small, Heat Simulated Jet Noise Measurements to Moderate Size Exhaust Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLaughlin, Dennis K.; Bridges, James; Kuo, Ching-Wen

    2010-01-01

    Modern military aircraft jet engines are designed with variable geometry nozzles to provide optimum thrust in different operating conditions, depending on the flight envelope. However, the acoustic measurements for such nozzles are scarce, due to the cost involved in making full scale measurements and the lack of details about the exact geometry of these nozzles. Thus the present effort at The Pennsylvania State University and the NASA Glenn Research Center- in partnership with GE Aviation is aiming to study and characterize the acoustic field produced by supersonic jets issuing from converging-diverging military style nozzles. An equally important objective is to validate methodology for using data obtained from small and moderate scale experiments to reliably predict the most important components of full scale engine noise. The experimental results presented show reasonable agreement between small scale and moderate scale jet acoustic data, as well as between heated jets and heat-simulated ones. Unresolved issues however are identified that are currently receiving our attention, in particular the effect of the small bypass ratio airflow. Future activities will identify and test promising noise reduction techniques in an effort to predict how well such concepts will work with full scale engines in flight conditions.

  17. Morphometry of small recent impact craters on Mars: Size and terrain dependence, short-term modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watters, W. A.; Geiger, L. M.; Fendrock, M.; Gibson, R.

    2015-02-01

    Most recent studies of crater morphometry on Mars have addressed large craters (D>5 km) using elevation models derived from laser altimetry. In the present work, we examine a global population of small (25 m ≤D≤5 km), relatively well-preserved simple impact craters using HiRISE stereo-derived elevation models. We find that scaling laws from prior studies of large simple craters generally overestimate the depth and volume at small diameters. We show that crater rim curvature exhibits a strong diameter dependence that is well-described by scaling laws for D<1 km. Above this diameter, upper rim slopes begin to exceed typical repose angles and crater rims sharpen significantly. This transition is likely the result of gravity-driven collapse of the upper cavity walls during crater formation or short-term modification. In addition, we identify a tendency for small craters (D<500m) to be more conical than large craters, and we show that the average cavity cross section is well-described by a power law with exponent ˜1.75 (neither conical nor paraboloidal). We also conduct a statistical comparison of crater subpopulations to illuminate trends with increasing modification and target strength. These results have important implications for describing the "initial condition" of simple crater shape as a function of diameter and geological setting and for understanding how impact craters are modified on the Martian surface over time.

  18. Genetic risk prediction in a small cohort of healthy adults in Atlanta.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Arafat, Dalia; Brigham, Kenneth L; Gibson, Greg

    2013-02-01

    Compared with single markers, polygenic scores that evaluate the joint effects of multiple trait-associated variants are more effective in explaining the variance of traits and risk of diseases. In total, 182 CHDWB (Emory-Georgia Tech Center for Health Discovery and Well Being study) adults were genotyped to investigate the common variant contributions to three traits (height, BMI, serum triglycerides) and three diseases (coronary artery disease (CAD), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and asthma). Association was contrasted between weighted and simple allelic sum polygenic scores with quantitative traits, and with the Framingham risk scores for CAD and T2D. Although the cohort size is two or three orders of magnitude smaller than typical discovery cohorts, we were able to detect significant associations and to explain up to 5% of the traits by the genetic risk scores, despite a strong influence of outliers. An unexpected finding was that CAD-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) explain a significant amount of the variation for total serum cholesterol. Forward step-wise sequential addition of SNPs into the regression model showed that the top-ranked SNPs explain a large proportion of variance, whereas inclusion of gender and ethnicity also affect the performance of polygenic scores.

  19. Organ-Specific and Size-Dependent Ag Nanoparticle Toxicity in Gills and Intestines of Adult Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Olivia J; Lin, Sijie; Chang, Chong Hyun; Ji, Zhaoxia; Yu, Xuechen; Wang, Xiang; Lin, Shuo; Xia, Tian; Nel, André E

    2015-10-27

    We studied adult zebrafish to determine whether the size of 20 and 110 nm citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (AgC NPs) differentially impact the gills and intestines, known target organs for Ag toxicity in fish. Following exposure for 4 h, 4 days, or 4 days plus a 7 day depuration period, we obtained different toxicokinetic profiles for different particle sizes, as determined by Ag content of the tissues. Ionic AgNO3 served as a positive control. The gills showed a significantly higher Ag content for the 20 nm particles at 4 h and 4 days than the 110 nm particles, while the values were more similar in the intestines. Both particle types were retained in the intestines even after depuration. These toxicokinetics were accompanied by striking size-dependent differences in the ultrastructural features and histopathology in the target organs in response to the particulates. Ag staining of the gills and intestines confirmed prominent Ag deposition in the basolateral membranes for the 20 nm but not for the 110 nm particles. Furthermore, it was possible to link the site of tissue deposition to disruption of the Na(+)/K(+) ion channel, which is also localized to the basolateral membrane. This was confirmed by a reduction in ATPase activity and immunohistochemical detection of the α subunit of this channel in both target organs, with the 20 nm particles causing significantly higher inhibition and disruption than the larger size particles or AgNO3. These results demonstrate the importance of particle size in determining the hazardous impact of AgNPs in the gills and intestines of adult zebrafish.

  20. ARSA accelerator - small-size source of nanosecond pulses of electron and x-ray radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Elyash, S.L.; Alexandrin, A.I.; Donskoy, E.N.

    1993-12-31

    ARSA miniature accelerator is notable for high intensity of radiation and characteristics stability. Near the output window the electron an x ray dose in the air constitutes in a 10 ns pulse 3 x 10{sup 4} Gy and 3 Gy, respectively. Maximal electron and x-ray quanta energy of 700 keV provides high permeability. Dimensions of the accelerator high-voltage unit are small: 250 x 1000 mm and 50 kg weight. It operates in a single pulse regime or generates a pulse series according to the specified program.

  1. Sizing of "Mother Ship and Catcher" Concepts for LEO Small Debris Capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, John B.

    2009-01-01

    Most Low Earth Orbit (LEO) debris lies in a limited number of inclination "bands" associated with launch latitudes, or with specific useful orbit inclinations (such as polar orbits). Such narrow inclination bands generally have a uniform spread over all possible Right Ascensions of Ascending Node (RAANs), creating a different orbit plane for nearly every piece of debris. This complicates concept of rendezvous and capture for debris removal. However, a low-orbiting satellite will always phase in RAAN faster than debris objects in higher orbits at the same inclination, potentially solving the problem. Such a base can serve as a single space-based launch facility (a "mother ship") that can tend and then send tiny individual catcher devices for each debris object, as the facility drifts into the same RAAN as the higher object. This presentation will highlight characteristic system requirements of such an architecture, including structural and navigation requirements, power, mass and dV budgets for both the mother ship and the mass-produced common catcher devices that would clean out selected inclination bands. The altitude and inclination regime over which a band is to be cleared, the size distribution of the debris, and the inclusion of additional mission priorities all affect the sizing of the system. It is demonstrated that major LEO hazardous debris reductions can be realized in each band with a single LEO launch of a single mother ship, with simple attached catchers of total mass less than typical commercial LEO launch capability.

