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Sample records for adult sizes small

  1. Successful treatment of small-for-size syndrome in adult-to-adult living-related liver transplantation: single center series.

    PubMed

    Gruttadauria, Salvatore; Mandala', Lucio; Miraglia, Roberto; Caruso, Settimo; Minervini, Marta Ida; Biondo, Domenico; Volpes, Riccardo; Vizzini, Giovanni; Marsh, J Wallis; Luca, Angelo; Marcos, Amadeo; Gridelli, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    The portal hyperperfusion, or small-for-size syndrome (SFSS), is a widely recognized clinical complication that may occur after segmental liver transplantation. Several surgical strategies have been proposed to reduce portal blood inflow and portal pressure after partial liver transplantation. In particular, splenic artery ligation and splenectomy have been used without a firm hemodynamic basis for these procedures. Our group recently demonstrated that, in patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension, the occlusion of the splenic artery causes a significant reduction in the portal pressure gradient, which is directly related to the spleen volume and indirectly related to the liver volume. This concept is at the center of our strategy for performing early splenic artery embolization (SAE) for the treatment of SFSS after living-related liver transplantation (LRLT). Six patients developed small-for-size syndrome, defined as: onset within the first week after LRLT of progressive hyperbilirubinemia without mechanical cause; marked cholestasis; centrilobular sinusoidal dilatation and hepatocyte atrophy at liver biopsy; and refractory ascites in the absence of vascular complications. All six patients who underwent SAE rapidly improved their clinical condition, with an evident decrease in the value of bilirubin in the serum, in the production of ascites, and improvement in condition of pancytopenia. Coagulopathy expressed by the international normalized ratio value (INR) was not a reliable early marker of SFSS in this series; in fact a slight improvement in the result of this test was already present immediately after LRLT and before SAE. Because splenic flow clearly contributes to portal hyperperfusion, an early SAE can relieve the partial graft from the deleterious effect of this portal overflow. PMID:17988271

  2. Small-particle-size cement

    SciTech Connect

    Ewert, D.P.; Almond, S.W.; Blerhaus, W.M. II )

    1991-05-01

    Successful remedial cementing has historically been difficult in wells with large-interval, multizone, gravel-packed completions. The reason is the inability of conventional oilfield cements to penetrate gravel packs adequately. Small-particle-size cement (SPSC) was developed to penetrate gravel packs and to provide the zonal isolation required. This paper details the laboratory work, job design, and field implementation of this new cement.

  3. Brain size and limits to adult neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Mercedes F; Sorrells, Shawn F; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose M; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2016-02-15

    The walls of the cerebral ventricles in the developing embryo harbor the primary neural stem cells from which most neurons and glia derive. In many vertebrates, neurogenesis continues postnatally and into adulthood in this region. Adult neurogenesis at the ventricle has been most extensively studied in organisms with small brains, such as reptiles, birds, and rodents. In reptiles and birds, these progenitor cells give rise to young neurons that migrate into many regions of the forebrain. Neurogenesis in adult rodents is also relatively widespread along the lateral ventricles, but migration is largely restricted to the rostral migratory stream into the olfactory bulb. Recent work indicates that the wall of the lateral ventricle is highly regionalized, with progenitor cells giving rise to different types of neurons depending on their location. In species with larger brains, young neurons born in these spatially specified domains become dramatically separated from potential final destinations. Here we hypothesize that the increase in size and topographical complexity (e.g., intervening white matter tracts) in larger brains may severely limit the long-term contribution of new neurons born close to, or in, the ventricular wall. We compare the process of adult neuronal birth, migration, and integration across species with different brain sizes, and discuss how early regional specification of progenitor cells may interact with brain size and affect where and when new neurons are added. PMID:26417888

  4. A phylogenetic analysis of egg size, clutch size, spawning mode, adult body size, and latitude in reef fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimatis, Katja; Riginos, Cynthia

    2016-06-01

    Theoretical treatments of egg size in fishes suggest that constraints on reproductive output should create trade-offs between the size and number of eggs produced per spawn. For marine reef fishes, the observation of distinct reproductive care strategies (demersal guarding, egg scattering, and pelagic spawning) has additionally prompted speculation that these strategies reflect alternative fitness optima with selection on egg size differing by reproductive mode and perhaps latitude. Here, we aggregate data from 278 reef fish species and test whether clutch size, reproductive care, adult body size, and latitudinal bands (i.e., tropical, subtropical, and temperate) predict egg size, using a statistically unified framework that accounts for phylogenetic correlations among traits. We find no inverse relationship between species egg size and clutch size, but rather that egg size differs by reproductive mode (mean volume for demersal eggs = 1.22 mm3, scattered eggs = 0.18 mm3, pelagic eggs = 0.52 mm3) and that clutch size is strongly correlated with adult body size. Larger eggs were found in temperate species compared with tropical species in both demersal guarders and pelagic spawners, but this difference was not strong when accounting for phylogenetic correlations, suggesting that differences in species composition underlies regional differences in egg size. In summary, demersal guarders are generally small fishes with small clutch sizes that produce large eggs. Pelagic spawners and egg scatterers are variable in adult and clutch size. Although pelagic spawned eggs are variable in size, those of scatterers are consistently small.

  5. Accent on Adults; The Small College Program at Brooklyn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Myrtle S.; Offenbacher, Deborah I.

    An attempt is made to state unique elements of the Small College Program at Brooklyn. The book explains that few opportunities are available to older adults, that "small" is used to describe the class size (20) which is responsible for the primary group atmosphere created, and that admission is based on criteria, such as experience and interests,…

  6. Statistical Analysis Techniques for Small Sample Sizes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navard, S. E.

    1984-01-01

    The small sample sizes problem which is encountered when dealing with analysis of space-flight data is examined. Because of such a amount of data available, careful analyses are essential to extract the maximum amount of information with acceptable accuracy. Statistical analysis of small samples is described. The background material necessary for understanding statistical hypothesis testing is outlined and the various tests which can be done on small samples are explained. Emphasis is on the underlying assumptions of each test and on considerations needed to choose the most appropriate test for a given type of analysis.

  7. 77 FR 13329 - Information Collection; Small Business Size Representation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... implement the Small Business Administration (SBA) Final Rule (71 FR 66434), Small Business Size Regulations... Long-Term Contracts; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business; Business Status...; Small Business Size Representation AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD), General...

  8. 78 FR 70847 - Small Business Size Standards; Manufacturing; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... RIN 3245-AG47 Small Business Size Standards; Manufacturing; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... small business size standards. In FR Doc. 2012-19973 appearing on page 49991 of the August 20,...

  9. Three dimensional fabrication at small size scales

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Timothy G.; Zarafshar, Aasiyeh M.; Gracias, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the fact that we live in a three-dimensional (3D) world and macroscale engineering is 3D, conventional sub-mm scale engineering is inherently two-dimensional (2D). New fabrication and patterning strategies are needed to enable truly three-dimensionally-engineered structures at small size scales. Here, we review strategies that have been developed over the last two decades that seek to enable such millimeter to nanoscale 3D fabrication and patterning. A focus of this review is the strategy of self-assembly, specifically in a biologically inspired, more deterministic form known as self-folding. Self-folding methods can leverage the strengths of lithography to enable the construction of precisely patterned 3D structures and “smart” components. This self-assembling approach is compared with other 3D fabrication paradigms, and its advantages and disadvantages are discussed. PMID:20349446

  10. Small intestinal permeability in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Valentini, Luzia; Ramminger, Sara; Haas, Verena; Postrach, Elisa; Werich, Martina; Fischer, André; Koller, Michael; Swidsinski, Alexander; Bereswill, Stefan; Lochs, Herbert; Schulzke, Jörg‐Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Abstract It is not yet clear whether intestinal mucosal permeability changes with advancing age in humans. This question is of high importance for drug and nutrition approaches for older adults. Our main objective was to answer the question if small intestinal barrier integrity deteriorates with healthy aging. We conducted a cross‐sectional study including the pooled data of 215 nonsmoking healthy adults (93 female/122 male), 84 of whom were aged between 60 and 82 years. After a 12‐h fast, all participants ingested 10 g of lactulose and 5 g of mannitol. Urine was collected for 5 h afterwards and analyzed for test sugars. The permeability index (PI = lactulose/mannitol) was used to assess small intestinal permeability. Low‐grade inflammation defined by high‐sensitivity C‐reactive protein ≥1 mL/L and kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate) were determined in the older age group. The PI was similar in older compared to younger adults (P =0.887). However, the urinary recovery of lactulose and mannitol was lower in the older adults and this change was neither associated with urinary volume nor glomerular filtration rate. The PI was not significantly correlated with low‐grade inflammation or presence of noninsulin‐dependent type 2 diabetes. However, it significantly deteriorated in the copresence of both conditions compared to low‐grade inflammation alone (P =0.043) or type 2 diabetes alone (P =0.015). Small intestinal mucosal barrier does not deteriorate with age per se. But low‐grade inflammation coupled with minor disease challenges, such as type 2 diabetes, can compromise the small intestinal barrier. PMID:24771689

  11. Comparison of determinants of frame size in older adults.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, M C

    1993-01-01

    Accurate designations of body frame size can enhance the interpretation of height-weight tables. Determinants of frame size should be quantifiable, reflective of skeletal dimensions, and not influenced by adiposity. Visual assessment, the height:wrist circumference ratio, elbow breadth by 1983 and 1984 standards, and Frame Index 2 were studied in 300 healthy adults over 64 years of age. Distribution of frame size across small, medium, and large categories revealed that visual assessment and height:wrist circumference ratio agreed with designations of elbow breadth measurements for less than 50% of the population. Highest levels of agreement occurred between elbow breadth (1984) and Frame Index 2. For men, high partial correlations between height:wrist circumference ratio and subscapular fatfold measurements corrected for age and arm muscle area indicated that measurement may be affected by body fat. Lowest correlations with subscapular fatfolds were for wrist and ankle breadths for women and ankle breadth for men. Elbow breadth and Frame Index 2 had low negative correlations with subscapular skinfold for men but much higher values for women. Elbow breadth measurements are widely used as frame size determinants, but for women, at least, ankle and wrist breadths meet the criterion of low associations with body fatness. PMID:8417093

  12. 78 FR 11745 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On May 15, 2012, at 77 FR 28520 (available at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-05... and eligibility. On December 27, 2012 (77 FR 76215), SBA published a final rule, which amended the... RIN 3245-AG46 Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program...

  13. Effects of body size and nutritional regimen on survival in adult Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of adult body size and nutritional regimen on the mean time to death (LT) for the 50th (LT50) and 90th centiles (LT90) of large and small male and female Aedes albopictus (Skuse) was determined in the laboratory. The estimated LT50 and the LT90 for large/small females was significantly ...

  14. 77 FR 72702 - Small Business Size Standards: Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG26 Small Business Size Standards: Information AGENCY: U.S. Small... (NAICS) Sector 51, Information. As part of its ongoing comprehensive review of all size standards, SBA..., Size Standards Division, phone: (202) 205-6618 or sizestandards@sba.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

  15. Exploratory Factor Analysis with Small Sample Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Winter, J. C. F.; Dodou, D.; Wieringa, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is generally regarded as a technique for large sample sizes ("N"), with N = 50 as a reasonable absolute minimum. This study offers a comprehensive overview of the conditions in which EFA can yield good quality results for "N" below 50. Simulations were carried out to estimate the minimum required "N" for different…

  16. String Theory: Big Problem for Small Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahoo, S.

    2009-01-01

    String theory is the most promising candidate theory for a unified description of all the fundamental forces that exist in nature. It provides a mathematical framework that combines quantum theory with Einstein's general theory of relativity. The typical size of a string is of the order of 10[superscript -33] cm, called the Planck length. But due…

  17. Relation of adult size to movements and distribution of smallmouth bass in a central Maine Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, M.B.; Moring, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Forty-four smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu of three size-classes were radiotracked in Green Lake, Maine, during summer 1993 (10 June-1 September) to determine whether adult size influenced distribution and movement. Large smallmouth bass (>406 mm) used deep water (>8 m) more often than did small (248-279 mm) or medium-sized (305-356 mm) smallmouth bass during the late summer (15 July-1 September). Large smallmouth bass also were found at middepths (4-8 m) significantly more often than were small individuals during late summer. Small fish used cover more frequently than large ones during early summer (10 June-13 July). Both small and medium-sized individuals were associated with cover more frequently than large smallmouth bass were during the late summer. Small smallmouth bass exhibited significantly smaller summer total ranges than did large individuals, and mean active displacement differed among all three size-classes.

  18. Small Multifidus Muscle Size Predicts Football Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Hides, Julie A.; Stanton, Warren R.; Mendis, M. Dilani; Franettovich Smith, Melinda M.; Sexton, Margot J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Australian football, lower limb injuries have had the highest incidence and prevalence rates. Previous studies have shown that football players with relatively more severe preseason and playing season hip, groin, and thigh injuries had a significantly smaller multifidus muscle compared with players with no lower limb injuries. Rehabilitation of the multifidus muscle, with restoration of its size and function, has been associated with decreased recurrence rates of episodic low back pain and decreased numbers of lower limb injuries in football players. Assessment of multifidus muscle size and function could potentially be incorporated into a model that could be used to predict injuries in football players. Purpose: To examine the robustness of multifidus muscle measurements as a predictor of lower limb injuries incurred by professional football players. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Ultrasound examinations were carried out on 259 male elite football players at the start of the preseason and 261 players at the start of the playing season. Injury data were obtained from records collected by the Australian Football League (AFL) club staff during the preseason and the playing season. Results: Decreased size of the multifidus muscle at L5 consistently predicted injury in the preseason and playing season. Asymmetry of the multifidus muscle and low back pain were significantly related to lower limb injuries in the preseason, and having no preferred kicking leg was related to season injuries. Seasonal change in the size of the multifidus muscle indicating a decrease in muscle mass was linked to injury. Sensitivity and specificity of the model were 60.6% and 84.9% for the preseason and 91.8% and 45.8% for the playing season, respectively. Conclusion: A model was developed for prediction of lower limb injuries in football players with potential utility for club medical staff. Of particular note is the finding that changes in muscle

  19. Adult Education in Small States: The Case of Malta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Peter; Pace, Paul J.; Zammit, Edward

    2008-01-01

    A small state faces several challenges with regard to adult continuing education and training. The paper discusses some of these challenges with specific reference to the Mediterranean small island state of Malta. It starts with a general discussion of some of the issues affecting adult education in a small state such as Malta that paves the way…

  20. 77 FR 28520 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... businesses to understand and a bright-line test by which small businesses can easily determine whether they..., bright-line test for SBIR and STTR applicants to apply when determining eligibility with respect to size... owns 33% or more of the company) in order to create a bright-line test for applicants; (2)...

  1. 76 FR 69154 - Small Business Size and Status Integrity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... their comments. DATES: The comment period for the proposed rule published on October 7, 2011 (76 FR... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 121, 124, 125, 126, and 127 RIN 3245-AG23 Small Business Size and Status Integrity... Business Jobs Act of 2010 (Jobs Act) pertaining to small business size and status integrity. SBA...

  2. 76 FR 70667 - Small Business Size Standards: Educational Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... inflation adjustment to size standards was published in the Federal Register on July 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237... varying receipts based size standards (see 69 FR 13130 (March 4, 2004) and 57 FR 62515 (December 31, 1992... President signed the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010 (Jobs Act) to promote small business job creation....

  3. Size Variation in Small-Bodied Humans from Palau, Micronesia

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Background Recent discoveries on Palau are claimed to represent the remains of small-bodied humans that may display evidence insular size reduction. This claim has yet to be statistically validated Methodology/Principal Findings Published postcranial specimens (n = 16) from Palau were assessed relative to recent small-bodied comparative samples. Resampling statistical approaches were employed to test specific hypotheses relating to body size in the Palau sample. Results confirm that the Palau postcranial sample is indisputably small-bodied. Conclusions/Significance A single, homogenous body size morph is represented in early prehistoric postcrania from Palau. Small body size in early Palauans is an ancestral characteristic and was likely not a consequence of in-situ size reduction. Specimens from Palau have little bearing upon hypothesised insular size reduction in the ancestral lineage of Homo floresiensis. PMID:19088844

  4. Chironomid midges (Diptera, chironomidae) show extremely small genome sizes.

    PubMed

    Cornette, Richard; Gusev, Oleg; Nakahara, Yuichi; Shimura, Sachiko; Kikawada, Takahiro; Okuda, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    Chironomid midges (Diptera; Chironomidae) are found in various environments from the high Arctic to the Antarctic, including temperate and tropical regions. In many freshwater habitats, members of this family are among the most abundant invertebrates. In the present study, the genome sizes of 25 chironomid species were determined by flow cytometry and the resulting C-values ranged from 0.07 to 0.20 pg DNA (i.e. from about 68 to 195 Mbp). These genome sizes were uniformly very small and included, to our knowledge, the smallest genome sizes recorded to date among insects. Small proportion of transposable elements and short intron sizes were suggested to contribute to the reduction of genome sizes in chironomids. We discuss about the possible developmental and physiological advantages of having a small genome size and about putative implications for the ecological success of the family Chironomidae. PMID:26003979

  5. Size & Flow: Adult Education Issues in the Senate Immigration Bill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Garrett; Spangenberg, Gail

    2014-01-01

    In this essay Garrett Murphy and Gail Spangenberg report on the need for understanding better than in the past, the number of undocumented immigrants likely to need adult education services under provisions of Senate Immigration Bill S.744. The essay looks at why the issues of "size and flow" are important for planners, providers, and…

  6. Character Size and Reading to Remember from Small Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Christopher A.; Goolsbee, James Z.

    2010-01-01

    An under-addressed question regarding the usage of small devices is how information gathering from such devices is limited or changed relative to a full-size display? This study explores how factual recall from a text interacts with display size and other text characteristics. In this experiment, participants read several expository texts on…

  7. The "Why's" of Class Size: Student Behavior in Small Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Jeremy D.; Pannozzo, Gina M.; Achilles, Charles M.

    2003-01-01

    Small classes in the elementary grades have been shown to boost students' academic performance. However, researchers continue to seek a consistent, integrated explanation of "why" small classes have positive effects. This article forwards the hypothesis that when class sizes are reduced, major changes occur in students' engagement in the…

  8. 77 FR 39442 - Receipts-Based, Small Business Size Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... July 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237), to account for inflation. DATES: Submit comments by August 2, 2012...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 2 and 171 RIN 3150-AJ14 Receipts-Based, Small Business Size... licensee as a ``small entity'' under the Regulatory Flexibility Act of 1980, as amended. The NRC...

  9. Small angle neutron scattering from nanometer grain sized materials

    SciTech Connect

    Epperson, J.E.; Siegel, R.W.

    1991-11-01

    Small angie neutron scattering has been utilized, along with a number of complementary characterization methods suitable to the nanometer size scale, to investigate the structures of cluster-assembled nanophase materials. Results of these investigations are described and problems and opportunities in using small angle scattering for elucidating nanostructures are discussed.

  10. 77 FR 28237 - Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... / Monday, May 14, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 124 RIN 3245-AF53 Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status Determinations; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION:...

  11. Enhancing Adult Learning through Cooperative Small Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millis, Barbara J.

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative learning is a structured form of small group work based on interdependence, accountability, group processing, and social skills. In continuing education, cooperative learning can positively affect achievement, multiethnic relationships, self-esteem, retention, and attitudes. (SK)

  12. Practical considerations for electron beam small field size dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Subhash C.; Johnson, Martin W.; Gossman, Michael S. . E-mail: GossmanMS@erlanger.org

    2005-06-30

    Special care of superficial lesions surrounding critical structures, such as an eye, may require tight margins. When this is the case, small megavoltage electron treatment fields and nonstandard treatment distances become necessary. When the field size is found to be less than the practical range of the electron beam, dosimetric measurements should be performed. This research includes data proving that very small electron fields can be employed for treatment with appropriate beam flatness and penumbra. This is accomplished by first coning down the incident beam to a small field size, then secondly by adding a single lead sheet to the patient's skin surface. The aperture of the sheet is required to be greater than 2 x 2 cm{sup 2} in size, and must be cut properly to adequately confine the treatment area.

  13. Design of haptic master featuring small-sized MR brakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gang, Han Gyeol; Choi, Seung-Bok; Sohn, Jung Woo

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a new type of haptic master featuring small-sized MR brake is proposed and its performances are evaluated. The proposed haptic master consists of base frame, stick grip and small-sized four MR brakes for 3-DOF rotational motion and 1-DOF gripper motion. To obtain large braking torque under limited small size of MR brake, dual tapered shape inner magnetic core is proposed and its performance is evaluated via both numerical estimation and experimental test. After design and implementation of control algorithm, it has been demonstrated through experiment that the proposed actuator has good performances on tracking control of desired torques. Then, a new haptic master device is designed and constructed by adopting the proposed MR brakes and light weight frame structures. It is verified that the proposed haptic master device is effective for the real application in the field.

  14. 48 CFR 52.219-21 - Small Business Size Representation for Targeted Industry Categories Under the Small Business...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Representation for Targeted Industry Categories Under the Small Business Competitiveness Demonstration Program....219-21 Small Business Size Representation for Targeted Industry Categories Under the Small Business... Size Representation for Targeted Industry Categories Under the Small Business...

  15. Lake warming favours small-sized planktonic diatom species.

    PubMed

    Winder, Monika; Reuter, John E; Schladow, S Geoffrey

    2009-02-01

    Diatoms contribute to a substantial portion of primary production in the oceans and many lakes. Owing to their relatively heavy cell walls and high nutrient requirements, planktonic diatoms are expected to decrease with climate warming because of reduced nutrient redistribution and increasing sinking velocities. Using a historical dataset, this study shows that diatoms were able to maintain their biovolume with increasing stratification in Lake Tahoe over the last decades; however, the diatom community structure changed. Increased stratification and reduced nitrogen to phosphorus ratios selected for small-celled diatoms, particularly within the Cyclotella genus. An empirical model showed that a shift in phytoplankton species composition and cell size was consistent within different depth strata, indicating that altered nutrient concentrations were not responsible for the change. The increase in small-celled species was sufficient to decrease the average diatom size and thus sinking velocity, which strongly influences energy transfer through the food web and carbon cycling. Our results show that within the diverse group of diatoms, small-sized species with a high surface area to volume ratio were able to adapt to a decrease in mixing intensity, supporting the hypotheses that abiotic drivers affect the size structure of planktonic communities and that warmer climate favours small-sized diatom cells. PMID:18812287

  16. Small, Mid-Sized Businesses Power Up with Workforce Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WorkAmerica, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Increasingly, small and mid-sized businesses are becoming just as focused on work force training as large corporations are. The training being provided by smaller companies is extending beyond nuts-and-bolts instruction into the area of core business skills, such as leading, managing, thinking creatively, and solving problems. States are…

  17. Promoting Learning in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Maria; Gray, Sue

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, small and medium-sized enterprises constituted 99% of all businesses in the United Kingdom in all but the electricity, gas, and water supply sector, providing 46% of nongovernment employment. SMEs' concern with day-to-day demands leaves them with limited time and resources to consider their training needs. Although providing support and…

  18. A method of approximating range size of small mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1965-01-01

    In summary, trap success trends appear to provide a useful approximation to range size of easily trapped small mammals such as Peromyscus. The scale of measurement can be adjusted as desired. Further explorations of the usefulness of the plan should be made and modifications possibly developed before adoption.

  19. Workplace Health Promotion within Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Ann; Parahoo, Kader; Fleming, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore managers' understanding of workplace health promotion (WHP) and experiences of WHP activity within small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in a Health and Social Care Trust area of Northern Ireland. The paper aims to focus on engagement with activities within the context of prevention of…

  20. Stroop-like interference in the real animal size test and the pictorial animal size test in 5- to 12-year-old children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Yoshifumi; Okuzumi, Hideyuki; Kokubun, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    This study examined prepotent response inhibition among 653 5- to 12-year-old children and young adults divided into five age groups: forty-six 5- to 6-year-olds, one hundred fifty-eight 7- to 8-year-olds, one hundred ninety-six 9- to 10-year-olds, one hundred eighty-three 11- to 12-year-olds, and 70 young adults (19- to 22-year-olds). Two paper-and-pencil versions of Stroop-like tasks were administered: the Real Animal Size Test and the Pictorial Animal Size Test. In these tests, participants are presented with pictures of animals (large animals such as an elephant, a giraffe, and a whale vs. small animals such as a frog, a bird, and a squirrel) printed as either big or small images that are mismatched with the animal's real size. Participants are required to decide the size of the animals (big vs. small) based on either the size in real life or the size of the picture. The results indicated the following: (a) The Pictorial Animal Size Test elicited robust interference, whereas the Real Animal Size Test elicited no interference; (b) prepotent response inhibition develops markedly in childhood and between children and young adults; and (c) error correction increased rapidly after age 8. The mechanism of interference and the influence of metacognition on prepotent response inhibition are discussed. PMID:24716870

  1. Litter Size Predicts Adult Stereotypic Behavior in Female Laboratory Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bechard, Allison; Nicholson, Anthony; Mason, Georgia

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypic behaviors are repetitive invariant behaviors that are common in many captive species and potentially indicate compromised welfare and suitability as research subjects. Adult laboratory mice commonly perform stereotypic bar-gnawing, route-tracing, and back-flipping, although great individual variation in frequency occurs. Early life factors (for example, level of maternal care received) have lasting effects on CNS functioning and abilities to cope with stress and therefore may also affect stereotypic behavior in offspring. Access to maternal resources and care are influenced by the number of pups in a litter; therefore, we examined both litter size and its potential correlate, weight at weaning, as early environmental predictors of adult stereotypic behavior in laboratory mice. Further, we assessed the effects on offspring stereotypic behavior of delaying the separation of mother and pups (weaning) beyond the standard 21 d of age. Analyzing stereotypic behavior in 3 different mouse colonies composed of 2 inbred strains (C57BL/6N and C57BL/6J) and an outbred stock (CD1[ICR]) revealed significant positive correlation between litter size and stereotypic behavior in female, but not male, mice. Weight and age at weaning did not significantly affect levels of stereotypy in either sex. Litter size therefore may be a useful indicator of individual predisposition to stereotypic behavior in female laboratory mice. PMID:23043805

  2. INITIAL PLANETESIMAL SIZES AND THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF SMALL KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Schlichting, Hilke E.; Fuentes, Cesar I.; Trilling, David E.

    2013-08-01

    The Kuiper Belt is a remnant from the early solar system and its size distribution contains many important constraints that can be used to test models of planet formation and collisional evolution. We show, by comparing observations with theoretical models, that the observed Kuiper Belt size distribution is well matched by coagulation models, which start with an initial planetesimal population with radii of about 1 km, and subsequent collisional evolution. We find that the observed size distribution above R {approx} 30 km is primordial, i.e., it has not been modified by collisional evolution over the age of the solar system, and that the size distribution below R {approx} 30 km has been modified by collisions and that its slope is well matched by collisional evolution models that use published strength laws. We investigate in detail the resulting size distribution of bodies ranging from 0.01 km to 30 km and find that its slope changes several times as a function of radius before approaching the expected value for an equilibrium collisional cascade of material strength dominated bodies for R {approx}< 0.1 km. Compared to a single power-law size distribution that would span the whole range from 0.01 km to 30 km, we find in general a strong deficit of bodies around R {approx} 10 km and a strong excess of bodies around 2 km in radius. This deficit and excess of bodies are caused by the planetesimal size distribution left over from the runaway growth phase, which left most of the initial mass in small planetesimals while only a small fraction of the total mass is converted into large protoplanets. This excess mass in small planetesimals leaves a permanent signature in the size distribution of small bodies that is not erased after 4.5 Gyr of collisional evolution. Observations of the small Kuiper Belt Object (KBO) size distribution can therefore test if large KBOs grew as a result of runaway growth and constrained the initial planetesimal sizes. We find that results from

  3. [Indications and results of small bowel transplantation in adults].

    PubMed

    Joly, Francisca; Panis, Yves

    2012-02-01

    immunosuppression to control rejection. By 1990, the development of tacrolimus-based immunosuppression, as well as improved surgical techniques, the increased array of potent immunosuppressive medications, infection prophylaxis, and better patient selection helped to improve actuarial graft and patient survival rates for all types of intestine transplantation. In adult intestinal transplantation, three kinds of graft can be proposed: isolated small bowel, combined liver and small bowel, and multivisceral transplantation. In isolated small bowel transplantation, the length of the graft ranges between 1.5 and 2 meters, but depends on the size of the recipient (and the abdominal cavity volume, which is reduced). The graft is anastomosed with the recipient's duodenum or remnant proximal jejunum. the distal part of the small bowel graft is on a temporary stoma, in order to allow biopsies for early detection of rejection. Vascular anastomoses are usually performed directly on the aorta for the superior mesenteric artery and either the recipient's portal vein or vena cava for the donor superior mesenteric vein. In combined liver and intestinal transplantation, one venous anastomosis is avoided because the graft is in one piece. Finally, one specificity of this transplantation is the fact that it usually concerns patients with numerous previous abdominal operations and with total or subtotal enterectomy. Thus, the residual abdominal cavity is usually very small, and this can be a major problem for graft insertion. For this reason, abdominal closure is performed with a temporary prosthesis, because even cutaneous closure remains impossible if a compartment syndrome is to be avoided. PMID:23420959

  4. Restricted size Ramsey number for P3 versus small paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silaban, Denny Riama; Baskoro, E. T.; Uttunggadewa, Saladin

    2016-02-01

    Let F, G, and H be simple graphs. We say F → (G, H) if for every 2-coloring of the edges of F there exist a monochromatic G or H in F. The Ramsey number r(G, H) is defined as min {|V (F)| : F → (G, H)}, the size Ramsey number r̂(G, H) is defined as min {|E(F)| : F → (G, H)}, and the restricted size Ramsey number r*(G, H) is defined as min {|E(F)| : F → (G, H), |V (F)| = r(G, H)}. In this paper we give a lower bound for the restricted size Ramsey number for a path P3 versus Pn. We also give the upper bound and the exact restricted size Ramsey number for some small values of n.

  5. The demographics of fat talk in adult women: Age, body size, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Engeln, Renee; Salk, Rachel H

    2016-08-01

    Fat talk, conversations in which women disparage the size/shape of their bodies, acts as both a reflection of and contributor to body dissatisfaction. We assessed the impact of age, body mass index, and ethnicity on fat talk in two large, online surveys of adult women. Body mass index showed a small, positive correlation with fat talk, but only for women who were not overweight. Fat talking was common across all ages. In contrast to the common belief that fat talk is limited to young, thin women, these studies demonstrate that women of many body sizes and ages engage in fat talk. PMID:25488938

  6. Time and size at metamorphosis related to adult fitness in Ambystoma talpoideum

    SciTech Connect

    Semlitsch, R.D.; Scott, D.E.; Pechmann, J.H.K.

    1988-02-01

    The relationships among timing of metamorphosis, size at metamorphosis, and traits related to adult fitness were studied for 8 yr in the salamander Ambystoma talpoideum at a temporary pond. Among years, the modal time of metamorphosis and mean body size at metamorphosis were positively correlated with the date the pond dried. In years that the pond dried late, one group of larvae metamorphosed well before the pond dried, whereas the other group metamorphosed just before pond drying. Mean body size of late-metamorphosing individuals was not greater than that of individuals metamorphosing early. Early-metamorphosing males and females were larger at first and second reproduction than were late-metamorphosing individuals. Independent of timing of metamorphosis, larger juveniles at metamorphosis were also larger adults at first reproduction. Age at first reproduction for males was not associated with timing of or size at metamorphosis but large early-metamorphosing females reproduced at a younger age than did small early-metamorphosing females. Neither time of metamorphosis nor size at metamorphosis was associated with survival to first reproduction. These results demonstrate a direct relationship between phenotypic variation generated in the larval stage and adult traits closely associated with an individual's fitness.

  7. Bank Size and Small- and Medium-sized Enterprise (SME) Lending: Evidence from China

    PubMed Central

    SHEN, YAN; SHEN, MINGGAO; XU, ZHONG; BAI, YING

    2014-01-01

    Summary Using panel data collected in 2005, we evaluate how bank size, discretion over credit, incentive schemes, competition, and the institutional environment affect lending to small- and medium-sized enterprises in China. We deal with the endogeneity problem using instrumental variables, and a reduced-form approach is also applied to allow for weak instruments in estimation. We find that total bank asset is an insignificant factor for banks’ decision on small- and medium-enterprise (SME) lending, but more local lending authority, more competition, carefully designed incentive schemes, and stronger law enforcement encourage commercial banks to lend to SMEs. PMID:26052179

  8. Metal oxide porous ceramic membranes with small pore sizes

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Marc A.; Xu, Qunyin

    1991-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

  9. Metal oxide porous ceramic membranes with small pore sizes

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Marc A.; Xu, Qunyin

    1992-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

  10. [Weight-for-height in adults: comparison of classifications adjusted and non adjusted by frame size].

    PubMed

    Hernández Hernández, R A; Hernández de Valera, Y

    1998-03-01

    The present study is to analyze the concordance, agreements and divergence of anthropometry nutritional classification of weight-height (WH) in adults, using criteria that include frame size adjustments and no adjustment at all. 224 adults were studied (127 female and 117 males) from the "Simón Bolívar" University Administrative Employees Health Project, 1993. Using as basis, the variables weight, height, wrist circumference and elbow breadth, we determined: a) frame size by wrist circumference methods (WC) (Grant, 1980) and elbow breadth (EB) (Frame index 2 by Frisancho, 1989); b) classification by weight-height (WH) according to table by frame size (Frisancho, 1984). 57%, 38% and 6% corresponded to small, medium and large frame sizes, by WC. 16%, 60% and 25% by EB. When classifying by WH those results showed differences between 16-25% in female and 15-21% in males. When contrasting the three criteria, it was observed a bigger coincidence between WH without frame size adjustment and WH adjustment by EB. The smallest coincidence between WH adjusted by WC method and weight height without frame size adjustment in the whole group, while male and female got the biggest coincidence in WH adjustment by WC and HW without frame size adjustment. The smallest concordance (k = 0.37) was obtained when contrasting WH frame size adjustment by EB vs weight-height without adjustment in female, and biggest concordance (k = 0.60) when contrasting WH by WC and without adjustment in males. This results show that, there are significative differences in nutritional classification of weight-height in adults adjusted and non adjusted by frame size within the same group of persons. PMID:9754399

  11. 77 FR 30227 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Programs. The proposed rule would implement... ownership, control and affiliation for participants in the SBIR and STTR Programs. This...

  12. The Size Frequency Distribution of Small Main-Belt Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, Brian J.; Trilling, David E.; Hines, Dean C.; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Rebull, Luisa M.; Fuentes, Cesar I.; Hulsebus, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The asteroid size distribution informs us about the formation and composition of the Solar System. We build on our previous work in which we harvest serendipitously observed data of the Taurus region and measure the brightness and size distributions of Main-belt asteroids. This is accomplished with the highly sensitive MIPS 24 micron channel. We expect to catalog 104 asteroids, giving us a statistically significant data set. Results from this investigation will allow us to characterize the total population of small, Main-belt asteroids. Here we will present new results on the completeness of our study; on the presence of size distribution variations with inclination and radial distance in the belt; and early result on other archival fields.

  13. Size-varying small target detection for infrared image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Miao; Zhu, Ran; Long, Yunli; An, Wei; Zhou, Yiyu

    2015-10-01

    IRST (Infrared Search and Track) has been applied to many military or civil fields such as precise guidance, aerospace, early warning. As a key technique, small target detection based on infrared image plays an important role. However, infrared targets have their own characteristics, such as target size variation, which make the detection work quite difficult. In practical application, the target size may vary due to many reasons, such as optic angle of sensors, imaging distance, environment and so on. For conventional detection methods, it is difficult to detect such size-varying targets, especially when the backgrounds have strong clutters. This paper presents a novel method to detect size-varying infrared targets in a cluttered background. It is easy to find that the target region is salient in infrared images. It means that target region have a signature of discontinuity with its neighboring regions and concentrates in a relatively small region, which can be considered as a homogeneous compact region, and the background is consistent with its neighboring regions. Motivated by the saliency feature and gradient feature, we introduce minimum target intensity (MTI) to measure the dissimilarity between different scales, and use mean gradient to restrict the target scale in a reasonable range. They are integrated to be multiscale MTI filter. The proposed detection method is designed based on multiscale MTI filter. Firstly, salient region is got by morphological low-pass filtering, where the potential target exists in. Secondly, the candidate target regions are extracted by multiscale minimum target intensity filter, which can effectively give the optimal target size. At last, signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) is used to segment targets, which is computed based on optimal scale of candidate targets. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method can achieve both higher detection precision and robustness in complex background.

  14. Small Sample Sizes Yield Biased Allometric Equations in Temperate Forests.

    PubMed

    Duncanson, L; Rourke, O; Dubayah, R

    2015-01-01

    Accurate quantification of forest carbon stocks is required for constraining the global carbon cycle and its impacts on climate. The accuracies of forest biomass maps are inherently dependent on the accuracy of the field biomass estimates used to calibrate models, which are generated with allometric equations. Here, we provide a quantitative assessment of the sensitivity of allometric parameters to sample size in temperate forests, focusing on the allometric relationship between tree height and crown radius. We use LiDAR remote sensing to isolate between 10,000 to more than 1,000,000 tree height and crown radius measurements per site in six U.S. forests. We find that fitted allometric parameters are highly sensitive to sample size, producing systematic overestimates of height. We extend our analysis to biomass through the application of empirical relationships from the literature, and show that given the small sample sizes used in common allometric equations for biomass, the average site-level biomass bias is ~+70% with a standard deviation of 71%, ranging from -4% to +193%. These findings underscore the importance of increasing the sample sizes used for allometric equation generation. PMID:26598233

  15. Small Sample Sizes Yield Biased Allometric Equations in Temperate Forests

    PubMed Central

    Duncanson, L.; Rourke, O.; Dubayah, R.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate quantification of forest carbon stocks is required for constraining the global carbon cycle and its impacts on climate. The accuracies of forest biomass maps are inherently dependent on the accuracy of the field biomass estimates used to calibrate models, which are generated with allometric equations. Here, we provide a quantitative assessment of the sensitivity of allometric parameters to sample size in temperate forests, focusing on the allometric relationship between tree height and crown radius. We use LiDAR remote sensing to isolate between 10,000 to more than 1,000,000 tree height and crown radius measurements per site in six U.S. forests. We find that fitted allometric parameters are highly sensitive to sample size, producing systematic overestimates of height. We extend our analysis to biomass through the application of empirical relationships from the literature, and show that given the small sample sizes used in common allometric equations for biomass, the average site-level biomass bias is ~+70% with a standard deviation of 71%, ranging from −4% to +193%. These findings underscore the importance of increasing the sample sizes used for allometric equation generation. PMID:26598233

  16. Walking control of small size humanoid robot: HAJIME ROBOT 18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Hajime; Nakatsu, Ryohei

    2007-12-01

    HAJIME ROBOT 18 is a fully autonomous biped robot. It has been developed for RoboCup which is a worldwide soccer competition of robots. It is necessary for a robot to have high mobility to play soccer. High speed walking and all directional walking are important to approach and to locate in front of a ball. HAJIME ROBOT achieved these walking. This paper describes walking control of a small size humanoid robot 'HAJIME ROBOT 18' and shows the measurement result of ZMP (Zero Moment Point). HAJIME ROBOT won the Robotics Society of Japan Award in RoboCup 2005 and in RoboCup 2006 Japan Open.

  17. Therapeutic strategy for small-sized lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Hisashi

    2016-08-01

    Minimizing the volume of lung resection without diminishing curability has recently become an important issue in primary lung cancer. In this review, we will discuss the current state of the feasibility of sublobar resection and specific issues for a segmentectomy procedure. A previous randomized controlled trial showed that lobectomy must still be considered the standard surgical procedure compared with sublobar resection for T1N0 non-small cell lung cancer with a tumor less than 3 cm in size. Since then, supporting studies for segmentectomy of lung cancer with a tumor less than 2 cm in size were reported. In addition, segmentectomy seems to be feasible for clinical stage I adenocarcinoma less than 2 cm in size, in women younger than 70 years old, with a low tumor 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) standardized uptake value (SUV) from propensity-matching studies. In a meta-analysis of sublobar resection vs. lobectomy, intentionally performed sublobar resection showed equivalent outcomes to lobectomy. In the near future, two ongoing prospective, randomized trials will report results. As specific issues for the surgical procedure of segmentectomy, achieving a sufficient surgical margin is an important issue for preventing loco-regional recurrence. More studies regarding the regional lymph node dissection area for segmentectomy are needed. Sublobar resection has the potential to become the standard procedure for peripheral small-sized lung cancer less than 2 cm. However, more information is needed about the characteristics of this cancer and the surgical procedure, including nodal dissection. PMID:27300350

  18. Small testicles with impaired production of sperm in adult male survivors of childhood malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Siimes, M.A.; Rautonen, J. )

    1990-03-15

    Testicular size has been studied in 66 adult men who survived leukemia (n = 14) or cancer (n = 52) in childhood. Mean follow-up time was 14.5 years. The testicular size was measured as the length and breadth in mm; testicular volume index was calculated. Serum concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, and prolactin were measured. A sperm sample was obtained from 46 men. The patients had smaller testicles than healthy medical students; 51 had small testicles. The size was the smallest in patients who survived leukemia. Multivariate analysis showed that the variables with independent effects on testicular size were cranial and testicular irradiation and therapy with cyclophosphamide. Sperm production was dependent on testicular size. We conclude that determination of serum FSH combined with testicular size may offer a practical approach for predicting the subsequent testicular damage in boys with malignancies.

  19. 77 FR 76215 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-27

    ... to sizestandards@SBA.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background On May 15, 2012, at 77 FR 28520 (available at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-05-15/pdf/2012-11586.pdf ), the U.S. Small Business... FR 30227 (May 22, 2012). SBA held these outreach sessions in Washington, DC; Boston,...

  20. Development of Deployment System for Small Size Solar Sail Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Osamu; Sawada, Hirotaka; Hanaoka, Fuminori; Kawaguchi, Junichiro; Shirasawa, Yoji; Sugita, Masayuki; Miyazaki, Yasuyuki; Sakamoto, Hiraku; Funase, Ryu

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is studying the feasibility of using the solar power sail as a new propulsion engine for deep space exploration missions. In this paper, the sail shape and equipment layout for missions utilizing small-sized solar power sails are proposed. The two-stage deployment method of the sail is also proposed. The sail need to be deployed statically at the first stage, and two types of deployment mechanisms are introduced. On the other hand the second stage of the deployment can be performed dynamically, and the oscillating motion of the membrane is converged by tethers connecting the membrane to the main body. The deployment motions are analyzed by numerical simulations using multi-particle models in order to verify the deployment. They are compared with the results calculated by finite element method models. The numerical simulation results are discussed from the technological viewpoint of the sail deployment dynamics and mechanisms.