  2. Small population size of Pribilof Rock Sandpipers confirmed through distance-sampling surveys in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Gill, Robert E.; Dementyev, Maksim N.; Handel, Colleen M.

    2012-01-01

    The Rock Sandpiper (Calidris ptilocnemis) is endemic to the Bering Sea region and unique among shorebirds in the North Pacific for wintering at high latitudes. The nominate subspecies, the Pribilof Rock Sandpiper (C. p. ptilocnemis), breeds on four isolated islands in the Bering Sea and appears to spend the winter primarily in Cook Inlet, Alaska. We used a stratified systematic sampling design and line-transect method to survey the entire breeding range of this population during springs 2001-2003. Densities were up to four times higher on the uninhabited and more northerly St. Matthew and Hall islands than on St. Paul and St. George islands, which both have small human settlements and introduced reindeer herds. Differences in density, however, appeared to be more related to differences in vegetation than to anthropogenic factors, raising some concern for prospective effects of climate change. We estimated the total population at 19 832 birds (95% CI 17 853–21 930), ranking it among the smallest of North American shorebird populations. To determine the vulnerability of C. p. ptilocnemis to anthropogenic and stochastic environmental threats, future studies should focus on determining the amount of gene flow among island subpopulations, the full extent of the subspecies' winter range, and the current trajectory of this small population.

  3. Design and analysis of serial limiting dilution assays with small sample sizes.

    PubMed

    Macken, C

    1999-01-01

    We study the design of serial limiting dilution assays (SLDAs) for estimation of effector cell frequency in settings that restrict severely the amount of material available for assay, and for which the assumption of a single-hit Poisson model is reasonable. For different designs (that is, dilution factor, number of dilution levels, and number of replicates at each level), we evaluate maximum likelihood and minimum chi-square estimators, using four quantitative criteria: probability of a non-informative assay (PNI), bias, coefficient of variation (CV), and mean squared error (MSE). Our results are exact, not simulation-based, nor approximations. We found that differences between these two estimators were insubstantial by comparison with the effect on the estimators of the experimental design. Bias was severe in small assays, and could lead, in extremely small designs, to overestimation of effector frequency by as much as 100%. These four criteria provide a rigorous basis for determining the most effective apportionment of total effort among replicates and dilution levels. By increasing the dilution factor and favoring the number of replicates over the number of dilution levels, the PNI is reduced while bias, CV and MSE are increased; and vice versa. Our study is easily extended to estimation of the density of biologically active particles per volume. It can also be extended to alternatives to the single-hit Poisson model for a serial limiting dilution assay.

  4. Software-Defined Solutions for Managing Energy Use in Small to Medium Sized Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Peffer, Therese; Blumstein, Carl; Culler, David; Modera, Mark; Meier, Alan

    2015-09-10

    The Project uses state-of-the-art computer science to extend the benefits of Building Automation Systems (BAS) typically found in large buildings (>100,000 square foot) to medium-sized commercial buildings (<50,000 sq ft). The BAS developed in this project, termed OpenBAS, uses an open-source and open software architecture platform, user interface, and plug-and-play control devices to facilitate adoption of energy efficiency strategies in the commercial building sector throughout the United States. At the heart of this “turn key” BAS is the platform with three types of controllers—thermostat, lighting controller, and general controller—that are easily “discovered” by the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. The user interface showcases the platform and provides the control system set-up, system status display and means of automatically mapping the control points in the system.

  5. Variability of wavefront aberration measurements in small pupil sizes using a clinical Shack-Hartmann aberrometer

    PubMed Central

    Ginis, Harilaos S; Plainis, Sotiris; Pallikaris, Aristophanis

    2004-01-01

    Background Recently, instruments for the measurement of wavefront aberration in the living human eye have been widely available for clinical applications. Despite the extensive background experience on wavefront sensing for research purposes, the information derived from such instrumentation in a clinical setting should not be considered a priori precise. We report on the variability of such an instrument at two different pupil sizes. Methods A clinical aberrometer (COAS Wavefront Scienses, Ltd) based on the Shack-Hartmann principle was employed in this study. Fifty consecutive measurements were perfomed on each right eye of four subjects. We compared the variance of individual Zernike expansion coefficients as determined by the aberrometer with the variance of coefficients calculated using a mathematical method for scaling the expansion coefficients to reconstruct wavefront aberration for a reduced-size pupil. Results Wavefront aberration exhibits a marked variance of the order of 0.45 microns near the edge of the pupil whereas the central part appears to be measured more consistently. Dispersion of Zernike expansion coefficients was lower when calculated by the scaling method for a pupil diameter of 3 mm as compared to the one introduced when only the central 3 mm of the Shack – Hartmann image was evaluated. Signal-to-noise ratio was lower for higher order aberrations than for low order coefficients corresponding to the sphero-cylindrical error. For each subject a number of Zernike expansion coefficients was below noise level and should not be considered trustworthy. Conclusion Wavefront aberration data used in clinical care should not be extracted from a single measurement, which represents only a static snapshot of a dynamically changing aberration pattern. This observation must be taken into account in order to prevent ambiguous conclusions in clinical practice and especially in refractive surgery. PMID:15018630

  6. Remarks on small sample size taken from reference population for examination of factor VIII.

    PubMed

    Sikorová, J; Zvárová, J

    1988-01-01

    Investigation of plasma factor VIII activities in 20 reference (normal) individuals (N = 20) is frequently used to evaluate the reference distribution parameters by means of simple statistical method. Two examples demonstrate the inaccuracy of conclusions of such a small sample of data. The first one shows the comparison of estimate of F.VIII:C reference limits obtained from examination of 6 different groups randomly chosen (N = 20 each) with a group of N = 120 reference individuals. The second example presents the balance of haemophilia A carrier detection rate performed in 30 obligatory carriers and 42 normal women by examination of F.VIII:C and VWF-Ag using universal discriminant. The correction figures typical for specific conditions of our laboratory are obtained from examination of N = 20 and N = 80 individuals and using heuristic optimalization.

  7. A Review of Supply Chain Collaboration Practices for Small and Medium-sized Manufacturers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, SY; Thoo, AC; Z, Sulaiman; FM, Muharam

    2016-05-01

    For the decades, organizations have endeavored to look for external sources for opportunities to achieve efficient and responsive supply chain with their partners especially for small and medium manufacturers (SMM). In this scenario, supply chain collaboration (SCC) is an interaction between supply chain members with the purpose of utilizes the knowledge and resources of customers and suppliers, and integrates the flows of products and information in order to achieve a common goal and obtain mutual benefit. The essential SCC dimensions for SMMs comprised of information sharing, joint knowledge creation, joint decision making, goal congruence and incentive sharing. The successful implementation of SCC can give SMMs an edge over their competitors. This paper aims to introduce a review of SCC practices for SMM. Overall, the findings provide managerial insights for the SMM in SCC implementation owing to resource scarcity and the need to draw SCC in order to ensure a sustainable competitive advantage.