  1. Ultracapacitors for fuel saving in small size hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solero, L.; Lidozzi, A.; Serrao, V.; Martellucci, L.; Rossi, E.

    The main purpose of the paper is to describe a small size hybrid vehicle having ultracapacitors as on-board storage unit. The vehicle on-board main power supply is achieved by a genset being formed of a 250 cm 3 internal combustion engine and a permanent magnet synchronous electric generator, whereas 4 16V-500F ultracapacitors modules are connected in series in order to supply as well as to store the power peaks during respectively acceleration and braking vehicle modes of operation. The traction power is provided by a permanent magnet synchronous electric motor, whereas a distributed power electronic interface is in charge of all the required electronic conversions as well of controlling the operating conditions for each power unit. The paper discusses the implemented control strategy and shows experimental results on the modes of operation of both generation unit and storage unit.

  2. Small effective population size in the long-toed salamander.

    PubMed

    Funk, W C; Tallmon, D A; Allendorf, F W

    1999-10-01

    The effective population sizes (Ne) of six populations of the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) from Montana and Idaho, USA were estimated from allozyme data from samples collected in 1978, 1996 and 1997 using the temporal allele frequency method. Five of the six estimates ranged from 23 to 207 (mean = 123 +/- 79); one estimate was indistinguishable from infinity. In order to infer the actual Ne of salamander populations, we compared the frequency distribution of our observed Ne estimates with distributions obtained from simulated populations of known Ne. Our observed Ne estimate distribution was consistent with distributions from simulated populations with Ne values of 10, 25, and 50, suggesting an actual Ne for each of the six salamander populations of less than 100. This Ne estimate agrees with most other Ne estimates for amphibians. We conclude by discussing the conservation implications of small Ne values in amphibians in the context of increasing isolation of populations due to habitat fragmentation. PMID:10583827

  3. The role of font size and font style in younger and older adults' predicted and actual recall performance.

    PubMed

    Price, Jodi; McElroy, Kelsey; Martin, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    We examined how font sizes (18pt., 48 pt.) and font styles (regular, italic, bold) influenced younger and older adults' judgments of learning (JOLs) and recall. In Experiment 1 younger adults gave higher JOLs and obtained higher recall than older adults. However, JOLs and recall varied for both age groups as a function of font size and font style manipulations despite a tendency for both groups to predict higher recall for items in large and in regular and italic styles than for small and bold fonts and achieve higher recall for regular than italic or bold items. No age differences were found in relative accuracy, with near-perfect calibration in absolute accuracy for younger and older adults. Experiment 2 presented a description of Experiment 1 and asked participants to predict recall for the various font size/style combinations. Younger and older adults predicted higher recall for large than small font items, regardless of font style, and higher recall for bold than regular or italic styles, regardless of font size. Memory predictions did not align across experiments, suggesting that memory beliefs combine with processing fluency to affect JOLs and recall. PMID:26513175

  4. Theory of flotation of small and medium-size particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derjaguin, B. V.; Dukhin, S. S.

    1993-08-01

    The paper describes a theory of flotation of small and medium-size particles less than 50μ in radius) when their precipitation on a bubble surface depends more on surface forces than on inertia forces, and deformation of the bubble due to collisions with the particles may be neglected. The approach of the mineral particle to the bubble surface is regarded as taking place in three stages corresponding to movement of the particles through zones 1, 2 and 3. Zone 3 is a liquid wetting layer of such thickness that a positive or negative disjoining pressure arises in this intervening layer between the particle and the bubble. By zone 2 is meant the diffusional boundary layer of the bubble. In zone 1, which comprises the entire liquid outside zone 2, there are no surface forces. Precipitation of the particles is calculated by considering the forces acting in zones 1, 2 and 3. The particles move through zone 1 under the action of gravity and inertia. Analysis of the movement of the particles under the action of these forces gives the critical particle size, below which contact with the bubble surface is impossible, if the surface forces acting in zones 2 and 3 be neglected. The forces acting in zone 2 are ‘diffusio-phoretic’ forces due to the concentration gradient in the diffusional boundary layer. The concentration and electric field intensity distribution in zone 2 is calculated, taking into account ion diffusion to the deformed bubble surface. An examination is made of the ‘equilibrium’ surface forces acting in zone 3 independent of whether the bubble is at rest or in motion. These forces, which determine the behaviour of the thin wetting intervening layer between the bubble and the mineral particle and the height of the force barrier against its rupture, may be represented as results of the disjoining pressure forces acting on various parts of the film. The main components of the disjoining pressure are van der Waals forces, forces of an iono

  5. Variability of the raindrop size distribution at small spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berne, A.; Jaffrain, J.

    2010-12-01

    Because of the interactions between atmospheric turbulence and cloud microphysics, the raindrop size distribution (DSD) is strongly variable in space and time. The spatial variability of the DSD at small spatial scales (below a few km) is not well documented and not well understood, mainly because of a lack of adequate measurements at the appropriate resolutions. A network of 16 disdrometers (Parsivels) has been designed and set up over EPFL campus in Lausanne, Switzerland. This network covers a typical operational weather radar pixel of 1x1 km2. The question of the significance of the variability of the DSD at such small scales is relevant for radar remote sensing of rainfall because the DSD is often assumed to be uniform within a radar sample volume and because the Z-R relationships used to convert the measured radar reflectivity Z into rain rate R are usually derived from point measurements. Thanks to the number of disdrometers, it was possible to quantify the spatial variability of the DSD at the radar pixel scale and to show that it can be significant. In this contribution, we show that the variability of the total drop concentration, of the median volume diameter and of the rain rate are significant, taking into account the sampling uncertainty associated with disdrometer measurements. The influence of this variability on the Z-R relationship can be non-negligible. Finally, the spatial structure of the DSD is quantified using a geostatistical tool, the variogram, and indicates high spatial correlation within a radar pixel.

  6. Metastable structures and size effects in small group dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Lauro Grotto, Rosapia; Guazzini, Andrea; Bagnoli, Franco

    2014-01-01

    In his seminal works on group dynamics Bion defined a specific therapeutic setting allowing psychoanalytic observations on group phenomena. In describing the setting he proposed that the group was where his voice arrived. This physical limit was later made operative by assuming that the natural dimension of a therapeutic group is around 12 people. Bion introduced a theory of the group aspects of the mind in which proto-mental individual states spontaneously evolve into shared psychological states that are characterized by a series of features: (1) they emerge as a consequence of the natural tendency of (both conscious and unconscious) emotions to combine into structured group patterns; (2) they have a certain degree of stability in time; (3) they tend to alternate so that the dissolution of one is rapidly followed by the emergence of another; (4) they can be described in qualitative terms according to the nature of the emotional mix that dominates the state, in structural terms by a kind of typical “leadership” pattern, and in “cognitive” terms by a set of implicit expectations that are helpful in explaining the group behavior (i.e., the group behaves “as if” it was assuming that). Here we adopt a formal approach derived from Socio-physics in order to explore some of the structural and dynamic properties of this small group dynamics. We will described data from an analytic DS model simulating small group interactions of agents endowed with a very simplified emotional and cognitive dynamic in order to assess the following main points: (1) are metastable collective states allowed to emerge in the model and if so, under which conditions in the parameter space? (2) can these states be differentiated in structural terms? (3) to what extent are the emergent dynamic features of the systems dependent of the system size? We will finally discuss possible future applications of the quantitative descriptions of the interaction structure in the small group clinical

  7. Consultation for Small-Sized Penis in the Egyptian Males: A Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    Salama, Nader

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to report penile dimensions in adult Egyptian males consulting for small-sized penis (SSP) and describe their demographics and andrological profile. A case control study was designed through retrospective data analysis of patients (n = 239) seeking advice for SSP and a control group (n = 59). This included sociodemographics, other andrological complaints, and penile dimensions (pendulous length [PL], penopubic or total length [TL], and circumference [CF]) at flaccid and erect states and the size of the prepubic fatty pad. The results reported that most patients were single, students, and smokers and had not completed a university education. Several patients reported falsely premature ejaculation (PE), penile curvature (PC), and small-sized testes. Most penile dimensions of the patients (mean, cm) were significantly lower than those of the controls, whether in flaccid (PL: 7.4 vs. 8.05, p = .008; CF: 8.7 vs. 8.98, p = .026) or erect state (PL: 11.8 vs. 13, p = .000; TL: 14.2 vs. 15, p = .000; CF: 11.3 vs. 11.8, p = .003). However, no patient presented with a pendulous penile length <4 cm in flaccid or <7 cm in erect state. In conclusion, Egyptian men consulting for SSP did not have true small organs, but their penile dimensions were slightly smaller than those of men without such complaint. The proper sexual education program is highly advisable in these situations to avoid the myths and misconceptions about sexuality. PMID:25563384

  8. The relationship between social network body size and the body size norms of Black and Hispanic adults

    PubMed Central

    Winston, Ginger; Phillips, Erica; Wethington, Elaine; Wells, Martin; Devine, Carol M.; Peterson, Janey; Wansink, Brian; Ramos, Rosio; Charlson, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between the body size norms of Black and Hispanic adults and the body sizes of their social network members. Methods Egocentric network data were examined for 245 adults recruited from 2012–2013 in New York City. A multivariable regression model was used to examine the relationship between participants' perception of normal body size and the body sizes of their network members adjusted for participant age, education, race/ethnicity and network size. Participants' body size norms were also examined stratified by the following characteristics of obese network members: frequency of contact, living proximity, relationship, and importance of relationship. Results Index participants were 89% female with mean body mass index 33.5 kg/m2. There were 2571 network members identified (31% overweight, 10% obese). In the fully adjusted multivariable model, perception of normal body size increased as the number of network members with obesity increased (p < 0.01). Larger body size norms were associated with increased frequency of contact with obese network members (p = 0.04), and obese members living in the home (p = 0.049). Conclusions These findings support a relationship between the body size norms of Black and Hispanic adults and their social network body size. PMID:26705513

  9. Multiwalled carbon nanotube films as small-sized temperature sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Bartolomeo, A.; Sarno, M.; Giubileo, F.; Altavilla, C.; Iemmo, L.; Piano, S.; Bobba, F.; Longobardi, M.; Scarfato, A.; Sannino, D.; Cucolo, A. M.; Ciambelli, P.

    2009-03-01

    We present the fabrication of thick and dense carbon nanotube networks in the form of freestanding films (CNTFs) and the study of their electric resistance as a function of the temperature, from 4 to 420 K. A nonmetallic behavior with a monotonic R(T ) and a temperature coefficient of resistance around -7×10-4 K-1 is generally observed. A behavioral accordance of the CNTF conductance with the temperature measured by a solid-state thermistor (ZnNO, Si, or Pt) is demonstrated, suggesting the possibility of using CNTFs as temperature small-sized (freely scalable) sensors, besides being confirmed by a wide range of sensitivity, fast response, and good stability and durability. Concerning electric behavior, we also underline that a transition from nonmetal to metal slightly below 273 K has been rarely observed. A model involving regions of highly anisotropic metallic conduction separated by tunneling barrier regions can explain the nonmetallic to metallic crossover based on the competing mechanisms of the metallic resistance rise and the barrier resistance lowering.

  10. Salary Management System for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Zhang; Guangli, Xu; Yuhuan, Zhang; Yilong, Lei

    Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in the process of wage entry, calculation, the total number are needed to be done manually in the past, the data volume is quite large, processing speed is low, and it is easy to make error, which is resulting in low efficiency. The main purpose of writing this paper is to present the basis of salary management system, establish a scientific database, the computer payroll system, using the computer instead of a lot of past manual work in order to reduce duplication of staff labor, it will improve working efficiency.This system combines the actual needs of SMEs, through in-depth study and practice of the C/S mode, PowerBuilder10.0 development tools, databases and SQL language, Completed a payroll system needs analysis, database design, application design and development work. Wages, departments, units and personnel database file are included in this system, and have data management, department management, personnel management and other functions, through the control and management of the database query, add, delete, modify, and other functions can be realized. This system is reasonable design, a more complete function, stable operation has been tested to meet the basic needs of the work.

  11. Design of Small Intramolecular Singlet Fission Chromophores: An Azaborine Candidate and General Small Size Effects.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Tao; Goel, Prateek

    2016-04-01

    We report the first attempt to design small intramolecular singlet fission chromophores, with the aid of quantum chemistry and explicitly simulating the time evolution of state populations using quantum dynamics method. We start with three previously proposed azaborine-substituted intermolecular singlet fission chromophores. Through analyzing their frontier orbital amplitudes, we select a BN-substituted azulene as the building block. Covalently connecting two such monomers and tuning their relative configuration, we examine three dimers. One dimer is found to be an eminent candidate: the triplet-pair state is quickly formed within 1 ps, and the two triplets are ready to be disentangled. We elucidate the general small size effects in intramolecular singlet fission and focus on specific aspects which should be taken care of when manipulating the fission rate through steric hindrance. PMID:27007577

  12. 77 FR 7489 - Small Business Size Standards: Professional, Technical, and Scientific Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ...The United States Small Business Administration (SBA) is increasing 37 small business size standards for 34 industries and three sub-industries (``exceptions'' in SBA's table of small business size standards) in North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Sector 54, Professional, Technical, and Scientific Services. SBA is also increasing the one size standard in NAICS Sector 81,......

  13. 77 FR 42441 - Small Business Size Standards: Utilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... size standards was published in the Federal Register on July 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237). Because of changes... status caused by a large number of varying receipts based size standards (see 69 FR 13130 (March 4, 2004) and 57 FR 62515 (December 31, 1992)). At the beginning of the current comprehensive size...

  14. 77 FR 10943 - Small Business Size Standards: Transportation and Warehousing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... Analyst, Size Standards Division, (202) 205-6618 or sizestandards@sba.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: To... potential impact a size standard revision might have on its financial assistance programs and whether a... this proposal as well as supporting information if different size standards appeared more...

  15. Visual exposure to large and small portion sizes and perceptions of portion size normality: Three experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eric; Oldham, Melissa; Cuckson, Imogen; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Rogers, Peter J; Hardman, Charlotte A

    2016-03-01

    Portion sizes of many foods have increased in recent times. In three studies we examined the effect that repeated visual exposure to larger versus smaller food portion sizes has on perceptions of what constitutes a normal-sized food portion and measures of portion size selection. In studies 1 and 2 participants were visually exposed to images of large or small portions of spaghetti bolognese, before making evaluations about an image of an intermediate sized portion of the same food. In study 3 participants were exposed to images of large or small portions of a snack food before selecting a portion size of snack food to consume. Across the three studies, visual exposure to larger as opposed to smaller portion sizes resulted in participants considering a normal portion of food to be larger than a reference intermediate sized portion. In studies 1 and 2 visual exposure to larger portion sizes also increased the size of self-reported ideal meal size. In study 3 visual exposure to larger portion sizes of a snack food did not affect how much of that food participants subsequently served themselves and ate. Visual exposure to larger portion sizes may adjust visual perceptions of what constitutes a 'normal' sized portion. However, we did not find evidence that visual exposure to larger portions altered snack food intake. PMID:26702602

  16. Visual exposure to large and small portion sizes and perceptions of portion size normality: Three experimental studies

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Eric; Oldham, Melissa; Cuckson, Imogen; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M.; Rogers, Peter J.; Hardman, Charlotte A.

    2016-01-01

    Portion sizes of many foods have increased in recent times. In three studies we examined the effect that repeated visual exposure to larger versus smaller food portion sizes has on perceptions of what constitutes a normal-sized food portion and measures of portion size selection. In studies 1 and 2 participants were visually exposed to images of large or small portions of spaghetti bolognese, before making evaluations about an image of an intermediate sized portion of the same food. In study 3 participants were exposed to images of large or small portions of a snack food before selecting a portion size of snack food to consume. Across the three studies, visual exposure to larger as opposed to smaller portion sizes resulted in participants considering a normal portion of food to be larger than a reference intermediate sized portion. In studies 1 and 2 visual exposure to larger portion sizes also increased the size of self-reported ideal meal size. In study 3 visual exposure to larger portion sizes of a snack food did not affect how much of that food participants subsequently served themselves and ate. Visual exposure to larger portion sizes may adjust visual perceptions of what constitutes a ‘normal’ sized portion. However, we did not find evidence that visual exposure to larger portions altered snack food intake. PMID:26702602

  17. Clinical characteristics of adult asthma associated with small airway dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kjellberg, S; Houltz, B K; Zetterström, O; Robinson, P D; Gustafsson, Per M

    2016-08-01

    Suboptimal asthma control is common despite modern asthma therapy. The degree of peripheral airway involvement remains unclear and poor medication delivery to these regions might be a contributing reason for this failure in obtaining adequate symptom control. A cohort of 196 adults (median (range) age 44 (18-61) years, 109 females, 54 ex-smokers, six current smokers) with physician-diagnosed asthma were recruited from primary care. Subjects were characterized clinically by interviews, questionnaires, skin prick tests (SPT) and blood eosinophil counts. Lung function was assessed by spirometry, impulse oscillometry (IOS) and nitrogen multiple breath washout (N2 MBW). IOS assessed peripheral airway resistance (FDR, frequency dependence of resistance). N2 MBW assessed global ventilation inhomogeneity (LCI, lung clearance index), specific indices of peripheral airway function (Scond × VT and Sacin × VT; VT, tidal volume), and inter-regional inhomogeneity (specific ventilation ratio). Never-smoking healthy cohorts of 158 and 400 adult subjects provided local reference values for IOS and N2 MBW variables, respectively. Peripheral airway dysfunction was detected in 31% (FDR or specific ventilation ratio) to 47% (Scond x VT) of subjects. Risk factors for peripheral airway dysfunction were identified. Among subjects with low FEV1 and either positive smoking history and/or blood eosinophilia (>4.0%), 63% had abnormality across all peripheral airway outcomes, whilst only one subject was completely normal. Abnormal peripheral airway function was present in a large proportion of adult asthmatics at baseline. Reduced FEV1, a positive smoking history, and/or blood eosinophilia identified "a small airway asthma subtype" that might benefit from peripheral airway targeted therapy. PMID:27492518

  18. 78 FR 77343 - Small Business Size Standards: Utilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237). SBA recognizes that changes in industry structure and Federal marketplace... Register (77 FR 42441) seeking public comments on its proposal to revise the size standards for nine... the size standards for 13 industries in North American Industry Classification System (NAICS)...

  19. Prediction and measurement of frame size in young adult males.

    PubMed

    Peters, D M; Eston, R

    1993-02-01

    The assessment of frame size is a problematic and ambiguous area. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of agreement between various techniques of assessing frame size in a group of 27 healthy and active men aged 18-24 years, and also to assess which anthropometric variables were best associated with a measure of actual frame size (AFS) which is proposed in this study. Actual frame size was measured by the summation of a series of bone breadths, lengths and depths on a sub-sample of 17 men. The results of the study revealed substantial discordance between methods of assessing frame size. The variables which correlated most highly with AFS (P < 0.01) were body mass, ankle breadth, hand length and chest breadth, respectively. These variables were also positively correlated (P < 0.01) with fat-free mass (FFM), with no significant correlation with fat mass in either case. Of the various documented methods used to assess frame size, the 'HAT' technique, which incorporates biacromial and bitrochanteric breadths, was more highly correlated with AFS than both elbow breadth (currently used in height-weight insurance tables) and the height/wrist circumference index. The latter measure was not highly correlated with AFS, body mass and FFM in this study. It was concluded that ankle breadth and hand length may be better predictors of frame size in young men than other bone dimensions. In addition, the results of this preliminary investigation have substantiated the potential viability of an AFS model. Future research using this technique is recommended to determine true indicators of frame size in a larger and more heterogeneous population. PMID:8450591

  20. Landscape Simplification Constrains Adult Size in a Native Ground-Nesting Bee

    PubMed Central

    Renauld, Miles; Hutchinson, Alena; Loeb, Gregory; Poveda, Katja; Connelly, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Bees provide critical pollination services to 87% of angiosperm plants; however, the reliability of these services may become threatened as bee populations decline. Agricultural intensification, resulting in the simplification of environments at the landscape scale, greatly changes the quality and quantity of resources available for female bees to provision their offspring. These changes may alter or constrain the tradeoffs in maternal investment allocation between offspring size, number and sex required to maximize fitness. Here we investigate the relationship between landscape scale agricultural intensification and the size and number of individuals within a wild ground nesting bee species, Andrena nasonii. We show that agricultural intensification at the landscape scale was associated with a reduction in the average size of field collected A. nasonii adults in highly agricultural landscapes but not with the number of individuals collected. Small females carried significantly smaller (40%) pollen loads than large females, which is likely to have consequences for subsequent offspring production and fitness. Thus, landscape simplification is likely to constrain allocation of resources to offspring through a reduction in the overall quantity, quality and distribution of resources. PMID:26943127

  1. SMALL SIZE-RANGE EXTENSION OF AN OPTICAL PARTICLE COUNTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The object of the study was to improve the small particle sensitivity and resolution of a white light optical particle counter. The particular counter chosen for study was the Model 208 manufactured by Climet Instruments.

  2. Are Small Schools Better? School Size Considerations for Safety & Learning. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRobbie, Joan

    New studies from the 1990s have strengthened an already notable consensus on school size: smaller is better. This policy brief outlines research findings on why size makes a difference, how small is small enough, effective approaches to downsizing, and key barriers. No agreement exists at present on optimal school size, but research suggests a…

  3. Management Education for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the European Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzer, Rainer

    This report summarizes the activities of various bodies providing training impetus for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Europe on the three levels of (1) basic management education for potential small and medium-sized business owners and/or managers; (2) programs for small firm start-ups; and (3) activities to improve the management of…

  4. 77 FR 30265 - Submission for OMB Review; Small Business Size Representation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... representation. A notice was published in the Federal Register at 77 FR 13329, on March 6, 2012. No comments were... implement the Small Business Administration (SBA) Final Rule (71 FR 66434), Small Business Size Regulations... 20417. ATTN: Hada Flowers/IC 9000-0163, Small Business Size Representation. Instructions: Please...

  5. TiN nanoparticles: small size-selected fabrication and their quantum size effect.

    PubMed

    Hernández Mainet, Luis Carlos; Cabrera, Luis Ponce; Rodriguez, Eugenio; Cruz, Abel Fundora; Santana, Guillermo; Menchaca, Jorge Luis; Pérez-Tijerina, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Size-selected TiN nanoclusters in the range of 4 to 20 nm have been produced by an ionized cluster beam, which combines a glow-discharge sputtering with an inert gas condensation technique. With this method, by controlling the experimental conditions, it was possible to produce nanoparticles with a high control in size. The size distribution of TiN nanoparticles was determined before deposition by mass spectroscopy and confirmed by atomic force microscopy. The size distribution was also analyzed using a high-resolution transmission electron micrograph. The photoluminescence [PL] spectra of TiN nanoparticles at different sizes were also experimentally investigated. We reported, for the first time, the strong visible luminescence of TiN nanoparticles on Si (111) wafer due to the reduced size. We also discussed the PL intensity as a function of the nanoparticle size distribution. PMID:22252375

  6. 75 FR 61597 - Small Business Size Standards: Retail Trade

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... the Federal Register on July 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237). SBA recognizes that changes in industry structure... Register (74 FR 53924) to increase the size standards for 47 industries in that Sector. The proposed rule... (74 FR 53913) and for 18 industries in NAICS Sector 81, Other Services (74 FR ] 53941). Similarly,...

  7. 77 FR 39385 - Receipts-Based, Small Business Size Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... industries. The SBA adjusted this standard on July 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237), to account for inflation. DATES... NRC established its size standards on December 9, 1985 (50 FR 50241). On November 6, 1991 (56 FR 56671... Regulatory Flexibility Act of 1980, as amended. On April 11, 1995 (60 FR 18344), the NRC again adjusted...

  8. 77 FR 42197 - Small Business Size Standards: Construction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... Federal Register on July 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237). Given its importance in the Federal Procurement market..., 1985 (50 FR 46418). Finally, the industry's ] definitions under the NAICS changed significantly in 2002, requiring SBA to adjust its size standards (including those in NAICS Sector 23) accordingly (67 FR...

  9. 78 FR 77334 - Small Business Size Standards: Construction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ...-45, Retail Trade (75 FR 61597 (October 6, 2010)), NAICS Sector 72, Accommodation and Food Services... Engineering Construction, from $20 million to $25.5 million. As part of its ongoing comprehensive size... the Federal Register on July 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237). SBA recognizes that changes in industry...

  10. 75 FR 61591 - Small Business Size Standards; Other Services.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... financial and procurement programs. Over the years, SBA has received comments that its size standards have... standards was published in the Federal Register on July 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237). SBA recognizes that changes..., 2009 issue of Federal Register (74 FR 53941) to increase the standards for 18 industries in that...

  11. 76 FR 27935 - Small Business Size Standards: Transportation and Warehousing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... standards was published in the Federal Register on July 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237). Because of changes in... standards (see 69 FR 13130 (March 4, 2004) and 57 FR 62515 (December 31, 1992)). Currently, there are 31... distinct size standard for each industry (57 FR 27906 (June 23, 1992)). Within NAICS Sector 48-49,...

  12. Exploring Organizational Learning Mechanisms in Small-Size Business Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Carroll M.; Nafukho, Fredrick M.

    2008-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the importance of existing organizational learning mechanisms and establish the size and magnitude of the relationship among the organizational learning mechanisms. Of great import also was to determine whether statistically significant relationships existed among the organizational learning…

  13. School Size as a Factor in Financing Small Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alspaugh, John W.

    This paper examines the effects of enrollment on the financing of small rural K-8 versus K-12 school districts in Missouri and compares the educational outcomes of K-8 and K-12 districts. The sample included 48 K-8 and 48 K-12 districts with K-8 enrollments ranging from 70 to 370 students. Findings indicate that it is more difficult to financially…

  14. Capitalizing on Small Class Size. ERIC Digest Number 136.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Jessica; Smith, Stuart C.

    This Digest examines school districts' efforts to reap the greatest benefit from smaller classes. Although the report discusses teaching strategies that are most effective in small classes, research has shown that teachers do not significantly change their teaching practices when they move from larger to smaller classes. Smaller classes mean…

  15. 76 FR 62313 - Small Business Size and Status Integrity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... paragraphs (d)-(e): Sec. 127.700 What are the requirements for representing women-owned small business or..., by any of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov . Follow the... an e-mail to Dean.Koppel@sba.gov . Highlight the information that you consider to be CBI and...

  16. 78 FR 38811 - Small Business Size and Status Integrity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... proposed. One comment addressed the proposed Small Business Subcontracting Rule published at 76 FR 61626 on... the Federal Register on October 7, 2011 (76 FR 62313), inviting the public to submit comments on or... Federal Register published on November 8, 2011 (76 FR 69154). Summary of Comments and SBA's Responses...

  17. Birth weight, early life course BMI, and body size change: Chains of risk to adult inflammation?

    PubMed

    Goosby, Bridget J; Cheadle, Jacob E; McDade, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how body size changes over the early life course to predict high sensitivity C-reactive protein in a U.S. based sample. Using three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we test the chronic disease epidemiological models of fetal origins, sensitive periods, and chains of risk from birth into adulthood. Few studies link birth weight and changes in obesity status over adolescence and early adulthood to adult obesity and inflammation. Consistent with fetal origins and sensitive periods hypotheses, body size and obesity status at each developmental period, along with increasing body size between periods, are highly correlated with adult CRP. However, the predictive power of earlier life course periods is mediated by body size and body size change at later periods in a pattern consistent with the chains of risk model. Adult increases in obesity had effect sizes of nearly 0.3 sd, and effect sizes from overweight to the largest obesity categories were between 0.3 and 1 sd. There was also evidence that risk can be offset by weight loss, which suggests that interventions can reduce inflammation and cardiovascular risk, that females are more sensitive to body size changes, and that body size trajectories over the early life course account for African American- and Hispanic-white disparities in adult inflammation. PMID:26685708

  18. Endocranial volume of Australopithecus africanus: new CT-based estimates and the effects of missing data and small sample size.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Simon; Gunz, Philipp; Weber, Gerhard W; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2012-04-01

    Estimation of endocranial volume in Australopithecus africanus is important in interpreting early hominin brain evolution. However, the number of individuals available for investigation is limited and most of these fossils are, to some degree, incomplete and/or distorted. Uncertainties of the required reconstruction ('missing data uncertainty') and the small sample size ('small sample uncertainty') both potentially bias estimates of the average and within-group variation of endocranial volume in A. africanus. We used CT scans, electronic preparation (segmentation), mirror-imaging and semilandmark-based geometric morphometrics to generate and reconstruct complete endocasts for Sts 5, Sts 60, Sts 71, StW 505, MLD 37/38, and Taung, and measured their endocranial volumes (EV). To get a sense of the reliability of these new EV estimates, we then used simulations based on samples of chimpanzees and humans to: (a) test the accuracy of our approach, (b) assess missing data uncertainty, and (c) appraise small sample uncertainty. Incorporating missing data uncertainty of the five adult individuals, A. africanus was found to have an average adult endocranial volume of 454-461 ml with a standard deviation of 66-75 ml. EV estimates for the juvenile Taung individual range from 402 to 407 ml. Our simulations show that missing data uncertainty is small given the missing portions of the investigated fossils, but that small sample sizes are problematic for estimating species average EV. It is important to take these uncertainties into account when different fossil groups are being compared. PMID:22365336

  19. In contrast to many other mammals, cetaceans have relatively small hippocampi that appear to lack adult neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Patzke, Nina; Spocter, Muhammad A; Karlsson, Karl Æ; Bertelsen, Mads F; Haagensen, Mark; Chawana, Richard; Streicher, Sonja; Kaswera, Consolate; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Mohammed, Osama B; Reep, Roger L; Bennett, Nigel C; Siegel, Jerry M; Ihunwo, Amadi O; Manger, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampus is essential for the formation and retrieval of memories and is a crucial neural structure sub-serving complex cognition. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis, the birth, migration and integration of new neurons, is thought to contribute to hippocampal circuit plasticity to augment function. We evaluated hippocampal volume in relation to brain volume in 375 mammal species and examined 71 mammal species for the presence of adult hippocampal neurogenesis using immunohistochemistry for doublecortin, an endogenous marker of immature neurons that can be used as a proxy marker for the presence of adult neurogenesis. We identified that the hippocampus in cetaceans (whales, dolphins and porpoises) is both absolutely and relatively small for their overall brain size, and found that the mammalian hippocampus scaled as an exponential function in relation to brain volume. In contrast, the amygdala was found to scale as a linear function of brain volume, but again, the relative size of the amygdala in cetaceans was small. The cetacean hippocampus lacks staining for doublecortin in the dentate gyrus and thus shows no clear signs of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. This lack of evidence of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, along with the small hippocampus, questions current assumptions regarding cognitive abilities associated with hippocampal function in the cetaceans. These anatomical features of the cetacean hippocampus may be related to the lack of postnatal sleep, causing a postnatal cessation of hippocampal neurogenesis. PMID:24178679

  20. 75 FR 1662 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule AGENCY: U.S. Small Business.... SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is considering granting a waiver of...

  1. 78 FR 42817 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule AGENCY: U.S. Small Business.... Small Business Administration (SBA) intends to rescind a class waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule...

  2. 76 FR 23640 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ...-Owned (SDVO) small businesses or Participants in the SBA's 8(a) Business Development (BD) program. DATES... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule AGENCY: U.S. Small...

  3. Dermoscopic features of small size pigmented basal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Asuka; Hara, Hiroyuki; Aikawa, Miwa; Ochiai, Toyoko

    2016-05-01

    Dermoscopic images of histologically proven pigmented basal cell carcinomas (BCC) were retrospectively assessed to compare the dermoscopic features of BCC of 3 mm or less in diameter (n = 6) with BCC of 4-6 mm in diameter (n = 11). All lesions lacked the presence of a pigment network. BCC with a diameter of 3 mm or less had fewer positive dermoscopic features compared with the 4-6 mm in diameter BCC. Multiple blue-gray globules and large blue-gray ovoid nests were frequently present. Dermoscopy is a useful tool for early diagnosis of pigmented BCC, even when they are small. PMID:26458728

  4. Substrate size and heterogeneity control anomalous transport in small streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubeneau, A. F.; Hanrahan, Brittany; Bolster, Diogo; Tank, Jennifer L.

    2014-12-01

    In alluvial systems, substrate characteristics play a critical role in slowing downstream transport of both water and solutes. We present results from solute injection experiments testing the influence of sediment size (pea gravel versus coarse gravel) and heterogeneity (alternating sections versus well-mixed reaches) on solute transport dynamics in four experimental streams at the Notre Dame Linked Experimental Ecosystem Facility. The stream with pea gravel resulted in more long-term retention than the stream with coarse gravel, whereas both streams with heterogeneous substrate (alternated and mixed) fell between with similar late-time scaling. Inverse modeling of solute breakthrough curves suggested that residence times were distributed according to a truncated power law. While conservative solute transport in all four streams was anomalous, truncation times were influenced by sediment size, with the smaller pea gravel exhibiting a later truncation time than the coarse gravel, and the two streams with heterogeneous substrate having an intermediate cutoff. These results uniquely associate transport scaling with substrate characteristics in fluvial systems, revealing truncation time scales that had been previously predicted but not observed and quantified in field conditions. Because both benthic (i.e., substrate-water interface) and subsurface hyporheic regions are known biogeochemical hot spots, relating physical characteristics to the macroscopic transport behavior could be crucial to improve our estimates of solute export from fluvial systems.

  5. Spontaneous formation of small sized albumin/acacia coacervate particles.

    PubMed

    Burgess, D J; Singh, O N

    1993-07-01

    Microgel coacervate particles form spontaneously on mixing aqueous solutions of oppositely charged albumin and acacia, under specific conditions of pH, ionic strength, and polyion concentration, close to but not at the optimum conditions for maximum coacervate yield. The mean particle diameter of these coacervate particles is approximately 6 microns when suspended in aqueous media, as determined by HIAC/Royco particle analysis. The geometric standard deviation of the particles falls in the range 1.2-1.9 microns. The particle size was not dependent on the method of emulsification of the coacervate in the equilibrium phase, or on the stirring speed applied during the manufacturing process. The microgel particles were stable on storage, for periods up to forty-six days, without the addition of a chemical cross-linking agent, or the application of heat. Stability was measured with respect to the change in particle size of samples stored at different temperatures. The non-cross-linked microcapsules were also shown to be stable on pH change, to pH values outside the coacervation pH range. At the optimum conditions for maximum coacervate yield the albumin/acacia system formed a very viscous coacervate phase, which was unsuitable for microcapsule preparation. The rheological properties of albumin/acacia and gelatin/acacia complex coacervates optimized for maximum coacervate yield were compared. The albumin/acacia coacervate was shown to be three orders of magnitude more viscous than the gelatin/acacia system. PMID:8105049

  6. Ethanol production in small- to medium-size facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiler, E. A.; Coble, C. G.; Oneal, H. P.; Sweeten, J. M.; Reidenbach, V. G.; Schelling, G. T.; Lawhon, J. T.; Kay, R. D.; Lepori, W. A.; Aldred, W. H.

    1982-04-01

    In early 1980 system design criteria were developed for a small-scale ethanol production plant. The plant was eventually installed on November 1, 1980. It has a production capacity of 30 liters per hour; this can be increased easily (if desired) to 60 liters per hour with additional fermentation tanks. Sixty-six test runs were conducted to date in the alcohol production facility. Feedstocks evaluated in these tests include: corn (28 runs); grain sorghum (33 runs); grain sorghum grits (1 run); half corn/half sorghum (1 run); and sugarcane juice (3 runs). In addition, a small bench-scale fermentation and distillation system was used to evaluate sugarcane and sweet sorghum feedstocks prior to their evaluation in the larger unit. In each of these tests, evaluation of the following items was conducted: preprocessing requirements; operational problems; conversion efficiency (for example, liters of alcohol produced per kilogram of feedstock); energy balance and efficiency; nutritional recovery from stillage; solids separation by screw press; chemical characterization of stillage including liquid and solids fractions; wastewater requirements; and air pollution potential.

  7. A practical and theoretical definition of very small field size for radiotherapy output factor measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Charles, P. H. Crowe, S. B.; Langton, C. M.; Trapp, J. V.; Cranmer-Sargison, G.; Thwaites, D. I.; Kairn, T.; Knight, R. T.; Kenny, J.

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: This work introduces the concept of very small field size. Output factor (OPF) measurements at these field sizes require extremely careful experimental methodology including the measurement of dosimetric field size at the same time as each OPF measurement. Two quantifiable scientific definitions of the threshold of very small field size are presented. Methods: A practical definition was established by quantifying the effect that a 1 mm error in field size or detector position had on OPFs and setting acceptable uncertainties on OPF at 1%. Alternatively, for a theoretical definition of very small field size, the OPFs were separated into additional factors to investigate the specific effects of lateral electronic disequilibrium, photon scatter in the phantom, and source occlusion. The dominant effect was established and formed the basis of a theoretical definition of very small fields. Each factor was obtained using Monte Carlo simulations of a Varian iX linear accelerator for various square field sizes of side length from 4 to 100 mm, using a nominal photon energy of 6 MV. Results: According to the practical definition established in this project, field sizes ≤15 mm were considered to be very small for 6 MV beams for maximal field size uncertainties of 1 mm. If the acceptable uncertainty in the OPF was increased from 1.0% to 2.0%, or field size uncertainties are 0.5 mm, field sizes ≤12 mm were considered to be very small. Lateral electronic disequilibrium in the phantom was the dominant cause of change in OPF at very small field sizes. Thus the theoretical definition of very small field size coincided to the field size at which lateral electronic disequilibrium clearly caused a greater change in OPF than any other effects. This was found to occur at field sizes ≤12 mm. Source occlusion also caused a large change in OPF for field sizes ≤8 mm. Based on the results of this study, field sizes ≤12 mm were considered to be theoretically very small for 6

  8. A new small-sized Theloderma (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Laos.

    PubMed

    Sivongxay, Niane; Davankham, Monekham; Phimmachak, Somphouthone; Phoumixay, Keochay; Stuart, Bryan L

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the rhacophorid frog genus Theloderma is described from the forested shoreline of the Nam Lik Reservoir, Vientiane Province, Laos. The new species differs from its congeners by having the combination of males with SVL 17.0-20.6; pearly asperities on dorsum; no vomerine teeth; disc diameter of finger III ca. 40% of tympanum diameter; uniformly gray venter; light brown dorsum with darker brown and black markings; and a uniformly bronze iris with small black reticulations. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequence data infers that the new species is most closely related to T. lateriticum from northern Vietnam. Evidence for the monophyly of Theloderma is reviewed. PMID:27515627

  9. 78 FR 45051 - Small Business Size Standards; Support Activities for Mining; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... June 20, 2013 (78 FR 37404). The document amended SBA's Small Business Size Regulations by increasing.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Doc. 2013-14712 appearing on page 37404 in the June 20, 2013 Federal Register... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG44 Small Business Size Standards; Support Activities for...

  10. Design and implementation of web server soft load balancing in small and medium-sized enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Liu

    2011-12-01

    With the expansion of business scale, small and medium-sized enterprises began to use information platform to improve their management and competition ability, the server becomes the core factor which restricts the enterprise's infomationization construction. This paper puts forward a suitable design scheme for small and medium-sized enterprise web server soft load balancing, and proved it effective through experiment.

  11. Effects of Group Size on Students Mathematics Achievement in Small Group Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enu, Justice; Danso, Paul Amoah; Awortwe, Peter K.

    2015-01-01

    An ideal group size is hard to obtain in small group settings; hence there are groups with more members than others. The purpose of the study was to find out whether group size has any effects on students' mathematics achievement in small group settings. Two third year classes of the 2011/2012 academic year were selected from two schools in the…

  12. Using the Student's "t"-Test with Extremely Small Sample Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Winter, J. C .F.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers occasionally have to work with an extremely small sample size, defined herein as "N" less than or equal to 5. Some methodologists have cautioned against using the "t"-test when the sample size is extremely small, whereas others have suggested that using the "t"-test is feasible in such a case. The present…

  13. Managers' Understanding of Workplace Health Promotion within Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Ann; Parahoo, Kader; Fleming, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed at exploring managers' understanding of workplace health promotion and experiences of workplace health promotion activity within small and medium-sized enterprises. Design: A Heideggerian interpretive phenomenological methodology was adopted. Setting: This study was undertaken with small and medium-sized enterprise…

  14. 76 FR 63509 - Small Business Size Standards: Administrative and Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ...The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) proposes to increase small business size standards for 37 industries in North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Sector 56, Administrative and Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services. As part of its ongoing comprehensive review of all size standards, SBA has evaluated all receipts based standards in NAICS Sector 56 to......

  15. Class Size and Student Success: Comparing the Results of Five Elementary Schools Using Small Class Sizes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haenn, Joseph F.

    Three "Lab" schools were established in 1994-1995 in Durham, North Carolina public schools solely to provide smaller classes for disadvantaged inner-city students. In addition, smaller class sizes were achieved in two additional elementary schools by "cashing in" teacher aides and other more judicious use of available funds. These two schools were…

  16. Correlation of elastomer material properties from small specimen tests and scale-size bearing tests

    SciTech Connect

    Kulak, R.F.; Hughes, T.H.

    1994-06-01

    Tests were performed on small-size elastomer specimens and scale-size laminated elastomeric bearings to correlate the material properties in shear between the two types of tests. An objective of the tests was to see how well the material properties that were determined from specimen tests could predict the response of scale-size laminated elastomeric bearings. Another objective was to compare the results of specimen test and scale-size bearing test conducted by different testing organizations. A comparison between the test results from different organizations on small specimens showed very good agreement. In contrast, the correlation of scale-size bearing tests showed differences in bearing stiffness.

  17. 77 FR 11001 - Small Business Size Standards: Health Care and Social Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG30 Small Business Size Standards: Health Care and Social Assistance... Industry Classification System (NAICS) Sector 62, Health Care and Social Assistance. As part of its ongoing... site at www.sba.gov/size for public review and comments (74 FR 53940). The ``Size Standards...

  18. Can adult and juvenile European rabbits be differentiated by their pellet sizes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delibes-Mateos, Miguel; Rouco, Carlos; Villafuerte, Rafael

    2009-03-01

    Recently, a new method for differentiating juvenile and adult rabbits based on faecal pellet size was published. According to this method, pellets >6 mm diameter are inferred to be deposited by adults, while those <6 mm are inferred to be from juveniles or kittens. In this study, we designed a simple experiment to test the accuracy of this methodology. Twelve adult rabbits were housed in individual outdoor cages and their pellets were removed every day for 10 consecutive days. Pellets were separated using a sieve according to their size and counted. Results showed that adult rabbits produce pellets >6 mm diameter in the same proportion as those <6 mm. We also observed a strong influence of the individual rabbit on pellet size; some rabbits produce a high proportion of pellets >6 mm, whereas others deposit mostly pellets <6 mm in size. Our findings demonstrate that pellet size is unsuitable for aging wild rabbits. Field biologists should therefore be cautious when employing the pellet size method of age determination in other wild animals in the absence of validating studies.

  19. Comparing Server Energy Use and Efficiency Using Small Sample Sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, Henry C.; Qin, Yong; Price, Phillip N.

    2014-11-01

    This report documents a demonstration that compared the energy consumption and efficiency of a limited sample size of server-type IT equipment from different manufacturers by measuring power at the server power supply power cords. The results are specific to the equipment and methods used. However, it is hoped that those responsible for IT equipment selection can used the methods described to choose models that optimize energy use efficiency. The demonstration was conducted in a data center at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California. It was performed with five servers of similar mechanical and electronic specifications; three from Intel and one each from Dell and Supermicro. Server IT equipment is constructed using commodity components, server manufacturer-designed assemblies, and control systems. Server compute efficiency is constrained by the commodity component specifications and integration requirements. The design freedom, outside of the commodity component constraints, provides room for the manufacturer to offer a product with competitive efficiency that meets market needs at a compelling price. A goal of the demonstration was to compare and quantify the server efficiency for three different brands. The efficiency is defined as the average compute rate (computations per unit of time) divided by the average energy consumption rate. The research team used an industry standard benchmark software package to provide a repeatable software load to obtain the compute rate and provide a variety of power consumption levels. Energy use when the servers were in an idle state (not providing computing work) were also measured. At high server compute loads, all brands, using the same key components (processors and memory), had similar results; therefore, from these results, it could not be concluded that one brand is more efficient than the other brands. The test results show that the power consumption variability caused by the key components as a

  20. The Structure and Climate of Size: Small Scale Schooling in an Urban District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeChasseur, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    This study explores mechanisms involved in small scale schooling and student engagement. Specifically, this study questions the validity of arguments for small scale schooling reforms that confound the promised effects of small scale schooling "structures" (such as smaller enrollments, schools-within-schools, and smaller class sizes) with the…

  1. Lumbar vertebral canal size in adults and children: observations from a skeletal sample from London, England.

    PubMed

    Watts, R

    2013-04-01

    The morphometry of the lumbar vertebral canal is of importance to clinical and bioarchaeological researchers, yet there are no growth standards for its diameters and there is a disagreement over the age at which its development is complete. Direct measurements of the midsagittal and interpedicular diameters of the lumbar vertebral canal (L1-L5) were taken from 65 children (3-17 years) and 120 adults (>17 years) from the East Smithfield Black Death cemetery, London (1348-1350 CE) to discover the age at which these diameters reached their final adult size in an historical population from later mediaeval London. Children were grouped into age categories: 3-5 years; 6-10 years; 11-14 years; 15-17 years, and the group means of each diameter were compared with the mean adult diameters using one-way ANOVAs. The child midsagittal diameters were not significantly different from adults in any age category, indicating that this diameter reached adult size by 3-5 years of age. However, interpedicular diameters increased with age until 15-17 years when they reached full adult size. Mean diameters and percentiles (10th and 90th) are provided for each age category. PMID:23415375

  2. The Small Nuclear Genomes of Selaginella Are Associated with a Low Rate of Genome Size Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Baniaga, Anthony E.; Arrigo, Nils; Barker, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    The haploid nuclear genome size (1C DNA) of vascular land plants varies over several orders of magnitude. Much of this observed diversity in genome size is due to the proliferation and deletion of transposable elements. To date, all vascular land plant lineages with extremely small nuclear genomes represent recently derived states, having ancestors with much larger genome sizes. The Selaginellaceae represent an ancient lineage with extremely small genomes. It is unclear how small nuclear genomes evolved in Selaginella. We compared the rates of nuclear genome size evolution in Selaginella and major vascular plant clades in a comparative phylogenetic framework. For the analyses, we collected 29 new flow cytometry estimates of haploid genome size in Selaginella to augment publicly available data. Selaginella possess some of the smallest known haploid nuclear genome sizes, as well as the lowest rate of genome size evolution observed across all vascular land plants included in our analyses. Additionally, our analyses provide strong support for a history of haploid nuclear genome size stasis in Selaginella. Our results indicate that Selaginella, similar to other early diverging lineages of vascular land plants, has relatively low rates of genome size evolution. Further, our analyses highlight that a rapid transition to a small genome size is only one route to an extremely small genome. PMID:27189987

  3. The Small Nuclear Genomes of Selaginella Are Associated with a Low Rate of Genome Size Evolution.

    PubMed

    Baniaga, Anthony E; Arrigo, Nils; Barker, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    The haploid nuclear genome size (1C DNA) of vascular land plants varies over several orders of magnitude. Much of this observed diversity in genome size is due to the proliferation and deletion of transposable elements. To date, all vascular land plant lineages with extremely small nuclear genomes represent recently derived states, having ancestors with much larger genome sizes. The Selaginellaceae represent an ancient lineage with extremely small genomes. It is unclear how small nuclear genomes evolved in Selaginella We compared the rates of nuclear genome size evolution in Selaginella and major vascular plant clades in a comparative phylogenetic framework. For the analyses, we collected 29 new flow cytometry estimates of haploid genome size in Selaginella to augment publicly available data. Selaginella possess some of the smallest known haploid nuclear genome sizes, as well as the lowest rate of genome size evolution observed across all vascular land plants included in our analyses. Additionally, our analyses provide strong support for a history of haploid nuclear genome size stasis in Selaginella Our results indicate that Selaginella, similar to other early diverging lineages of vascular land plants, has relatively low rates of genome size evolution. Further, our analyses highlight that a rapid transition to a small genome size is only one route to an extremely small genome. PMID:27189987

  4. Novel estimates of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) population size and adult survival based on Wolbachia releases.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Scott A; Montgomery, Brian L; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2013-05-01

    The size of Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquito populations and adult survival rates have proven difficult to estimate because of a lack of consistent quantitative measures to equate sampling methods, such as adult trapping, to actual population size. However, such estimates are critical for devising control methods and for modeling the transmission of dengue and other infectious agents carried by this species. Here we take advantage of recent releases of Wolbachia-infected Ae. aegypti coupled with the results of ongoing monitoring to estimate the size of adult Ae. aegypti populations around Cairns in far north Queensland, Australia. Based on the association between released adults infected with Wolbachia and data from Biogents Sentinel traps, we show that data from two locations are consistent with population estimates of approximately 5-10 females per house and daily survival rates of 0.7-0.9 for the released Wolbachia-infected females. Moreover, we estimate that networks of Biogents Sentinel traps at a density of one per 15 houses capture around 5-10% of the adult population per week, and provide a rapid estimate of the absolute population size of Ae. aegypti. These data are discussed with respect to release rates and monitoring in future Wolbachia releases and also the levels of suppression required to reduce dengue transmission. PMID:23802459

  5. Using Plate Mapping to Examine Portion Size and Plate Composition for Large and Small Divided Plates

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, David E.; Sobal, Jeffery; Wansink, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Does the size of a plate influence the serving of all items equally, or does it influence the serving of some foods – such as meat versus starch versus vegetables – very differently? To examine this, we utilize a promising new plate mapping method where people drew a meal on a paper plate to examine sensitivity to small versus large three-compartment divided plates in portion size and meal composition in a sample of 109 university students. The total drawn meal area was 37% bigger on large plates than small plates, that is, the portion of plate coverage did not differ by plate size. Men and women drew bigger vegetable portions and men drew bigger meat portions on large plates when compared to small plates. These results suggest that men and women are differentially sensitive to plate size for overall meal size and for meal composition. Implications for decreasing portion size and improving meal balance are discussed. PMID:25280373

  6. Magnetic Resonance (MR) rectography in diagnostics of small-size rectal neoplasms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usova, AV; Frolova, IG; Trukhacheva, NG; Cheremisina, OV; Afanas'ev, SG

    2016-02-01

    Purpose was the assessment of diagnostic efficiency of MR-rectography in diagnostics of small-size rectal neoplasms. 12 patients with polyps and small tumors of a rectum are examined, the size of detected neoplasms varied in the range 3-18 mm. Native MRI and MRI with retrograde contrasting by ultrasonic gel was carried out. Results of MRI are compared with results of videocolonoscopy. Sensitivity of native MRT was 24%, MR- rectography was 88%. MR-rectography can be used in diagnostics of small-size rectal neoplasms.

  7. Adult and larval traits as determinants of geographic range size among tropical reef fishes

    PubMed Central

    Luiz, Osmar J.; Allen, Andrew P.; Robertson, D. Ross; Floeter, Sergio R.; Kulbicki, Michel; Vigliola, Laurent; Becheler, Ronan; Madin, Joshua S.

    2013-01-01

    Most marine organisms disperse via ocean currents as larvae, so it is often assumed that larval-stage duration is the primary determinant of geographic range size. However, empirical tests of this relationship have yielded mixed results, and alternative hypotheses have rarely been considered. Here we assess the relative influence of adult and larval-traits on geographic range size using a global dataset encompassing 590 species of tropical reef fishes in 47 families, the largest compilation of such data to date for any marine group. We analyze this database using linear mixed-effect models to control for phylogeny and geographical limits on range size. Our analysis indicates that three adult traits likely to affect the capacity of new colonizers to survive and establish reproductive populations (body size, schooling behavior, and nocturnal activity) are equal or better predictors of geographic range size than pelagic larval duration. We conclude that adult life-history traits that affect the postdispersal persistence of new populations are primary determinants of successful range extension and, consequently, of geographic range size among tropical reef fishes. PMID:24065830

  8. Presynaptic size of associational/commissural CA3 synapses is controlled by fibroblast growth factor 22 in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Pasaoglu, Taliha; Schikorski, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Associational/commissural CA3-CA3 synapses define the recurrent CA3 network that generates the input to CA1 pyramidal neurons. We quantified the fine structure of excitatory synapses in the stratum radiatum of the CA3d area in adult wild type (WT) and fibroblast growth factor 22 knock-out (FGF22KO) mice by using serial 3D electron microscopy. WT excitatory CA3 synapses are rather small yet range 10 fold in size. Spine size, however, was small and uniform and did not correlate with the size of the synaptic junction. To reveal mechanisms that regulate presynaptic structure, we investigated the role of FGF22, a target-derived signal specific for the distal part of area CA3 (CA3d). In adult FGF22KO mice, postsynaptic properties of associational CA3 synapses were unaltered. Presynaptically, the number of synaptic vesicles (SVs), the bouton volume, and the number of vesicles in axonal regions (the super pool) were reduced. This concurrent decrease suggests concerted control by FGF22 of presynaptic size. This hypothesis is supported by the finding that WT presynapses in the proximal part of area CA3 (CA3p) that do not receive FGF22 signaling in WT mice were smaller than presynapses in CA3d in WT but of comparable size in CA3d of FGF22KO mice. Docked SV density was decreased in CA1, CA3d, and CA3p in FGF22KO mice. Because CA1 and CA3p are not directly affected by the loss of FGF22, the smaller docked SV density may be an adaptation to activity changes in the CA3 network. Thus, docked SV density potentially is a long-term regulator for the synaptic release probability and/or the strength of short-term depression in vivo. PMID:26222899

  9. Shedding New Light on an Old Problem: The Estimation of Shadow Sizes in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebersbach, Mirjam; Resing, Wilma C. M.

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments using the "projection of shadows" paradigm investigated multidimensional reasoning, implicit and explicit knowledge, and the nonlinearity concept in 5-, 9-, and 13-year-olds and adults. Participants estimated the resulting shadow lengths of differently sized objects, placed at varying distances from a light source. Experiment 1…

  10. A reliability evaluation methodology for memory chips for space applications when sample size is small

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y.; Nguyen, D.; Guertin, S.; Berstein, J.; White, M.; Menke, R.; Kayali, S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a reliability evaluation methodology to obtain the statistical reliability information of memory chips for space applications when the test sample size needs to be kept small because of the high cost of the radiation hardness memories.

  11. Large- and small-size advantages in sneaking behaviour in the dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takegaki, Takeshi; Kaneko, Takashi; Matsumoto, Yukio

    2012-04-01

    Sneaking tactic, a male alternative reproductive tactic involving sperm competition, is generally adopted by small individuals because of its inconspicuousness. However, large size has an advantage when competition occurs between sneakers for fertilization of eggs. Here, we suggest that both large- and small-size advantages of sneaker males are present within the same species. Large sneaker males of the dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus showed a high success rate in intruding into spawning nests because of their advantage in competition among sneaker males in keeping a suitable position to sneak, whereas small sneakers had few chances to sneak. However, small sneaker males were able to stay in the nests longer than large sneaker males when they succeeded in sneak intrusion. This suggests the possibility of an increase in their paternity. The findings of these size-specific behavioural advantages may be important in considering the evolution of size-related reproductive traits.

  12. The development of internet based ship design support system for small and medium sized shipyards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sung-Chul; Lee, Soon-Sup; Kang, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Kyung-Ho

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, a prototype of ship basic planning system is implemented for the small and medium sized shipyards based on the internet technology and concurrent engineering concept. The system is designed from the user requirements. Consequently, standardized development environment and tools are selected. These tools are used for the system development to define and evaluate core application technologies. The system will contribute to increasing competitiveness of small and medium sized shipyards in the 21st century industrial en-vironment.

  13. 13 CFR 121.412 - What are the size procedures for partial small business set-asides?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What are the size procedures for partial small business set-asides? 121.412 Section 121.412 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS SIZE REGULATIONS Size Eligibility Provisions and Standards Size Eligibility Requirements for Government...

  14. 13 CFR 121.412 - What are the size procedures for partial small business set-asides?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What are the size procedures for partial small business set-asides? 121.412 Section 121.412 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS SIZE REGULATIONS Size Eligibility Provisions and Standards Size Eligibility Requirements for Government...

  15. 75 FR 1296 - Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: ] I. Background On October 28, 2009 (74 FR 55694-55721), SBA issued a Notice of... was published in the Federal Register on December 7, 2009 (74 FR 64026). The public meetings will be... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL...

  16. Is Small Finally Becoming Beautiful? Small and Medium-Size Enterprises in the New Economy. IES Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dejonckheere, J.; Ramioul, M.; Van Hootegem, G.

    This report addresses small and medium-sized enterprises' (SMEs') role in the changing international division of labor and trade in information service activities. Chapter 2 describes the EMERGENCE project to map and measure eWork. Chapter 3 reviews literature that shows SMEs account for the overwhelming majority of companies and make a crucial…

  17. Completeness of the fossil record: Estimating losses due to small body size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Roger A.; Maxwell, Phillip A.; Crampton, James S.; Beu, Alan G.; Jones, Craig M.; Marshall, Bruce A.

    2006-04-01

    Size bias in the fossil record limits its use for interpreting patterns of past biodiversity and ecological change. Using comparative size frequency distributions of exceptionally good regional records of New Zealand Holocene and Cenozoic Mollusca in museum archive collections, we derive first-order estimates of the magnitude of the bias against small body size and the effect of this bias on completeness of the fossil record. Our database of 3907 fossil species represents an original living pool of 9086 species, from which ˜36% have been removed by size culling, 27% from the smallest size class (<5 mm). In contrast, non-size-related losses compose only 21% of the total. In soft rocks, the loss of small taxa can be reduced by nearly 50% through the employment of exhaustive collection and preparation techniques.

  18. Establishing a Productive Climate for Adult Learning in the Small Instructional Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chih-yen

    2000-01-01

    A small instructional group operating on the theories of group dynamics and cooperative learning can be used to effectively teach subjects in adult training programs. Describes useful techniques for developing a supportive and productive climate for adult training, focusing on group organization, group leadership, group characteristics, and…

  19. 40 CFR 142.303 - Which size public water systems can receive a small system variance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Which size public water systems can... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Variances for Small System General Provisions § 142.303 Which size public water systems...

  20. The Future of Small- and Medium-Sized Communities in the Prairie Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellar, Barry S., Ed.

    Four papers are featured. The first is a statistical overview and analysis of past, present and future happenings to small communities in the Region; it focuses on two indicators: (1) population growth or declining community class size and, (2) the changing distribution of commercial outlets by community class size. The other three papers report…

  1. 78 FR 37404 - Small Business Size Standards: Support Activities for Mining

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... was clarified to read: ``Small Business Size Standards: Support Activities for Mining.'' 77 FR 72766... initially announced in the Fall 2012 Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions, 78 FR... adjustment to size standards was published in the Federal Register on July 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237)....

  2. Sustainability and Small to Medium Sized Enterprises--How to Engage Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condon, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have a major advantage over larger organisations in regard to addressing sustainability issues--their size means they are able to react very quickly to changes in the business environment. They are disadvantaged, however, by lack of information on marketplace changes that make sustainability an opportunity…

  3. Recovery trajectories after burn injury in young adults: does burn size matter?

    PubMed

    Ryan, Colleen M; Lee, Austin; Kazis, Lewis E; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Shapiro, Gabriel D; Sheridan, Robert L; Meyer, Walter J; Palmieri, Tina; Pidcock, Frank S; Reilly, Debra; Tompkins, Ronald G

    2015-01-01

    The impact of burn size on mortality is well known, but the association of burn size with the trajectories of long-term functional outcomes remains poorly studied. This prospective multi-center study included burned adults ages 19 to 30 years who completed the Young Adult Burn Outcome Questionnaire at initial baseline contact, 2 weeks, and at 6 and 12 months after initial questionnaire administration. Non-burned adults of comparable ages also completed the questionnaire as a reference group. The association between functional recovery and TBSA burned was analyzed longitudinally using generalized linear models with the generalized estimation equation technique. Functional status was characterized in 15 domains: physical function, fine motor function, pain, itch, social function limited by physical function, perceived appearance, social function limited by appearance, sexual function, emotion, family function, family concern, satisfaction with symptom relief, satisfaction with role, work reintegration, and religion. Scores were standardized to a mean of 50 and a SD of 10 based on non-burned controls. There were 153 burned and 112 non-burned subjects with a total of 620 questionnaires. TBSA burned was 11 ± 14% (mean ± SD); 31% had face involvement and 57% had hand involvement. The lag time from burn injury to questionnaire administration was on average 7 ± 7.7 months, with a maximum of 36 months. Lower recovery levels were associated with increasing burn size for physical function, pain, itch, work reintegration, emotion, satisfaction with symptom relief, satisfaction with role, family function, and family concern (P value ranged from .04-<.0001). No significant differences in recovery levels were found with increasing burn size for fine motor function, social function limited by physical function, sexual function, and religion; these areas tracked toward the age-matched non-burned group regardless of burn size. Perceived appearance and social function limited by

  4. 40 CFR 142.303 - Which size public water systems can receive a small system variance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Which size public water systems can receive a small system variance? 142.303 Section 142.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Variances for Small System...

  5. Successful E-Learning in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    So far, e-learning has primarily been used when there are many learners involved. The up-front investments related to e-learning are relatively high, and may be perceived as prohibitive for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Some e-learning is, however, getting less expensive, and some e-learning models are more suited for small-scale…

  6. Attributes and Statuses of College Students Associated with Classroom Cheating on a Small-Sized Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, Russell L.

    2004-01-01

    This exploratory study examines self-reported acts of academic dishonesty for a sample of 858 undergraduate, graduate, and professional students on a small college campus (8,350 students). The study raises awareness to the occurrences, and challenges of academic dishonesty at small-sized institutions, somewhat overlooked in empirical research.…

  7. 13 CFR 121.412 - What are the size procedures for partial small business set-asides?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What are the size procedures for... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS SIZE REGULATIONS Size Eligibility Provisions and Standards Size Eligibility Requirements for Government Procurement § 121.412 What are the size procedures for partial small business...

  8. 13 CFR 121.412 - What are the size procedures for partial small business set-asides?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the size procedures for... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS SIZE REGULATIONS Size Eligibility Provisions and Standards Size Eligibility Requirements for Government Procurement § 121.412 What are the size procedures for partial small business...

  9. 13 CFR 121.412 - What are the size procedures for partial small business set-asides?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What are the size procedures for... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS SIZE REGULATIONS Size Eligibility Provisions and Standards Size Eligibility Requirements for Government Procurement § 121.412 What are the size procedures for partial small business...

  10. Small, medium, large or supersize? The development and evaluation of interventions targeted at portion size.

    PubMed

    Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Poelman, M P

    2014-07-01

    In the past decades, portion sizes of high-caloric foods and drinks have increased and can be considered an important environmental obesogenic factor. This paper describes a research project in which the feasibility and effectiveness of environmental interventions targeted at portion size was evaluated. The studies that we conducted revealed that portion size labeling, offering a larger variety of portion sizes, and proportional pricing (that is, a comparable price per unit regardless of the size) were considered feasible to implement according to both consumers and point-of-purchase representatives. Studies into the effectiveness of these interventions demonstrated that the impact of portion size labeling on the (intended) consumption of soft drinks was, at most, modest. Furthermore, the introduction of smaller portion sizes of hot meals in worksite cafeterias in addition to the existing size stimulated a moderate number of consumers to replace their large meals by a small meal. Elaborating on these findings, we advocate further research into communication and marketing strategies related to portion size interventions; the development of environmental portion size interventions as well as educational interventions that improve people's ability to deal with a 'super-sized' environment; the implementation of regulation with respect to portion size labeling, and the use of nudges to stimulate consumers to select healthier portion sizes. PMID:25033959

  11. Small, medium, large or supersize? The development and evaluation of interventions targeted at portion size

    PubMed Central

    Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Poelman, M P

    2014-01-01

    In the past decades, portion sizes of high-caloric foods and drinks have increased and can be considered an important environmental obesogenic factor. This paper describes a research project in which the feasibility and effectiveness of environmental interventions targeted at portion size was evaluated. The studies that we conducted revealed that portion size labeling, offering a larger variety of portion sizes, and proportional pricing (that is, a comparable price per unit regardless of the size) were considered feasible to implement according to both consumers and point-of-purchase representatives. Studies into the effectiveness of these interventions demonstrated that the impact of portion size labeling on the (intended) consumption of soft drinks was, at most, modest. Furthermore, the introduction of smaller portion sizes of hot meals in worksite cafeterias in addition to the existing size stimulated a moderate number of consumers to replace their large meals by a small meal. Elaborating on these findings, we advocate further research into communication and marketing strategies related to portion size interventions; the development of environmental portion size interventions as well as educational interventions that improve people's ability to deal with a ‘super-sized' environment; the implementation of regulation with respect to portion size labeling, and the use of nudges to stimulate consumers to select healthier portion sizes. PMID:25033959

  12. Effects of corridors on home range sizes and interpatch movements of three small mammal species.

    SciTech Connect

    Mabry, Karen, E.; Barrett, Gary, W.

    2002-04-30

    Mabry, K.E., and G.W. Barrett. 2002. Effects of corridors on home range sizes and interpatch movements of three small mammal species. Landscape Ecol. 17:629-636. Corridors are predicted to benefit populations in patchy habitats by promoting movement, which should increase population densities, gene flow, and recolonization of extinct patch populations. However, few investigators have considered use of the total landscape, particularly the possibility of interpatch movement through matrix habitat, by small mammals. This study compares home range sizes of 3 species of small mammals, the cotton mouse, old field mouse and cotton rat between patches with and without corridors. Corridor presence did not have a statistically significant influence on average home range size. Habitat specialization and sex influenced the probability of an individual moving between 2 patches without corridors. The results of this study suggest that small mammals may be more capable of interpatch movement without corridors than is frequently assumed.

  13. Prognostic Importance of Small Prostate Size in Men Receiving Definitive Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Taira, Al V.; Merrick, Gregory S.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Adamovich, Edward; Wallner, Kent E.

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To assess whether small prostate size is an adverse prognostic factor in men undergoing brachytherapy in the same manner in which it seems to be for men undergoing radical prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: From April 1995 to June 2008, 2024 patients underwent brachytherapy by a single brachytherapist. Median follow-up was 7.4 years. The role of small prostate size ({<=}20 cm{sup 3}) as a prognostic factor for biochemical progression-free survival, cause-specific survival, and all-cause mortality was investigated. The differences in survival between men with small and larger prostates were compared using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests. Results: Median prostate size for the entire cohort was 32.7 cm{sup 3}. For the 167 men with small prostates, median prostate size was 17.4 cm{sup 3}. There was no difference in biochemical progression-free survival (95.2% vs 96.2%, P=.603), cause-specific survival (97.7% vs 98.3%, P=.546), or all-cause mortality (78.0% vs 77.2%, P=.838) at 10 years for men with small prostates compared with men with larger prostates. On univariate and multivariate analysis, small prostate size was not associated with any of the primary outcome measures. Conclusion: Men with small prostates treated with brachytherapy have excellent outcomes and are at no higher risk of treatment failure than men with larger glands. High-quality implants with adequate margins seem sufficient to address the increased adverse risk factors associated with small prostate size.

  14. Population Variation Reveals Independent Selection toward Small Body Size in Chinese Debao Pony

    PubMed Central

    Kader, Adiljan; Li, Yan; Dong, Kunzhe; Irwin, David M.; Zhao, Qianjun; He, Xiaohong; Liu, Jianfeng; Pu, Yabin; Gorkhali, Neena Amatya; Liu, Xuexue; Jiang, Lin; Li, Xiangchen; Guan, Weijun; Zhang, Yaping; Wu, Dong-Dong; Ma, Yuehui

    2016-01-01

    Body size, one of the most important quantitative traits under evolutionary scrutiny, varies considerably among species and among populations within species. Revealing the genetic basis underlying this variation is very important, particularly in humans where there is a close relationship with diseases and in domestic animals as the selective patterns are associated with improvements in production traits. The Debao pony is a horse breed with small body size that is unique to China; however, it is unknown whether the size-related candidate genes identified in Western breeds also account for the small body size of the Debao pony. Here, we compared individual horses from the Debao population with other two Chinese horse populations using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified with the Equine SNP 65 Bead Chip. The previously reported size-related candidate gene HMGA2 showed a significant signature for selection, consistent with its role observed in human populations. More interestingly, we found a candidate gene TBX3, which had not been observed in previous studies on horse body size that displayed the highest differentiation and most significant association, and thus likely is the dominating factor for the small stature of the Debao pony. Further comparison between the Debao pony and other breeds of horses from around the world demonstrated that TBX3 was selected independently in the Debao pony, suggesting that there were multiple origins of small stature in the horse. PMID:26637467

  15. Population Variation Reveals Independent Selection toward Small Body Size in Chinese Debao Pony.

    PubMed

    Kader, Adiljan; Li, Yan; Dong, Kunzhe; Irwin, David M; Zhao, Qianjun; He, Xiaohong; Liu, Jianfeng; Pu, Yabin; Gorkhali, Neena Amatya; Liu, Xuexue; Jiang, Lin; Li, Xiangchen; Guan, Weijun; Zhang, Yaping; Wu, Dong-Dong; Ma, Yuehui

    2016-01-01

    Body size, one of the most important quantitative traits under evolutionary scrutiny, varies considerably among species and among populations within species. Revealing the genetic basis underlying this variation is very important, particularly in humans where there is a close relationship with diseases and in domestic animals as the selective patterns are associated with improvements in production traits. The Debao pony is a horse breed with small body size that is unique to China; however, it is unknown whether the size-related candidate genes identified in Western breeds also account for the small body size of the Debao pony. Here, we compared individual horses from the Debao population with other two Chinese horse populations using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified with the Equine SNP 65 Bead Chip. The previously reported size-related candidate gene HMGA2 showed a significant signature for selection, consistent with its role observed in human populations. More interestingly, we found a candidate gene TBX3, which had not been observed in previous studies on horse body size that displayed the highest differentiation and most significant association, and thus likely is the dominating factor for the small stature of the Debao pony. Further comparison between the Debao pony and other breeds of horses from around the world demonstrated that TBX3 was selected independently in the Debao pony, suggesting that there were multiple origins of small stature in the horse. PMID:26637467

  16. Small Business Management. Part II. A Suggested Adult Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Continuing Education Curriculum Development.

    This teacher's guide is a companion to "Small Business Management Part I" published by the New York State Education Department in 1968. The course outlined by the guide is primarily for those who aspire to own and operate their own business, and those in business who wish to improve their operations. The course consists of six lessons covering…

  17. Gastric Versus Small Bowel Feeding in Critically Ill Adults.

    PubMed

    Schlein, Kirsten

    2016-08-01

    Critically ill patients often require enteral feedings as a primary supply of nutrition. Whether enteral nutrition (EN) should be delivered as a gastric versus small bowel feeding in the critically ill patient population remains a contentious topic. The Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM)/American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN), the European Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ESPEN), and the Canadian Clinical Practice Guidelines (CCPG) are not in consensus on this topic. No research to date demonstrates a significant difference between the two feeding routes in terms of patient mortality, ventilator days, or length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU); however, studies provide some evidence that there may be other benefits to using a small bowel feeding route in critically ill patients. The purpose of this paper is to examine both sides of this debate and review advantages and disadvantages of both small bowel and gastric routes of EN. Practical issues and challenges to small bowel feeding tube placement are also addressed. Finally, recommendations are provided to help guide the clinician when selecting a feeding route, and suggestions are made for future research. PMID:26920643

  18. "Learning to Work" in Small Businesses: Learning and Training for Young Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggeri-Stevens, Geoff; Goodwin, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper alerts small business employers to new dictates of the Disability Discrimination Act (2005) as it applies to learning disabilities. Then the "Learning to Work" project featured in the paper offers small business employers a set of approaches and methods for the identification of a learning-disabled young adult candidate's…

  19. Small Business Management Volume II: Business Analysis. An Adult Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persons, Edgar A.; Swanson, Gordon I.

    A practice problem in year-end business analysis is presented to provide experience with a system of single-entry bookkeeping as part of a small business management adult education program. The problem simulates an entire business year and includes transactions involving general business revenues and expenses pertaining to most small retailing…

  20. Management of diabetes in childhood: are children small adults?

    PubMed

    Franzese, A; Valerio, G; Spagnuolo, M I

    2004-06-01

    Diabetes in childhood is the most common chronic disease and generally fits the type 1 category, even though other forms of non-autoimmune diabetes are now emerging in this age. At variance with adults, children and adolescents undergo physiological process, which may frequently require adjustments of clinical management of diabetes. Moreover, the hormonal and psychological changes during puberty may be crucial in conditioning management. Furthermore, common illnesses frequently affecting children may also destabilise metabolic control. Consequently, education in children is the cornerstone of treatment. This review focuses on the several and peculiar aspects of practical management of diabetes in paediatric age, which require professional figures such as paediatricians, nurses, dieticians, psychologists, social assistants originally trained in paediatric area, able to deal with the age-related medical, educational, nutritional and behavioural issues of diabetes. PMID:15158292

  1. Ethylcellulose nanoparticles with bimodal size distribution as precursors for the production of very small nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wachsmann, Philip; Lamprecht, Alf

    2015-01-01

    A common technique for the preparation of polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) from preformed polymers is the emulsification solvent evaporation (ESE) method. However, the particle size of such carriers can typically not reduced below 100 nm. A bimodal distribution of particle size when applying ESE to the preparation of ethylcellulose (EC) NPs was intended to obtain very small particles in a size range below 50 nm. The proportion and size of the small particle fraction (SPF) depended on the surfactant as well as on the EC type and concentration. The preparation was conducted with different pharmaceutically relevant surfactants (polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether, sodium dodecyl sulfate, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, polyvinyl alcohol and polysorbate 20) and all permitted obtaining very small NPs. After purification from excess surfactant by diafiltration and separation of the SPF by centrifugation, monodispersed particles with mean sizes between 20.6 ± 2.3 nm and 49.7 ± 4.8 nm could be isolated. The entrapment of a lipophilic model drug led to encapsulation rates between 34.0 ± 2.4% and 78.2 ± 12.6%, which were size and surfactant dependent. The preparation of polymeric NPs in a size below 50 nm by a simple centrifugation step holds promise for therapeutic applications where larger particles would be inefficient. PMID:25000483

  2. 40 CFR 428.50 - Applicability; description of the small-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... small-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.50 Section 428.50... (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Small-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber Plants Subcategory § 428.50 Applicability; description of the small-sized general molded,...

  3. 40 CFR 428.50 - Applicability; description of the small-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... small-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.50 Section 428.50... (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Small-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber Plants Subcategory § 428.50 Applicability; description of the small-sized general molded,...

  4. 40 CFR 428.50 - Applicability; description of the small-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... small-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.50 Section 428.50... (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Small-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber Plants Subcategory § 428.50 Applicability; description of the small-sized general molded,...

  5. Spatial distribution and size of small canopy gaps created by Japanese black bears: estimating gap size using dropped branch measurements

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Japanese black bears, a large-bodied omnivore, frequently create small gaps in the tree crown during fruit foraging. However, there are no previous reports of black bear-created canopy gaps. To characterize physical canopy disturbance by black bears, we examined a number of parameters, including the species of trees in which canopy gaps were created, gap size, the horizontal and vertical distribution of gaps, and the size of branches broken to create gaps. The size of black bear-created canopy gaps was estimated using data from branches that had been broken and dropped on the ground. Results The disturbance regime was characterized by a highly biased distribution of small canopy gaps on ridges, a large total overall gap area, a wide range in gap height relative to canopy height, and diversity in gap size. Surprisingly, the annual rate of bear-created canopy gap formation reached 141.3 m2 ha–1 yr–1 on ridges, which were hot spots in terms of black bear activity. This rate was approximately 6.6 times that of tree-fall gap formation on ridges at this study site. Furthermore, this rate was approximately two to three times that of common tree-fall gap formation in Japanese forests, as reported in other studies. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the ecological interaction between black bears and fruit-bearing trees may create a unique light regime, distinct from that created by tree falls, which increases the availability of light resources to plants below the canopy. PMID:23758683

  6. Analyses of transverse vibrations of axially pretensioned viscoelastic nanobeams with small size and surface effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongqiang; Pang, Miao; Fan, Lifeng

    2016-07-01

    The general governing equation for transverse vibration of an axially pretensioned viscoelastic nanobeam embedded in elastic substrate medium is formulated on the basis of the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory and the Kelvin model. The factors of structural damping, initial axial tension, surrounding medium, small size, surface elasticity and residual surface tension are incorporated in the formulation. The explicit expression is obtained for the vibrational frequency of a simply supported nanobeam. The impacts of these factors on the properties of transverse vibration of the nanobeam are discussed. It is demonstrated that the dependences of natural frequency on the structural damping, surrounding medium, small size, surface elasticity and residual surface tension are significant, whereas the effect of initial axial tension on the natural frequency is limited. In addition, it can be concluded that the energy dissipation of transverse vibration of the viscoelastic nanobeam is related to the small size effect and structural damping.

  7. [Diagnosis and surgical treatment for small-sized peripheral lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Iyoda, A; Fujisawa, T; Moriya, Y

    2004-01-01

    Small-sized peripheral lung cancers have been detected more frequently as a result of recent developments in diagnostic imaging including high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Although the diagnosis of small-sized peripheral lung cancers is difficult, it makes an adequate diagnosis possible using transbronchial fine needle aspiration cytology or a new thin-type bronchoscope. Surgical treatment using mini-thoracotomy or video-assisted thoracic surgery is effective for early stage small-sized peripheral lung cancers. Lesser resection of lung cancer may provide many benefits to patients, such as preserving vital lung tissue and providing the chance for further resection if a second primary lung cancer develops, however, lobectomy with systematic hilar and mediastinal lymph node dissection should remain the standard surgical treatment, and an intentional limited resection should be adopted for very limited patients with a definitive early stage because of recurrence rates. PMID:14733091

  8. Educational Practice for Small Size Class in Fundamental Education of Faculty of Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Hirano, Kimitaka; Honda, Chikahisa

    An educational practice for small size class in fundamental education of our faculty has been carried out using a special fund from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology since fiscal year 2005. The fundamental subjects such as Mathematics and Physics are very important for the students of Faculty of Engineering. In order to achieve the aim of each subject for students with insufficient understanding, we wrestle with the project of the education for small size class. Some projects are described in this paper.

  9. Children and Adults Use Physical Size and Numerical Alliances in Third-Party Judgments of Dominance

    PubMed Central

    Lourenco, Stella F.; Bonny, Justin W.; Schwartz, Bari L.

    2016-01-01

    Humans and other social animals interact regularly with conspecifics as part of affiliative groups. Many of these interactions are cooperative, but many others involve competition for resources. Competitive exchanges are often resolved on the basis of dominance relationships, with higher-ranking individuals receiving priority access to desired goods. Although no single cue can establish permanent dominance relationships, there are some cues that predict dominance fairly reliably across context. In the present study, we focused on two such cues relevant to competing groups: (i) the physical sizes of individual members, and (ii) their relative number. Using a social competition task, we examined whether, and how, preschool-aged children and adults used differences in physical size and numerical alliances to judge which of two groups should prevail in a competitive exchange for a desired object. These judgments were made when either physical size or number differed between groups (Experiment 1), and when both were available but pitted against each other (Experiments 1 and 2). Our findings revealed that by 3 years of age, humans use multiple perceptible cues in third-party judgments of dominance. Our findings also revealed that 3-year-olds, like adults, weighted these cues flexibly according to the additional factor of overall group size, with the physical sizes of individuals determining dominance in smaller groups (e.g., 2 vs. 4 characters) and the relative number of individuals determining dominance in larger groups (e.g., 15 vs. 30 characters). Taken together, our findings suggest that a basic formula for determining dominance in competitive exchanges, which weights physical size of individuals and numerical alliances as a function of overall group size, is available to young children and appears fairly stable through to adulthood. PMID:26793158

  10. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Na, Yong Hum; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F; Xu, X George

    2012-01-01

    Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999–2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals’ size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms—modeled entirely in mesh surfaces—of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte

  11. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms.

    PubMed

    Na, Yong Hum; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F; Xu, X George

    2010-07-01

    Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals' size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms--modeled entirely in mesh surfaces--of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte Carlo

  12. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hum Na, Yong; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George

    2010-07-01

    Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals' size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms—modeled entirely in mesh surfaces—of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte

  13. Financial and Tax Management in Small and Medium Sized Industrial Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bestvinová, Viera; Homokyová, Mária; Horváthová, Martina

    2012-12-01

    Target of this paper was to evaluate the importance of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in Slovakia and to determine the application of financial and tax management in this type of enterprises. The results of our findings confirm that SMEs have an important role in Slovakia, and also that especially small businesses have little or no experience with the application of financial and tax management. Therefore the paper contains recommendations for financial and tax management of SMEs.

  14. Small-size ultralow-voltage generator of chaotic microwave oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinin, Yu. A.; Starodubov, A. V.; Volkova, L. N.; Levin, Yu. I.

    2011-01-01

    The scheme of a small-size ultralow-voltage generator of broadband chaotic microwave oscillations is considered. Results of numerical modeling and experimental investigation of the device prototype operating in various regimes are summarized. Good prospects of the proposed ultralow-voltage generator (vircator) are related to the relatively low accelerating voltages (below 1000 V), rather high electron beam currents (up to 800 mA), good efficiency (up to 5%), and small dimensions of the device.

  15. 76 FR 27952 - Small Business Size Standards: Professional, Scientific and Technical Services.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ...On March 16, 2011, the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA or Agency) proposed to increase small business size standards for 35 industries and one sub-industry in North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Sector 54, Professional, Scientific and Technical Services and one industry in NAICS Sector 81, Other Services. SBA provided a 60-day comment period ending on May 16, 2011. In......

  16. The role of micro size computing clusters for small physics groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevel, A. Y.

    2014-06-01

    A small physics group (3-15 persons) might use a number of computing facilities for the analysis/simulation, developing/testing, teaching. It is discussed different types of computing facilities: collaboration computing facilities, group local computing cluster (including colocation), cloud computing. The author discuss the growing variety of different computing options for small groups and does emphasize the role of the group owned computing cluster of micro size.