  8. Superior room-temperature ductility of typically brittle quasicrystals at small sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yu; Kuczera, Pawel; Sologubenko, Alla; Sumigawa, Takashi; Kitamura, Takayuki; Steurer, Walter; Spolenak, Ralph

    2016-08-01

    The discovery of quasicrystals three decades ago unveiled a class of matter that exhibits long-range order but lacks translational periodicity. Owing to their unique structures, quasicrystals possess many unusual properties. However, a well-known bottleneck that impedes their widespread application is their intrinsic brittleness: plastic deformation has been found to only be possible at high temperatures or under hydrostatic pressures, and their deformation mechanism at low temperatures is still unclear. Here, we report that typically brittle quasicrystals can exhibit remarkable ductility of over 50% strains and high strengths of ~4.5 GPa at room temperature and sub-micrometer scales. In contrast to the generally accepted dominant deformation mechanism in quasicrystals--dislocation climb, our observation suggests that dislocation glide may govern plasticity under high-stress and low-temperature conditions. The ability to plastically deform quasicrystals at room temperature should lead to an improved understanding of their deformation mechanism and application in small-scale devices.

  9. Genetic rescue in interconnected populations of small and large size of the self-incompatible Ranunculus reptans.

    PubMed

    Willi, Y; Fischer, M

    2005-12-01

    Small populations of our study species Ranunculus reptans have reduced fitness because of inbreeding, genetic load, and reduced mate availability; that is, they suffer from a three-fold genetic Allee effect. Here, we investigate how the effect of interpopulation outbreeding on offspring fitness depends on population size. We performed within- and between-population crosses with plants originating from 15 populations, and measured offspring performance in a common environment. Interpopulation outbreeding led to an increase in population means of clonal performance, which was defined as the number of rooted offspring rosettes produced per maternal ovule. This fitness gain mainly occurred at the life stage of seed set. It was especially pronounced for populations with a long-term history of small size inferred from their low genetic diversity, estimated from eight allozyme loci. We conclude that in a self-incompatible plant such as R. reptans, interpopulation outbreeding can lead to an immediate genetic rescue effect due to increased cross-compatibility and heterosis, and that this rescue effect is increased as population size decreases.

  10. Method to study sample object size limit of small-angle x-ray scattering computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Mina; Ghammraoui, Bahaa; Badal, Andreu; Badano, Aldo

    2016-03-01

    Small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) imaging is an emerging medical tool that can be used for in vivo detailed tissue characterization and has the potential to provide added contrast to conventional x-ray projection and CT imaging. We used a publicly available MC-GPU code to simulate x-ray trajectories in a SAXS-CT geometry for a target material embedded in a water background material with varying sample sizes (1, 3, 5, and 10 mm). Our target materials were water solution of gold nanoparticle (GNP) spheres with a radius of 6 nm and a water solution with dissolved serum albumin (BSA) proteins due to their well-characterized scatter profiles at small angles and highly scattering properties. The background material was water. Our objective is to study how the reconstructed scatter profile degrades at larger target imaging depths and increasing sample sizes. We have found that scatter profiles of the GNP in water can still be reconstructed at depths up to 5 mm embedded at the center of a 10 mm sample. Scatter profiles of BSA in water were also reconstructed at depths up to 5 mm in a 10 mm sample but with noticeable signal degradation as compared to the GNP sample. This work presents a method to study the sample size limits for future SAXS-CT imaging systems.

  11. Big cat, small cat: reconstructing body size evolution in living and extinct Felidae.

    PubMed

    Cuff, A R; Randau, M; Head, J; Hutchinson, J R; Pierce, S E; Goswami, A

    2015-08-01

    The evolution of body mass is a fundamental topic in evolutionary biology, because it is closely linked to manifold life history and ecological traits and is readily estimable for many extinct taxa. In this study, we examine patterns of body mass evolution in Felidae (Placentalia, Carnivora) to assess the effects of phylogeny, mode of evolution, and the relationship between body mass and prey choice in this charismatic mammalian clade. Our data set includes 39 extant and 26 extinct taxa, with published body mass data supplemented by estimates based on condylobasal length. These data were run through 'SURFACE' and 'bayou' to test for patterns of body mass evolution and convergence between taxa. Body masses of felids are significantly different among prey choice groupings (small, mixed and large). We find that body mass evolution in cats is strongly influenced by phylogeny, but different patterns emerged depending on inclusion of extinct taxa and assumptions about branch lengths. A single Ornstein-Uhlenbeck optimum best explains the distribution of body masses when first-occurrence data were used for the fossil taxa. However, when mean occurrence dates or last known occurrence dates were used, two selective optima for felid body mass were recovered in most analyses: a small optimum around 5 kg and a large one around 100 kg. Across living and extinct cats, we infer repeated evolutionary convergences towards both of these optima, but, likely due to biased extinction of large taxa, our results shift to supporting a Brownian motion model when only extant taxa are included in analyses.

  12. New small-size peptides modulators of the exosite of BACE1 obtained from a structure-based design.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Lucas J; Angelina, Emilio; Gyebrovszki, Andrea; Fülöp, Lívia; Peruchena, Nelida; Baldoni, Héctor A; Penke, Botond; Enriz, Ricardo D

    2017-02-01

    We report here two new small-size peptides acting as modulators of the β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) exosite. Ac-YPYFDPL-NH2 and Ac-YPYDIPL-NH2 displayed a moderate but significant inhibitory effect on BACE1. These peptides were obtained from a molecular modeling study. By combining MD simulations with ab initio and DFT calculations, a simple and generally applicable procedure to evaluate the binding energies of small-size peptides interacting with the exosite of the BACE1 is reported here. The structural aspects obtained for the different complexes were analyzed providing a clear picture about the binding interactions of these peptides. These interactions have been investigated within the framework of the density functional theory and the quantum theory of atoms in molecules using a reduced model. Although the approach used here was traditionally applied to the study of noncovalent interactions in small molecules complexes in gas phase, we show, through in this work, that this methodology is also a very powerful tool for the study of biomolecular complexes, providing a very detailed description of the binding event of peptides modulators at the exosite of BACE1.

  13. 78 FR 51746 - Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... COMMISSION Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the... Barriers that U.S. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the European Union... ). Persons with mobility impairments who will need special assistance in gaining access to the...

  14. 78 FR 66950 - Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... COMMISSION Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the... ). Persons with mobility impairments who will need special assistance in gaining access to the Commission... prepare a report that catalogs trade barriers that U.S. small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)...