  17. Litter Size Variation in Hypothalamic Gene Expression Determines Adult Metabolic Phenotype in Brandt's Voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xue-Ying; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, De-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Background Early postnatal environments may have long-term and potentially irreversible consequences on hypothalamic neurons involved in energy homeostasis. Litter size is an important life history trait and negatively correlated with milk intake in small mammals, and thus has been regarded as a naturally varying feature of the early developmental environment. Here we investigated the long-term effects of litter size on metabolic phenotype and hypothalamic neuropeptide mRNA expression involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, using the offspring reared from large (10–12) and small (3–4) litter sizes, of Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii), a rodent species from Inner Mongolia grassland in China. Methodology/Principal Findings Hypothalamic leptin signaling and neuropeptides were measured by Real-Time PCR. We showed that offspring reared from small litters were heavier at weaning and also in adulthood than offspring from large litters, accompanied by increased food intake during development. There were no significant differences in serum leptin levels or leptin receptor (OB-Rb) mRNA in the hypothalamus at weaning or in adulthood, however, hypothalamic suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) mRNA in adulthood increased in small litters compared to that in large litters. As a result, the agouti-related peptide (AgRP) mRNA increased in the offspring from small litters. Conclusions/Significance These findings support our hypothesis that natural litter size has a permanent effect on offspring metabolic phenotype and hypothalamic neuropeptide expression, and suggest central leptin resistance and the resultant increase in AgRP expression may be a fundamental mechanism underlying hyperphagia and the increased risk of overweight in pups of small litters. Thus, we conclude that litter size may be an important and central determinant of metabolic fitness in adulthood. PMID:21637839

  18. Scale-Dependent Habitat Selection and Size-Based Dominance in Adult Male American Alligators.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Bradley A; Vilella, Francisco J; Belant, Jerrold L

    2016-01-01

    Habitat selection is an active behavioral process that may vary across spatial and temporal scales. Animals choose an area of primary utilization (i.e., home range) then make decisions focused on resource needs within patches. Dominance may affect the spatial distribution of conspecifics and concomitant habitat selection. Size-dependent social dominance hierarchies have been documented in captive alligators, but evidence is lacking from wild populations. We studied habitat selection for adult male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis; n = 17) on the Pearl River in central Mississippi, USA, to test whether habitat selection was scale-dependent and individual resource selectivity was a function of conspecific body size. We used K-select analysis to quantify selection at the home range scale and patches within the home range to determine selection congruency and important habitat variables. In addition, we used linear models to determine if body size was related to selection patterns and strengths. Our results indicated habitat selection of adult male alligators was a scale-dependent process. Alligators demonstrated greater overall selection for habitat variables at the patch level and less at the home range level, suggesting resources may not be limited when selecting a home range for animals in our study area. Further, diurnal habitat selection patterns may depend on thermoregulatory needs. There was no relationship between resource selection or home range size and body size, suggesting size-dependent dominance hierarchies may not have influenced alligator resource selection or space use in our sample. Though apparent habitat suitability and low alligator density did not manifest in an observed dominance hierarchy, we hypothesize that a change in either could increase intraspecific interactions, facilitating a dominance hierarchy. Due to the broad and diverse ecological roles of alligators, understanding the factors that influence their social dominance

  19. The sexual identity of adult intestinal stem cells controls organ size and plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Hudry, Bruno; Khadayate, Sanjay; Miguel-Aliaga, Irene

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Sex differences in physiology and disease susceptibility are commonly attributed to developmental and/or hormonal factors, but there is increasing realisation that cell-intrinsic mechanisms play important and persistent roles1,2. Here we use the Drosophila melanogaster intestine to investigate the nature and significance of cellular sex in an adult somatic organ in vivo. We find that the adult intestinal epithelium is a cellular mosaic of different sex differentiation pathways, and displays extensive sex differences in expression of genes with roles in growth and metabolism. Cell-specific reversals of the sexual identity of adult intestinal stem cells uncover its key roles in controlling organ size, its reproductive plasticity and its response to genetically induced tumours. Unlike previous examples of sexually dimorphic somatic stem cell activity, the sex differences in intestinal stem cell behaviour arise from intrinsic mechanisms, which control cell cycle duration and involve a new doublesex- and fruitless-independent branch of the sex differentiation pathway downstream of transformer. Together, our findings indicate that the plasticity of an adult somatic organ is reversibly controlled by its sexual identity, imparted by a new mechanism that may be active in more tissues than previously recognised. PMID:26887495

  20. The sexual identity of adult intestinal stem cells controls organ size and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Hudry, Bruno; Khadayate, Sanjay; Miguel-Aliaga, Irene

    2016-02-18

    Sex differences in physiology and disease susceptibility are commonly attributed to developmental and/or hormonal factors, but there is increasing realization that cell-intrinsic mechanisms play important and persistent roles. Here we use the Drosophila melanogaster intestine to investigate the nature and importance of cellular sex in an adult somatic organ in vivo. We find that the adult intestinal epithelium is a cellular mosaic of different sex differentiation pathways, and displays extensive sex differences in expression of genes with roles in growth and metabolism. Cell-specific reversals of the sexual identity of adult intestinal stem cells uncovers the key role this identity has in controlling organ size, reproductive plasticity and response to genetically induced tumours. Unlike previous examples of sexually dimorphic somatic stem cell activity, the sex differences in intestinal stem cell behaviour arise from intrinsic mechanisms that control cell cycle duration and involve a new doublesex- and fruitless-independent branch of the sex differentiation pathway downstream of transformer. Together, our findings indicate that the plasticity of an adult somatic organ is reversibly controlled by its sexual identity, imparted by a new mechanism that may be active in more tissues than previously recognized. PMID:26887495

  1. One size does not fit all: older adults benefit from redundant text in multimedia instruction

    PubMed Central

    Fenesi, Barbara; Vandermorris, Susan; Kim, Joseph A.; Shore, David I.; Heisz, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    The multimedia design of presentations typically ignores that younger and older adults have varying cognitive strengths and weaknesses. We examined whether differential instructional design may enhance learning in these populations. Younger and older participants viewed one of three computer-based presentations: Audio only (narration), Redundant (audio narration with redundant text), or Complementary (audio narration with non-redundant text and images). Younger participants learned better when audio narration was paired with relevant images compared to when audio narration was paired with redundant text. However, older participants learned best when audio narration was paired with redundant text. Younger adults, who presumably have a higher working memory capacity (WMC), appear to benefit more from complementary information that may drive deeper conceptual processing. In contrast, older adults learn better from presentations that support redundant coding across modalities, which may help mitigate the effects of age-related decline in WMC. Additionally, several misconceptions of design quality appeared across age groups: both younger and older participants positively rated less effective designs. Findings suggest that one-size does not fit all, with older adults requiring unique multimedia design tailored to their cognitive abilities for effective learning. PMID:26284000

  2. Parameter Estimation with Small Sample Size: A Higher-Order IRT Model Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Torre, Jimmy; Hong, Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Sample size ranks as one of the most important factors that affect the item calibration task. However, due to practical concerns (e.g., item exposure) items are typically calibrated with much smaller samples than what is desired. To address the need for a more flexible framework that can be used in small sample item calibration, this article…

  3. Leadership and Organizational Learning: Accounting for Variances in Small-Size Business Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Carroll M.; Nafukho, Fredrick M.

    2007-01-01

    This study's primary purpose was to determine the relationship between leadership and the dependent variable organizational learning readiness at three locations of a small-size business enterprise in the Mid-Western United States. Surveys were acquired within an exploratory correlational research design and the results indicated leadership…

  4. Culture, Organizational Learning and Selected Employee Background Variables in Small-Size Business Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Carroll M.; Nafukho, Fredrick Muyia

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between four independent variables educational level, longevity, type of enterprise, and gender and the dependent variable culture, as a dimension that explains organizational learning readiness in seven small-size business enterprises. Design/methodology/approach: An exploratory…

  5. 78 FR 37397 - Small Business Size Standards: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... published in the Federal Register on July 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237). SBA recognizes that changes in industry... FR 55755) seeking public comment on its proposal to increase the size standards for 11 industries in... 77 FR 55755). SBA also evaluated the level and small business share of Federal contract dollars...

  6. 77 FR 56755 - Small Business Size Standards; Adoption of 2012 North American Industry Classification System for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... rule that appeared in the Federal Register on August 20, 2012 (75 FR 49991). The document amended SBA's... Third Street SW., Washington, DC 20416. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Doc. 2012-19973 appearing on... RIN 3245-AG47 Small Business Size Standards; Adoption of 2012 North American Industry...

  7. Continuing Education for Managers from Small and Medium Sized German Companies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fub, Jorg

    1995-01-01

    An international trade school in southern Germany, which is a highly export-oriented environment, has established a vocational and professional continuing education program for personnel of small- and medium-size companies. Offerings include a graduate course in international marketing, seminars for export companies, distance education in…

  8. An Agile Methodology for Implementing Service-Oriented Architecture in Small and Medium Sized Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laidlaw, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of Lean/Agile principles, using action research to develop and deploy new technology for Small and Medium sized enterprises. The research case was conducted at the Lapeer County Sheriff's Department and involves the initial deployment of a Service Oriented Architecture to alleviate the data…

  9. Early Graft Dysfunction in Living Donor Liver Transplantation and the Small for Size Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Jay A.; Samstein, Benjamin; Emond, Jean C.

    2014-01-01

    LDLT has arisen as a viable means to reduce waitlist mortality. However, its widespread embrace by the liver transplant community has been met with frustration centered on donor morbidity and small-for-size-syndrome. Focusing on the later entity, we describe the initial recognition of this early graft dysfunction, the theorized pathophysiology and solutions to remedy its emergence.

  10. Low-noise small-size microring ultrasonic detectors for high-resolution photoacoustic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sung-Liang; Ling, Tao; Guo, L. Jay

    2011-01-01

    Small size polymer microring resonators have been exploited for photoacoustic (PA) imaging. To demonstrate the advantages of the wide acceptance angle of ultrasound detection of small size microrings, photoacoustic tomography (PAT), and delay-and-sum beamforming PA imaging was conducted. In PAT, we compared the imaging quality using different sizes of detectors with similar noise-equivalent pressures and the same wideband response: 500 μm hydrophone and 100, 60, and 40 μm microrings. The results show significantly improved imaging contrast and high resolution over the whole imaging region using smaller size detectors. The uniform high resolution in PAT imaging using 40 μm microrings indicates the potential to resolve microvasculature over a large imaging region. The improved lateral resolution of two-dimensional and three-dimensional delay-and-sum beamforming PA imaging using a synthetic array demonstrate another advantageous application of small microrings. The small microrings can also be applied to other ultrasound-related imaging applications. PMID:21639569

  11. 78 FR 42484 - Small Entity Size Standards Under the Regulatory Flexibility Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... carriers with revenues that would bring them within the Class III definition. 68 FR 24,891 (2003); see also 62 FR 43,024 (1997). The SBA's Office of Advocacy has been consulted with respect to the Board's... Surface Transportation Board 49 CFR Chapter X Small Entity Size Standards Under the Regulatory...

  12. Supporting the E-Business Readiness of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Approaches and Metrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jutla, Dawn; Bodorik, Peter; Dhaliwal, Jasbir

    2002-01-01

    Presents a conceptual model for governments in creating a climate that facilitates the national adoption of e-business. Focuses on the needs of small and medium-sized enterprises, suggests measures to assess how a country is performing in providing a positive e-business climate, and provides examples from Canada, The Netherlands, Norway, and…

  13. Business Continuity Planning Resources for Small- and Medium-Sized Businesses

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Lesperance, Ann M.

    2010-05-14

    This document/memo summarizes existing resources and guidance on business continuity planning for small- to medium-sized businesses. DTRA will share this information with large commercial businesses who identified the need to help their suppliers and other key collaborators prepare business continuity plans in order to speed recovery from a wide-area bioterrorism incident.

  14. A Bare Bones Reference Collection for Small and Medium-Sized Public Libraries in Maine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Maine Library District, Portland.

    This reference list was compiled to offer Maine librarians who serve communities with the resources of small- or medium-sized libraries a starting point to assess their reference collections for breadth and depth. Initially based on a list distributed by the Vermont Department of Libraries in 1987, this guide evaluates reference materials on the…

  15. Regularization Methods for Fitting Linear Models with Small Sample Sizes: Fitting the Lasso Estimator Using R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, W. Holmes; Finch, Maria E. Hernandez

    2016-01-01

    Researchers and data analysts are sometimes faced with the problem of very small samples, where the number of variables approaches or exceeds the overall sample size; i.e. high dimensional data. In such cases, standard statistical models such as regression or analysis of variance cannot be used, either because the resulting parameter estimates…

  16. Toward a Singleton Undergraduate Computer Graphics Course in Small and Medium-Sized Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shesh, Amit

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the evolution of a single undergraduate computer graphics course over five semesters, driven by a primary question: if one could offer only one undergraduate course in graphics, what would it include? This constraint is relevant to many small and medium-sized colleges that lack resources, adequate expertise, and enrollment…

  17. Small-size controlled vacuum spark-gap in an external magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Asyunin, V. I. Davydov, S. G.; Dolgov, A. N. Pshenichnyi, A. A.; Yakubov, R. Kh.

    2015-02-15

    It is demonstrated that the operation of a small-size controlled spark-gap can be controlled by applying a uniform external magnetic field. It is shown that the magnetic field of such a simple configuration efficiently suppresses the effect of localization of the discharge current after multiple actuations of the spark-gap.

  18. Small and Medium-Sized Information Technology Firms: Assessment of Non-Local Partnership Facilitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findikoglu, Melike Nur

    2012-01-01

    A two-phased qualitative study was conducted to explore the facilitators of non-local (i.e. domestic or international) partnerships formed by small- and medium-sized firms (SME). Rooted in trust, proximity and dynamic capabilities lenses, the study focused on behaviors of SMEs performing in dynamic, competitive and highly interlinked industry, the…

  19. Waardenburg-like features with cataracts, small head size, joint abnormalities, hypogonadism, and osteosarcoma.

    PubMed Central

    Parry, D M; Safyer, A W; Mulvihill, J J

    1978-01-01

    A 32-year-old black man was observed with osteosarcoma and multiple anomalies including deafness, hypopigmentation, cataracts, small head size, hypogonadism, and restricted joint mobility. The birth defects may comprise a new syndrome or combination of syndromes, of which the malignancy may be a part. Images PMID:273099

  20. Barriers to Employee Training in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises: Insights and Evidences from Mauritius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padachi, Kesseven; Bhiwajee, Soolakshna Lukea

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Training is an important component of successful business concerns. However, although there is growing acceptance amongst scholars that small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are engines that drive economies across nations, through their contribution in terms of job creation and poverty reduction; extant research portray that these…

  1. 77 FR 42211 - Small Business Size Standards: Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... published in the Federal Register on July 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237). Because of changes in the Federal... determining small business status caused by a large number of varying receipts based size standards (see 69 FR 13130 (March 4, 2004) and 57 FR 62515 (December 31, 1992)). At the start of current comprehensive...

  2. Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

    SciTech Connect

    Wipple, C.; Vosti, E.

    1997-11-01

    This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to address needs that are characterized of small to medium sized apparel manufactures and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for this specific efforts are discussed.

  3. Small for Size and Flow (SFSF) syndrome: An alternative description for posthepatectomy liver failure.

    PubMed

    Golriz, Mohammad; Majlesara, Ali; El Sakka, Saroa; Ashrafi, Maryam; Arwin, Jalal; Fard, Nassim; Raisi, Hanna; Edalatpour, Arman; Mehrabi, Arianeb

    2016-06-01

    Small for Size Syndrome (SFSS) syndrome is a recognizable clinical syndrome occurring in the presence of a reduced mass of liver, which is insufficient to maintain normal liver function. A definition has yet to be fully clarified, but it is a common clinical syndrome following partial liver transplantation and extended hepatectomy, which is characterized by postoperative liver dysfunction with prolonged cholestasis and coagulopathy, portal hypertension, and ascites. So far, this syndrome has been discussed with focus on the remnant size of the liver after partial liver transplantation or extended hepatectomy. However, the current viewpoints believe that the excessive flow of portal vein for the volume of the liver parenchyma leads to over-pressure, sinusoidal endothelial damages and haemorrhage. The new hypothesis declares that in both extended hepatectomy and partial liver transplantation, progression of Small for Size Syndrome is not determined only by the "size" of the liver graft or remnant, but by the hemodynamic parameters of the hepatic circulation, especially portal vein flow. Therefore, we suggest the term "Small for Size and Flow (SFSF)" for this syndrome. We believe that it is important for liver surgeons to know the pathogenesis and manifestation of this syndrome to react early enough preventing non-reversible tissue damages. PMID:26516057

  4. Pioglitazone enhances small-sized adipocyte proliferation in subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Kajita, Kazuo; Mori, Ichiro; Hanamoto, Takayuki; Ikeda, Takahide; Fujioka, Kei; Yamauchi, Masahiro; Okada, Hideyuki; Usui, Taro; Takahashi, Noriko; Kitada, Yoshihiko; Taguchi, Kohichiro; Kajita, Toshiko; Uno, Yoshihiro; Morita, Hiroyuki; Ishizuka, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    The possibility that mature adipocytes proliferate has not been fully investigated. In this study, we demonstrate that adipocytes can proliferate. 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled adipocyte like cells, most of which were less than 30 μm in diameter, were observed in adipose tissue. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was simultaneously detected in BrdU-labeled nuclei. Observation of individual mature adipocytes of smeared specimens on glass slides revealed that small sized adipocytes more frequently incorporated BrdU. Cultured mature adipocytes using the ceiling-cultured method showed clustering of proliferating cells in small-sized adipocytes. These small cultured adipocytes, but not large ones, extensively incorporated BrdU. Quantified analysis of BrdU incorporation demonstrated that mature visceral adipocytes, including epididymal, mesenteric and perirenal adipocytes, proliferated more actively than subcutaneous ones. On the other hand, treatment with pioglitazone (Pio), a ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, containing food for 2w, elevated BrdU incorporation and expression of PCNA in mature adipocytes isolated from subcutaneous, but not visceral adipose tissue. Moreover, Pio induced increased BrdU-labeled small-sized subcutaneous adipocytes, which was associated with an increased number of total small adipocytes in subcutaneous adipose tissue. In conclusion, mature adipocytes have a subgroup representing the potential to replicate, and this proliferation is more active in visceral adipocytes. Treatment with Pio increases proliferation in subcutaneous adipocytes. These results may explain the mechanism of Pio-induced hyperplasia especially in subcutaneous adipocytes. PMID:22972172

  5. Estimating total population size for adult female sea turtles: Accounting for non-nesters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, W.L.; Richardson, J.I.

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of population size and changes therein is important to sea turtle management and population or life history research. Investigators might be interested in testing hypotheses about the effect of current population size or density (number of animals per unit resource) on future population processes. Decision makers might want to determine a level of allowable take of individual turtles of specified life stage. Nevertheless, monitoring most stages of sea turtle life histories is difficult, because obtaining access to individuals is difficult. Although in-water assessments are becoming more common, nesting females and their hatchlings remain the most accessible life stages. In some cases adult females of a given nesting population are sufficiently philopatric that the population itself can be well defined. If a well designed tagging study is conducted on this population, survival, breeding probability, and the size of the nesting population in a given year can be estimated. However, with published statistical methodology the size of the entire breeding population (including those females skipping nesting in that year) cannot be estimated without assuming that each adult female in this population has the same probability of nesting in a given year (even those that had just nested in the previous year). We present a method for estimating the total size of a breeding population (including nesters those skipping nesting) from a tagging study limited to the nesting population, allowing for the probability of nesting in a given year to depend on an individual's nesting status in the previous year (i.e., a Markov process). From this we further develop estimators for rate of growth from year to year in both nesting population and total breeding population, and the proportion of the breeding population that is breeding in a given year. We also discuss assumptions and apply these methods to a breeding population of hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) from

  6. [Comparison of 2 anthropometric methods for the estimation of frame size in Venezuelan adults].

    PubMed

    Hernández Hernández, R A; Hernández de Valera, Y

    1999-12-01

    The frame size improves the interpretation of the body mass in adult and its incorporation is very useful in the assessment of nutritional status. This study compared two of the anthropometric methods used to classify individuals according to frame size: Grant method (height (cm)/wrist circumference (cm)) and Frame index 2 (elbow breadth (mm)/height (cm) x 100) in order to identify coincidence, concordance and divergence between then. Data from two hundred and forty nine apparently healthy individuals, between the ages of 22 and 63, belonging to "Health Project: Administration employees of the Simón Bolívar University" were included. Results showed significant differences between the two methods, not only in the proportion of classified individuals in each frame size category, but also when contrasted the same method using one or another body hemispheres. When studying both methods, the divergence in frame size identification varied between 19% and 55% with a low concordance (k = < or = 0.40). Grant method, compared to Frame index 2 showed a greater association with the variables and indicators of total body mass and body fat; in the other hand, Frame index 2 revealed a lesser correlation with such variables and indicators specially in female (r = 0.17 with fat percentage). These results clearly show the differences that could be created in the frame size identification of an individual of group of individuals if different criteria are used; this could also lead to a wrong anthropometric diagnosis. PMID:10883299

  7. Deformation twinning in small-sized face-centred cubic single crystals: Experiments and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Z. Y.; Huang, M. X.

    2015-12-01

    Small-sized crystals generally show deformation behaviour distinct from their bulk counterparts. In addition to dislocation slip, deformation twinning in small-sized face-centred cubic (FCC) single crystals has been reported to follow a different mechanism which involves coherent emission of partial dislocations on successive { 111 } planes from free surface. The present work employed a twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel with a low stacking fault energy to systematically investigate the twin evolution in small-sized FCC single crystals. Micrometre-sized single crystal pillars of TWIP steel were fabricated by focus ion beam and then strained to different levels by compression experiments. Detailed transmission electron microscopy characterization was carried out to obtain a quantitative evaluation of the deformation twins, which contribute to most of the plastic strain. Emissions of partial dislocations from free surface (surface sources) and pre-existing perfect dislocations inside the pillar (inner sources) are found as the essential processes for the formation of deformation twins. Accordingly, a physically-based model, which integrates source introduction methods and source activation criterions for partial dislocation emission, is developed to quantitatively predict the twin evolution. The model is able to reproduce the experimental twin evolution, in terms of the total twin formation, the twin morphology and the occurrence of twinning burst.

  8. Small- and Medium-Sized Commercial Building Monitoring and Controls Needs: A Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Underhill, Ronald M.; Goddard, James K.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Piette, M. A.; Granderson, J.; Brown, Rich E.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; Kuruganti, T.

    2012-10-31

    Buildings consume over 40% of the total energy consumption in the U.S. A significant portion of the energy consumed in buildings is wasted because of the lack of controls or the inability to use existing building automation systems (BASs) properly. Much of the waste occurs because of our inability to manage and controls buildings efficiently. Over 90% of the buildings are either small-size (<5,000 sf) or medium-size (between 5,000 sf and 50,000 sf); these buildings currently do not use BASs to monitor and control their building systems from a central location. According to Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), about 10% of the buildings in the U.S. use BASs or central controls to manage their building system operations. Buildings that use BASs are typically large (>100,000 sf). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP) to identify monitoring and control needs for small- and medium-sized commercial buildings and recommend possible solutions. This study documents the needs and solutions for small- and medium-sized buildings.

  9. Antigen inhalation as a triggering factor in systemic small-sized-vessel vasculitis. Four cases.

    PubMed

    Mouthon, L; Khaled, M; Cohen, P; Subra, J F; Guillevin, L

    2001-04-01

    In order to identify small-sized-vessel vasculitis occurring immediately after massive inhalation of particles which could be considered antigenic, we performed a retrospective review of patients who consulted our Department of Internal Medicine between 1980 and 1998 and were diagnosed as having small-vessel vasculitis that developed immediately after massive exposure to inhaled particles. Four patients, 27 to 55 years old, presented with small-sized-vessel vasculitis (one with Wegener's granulomatosis and three with Churg-Strauss syndrome) which developed after massive inhalation of particles. Clinical manifestations occurred from a few hours to 10 days after inhalation of diesel fumes, cereal dust, flour or cereal dust and/or pigeon droppings. Three patients remain disease-free 8, 9 and 18 years after discontinuing treatment. One patient remains well after 3 years on low-dose corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide therapy. Our data suggest that primary antigens can cause small-sized-vessel vasculitides. Identifying such etiological factors could improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of systemic vasculitides and prevent relapses due to similar antigenic exposure. PMID:11431572

  10. Estimating the Correlation in Bivariate Normal Data with Known Variances and Small Sample Sizes1

    PubMed Central

    Fosdick, Bailey K.; Raftery, Adrian E.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of estimating the correlation in bivariate normal data when the means and variances are assumed known, with emphasis on the small sample case. We consider eight different estimators, several of them considered here for the first time in the literature. In a simulation study, we found that Bayesian estimators using the uniform and arc-sine priors outperformed several empirical and exact or approximate maximum likelihood estimators in small samples. The arc-sine prior did better for large values of the correlation. For testing whether the correlation is zero, we found that Bayesian hypothesis tests outperformed significance tests based on the empirical and exact or approximate maximum likelihood estimators considered in small samples, but that all tests performed similarly for sample size 50. These results lead us to suggest using the posterior mean with the arc-sine prior to estimate the correlation in small samples when the variances are assumed known. PMID:23378667

  11. Pen size and parity effects on maternal behaviour of Small-Tail Han sheep.

    PubMed

    Lv, S-J; Yang, Y; Dwyer, C M; Li, F-K

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of pen size and parity on maternal behaviour of twin-bearing Small-Tail Han ewes. A total of 24 ewes were allocated to a 2×2 design (six per pen), with parity (primiparous or multiparous) and pen size (large: 6.0×3.0 m; small: 6.0×1.5 m) as main effects at Linyi University, Shandong Province, China. Behaviour was observed from after parturition until weaning. All ewes were observed for 6 h every 5 days from 0700 to1000 h and from 1400 to 1700 h. Continuous focal animal sampling was used to quantify the duration of maternal behaviours: sucking, grooming and following as well as the frequency of udder accepting, udder refusing and low-pitched bleating. Oestradiol and cortisol concentrations in the faeces (collected in the morning every 5 days) were detected using EIA kits. All lambs were weighed 24 h after parturition and again at weaning at 35 days of age. The small pen size significantly reduced following (P<0.005), grooming (P<0.001) and suckling durations (P<0.05), as well as the frequency of udder refusals (P<0.001). However, there was a significant interaction with ewe parity, with decreased grooming and suckling in the small pen largely seen in the multiparous ewes (P<0.001). Independent of pen size, multiparous ewes accepted more sucking attempts by their lambs (P<0.05) and made more low-pitched bleats than primiparous ewes (P<0.001). Multiparous ewes had higher faecal oestradiol concentrations than primiparous ewes (P<0.001), and ewes in small pens had higher faecal cortisol levels compared with ewes in larger pens (P<0.001). As lambs increased in age, the duration of maternal grooming, following and suckling as well as frequency of udder acceptance and low-pitched bleating all declined, and the frequency of udder refusing increased (P<0.001 for all). Ewe parity, but not pen size, affected lamb weight gain during the period of observation (P<0.001). This is the first study to show that pen size

  12. Body Size Perceptions and Weight Status of Adults in a Nigerian Rural Community

    PubMed Central

    Akinpelu, AO; Oyewole, OO; Adekanla, BA

    2015-01-01

    Background: Overweight and obesity are now recognized worldwide as increasing public health problems throughout the life course and wrong perception of one's body size may reduce the motivation for an overweight person to lose weight. Aim: This study was conducted to investigate how Nigerian rural dwellers perceive their body size and how their perception agrees with their body mass index (BMI). Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional sample of 183 adults living in a rural community, South-West Nigeria was randomly recruited into the study. Their verbal and visual body size perceptions were assessed through structured questions and body images. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: Thirty-five percent (64/183) of participants were classified as either overweight or obese by BMI. More than half of the participants perceived themselves as normal weight. More women perceived themselves to be obese than men in both verbal and visual perceptions. Based on BMI classification, 43% (79/183) and 54% (98/183) of participants misperceived themselves in verbal and visual perception, respectively. Underestimation of body size was higher in men (38.3%, 36/94) while overestimation was higher in women (9.0%, 8/89). Men had consistently higher values of kappa coefficient which indicate greater agreement than women in both types of perception. Conclusion: We found considerable gender differences in body weight perception of adults in the Nigerian rural community. A large proportion of these rural dwellers could not appropriately classify their weight status; and over 30% (64/183) and nearly 50% (92/183) of them underestimated their own body weight in verbal and visual perceptions respectively. PMID:26500794

  13. Method of making metal oxide ceramic membranes with small pore sizes

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Marc A.; Xu, Qunyin

    1992-01-01

    A method for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes is composed of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

  14. Measurement of protein size in concentrated solutions by small angle X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Li, Zhihong; Wei, Yanru; Wang, Wenjia; Wang, Bing; Liang, Hongli; Gao, Yuxi

    2016-08-01

    By simulations on the distance distribution function (DDF) derived from small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) theoretical data of a dense monodisperse system, we found a quantitative mathematical correlation between the apparent size of a spherically symmetric (or nearly spherically symmetric) homogenous particle and the concentration of the solution. SAXS experiments on protein solutions of human hemoglobin and horse myoglobin validated the correlation. This gives a new method to determine, from the SAXS DDF, the size of spherically symmetric (or nearly spherically symmetric) particles of a dense monodisperse system, specifically for protein solutions with interference effects. PMID:27241796

  15. Adult Marketing Education for the Small Business Sector: A Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, William T., Jr.

    A study identified and analyzed adult marketing education services that have been and are currently being provided for the small business sector. The methodology involved a literature review and a mail survey of all secondary and postsecondary marketing education state supervisors listed in the 1985-86 State Supervisors Directory. Of the 54…

  16. A Handbook for a Small Halfway House for the Male Adolescent-Adult Retardate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Russell W.; Melanphy, Robert F.

    Presented are guidelines on planning and establishing a small, residential halfway house for the male adolescent/adult retardate in which mental health and use of the halfway house to replace institutionalization of selected retardates are emphasized. The halfway house is explained to be planned on premises of community participation and program…

  17. Occupational safety and health in small and medium-sized enterprises during social and economic transformation.

    PubMed

    Koradecka, D

    2001-01-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Central and Eastern Europe at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s were characterised by many people exposed to hazardous working conditions. Statistics recorded a considerable increase in the number of occupational diseases. They also showed that it was more dangerous to work for a small company. The transition from planned to market economy has brought about an increase in the number of SMEs in Poland. Data on them are provided. The role of the Central Institute for Labour Protection in studying SMEs is presented. A pilot study of employers and employees is discussed. PMID:11276261

  18. Small-size microlens characterization by multiwavelength high-resolution interference microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myun-Sik; Scharf, Toralf; Herzig, Hans Peter

    2010-07-01

    Microlenses are widely studied in two main areas: fabrication and characterization. Nowadays, characterization draws more attention because it is difficult to apply test techniques to microlenses that are used for conventional optical systems. Especially, small microlenses on a substrate are difficult to characterize because their back focus often stays in the substrate. Here we propose immersion high-resolution interference microscopy to characterize small-size microlenses at three visible wavelengths. Test results for 20-mum-diameter microlenses are presented and discussed. We cover not only standard characterizations like wavefront investigations but also experiments of actual focus properties and chromatic behaviors. PMID:20639916

  19. Pharmacological Stimulation of Edar Signaling in the Adult Enhances Sebaceous Gland Size and Function

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczyk-Quintas, Christine; Schuepbach-Mallepell, Sonia; Willen, Laure; Smith, Terry K.; Huttner, Kenneth; Kirby, Neil; Headon, Denis J.; Schneider, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Impaired Ectodysplasin A (EDA) – EDA receptor (EDAR) signaling affects ectodermally derived structures including teeth, hair follicles and cutaneous glands. X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED), resulting from EDA deficiency, can be rescued with lifelong benefits in animal models by stimulation of ectodermal appendage development with EDAR agonists. Treatments initiated later in the developmental period restore progressively fewer of the affected structures. It is unknown whether EDAR stimulation in adults with XLHED might have beneficial effects. In adult Eda mutant mice treated for several weeks with agonist anti-EDAR antibodies, we find that sebaceous glands size and function can be restored to wild type levels. This effect is maintained upon chronic treatment but reverses slowly upon cessation of treatment. Sebaceous glands in all skin regions respond to treatment, though to varying degrees, and this is accompanied in both Eda mutant and wild type mice by sebum secretion to levels higher than those observed in untreated controls. Edar is expressed at the periphery of the glands, suggesting a direct homeostatic effect of Edar stimulation on the sebaceous gland. Sebaceous gland size and sebum production may serve as biomarkers for EDAR stimulation, and EDAR agonists may improve skin dryness and eczema frequently observed in XLHED. PMID:25207818

  20. Coherent population trapping on 87Rb atoms in small-size absorption cells with buffer gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermak, S. V.; Petrenko, M. V.; Semenov, V. V.

    2016-02-01

    Coherent population trapping (CPT) on 87Rb atoms in neon atmosphere has been studied in small-size glass absorption cells under conditions of pumping with narrow-band laser radiation at the D2 line of the main doublet. Parameters of the absorption signal have been measured in 3-mm-diameter cells at buffer gas (Ne) pressures varied within 200-400 Torr, cell temperatures within 65-120°C, and pumping radiation power densities within 30-400 μW/cm2. Optimum values of the buffer gas pressures, cell temperature, and pumping power are determined at which the short-term instability of the resonance line is at minimum. Orientational shifts of the CPT resonance signal in gas-filled cells and small-size cells with antirelaxation coating have been compared.

  1. Services Supporting Knowledge Maturing in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Ronald

    The hype around Web 2.0 has again sparked tremendous interest in IT-supported knowledge management and technology-enhanced learning in organizations. Although there has been abundant evidence of how to benefit from Web 2.0 technologies, information on how to go about deploying these in small and medium-sized enterprises in a coordinated manner are scarce. Based on the findings of an empirical study and an ethnographically informed study on knowledge maturing, this paper suggests a set of knowledge services to support a series of knowledge actions chained with the help of the knowledge maturing model. This set of services can be used by small and medium-sized enterprises for analyzing IT tools and systems which currently support their employees’ knowledge maturing activities, to foster knowledge cooperation with customers, suppliers and partners in their business environment and to find gaps which can be filled particularly by consuming services over the Web.

  2. Cancer Bioinformatic Methods to Infer Meaningful Data From Small-Size Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Bennani-Baiti, Nabila; Bennani-Baiti, Idriss M

    2015-01-01

    Whole-genome analyses have uncovered that most cancer-relevant genes cluster into 12 signaling pathways. Knowledge of the signaling pathways and associated gene signatures not only allows us to understand the mechanisms of oncogenesis inherent to specific cancers but also provides us with drug targets, molecular diagnostic and prognosis factors, as well as biomarkers for patient risk stratification and treatment. Publicly available genomic data sets constitute a wealth of gene mining opportunities for hypothesis generation and testing. However, the increasingly recognized genetic and epigenetic inter- and intratumor heterogeneity, combined with the preponderance of small-size cohorts, hamper reliable analysis and discovery. Here, we review two methods that are used to infer meaningful biological events from small-size data sets and discuss some of their applications and limitations. PMID:26568679

  3. Classification improvement by optimal dimensionality reduction when training sets are of small size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starks, S. A.; Defigueiredo, R. J. P.; Vanrooy, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    A computer simulation was performed to test the conjecture that, when the sizes of the training sets are small, classification in a subspace of the original data space may give rise to a smaller probability of error than the classification in the data space itself; this is because the gain in the accuracy of estimation of the likelihood functions used in classification in the lower dimensional space (subspace) offsets the loss of information associated with dimensionality reduction (feature extraction). A number of pseudo-random training and data vectors were generated from two four-dimensional Gaussian classes. A special algorithm was used to create an optimal one-dimensional feature space on which to project the data. When the sizes of the training sets are small, classification of the data in the optimal one-dimensional space is found to yield lower error rates than the one in the original four-dimensional space.

  4. Using hyperspectral image enhancement method for small size object detection on the sea surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lu; Noro, Naoki; Takara, Yohei; Ando, Fuminori; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2015-10-01

    Small size object detection in vast ocean plays an important role in rescues after accident or disaster. One of the promising approach is a hyperspectral imaging system (HIS). However, due to the limitation of HIS sensor's resolution, interested target might occupy only several pixels or less in the image, it's difficult to detect small object, moreover the sun glint of the sea surface make it even more difficult. In this paper, we propose an image analysis technique suitable for the computer aided detection of small objects on the sea surface, especially humans. We firstly separate objects from background by adapting a previously proposed image enhancement method and then apply a linear unmixing method to define the endmember's spectrum. At last, we use spectral angle mapping method to classify presented objects and thus detect small size object. The proposed system provides the following results for supporting the detection of humans and other small objects on the sea surface; an image with spectral color enhancement, alerts of various objects, and the human detection results. This multilayered approach is expected to reduce the oversight, i.e., false negative error. Results of the proposed technique have been compared with existent methods, and our method has successfully enhance the hyperspectral image, and detect small object from the sea surface with high human detection rate, shows the ability to further detection of human in this study). The result are less influenced by the sun glint effects. This study helps recognizing small objects on the sea surface, and it leads to advances in the rescuing system using aircraft equipped HIS technology.

  5. Pore size distribution of shaley rock by small angle neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, P. L.; Mildner, D. F. R.; Borst, R. L.

    1983-08-01

    Information concerning pore microstructure of shaly rocks is of considerable relevance to petroleum exploration and production. Pore sizes and distributions within shaly samples have been determined by small angle neutron scattering. The data are indicative of a considerable spread of pore dimension, showing inhomogeneities with a range from 20 Å and greater. The cumulative pore volumes are compared with those derived from mercury intrusion porosimetry and nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms.

  6. Pore size distribution of shaly rock by small angle neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, P.L.; Mildner, D.F.R.; Borst, R.L.

    1983-08-01

    Information concerning pore microstructure of shaly rocks is of considerable relevance to petroleum exploration and production. Pore sizes and distributions within shaly samples have been determined by small angle neutron scattering. The data are indicative of a considerable spread of pore dimension, showing inhomogeneities with a range from 20 A and greater. The cumulative pore volumes are compared with those derived from mercury intrusion porosimetry and nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms.

  7. Computational assessment of the entropy of solvation of small-sized hydrophobic entities.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Reema; Kranzlmüller, Dieter; Volkert, Jens; Hansmann, Ulrich H E; Höfinger, Siegfried

    2006-12-21

    A high level polarizable force field is used to study the temperature dependence of hydrophobic hydration of small-sized molecules from computer simulations. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of liquid water at various temperatures form the basis of free energy perturbation calculations that consider the onset and growth of a repulsive sphere. This repulsive sphere acts as a model construct for the hydrophobic species. In the present study, an extension is pursued for seven independent target temperatures, ranging from close to the freezing point almost up to the boiling point of liquid water under standard conditions. Care is taken to maintain proper physico-chemical model descriptions by cross-checking with experimental water densities at the selected target temperatures. The polarizable force field description of molecular water turns out to be suitable throughout the entire temperature domain considered. Derivatives of the computed free energies of hydrophobic hydration with respect to the temperature give access to the changes in entropy. In practice the entropy differential is determined from the negative of the slope of tangential lines formed at a certain target temperature in the free energy profile. The obtained changes in entropy are negative for small-sized cavities, and hence reconfirm the basic ideas of the Lum-Chandler-Weeks theory on hydrophobic hydration of small-sized solutes. PMID:17136266

  8. Consultant-Client Relationship and Knowledge Transfer in Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises Change Processes.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Luis F; Ferreira, Aristides I; Can, Amina B

    2016-04-01

    Based on Szulanski's knowledge transfer model, this study examined how the communicational, motivational, and sharing of understanding variables influenced knowledge transfer and change processes in small- and medium-sized enterprises, particularly under projects developed by funded programs. The sample comprised 144 entrepreneurs, mostly male (65.3%) and mostly ages 35 to 45 years (40.3%), who filled an online questionnaire measuring the variables of "sharing of understanding," "motivation," "communication encoding competencies," "source credibility," "knowledge transfer," and "organizational change." Data were collected between 2011 and 2012 and measured the relationship between clients and consultants working in a Portuguese small- and medium-sized enterprise-oriented action learning program. To test the hypotheses, structural equation modeling was conducted to identify the antecedents of sharing of understanding, motivational, and communicational variables, which were positively correlated with the knowledge transfer between consultants and clients. This transfer was also positively correlated with organizational change. Overall, the study provides important considerations for practitioners and academicians and establishes new avenues for future studies concerning the issues of consultant-client relationship and the efficacy of Government-funded programs designed to improve performance of small- and medium-sized enterprises. PMID:27154382

  9. Progress on the Size Frequency Distribution of Small Main-belt Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, Brian; Trilling, D. E.; Hines, D. C.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Rebull, L. M.; Fuentes, C. I.; Hulsebus, A.

    2012-10-01

    The asteroid size distribution informs us about the formation and composition of the Solar System. We build on our previous work in which we harvest serendipitously obtained Spitzer data of the Taurus region and measure the brightness and size distributions of Main-belt asteroids. This is accomplished with the highly sensitive MIPS 24 micron channel. We expect to catalog 104 asteroids, giving us a statistically significant data set. Results from this investigation will allow us to characterize the total population of small, Main-belt asteroids. Here we will present new results on the completeness of our study and the presence of size distribution variations with inclination and radial distance in the belt. We acknowledge and thank funding from PMDAP through NASA.

  10. Prognostic factors and survival in late adolescent and adult patients with small round cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Eralp, Yeşim; Bavbek, Sevil; Başaran, Mert; Kaytan, Esra; Yaman, Fulya; Bilgiç, Bilge; Darendeliler, Emin; Onat, Haluk

    2002-08-01

    The primary objective of this study is to review the clinical characteristics of 25 patients in the adult and late adolescent age group, diagnosed and treated with small round cell tumors involving soft tissues (extraosseous Ewing sarcoma, rhabdo-myosarcoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and undiffer-entiated small round cell tumors). Additionally, survival and prognostic factors influencing the outcome with multimodality treatment are evaluated. There were 19 males (76%) and 6 females (24%). The median age was 26 years (range: 15-56 years). In 9 patients (36%), the tumor was located at an extremity, whereas 16 patients (64%) had central localizations. Tumor size was larger than 10 cm in 7 patients (29.2%). Six patients (24%) had metastatic disease. Twelve patients (48%) received radiation and 16 patients (64%) underwent surgery. Among the resected tumors, 2 were resected with contaminated margins (12.5%), whereas 2 were radically resected and 12 (75%) were resected with wide margins. All patients were given a median of 4 cycles of multiagent chemotherapy (1-14 cycles). With preoperative chemotherapy, complete regression (CR) of the tumor was achieved in 6 patients (24%). In 4 patients (16%), a partial response was obtained. After the completion of multimodality treatment, 12 patients (48%) had a CR. Progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for the entire group was 25.0 +/- 10.8% at 1 year and 30.5 +/- 15.5% at 3 years, respectively. Nonmetastatic disease, wide and radical resection, and presence of CR to multimodality treatment were associated with a significantly longer PFS and OS by univariate analysis. By multivariate analysis, CR to multimodality treat-ment was the only independent predictive factor for a longer OS (p: 0.0036, relative risk [RR]: 23.6, 95% CI: 2.8; 198.7) and metastatic presentation was the only independent factor predic-tive for a shorter PFS (p: 0.017, RR. 15, 95% CI: 1.6; 141.2). Large-scale, multicenter studies are required for

  11. Born small, die young: Intrinsic, size-selective mortality in marine larval fish.

    PubMed

    Garrido, S; Ben-Hamadou, R; Santos, A M P; Ferreira, S; Teodósio, M A; Cotano, U; Irigoien, X; Peck, M A; Saiz, E; Ré, P

    2015-01-01

    Mortality during the early stages is a major cause of the natural variations in the size and recruitment strength of marine fish populations. In this study, the relation between the size-at-hatch and early survival was assessed using laboratory experiments and on field-caught larvae of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus). Larval size-at-hatch was not related to the egg size but was significantly, positively related to the diameter of the otolith-at-hatch. Otolith diameter-at-hatch was also significantly correlated with survival-at-age in fed and unfed larvae in the laboratory. For sardine larvae collected in the Bay of Biscay during the spring of 2008, otolith radius-at-hatch was also significantly related to viability. Larval mortality has frequently been related to adverse environmental conditions and intrinsic factors affecting feeding ability and vulnerability to predators. Our study offers evidence indicating that a significant portion of fish mortality occurs during the endogenous (yolk) and mixed (yolk /prey) feeding period in the absence of predators, revealing that marine fish with high fecundity, such as small pelagics, can spawn a relatively large amount of eggs resulting in small larvae with no chances to survive. Our findings help to better understand the mass mortalities occurring at early stages of marine fish. PMID:26597385

  12. Born small, die young: Intrinsic, size-selective mortality in marine larval fish

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, S.; Ben-Hamadou, R.; Santos, A.M.P.; Ferreira, S.; Teodósio, M.A.; Cotano, U.; Irigoien, X.; Peck, M.A.; Saiz, E.; Ré, P.