  15. Understanding the Effect Size of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate for Treating ADHD in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraone, Stephen V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: An earlier meta-analysis of pediatric clinical trials indicated that lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) had a greater effect size than other stimulant medications. This work tested the hypothesis that the apparent increased efficacy was artifactual. Method: The authors assessed two potential artifacts: an unusually high precision of…

  16. Relationship between effective population size, inbreeding and adult fitness-related traits in a steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population released in the wild.

    PubMed

    Naish, K A; Seamons, T R; Dauer, M B; Hauser, L; Quinn, T P

    2013-03-01

    Inbreeding is of concern in supportive breeding programmes in Pacific salmonids, Oncorhynchus spp, where the number of breeding adults is limited by rearing space or poor survival to adulthood, and large numbers are released to supplement wild stocks and fisheries. We reconstructed the pedigree of 6602 migratory hatchery steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) over four generations, to determine the incidence and fitness consequences of inbreeding in a northwest USA programme. The hatchery maintained an effective population size, Ñ(e) = 107.9 from F(0) to F(2), despite an increasing census size (N), which resulted in a decreasing N(e)/N ratio (0.35 in F(0) to 0.08 in F(2)). The reduced ratio was attributed to a small broodstock size, nonrandom transfers and high variance in reproductive success (particularly in males). We observed accumulation of inbreeding from the founder generation (in F(4), percentage individuals with inbreeding coefficients Δf > 0 = 15.7%). Generalized linear mixed models showed that body length and weight decreased significantly with increasing Δf, and inbred fish returned later to spawn in a model that included father identity. However, there was no significant correlation between Δf and age at return, female fecundity or gonad weight. Similarly, there was no relationship between Δf and reproductive success of F(2) and F(3) individuals, which might be explained by the fact that reproductive success is partially controlled by hatchery mating protocols. This study is one of the first to show that small changes in inbreeding coefficient can affect some fitness-related traits in a monitored population propagated and released to the wild.

  17. Vocabulary Size Is Associated with Second-Language Vowel Perception Performance in Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, Rikke L.; Best, Catherine T.; Tyler, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Improvement in second-language (L2) perception has been posited to occur early in L2 learning when the L2 vocabulary is still small, whereas a large L2 vocabulary curtails perceptual learning (the perceptual assimilation model for SLA [PAM-L2]; Best & Tyler, 2007). This proposition is extended by suggesting that early L2 lexical development…

  18. Purification and characterization of a small size protease from Bacillus sp. APR-4.

    PubMed

    Kumar, D; Bhalla, T C

    2004-05-01

    A thermostable extracellular protease of Bacillus sp. APR-4 was purified by size-exclusion and ion-exchange chromatographic methods and its properties were studied. The purified enzyme had a specific activity of 21,000 U/mg of protein and gave single band on SDS/PAGE with a molecular mass of 16.9 KDa. This protease had an optimal pH of 9 and exhibited its highest activity at 60 degrees C. The enzyme activity was inhibited by EDTA, suggesting the presence of metal residue at the active site. Ca2+ (5 mM) had stabilising effect on the activity of protease, but Cu2+ (5 mM) had inhibitory effect. The enzyme exhibited highest specificity towards casein (1%) and had a Km of 26.3 mg/ml and a Vmax of 47.6 U/mg with casein as a substrate. The stability of this enzyme was evaluated in the presence of some organic solvents and the enzyme was stable in methanol, petroleum ether and ethanol. Detergents (Wheel, Farishta) had stimulatory effect on the activity of this enzyme.

  19. Small-size mass spectrometer for determining gases and volatile compounds in air during breathing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, V. T.; Kozlenok, A. V.; Chichagov, Yu. V.; Antonov, A. S.; Lebedev, D. S.; Bogdanov, A. A.; Moroshkin, V. S.; Berezina, A. V.; Viktorova-Leclerc, O. S.; Vlasov, S. A.; Tubol'tsev, Yu. V.

    2015-10-01

    We describe an automated mass spectrometer for diagnostics of deceases from the composition of exhaled air. It includes a capillary system, which performs a rapid direct feeding of the sample to the instrument without changing substantially its composition and serves for studying the dynamics of variation of the ratio between various components of exhaled air. The membrane system for introducing the sample is intended for determining low concentrations of volatile organic compounds which are biomarkers of pathologies. It is characterized by selective transmittance and ensures the detection limits of target compounds at the parts per million-parts per billion (ppm-ppb) level. A static mass analyzer operating on permanent magnets possesses advantages important for mobile devices as compared to its dynamic analogs: it is more reliable in operation, has a larger dynamic range, and can be used for determining the concentration of components in the mixture one-by-one or simultaneously. The curvilinear output boundary of the magnetic lens of the mass analyzer makes it possible to reduce its weight and size by 2.5 times without deteriorating the mass resolution. We report on the results of testing of the instrument and consider the possibility of its application for early detection of deceases of respiratory and blood circulation system, gastrointestinal tract, and endocrine system.

  20. Ground-state properties of small-size nonlinear dynamical lattices.

    PubMed

    Buonsante, P; Kevrekidis, P G; Penna, V; Vezzani, A

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the ground state of a system of interacting particles in small nonlinear lattices with M >or=3 sites, using as a prototypical example the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation that has been recently used extensively in the contexts of nonlinear optics of waveguide arrays and Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices. We find that, in the presence of attractive interactions, the dynamical scenario relevant to the ground-state and the lowest-energy modes of such few-site nonlinear lattices reveals a variety of nontrivial features that are absent in the large/infinite lattice limits: the single-pulse solution and the uniform solution are found to coexist in a finite range of the lattice intersite coupling where, depending on the latter, one of them represents the ground state; in addition, the single-pulse mode does not even exist beyond a critical parametric threshold. Finally, the onset of the ground-state (modulational) instability appears to be intimately connected with a nonstandard ("double transcritical") type of bifurcation that, to the best of our knowledge, has not been reported previously in other physical systems.

  1. Superior room-temperature ductility of typically brittle quasicrystals at small sizes

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yu; Kuczera, Pawel; Sologubenko, Alla; Sumigawa, Takashi; Kitamura, Takayuki; Steurer, Walter; Spolenak, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of quasicrystals three decades ago unveiled a class of matter that exhibits long-range order but lacks translational periodicity. Owing to their unique structures, quasicrystals possess many unusual properties. However, a well-known bottleneck that impedes their widespread application is their intrinsic brittleness: plastic deformation has been found to only be possible at high temperatures or under hydrostatic pressures, and their deformation mechanism at low temperatures is still unclear. Here, we report that typically brittle quasicrystals can exhibit remarkable ductility of over 50% strains and high strengths of ∼4.5 GPa at room temperature and sub-micrometer scales. In contrast to the generally accepted dominant deformation mechanism in quasicrystals—dislocation climb, our observation suggests that dislocation glide may govern plasticity under high-stress and low-temperature conditions. The ability to plastically deform quasicrystals at room temperature should lead to an improved understanding of their deformation mechanism and application in small-scale devices. PMID:27515779

  2. Emergency Preparedness for Catastrophic Events at Small and Medium Sized Airports: Lacking or Not?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, Kathleen M.