    2015-01-01

    Mortality during the early stages is a major cause of the natural variations in the size and recruitment strength of marine fish populations. In this study, the relation between the size-at-hatch and early survival was assessed using laboratory experiments and on field-caught larvae of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus). Larval size-at-hatch was not related to the egg size but was significantly, positively related to the diameter of the otolith-at-hatch. Otolith diameter-at-hatch was also significantly correlated with survival-at-age in fed and unfed larvae in the laboratory. For sardine larvae collected in the Bay of Biscay during the spring of 2008, otolith radius-at-hatch was also significantly related to viability. Larval mortality has frequently been related to adverse environmental conditions and intrinsic factors affecting feeding ability and vulnerability to predators. Our study offers evidence indicating that a significant portion of fish mortality occurs during the endogenous (yolk) and mixed (yolk /prey) feeding period in the absence of predators, revealing that marine fish with high fecundity, such as small pelagics, can spawn a relatively large amount of eggs resulting in small larvae with no chances to survive. Our findings help to better understand the mass mortalities occurring at early stages of marine fish. PMID:26597385

  13. Small sample sizes in the study of ontogenetic allometry; implications for palaeobiology

    PubMed Central

    Vavrek, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative morphometric analyses, particularly ontogenetic allometry, are common methods used in quantifying shape, and changes therein, in both extinct and extant organisms. Due to incompleteness and the potential for restricted sample sizes in the fossil record, palaeobiological analyses of allometry may encounter higher rates of error. Differences in sample size between fossil and extant studies and any resulting effects on allometric analyses have not been thoroughly investigated, and a logical lower threshold to sample size is not clear. Here we show that studies based on fossil datasets have smaller sample sizes than those based on extant taxa. A similar pattern between vertebrates and invertebrates indicates this is not a problem unique to either group, but common to both. We investigate the relationship between sample size, ontogenetic allometric relationship and statistical power using an empirical dataset of skull measurements of modern Alligator mississippiensis. Across a variety of subsampling techniques, used to simulate different taphonomic and/or sampling effects, smaller sample sizes gave less reliable and more variable results, often with the result that allometric relationships will go undetected due to Type II error (failure to reject the null hypothesis). This may result in a false impression of fewer instances of positive/negative allometric growth in fossils compared to living organisms. These limitations are not restricted to fossil data and are equally applicable to allometric analyses of rare extant taxa. No mathematically derived minimum sample size for ontogenetic allometric studies is found; rather results of isometry (but not necessarily allometry) should not be viewed with confidence at small sample sizes. PMID:25780770

  14. [Application of health questionnaires for health management in small- and medium-sized enterprises].

    PubMed

    Kishida, K; Saito, M; Hasegawa, T; Aoki, S; Suzuki, S

    1986-01-01

    Two kinds of health questionnaires, the Todai Health Index (THI) and Cumulative Fatigue Index (CFI), were applied as a screening device for health management of workers belonging to small-medium sized enterprises. A total of 495 workers composed of 452 male workers of a glass-bottle manufacturing factory and 43 male workers of a soft-drink bottling factory were the subjects of the present study. It was found that the two kinds of health questionnaires were different from each other and have their own characteristics. Twelve scales of THI were grouped into two, the first consisting of ten scales (SUSY, RESP, EYSK, MOUT, DIGE, IMPU, MENT, DEPR, NERV, and LIFE) and the second consisting of two scales (AGGR and LISC). Nine categories of CFI were grouped into one by using principal factor analysis. It was confirmed that the twelve scale scores of THI obtained at small-medium sized factories differed from those scale scores of a reference group investigated at a large-sized enterprise. It is on the basis of the scales of aggressiveness and lies and also of the scale of mental unstability which characterizes workers, locality, job (clerical or field work), and size of industry (large or small sized) that the difference could be evaluated. Urban life characterized by a life style of staying up late at night and waking up late in the morning has been reflected on the scale of life irregularity. Irregularity of life induced by transformation of working schedule, such as two or three shifts of work and overtime, was also reflected on this scale. Two scales of THI test, i.e., many subjective symptoms and digestive organ complaints, seemed to be the representative scales indicating a close relation between work load and health level. The discriminant score for diagnosis of psychosomatic diseases is considered to be one of the most useful assessments of the individual's health condition. As mentioned above, THI is recommended as a convenient assessment method for health

  15. Size, distribution and sediment biodeposition of prolific bivalves in small estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callaway, Ruth; Grenfell, Suzanne; Bertelli, Chiara; Mendzil, Anouska; Moore, Jon

    2014-10-01

    The growth and distribution of bivalves in estuaries is generally driven by access to food, hydrodynamic forces and sedimentary conditions that facilitate recruitment and allow persistent settlement. Factors such as site elevation or sediment properties have a significant impact, but there are few studies quantifying the relative importance of different factors in an entire estuary. We carried out an estuary-wide survey of the cockle Cerastoderma edule L. by sampling 343 sites in a small estuary, the Burry Inlet in South Wales, UK. We determined the extent to which site elevation, as an indicator for the duration of feeding, sediment properties and position inside the estuary, explained variation in the size and density of the bivalve. We also analysed the production of faeces and pseudo-faeces per cockle. The population consisted almost entirely of 1-year old cockles, the average size was 14.7 ± 2.7 mm and the average density was 56 ± 189 cockles 0.1 m-2 (mean ± SD). Altogether 37% of the variation in size was explained by two factors: elevation of site (15%) and amount of clay & silt in sediments (22%). Variation in density appeared to play no significant role in determining size. Density was significantly linked to sediment properties (32%) and position inside the estuary (4%). Sediment biodeposition, the amount of material discharged per cockle, was 0.032 ± 0.017 g dry weight, the whole population thereby producing an estimated 387 tonnes of faeces and pseudo-faeces in the entire estuary per day. The study confirmed that access to food is a principal driver of growth, but the relatively small proportion of the variation in size explained by site elevation highlights that other factors play an important role. Sediment characteristics in particular were of importance to variation in size as well as density. It seems plausible that sediment properties were a proxy for factors such as bedload movement and exposure, which are more likely causal factors for

  16. Relationships among vocabulary size, nonverbal cognition, and spoken word recognition in adults with cochlear implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collison, Elizabeth A.; Munson, Benjamin; Carney, Arlene E.

    2002-05-01

    Recent research has attempted to identify the factors that predict speech perception performance among users of cochlear implants (CIs). Studies have found that approximately 20%-60% of the variance in speech perception scores can be accounted for by factors including duration of deafness, etiology, type of device, and length of implant use, leaving approximately 50% of the variance unaccounted for. The current study examines the extent to which vocabulary size and nonverbal cognitive ability predict CI listeners' spoken word recognition. Fifteen postlingually deafened adults with nucleus or clarion CIs were given standardized assessments of nonverbal cognitive ability and expressive vocabulary size: the Expressive Vocabulary Test, the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-III, and the Woodcock-Johnson-III Test of Cognitive Ability, Verbal Comprehension subtest. Two spoken word recognition tasks were administered. In the first, listeners identified isophonemic CVC words. In the second, listeners identified gated words varying in lexical frequency and neighborhood density. Analyses will examine the influence of lexical frequency and neighborhood density on the uniqueness point in the gating task, as well as relationships among nonverbal cognitive ability, vocabulary size, and the two spoken word recognition measures. [Work supported by NIH Grant P01 DC00110 and by the Lions 3M Hearing Foundation.

  17. Size at birth and adult fat mass in twin sheep are determined in early gestation

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, S N; Oliver, M H; McLean, C; Jaquiery, A L; Bloomfield, F H

    2012-01-01

    Size at birth is related to adult health outcomes. Twins are born smaller than singletons; this has been assumed to be secondary to limited nutrient supply in late gestation. We hypothesised that growth trajectory in twins, and the adult consequences of being conceived a twin, are determined in early gestation. Twin pregnancies in sheep were randomised to reduction of one twin on day 42 of a 148 day pregnancy by intra-thoracic KCl (Reductions, n = 46) or a sham procedure (Twins, n = 22). Singleton-bearing ewes also underwent a sham procedure (n = 27). Ewes lambed spontaneously. Linear measures of size at birth were similar in Twins and Reductions, and significantly less than in Singletons. Birthweight was lower in Twins and Reductions than in Singletons, and less in Twins than in Reductions (means (SEM): Singletons, liveborn n = 23: 6.59 (0.17) kg; Twins, liveborn n = 36: 5.23 (0.16) kg; Reductions, liveborn n = 27: 5.76 (0.15) kg; all comparisons P < 0.05). Reductions grew most rapidly between birth and weaning (Singletons, 20.0 (0.4) g kg−1 day−1; Twins, 20.0 (0.3) g kg−1 day−1; Reductions, 21.0 (0.3) g kg−1 day−1, P < 0.05) and were of similar weight as Singletons by weaning; Twins remained smaller by weaning but grew most rapidly thereafter (Singletons, 1.6 (0.1) g kg−1 day−1; Twins, 2.1 (0.1) g kg−1 day−1; Reductions, 1.6 (0.1) g kg−1 day−1, P < 0.01), so that all groups had similar weight at 2 years. However, Twins and Reductions had greater percentage fat mass than Singletons at 2 years (Singletons, 11.1 (1.1)%; Twins, 14.8 (1.2)%; Reductions, 15.5 (1.1)%, P < 0.05). Thus, in twins, fetal growth trajectory, linear size at birth and adult fat mass are largely determined in early gestation. If this is also true in humans, there are important implications for interventions aimed at optimising fetal growth and pregnancy outcome. PMID:22183720

  18. Small Size at Birth or Abnormal Intrauterine Growth Trajectory: Which Matters More for Child Growth?

    PubMed

    Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Jacobsen, Geir W; Kramer, Michael S; Martinussen, Marit; Platt, Robert W

    2016-06-15

    Small size at birth is linked with lifelong adverse health implications. However, small size is only a proxy for the pathological process of interest, intrauterine growth restriction. We examined the extent to which information on intrauterine growth patterns improved prediction of childhood anthropometry, above and beyond birth weight alone. We obtained fetal weights estimated via serial ultrasound for 478 children in the Scandinavian Successive Small-for-Gestational-Age Births Study (1986-1988). Size at birth was classified using birth weight-for-gestational-age z scores and conditional fetal growth z scores (reflecting growth between 25 weeks' gestation and birth) using internal references. Conditional z scores were also expressed as residuals of birth weight z scores. Growth measures were linked with age-5-years anthropometric characteristics using linear regression. In univariable analyses, conditional fetal growth z scores were positively associated with z scores for child height, body mass index, total skinfold thickness, and head circumference (β = 0.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.18, 0.31), β = 0.16 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.23), β = 0.08 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.16), and β = 0.37 (95% CI: 0.22, 0.52), respectively). However, conditional z scores were highly correlated with birth weight z scores (r = 0.9), and residuals explained minimal additional variation in anthropometric factors (null coefficients; adjusted R(2) increases < 0.01). Information on the intrauterine trajectory through which birth weight was attained provided little additional insight into child growth beyond that obtained from absolute size at birth. PMID:27257112

  19. Characterization of small unilamellar vesicles using solvatochromic pi* indicators and particle sizing.

    PubMed

    Carrozzino, Jennifer M; Fuguet, Elisabet; Helburn, Robin; Khaledi, Morteza G

    2004-08-31

    A suite of small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) composed of mixtures of phospholipids and cholesterol (CH) or the synthetic surfactant dihexadecyl phosphate (DHP) and cholesterol was investigated using a homologous series of solvatochromic pi* indicators coupled with size exclusion methods and photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS). The solvatochromic method, which is based on the measurement of solvent-dependent shifts in lambda(max) from UV-Vis spectra of solubilized indicators, was used to quantify the dipolarity and polarizability (pi*) of probe solvation environments. The partitioning of the series of individual di-n-alkyl-p-nitroaniline (DNAP) pi* indicators in PG(24)PC(46)Chol(30) and DHP(70)Chol(30) SUVs was examined as a function of the head group structure as well as the method of dye-vesicle preparation. Solubilization of the larger more hydrophobic probes in the bilayer portion of PG(24)PC(46)Chol(30) SUVs was aided through physical entrapment. Such physical methods were not needed for the smaller indicators or for the range of indicators in the DHP(70)Chol(30) dispersions. Extrusion and size-exclusion chromatographic methodologies for the preparation of physically entrapped dopants in SUVs of fixed size range demonstrated that the larger (longer alkyl chain) dopants in the series resided in PG(24)PC(46)Chol(30) liposomes with a wider range of sizes, while the smaller more polar solutes tended to be entrapped in smaller vesicles with a narrower size range. PMID:15262446

  20. Production of limit size nanoliposomal systems with potential utility as ultra-small drug delivery agents.

    PubMed

    Zhigaltsev, Igor V; Tam, Ying K; Leung, Alex K K; Cullis, Pieter R

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies from this group have shown that limit size lipid-based systems - defined as the smallest achievable aggregates compatible with the packing properties of their molecular constituents - can be efficiently produced using rapid microfluidic mixing technique. In this work, it is shown that similar procedures can be employed for the production of homogeneously sized unilamellar vesicular systems of 30-40 nm size range. These vesicles can be remotely loaded with the protonable drug doxorubicin and exhibit adequate drug retention properties in vitro and in vivo. In particular, it is demonstrated that whereas sub-40 nm lipid nanoparticle (LNP) systems consisting entirely of long-chain saturated phosphatidylcholines cannot be produced, the presence of such lipids may have a beneficial effect on the retention properties of limit size systems consisting of mixed lipid components. Specifically, a 33-nm diameter doxorubicin-loaded LNP system composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC), 1,2-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), cholesterol, and PEGylated lipid (DSPE-PEG2000) demonstrated adequate, stable drug retention in the circulation, with a half-life for drug release of ∼12 h. These results indicate that microfluidic mixing is the technique of choice for the production of bilayer LNP systems with sizes less than 50 nm that could lead to development of a novel class of ultra-small drug delivery vehicles. PMID:25856305

  1. SU-E-T-611: Effective Treatment Volume of the Small Size IORT Applicators

    SciTech Connect

    Krechetov, A.S.; Goer, D.A.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose Mobile electron linear accelerators are gaining more attention recently, providing a lower cost and simpler way to perform intraoperative treatment. However, the simplicity of the treatment process does not eliminate the need for proper attention to the technical aspects of the treatment. One of the potential pitfalls is incorrect selection of the appropriate applicator size to adequately cover the tumor bed to the prescription dose. When treating tumor beds in the pelvis, the largest applicator that fits into the pelvis is usually selected as there is concern about microscopic extension of the disease along the sidewalls of the pelvis. But when treating early stage breast tumors, there is a natural tendency to select an applicator as small as possible so as not to jeopardize cosmesis. Methods This investigation questions how much of the typical breast treatment volume gets adequate exposure and what is the correct strategy in selecting the proper applicator size. Actual data from isodose scans were analyzed. Results We found that typical treatment dose prescriptions can cover as much as 80% and as little as 20% of the nominal treatment volume depending on the applicator size and energy of the beam and whether the dose is prescribed to the 80 or 90% isodose level. Treatment volume is defined as a cylinder with diameter equal to applicator and height equal to the corresponding D80 or D90 depth. Conclusion If mobile linear accelerators are used, there can be significant amount of “cold volume” depending on the applicator size and this should be taken into account when selecting the applicator that is needed. Using too small of an applicator could result in significant under-dosing to the tissue at risk. Long-term clinical data demonstrates that selecting an adequate field size results in good ontological control as well as excellent cosmesis. Intraop Medical Corp was providing facilities and equipment for this research.

  2. High-speed atomic force microscopy for large scan sizes using small cantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunsmann, Christoph; Schäffer, Tilman E.

    2010-06-01

    We present a high-speed atomic force microscope that exhibits a number of practical advantages over previous designs. Its central component is a high-speed scanner with a maximum scan size of 23 µm × 23 µm and a conveniently large sample stage area (6.5 mm × 6.5 mm). In combination with small cantilevers, image rates of up to 46 images s - 1 in air and 13 images s - 1 in liquid are reached under z-feedback control. By large scan size imaging of collagen fibrils in air, sample velocities of 8.8 mm s - 1 in the xy-direction and 11 mm s - 1 in the z-direction are reached. To provide optimized imaging conditions for both large and small scan sizes, a modular scanner design allows easily exchanging the x- and y-piezos. The scanner is therefore also suited for investigations on the molecular and atomic scale, which is demonstrated by imaging the step dynamics of a calcite surface during dissolution and the hexagonal lattice of a mica surface in liquid.

  3. Secular trends in reported portion size of food and beverages consumed by Irish adults.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Sinead A; Livingstone, M Barbara E; McNulty, Breige A; Lyons, Jacqueline; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Segurado, Ricardo; Dean, Moira; Spence, Michelle; McCaffrey, Tracy A; Pourshahidi, L Kirsty; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Eileen R

    2015-04-14

    The present analysis aimed to investigate the changes in the reported portion sizes (PS) of foods and beverages commonly consumed by Irish adults (18-64 years) from the North South Ireland Food Consumption Survey (NSIFCS) (1997-2001) and the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) (2008-10). Food PS, which are defined as the weight of food (g) consumed per eating occasion, were calculated for comparable foods and beverages in two nationally representative cross-sectional Irish food consumption surveys and were published in NSIFCS and NANS. Repeated measure mixed model analysis compared reported food PS at the total population level as well as subdivided by sex, age, BMI and social class. A total of thirteen commonly consumed foods were examined. The analysis demonstrated that PS significantly increased for five foods ('white sliced bread', 'brown/wholemeal breads', 'all meat, cooked', 'poultry, roasted' and 'milk'), significantly decreased for three ('potatoes', 'chips/wedges' and 'ham, sliced') and did not significantly change for five foods ('processed potato products', 'bacon/ham', 'cheese', 'yogurt' and 'butter/spreads') between the NSIFCS and the NANS. The present study demonstrates that there was considerable variation in the trends in reported food PS over this period. PMID:25789856

  4. Body size and human energy requirements: Reduced mass-specific total energy expenditure in tall adults.

    PubMed

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian resting energy expenditure (REE) increases as approximately weight(0.75) while mass-specific REE scales as approximately weight(-0.25). Energy needs for replacing resting losses are thus less relative to weight (W) in large compared with small mammals, a classic observation with biological implications. Human weight scales as approximately height(2) and tall adults thus have a greater weight than their short counterparts. However, it remains unknown if mass-specific energy requirements are less in tall adults; allometric models linking total energy expenditure (TEE) and weight with height (H) are lacking. We tested the hypothesis that mass-specific energy requirements scale inversely to height in adults by evaluating TEE (doubly labeled water) data collected by the National Academy of Sciences. Activity energy expenditure (AEE) was calculated from TEE, REE (indirect calorimetry), and estimated diet-induced energy expenditure. Main analyses focused on nonmorbidly obese subjects < or =50 yrs of age with non-negative AEE values (n = 404), although results were directionally similar for all samples. Allometric models, including age as a covariate, revealed significantly (P < 0.05) greater REE, AEE, and TEE as a function of height (range H(1.5-1.7)) in both men and women. TEE/W scaled negatively to height ( approximately H(-0.7), P < 0.01) with predicted mass-specific TEE (kcal/kg/d) at +/-2 SD for US height lower in tall compared with short men (40.3 vs. 46.5) and women (37.7 vs. 42.7). REE/W also scaled negatively to height in men (P < 0.001) and women (P < 0.01). Results were generally robust across several different analytic strategies. These observations reveal previously unforeseen associations between human stature and energy requirements that have implications for modeling efforts and provide new links to mammalian biology as a whole. PMID:19856424

  5. 75 FR 5804 - Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: U.S. and EU Export Activities, and Barriers and Opportunities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... published in the Federal Registers of October 28, 2009 (74 FR 55581); December 1, 2009 (74 FR 62812); and... COMMISSION Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: U.S. and EU Export Activities, and Barriers and Opportunities Experienced by U.S. Firms and Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Characteristics and Performance...

  6. 40 CFR 428.50 - Applicability; description of the small-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... small-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.50 Section 428.50... RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Small-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber... fabricated rubber plants subcategory. The following provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  7. 40 CFR 428.50 - Applicability; description of the small-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... small-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.50 Section 428.50... RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Small-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber... fabricated rubber plants subcategory. The following provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  8. Requirement analysis to promote small-sized E-waste collection from consumers.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Kuniko; Nishimura, Hidekazu

    2016-02-01

    The collection and recycling of small-sized waste electrical and electronic equipment is an emerging problem, since these products contain certain amounts of critical metals and rare earths. Even if the amount is not large, having a few supply routes for such recycled resources could be a good strategy to be competitive in a world of finite resources. The small-sized e-waste sometimes contains personal information, therefore, consumers are often reluctant to put them into recycling bins. In order to promote the recycling of E-waste, collection of used products from the consumer becomes important. Effective methods involving incentives for consumers might be necessary. Without such methods, it will be difficult to achieve the critical amounts necessary for an efficient recycling system. This article focused on used mobile phones among information appliances as the first case study, since it contains relatively large amounts of valuable metals compared with other small-sized waste electrical and electronic equipment and there are a large number of products existing in the market. The article carried out surveys to determine what kind of recycled material collection services are preferred by consumers. The results clarify that incentive or reward money alone is not a driving force for recycling behaviour. The article discusses the types of effective services required to promote recycling behaviour. The article concludes that securing information, transferring data and providing proper information about resources and environment can be an effective tool to encourage a recycling behaviour strategy to promote recycling, plus the potential discount service on purchasing new products associated with the return of recycled mobile phones. PMID:26608902

  9. Scalloped depressions and small-sized polygons in western Utopia Planitia, Mars: A new formation hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Séjourné, A.; Costard, F.; Gargani, J.; Soare, R. J.; Fedorov, A.; Marmo, C.

    2011-04-01

    Flat-floored depressions with scalloped-shapes and spatially associated small-sized polygons (diameter <˜100 m) dot the landscape of western Utopia Planitia (centered at 45°N-95°E). The scalloped depressions are thought to be the result of ice-rich regolith undergoing degradation by sublimation or thaw. Current models suggest that the formation and development of the depressions occur in a poleward direction due to the enhanced sublimation of their equator-facing slopes. By contrast, we propose a conceptual model that shows the equatorward growth of depressions due to preferential degradation by sublimation of their pole-facing slopes. Our model is based on a geomorphological study of the depressions and small-sized polygons in western Utopia Planitia (80°-110°E, 35°-50°N), using images from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) and topographical data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and a HiRISE stereo Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Here we describe (i) a morphological evolution of small-sized polygons within the depressions, from low-centered to high-centered, that facilitates one's understanding of depression growth and development; and (ii) occurrence of v-shaped alcoves, failure cracks and semicircular hollows that point to a retrogressive degradation of the pole-facing slopes of depressions. We propose that the development of the depressions is due to heightened insolation of their pole-facing slopes, leading to enhanced sublimation of ground-ice. Based upon the inferred asymmetric insolation, we suggest that the equatorward expansion of depressions occurred during recent high-obliquity periods of Mars.

  10. Population density and size of bacteria in the course of cultivation of their small forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyanskaya, L. M.; Gorodnichev, R. B.; Vorob'eva, E. A.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2015-04-01

    The population density, size, and biomass of the soil bacteria from a mountain meadow-steppe soil of Tajikistan and a light sierozem of the Negev Desert have been analyzed using the method of "cascade" filtration. It was shown that, when cultivating small fractions of soil bacteria, the total number of bacteria increased by 1.5 times and the bacterial size became greater. The number of coarse cells with a size of 1.85 and 0.43 μm essentially increased in both soils. If the contribution of these fractions was about 10-20% in the initial soils, it increased up to 50-60% in the incubated filtrates. The cells with a size of 0.38 and 0.23 μm accounted for about 70% of the total bacteria in the initial soils, while, in the incubated filtrates, the share of 0.23 μm cells composed about 30% in the filtrate and that of 0.38 μm cells reached 45-50% in the filtrate. The average diameter of the bacteria increased from 0.4 to 0.8-0.9 μm; the biomass of bacteria in these filtrates increased by 7-8 times in comparison with the initial soils at the expense of an increasing number of large cells after cultivation.

  11. Performance of a Small-sized Refrigeration Comperssor Using HFC-134a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohsokabe, Hirokatsu; Endoh, Kazuhiro; Kunugi, Yoshifumi; Iwata, Hiroshi; Hata, Hiroaki; Fujiwara, Mitsuru

    When CFC-12 is replaced by HFC-134a in small-sized refrigeration compressors for domestic refrigerators, the coefficient of performance (COP) of rotary compressors decreases. On the other hand,the COP of reciprocating compressors is almost the same as that of CFC-12. The main causes of rotary compressor performance decrease are higher viscosity of HFC-134a/oil mixture,and greater re-expansion loss of gas in clearance volume. The performance is improved by optimizing the oil viscosity through directly measuring viscosity of HFC-134a/oil mixture inside the compressor chamber with a viscosity sensor. Difference of oil type has small influence on the COP.

  12. Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

    SciTech Connect

    Wimple, C., LLNL

    1998-04-01

    This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX{sup TM}) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to identify opportunities for cost effective enhanced information technology use by small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for the specific DAMA Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) effort are discussed in this section. The approach used to gather information about current opportunities or needs is outlined in Section 2 Approach, and relevant findings are identified and a brief analysis of the information gathered is presented in Section 3 Findings. Recommendations based on the analysis, are offered in Section 4 Recommendations, and plans are suggested for DAMA follow-on in Section 5 Future Plans. Trip reports for each of the companies visited are contained in Appendix E - Company Trip Reports. These individual reports contain the data upon which the analysis presented in Section 3 Findings is based.

  13. A concealed small bowel perforation in an adult secondary to bicycle handlebar trauma

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, GJ; Simpson, RR

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH) secondary to bicycle handlebar is a rare injury. The majority of the literature describes abdominal wall herniation in children. We present a rare case of TAWH in an adult with a concealed small bowel perforation. Although clinical examination in conjunction with computed tomography can exclude the majority of solid organ injuries, small bowel injuries can often be missed. Our case initially revealed a serosal tear in the small bowel but, on close inspection, a separate 3mm perforation was identified, hidden in the small bowel mesentery. We strongly support a low threshold for operative intervention if there is any suspicion. Moreover, we stress the importance of meticulous examination during laparotomy as this injury could have been easily missed, resulting in potential morbidity or mortality in a patient sustaining such an injury. PMID:23676803

  14. Think locally, act locally: Detection of small, medium-sized, and large communities in large networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeub, Lucas G. S.; Balachandran, Prakash; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.; Mahoney, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    It is common in the study of networks to investigate intermediate-sized (or "meso-scale") features to try to gain an understanding of network structure and function. For example, numerous algorithms have been developed to try to identify "communities," which are typically construed as sets of nodes with denser connections internally than with the remainder of a network. In this paper, we adopt a complementary perspective that communities are associated with bottlenecks of locally biased dynamical processes that begin at seed sets of nodes, and we employ several different community-identification procedures (using diffusion-based and geodesic-based dynamics) to investigate community quality as a function of community size. Using several empirical and synthetic networks, we identify several distinct scenarios for "size-resolved community structure" that can arise in real (and realistic) networks: (1) the best small groups of nodes can be better than the best large groups (for a given formulation of the idea of a good community); (2) the best small groups can have a quality that is comparable to the best medium-sized and large groups; and (3) the best small groups of nodes can be worse than the best large groups. As we discuss in detail, which of these three cases holds for a given network can make an enormous difference when investigating and making claims about network community structure, and it is important to take this into account to obtain reliable downstream conclusions. Depending on which scenario holds, one may or may not be able to successfully identify "good" communities in a given network (and good communities might not even exist for a given community quality measure), the manner in which different small communities fit together to form meso-scale network structures can be very different, and processes such as viral propagation and information diffusion can exhibit very different dynamics. In addition, our results suggest that, for many large realistic

  15. Performance Prediction of OWC Type Small Size Wave Power Device with Impulse Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Masami; Takao, Manabu; Satoh, Eiji; Nagata, Shuichi; Toyota, Kazutaka; Setoguchi, Toshiaki

    This paper investigates a small size wave power device with an impulse turbine installed in the breakwater near Niigata Port, Japan. The device consists of an air chamber, a turbine, a generator and pressure-relief valves. This study reveals the characteristics of each component in this system with impulse turbine and a direct current dynamo the power of which is consumed by a constant resistor. In this paper special features of the impulse turbine are found, and the system characteristics are briefly represented. The overall plant performance was analyzed using mathematical model of an oscillating water column (OWC) based on linear water wave theory and the special features of the impulse turbine.

  16. Small-sized granules of biphasic bone substitutes support fast implant bed vascularization

    PubMed Central

    Barbeck, M; Dard, M; Kokkinopoulou, M; Markl, J; Booms, P; Sader, RA; Kirkpatrick, CJ; Ghanaati, S

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of granule size of 2 biphasic bone substitutes (BoneCeramic® 400–700 μm and 500–1000 μm) on the induction of multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs) and implant bed vascularization in a subcutaneous implantation model in rats. Furthermore, degradation mechanisms and particle phagocytosis of both materials were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Both granule types induced tissue reactions involving primarily mononuclear cells and only small numbers of MNGCs. Higher numbers of MNGCs were detected in the group with small granules starting on day 30, while higher vascularization was observed only at day 10 in this group. TEM analysis revealed that both mono- and multinucleated cells were involved in the phagocytosis of the materials. Additionally, the results allowed recognition of the MNGCs as the foreign body giant cell phenotype. Histomorphometrical analysis of the size of phagocytosed particles showed no differences between the 2 granule types. The results indicate that granule size seems to have impact on early implant bed vascularization and also on the induction of MNGCs in the late phase of the tissue reaction. Furthermore, the results revealed that a synthetic bone substitute material can induce tissue reactions similar to those of some xenogeneic materials, thus pointing to a need to elucidate their “ideal” physical characteristics. The results also show that granule size in the range studied did not alter phagocytosis by mononuclear cells. Finally, the investigation substantiates the differentiation of material-induced MNGCs, which are of the foreign body giant cell type. PMID:26083163

  17. Adult and offspring size in the ocean over 17 orders of magnitude follows two life history strategies.

    PubMed

    Neuheimer, A B; Hartvig, M; Heuschele, J; Hylander, S; Kiørboe, T; Olsson, K H; Sainmont, J; Andersen, K H

    2015-12-01

    Explaining variability in offspring vs. adult size among groups is a necessary step to determine the evolutionary and environmental constraints shaping variability in life history strategies. This is of particular interest for life in the ocean where a diversity of offspring development strategies is observed along with variability in physical and biological forcing factors in space and time. We compiled adult and offspring size for 407 pelagic marine species covering more than 17 orders of magnitude in body mass including Cephalopoda, Cnidaria, Crustaceans, Ctenophora, Elasmobranchii, Mammalia, Sagittoidea, and Teleost. We find marine life following one of two distinct strategies, with offspring size being either proportional to adult size (e.g., Crustaceans, Elasmobranchii, and Mammalia) or invariant with adult size (e.g., Cephalopoda, Cnidaria, Sagittoidea, Teleosts, and possibly Ctenophora). We discuss where these two strategies occur and how these patterns (along with the relative size of the offspring) may be shaped by physical and biological constraints in the organism's environment. This adaptive environment along with the evolutionary history of the different groups shape observed life history strategies and possible group-specific responses to changing environmental conditions (e.g., production and distribution). PMID:26909435

  18. Biointeractions of ultrasmall glutathione-coated gold nanoparticles: effect of small size variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Alioscka A.; Hassan, Sergio A.; Knittel, Luiza L.; Balbo, Andrea; Aronova, Maria A.; Brown, Patrick H.; Schuck, Peter; Leapman, Richard D.

    2016-03-01

    Recent in vivo studies have established ultrasmall (<3 nm) gold nanoparticles coated with glutathione (AuGSH) as a promising platform for applications in nanomedicine. However, systematic in vitro investigations to gain a more fundamental understanding of the particles' biointeractions are still lacking. Herein we examined the behavior of ultrasmall AuGSH in vitro, focusing on their ability to resist aggregation and adsorption from serum proteins. Despite having net negative charge, AuGSH particles were colloidally stable in biological media and able to resist binding from serum proteins, in agreement with the favorable bioresponses reported for AuGSH in vivo. However, our results revealed disparate behaviors depending on nanoparticle size: particles between 2 and 3 nm in core diameter were found to readily aggregate in biological media, whereas those strictly under 2 nm were exceptionally stable. Molecular dynamics simulations provided microscopic insight into interparticle interactions leading to aggregation and their sensitivity to the solution composition and particle size. These results have important implications, in that seemingly small variations in size can impact the biointeractions of ultrasmall AuGSH, and potentially of other ultrasmall nanoparticles as well.Recent in vivo studies have established ultrasmall (<3 nm) gold nanoparticles coated with glutathione (AuGSH) as a promising platform for applications in nanomedicine. However, systematic in vitro investigations to gain a more fundamental understanding of the particles' biointeractions are still lacking. Herein we examined the behavior of ultrasmall AuGSH in vitro, focusing on their ability to resist aggregation and adsorption from serum proteins. Despite having net negative charge, AuGSH particles were colloidally stable in biological media and able to resist binding from serum proteins, in agreement with the favorable bioresponses reported for AuGSH in vivo. However, our results revealed disparate

  19. Body size dissatisfaction among young adults from the 1982 Pelotas birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Mintem, G C; Horta, B L; Domingues, M R; Gigante, D P

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To identify the prevalence and factors associated with body dissatisfaction. Subjects/Methods: Birth cohort study investigating 4100 subjects (2187 men and 1913 women) aged between 22 and 23 years who answered questionnaires, including the body satisfaction Stunkard Scale were included in the study; they were weighed and measured. Multinomial logistic regression was used in the crude and adjusted analyses. Results: The prevalence of body dissatisfaction was 64% (95% CI, 62.7–65.6); 42% (95% CI, 40.6–43.6) of the subjects reported feeling larger than the desired body size, and 22% (95% CI, 20.7–23.3) reported feeling smaller than desired. Underweight subjects, subjects with less schooling, poor and sedentary male subjects with low psychological well-being and female subjects who were already mothers were more likely to express body dissatisfaction, perceiving their body as smaller than the desirable body size. The prevalence of body dissatisfaction was also high among overweight subjects, subjects with a high socioeconomic status and married female subjects, who perceived their body size as too large. Minor psychiatric disorders were associated with body dissatisfaction in all subjects, regardless of perceiving themselves as larger or smaller than the desired body size. Most women perceived themselves as larger, but similar proportions of men perceived themselves as too small or too large. Conclusions: Body dissatisfaction was observed among men and women with normal weight, but it was more evident in the obese individuals. Regardless of the nutritional status, both men and women should be appropriately counseled because body size perception can lead to unhealthy behaviors in relation to diet and physical activity. PMID:25074390

  20. Small body size and extreme cortical bone remodeling indicate phyletic dwarfism in Magyarosaurus dacus (Sauropoda: Titanosauria)

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Koen; Csiki, Zoltan; Rogers, Kristina Curry; Weishampel, David B.; Redelstorff, Ragna; Carballido, Jose L.; Sander, P. Martin

    2010-01-01

    Sauropods were the largest terrestrial tetrapods (>105 kg) in Earth's history and grew at rates that rival those of extant mammals. Magyarosaurus dacus, a titanosaurian sauropod from the Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) of Romania, is known exclusively from small individuals (<103 kg) and conflicts with the idea that all sauropods were massive. The diminutive M. dacus was a classical example of island dwarfism (phyletic nanism) in dinosaurs, but a recent study suggested that the small Romanian titanosaurs actually represent juveniles of a larger-bodied taxon. Here we present strong histological evidence that M. dacus was indeed a dwarf (phyletic nanoid). Bone histological analysis of an ontogenetic series of Magyarosaurus limb bones indicates that even the smallest Magyarosaurus specimens exhibit a bone microstructure identical to fully mature or old individuals of other sauropod taxa. Comparison of histologies with large-bodied sauropods suggests that Magyarosaurus had an extremely reduced growth rate, but had retained high basal metabolic rates typical for sauropods. The uniquely decreased growth rate and diminutive body size in Magyarosaurus were adaptations to life on a Cretaceous island and show that sauropod dinosaurs were not exempt from general ecological principles limiting body size. PMID:20435913

  1. Detection of Clostridium difficile in small and medium-sized wild Mammals in Southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Claire M; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Rousseau, Joyce; Weese, J Scott

    2013-04-01

    We sampled 325 small and medium-sized wild mammals in Ontario, Canada in 2007 and 2010 to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Clostridium difficile in wild mammals living in proximity to captive wildlife and livestock. Clostridium difficile was isolated from five of 109 animals (4.6%) on four of 25 farms (16%), but was not isolated from any of the 216 samples from raccoons (Procyon lotor) living on the grounds of the Toronto Zoo. The positive animals included two raccoons from one beef farm, one raccoon from a different beef farm, one raccoon from a swine farm, and a shrew (Blarina brevicauda) from a dairy farm. None had evidence of gastrointestinal disease. Three of the five isolates were toxinotype variants (II, IV, and XIII) that are rarely identified in humans and domestic animals. The other two were toxinotype 0, a common toxinotype in humans and animals; however, all five isolates were of different ribotypes. None of the recovered ribotypes were recognized as ribotypes present in the authors' reference library of over 3,000 human and domestic animal C. difficile isolates. Neither the public health nor the animal health relevance of these findings is clear. It is not known whether C. difficile is a pathogen of small and medium-sized wild mammals, although the susceptibility of various laboratory species suggests it could cause disease. PMID:23568920

  2. Nuclear design of small-sized high temperature gas-cooled reactor for developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, M.; Seki, Y.; Inaba, Y.; Ohashi, H.; Sato, H.; Fukaya, Y.; Tachibana, Y.

    2012-07-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has started a conceptual design of a small-sized HTGR with 50 MW thermal power (HTR50S), which is a first-of-a-kind commercial or demonstration plant of a small-sized HTGR to be deployed in developing countries such as Kazakhstan in the 2020's. The nuclear design of the HTR50S is performed by upgrading the proven technology of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) to reduce the cost for the construction. In the HTTR design, twelve kinds of fuel enrichment was used to optimize the power distribution, which is required to make the maximum fuel temperature below the thermal limitation during the burn-up period. However, manufacture of many kinds of fuel enrichment causes increase of the construction cost. To solve this problem, the present study challenges the nuclear design by reducing the number of fuel enrichment to as few as possible. The nuclear calculations were performed with SRAC code system whose validity was proven by the HTTR burn-up data. The calculation results suggested that the optimization of the power distribution was reasonably achieved and the maximum fuel temperature was kept below the limitation by using three kinds of fuel enrichment. (authors)

  3. In situ detection of small-size insect pests sampled on traps using multifractal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Chunlei; Lee, Jang-Myung; Li, Yan; Chung, Bu-Keun; Chon, Tae-Soo

    2012-02-01

    We introduce a multifractal analysis for detecting the small-size pest (e.g., whitefly) images from a sticky trap in situ. An automatic attraction system is utilized for collecting pests from greenhouse plants. We applied multifractal analysis to segment action of whitefly images based on the local singularity and global image characteristics. According to the theory of multifractal dimension, the candidate blobs of whiteflies are initially defined from the sticky-trap image. Two schemes, fixed thresholding and regional minima obtainment, were utilized for feature extraction of candidate whitefly image areas. The experiment was conducted with the field images in a greenhouse. Detection results were compared with other adaptive segmentation algorithms. Values of F measuring precision and recall score were higher for the proposed multifractal analysis (96.5%) compared with conventional methods such as Watershed (92.2%) and Otsu (73.1%). The true positive rate of multifractal analysis was 94.3% and the false positive rate minimal level at 1.3%. Detection performance was further tested via human observation. The degree of scattering between manual and automatic counting was remarkably higher with multifractal analysis (R2=0.992) compared with Watershed (R2=0.895) and Otsu (R2=0.353), ensuring overall detection of the small-size pests is most feasible with multifractal analysis in field conditions.

  4. A small-size pulsed lidar designed for obstacles detection in natural underwater environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xianjiang; Xia, Min; Cheng, Zao; Li, Lei; Chen, Junyao; Du, Peng; Yang, Kecheng

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we designed a pint-sized underwater pulsed lidar system for underwater obstacles detection based on a 532nm Nd-YAG pulsed laser as a source and a Hamamatsu photomultiplier tube (PMT) as a detector. In order to acquire the location of the obstacles, an algorithm was devised to handle the echo signal. Through this algorithm, the background noise was suppressed and the accurate range information of the target was obtained. A high-capacity lithium battery was employed to support this lidar system operating as long as eight hours continuously. To ensure our lidar system working steady in the natural underwater environment, a stable waterproof housing was designed for the system which has good water-tightness at 40m depth underwater. This system is small, compact and hand-held. An experiment was conducted in laboratory which proof that the system can achieve target detection within 25m. At last, this lidar system was tested in natural underwater environment of Fuxian Lake in Yunnan Province. There are lots of organic particles and other impurity particles in Fuxian Lake and the attenuation coefficient of the lake is about 0.67m-1. The results showed that this small-size lidar system was able to catch sight of the target within 20 meters and perform smoothly in the natural underwater environment.

  5. DRME: Count-based differential RNA methylation analysis at small sample size scenario.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lian; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Gao, Fan; Zhang, Yixin; Huang, Yufei; Chen, Runsheng; Meng, Jia

    2016-04-15

    Differential methylation, which concerns difference in the degree of epigenetic regulation via methylation between two conditions, has been formulated as a beta or beta-binomial distribution to address the within-group biological variability in sequencing data. However, a beta or beta-binomial model is usually difficult to infer at small sample size scenario with discrete reads count in sequencing data. On the other hand, as an emerging research field, RNA methylation has drawn more and more attention recently, and the differential analysis of RNA methylation is significantly different from that of DNA methylation due to the impact of transcriptional regulation. We developed DRME to better address the differential RNA methylation problem. The proposed model can effectively describe within-group biological variability at small sample size scenario and handles the impact of transcriptional regulation on RNA methylation. We tested the newly developed DRME algorithm on simulated and 4 MeRIP-Seq case-control studies and compared it with Fisher's exact test. It is in principle widely applicable to several other RNA-related data types as well, including RNA Bisulfite sequencing and PAR-CLIP. The code together with an MeRIP-Seq dataset is available online (https://github.com/lzcyzm/DRME) for evaluation and reproduction of the figures shown in this article. PMID:26851340

  6. An Effective Approach for NRSFM of Small-Size Image Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ya-Ping; Sun, Zhan-Li; Lam, Kin-Man

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, non-rigid structure from motion (NRSFM) has become one of the hottest issues in computer vision due to its wide applications. In practice, the number of available high-quality images may be limited in many cases. Under such a condition, the performances may not be satisfactory when existing NRSFM algorithms are applied directly to estimate the 3D coordinates of a small-size image sequence. In this paper, a sub-sequence-based integrated algorithm is proposed to deal with the NRSFM problem with small sequence sizes. In the proposed method, sub-sequences are first extracted from the original sequence. In order to obtain diversified estimations, multiple weaker estimators are constructed by applying the extracted sub-sequences to a recent NRSFM algorithm with a rotation-invariant kernel (RIK). Compared to other first-order statistics, the trimmed mean is a relatively robust statistic. Considering the fact that the estimations of some weaker estimators may have large errors, the trimmed means of the outputs for all the weaker estimators are computed to determine the final estimated 3D shapes. Compared to some existing methods, the proposed algorithm can achieve a higher estimation accuracy, and has better robustness. Experimental results on several widely used image sequences demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed algorithm. PMID:26161521

  7. Impact of host plant connectivity, crop border and patch size on adult Colorado potato beetle retention.

    PubMed

    Boiteau, Gilles; Vincent, Charles; Leskey, Tracy C; Colpitts, Bruce G; MacKinley, Pamela; Lee, Doo-Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Tagged Colorado potato beetles (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), were released on potato plants, Solanum tuberosum L., and tracked using a portable harmonic radar system to determine the impact of host plant spatial distribution on the tendency of the pest to remain on the colonized host plant or patch. Results confirmed the long residency time on the host plant and showed that close connection of the plant to neighboring plants hastened dispersal between plants. Tracking walking CPB for over 6 h in small potato plots revealed that all types of mixed borders tested (potato/bare ground, potato/timothy and potato/woodland) acted as a strong barrier and retained beetles within the patch. In another experiment in potato patches surrounded by bare ground borders, tracked walking CPB displayed similar behaviour for up to four days. The distribution of turning angles in the CPB walking paths was not uniform and corresponded to beetles following the edge rows of potato patches in response to the crop border barrier or reversing their direction as they reached the end of a row and therefore a border. Patch size had no or little effect on beetle retention in the patch. The relative distribution of counts of tagged beetles detected among small (16 m2), medium (64 m2) and large size (256 m2) patches of potato four days after initial release remained similar to that of numbers released. Even though mixed crop borders were a strong barrier to walking CPB emigrating from potato patches, the departure rate of beetles over time was high. Results suggest that the effect of mixed borders is largely limited to dispersal by walking and does not apply to beetles leaving host patches by flight. The manipulation of crop borders and patch size seem to have limited potential for the management of CPB emigrating from potato fields. PMID:24816717

  8. Place and type of meals consumed by adults in medium sized cities

    PubMed Central

    Carús, Juliana Pires; França, Giovanny V A; Barros, Aluísio J D

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the meals consumed by adults living in a midsize city in the South of Brazil, according to the place and preparation. METHODS A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 2012. The two-stage sampling design used the 2010 census tracts as primary sampling units. Data were collected on the place of meals (at home or out) and on the kind of preparations consumed at home (homemade, snacks, take away food) covering the two days prior to the interview, using a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS The study included 2,927 adults, of which 59.0% were female, 60.0% were below 50 years of age and 58.0% were in work. Data were collected on 11,581 meals consumed on the two days preceding the interview, 25.0% were consumed outside of the home at lunchtime, and 10.0% at dinnertime. Considering home meals, most participants reported eating food prepared at home at both lunch and dinner. The majority of out-of-home meals (64.0% for lunch and 61.0% for dinner) were consumed in the work place, mostly based on food prepared at home. Individuals eating out of home were mostly male, young and highly educated. The occupational categories that ate at restaurants more often were trade workers, businessmen, teachers and graduate professionals. CONCLUSIONS Despite the changes in eating patterns described in Brazil in recent years, residents of medium-sized towns still mostly eat at home, consuming homemade food. PMID:24789639

  9. Small-Scale Drop Size Variability: Impact on Estimation of Cloud Optical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knyazikhin, Y.; Myneni, R. B.; Marshak, A.; Wiscombe, W. J.; Larsen, M. L.; Martonchik, J. V.

    2005-01-01

    Most cloud radiation models and conventional data processing techniques assume that the mean number of drops of a given radius is proportional to volume. The analysis of microphysical data on liquid water drop sizes shows that, for sufficiently small volumes, this proportionality breaks down; the number of cloud drops of a given radius is instead proportional to the volume raised to a drop size-dependent nonunit power. The coefficient of proportionality, a generalized drop concentration, is a function of the drop size. For abundant small drops the power is unity as assumed in the conventional approach. However, for rarer large drops, it falls increasingly below unity. This empirical fact leads to drop clustering, with the larger drops exhibiting a greater degree of clustering. The generalized drop concentration shows the mean number of drops per cluster, while the power characterizes the occurrence frequency of clusters. With a fixed total number of drops in a cloud, a decrease in frequency of clusters is accompanied by a corresponding increase in the generalized concentration. This initiates a competing process missed in the conventional models: an increase in the number of drops per cluster enhances the impact of rarer large drops on cloud radiation while a decrease in the frequency suppresses it. Because of the nonlinear relationship between the number of clustered drops and the volume, these two opposite tendencies do not necessarily compensate each other. The data analysis suggests that clustered drops likely have a stronger radiative impact compared to their unclustered counterpart; ignoring it results in underestimation of the contribution from large drops to cloud horizontal optical path.

  10. Association of smoking with tumor size at diagnosis in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xing; Gorlov, Ivan P; Merriman, Kelly W; Weng, Shih-Feng; Foy, Millennia; Keener, Gwendolyn; Amos, Christopher I; Spitz, Margaret R; Kimmel, Marek; Gorlova, Olga Y

    2011-12-01

    Tumor size at diagnosis (TSD) indirectly reflects tumor growth rate. The relationship between TSD and smoking is poorly understood. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between smoking and TSD. We reviewed 1712 newly diagnosed and previously untreated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients' electronic medical records and collected tumor characteristics. Demographic and epidemiologic characteristics were derived from questionnaires administered during personal interviews. Univariate and multivariate linear regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between TSD and smoking controlling for demographic and clinical factors. We also investigated the relationship between the rs1051730 SNP in an intron of the CHRNA3 gene (the polymorphism most significantly associated with lung cancer risk and smoking behavior) and TSD. We found a strong dose dependent relationship between TSD and smoking. Current smokers had largest and never smokers smallest TSD with former smokers having intermediate TSD. In the multivariate linear regression model, smoking status (never, former, and current), histological type (adenocarcinoma versus SqCC), and gender were significant predictors of TSD. Smoking duration and intensity may explain the gender effect in predicting TSD. We found that the variant allele of rs1051730 in CHRNA3 gene was associated with larger TSD of squamous cell carcinoma. In the multivariate linear regression model, both rs1051730 and smoking were significant predictors for the size of squamous carcinomas. We conclude that smoking is positively associated with lung tumor size at the moment of diagnosis. PMID:21645942

  11. Progression of MRI markers in cerebral small vessel disease: Sample size considerations for clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Zeestraten, Eva; Lambert, Christian; Chis Ster, Irina; Williams, Owen A; Lawrence, Andrew J; Patel, Bhavini; MacKinnon, Andrew D; Barrick, Thomas R; Markus, Hugh S

    2016-01-01

    Detecting treatment efficacy using cognitive change in trials of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) has been challenging, making the use of surrogate markers such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) attractive. We determined the sensitivity of MRI to change in SVD and used this information to calculate sample size estimates for a clinical trial. Data from the prospective SCANS (St George’s Cognition and Neuroimaging in Stroke) study of patients with symptomatic lacunar stroke and confluent leukoaraiosis was used (n = 121). Ninety-nine subjects returned at one or more time points. Multimodal MRI and neuropsychologic testing was performed annually over 3 years. We evaluated the change in brain volume, T2 white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume, lacunes, and white matter damage on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Over 3 years, change was detectable in all MRI markers but not in cognitive measures. WMH volume and DTI parameters were most sensitive to change and therefore had the smallest sample size estimates. MRI markers, particularly WMH volume and DTI parameters, are more sensitive to SVD progression over short time periods than cognition. These markers could significantly reduce the size of trials to screen treatments for efficacy in SVD, although further validation from longitudinal and intervention studies is required. PMID:26036939

  12. It's tough to be small: dependence of burrowing kinematics on body size.

    PubMed

    Che, James; Dorgan, Kelly M

    2010-04-01

    Burrowing marine infauna are morphologically diverse and range in size over several orders of magnitude. Whilst effects of ontogenetic and morphological differences on running, flying and swimming are relatively well understood, similar analyses of burrowing mechanics and kinematics are lacking. The polychaete Nereis virens Sars extends its burrow by fracture, using an eversible pharynx to exert force on the walls of the burrow. The resulting stress is amplified at the anterior tip of the burrow, which extends when the stress exceeds the fracture toughness of the material. Here we show that the polychaete Cirriformia moorei extends its burrow by a similar mechanism, but by using its hydrostatic skeleton rather than an eversible pharynx. Based on the dimensionless wedge number, which relates work of fracture to work to maintain body shape against the elasticity of sediment, we predicted that smaller worms would exhibit behaviors characteristic of tougher sediments and that scaling of kinematics would reflect decreasing difficulty in fracturing sediment with increasing body size. We found that smaller worms were relatively blunter and thicker, and had a greater variation of thickness than larger worms as they burrowed. Although these kinematic differences increase the stress amplification at the crack tip, smaller worms still generate lower stress intensity factors. The greater relative body thickness and shape changes of smaller worms are consistent with ontogenetic changes in forces exerted by earthworms, and are likely driven by the challenge of exerting enough stress to extend a crack with a small body size. PMID:20348335

  13. Biointeractions of ultrasmall glutathione-coated gold nanoparticles: effect of small size variations.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Alioscka A; Hassan, Sergio A; Knittel, Luiza L; Balbo, Andrea; Aronova, Maria A; Brown, Patrick H; Schuck, Peter; Leapman, Richard D

    2016-03-28

    Recent in vivo studies have established ultrasmall (<3 nm) gold nanoparticles coated with glutathione (AuGSH) as a promising platform for applications in nanomedicine. However, systematic in vitro investigations to gain a more fundamental understanding of the particles' biointeractions are still lacking. Herein we examined the behavior of ultrasmall AuGSH in vitro, focusing on their ability to resist aggregation and adsorption from serum proteins. Despite having net negative charge, AuGSH particles were colloidally stable in biological media and able to resist binding from serum proteins, in agreement with the favorable bioresponses reported for AuGSH in vivo. However, our results revealed disparate behaviors depending on nanoparticle size: particles between 2 and 3 nm in core diameter were found to readily aggregate in biological media, whereas those strictly under 2 nm were exceptionally stable. Molecular dynamics simulations provided microscopic insight into interparticle interactions leading to aggregation and their sensitivity to the solution composition and particle size. These results have important implications, in that seemingly small variations in size can impact the biointeractions of ultrasmall AuGSH, and potentially of other ultrasmall nanoparticles as well. PMID:26934984

  14. The molecular nature of very small embryonic-like stem cells in adult tissues.

    PubMed

    Kim, YongHwan; Jeong, Jaeho; Kang, Hyunsook; Lim, Jisun; Heo, Jinbeom; Ratajczak, Janina; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z; Shin, Dong-Myung

    2014-11-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have been considered as the most important cells in regenerative medicine as they are able to differentiate into all types of cells in the human body. PSCs have been established from several sources of embryo tissue or by reprogramming of terminally differentiated adult tissue by transduction of so-called Yamanaka factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and cMyc). Interestingly, accumulating evidence has demonstrated the residence of PSCs in adult tissue and with the ability to differentiate into multiple types of tissue-committed stem cells (TCSCs). We also recently demonstrated that a population of pluripotent Oct4(+) SSEA-1(+)Sca-1(+)Lin(-)CD45(-) very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) resides in the adult murine bone marrow (BM) and in other murine tissue. These very small (∼3-6 μm) cells express pluripotent markers such as Oct4, Nanog, and SSEA-1. VSELs could be specified into several tissue-residing TCSCs in response to tissue/organ injury, and thus suggesting that these cells have a physiological role in the rejuvenation of a pool of TCSCs under steady-state conditions. In this review article, we discuss the molecular nature of the rare population of VSELs which have a crucial role in regulating the pluripotency, proliferation, differentiation, and aging of these cells. PMID:25473442

  15. The Molecular Nature of Very Small Embryonic-Like Stem Cells in Adult Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Kim, YongHwan; Jeong, Jaeho; Kang, Hyunsook; Lim, Jisun; Heo, Jinbeom; Ratajczak, Janina; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z.; Shin, Dong-Myung

    2014-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have been considered as the most important cells in regenerative medicine as they are able to differentiate into all types of cells in the human body. PSCs have been established from several sources of embryo tissue or by reprogramming of terminally differentiated adult tissue by transduction of so-called Yamanaka factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and cMyc). Interestingly, accumulating evidence has demonstrated the residence of PSCs in adult tissue and with the ability to differentiate into multiple types of tissue-committed stem cells (TCSCs). We also recently demonstrated that a population of pluripotent Oct4+ SSEA-1+Sca-1+Lin−CD45− very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) resides in the adult murine bone marrow (BM) and in other murine tissue. These very small (∼3–6 μm) cells express pluripotent markers such as Oct4, Nanog, and SSEA-1. VSELs could be specified into several tissue-residing TCSCs in response to tissue/organ injury, and thus suggesting that these cells have a physiological role in the rejuvenation of a pool of TCSCs under steady-state conditions. In this review article, we discuss the molecular nature of the rare population of VSELs which have a crucial role in regulating the pluripotency, proliferation, differentiation, and aging of these cells. PMID:25473442

  16. Only a small population of adult Sertoli cells actively proliferates in culture.

    PubMed

    Kulibin, Andrey Yu; Malolina, Ekaterina A

    2016-10-01

    Adult mammalian Sertoli cells (SCs) have been considered to be quiescent terminal differentiated cells for many years, but recently, proliferation of adult SCs was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo We further examined mouse SC behavior in culture and found that there are two populations of adult SCs. The first population is SCs from seminiferous tubules that hardly proliferate in vitro The second population is small and consists of SCs with atypical nuclear morphology from the terminal segments of seminiferous tubules, a transitional zone (TZ). TZ SCs multiply in culture and form colonies, display mixture of mature and immature SC characteristics, and generate cord-like structures in a collagen matrix. The specific features of TZ SCs are ACTA2 expression in vitro and DMRT1 low levels in vivo and in vitro Although the in vivo function of TZ SCs still remains unclear, this finding has significant implications for our understanding of SC differentiation and functioning in adult mammals. PMID:27512121

  17. Empowering Adult Stem Cells for Myocardial Regeneration V2.0: Success in Small Steps.

    PubMed

    Broughton, Kathleen M; Sussman, Mark A

    2016-03-01

    Much has changed since our survey of the landscape for myocardial regeneration powered by adult stem cells 4 years ago.(1) The intervening years since that first review has witnessed an explosive expansion of studies that advance both understanding and implementation of adult stem cells in promoting myocardial repair. Painstaking research from innumerable laboratories throughout the world is prying open doors that may lead to restoration of myocardial structure and function in the wake of pathological injury. This global effort has produced deeper mechanistic comprehension coupled with an evolving appreciation for the complexity of myocardial regeneration in the adult context. Undaunted by both known and (as yet) unknown challenges, pursuit of myocardial regenerative medicine mediated by adult stem cell therapy has gathered momentum fueled by tantalizing clues and visionary goals. This concise review takes a somewhat different perspective than our initial treatise, taking stock of the business sector that has become an integral part of the field while concurrently updating state of affairs in cutting edge research. Looking retrospectively at advancement over the years as all reviews eventually must, the fundamental lesson to be learned is best explained by Jonatan Mårtensson: "Success will never be a big step in the future. Success is a small step taken just now." PMID:26941423

  18. Mobile elements reveal small population size in the ancient ancestors of Homo sapiens

    PubMed Central

    Huff, Chad D.; Xing, Jinchuan; Rogers, Alan R.; Witherspoon, David; Jorde, Lynn B.

    2010-01-01

    The genealogies of different genetic loci vary in depth. The deeper the genealogy, the greater the chance that it will include a rare event, such as the insertion of a mobile element. Therefore, the genealogy of a region that contains a mobile element is on average older than that of the rest of the genome. In a simple demographic model, the expected time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) is doubled if a rare insertion is present. We test this expectation by examining single nucleotide polymorphisms around polymorphic Alu insertions from two completely sequenced human genomes. The estimated TMRCA for regions containing a polymorphic insertion is two times larger than the genomic average (P < <10−30), as predicted. Because genealogies that contain polymorphic mobile elements are old, they are shaped largely by the forces of ancient population history and are insensitive to recent demographic events, such as bottlenecks and expansions. Remarkably, the information in just two human DNA sequences provides substantial information about ancient human population size. By comparing the likelihood of various demographic models, we estimate that the effective population size of human ancestors living before 1.2 million years ago was 18,500, and we can reject all models where the ancient effective population size was larger than 26,000. This result implies an unusually small population for a species spread across the entire Old World, particularly in light of the effective population sizes of chimpanzees (21,000) and gorillas (25,000), which each inhabit only one part of a single continent. PMID:20133859

  19. Correlation Between Aneurysm Size and Hemodynamics in One Individual with Multiple Small Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Britz, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Objective A large number of cases are needed in the patient-specific modeling of intracranial aneurysms to establish the statistical significance due to individual variation of risk factors that are difficult to account for. However, these risk factors are critical in hemorrhage risk as demonstrated in large clinical studies. Rupture risks for aneurysms in an individual are easier to compare because these aneurysms are under the same physiological environment, and their only differences are the local hemodynamic factors associated with their anatomic locations. Methods Eight small aneurysms (< 7 mm) from one individual were analyzed using patient-specific hemodynamic modeling. Four scenarios with different perfusion assumptions were performed to account for the flow rate at two smaller communicating arteries. Wall shear stresses (WSS) at these aneurysms were compared to determine their relationship with the aneurysm size. Results Each of the three largest aneurysms is either the most proximal or distal aneurysm in a given artery so that blood pressure does not have a direct influence on aneurysm size. No wall shear stress-derived hemodynamic variables are found to be related to aneurysm size. Discussion A study of multiple aneurysms from one individual offers a unique opportunity to examine various hemodynamic factors without selection biases. Aneurysms greater than 4 mm (Group 1) have a higher product of maximum WSS and area of low WSS; aneurysms smaller than 4 mm (Group 2) have a lower product of maximum WSS and area of low WSS. In addition, aneurysm size is linearly correlated with the flow rate at the parent artery in each group. PMID:27555981

  20. Correlation Between Aneurysm Size and Hemodynamics in One Individual with Multiple Small Intracranial Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Jou, Liangder; Britz, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Objective A large number of cases are needed in the patient-specific modeling of intracranial aneurysms to establish the statistical significance due to individual variation of risk factors that are difficult to account for. However, these risk factors are critical in hemorrhage risk as demonstrated in large clinical studies. Rupture risks for aneurysms in an individual are easier to compare because these aneurysms are under the same physiological environment, and their only differences are the local hemodynamic factors associated with their anatomic locations. Methods Eight small aneurysms (< 7 mm) from one individual were analyzed using patient-specific hemodynamic modeling. Four scenarios with different perfusion assumptions were performed to account for the flow rate at two smaller communicating arteries. Wall shear stresses (WSS) at these aneurysms were compared to determine their relationship with the aneurysm size. Results Each of the three largest aneurysms is either the most proximal or distal aneurysm in a given artery so that blood pressure does not have a direct influence on aneurysm size. No wall shear stress-derived hemodynamic variables are found to be related to aneurysm size. Discussion A study of multiple aneurysms from one individual offers a unique opportunity to examine various hemodynamic factors without selection biases. Aneurysms greater than 4 mm (Group 1) have a higher product of maximum WSS and area of low WSS; aneurysms smaller than 4 mm (Group 2) have a lower product of maximum WSS and area of low WSS. In addition, aneurysm size is linearly correlated with the flow rate at the parent artery in each group. PMID:27555981

  1. Effect of energetic cost to maintain the trap for Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae) in its development and adult size.

    PubMed

    Lima, T N; Silva, D C R

    2016-07-25

    Antlion larvae Myrmeleon brasiliensis Návas, 1914 (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae) are sit-and-wait predators who build traps to catch their prey. The aim of this study was to observe under laboratory conditions, how the energy cost spent on maintenance of their traps affects: the larval developmental time, time spent as a pupa, mortality rate of larvae and adult size. M. brasiliensis larvae were collected in the municipality of Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil and were individually maintained in plastic containers and subjected to two treatments. In the control treatment larvae did not have their traps disturbed while in the manipulated treatment, larvae had their traps disturbed three times a week. The experiments were followed until adult emergence. When the adults emerged, their body size (head-abdomen), anterior and posterior wing span and width were measured. Furthermore, the number of larvae that died during the experiment was recorded. The results showed that the larvae whose traps were manipulated had longer larval development time, smaller pupal development time and were smaller adults. It can be concluded that the energy expenditure spent on maintenance of the trap constructed by M. brasiliensis larvae can affect the development of negative ways, represented by a longer larval development and reduced adult size. PMID:27463831

  2. Geographical variations in adult body size and reproductive life history traits in an invasive anuran, Discoglossus pictus.

    PubMed

    Oromi, Neus; Pujol-Buxó, Eudald; San Sebastián, Olatz; Llorente, Gustavo A; Hammou, Mohamed Aït; Sanuy, Delfi

    2016-06-01

    Variability in life history traits positively affects the establishment and expansive potential of invasive species. In the present study, we analysed the variation of body size in seven populations - two native and five invasive - of the painted frog (Discoglossus pictus, Anura: Discoglossidae), native to North Africa and introduced in southern France and the north-east of the Iberian Peninsula. Other life history traits (age at maturity, size at maturity, longevity, median age and potential reproductive lifespan) were analysed in a native and an invasive population. We observed geographic variations in adult body size, related mainly to mean annual precipitation. Thus, populations had greater body size as mean annual precipitation increased, resulting in bigger specimens in the invasive populations. Adult body size and growth rates also varied between sexes in all studied populations, with males significantly larger than females. Age distribution varied between native (1-5 years) and invasive populations (2-4 years) and also between sexes. Our results suggest that higher precipitation promotes faster growth rates and larger adult body size that could facilitate the successful establishment of invasive populations. PMID:26995099

  3. Flexible and elastic metamaterial absorber for low frequency, based on small-size unit cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Y. J.; Zheng, H. Y.; Kim, Y. J.; Rhee, J. Y.; Kang, J.-H.; Kim, K. W.; Cheong, H.; Kim, Y. H.; Lee, Y. P.

    2014-07-01

    Using a planar and flexible metamaterial (MM), we obtained the low-frequency perfect absorption even with very small unit-cell size in snake-shape structure. These shrunken, deep-sub-wavelength and thin MM absorbers were numerically and experimentally investigated by increasing the inductance. The periodicity/thickness (the figure of merit for perfect absorption) is achieved to be 10 and 2 for single-snake-bar and 5-snake-bar structures, respectively. The ratio between periodicity and resonance wavelength (in mm) is close to 1/12 and 1/30 at 2 GHz and 400 MHz, respectively. The absorbers are specially designed for absorption peaks around 2 GHz and 400 MHz, which can be used for depressing the electromagnetic noise from everyday electronic devices and mobile phones.

  4. Using the IAT to predict ethnic and racial discrimination: small effect sizes of unknown societal significance.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Frederick L; Mitchell, Gregory; Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James; Tetlock, Philip E

    2015-04-01

    Greenwald, Banaji, and Nosek (2015) present a reanalysis of the meta-analysis by Oswald, Mitchell, Blanton, Jaccard, and Tetlock (2013) that examined the effect sizes of Implicit Association Tests (IATs) designed to predict racial and ethnic discrimination. We discuss points of agreement and disagreement with respect to methods used to synthesize the IAT studies, and we correct an error by Greenwald et al. that obscures a key contribution of our meta-analysis. In the end, all of the meta-analyses converge on the conclusion that, across diverse methods of coding and analyzing the data, IAT scores are not good predictors of ethnic or racial discrimination, and explain, at most, small fractions of the variance in discriminatory behavior in controlled laboratory settings. The thought experiments presented by Greenwald et al. go well beyond the lab to claim systematic IAT effects in noisy real-world settings, but these hypothetical exercises depend crucially on untested and, arguably, untenable assumptions. PMID:25844574

  5. Propagation of small size magnetic holes in the magnetospheric plasma sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, S. T.; Shi, Q. Q.; Li, Z. Y.; Wang, X. G.; Tian, A. M.; Sun, W. J.; Hamrin, M.; Wang, M. M.; Pitkänen, T.; Bai, S. C.; Shen, X. C.; Ji, X. F.; Pokhotelov, D.; Yao, Z. H.; Xiao, T.; Pu, Z. Y.; Fu, S. Y.; Zong, Q. G.; De Spiegeleer, A.; Liu, W.; Zhang, H.; Rème, H.

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic holes (MHs), characteristic structures where the magnetic field magnitude decreases significantly, have been frequently observed in space plasmas. Particularly, small size magnetic holes (SSMHs) which the scale is less than or close to the proton gyroradius are recently detected in the magnetospheric plasma sheet. In this study of Cluster observations, by the timing method, the minimum directional difference (MDD) method, and the spatiotemporal difference (STD) method, we obtain the propagation velocity of SSMHs in the plasma flow frame. Furthermore, based on electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) theory we calculate the velocity, width, and depth of the electron solitary wave and compare it to SSMH observations. The result shows a good accord between the theory and the observation.

  6. Designing a Small-Sized Engineering Model of Solar EUV Telescopr for a Korean Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jung-Hoon; Jang, Min-Hwan; Kim, Sang-Joon

    2001-11-01

    For the research of solar EUV (extreme ultraviolet) radiation, we have designed a small-sized engineering model of solar EUV telescope, which is suitable for a Korean satellite. The EUV solar telescope was designed to observe the sun at 584.3Å (He¥°) and 629.7Å (O¥´). The optical system is an f/8 Ritchey-Chrètien, and the effective diameter and focal length are 80§® and 640§®, respectively. The He¥°and O¥´ filters are loaded in a filter wheel. In the detection part, the MCP (MicroChannel Plate) type is Z-stack, and the channel-to-diameter ratio is 40:1. MCP and CCD are connected by fiber optic taper. A commercial optical design software is used for the analysis of the optical system design.

  7. IT Governance Practices in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Recommendations from an Empirical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rui; Zmud, Robert W.; Price, R. Leon

    Much has been learned through IT governance research about the nature of IT-related decisions, the location of decision rights for these decisions, and governance mechanisms applied to facilitate associated decision processes in large organisations. Our knowledge about IT governance structures in small and medium-sized enterprises (SME), on the other hand, is quite limited. Adopting a qualitative and inductive approach, this study examines the nature and influence of IT governance in SMEs through interviews with executives from three SMEs. Our results demonstrate that IT decision authority was centralized in all three SMEs but that senior management involvement in governance procedures and communication practices about governance policies were observed to explain differences in these organisations’ IT use. We propose recommendations based on the findings of this study.

  8. Estimation of Fracture Toughness of Small-Sized Ultrafine-Grained Specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deryugin, E. E.; Suvorov, B. I.

    2015-10-01

    The results obtained from measurements of the crack resistance of a VT6 alloy (Ti-6.46Al-3.84V in wt.%) produced by refining coarse-crystalline structure down to an ultrafine-grained state, using a triaxial forging technique, are presented. The specific fracture energy γc is calculated by means of a new procedure developed for small-sized chevron-notched specimens. Severe plastic deformation is shown to cause a substantial reduction in γc at room temperature. Fracture surface structure found in the ultrafine-grained alloy under study contains local zones of a severely deformed material characterized by high pore concentration. This type of structure cannot be formed solely by crystallographic shearing along densely packed lattice planes. This is evidence for a significant role of rotation deformation modes in crack nucleation and growth on different structural scales of the material.

  9. Flexible and elastic metamaterial absorber for low frequency, based on small-size unit cell

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Y. J.; Zheng, H. Y.; Kim, Y. J.; Lee, Y. P.; Rhee, J. Y.; Kang, J.-H.; Kim, K. W.; Cheong, H.; Kim, Y. H.

    2014-07-28

    Using a planar and flexible metamaterial (MM), we obtained the low-frequency perfect absorption even with very small unit-cell size in snake-shape structure. These shrunken, deep-sub-wavelength and thin MM absorbers were numerically and experimentally investigated by increasing the inductance. The periodicity/thickness (the figure of merit for perfect absorption) is achieved to be 10 and 2 for single-snake-bar and 5-snake-bar structures, respectively. The ratio between periodicity and resonance wavelength (in mm) is close to 1/12 and 1/30 at 2 GHz and 400 MHz, respectively. The absorbers are specially designed for absorption peaks around 2 GHz and 400 MHz, which can be used for depressing the electromagnetic noise from everyday electronic devices and mobile phones.

  10. Benchmarking Density Functionals on Structural Parameters of Small-/Medium-Sized Organic Molecules.

    PubMed

    Brémond, Éric; Savarese, Marika; Su, Neil Qiang; Pérez-Jiménez, Ángel José; Xu, Xin; Sancho-García, Juan Carlos; Adamo, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    In this Letter we report the error analysis of 59 exchange-correlation functionals in evaluating the structural parameters of small- and medium-sized organic molecules. From this analysis, recently developed double hybrids, such as xDH-PBE0, emerge as the most reliable methods, while global hybrids confirm their robustness in reproducing molecular structures. Notably the M06-L density functional is the only semilocal method reaching an accuracy comparable to hybrids'. A comparison with errors obtained on energetic databases (including thermochemistry, reaction barriers, and interaction energies) indicate that most of the functionals have a coherent behavior, showing low (or high) deviations on both energy and structure data sets. Only a few of them are more prone toward one of these two properties. PMID:26730741

  11. Flow management and fish density regulate salmonid recruitment and adult size in tailwaters across western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dibble, Kimberly L.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Budy, Phaedra E.

    2015-01-01

    The mean lengths of adult rainbow and brown trout were influenced by similar flow and catch metrics. Length in both species was positively correlated with high annual flow but declined in tailwaters with high daily fluctuations in flow, high catch rates of conspecifics, and when large cohorts recruited to adult size. Whereas brown trout did not respond to the proportion of water allocated between seasons, rainbow trout length increased in rivers that released more water during winter than in spring. Rainbow trout length was primarily related to high catch rates of conspecifics, whereas brown trout length was mainly related to large cohorts recruiting to the adult size class. Species-specific responses to flow management are likely attributable to differences in seasonal timing of key life history events such as spawning, egg hatching, and fry emergence.

  12. Invited Review Small is beautiful: The analysis of nanogram-sized astromaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Pieters, C.; Clark, B.; Papike, J. J.

    2000-01-01

    The capability of modern methods to characterize ultra-small samples is well established from analysis of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), interstellar grains recovered from meteorites, and other materials requiring ultra-sensitive analytical capabilities. Powerful analytical techniques are available that require, under favorable circumstances, single particles of only a few nanograms for entire suites of fairly comprehensive characterizations. A returned sample of >1,000 particles with total mass of just one microgram permits comprehensive quantitative geochemical measurements that are impractical to carry out in situ by flight instruments. The main goal of this paper is to describe the state-of-the-art in microanalysis of astromaterials. Given that we can analyze fantastically small quantities of asteroids and comets, etc., we have to ask ourselves how representative are microscopic samples of bodies that measure a few to many km across? With the Galileo flybys of Gaspra and Ida, it is now recognized that even very small airless bodies have indeed developed a particulate regolith. Acquiring a sample of the bulk regolith, a simple sampling strategy, provides two critical pieces of information about the body. Regolith samples are excellent bulk samples since they normally contain all the key components of the local environment, albeit in particulate form. Furthermore, since this fine fraction dominates remote measurements, regolith samples also provide information about surface alteration processes and are a key link to remote sensing of other bodies. Studies indicate that a statistically significant number of nanogram-sized particles should be able to characterize the regolith of a primitive asteroid, although the presence of larger components within even primitive meteorites (e.g.. Murchison), e.g. chondrules, CAI, large crystal fragments, etc., points out the limitations of using data obtained from nanogram-sized samples to characterize entire primitive

  13. 6 MV x-ray spectra obtained by small field size attenuation measurements in water and their use in small field size dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cenney W.

    Direct measurement of x-ray spectra produced by medical linear accelerators is not possible because of high intensity and energy of the radiation involved. Knowledge of energy spectra are very useful in determination of parameters that convert from ionization chamber measurements to absorbed dose. Many indirect methods for determination of x-ray spectra in therapy beams have been developed. In the present work photon beams generated by a 6-MV Varian 6000 linear accelerator were used to obtain small field (0.5 x 0.5 to 4.0 x 4.0 cm 2 at 0.5 cm increments per side) attenuation values in water for the depths from 5 to 30 cm, at 5 cm increments. Attenuation values lying between those depths were interpolated using the Newton-Coates method and attenuation data of zero-field was obtained by extrapolation. Based on the measured attenuation curves, the relative air kerma and photon energy x-ray spectra were derived for all investigating fields using a user input parameter program and an iterative procedure. The attenuation curves of the radiation fields were calculated using the reconstructed spectrum. They were compared with the measured attenuation data at each iteration step until a satisfactory fit between the measured and calculated attenuation curves was obtained. In order for derived spectra to be of practical use in radiotherapy treatment planning, they must accurate reproduce measured dose distribution data. From the knowledge of the incident beam attenuation and the incident x-ray energy spectrum for the zero-field, the percentage depth dose of the zero-field was calculated at different points along the Central Axis. The percentage depth doses of larger fields were calculated by applying of the Relative Scatter Factor to the percentage depth dose of the zero-field. The agreement was within 1.11% for all fields, ranging from 0.5 x 0.5 to 4.0 x 4.0 cm2 at 0.5 cm increments per side. Further, the reconstructed spectrum for 4 x 4 cm2 field size was used in Monte

  14. Reducing Size, Weight, and Power (SWaP) of Perception Systems in Small Autonomous Aerial Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kennie H.; Gross, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The objectives are to examine recent trends in the reduction of size, weight, and power (SWaP) requirements of sensor systems for environmental perception and to explore new technology that may overcome limitations in current systems. Improving perception systems to facilitate situation awareness is critical in the move to introduce increasing autonomy in aerial systems. Whether the autonomy is in the current state-of-the-art of increasing automation or is enabling cognitive decisions that facilitate adaptive behavior, collection of environmental information and fusion of that information into knowledge that can direct actuation is imperative to decisions resulting in appropriate behavior. Artificial sensory systems such as cameras, radar, LIDAR, and acoustic sensors have been in use on aircraft for many years but, due to the large size and weight of the airplane and electrical power made available through powerful engines, the SWaP requirements of these sensors was inconsequential. With the proliferation of Remote Piloted Vehicles (RPV), the trend is in significant reduction in SWaP of the vehicles. This requires at least an equivalent reduction in SWaP for the sensory systems. A survey of some currently available sensor systems and changing technology will reveal the trend toward reduction of SWaP of these systems and will predict future reductions. A new technology will be introduced that provides an example of a desirable new trend. A new device replaces multiple conventional sensory devices facilitating synchronization, localization, altimetry, collision avoidance, terrain mapping, and data communication in a single integrated, small form-factor, extremely lightweight, and low power device that it is practical for integration into small autonomous vehicles and can facilitate cooperative behavior. The technology is based on Ultra WideBand (UWB) radio using short pulses of energy rather than continuous sine waves. The characteristics of UWB yield several

  15. Survey of food safety practices on small to medium-sized farms and in farmers markets.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Judy A; Gaskin, Julia W; Harrison, Mark A; Cannon, Jennifer L; Boyer, Renee R; Zehnder, Geoffrey W

    2013-11-01

    As produce consumption has increased, so have foodborne disease outbreaks associated with fresh produce. Little research has addressed food safety practices used on small to medium-sized farms selling locally or in farmers markets. This study evaluated current food safety practices used by farmers on small to medium-sized farms and managers of farmers markets in Georgia, Virginia, and South Carolina based on responses to surveys. Surveys were developed, pretested, and revised before implementation with target audiences and were implemented via mail and the Web to maximize participation, with reminders sent to nonrespondents. Data were collected from 226 farmers and 45 market managers. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for all response variables. Responses from farmers indicated that more than 56% of them use manures. Of those who use manures, 34% use raw or mixtures of raw and composted manure, and over 26% wait fewer than 90 days between application of raw manure and harvest. Over 27% use water sources that have not been tested for safety for irrigation, and 16% use such water sources for washing produce. Over 43% do not sanitize surfaces that touch produce at the farm. Only 33% of farmers always clean transport containers between uses. Responses from market managers indicated that over 42% have no food safety standards in place for the market. Only 2 to 11% ask farmers specific questions about conditions on the farm that could affect product safety. Less than 25% of managers sanitize market surfaces. Only 11% always clean market containers between uses. Over 75% of markets offer no sanitation training to workers or vendors. While farmers and market managers are using many good practices, the results indicate that some practices being used may put consumers at risk of foodborne illness. Consequently, there is a need for training for both farmers and market managers. PMID:24215708

  16. Fish population size and movement patterns in a small intermittently open South African estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukey, J. R.; Booth, A. J.; Froneman, P. W.

    2006-03-01

    The population size and movement patterns of small fish (>50 mm SL) in a small intermittently open estuary (Grant's Valley estuary: 33°40'12.1″S, 26°42'12.6″E) situated on the south-east Cape coast of South Africa were examined during the closed phase over the period May and August 2004. The estuary was subdivided into four discrete areas and the fish within each area sampled using a 30 m seine net (15 mm mesh). Fish captured were marked by fin clipping according to the area of capture. Fish population size was estimated by using three methods: the Schnabel estimator, the Hilborn estimator, and a derived estimator. A total of 12 species was captured and marked during the study. The total number of fish in the estuary was estimated at ca. 12 000 individuals (11 219-13 311). Marine-breeding species ( Rhabdosargus holubi, Monodactylus falciformis, and two mullet species) numerically dominated the ichthyofauna, possibly as a result of their effective use of overtopping events, when seawater washes over the sandbar, to enter the estuary during the closed mouth phase. The two mullet species, Myxus capensis and Liza richardsonii, and the Cape stumpnose, R. holubi moved extensively throughout the estuary, while the remaining species exhibited restricted movement patterns possibly due to the preference for refuge and foraging areas associated with reed beds. The observed movement patterns of individual fish species appeared to be associated with both foraging behaviour and habitat selection.

  17. Development of efficient, small particle size luminescent oxides using combustion synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, Lauren Elizabeth

    Luminescent materials (phosphors) find application in cathode-ray tubes (CRTs), medical and industrial equipment monitors, fluorescent lamps, xerography, and many types of flat panel displays. Many commercially available phosphors were optimized in the 1960s for high voltage (>10 kV) CRT applications. Recently, a great deal of emphasis has been placed on the development and improvement of phosphors for flat panel displays that operate at low voltages (<5 kV). In addition to high efficiency at low voltages, these displays demand high resolution phosphor screens which can only be realized using phosphors with smaller particle size (<3 mum). Conventional methods of preparing phosphors (e.g., high temperature solid-state reaction) cannot easily produce a homogeneous product with uniform, small particle size. In this work, a novel ceramic synthesis technique, combustion synthesis, was used for the first time to produce submicron-sized oxide phosphors more efficiently for use in flat panel displays. This technique exploits the exothermic redox reaction of metal nitrates (oxidizers) with an organic fuel (reducing agent). Typical fuels include urea (CHsb4Nsb2O), carbohydrazide (CHsb6Nsb4O), or glycine (Csb2Hsb5NOsb2). Resulting powders were well-crystallized, with a large surface area and small particle size. Phosphor powders were exposed to photoluminescence excitation by high energy (254 nm, E = 4.88 eV) and low energy photons (365 nm, E = 3.4 eV and 435 nm, E = 2.85 eV) and cathodoluminescence excitation by a low-voltage (100-1000 V) electron beam. Photoluminescence (PL) techniques resulted in the measurement of spectral energy distribution and relative intensities. Phosphor efficiencies in lumens per watt (lm/W) were obtained by low-voltage cathodoluminescence measurements. The effects of processing parameters such as type of fuel, fuel to oxidizer ratio, and heating rate were studied. The combustion process was optimized based on these processing parameters in order

  18. Volatile organic compounds in small- and medium-sized commercial buildings in California.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiangmei May; Apte, Michael G; Maddalena, Randy; Bennett, Deborah H

    2011-10-15

    While small- and medium-sized commercial buildings (SMCBs) make up 96% of the commercial buildings in the U.S., serving a large variety of uses, little information is available on indoor air quality (IAQ) in SMCBs. This study investigated 37 SMCBs distributed across different sizes, ages, uses, and regions of California. We report indoor concentrations and whole building emission rates of a suite of 30 VOCs and aldehydes in these buildings. There was a considerable range in the concentrations for each of the contaminants, especially for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, decamethylcyclopentasiloxane, d-limonene, 2-butoxyethanol, toluene, 2,2,4-trimethylpentanediol diisobutyrate, and diethylphthalate. The cause of higher concentrations in some building categories generally corresponded to expected sources, for example, chloroform was higher in restaurants and grocery stores, and formaldehyde was higher in retail stores and offices. Factor analysis suggests sources in SMCBs include automobile/traffic, cleaning products, occupant sources, wood products/coating, and plasticizers. The comparison to health guidelines showed that formaldehyde concentrations were above the chronic RELs required by the OEHHA (9 μg/m³) in 86% of the buildings. Data collected in this study begins to fill the knowledge gap for IAQ in SMCBs and helps us understand the indoor sources of VOCs to further improve indoor air quality in SMCBs. PMID:21888354

  19. Non-contact method for characterization of small size thermoelectric modules.

    PubMed

    Manno, Michael; Yang, Bao; Bar-Cohen, Avram

    2015-08-01

    Conventional techniques for characterization of thermoelectric performance require bringing measurement equipment into direct contact with the thermoelectric device, which is increasingly error prone as device size decreases. Therefore, the novel work presented here describes a non-contact technique, capable of accurately measuring the maximum ΔT and maximum heat pumping of mini to micro sized thin film thermoelectric coolers. The non-contact characterization method eliminates the measurement errors associated with using thermocouples and traditional heat flux sensors to test small samples and large heat fluxes. Using the non-contact approach, an infrared camera, rather than thermocouples, measures the temperature of the hot and cold sides of the device to determine the device ΔT and a laser is used to heat to the cold side of the thermoelectric module to characterize its heat pumping capacity. As a demonstration of the general applicability of the non-contact characterization technique, testing of a thin film thermoelectric module is presented and the results agree well with those published in the literature. PMID:26329215

  20. Evaluating shock absorption behavior of small-sized systems under programmable electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagtap, Piyush; Kumar, Praveen

    2014-11-01

    A simple ball-drop impact tester is developed for studying the dynamic response of hierarchical, complex, small-sized systems and materials. The developed algorithm and set-up have provisions for applying programmable potential difference along the height of a test specimen during an impact loading; this enables us to conduct experiments on various materials and smart structures whose mechanical behavior is sensitive to electric field. The software-hardware system allows not only acquisition of dynamic force-time data at very fast sampling rate (up to 2 × 106 samples/s), but also application of a pre-set potential difference (up to ±10 V) across a test specimen for a duration determined by feedback from the force-time data. We illustrate the functioning of the set-up by studying the effect of electric field on the energy absorption capability of carbon nanotube foams of 5 × 5 × 1.2 mm3 size under impact conditions.