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of security methods and processes in general has had a decisive impact on the aviation industry. However, efforts to effectively coordinate varied aspects of security protocols between agencies and general aviation components have not been adequately addressed. Whether or not overall security issues, especially with regard to planning for catastrophic terrorist events, have been neglected at the nation's smaller airports is the main topic of this paper. For perspective, the term general aviation is generally accepted to include all flying except for military and scheduled airline operations. Genera aviation makes up more than 1 percent of the U.S. Gross Domestic Product and supports almost 1.3 mission high-skilled jobs in professional services and manufacturing and hence is an important component of the aviation industry (AOPA, n.d.). In both conceptual and practical terms, this paper argues for the proactive management of security planning and repeated security awareness training from both an individual and an organizational perspective within the general aviation venue. The results of a research project incorporating survey data from general aviation and small commercial airport managers as well as Transportation Security Administration (TSA) employees are reported. Survey findings suggest that miscommunication does take place on different organizational levels and that between TSA employees and airport management interaction can be contentious and cooperation diminished. The importance of organizational training for decreasing conflict and increasing security and preparedness is discussed as a primary implication.

  3. Collagen Orientation and Crystallite Size in Human Dentin: A Small Angle X-ray Scattering Study

    SciTech Connect

    Pople, John A.

    2001-03-29

    The mechanical properties of dentin are largely determined by the intertubular dentin matrix, which is a complex composite of type I collagen fibers and a carbonate-rich apatite mineral phase. The authors perform a small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) study on fully mineralized human dentin to quantify this fiber/mineral composite architecture from the nanoscopic through continuum length scales. The SAXS results were consistent with nucleation and growth of the apatite phase within periodic gaps in the collagen fibers. These mineralized fibers were perpendicular to the dentinal tubules and parallel with the mineralization growth front. Within the plane of the mineralization front, the mineralized collagen fibers were isotropic near the pulp, but became mildly anisotropic in the mid-dentin. Analysis of the data also indicated that near the pulp the mineral crystallites were approximately needle-like, and progressed to a more plate-like shape near the dentino-enamel junction. The thickness of these crystallites, {approx} 5 nm, did not vary significantly with position in the tooth. These results were considered within the context of dentinogenesis and maturation.

  4. SU-E-T-141: Effect of a Single Gold Nanoparticle with Different Sizes Inside a Small Water Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, J; Lin, H; Xiong, Z

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This study is to investigate the effects of the gold nanoparticles (GNP), a series of micrometre scale simulations have been constructed with Geant4 to track particles and simulate the effects of those particles as they pass through water phantom. Methods: The simulations were used to calculate the number of secondary electrons which are emitted from the particle tracks and the amount of energy which is deposited in the cell tissue. More electrons means that more water molecules can undergo hydrolysis and create potentially dangerous free radical molecules, therefore breaking up DNA and killing off cells or causing damaging mutations. Results: For the 20nm GNP, all three proton energies saw a small increase of electrons above the control, while the X-rays nearly tripled the number of electrons in the phantom. For the 50 nm GNP, the 3 and 2 MeV protons saw a small increase again, however the 1 MeV protons saw a decrease in electrons, the X-rays saw a large increase of nearly 4 times the number of electrons. For the 110nm GNP, all three proton energies saw a decrease in the total number of electrons in the phantom, while the X-rays saw an increase of 8 times as many electrons. Conclusion: From the range of GNP sizes used, it was found that the X-rays have a larger dose enhancement effect as the GNP size increases, the relation between electron emissions and GNP size was linear. This is because the majority of the dose from the X-rays is delivered to the cell tissue through the initial high energy secondary electrons, any dose lost from the Augerelectrons being trapped inside the GNP volume is small compared to the dose that escapes with the high energy electrons.

  5. Elevational variation in adult body size and growth rate but not in metabolic rate in the tree weta Hemideina crassidens.

    PubMed

    Bulgarella, Mariana; Trewick, Steven A; Godfrey, A Jonathan R; Sinclair, Brent J; Morgan-Richards, Mary

    2015-04-01

    Populations of the same species inhabiting distinct localities experience different ecological and climatic pressures that might result in differentiation in traits, particularly those related to temperature. We compared metabolic rate (and its thermal sensitivity), growth rate, and body size among nine high- and low-elevation populations of the Wellington tree weta, Hemideina crassidens, distributed from 9 to 1171 m a.s.l across New Zealand. Our results did not indicate elevational compensation in metabolic rates (metabolic cold adaptation). Cold acclimation decreased metabolic rate compared to warm-acclimated individuals from both high- and low-elevation populations. However, we did find countergradient variation in growth rates, with individuals from high-elevation populations growing faster and to a larger final size than individuals from low-elevation populations. Females grew faster to a larger size than males, although as adults their metabolic rates did not differ significantly. The combined physiological and morphological data suggest that high-elevation individuals grow quickly and achieve larger size while maintaining metabolic rates at levels not significantly different from low-elevation individuals. Thus, morphological differentiation among tree weta populations, in concert with genetic variation, might provide the material required for adaptation to changing conditions.

  6. Analysis of efficiency of using hybrid propulsion for accelerating small-size rockets starting from the earth surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, V. M.; Zvegintsev, V. I.; Mazhuls, I. I.; Shumskii, V. V.

    2010-12-01

    The flight trajectories of a hypothetical small-size rocket starting from the Earth surface and driven by hybrid propulsion, which involves a solid-propellant rocket motor (SRM) and a ramjet-type air-breathing engine (ramjet), are calculated and analyzed. The basic varied parameter is the ratio of the fuel masses used for operation of various engine types with the total fuel mass being unchanged. The objective function is the flight range of the rocket under different initial conditions. Based on a model problem considered as an example, it is demonstrated that the flight range can be substantially increased by using hybrid propulsion (SRM and ramjet), as compared with the vehicle having identical mass and size characteristics and using the SRM only.

  7. Flow management and fish density regulate salmonid recruitment and adult size in tailwaters across western North America.