  1. Nonlinear Effects of Nanoparticles: Biological Variability From Hormetic Doses, Small Particle Sizes, and Dynamic Adaptive Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Iris R.; Ives, John A.; Jonas, Wayne B.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly focused on the nanoscale level of organization where biological processes take place in living systems. Nanoparticles (NPs, e.g., 1–100 nm diameter) are small forms of natural or manufactured source material whose properties differ markedly from those of the respective bulk forms of the “same” material. Certain NPs have diagnostic and therapeutic uses; some NPs exhibit low-dose toxicity; other NPs show ability to stimulate low-dose adaptive responses (hormesis). Beyond dose, size, shape, and surface charge variations of NPs evoke nonlinear responses in complex adaptive systems. NPs acquire unique size-dependent biological, chemical, thermal, optical, electromagnetic, and atom-like quantum properties. Nanoparticles exhibit high surface adsorptive capacity for other substances, enhanced bioavailability, and ability to cross otherwise impermeable cell membranes including the blood-brain barrier. With super-potent effects, nano-forms can evoke cellular stress responses or therapeutic effects not only at lower doses than their bulk forms, but also for longer periods of time. Interactions of initial effects and compensatory systemic responses can alter the impact of NPs over time. Taken together, the data suggest the need to downshift the dose-response curve of NPs from that for bulk forms in order to identify the necessarily decreased no-observed-adverse-effect-level and hormetic dose range for nanoparticles. PMID:24910581

  2. Evaluating shock absorption behavior of small-sized systems under programmable electric field.

    PubMed

    Jagtap, Piyush; Kumar, Praveen

    2014-11-01

    A simple ball-drop impact tester is developed for studying the dynamic response of hierarchical, complex, small-sized systems and materials. The developed algorithm and set-up have provisions for applying programmable potential difference along the height of a test specimen during an impact loading; this enables us to conduct experiments on various materials and smart structures whose mechanical behavior is sensitive to electric field. The software-hardware system allows not only acquisition of dynamic force-time data at very fast sampling rate (up to 2 × 10(6) samples/s), but also application of a pre-set potential difference (up to ±10 V) across a test specimen for a duration determined by feedback from the force-time data. We illustrate the functioning of the set-up by studying the effect of electric field on the energy absorption capability of carbon nanotube foams of 5 × 5 × 1.2 mm(3) size under impact conditions. PMID:25430120

  3. Population size, growth and movements of Anguilla australis in a small lake.

    PubMed

    Jellyman, D J; Crow, S K

    2016-06-01

    To study growth rates, movements and estimate population size of shortfin eels Anguilla australis in a small lake (2·5 ha) near Christchurch, New Zealand, 617 A. australis were tagged with PIT tags. Tag retention was high (95%) and over the seven recapture events spread over 2 years, 55% of tagged A. australis were recaptured. Growth of recaptured A. australis averaged 13·1 mm year(-1) and declined slightly with increasing total length. Distance moved from original capture site increased with increasing time at large. Population estimates of A. australis > 400 mm (susceptible to capture by fyke net) from recaptures of individuals averaged 1451 A. australis, with a biomass of 170 kg ha(-1) . An average of 6·6% of the estimated total population matured as male silver A. australis each year. Results from radio-tracking of four A. australis gave an average nightly foraging area of 2780 m(2) , and there was no apparent preference for inshore movement (within 5-6 m of the shoreline) or offshore movement. Fyke-net efficiency (total catch relative to the estimated total population available to each net) measured over four consecutive nights fishing was 88%. The lack of precision of the shoreline triangulation system used, ±10 m, meant that the positional data were considered too coarse to be used in a proposed novel population estimation technique based on determining population size within foraging areas. PMID:27126719

  4. Non-contact method for characterization of small size thermoelectric modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manno, Michael; Yang, Bao; Bar-Cohen, Avram

    2015-08-01

    Conventional techniques for characterization of thermoelectric performance require bringing measurement equipment into direct contact with the thermoelectric device, which is increasingly error prone as device size decreases. Therefore, the novel work presented here describes a non-contact technique, capable of accurately measuring the maximum ΔT and maximum heat pumping of mini to micro sized thin film thermoelectric coolers. The non-contact characterization method eliminates the measurement errors associated with using thermocouples and traditional heat flux sensors to test small samples and large heat fluxes. Using the non-contact approach, an infrared camera, rather than thermocouples, measures the temperature of the hot and cold sides of the device to determine the device ΔT and a laser is used to heat to the cold side of the thermoelectric module to characterize its heat pumping capacity. As a demonstration of the general applicability of the non-contact characterization technique, testing of a thin film thermoelectric module is presented and the results agree well with those published in the literature.

  5. Hybrid neural intelligent system to predict business failure in small-to-medium-size enterprises.

    PubMed

    Borrajo, M Lourdes; Baruque, Bruno; Corchado, Emilio; Bajo, Javier; Corchado, Juan M

    2011-08-01

    During the last years there has been a growing need of developing innovative tools that can help small to medium sized enterprises to predict business failure as well as financial crisis. In this study we present a novel hybrid intelligent system aimed at monitoring the modus operandi of the companies and predicting possible failures. This system is implemented by means of a neural-based multi-agent system that models the different actors of the companies as agents. The core of the multi-agent system is a type of agent that incorporates a case-based reasoning system and automates the business control process and failure prediction. The stages of the case-based reasoning system are implemented by means of web services: the retrieval stage uses an innovative weighted voting summarization of self-organizing maps ensembles-based method and the reuse stage is implemented by means of a radial basis function neural network. An initial prototype was developed and the results obtained related to small and medium enterprises in a real scenario are presented. PMID:21809475

  6. Resource efficiency and culture--workplace training for small and medium-sized enterprises.

    PubMed

    Bliesner, Anna; Liedtke, Christa; Rohn, Holger

    2014-05-15

    Although there are already some qualification offers available for enterprises to support resource efficiency innovations, the high potentials that can be identified especially for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have not been activated until now. As successful change lies in the hands of humans, the main aim of vocational education has to be the promotion of organisational and cultural changes in the enterprises. As there is already a small but increasing number of enterprises that perform very well in resource efficiency innovations one question arises: What are typical characteristics of those enterprises? Leaning on a good-practice approach, the project "ResourceCulture" is going to prove or falsify the hypothesis that enterprises being successful with resource efficiency innovations have a specific culture of trust, which substantially contributes to innovation processes, or even initially enables them. Detailed empirical field research will light up which correlations between resource efficiency, innovation and cultures of trust can be found and will offer important aspects for the improvement of management instruments and qualification concepts for workplace training. The project seizes qualification needs that were likewise mentioned by enterprises and consultants, regarding the implementation of resource efficiency. This article - based on first empirical field research results - derives preliminary indications for the design of the qualification module for the target groups resource efficiency consultants and managers. On this basis and in order to implement "ResourceCulture" conceptual and methodological starting points for workplace training are outlined. PMID:24364995

  7. A general mechanism for stabilizing the small sizes of precious metal nanoparticles on oxide supports

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wei-Zhen; Kovarik, Libor; Mei, Donghai; Engelhard, Mark H.; Gao, Feng; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong; Peden, Charles HF

    2014-09-02

    We recently discovered that MgAl2O4 spinel {111} nano-facets optimally stabilize the small sizes of platinum nanoparticles even after severe high temperature aging treatments. Here we report the thermal stabilities of other precious metals with various physical and chemical properties on the MgAl2O4 spinel {111} facets, providing important new insights into the stabilization mechanisms. Besides Pt, Rh and Ir can also be successfully stabilized as small (1-3 nm) nanoparticles and even as single atomic species after extremely severe (800 °C, 1 week) oxidative aging. However, other metals either aggregate (Ru, Pd, Ag, and Au) or sublimate (Os) even during initial catalyst synthesis. On the basis of ab initio theoretical calculations and experimental observations, we rationalize that the exceptional stabilization originates from lattice matching, and the correspondingly strong attractive interactions at interfaces between the spinel {111} surface oxygens and epitaxial metals\\metal oxides. On this basis, design principles for catalyst support oxide materials that are capable in stabilizing precious metals are proposed.

  8. Modeling the Role of Small Scale Physics in Sediment Transport From Grain Size to Grain Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calantoni, J.; Holland, K. T.

    2007-12-01

    In recent years work has focused on the detailed physics of sediment transport at or near the grain scale. Although computational resources often restrict the domain size, deterministic models for sediment motions can prove useful in improving our understanding of sediment dynamics. Using a discrete particle model (DPM), we have performed computer simulations that describe the collective and individual motions of sediment grains immersed in fluid in an effort to emulate the physics of the sea floor, at the fluid-sediment interface, in shallow water under forcing from waves and currents. Examples of our DPM (briefly described) are shown for research applications at a range scales from millimeters to meters involving fluid flow models from simple one- dimensional eddy viscosity up to three-dimensional direct numerical simulation. Based on hundreds of different simulations over the past decade, our findings have shown: how a parameterization of pressure gradients or equivalently fluid accelerations on particle motions under waves influences sand bar migration in the surf zone; how grain shape changes bulk bedload transport rates; how efforts to model sediment particle motions in the swash zone can yield insight toward models for shoreline erosion and accretion; how recently simulated bedload transport using bimodal size distributions has uncovered a new power law; how upcoming work focuses on simulating the role of grain size distributions in small-scale sand ripple dynamics. Good agreement is found between comparisons of model output for both bulk transport rates and time dependent concentration profiles with laboratory data. Likewise, parameterizations obtained from simulation results have demonstrated skill in hindcast applications to both field and laboratory measurements. Conclusions will discuss the future role of reductionism in sediment transport modeling.

  9. Using multi-theory model to predict initiation and sustenance of small portion size consumption among college students

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manoj; Catalano, Hannah Priest; Nahar, Vinayak K.; Lingam, Vimala; Johnson, Paul; Ford, M. Allison

    2016-01-01

    Background: Consumption of large portion sizes is contributing to overweight and obesity.College students are a vulnerable group in this regard. The purpose of this study was to use multi-theory model (MTM) to predict initiation and sustenance of small portion size consumption in college students. Methods: A total of 135 students at a large Southern US University completed a 35-item valid (face, content, and construct) and reliable (internally consistent) survey electronically in a cross-sectional design. The main outcome measures were intention to start eating small portion sizes and continuing to eat small portion sizes. Only those students who ate large portion sizes during the past 24 hours were included. Results: Step wise multiple regression showed that initiation of small portion size consumption was explained by participatory dialogue (advantages outweighing disadvantages), behavioral confidence, age, and gender (adjusted R2 = 0.37, P < 0.001). Males were less likely to initiate small portion size consumption than females (β = -0.185, 95% CI = -0.71– -0.11). Regarding sustenance, emotional transformation, changes in social environment, and race were the significant predictors (adjusted R2 = 0.20, P < 0.001). Whites were less likely to sustain small portion size change than other races (β = -0.269, 95% CI = -0.97 – -0.26). Conclusion: Based on this study’s findings, MTM appears to be a robust theoretical framework for predicting small portion size consumption behavior change. Interventions in this regard need to be designed. PMID:27579257

  10. Exposure to celebrity-endorsed small cigar promotions and susceptibility to use among young adult cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Sterling, Kymberle L; Moore, Roland S; Pitts, Nicole; Duong, Melissa; Ford, Kentya H; Eriksen, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Small cigar smoking among young adult cigarette smokers may be attributed to their exposure to its advertisements and promotions. We examined the association between exposure to a celebrity music artist's endorsement of a specific brand of small cigars and young adult cigarette smokers' susceptibility to smoking that brand. Venue-based sampling procedures were used to select and survey a random sample of 121 young adult cigarette smokers, aged 18-35. Fourteen percent reported exposure to the artist's endorsement of the small cigar and 45.4% reported an intention to smoke the product in the future. The odds of small cigar smoking susceptibility increased threefold for those who reported exposure to the endorsement compared to those not exposed (OR = 3.64, 95% CI 1.06 to 12.54). Past 30-day small cigar use (OR = 3.30, 95% CI 1.24 to 8.74) and past 30-day cigar use (OR = 5.08, 95% CI 1.23, 21.08) were also associated with susceptibility to smoke a small cigar. An association between young adult cigarette smokers' exposure to the music artist's small cigar endorsement and their susceptibility to smoke small cigars was found. This association underscores the importance of monitoring small cigar promotions geared toward young people and their impact on small cigar product smoking. PMID:24371444

  11. Exposure to Celebrity-Endorsed Small Cigar Promotions and Susceptibility to Use among Young Adult Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, Kymberle L.; Moore, Roland S.; Pitts, Nicole; Duong, Melissa; Ford, Kentya H.; Eriksen, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Small cigar smoking among young adult cigarette smokers may be attributed to their exposure to its advertisements and promotions. We examined the association between exposure to a celebrity music artist's endorsement of a specific brand of small cigars and young adult cigarette smokers' susceptibility to smoking that brand. Venue-based sampling procedures were used to select and survey a random sample of 121 young adult cigarette smokers, aged 18–35. Fourteen percent reported exposure to the artist's endorsement of the small cigar and 45.4% reported an intention to smoke the product in the future. The odds of small cigar smoking susceptibility increased threefold for those who reported exposure to the endorsement compared to those not exposed (OR = 3.64, 95% CI 1.06 to 12.54). Past 30-day small cigar use (OR = 3.30, 95% CI 1.24 to 8.74) and past 30-day cigar use (OR = 5.08, 95% CI 1.23, 21.08) were also associated with susceptibility to smoke a small cigar. An association between young adult cigarette smokers' exposure to the music artist's small cigar endorsement and their susceptibility to smoke small cigars was found. This association underscores the importance of monitoring small cigar promotions geared toward young people and their impact on small cigar product smoking. PMID:24371444

  12. Extracting magnetic cluster size and its distributions in advanced perpendicular recording media with shrinking grain size using small angle x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, Virat; Ikeda, Yoshihiro; Takano, Ken; Terris, Bruce D.; Hellwig, Olav; Wang, Tianhan; Wu, Benny; Graves, Catherine; Dürr, Hermann A.; Scherz, Andreas; Stöhr, Jo

    2015-05-18

    We analyze the magnetic cluster size (MCS) and magnetic cluster size distribution (MCSD) in a variety of perpendicular magnetic recording (PMR) media designs using resonant small angle x-ray scattering at the Co L{sub 3} absorption edge. The different PMR media flavors considered here vary in grain size between 7.5 and 9.5 nm as well as in lateral inter-granular exchange strength, which is controlled via the segregant amount. While for high inter-granular exchange, the MCS increases rapidly for grain sizes below 8.5 nm, we show that for increased amount of segregant with less exchange the MCS remains relatively small, even for grain sizes of 7.5 and 8 nm. However, the MCSD still increases sharply when shrinking grains from 8 to 7.5 nm. We show evidence that recording performance such as signal-to-noise-ratio on the spin stand correlates well with the product of magnetic cluster size and magnetic cluster size distribution.

  13. Changes of size and shape of small, unruptured intracranial aneurysms in repeated computed tomography angiography studies

    PubMed Central

    Kunert, Przemysław; Jaworski, Maciej; Rosiak, Grzegorz; Marchel, Andrzej; Rowiński, Olgierd

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) are frequently detected in noninvasive imaging studies such as computed tomography angiography (CTA) or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). If small, UIAs are observed in these modalities in order to detect growth or shape change, but there are many questions about proper protocol of the follow-up. Aim To assess changes of small (< 7 mm) UIAs dome size and shape in repeated CTA studies as predictors of growth and rupture. Material and methods One hundred and ten UIAs (10 posterior circulation) in 70 patients (55 women) were observed, with a cumulative observation time of 333.32 years. Aneurysms’ dome and neck perpendicular dimensions were measured in the first and the last CTA study at least twice with the developed application. Confidence intervals (CI) for measurements and dome shape parameters were calculated. For aneurysms ruptured during follow-up intermediate studies were analyzed. Patients’ clinical information was recorded. The aneurysm growth detection algorithm integrated CI and spatial resolution of the CT scanner. Results Twenty-three aneurysms increased in volume, 10 in height and 14 in dome width. Volume increased in 90% of cases of height and 93% of width increase. Posterior circulation aneurysms grew faster than anterior ones (p < 0.003), but calculated time to significant size increase (eT) did not differ between the groups due to higher CI in the posterior circulation. Analysis of eT with Kaplan-Meier curves showed that 75% of growing aneurysms could be detected in the first 3 years of observation. During the follow-up 3 aneurysms bled, and they grew faster than other growing aneurysms. Two of the bleeding aneurysms formed daughter sacs. Conclusions Dome volume assessment is superior to single dimension assessment in aneurysm growth detection. Confidence intervals assessment helps to avoid overestimation of growth. Seventy-five percent of growing aneurysms could be detected in the first 3

  14. Small-size two-axis mechanical devices for FPM and PAM using piezoelectronic actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuya, Mamoru; Araki, Tomohiro; Yamakawa, Shiro; Hisada, Yasumasa; Kondo, Fumika; Akiba, Toshikatsu

    1998-05-01

    We have developed two kinds of small size and light weight mechanical devices which consist of 2-axis piezoelectronic driving actuators and elastic hinges for fine pointing mechanism (FPM) and point ahead mechanism (PAM) optical inter- orbit communication (optical IOC) equipment. These are 'Beam Trapping Mechanism (BTM)' and 'Beam Scanning Mechanism (BSM)' respectively. High sensitivity receive system using single- mode optical fiber should be needed to increase communication data rate, which are a receiver of heterodyne detection in optical fiber and a receiver using optical pre-amplifier (for example, Er doped fiber amplifier). Therefore, both improvement of precision of FPM and control of the end of optical fiber are needed. In order to realize these requirements, we have designed, developed and tested two kinds of mechanical devices. At first, results of BTM, which consists of an optical fiber, four piezoelectric actuators, elastic hinges and a housing which mounts them, are described. The end facet of optical fiber supported by elastic hinges is controlled by piezoelectronic actuators in order to trap spatial received beam into optical fiber with high efficiency and high speed. The functional test results of BTM show a moving range of 140 (mu) rad, a resolution of less than 0.2 (mu) rad and natural frequency of 390 Hz. These values show BTM has enough performance for low-loss received beam trapping into optical fiber core. Furthermore, small-sized and lightweight BTM was realized using piezoelectronic actuators. We designed a BSM which has function of piezoelectronic driving 2-axis FPM in order to improve FPM. BSM have mirror of which size is 15 * 12 mm2. The mechanical concept of BSM is as same as BTM. In BSM, mirror is supported by elastic hinges, replace with optical fiber. Function test results show scanning angle range of more than 2.8 mrad at azimuth direction, 2.0 mrad at elevation direction, scanning resolution of 1.0 (mu) rad and natural frequency is

  15. What can we learn from studies based on small sample sizes? Comment on Regan, Lakhanpal, and Anguiano (2012)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, D.R.; Bachan, L.K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary In a recent article, Regan, Lakhanpal, and Anguiano (2012) highlighted the lack of evidence for different relationship outcomes between arranged and love-based marriages. Yet the sample size (n=58) used in the study is insufficient for making such inferences. Here we discuss and demonstrate how small sample sizes reduce the utility of this research. PMID:24340813

  16. 13 CFR 121.108 - What are the requirements for representing small business size status, and what are the penalties...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., subcontract, cooperative agreement, or cooperative research and development agreement, as a small business..., cooperative research and development agreement, or grant whenever it is established that a business concern... representing small business size status, and what are the penalties for misrepresentation? 121.108 Section...

  17. The Drosophila melanogaster Muc68E Mucin Gene Influences Adult Size, Starvation Tolerance, and Cold Recovery.

    PubMed

    Reis, Micael; Silva, Ana C; Vieira, Cristina P; Vieira, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Mucins have been implicated in many different biological processes, such as protection from mechanical damage, microorganisms, and toxic molecules, as well as providing a luminal scaffold during development. Nevertheless, it is conceivable that mucins have the potential to modulate food absorption as well, and thus contribute to the definition of several important phenotypic traits. Here we show that the Drosophila melanogaster Muc68E gene is 40- to 60-million-yr old, and is present in Drosophila species of the subgenus Sophophora only. The central repeat region of this gene is fast evolving, and shows evidence for repeated expansions/contractions. This and/or frequent gene conversion events lead to the homogenization of its repeats. The amino acid pattern P[ED][ED][ST][ST][ST] is found in the repeat region of Muc68E proteins from all Drosophila species studied, and can occur multiple times within a single conserved repeat block, and thus may have functional significance. Muc68E is a nonessential gene under laboratory conditions, but Muc68E mutant flies are smaller and lighter than controls at birth. However, at 4 d of age, Muc68E mutants are heavier, recover faster from chill-coma, and are more resistant to starvation than control flies, although they have the same percentage of lipids as controls. Mutant flies have enlarged abdominal size 1 d after chill-coma recovery, which is associated with higher lipid content. These results suggest that Muc68E has a role in metabolism modulation, food absorption, and/or feeding patterns in larvae and adults, and under normal and stress conditions. Such biological function is novel for mucin genes. PMID:27172221

  18. The Drosophila melanogaster Muc68E Mucin Gene Influences Adult Size, Starvation Tolerance, and Cold Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Micael; Silva, Ana C.; Vieira, Cristina P.; Vieira, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Mucins have been implicated in many different biological processes, such as protection from mechanical damage, microorganisms, and toxic molecules, as well as providing a luminal scaffold during development. Nevertheless, it is conceivable that mucins have the potential to modulate food absorption as well, and thus contribute to the definition of several important phenotypic traits. Here we show that the Drosophila melanogaster Muc68E gene is 40- to 60-million-yr old, and is present in Drosophila species of the subgenus Sophophora only. The central repeat region of this gene is fast evolving, and shows evidence for repeated expansions/contractions. This and/or frequent gene conversion events lead to the homogenization of its repeats. The amino acid pattern P[ED][ED][ST][ST][ST] is found in the repeat region of Muc68E proteins from all Drosophila species studied, and can occur multiple times within a single conserved repeat block, and thus may have functional significance. Muc68E is a nonessential gene under laboratory conditions, but Muc68E mutant flies are smaller and lighter than controls at birth. However, at 4 d of age, Muc68E mutants are heavier, recover faster from chill-coma, and are more resistant to starvation than control flies, although they have the same percentage of lipids as controls. Mutant flies have enlarged abdominal size 1 d after chill-coma recovery, which is associated with higher lipid content. These results suggest that Muc68E has a role in metabolism modulation, food absorption, and/or feeding patterns in larvae and adults, and under normal and stress conditions. Such biological function is novel for mucin genes. PMID:27172221

  19. Maternal immune activation affects litter success, size and neuroendocrine responses related to behavior in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    French, Susannah S; Chester, Emily M; Demas, Gregory E

    2013-07-01

    It is increasingly evident that influences other than genetics can contribute to offspring phenotype. In particular, maternal influences are an important contributing factor to offspring survival, development, physiology and behavior. Common environmental pathogens such as viral or bacterial microorganisms can induce maternal immune responses, which have the potential to alter the prenatal environment via multiple independent pathways. The effects of maternal immune activation on endocrine responses and behavior are less well studied and provide the basis for the current study. Our approach in the current study was two-pronged: 1) quantify sickness responses during pregnancy in adult female hamsters experiencing varying severity of immune responsiveness (i.e., differing doses of lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), and 2) assess the effects of maternal immune activation on offspring development, immunocompetence, hormone profiles, and social behavior during adulthood. Pregnancy success decreased with increasing doses of LPS, and litter size was reduced in LPS dams that managed to successfully reproduce. Unexpectedly, pregnant females treated with LPS showed a hypothermic response in addition to the more typical anorexic and body mass changes associated with sickness. Significant endocrine changes related to behavior were observed in the offspring of LPS-treated dams; these effects were apparent in adulthood. Specifically, offspring from LPS treated dams showed significantly greater cortisol responses to stressful resident-intruder encounters compared with offspring from control dams. Post-behavior cortisol was elevated in male LPS offspring relative to the offspring of control dams, and was positively correlated with the frequency of bites during agonistic interactions, and cortisol levels in both sexes were related to defensive behaviors, suggesting that changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness may play a regulatory role in the observed behavioral

  20. 75 FR 13802 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... otherwise qualified small businesses to supply the products of any manufacturer on a Federal contract set aside for small businesses, Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned (SDVO) small businesses or Participants in... regulations require that recipients of Federal contracts set aside for small businesses, SDVO small...

  1. Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Demonstrates Similar Nanostructure in Cortical Bone from Young Adult Animals of Different Species.

    PubMed

    Kaspersen, Jørn Døvling; Turunen, Mikael Juhani; Mathavan, Neashan; Lages, Sebastian; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Olsson, Ulf; Isaksson, Hanna

    2016-07-01

    Despite the vast amount of studies focusing on bone nanostructure that have been performed for several decades, doubts regarding the detailed structure of the constituting hydroxyapatite crystal still exist. Different experimental techniques report somewhat different sizes and locations, possibly due to different requirements for the sample preparation. In this study, small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering is used to investigate the nanostructure of femur samples from young adult ovine, bovine, porcine, and murine cortical bone, including three different orthogonal directions relative to the long axis of the bone. The radially averaged scattering from all samples reveals a remarkable similarity in the entire q range, which indicates that the nanostructure is essentially the same in all species. Small differences in the data from different directions confirm that the crystals are elongated in the [001] direction and that this direction is parallel to the long axis of the bone. A model consisting of thin plates is successfully employed to describe the scattering and extract the plate thicknesses, which are found to be in the range of 20-40 Å for most samples but 40-60 Å for the cow samples. It is demonstrated that the mineral plates have a large degree of polydispersity in plate thickness. Additionally, and equally importantly, the scattering data and the model are critically evaluated in terms of model uncertainties and overall information content. PMID:26914607

  2. Small sized EGFR1 and HER2 specific bifunctional antibody for targeted cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Ding, Li; Tian, Caiping; Feng, Song; Fida, Guissi; Zhang, Congying; Ma, Yuxiang; Ai, Guanhua; Achilefu, Samuel; Gu, Yueqing

    2015-01-01

    Targeting tumors using miniature antibodies is a novel and attractive therapeutic approach, as these biomolecules exhibit low immunogenicity, rapid clearance, and high targeting specificity. However, most of the small-sized antibodies in existence do not exhibit marked anti-tumor effects, which limit their use in targeted cancer immunotherapy. To overcome this difficulty in targeting multiple biomarkers by combination therapies, we designed a new bifunctional antibody, named MaAbNA (multivalent antibody comprised of nanobody and affibody moieties), capable of targeting EGFR1 and HER2, which are widely overexpressed in a variety of tumor types. The small-sized (29 kDa) MaAbNA, which was expressed in E.coli, consists of one anti-EGFR1 nanobody and two anti-HER2 affibodies, and possesses high affinity (KD) for EGFR1 (~4.1 nM) and HER2 (~4.7 nM). In order to enhance its anti-tumor activity, MaAbNA was conjugated with adriamycin (ADM) using a PEG2000 linker, forming a new complex anticancer drug, MaAbNA-PEG2000-ADM. MaAbNA exhibited high inhibitory effects on tumor cells over-expressing both EGFR1 and HER2, but displayed minimal cytotoxicity in cells expressing low levels of EGFR1 and HER2. Moreover, MaAbNA-PEG2000-ADM displayed increased tumoricidal effects than ADM or MaAbNA alone, as well exhibited greater antitumor efficacy than EGFR1 (Cetuximab) and HER2 (Herceptin) antibody drugs. The ability of MaAbNA to regulate expression of downstream oncogenes c-jun, c-fos, c-myc, as well as AEG-1 for therapeutic potential was evaluated by qPCR and western-blot analyses. The antitumor efficacy of MaAbNA and its derivative MaAbNA-PEG2000-ADM were validated in vivo, highlighting the potential for use of MaAbNA as a highly tumor-specific dual molecular imaging probe and targeted cancer therapeutic. PMID:25699098

  3. Small Sized EGFR1 and HER2 Specific Bifunctional Antibody for Targeted Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Li; Tian, Caiping; Feng, Song; Fida, Guissi; Zhang, Congying; Ma, Yuxiang; Ai, Guanhua; Achilefu, Samuel; Gu, Yueqing

    2015-01-01

    Targeting tumors using miniature antibodies is a novel and attractive therapeutic approach, as these biomolecules exhibit low immunogenicity, rapid clearance, and high targeting specificity. However, most of the small-sized antibodies in existence do not exhibit marked anti-tumor effects, which limit their use in targeted cancer immunotherapy. To overcome this difficulty in targeting multiple biomarkers by combination therapies, we designed a new bifunctional antibody, named MaAbNA (multivalent antibody comprised of nanobody and affibody moieties), capable of targeting EGFR1 and HER2, which are widely overexpressed in a variety of tumor types. The small-sized (29 kDa) MaAbNA, which was expressed in E.coli, consists of one anti-EGFR1 nanobody and two anti-HER2 affibodies, and possesses high affinity (KD) for EGFR1 (~4.1 nM) and HER2 (~4.7 nM). In order to enhance its anti-tumor activity, MaAbNA was conjugated with adriamycin (ADM) using a PEG2000 linker, forming a new complex anticancer drug, MaAbNA-PEG2000-ADM. MaAbNA exhibited high inhibitory effects on tumor cells over-expressing both EGFR1 and HER2, but displayed minimal cytotoxicity in cells expressing low levels of EGFR1 and HER2. Moreover, MaAbNA-PEG2000-ADM displayed increased tumoricidal effects than ADM or MaAbNA alone, as well exhibited greater antitumor efficacy than EGFR1 (Cetuximab) and HER2 (Herceptin) antibody drugs. The ability of MaAbNA to regulate expression of downstream oncogenes c-jun, c-fos, c-myc, as well as AEG-1 for therapeutic potential was evaluated by qPCR and western-blot analyses. The antitumor efficacy of MaAbNA and its derivative MaAbNA-PEG2000-ADM were validated in vivo, highlighting the potential for use of MaAbNA as a highly tumor-specific dual molecular imaging probe and targeted cancer therapeutic. PMID:25699098

  4. Winter distribution of algal pigments in small- and large-size particles in the northeastern Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méjanelle, L.; Laureillard, J.; Fillaux, J.; Saliot, A.; Lambert, C.

    1995-01-01

    Particles were collected by filtration on GF/F filters and by vertical hauls of 50 μm mesh-sized net throughout the water column (50-1700 m) in the northeastern Atlantic in January 1989 during the Medatlante t cruise, in the framework of the French JGOFS program. Particles were analysed for their organic carbon and algal chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV absorbance and fluorescence detection. Complementary analyses were performed on a surface sample for sterols and fatty acids by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Organic carbon concentrations were 2-3 orders of magnitude higher in GF/F (10-50 μg l-1) than in net particles (0.01-0.06μg l-1). The same ratio was encountered for pigments: 4-603 ng l-1 and 0.003-0.037 ng l1¯, respectively. Among 11 GF/F samples collected between 500 and 1700 m, four samples contained pigments in detectable amounts (4-106 ng l-1). Their pigment distribution pattern was close to deep GF/F samples, but differed from the pigment pattern of deep net-collected particles, mainly composed of fecal pellets. This latter sinking material was enriched in chlorophyll degradation pigments and showed higher values of the ratio (sum of carotenoids)/(sum of chlorophylls) than those observed in small-size particles. The combined information from pigments, sterols and fatty acids shows that Prymnesiophytes in a post bloom situation contributed to a major part of the surface autotrophs. Two processes of rapid transfer of organic matter between the surface and the deep Mediterranean water are discussed: fecal pellets of herbivorous plankton and sedimentation of aggregates partly linked to the presence of Prymnesiophytes.

  5. Development of Small-sized Fluid Control Valve with Self-holding Function Using Permanent Magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akagi, Tetsuya; Dohta, Shujiro; Ueda, Hirofumi

    Recently, force feedback devices in virtual reality and power assisted nursing care systems have received much attention and active research. In such a control system, an actuator and a driving device such as a control valve are mounted on the human body. In this condition, the size and weight of the control valve become serious problems. At the same time, the valve should be operated with lower energy consumption because of using a limited electrical power. The typical electro magnetic solenoid valve drives its spool using a larger solenoid to open the valve. The complex construction of the valve for sealing makes its miniaturization and the fabrication of a low cost valve more difficult. In addition, the solenoid in the valve consumes more electrical power while the valve is kept opening. The purpose of our study is to develop a small-sized, lightweight, lower energy consumption and flexible control valve that can be safe enough to mount on the human body at a lower cost. In our pervious study, we proposed and tested the control valve that can open using a vibration motor. In this study, we propose and test a new type of fluid control valve with a self-holding function. The new valve uses a permanent magnet ball. It has a cylindrical magnet and two solenoids. The self-holding function of the valve is done as follows. When one side of the solenoid is stimulated by the current momentarily, the solenoid gives a repulsive force to the cylindrical magnet. The magnet moves toward the opposite side of the solenoid and is attracted to the iron core. Then, the magnet ball moves toward the cylindrical magnet and opens the orifice. The valve can keep open without electrical energy. As a result, the valve with the extremely lower energy consumption can be developed.

  6. Small-Scale Drop-Size Variability: Empirical Models for Drop-Size-Dependent Clustering in Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, Alexander; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Larsen, Michael L.; Wiscombe, Warren J.

    2005-01-01

    By analyzing aircraft measurements of individual drop sizes in clouds, it has been shown in a companion paper that the probability of finding a drop of radius r at a linear scale l decreases as l(sup D(r)), where 0 less than or equals D(r) less than or equals 1. This paper shows striking examples of the spatial distribution of large cloud drops using models that simulate the observed power laws. In contrast to currently used models that assume homogeneity and a Poisson distribution of cloud drops, these models illustrate strong drop clustering, especially with larger drops. The degree of clustering is determined by the observed exponents D(r). The strong clustering of large drops arises naturally from the observed power-law statistics. This clustering has vital consequences for rain physics, including how fast rain can form. For radiative transfer theory, clustering of large drops enhances their impact on the cloud optical path. The clustering phenomenon also helps explain why remotely sensed cloud drop size is generally larger than that measured in situ.

  7. Albedo, Size and Taxonomy of the Small Body Populations Outside the Main Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grav, Tommy; Mainzer, Amy; Bauer, James; Masiero, Joseph R.; Cutri, Roc; Nugent, Carrie; Sonnett, Sarah; Kramer, Emily A.

    2015-11-01

    Using the data from the WISE/NEOWISE mission we have derived albedo and size distributions of ~1200 Cybeles, ~1000 Hildas, ~1700 Jovian Trojans and a dozen irregular satellites of Jupiter and Saturn. These data increases by an order of magnitude our knowledge of the makeup of the small body populations between the Main Belt and Saturn. We find that all these populations are dominated by low albedo objects, with only the Cybeles (with less than 10%) having any significant fraction of possible interloper objects with albedo higher than 15%. Using the near-infrared albedos (in the 3.4 and 4.6μm bands, denoted W1 and W2 respectively) we were able to derive the taxonomic classifications of the largest objects in each population, showing that they are dominated by surfaces that are similar to C-, P- and D-type asteroids. The dominance of these dark, primitive surfaces indicate two possible formation scenarios. These small body populations may have been formed in situ beyond the snow line, potentially serving as bodies that can provide significant insight into the composition of the early Solar Nebula in the region of the current Giant Planets. Alternatively, they may be captured bodies that were perturbed from the region outside the Giant Planets as the planets migrated during the early stages of Solar System formation. This allows for insight into the composition of the Trans-Neptunian population by study of populations that are significantly closer, brighter and more accessible. The low percentages of potentially higher albedo, stony objects common in the Main Asteroid Belt indicates that only a few of these objects have embedded themselves into these populations, potentially imposing significant constraints on the migration of Jupiter inside its current orbit.

  8. Small Business Management. Volume II: Business Analysis. Entrepreneurship Education for Adults--Program Development and Implementation. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., St. Paul. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    A practice problem in year-end business analysis is presented to provide experience with a system of single-entry bookkeeping as part of a small business management adult education program. The problem simulates an entire business year and includes transactions involving general business revenues and expenses pertaining to most small retailing…

  9. Experimental Setup for Magnetic-Field Tests of Small-Size Light Sensors at Jefferson Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickle, Cameron

    2013-10-01

    In preparation for the Electron Ion Collider, small-size sensors, such as Silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM) and Multi-Channel Plate (MCP) photo-multipliers are being considered for use in a Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov Light (DIRC) detector. Since DIRC will be operated in the strong field of a magnetic spectrometer, the gain of the sensors must be evaluated in high magnetic fields. A dedicated test facility, which makes use of a solenoid magnet with magnetic fields of up to 4.7 T, is being developed at Jefferson Labs. This paper describes the configuration and operation of an entirely non-magnetic dark box that will house the sensors during the tests and allows the sensors to be rotated about two axes relative to the field. This paper also describes the development of a ROOT-based analysis method to extract the gain of SiPMs from raw Analog-to-Digital-Converter (ADC) spectra as a function of the intensity of the magnetic field and the sensor's relative to angle to the field. The dark box and analysis method was tested with Hamamatsu mulitpixel SiPMs and our results are consistent with previous measurements of the same sensors. The methodology developed in this work will be routinely used for the upcoming high-B field tests.

  10. Parrotfish size as a useful indicator of fishing effects in a small Caribbean island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallès, Henri; Gill, David; Oxenford, Hazel A.

    2015-09-01

    There is an urgent need to develop simple indicators of fishing effects for the implementation of ecosystem-based fisheries management in the Caribbean. In this study, we compare the ability of three simple metrics (average individual fish weight, fish density, and fish biomass) derived from the parrotfish assemblage and from an assemblage of highly valued commercial fish species to track changes in fishing pressure at spatial scales relevant to small Caribbean islands. Between June and August 2011, we conducted five consecutive visual fish surveys at six reefs ≤10 km apart along the west coast of Barbados, representing a spatial gradient in fishing pressure. We used these data to identify the fish metrics most strongly correlated with fishing pressure and describe their functional relationship with fishing pressure. Overall, average individual parrotfish weight and biomass and density of commercial fish species were the metrics most strongly correlated with fishing pressure, although for the latter two, such correlations depended on the range of fish body sizes analyzed. Fishing pressure accounted for most of the variability in all correlated fish metrics (adj R 2 ≥ 0.75). However, functional relationships with fishing pressure differed qualitatively between metrics. In particular, average individual parrotfish weight was the metric most sensitive to incremental changes in fishing pressure. Overall, our study highlights that assemblage-level average individual parrotfish weight deserves a place in the toolbox of Caribbean reef managers as a simple indicator of both fishing effects on parrotfish assemblages and overall fishing pressure on the reef fish community.

  11. Quantitative evaluation of waste prevention on the level of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs)

    SciTech Connect

    Laner, David Rechberger, Helmut

    2009-02-15

    Waste prevention is a principle means of achieving the goals of waste management and a key element for developing sustainable economies. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) contribute substantially to environmental degradation, often not even being aware of their environmental effects. Therefore, several initiatives have been launched in Austria aimed at supporting waste prevention measures on the level of SMEs. To promote the most efficient projects, they have to be evaluated with respect to their contribution to the goals of waste management. It is the aim of this paper to develop a methodology for evaluating waste prevention measures in SMEs based on their goal orientation. At first, conceptual problems of defining and delineating waste prevention activities are briefly discussed. Then an approach to evaluate waste prevention activities with respect to their environmental performance is presented and benchmarks which allow for an efficient use of the available funds are developed. Finally the evaluation method is applied to a number of former projects and the calculated results are analysed with respect to shortcomings and limitations of the model. It is found that the developed methodology can provide a tool for a more objective and comprehensible evaluation of waste prevention measures.

  12. Experimental testing of centrifugal pump: small and medium sized enterprise product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, R.; Paddiyatu, F.; Khafidh, M.; Nugroho, S.; Sugiyanto, S.; Jamari, J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports the experimental testing for centrifugal pump for fisherman ship, manufactured by small and medium sized enterprises in Central Java Province, Indonesia. The research covers material analysis, component observation, endurance and vibration test. Six centrifugal pumps are tested and three main pump components are discussed: shaft, bearings and seals. The results show that the material of the shaft is predicted to support and transmit the load from the engine to impeller. The problem found in the tolerance and geometry accuracy of the shaft which causes difficulties during assembling process, excessive wear and leakage during testing. From the endurance and vibration test, the ball bearings fail and lock the shaft due to the fatigue on the rolling elements and raceways. The oil seal and water seal also fail in maintaining the oil and water in the chamber and induce the unlubricated system for the ball bearings. Some suggestions are delivered to improve the product quality of the centrifugal pump. A good quality of the centrifugal pump for fishermen ship and long life span is expected to be produced by local SMEs to win the free trade competition in the Indonesian market.

  13. A small-size transfer blackbody cavity for calibration of infrared ear thermometers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gen Jung; Yoo, Yong Shim; Kim, Bong Hak; Lim, Sun Do; Hyun Song, Jong

    2014-05-01

    A small-size transfer blackbody cavity for calibration of infrared ear thermometers (IRETs) was developed and characterized at the Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science. This blackbody cavity consists of a reflector exposed to the air and a radiator with three-step curves immersed in a water-bath, and has an angularly uniform emissivity of higher than 0.9993. The radiance temperature of the blackbody cavity was measured with an IRET. We also calculated the effective emissivity by using the software STEEP322, considering the influence of the shape and temperature of the probe-tip of the IRET on the effective emissivity of the blackbody cavity. The measured and calculated radiance temperatures of the blackbody cavity were compared to those of the ASTM-type blackbody cavity and are in good agreement. Uncertainties (k = 1) of the blackbody cavity are estimated to be less than 44 mK in the temperature range 35-42 °C. PMID:24671115

  14. An effective physical fitness program for small and medium-sized enterprises.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Han Hui; Peng, Shu Mei; Yeh, Ching Ying; Chen, Chiou Jong; Chen, Ruey Yu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a practicable worksite physical fitness program for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Community-based intervention consisting of a three-month exercise course was conducted, and its benefits evaluated. A self-administrated structured questionnaire and physical fitness examination were designed to compare the difference between pre and post intervention. A total of 133 SME workers completed the lifestyle/exercise course and filled out the questionnaire, but 16 were excluded from the exercise group due to health reasons. After the intervention, health indicators such as weight, blood pressure, resting heart rate, waistline, BMI, front and back trunk flexibility, abdominal muscle durability and back muscle strength were significantly improved, and improvements in musculoskeletal disorders were seen in reduced neck pain (18.8%), wrist pain (17.4%), and upper/lower back pain (8.7% and 21.7%, respectively). Cardiovascular risk factors (BMI and resting heart rate) showed a significant improvement related to frequent participation in the program (p=0.02), and the exercise group reported a significant difference in overall health (p=0.02). This study has demonstrated an effective approach to community-based fitness intervention through SMEs. PMID:21372441

  15. Theoretical Study of the Spin Competition in Small-Sized Al Clusters.

    PubMed

    López-Estrada, Omar; Orgaz, Emilio

    2015-12-10

    Stern-Gerlach (SG) experiments on aluminum clusters indicate that some small-sized aggregates exhibit a deflection signal consistent with the existence of magnetic moments. However, in the particular case of Al6 and Al8 clusters, electronic structure investigations show ambiguity on the 0 K ground spin state. In this work extensive computations of the electronic structure have been carried out in order to determine the ground state of these structures. Electron correlation has been introduced at MP2, MP4, and CCSD(T) theory level as well as by DFT computations with different density functionals. DFT-based Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics results at different simulation temperatures complete this investigation. One of our main conclusions is that singlet spin states are systematically the more stable configuration at 0 K. These Al clusters exhibit almost degenerate electronic structures at singlet and triplet spin states. The geometries are similar, and the paths connecting both structures allow an intersystem crossing through a spin-orbit coupling mechanism, indicating a dynamical interchange of both spin states at finite temperatures. PMID:26583532

  16. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from small and medium-sized Kansas mammals.