    PubMed

    Dibble, Kimberly L; Yackulic, Charles B; Kennedy, Theodore A; Budy, Phaedra

    2015-12-01

    Rainbow and brown trout have been intentionally introduced into tailwaters downriver of dams globally and provide billions of dollars in economic benefits. At the same time, recruitment and maximum length of trout populations in tailwaters often fluctuate erratically, which negatively affects the value of fisheries. Large recruitment events may increase dispersal downriver where other fish species may be a priority (e.g., endangered species). There is an urgent need to understand the drivers of trout population dynamics in tailwaters, in particular the role of flow management. Here, we evaluate how flow, fish density, and other physical factors of the river influence recruitment and mean adult length in tailwaters across western North America, using data from 29 dams spanning 1-19 years. Rainbow trout recruitment was negatively correlated with high annual, summer, and spring flow and dam latitude, and positively correlated with high winter flow, subadult brown trout catch, and reservoir storage capacity. Brown trout recruitment was negatively correlated with high water velocity and daily fluctuations in flow (i.e., hydropeaking) and positively correlated with adult rainbow trout catch. Among these many drivers, rainbow trout recruitment was primarily correlated with high winter flow combined with low spring flow, whereas brown trout recruitment was most related to high water velocity. The mean lengths of adult rainbow and brown trout were influenced by similar flow and catch metrics. Length in both species was positively correlated with high annual flow but declined in tailwaters with high daily fluctuations in flow, high catch rates of conspecifics, and when large cohorts recruited to adult size. Whereas brown trout did not respond to the proportion of water allocated between seasons, rainbow trout length increased in rivers that released more water during winter than in spring. Rainbow trout length was primarily related to high catch rates of conspecifics

  8. Think Locally, Act Locally: The Detection of Small, Medium-Sized, and Large Communities in Large Networks

    PubMed Central

    Jeub, Lucas G. S.; Balachandran, Prakash; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.; Mahoney, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    It is common in the study of networks to investigate intermediate-sized (or “meso-scale”) features to try to gain an understanding of network structure and function. For example, numerous algorithms have been developed to try to identify “communities,” which are typically construed as sets of nodes with denser connections internally than with the remainder of a network. In this paper, we adopt a complementary perspective that “communities” are associated with bottlenecks of locally-biased dynamical processes that begin at seed sets of nodes, and we employ several different community-identification procedures (using diffusion-based and geodesic-based dynamics) to investigate community quality as a function of community size. Using several empirical and synthetic networks, we identify several distinct scenarios for “size-resolved community structure” that can arise in real (and realistic) networks: (i) the best small groups of nodes can be better than the best large groups (for a given formulation of the idea of a good community); (ii) the best small groups can have a quality that is comparable to the best medium-sized and large groups; and (iii) the best small groups of nodes can be worse than the best large groups. As we discuss in detail, which of these three cases holds for a given network can make an enormous difference when investigating and making claims about network community structure, and it is important to take this into account to obtain reliable downstream conclusions. Depending on which scenario holds, one may or may not be able to successfully identify “good” communities in a given network (and good communities might not even exist for a given community quality measure), the manner in which different small communities fit together to form meso-scale network structures can be very different, and processes such as viral propagation and information diffusion can exhibit very different dynamics. In addition, our results suggest that

  9. Dynamical mechanism for coercivity tunability in the electrically controlled FePt perpendicular films with small grain size

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Chun Li, Xujing; Jiang, Yong; Yu, Guanghua; Yang, Meiyin; Gong, Kui; Li, Baohe

    2014-01-14

    This article reports property manipulations and related dynamical evolution in electromigration controlled FePt perpendicular films. Through altering voltage and treatment time of the power supply applied on the films, electronic momentum was fleetly controlled to manipulate the kinetic energy of Fe and Pt atoms based on momentum exchanges. The electromigration control behavior was proven to cause steerable ordering degree and grain growth in the films without thermal treatment. Processed FePt films with small grain size, high magnetocrystalline anisotropy, and controllable coercivity can be easily obtained. The results provide a novel method for tuning magnetic properties of other L1{sub 0} structured films.

  10. A competitive immunoassay system for microfluidic paper-based analytical detection of small size molecules.

    PubMed

    Busa, Lori Shayne Alamo; Mohammadi, Saeed; Maeki, Masatoshi; Ishida, Akihiko; Tani, Hirofumi; Tokeshi, Manabu

    2016-11-28

    The development of a competitive immunoassay system for colorimetric detection on microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) is reported. The μPADs were fabricated via photolithography to define hydrophilic flow channels and consisted of three main elements: the control and test zones, where target detection was performed, the sample introduction zone, and the competitive capture zone located between the sample introduction zone and the test zone. The chromogenic substrate 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) was deposited at the control and test zones. μPAD surface modification was performed at the capture zone first via chitosan activation, then the BSA-conjugated target compound was immobilized. The sample solution consisting of the target compound, the peroxidase-conjugated antibody, and the hydrogen peroxide oxidizing agent was introduced into the device and competition occurred at the capture zone, allowing only the target-bound peroxidase-conjugated antibody to travel past the capture zone and into the test zone via capillary action. The developed competitive immunoassay system was successfully demonstrated on the μPAD detection of biotin as a model compound with a detection limit of 0.10 μg mL(-1). The applicability of the proposed immunoassay system for point-of-need testing was further demonstrated using aflatoxin B1, a highly toxic foodborne substance, with a detection limit of 1.31 ng mL(-1). The μPAD with the competitive immunoassay format showed promising results for practical applications in point-of-need testing involving small molecular weight targets in food and water safety and quality monitoring, environmental analysis, and clinical diagnostics.

  11. Body size dynamics in young adults: 8-year follow up of cohorts in Brazil and Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Yiengprugsawan, V; Horta, B L; Motta, J V S; Gigante, D; Seubsman, S-A; Sleigh, A

    2016-01-01

    Increase in body size has appeared as an epidemic in Western countries and is now rapidly emerging in low- and middle-income countries, contributing to the rise in non-communicable diseases worldwide. Brazil and Thailand have gone through similar economic and health transitions, and this unique comparative study investigates changes in body size (body mass index) in relation to socioeconomic status in two cohorts of similar age followed from 2004/2005 to 2012/2013. At 20–24 years of age, Pelotas cohort members had a much higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (20.7 and 8.6%) than the Thai cohort (6.0 and 1.7%); these proportions rose to 34.6% and 22.9% vs 15.8% and 5.1%, respectively, in their early 30s. An association between a higher socioeconomic status and increase in overweight and obesity was observed among males; but an inverse pattern was noted for females in both cohorts and remained statistically significant after 8 years of follow up. Our comparative longitudinal analyses highlight the relationship between two middle-income settings facing rapid increases in body size (2–3 fold increase in the rate of overweight and obesity). Long-term follow up and a lifecourse approach for effective prevention of obesity will minimize adverse health burdens in later life. PMID:27428871

  12. Neointimal hyperplasia and calcification in medium sized arteries in adult patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Chitalia, Nihil; Ross, Louise; Krishnamoorthy, Mahesh; Kapustin, Alexander; Shanahan, Catherine M; Kaski, Juan Carlos; Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir; Chemla, Eric; Banerjee, Debasish

    2015-01-01

    The nature of arterial changes resulting in cardiovascular events and dialysis vascular access failures in adult predialysis patients is not well known. This study examined intimal changes, calcium deposition, and consequent stiffness in brachial and radial arteries of adult CKD patients. Ten brachial-artery and seven radial-artery specimens were obtained during fistula creation from nine predialysis and eight dialysis-dependent, nondiabetic patients; and age-gender matched controls undergoing coronary bypass grafts (6 radial) or kidney donation (6 renal). Arterial stiffness was measured at baseline. Vessel histology, morphometric analysis of intima-media, and direct quantification of calcium load was performed using standard techniques. Both predialysis and dialysis patients demonstrated significant arterial intimal hyperplasia with intima:media ratio higher than controls (0.13 ± 0.12 vs. 0.02 ± 0.05, p = 0.01). Calcium deposition was demonstrated on histology and the calcium content in patients was higher than controls (34.68 ± 26.86 vs. 10.95 ± 9.18 μg/μg, p = 0.003). The blood vessel calcium content correlated with arterial stiffness (r = 0.64, p = 0.018). This study for the first time describes, and suggests mechanistic linkage between, intimal hyperplasia, pathological calcium deposition, and increased functional arterial stiffness in dialysis and predialysis patients. Our research could serve as a unique window into the in vivo status of the uremic vasculature impacting fistula maturation and cardiovascular disease.

  13. Size matters: The rotation rates of small near-Earth asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statler, Thomas S.; Cotto-Figueroa, Desireé; Riethmiller, David A.; Sweeney, Kevin M.

    2013-07-01

    We present results from a program of optical light curve observations of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) with diameters under 1 km, designed to detect, and determine the distribution of, rotation periods shorter than a few hours. We obtain measurements or estimates of rotation period P for approximately one third of the 83 NEAs observed. Most of the measured periods are in the fast-rotating asteroid (FRA) regime (P < 2 h). We assess our detection sensitivity using simulated light curves and a new Monte Carlo algorithm (SALSA), which allows us to de-bias the counts of detected FRAs and determine the fraction of objects that are fast rotators as a function of H. We find that the FRA fraction F rises sharply from zero to a value statistically consistent with unity from H = 21.4 to H = 23.6, a span corresponding to a factor of only 2.8 in nominal diameter. Almost nothing larger than 170 m, and almost everything smaller than 60 m, is a fast rotator, assuming a mean S class albedo of 0.17. The formal 95% confidence limits are F < 13% for 18.5 < H < 21.4 and F > 56% for 23.6 < H < 26.3. Relative to a distribution with the same FRA fraction that is uniform in frequency (as implied by models of evolution following the YORP cycle) up to a size-dependent upper cutoff, the actual spin distribution extends to shorter periods. Approximately two thirds of our sample shows ambiguous light curves from which no period estimate can be obtained. Finite photometric errors account for some of these, but do not explain the steep increase in the ambiguous fraction toward larger objects, which suggests an increase in the actual fraction of very slow rotators, very fast rotators, or nearly axisymmetric objects. With a significantly larger data set, our fully general SALSA procedure will be able to extract the NEA spin rate distribution as a function of absolute magnitude H. Determining this distribution to the accuracy needed to constrain the physical properties of NEAs and their dynamical

  14. Lack of Healthy Food in Small-Size to Mid-Size Retailers Participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, Minneapolis–St. Paul, Minnesota, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Caspi, Caitlin E.; Pelletier, Jennifer E.; Friebur, Robin; Harnack, Lisa J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The US Department of Agriculture has stocking criteria for healthy foods among Supplemental Nutrition Assistant Program (SNAP)-authorized retailers. Increased access to healthy food could improve diet quality among SNAP participants, which has implications for chronic disease prevention. The objective of this study was to quantify healthy foods stocked in small-size to mid-size retailers who are authorized under SNAP but not under the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Methods We used formative, cross-sectional data from a large policy evaluation to conduct secondary analyses. Store audits were conducted in 2014 in 91 randomly selected, licensed food stores in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota. Supermarkets and retailers participating in WIC, which are required to stock healthy foods, were excluded as were other stores not reasonably expected to stock staple foods, such as specialty stores or produce stands. Availability of milk, fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain–rich foods was assessed. Results The 91 stores studied were corner stores, food–gas marts, dollar stores, and pharmacies. More than half carried 1 or more varieties of fat-free or low-fat milk, fresh or canned fruit, and whole-grain–rich cereal. However, only one-third stocked 1 or more varieties of fresh vegetables and only one-quarter stocked whole-grain–rich products, such as whole-grain-rich bread (26%) or tortillas (21%) or brown rice (25%). Few stores stocked at least 2 varieties of each product. Conclusions Many stores did not stock a variety of healthy foods. The US Department of Agriculture should change policies to improve minimum stocking requirements for SNAP-authorized retailers. PMID:26312380

  15. Spinal dorsal horn cell receptive field size is increased in adult rats following neonatal hindpaw skin injury.

    PubMed

    Torsney, Carole; Fitzgerald, Maria

    2003-07-01

    Local tissue damage in newborn rats can lead to changes in skin sensitivity that last into adulthood and this is likely to be due to plasticity of developing peripheral and central sensory connections. This study examines the functional connections of dorsal horn neurons in young and adult rats that have undergone local skin damage at birth. Newborn rat pups were halothane anaesthetised and received either a unilateral subcutaneous plantar injection of 1 % lambda-carrageenan or a unilateral plantar foot injury made by removal of 2 mm x 2 mm of skin. At 3 weeks, (postnatal day (P) 19-23) and 6 weeks (P40-44) in vivo extracellular recordings of single dorsal horn cells with plantar cutaneous receptive fields were made under urethane anaesthesia (2 g kg-1) and responses to mechanical and electrical stimulation of the skin were assessed. Following neonatal carrageenan inflammation, dorsal horn neuron properties and receptive field sizes at 3 weeks were the same as those of controls. In contrast, following neonatal skin injury, dorsal horn cell receptive field sizes were significantly greater than those of controls at 3 weeks (2.5-fold) and at 6 weeks (2.2-fold). Mechanical thresholds, mechanical response magnitudes and evoked responses to single and repeated A and C fibre stimulation remained unaffected. These results show that early skin injury can cause prolonged changes in central sensory connections that persist into adult life, long after the skin has healed. Enlarged dorsal horn neuron receptive field sizes provide a physiological mechanism for the persistent behavioural hypersensitivity that follows neonatal skin injury in rats and for the prolonged sensory changes reported in human infants after early pain and injury.

  16. Effect of very low-intensity resistance training with slow movement on muscle size and strength in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yuya; Madarame, Haruhiko; Ogasawara, Riki; Nakazato, Koichi; Ishii, Naokata

    2014-11-01

    We previously reported that low-intensity [50% of one repetition maximum (1RM)] resistance training with slow movement and tonic force generation (LST) causes muscle hypertrophy and strength gain in older participants. The aim of this study was to determine whether resistance training with slow movement and much more reduced intensity (30%1RM) increases muscle size and strength in older adults. Eighteen participants (60-77 years) were randomly assigned to two groups. One group performed very low-intensity (30% 1RM) knee extension exercise with continuous muscle contraction (LST: 3-s eccentric, 3-s concentric, and 1-s isometric actions with no rest between each repetition) twice a week for 12 weeks. The other group underwent intermitted muscle contraction (CON: 1-s concentric and 1-s eccentric actions with 1-s rest between each repetition) for the same time period. The 1RM, isometric and isokinetic strengths, and cross-sectional image of the mid-thigh obtained by magnetic resonance imaging were examined before and after the intervention. LST significantly increased the cross-sectional area of the quadriceps muscle (5.0%, P<0.001) and isometric and isokinetic knee extension strengths (P<0.05). CON failed to increase muscle size (1.1%, P = 0.12), but significantly improved its strength (P<0.05). These results indicate that even if the intensity is as low as 30% 1RM, LST can increase muscle size and strength in healthy older adults. The large total contraction time may be related to muscle hypertrophy and strength gain. LST would be useful for preventing sarcopenia in older individuals.

  17. No effect of hypergravity on adult rat ventral horn neuron size or SDH activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, R. R.; Ishihara, A.; Moran, M. M.; Wade, C. E.; Edgerton, V. R.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spaceflights of short duration (approximately 2 wk) result in adaptations in the size and/or metabolic properties of a select population of motoneurons located in the lumbosacral region of the rat spinal cord. A decrease in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH, an oxidative marker enzyme) activity of moderately sized (500-800 microm2) motoneurons in the retrodorsolateral region of the spinal cord (L6) has been observed after a 14-d flight. HYPOTHESIS: Our hypothesis was that exposure to short-term hypergravity would result in adaptations in the opposite direction, reflecting a continuum of morphological and biochemical responses in the spinal motoneurons from zero gravity to hypergravity. METHODS: Young, male rats were centrifuged at either 1.5 or 2.0 G for 2 wk. The size and SDH activity of a population of motoneurons in the retrodorsolateral region of the spinal cord (L5) were determined and compared with age-matched rats maintained at 1.0 G. The absolute and relative (to body weight) masses of the soleus, gastrocnemius, adductor longus and tibialis anterior muscles were compared among the three groups. RESULTS: There were no effects of either hypergravity intervention on the motoneuron properties. Rats maintained under hypergravity conditions gained less body mass than rats kept at 1.0 G. For the 1.5 and 2.0 G groups, the muscle absolute mass was smaller and relative mass similar to that observed in the 1.0 G rats, except for the adductor longus. The adductor longus absolute mass was similar to and the relative mass larger in both hypergravity groups than in the 1.0 G group. CONCLUSIONS: Our hypothesis was rejected. The findings suggest that rat motoneurons are more responsive to short-term chronic exposure to spaceflight than to hypergravity conditions.

  18. Performance of a full-size small-strip thin gap chamber prototype for the ATLAS new small wheel muon upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abusleme, A.; Bélanger-Champagne, C.; Bellerive, A.; Benhammou, Y.; Botte, J.; Cohen, H.; Davies, M.; Du, Y.; Gauthier, L.; Koffas, T.; Kuleshov, S.; Lefebvre, B.; Li, C.; Lupu, N.; Mikenberg, G.; Mori, D.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Codina, E. Perez; Rettie, S.; Robichaud-Véronneau, A.; Rojas, R.; Shoa, M.; Smakhtin, V.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Toro, A.; Torres, H.; Ulloa, P.; Vachon, B.; Vasquez, G.; Vdovin, A.; Viel, S.; Walker, P.; Weber, S.; Zhu, C.

    2016-05-01

    The instantaneous luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will be increased up to a factor of five with respect to the present design value by undergoing an extensive upgrade program over the coming decade. The most important upgrade project for the ATLAS Muon System is the replacement of the present first station in the forward regions with the so-called New Small Wheels (NSWs). The NSWs will be installed during the LHC long shutdown in 2019/2020. Small-Strip Thin Gap Chamber (sTGC) detectors are designed to provide fast trigger and high precision muon tracking under the high luminosity LHC conditions. To validate the design, a full-size prototype sTGC detector of approximately 1.2 × 1.0m2 consisting of four gaps has been constructed. Each gap provides pad, strip and wire readouts. The sTGC intrinsic spatial resolution has been measured in a 32 GeV pion beam test at Fermilab. At perpendicular incidence angle, single gap position resolutions of about 50 μm have been obtained, uniform along the sTGC strip and perpendicular wire directions, well within design requirements. Pad readout measurements have been performed in a 130 GeV muon beam test at CERN. The transition region between readout pads has been found to be 4 mm, and the pads have been found to be fully efficient.

  19. The efficacy of clove oil as an anaesthetic and in euthanasia procedure for small-sized tropical fishes.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, I M; Bastos, Y F; Barreto, D S; Lourenço, L S; Penha, J M

    2016-09-26

    Clove oil is used as a fish anesthetic because it is a natural and inexpensive product with low toxicity risks. The goal of the present study was to determine the appropriate concentration of clove oil for small-sized tropical fish to be used in mark-recapture studies or when individuals are to be sacrificed. We applied three different clove oil concentrations (D1=0.05 mL, D2=0.10 mL and D3=0.20 mL per 500 mL of water) on three small-sized fish species. We found a negative relationship between induction time and treatment for two species (Hyphessobrycon sp.1 and Hemigrammus sp.), while concentration was unrelated to recovery time. Fish body length was positively related to induction time in the D2 treatment for Hemigrammus sp., and negatively for Hyphessobrycon sp.1 in the D1 treatment, but was unrelated to recovery time for three species and treatments. Mortality rates varied across treatments, but higher rates were observed with higher clove oil concentrations. We conclude that 0.05 mL of clove oil per 500 mL of water is the most efficient dose for studies where fish will be released back to their natural habitats, while 0.20 mL of clove oil is recommended for studies that require fish euthanization for further laboratory analyses.

  20. Study on clear stereo image pair acquisition method for small objects with big vertical size in SLM vision system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuezong; Jin, Yan; Wang, Lika; Geng, Benliang

    2016-05-01

    Microscopic vision system with stereo light microscope (SLM) has been applied to surface profile measurement. If the vertical size of a small object exceeds the range of depth, its images will contain clear and fuzzy image regions. Hence, in order to obtain clear stereo images, we propose a microscopic sequence image fusion method which is suitable for SLM vision system. First, a solution to capture and align image sequence is designed, which outputs an aligning stereo images. Second, we decompose stereo image sequence by wavelet analysis theory, and obtain a series of high and low frequency coefficients with different resolutions. Then fused stereo images are output based on the high and low frequency coefficient fusion rules proposed in this article. The results show that Δw1 (Δw2 ) and ΔZ of stereo images in a sequence have linear relationship. Hence, a procedure for image alignment is necessary before image fusion. In contrast with other image fusion methods, our method can output clear fused stereo images with better performance, which is suitable for SLM vision system, and very helpful for avoiding image fuzzy caused by big vertical size of small objects.