    PubMed

    Brillhart, D B; Fox, L B; Upton, S J

    1994-05-01

    Seven species of hard-bodied ticks were collected from 20 species of small and medium-sized mammals in Kansas; Amblyomma americanum L., Dermacentor variabilis (Say), Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard), Ixodes cookei Packard, I. kingi Bishopp, I. sculptus Neumann, and I. texanus Banks. Dermacentor variabilis was found statewide, A. americanum only in the eastern one-third of the state, and the Ixodes spp. and H. leporispalustris were widely scattered. The most common tick found was D. variabilis, both by itself and in association with other ticks. Mammals that ticks were collected from included Canis latrans Say, Cynomys ludovicianus ludovicianus (Ord), Didelphis virginianus Kerr, Geomys bursarius (Shaw), Lynx rufus (Schreber), Marmota monax bunkeri Black, Mephitis mephitis (Schreber), Microtus ochrogaster (Wagner), Mus musculus L., Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque), P. maniculatus (Wagner), Procyon lotor hirtus Nelson and Goldman, Reithrodontomys megalotis (Baird), Sciurus niger rufiventer Geoffroy, Sigmodon hispidus texianus (Audubon and Bachman), Sylvilagus floridanus (J. A. Allen), Taxidea taxus taxus (Schreber), and Vulpes velox velox (Say). PMID:8057327

  17. Quantitative evaluation of waste prevention on the level of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs).

    PubMed

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut

    2009-02-01

    Waste prevention is a principle means of achieving the goals of waste management and a key element for developing sustainable economies. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) contribute substantially to environmental degradation, often not even being aware of their environmental effects. Therefore, several initiatives have been launched in Austria aimed at supporting waste prevention measures on the level of SMEs. To promote the most efficient projects, they have to be evaluated with respect to their contribution to the goals of waste management. It is the aim of this paper to develop a methodology for evaluating waste prevention measures in SMEs based on their goal orientation. At first, conceptual problems of defining and delineating waste prevention activities are briefly discussed. Then an approach to evaluate waste prevention activities with respect to their environmental performance is presented and benchmarks which allow for an efficient use of the available funds are developed. Finally the evaluation method is applied to a number of former projects and the calculated results are analysed with respect to shortcomings and limitations of the model. It is found that the developed methodology can provide a tool for a more objective and comprehensible evaluation of waste prevention measures. PMID:18676138

  18. Home treatment of patients with small to medium sized acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Elf, J E; Jögi, J; Bajc, M

    2015-02-01

    Most patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) are still treated as inpatients. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients with acute PE, diagnosed using V/P SPECT between 2007 and 2011. Patients were treated at home if they were hemodynamically stable, did not require oxygen or parenteral analgetics, had no contraindications to anticoagulant treatment and V/P SPECT showed an extension of the PE of less than 40%. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of home treatment with our algorithm. During the study period 416 outpatients were diagnosed with acute symptomatic PE of whom in total 260 (62.5%) were discharged home from the emergency unit and another 47 (11%) within 24 h from admission. During 3 months follow-up one (0.3%) patient had a recurrent thrombotic event. Eleven (3.6%) patients had a major or clinically relevant bleed and the overall mortality was 2% (n = 6). There were no PE-related mortality. Home treatment should be considered and is safe in the majority of hemodynamically stable outpatients with small to medium size PE, quantified using V/P SPECT. PMID:24942995

  19. Energy conserved and costs saved by small and medium-size manufacturers, 1988--1989

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, F.W.

    1991-05-01

    Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Centers (EADCs) provided energy-conserving and cost saving assistance in 339 small and medium-size manufacturing plants nationwide during 1988-89. This report presents the results of what was recommended to those manufacturers, the record of what was implemented by them, and an analysis of the financial rewards gained by them. It also includes an accounting of the financial returns to the federal government, derived from taxes upon the cost savings, or incremental income, of the manufacturers who implement the EADCs` recommendations. EADCs collect implementation data within a year of the energy audit, and for these results that time period extended through 1990. The EADCs are located at accredited engineering departments of universities and staffed by faculty and students. At present there are 18 EADCs serving manufacturers in 37 states; of these, two were established as a result of the 1989 competition, and five more were chosen competitively in 1990. Most of the results in this report were generated by 11 EADCs (named in the Appendix); two others withdrew voluntarily after completing only 10 energy audits during 1988-89. Primary responsibility for selecting, training, evaluating, and managing the EADCs belongs to the Industrial Technology and Energy Management (ITEM) division of University City Science Center (UCSC). The Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technologies sponsors the EADC program through an agreement with UCSC.

  20. Drivers for OSH interventions in small and medium-sized enterprises.

    PubMed

    Cagno, Enrico; Masi, Donato; Leão, Celina Pinto

    2016-01-01

    The debate concerning occupational safety and health (OSH) interventions has recently focused on the need of improving the evaluation of interventions, and in particular on the need for providing information about why the intervention worked or not, under what circumstances and in which context. Key concepts in the analysis of the context are the drivers, i.e., those factors enabling, fostering or facilitating OSH interventions. However, the concept of driver for an OSH intervention is both confused and contested. Although the term is widely used, there is little consensus on how drivers should be understood, how important they are in different contexts and how they can facilitate interventions. This exploratory study based on interviews with the owner-managers and the safety officers of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) gives an overview of the most characteristic drivers for OSH interventions. The results will be used to make an initial evaluation of SMEs' needs, and will help orient interventions and future research. PMID:26654679

  1. Study on inner hole testing of nozzle with small size and complex contour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liang; Su, Jun-hong; Yang, Li-hong; Xu, Jun-qi

    2010-10-01

    Testing of small size and complex contour of Nozzle, an important component affecting the engine performance, is very difficult, particularly for the inner hole. Due to difficulty in holding, it is easy to scrap the surface of the inner hole by the traditional contact-type detection methods. In this paper testing method of the hole is researched in details with image stitching technology. In the testing, a serial of focused images in different depths of inner hole of nozzle are collected by CCD camera, and compared by image focusing evaluation function, thus depth information in various locations of the inner hole images is obtained. A full depth image, the panorama of the inner hole, is rebuilt by multi-focus image fusion algorithm, for the image pixels corresponding to the focus altitudes are segmented. To achieve 3D reconstruction of the inner hole, the depth information by linear interpolation is fitted to restore a precise inner hole depth information. The results show that the inner hole of nozzle can be tested precisely with high precision which can meet the design requirements, and the entire contour can be reconstructed by the testing method.

  2. Subspace Leakage Analysis and Improved DOA Estimation With Small Sample Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaghaghi, Mahdi; Vorobyov, Sergiy A.

    2015-06-01

    Classical methods of DOA estimation such as the MUSIC algorithm are based on estimating the signal and noise subspaces from the sample covariance matrix. For a small number of samples, such methods are exposed to performance breakdown, as the sample covariance matrix can largely deviate from the true covariance matrix. In this paper, the problem of DOA estimation performance breakdown is investigated. We consider the structure of the sample covariance matrix and the dynamics of the root-MUSIC algorithm. The performance breakdown in the threshold region is associated with the subspace leakage where some portion of the true signal subspace resides in the estimated noise subspace. In this paper, the subspace leakage is theoretically derived. We also propose a two-step method which improves the performance by modifying the sample covariance matrix such that the amount of the subspace leakage is reduced. Furthermore, we introduce a phenomenon named as root-swap which occurs in the root-MUSIC algorithm in the low sample size region and degrades the performance of the DOA estimation. A new method is then proposed to alleviate this problem. Numerical examples and simulation results are given for uncorrelated and correlated sources to illustrate the improvement achieved by the proposed methods. Moreover, the proposed algorithms are combined with the pseudo-noise resampling method to further improve the performance.

  3. Semi-portable full-color electro-holographic display with small size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneyama, Takuo; Ichikawa, Tsubasa; Sakamoto, Yuji

    2014-02-01

    Although various 3-D head mounted displays (HMDs) using stereograms have been implemented, extended usage of those systems cause discomfort, fatigue and tiredness because stereogram do not satisfy all 3-D visual cues: accommodation, vergence, and parallax. On the other hand, electro-holography enables observers to view natural 3-D images with minimal discomfort due to satisfying these necessary cues. This time, we fabricated a small sized full-color holographic display system with a type of binocular eyepiece for the base of the wearable system. In this paper, we describe the structure of our system and the proposed calibration method for the arrangement of the optical parts. This calibration plays an important role in the accuracy of the reconstructed images. The main optical parts are combined to a single component to keep the exact arrangement, so this system is semi-portable and can be used everywhere with only a little adjustment. The system has the slide structure between left and right view point like binoculars to eliminate the influence of individual interpupillary distances (PDs). The field sequential color method enables the system to reconstruct full-color images by this display system. The light source is a full-color LED covered with a sharpened fiber and the tip of the fiber works as an almost ideal point light source. The results of the subjective experiments show that reconstructed full-color images are statistically located at the correct depths and satisfy correct accommodation and vergence without the influence of individual PDs.

  4. Gastrointestinal nematodes in grazing dairy cattle from small and medium-sized farms in southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Piekarska, J; Płoneczka-Janeczko, K; Kantyka, M; Kuczaj, M; Gorczykowski, M; Janeczko, K

    2013-11-15

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes and the intensity of infection in grazing dairy cattle from small and medium-sized farms in southern Poland. The level of antibodies against Ostertagia ostertagi in the bulk tank milk (BTM) from the animals was also assessed. Rectal fecal samples collected from 361 cows on 20 farms were examined using Willis-Schlaaf flotation and the McMaster method. BTM samples were tested for the presence of O. ostertagi antibodies using ELISA. Multiplex PCR was used to identify the third-stage larvae (L3) of gastrointestinal nematodes derived from the culture of pooled fecal samples from sampled farms. Gastrointestinal nematode eggs were found in the samples from 18 of the 20 herds with a prevalence range from 20.4 to 94.5%. The average number of eggs excreted in the feces of the herds was 200 eggs per gram (EPG). Antibodies to O. ostertagi were found in 20 of the examined herds (100%), of which 6 had optical density ratios (ODR) greater than 0.5. PCR results showed the presence of three nematode species: Ostertagia ostertagi, Cooperia oncophora and Oesophagostomum radiatum. PMID:23958284

  5. Realization of a small-size high resolution linear neutron scintillation detector

    SciTech Connect

    Engels, R.; Reinartz, R.; Reinhart, P.; Schelten, J.; Jansen, E.; Schaefer, W.

    1998-06-01

    The spectrum of position sensitive neutron scintillation detectors, which have been developed and designed in the institute during the last decade, comprises several high resolution linear detectors. The design of the small size high resolution detector is based on a modified Anger technology using a linear array of 24 HAMAMATSU type R1770 rectangular photomultipliers and a 1 mm {sup 6}Li glass scintillator. The sensitive detector area is 200 x 20 mm{sup 2} and the spatial resolution is 1.2 mm. The neutron sensitivity at 1{angstrom} is about 65% and the residual gamma sensitivity is less than 10{sup {minus}4} and the maximum count rate is about 100 kHz. The detector is linked to a highly flexible PC-based data acquisition system with 12 bit position and 16 bit time resolution. The stand alone detector and data acquisition system is aimed preferably at pulsed sources performing high resolution angle-dispersive time-of-flight experiments.

  6. Use of recycling through medium size granular filters to treat small food processing industry effluents.

    PubMed

    Ménoret, C; Boutin, C; Liénard, A; Brissaud, F

    2002-01-01

    Currently there are no suitable wastewater treatment systems for effluents from small food processing industries (dairy, cheese, wine production). Such raw sewages are characterized by high organic matter concentrations (about 10 g COD L-1) and relatively low daily volumes (about 2 m3). An adaptation of attached-growth cultures on fine media processes, known to be easy and inexpensive to use, could fit both the technical and economical context of those industries. Coarser filter particle size distributions than those normally used allow a better aeration and reduce clogging risk. The transit time of the effluent through the porous filter materials is shortened and requires recycling to increase the contact time between the biomass and the substrate. A pilot plant was built to compare the efficiency of two kinds of filter materials, gravel (2-5 mm) and pozzolana (3-7 mm). Two measurement campaigns were undertaken on a full-scale unit dealing with cheese dairy effluents. Both pilot-scale and full-scale plants show high COD removal rates (> 95%). Pilot-scale experiments show that accumulation of organic matter leads to the clogging of the recycling filter. To prevent early clogging, a better definition of feeding cycles is needed. PMID:12201106

  7. TELICS—A Telescope Instrument Control System for Small/Medium Sized Astronomical Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Mudit K.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Burse, Mahesh P.; Chordia, Pravin A.; Chillal, Kalpesh S.; Mestry, Vilas B.; Das, Hillol K.; Kohok, Abhay A.

    2009-10-01

    For any modern astronomical observatory, it is essential to have an efficient interface between the telescope and its back-end instruments. However, for small and medium-sized observatories, this requirement is often limited by tight financial constraints. Therefore a simple yet versatile and low-cost control system is required for such observatories to minimize cost and effort. Here we report the development of a modern, multipurpose instrument control system TELICS (Telescope Instrument Control System) to integrate the controls of various instruments and devices mounted on the telescope. TELICS consists of an embedded hardware unit known as a common control unit (CCU) in combination with Linux-based data acquisition and user interface. The hardware of the CCU is built around the ATmega 128 microcontroller (Atmel Corp.) and is designed with a backplane, master-slave architecture. A Qt-based graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed and the back-end application software is based on C/C++. TELICS provides feedback mechanisms that give the operator good visibility and a quick-look display of the status and modes of instruments as well as data. TELICS has been used for regular science observations since 2008 March on the 2 m, f/10 IUCAA Telescope located at Girawali in Pune, India.

  8. 76 FR 42157 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... recipients of Federal contracts set aside for small businesses, Service-Disabled Veteran- Owned (SDVO) small businesses, Participants in SBA's 8(a) Business Development (BD) Program, or Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB... regulations require that recipients of Federal supply contracts set aside for small businesses, SDVO......

  9. 75 FR 32231 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... businesses, or Participants in the SBA's 8(a) BD Program provide the product of a small business manufacturer... waiver would allow otherwise qualified small businesses to supply the products of any manufacturer on a Federal contract set aside for small businesses, Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned (SDVO) small businesses...

  10. 75 FR 42173 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... businesses to supply the products of any manufacturer on a Federal contract set aside for small businesses, Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned (SDVO) small businesses or Participants in SBA's 8(a) Business Development... supply contracts set aside for small businesses, SDVO small businesses, or Participants in the SBA's...

  11. Genetic effective size is three orders of magnitude smaller than adult census size in an abundant, Estuarine-dependent marine fish (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Thomas F; Wares, John P; Gold, John R

    2002-01-01

    Using eight microsatellite loci and a variety of analytical methods, we estimated genetic effective size (N(e)) of an abundant and long-lived marine fish species, the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), in the northern Gulf of Mexico (Gulf). The ratio N(e)/N, where short-term variance N(e) was estimated via the temporal method from shifts in allele-frequency data over four cohorts and where N reflected a current estimate of adult census size in the northern Gulf, was approximately 0.001. In an idealized population, this ratio should approximate unity. The extraordinarily low value of N(e)/N appears to arise from high variance in individual reproductive success and perhaps more importantly from variance in productivity of critical spawning and nursery habitats located in spatially discrete bays and estuaries throughout the northern Gulf. An estimate of N(e) based on a coalescent approach, which measures long-term, inbreeding effective size, was four orders of magnitude lower than the estimate of current census size, suggesting that factors presently driving N(e)/N to low values among red drum in the northern Gulf may have operated similarly in the past. Models that predict N(e)/N exclusively from demographic and life-history features will seriously overestimate N(e) if variance in reproductive success and variance in productivity among spatially discrete demes is underestimated. Our results indicate that these variances, especially variance in productivity among demes, must be large for red drum. Moreover, our study indicates that vertebrate populations with enormous adult census numbers may still be at risk relative to decline and extinction from genetic factors. PMID:12454077

  12. Desmoplastic small round-cell tumor: an adult with previous exposure to agent orange.

    PubMed

    Baz, Walid; El-Soueidi, Raymond; Nakhl, Fadi; Aoun, Nelly; Chin, Nena; Dhar, Meeko

    2010-06-01

    Desmoplastic small round-cell tumor is an uncommon, highly aggressive tumor with a predilection for pediatric age groups and young adults. It is very unusual in the elderly population. Although Agent Orange has been associated with soft-tissue sarcoma, an association with desmoplastic small round-cell tumor has not been reported. A 52-year-old male presented with abdominal distention, dyspnea, and a 9 kg weight loss. Prior history was significant for hepatitis C and diabetes. He was a Vietnam veteran and he admitted being exposed to Agent Orange. On physical examination, the abdomen was distended and tense. Computed tomography scan of the chest, abdomen and pelvis demonstrated extensive mediastinal and retroperitoneal adenopathy, diffuse omental masses and extensive pleural, intra-abdominal and pelvic ascites. Omental core needle biopsy was consistent with desmoplastic small round-cell tumor based on morphology and immunohistochemistry. He responded poorly to chemotherapy with high-dose cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and vincristine and died 5 months after presentation secondary to neutropenic sepsis despite G-CSF support and antibiotics. PMID:20382635

  13. Effect of meal size reduction and protein enrichment on intake and satiety in vital community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Ziylan, Canan; Kremer, Stefanie; Eerens, Jessie; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2016-10-01

    Undernutrition risk among community-dwelling older adults is partly caused by inadequate protein intake. Enriching readymade meals with protein could be beneficial in increasing protein intake. Moreover, reduced-size meals could suit older adults with diminished appetite. In this single-blind randomized crossover study with 120 participants (age: 70.5 ± 4.5 y, BMI: 27.2 ± 4.4 kg/m(2)), 60 participants consumed four beef meals and another 60 consumed four chicken meals on four different days, once per week. These meals were produced according to a 2 × 2 factorial design: the protein content was either ∼25 g (lower) or ∼30 g (enriched), and the portion size was either 450 g (normal) or of 400 g (reduced). Palatability evaluation, meal intake, and subsequent satiety ratings after 120 min were measured. No significant differences in palatability among meals were found. While absolute intake (g) of the normal-size meals was significantly higher than that of the reduced-size meals, the relative intake (%) of the served meals did not differ between the four meals. Both protein and energy intakes were significantly higher for the enriched meals, regardless of portion size. Protein intakes were 5.4 g and 5.1 g higher in the normal-size and reduced-size enriched beef meals, respectively, and 6.1 g and 7.1 g higher in the enriched chicken meals, respectively. The normal-size enriched beef meal and reduced-size enriched chicken meal led to slightly but significantly higher ratings of satiety than the non-enriched meals. Due to these mixed satiety findings, separate effects of meal-size reduction and protein enrichment could not be distinguished in this study. The intake findings show that palatable protein-enriched meals support higher protein and energy intakes in vital community-dwelling older adults during a single meal. PMID:27238898

  14. Intentional genetic introgression influences survival of adults and subadults in a small, inbred felid population.

    PubMed

    Benson, John F; Hostetler, Jeffrey A; Onorato, David P; Johnson, Warren E; Roelke, Melody E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Jansen, Deborah; Oli, Madan K

    2011-09-01

    1. Inbreeding and low genetic diversity can cause reductions in individual fitness and increase extinction risk in animal populations. Intentional introgression, achieved by releasing genetically diverse individuals into inbred populations, has been used as a conservation tool to improve demographic performance in endangered populations. 2. By the 1980s, Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi) had been reduced to a small, inbred population that appeared to be on the brink of extinction. In 1995, female pumas from Texas (P. c. stanleyana) were released in occupied panther range as part of an intentional introgression programme to restore genetic variability and improve demographic performance of panthers. 3. We used 25 years (1981-2006) of continuous radiotelemetry and genetic data to estimate and model subadult and adult panther survival and cause-specific mortality to provide rigorous sex and age class-specific survival estimates and evaluate the effect of the introgression programme on these parameters. 4. Genetic ancestry influenced annual survival of subadults and adults after introgression, as F(1) generation admixed panthers ( = 0·98) survived better than pre-introgression type panthers ( = 0·77) and other admixed individuals ( = 0·82). Furthermore, heterozygosity was higher for admixed panthers relative to pre-introgression type panthers and positively influenced survival. 5. Our results are consistent with hybrid vigour; however, extrinsic factors such as low density of males in some areas of panther range may also have contributed to higher survival of F(1) panthers. Regardless, improved survival of F(1) subadults and adults likely contributed to the numerical increase in panthers following introgression, and our results indicate that intentional admixture, achieved here by releasing individuals from another population, appears to have been successful in improving demographic performance in this highly endangered population. PMID:21338353

  15. Climate change impact on medium and small sized river catchments in Germany: An ensemble assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, I.; Düthmann, D.; Liebert, J.; Berg, P.; Feldmann, H.; Ihringer, J.; Kunstmann, H.; Merz, B.; Schädler, G.; Wagner, S.

    2012-04-01

    This study investigates the impact of climate change on three small to medium sized river catchments in Germany using a high-resolution RCM ensemble of seven kilometers spatial resolution. The three catchments represent the characteristic hydrology of the alpine Southern Germany (Ammer) and more sub-mountainous regions in the Eastern (Mulde) and Western (Ruhr) parts. Possible changes in discharge characteristics and flood risk for the near future are examined. The ensemble approach in this project additionally allows the evaluation of the uncertainties in the future projections. With two global climate models (ECHAM5, CCCma3), three realisations of ECHAM5, two regional climate models (CLM, WRF) and three hydrological models (PRMS, SWIM and WaSiM-ETH), discharge of the three catchments is simulated and analyzed. Thereby, each catchment is simulated by two different hydrological models. Both global climate models (GCMs) are driven by the emission scenario A1B and the simulation period includes the years 1971-2000 as control period and 2021-2050 for the scenario. The results project that only the Ruhr catchment in the West of Germany will be subjected to higher flood hazard. The simulated significant future increases of the mean monthly maximum discharges are up to 20% in winter and summer. In spring and autumn, increase of flood hazard is less pronounced. For the other two catchments in the East and South of Germany, the flood hazard is projected to stay at the current level. The Ammer catchment shows statistical non-significant increasing flooding risks in winter and decreasing tendencies in summer. There are also no statistically significant changes projected for the Mulde catchment, although small increases can be seen in summer and autumn. The ensemble approach with different GCMs, high-resolution regional climate models (RCMs) and hydrological models allows the analysis of uncertainties and their attribution within the flood risk predictions. Major uncertainties

  16. Neuropsychological deficits in young adults born small-for-gestational age (SGA) at term.

    PubMed

    Østgård, Heidi Furre; Skranes, Jon; Martinussen, Marit; Jacobsen, Geir W; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Vik, Torstein; Pripp, Are H; Løhaugen, Gro C C

    2014-03-01

    Reduced IQ, learning difficulties and poor school performance have been reported in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) subjects. However, few studies include a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. Our aim was to study neuropsychological functioning in young adults born SGA at term. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was administered to 58 SGA subjects (birth weight <10th centile) born at term, and 81 term non-SGA controls (birth weight ≥10th centile). The SGA group obtained significantly (p < .01) lower scores on the attention, executive and memory domains compared to non-SGA controls and showed higher risk of obtaining scores below -1.5 SD on the memory domain (odds ratio = 13.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.57, 112.47). At a subtest level, the SGA group obtained lower scores on most neuropsychological tests, with significant differences on 6 of 46 measures: the Trail Making Test 3 (letter sequencing), the Wechsler Memory Scale mental control and the auditory immediate memory scale, the Design Fluency, the Stroop 3 (inhibition) and the Visual Motor Integration (VMI) motor coordination subtest. Young adults born SGA score more poorly on neuropsychological tests compared with non-SGA controls. Differences were modest, with more significant differences in the memory domain. PMID:24559531

  17. Why "Small" Can Be Better: An Exploration of the Relationships between Class Size and Pedagogical Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harfitt, Gary James

    2013-01-01

    A central issue in the class size debate is that while cutting class size might lead to improved teaching and learning, it is also possible that it may not if teachers do not seek to exploit the advantages of a smaller class size through an alternative pedagogy. Research suggests that teachers do not change their pedagogy when moving from large…

  18. Small Family, Smart Family? Family Size and the IQ Scores of Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses Norwegian data to estimate the effect of family size on IQ scores of men. Instrumental variables (IV) estimates using sex composition as an instrument show no significant negative effect of family size; however, IV estimates using twins imply that family size has a negative effect on IQ scores. Our results suggest that the effect…

  19. Meiofauna as food source for small-sized demersal fish in the southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schückel, Sabine; Sell, Anne F.; Kihara, Terue C.; Koeppen, Annemarie; Kröncke, Ingrid; Reiss, Henning

    2013-06-01

    Meiofauna play an essential role in the diet of small and juvenile fish. However, it is less well documented which meiofaunal prey groups in the sediment are eaten by fish. Trophic relationships between five demersal fish species (solenette, goby, scaldfish, dab <20 cm and plaice <20 cm) and meiofaunal prey were investigated by means of comparing sediment samples and fish stomach contents collected seasonally between January 2009 and January 2010 in the German Bight. In all seasons, meiofauna in the sediment was numerically dominated by nematodes, whereas harpacticoids dominated in terms of occurrence and biomass. Between autumn and spring, the harpacticoid community was characterized by Pseudobradya minor and Halectinosoma canaliculatum, and in summer by Longipedia coronata. Meiofaunal prey dominated the diets of solenette and gobies in all seasons, occurred only seasonally in the diet of scaldfish and dab, and was completely absent in the diet of plaice. For all fish species (excluding plaice) and in each season, harpacticoids were the most important meiofauna prey group in terms of occurrence, abundance and biomass. High values of Ivlev's index of selectivity for Pseudobradya spp. in winter and Longipedia spp. in summer provided evidence that predation on harpacticoids was species-selective, even though both harpacticoids co-occurred in high densities in the sediments. Most surficial feeding strategies of the studied fish species and emergent behaviours of Pseudobradya spp. and Longipedia spp. might have caused this prey selection. With increasing fish sizes, harpacticoid prey densities decreased in the fish stomachs, indicating a diet change towards larger benthic prey during the ontogeny of all fish species investigated.

  20. Size And Shape of Detergent Micelles Determined By Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, Jan; Columbus, Linda; Chu, Vincent B.; Lesley, Scott A.; Doniach, Sebastian; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /SLAC, SSRL /Pasteur Inst., Paris /Scripps Res. Inst. /Novartis Res. Found.

    2009-04-29

    We present a systematic analysis of the aggregation number and shape of micelles formed by nine detergents commonly used in the study of membrane proteins. Small-angle X-ray scattering measurements are reported for glucosides with 8 and 9 alkyl carbons (OG/NG), maltosides and phosphocholines with 10 and 12 alkyl carbons (DM/DDM and FC-10/FC-12), 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-phosphocholine (DHPC), 1-palmitoyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)] (LPPG), and 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propane sulfonate (CHAPS). The SAXS intensities are well described by two-component ellipsoid models, with a dense outer shell corresponding to the detergent head groups and a less electron dense hydrophobic core. These models provide an intermediate resolution view of micelle size and shape. In addition, we show that Guinier analysis of the forward scattering intensity can be used to obtain an independent and model-free measurement of the micelle aggregation number and radius of gyration. This approach has the advantage of being easily generalizable to protein-detergent complexes, where simple geometric models are inapplicable. Furthermore, we have discovered that the position of the second maximum in the scattering intensity provides a direct measurement of the characteristic head group-head group spacing across the micelle core. Our results for the micellar aggregation numbers and dimensions agree favorably with literature values as far as they are available. We de novo determine the shape of FC-10, FC-12, DM, LPPG, and CHAPS micelles and the aggregation numbers of FC-10 and OG to be ca. 50 and 250, respectively. Combined, these data provide a comprehensive view of the determinants of micelle formation and serve as a starting point to correlate detergent properties with detergent-protein interactions.

  1. PicoBots -A small-sized exploration rover standard for universities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiß, André

    This paper will introduce a pico-class robotic platform primarily intended for future lunar exploration. Inspired by the Cubesat standard, an affordable and easy to fabricate design will be introduced allowing universities to develop and perform own rover-based missions. As all major space agencies have set the goal to go to Earths natural satellite in the near future, several opportunities will arise to piggyback to the moon. With a maximum weight of 1 kg, one or multiple PicoBots, plus an eventually needed base station, could easily fill mass budget margins. By utilizing the alternating tripod gait, adapted from simple insects like the cockroach, locomotion can be realized with only two actuators. In comparison to most exploration rovers, the chosen propulsion system leads to a lower number in `degrees of freedom' and therefore a much higher demand for a simple environment. Main advantage, on the other hand, is that it minimizes the complexity of the control-algorithm and reduces the mass as well as the cost. Thanks to the progress in the field of MEMS-based technologies, subsystem components and instruments are available in small sizes, are lightweight and with low power requirements. PicoBots could either be specifically designed for a single mechanical task, e.g. sampling and analysis of rocks, or numerous sensoric payloads, like the seismo-or gravimeter. Swarm intelligence and behavior could also be an interesting field of research. To protect the electronics from radiation, a complementary, multi-layered `spacesuit' will be offered. If needed the suit can also be pressurized thus allowing the use of components not functioning in the vacuum environment.

  2. Reliable calculation in probabilistic logic: Accounting for small sample size and model uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Ferson, S.

    1996-12-31

    A variety of practical computational problems arise in risk and safety assessments, forensic statistics and decision analyses in which the probability of some event or proposition E is to be estimated from the probabilities of a finite list of related subevents or propositions F,G,H,.... In practice, the analyst`s knowledge may be incomplete in two ways. First, the probabilities of the subevents may be imprecisely known from statistical estimations, perhaps based on very small sample sizes. Second, relationships among the subevents may be known imprecisely. For instance, there may be only limited information about their stochastic dependencies. Representing probability estimates as interval ranges on has been suggested as a way to address the first source of imprecision. A suite of AND, OR and NOT operators defined with reference to the classical Frochet inequalities permit these probability intervals to be used in calculations that address the second source of imprecision, in many cases, in a best possible way. Using statistical confidence intervals as inputs unravels the closure properties of this approach however, requiring that probability estimates be characterized by a nested stack of intervals for all possible levels of statistical confidence, from a point estimate (0% confidence) to the entire unit interval (100% confidence). The corresponding logical operations implied by convolutive application of the logical operators for every possible pair of confidence intervals reduces by symmetry to a manageably simple level-wise iteration. The resulting calculus can be implemented in software that allows users to compute comprehensive and often level-wise best possible bounds on probabilities for logical functions of events.

  3. Job Stress in the United Kingdom: Are Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and Large Enterprises Different?

    PubMed

    Lai, Yanqing; Saridakis, George; Blackburn, Robert

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the relationships between firm size and employees' experience of work stress. We used a matched employer-employee dataset (Workplace Employment Relations Survey 2011) that comprises of 7182 employees from 1210 private organizations in the United Kingdom. Initially, we find that employees in small and medium-sized enterprises experience lower level of overall job stress than those in large enterprises, although the effect disappears when we control for individual and organizational characteristics in the model. We also find that quantitative work overload, job insecurity and poor promotion opportunities, good work relationships and poor communication are strongly associated with job stress in the small and medium-sized enterprises, whereas qualitative work overload, poor job autonomy and employee engagements are more related with larger enterprises. Hence, our estimates show that the association and magnitude of estimated effects differ significantly by enterprise size. PMID:24302431

  4. The effect of in vivo hydrocortisone administration on the labelling index and size of chromaffin tissue in the postnatal and adult mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Monkhouse, W S

    1986-01-01

    Hydrocortisone administration in vivo to neonatal mice for seven days led to a significant increase in both the size and the labelling index of extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue (as represented by the para-aortic body) of 8 days old mice. In untreated animals at this age, the para-aortic body was in most cases too small to obtain a valid labelling index. In the para-aortic bodies of 14 days old, 21 days old and adult mice, the extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue was too dispersed to obtain values for either volumetric analysis or labelling indices, and hydrocortisone was without significant effect in promoting a hyperplastic response. In the postnatal adrenal medulla at all ages studied, hydrocortisone had no effect on the medullary size or on the labelling indices of either adrenaline- or noradrenaline-storing cells, although it led to a marked diminution of adrenocortical volume. The relative proportion of adrenaline-storing cells increased between the values for 8 days old animals and those for adults; this was unaffected by hydrocortisone. The cortico-medullary ratio remained unchanged from the eighth postnatal day onwards. The results are discussed and related to those of other workers. It is suggested that factors as yet unknown might modulate the response to corticosteroids of developing intra- and extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:3693040

  5. Learning to Identify Near-Acuity Letters, either with or without Flankers, Results in Improved Letter Size and Spacing Limits in Adults with Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Susana T. L.; Li, Roger W.; Levi, Dennis M.

    2012-01-01

    Amblyopia is a developmental abnormality that results in deficits for a wide range of visual tasks, most notably, the reduced ability to see fine details, the loss in contrast sensitivity especially for small objects and the difficulty in seeing objects in clutter (crowding). The primary goal of this study was to evaluate whether crowding can be ameliorated in adults with amblyopia through perceptual learning using a flanked letter identification task that was designed to reduce crowding, and if so, whether the improvements transfer to untrained visual functions: visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and the size of visual span (the amount of information obtained in one fixation). To evaluate whether the improvements following this training task were specific to training with flankers, we also trained another group of adult observers with amblyopia using a single letter identification task that was designed to improve letter contrast sensitivity, not crowding. Following 10,000 trials of training, both groups of observers showed improvements in the respective training task. The improvements generalized to improved visual acuity, letter contrast sensitivity, size of the visual span, and reduced crowding. The magnitude of the improvement for each of these measurements was similar in the two training groups. Perceptual learning regimens aimed at reducing crowding or improving letter contrast sensitivity are both effective in improving visual acuity, contrast sensitivity for near-acuity objects and reducing the crowding effect, and could be useful as a clinical treatment for amblyopia. PMID:22558234

  6. Methotrexate and etanercept-induced primary cutaneous CD4 positive small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma*

    PubMed Central

    MA, Han; Qiu, Shu; Lu, Rongbiao; Feng, Peiying; Lu, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs and biological agents may represent a potential risk of lymphoma development in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. But most cases are diffuse, large B-cell lymphomas. Primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma, a provisional entity in the 2005 WHO-EORTC classification of cutaneous lymphomas, is only described in a limited number of reports. To our knowledge, our case is a rare instance of primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma, after associated treatment with methotrexate and etanercept, in a patient with moderate rheumatoid arthritis who had undergone an orchidectomy incorrectly.

  7. Corpus Callosum Size and Diffusion Tensor Anisotropy in Adolescents and Adults with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Balevich, Emily C.; Haznedar, M. Mehmet; Wang, Eugene; Newmark, Randall E.; Bloom, Rachel; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Aronowitz, Jonathan; Tang, Cheuk Y.; Chu, King-Wai; Byne, William; Buchsbaum, Monte S.; Hazlett, Erin A.

    2015-01-01

    The corpus callosum has been implicated as a region of dysfunctional connectivity in schizophrenia, but the association between age and callosal pathology is unclear. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) were performed on adults (n=34) and adolescents (n=17) with schizophrenia and adult (n=33) and adolescent (n=15) age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The corpus callosum was manually traced on each participant’s MRI, and the DTI scan was co-registered to the MRI. The corpus callosum was divided into five anteroposterior segments. Area and anisotropy were calculated for each segment. Both patient groups demonstrated reduced callosal anisotropy; however, the adolescents exhibited reductions mostly in anterior regions while the reductions were more prominent in posterior regions of the adults. The adolescent patients showed greater decreases in absolute area as compared with the adult patients, particularly in the anterior segments. However, the adults showed greater reductions when area was considered relative to whole brain white matter volume. Our results suggest that the initial stages of the illness are characterized by deficiencies in frontal connections, and the chronic phase is characterized by deficits in the posterior corpus callosum; or, alternatively, adolescent-onset schizophrenia may represent a different or more severe form of the illness. PMID:25637358

  8. Comparing capture-recapture methods for estimation of the size of small and medium-sized populations using empirical data on commercial turkey farms in Canada.

    PubMed

    El Allaki, Farouk; Christensen, Jette; Vallières, André

    2015-06-01

    The study objectives were (1) to conduct a systematic review of the performance of capture-recapture methods; (2) to use empirical data to estimate population size in a small-sized population (turkey breeder farms) and a medium-sized population (meat turkey farms) by applying two-source capture-recapture methods (the Lincoln-Petersen, the Chapman, and Chao's lower-bound estimators) and multi-source capture-recapture methods (the log-linear modeling and sample coverage approaches); and (3) to compare the performance of these methods in predicting the true population sizes (2007 data). Our set-up was unique in that we knew the population sizes for turkey breeder farms (99) and meat turkey farms (592) in Canada in 2007, which we applied as our true population sizes, and had surveillance data from the Canadian Notifiable Avian Influenza Surveillance System (2008-2012). We defined each calendar year of sampling as a data source. We confirmed that the two-source capture-recapture methods were sensitive to the violation of the local independence assumption. The log-linear modeling and sample coverage approaches yielded estimates that were closer to the true population sizes than were the estimates provided by the two-source methods for both populations. The performance of both multi-source capture-recapture methods depended on the number of data sources analyzed and the size of the population. Simulation studies are recommended to better understand the limits of each multi-source capture-recapture method. PMID:25542525

  9. How transplant surgeons can overcome the inevitable insufficiency of allograft size during adult living-donor liver transplantation: strategy for donor safety with a smaller-size graft and excellent recipient results.

    PubMed

    Hori, Tomohide; Ogura, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Kohei; Kaido, Toshimi; Segawa, Hajime; Okajima, Hideaki; Kogure, Takayuki; Uemoto, Shinji

    2012-01-01

    Small-for-size grafts are an issue in liver transplantation. Portal venous pressure (PVP) was monitored and intentionally controlled during living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in 155 adult recipients. The indocyanine green elimination rate (kICG) was simultaneously measured in 16 recipients and divided by the graft weight (g) to reflect portal venous flow (PVF). The target PVP was <20 mmHg. Patients were divided by the final PVP (mmHg): Group A, PVP < 12; Group B, 12 ≤ PVP < 15; Group C, 15 ≤ PVP < 20; and Group D, PVP ≥ 20. With intentional PVP control, we performed splenectomy and collateral ligation in 80 cases, splenectomy in 39 cases, and splenectomy, collateral ligation, and additional creation in five cases. Thirty-one cases received no modulation. Groups A and B showed good LDLT results, while Groups C and D did not. Final PVP was the most important factor for the LDLT results, and the PVP cutoffs for good outcomes and clinical courses were both 15.5 mmHg. The respective kICG/graft weight cutoffs were 3.5580 × 10(-4) /g and 4.0015 × 10(-4) /g. Intentional PVP modulation at <15 mmHg is a sure surgical strategy for small-for-size grafts, to establish greater donor safety with good LDLT results. The kICG/graft weight value may have potential as a parameter for optimal PVF and a predictor for LDLT results. PMID:22686957

  10. Searching for the vomeronasal organ of adult humans: preliminary findings on location, structure, and size.

    PubMed

    Smith, T D; Siegel, M I; Burrows, A M; Mooney, M P; Burdi, A R; Fabrizio, P A; Clemente, F R

    1998-06-15

    The adult human vomeronasal organ (VNO) has been the focus of numerous recent investigations, yet its developmental continuity from the human fetal VNO is poorly understood. The present study compared new data on the adult human "VNO" with previous findings on the fetal human VNO. Nasal septa were removed from twelve adult human cadavers and each specimen was histologically sectioned. Coronal sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid-Schiff-hematoxylin. The sections were examined by light microscopy for the presence of VNOs and the anterior paraseptal cartilages (PC). VNOs were quantified using a computer reconstruction technique to obtain VNO length, volume, and vomeronasal epithelium (VNE) volume. Histologically, VNOs and PCs were identified in eleven specimens. VNOs had ciliated, pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells. Variations (e.g., multiple communications to the nasal cavity) were observed in several specimens. Quantification was possible for 16 right or left VNOs. Right or left VNOs ranged from 3.5 to 11.8 mm in length, from 1.8 to 33.8 x 10(-4)cc in volume, and from 2.7 to 18.1 x 10(-4)cc in VNE volume. Results indicated that the adult human VNO was similar in VNE morphology, lumen shape, and spatial relationships when compared to human fetal VNOs. By comparison with previous fetal VNO measures, mean VNO length, volume, and VNE volume were larger in adult humans. These results support previous suggestions that postnatal VNO growth occurs. Findings on location and spatial relationships of the adult VNO were similar to those seen in human fetuses, but critical questions remain regarding the ontogeny of the vomeronasal nerves and VNE. PMID:9712196

  11. Assessment of metal exposure, ecological status and required water quality monitoring strategies in small- to medium-size temperate rivers.

    PubMed

    Marijić, Vlatka Filipović; Perić, Mirela Sertić; Kepčija, Renata Matoničkin; Dragun, Zrinka; Kovarik, Ivana; Gulin, Vesna; Erk, Marijana

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to obtain a better understanding of the seasonal variability of total dissolved metal/metalloid levels and physicochemical parameters within small- to medium-size freshwater ecosystems in temperate climate region. The research was conducted in four seasons in the Sutla River, medium-size polluted, and the Črnomerec Stream, small-size unpolluted watercourse in Croatia. In the Sutla River, characterized by the rural/industrial catchment, physicochemical parameters and total dissolved metal concentrations of 21 trace and 4 macro elements were analysed downstream of the point source of pollution, the glass production facility, indicating for the first time their variability across four seasons. Based on dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids, nutrient concentrations, conductivity and total chemical oxygen demand, quality status of the Sutla River was good, but moderate to poor during summer, what was additionally confirmed by the highest levels of the most of 25 measured metals/metalloids in summer. Comparison with the reference small-size watercourse, the Črnomerec Stream, indicated significant anthropogenic impact on the Sutla River, most evident for Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb and Tl levels (3-70-fold higher in the Sutla River across all seasons). Generally, presented results indicated significant decrease of the water quality in the anthropogenically impacted small- to medium-size watercourses in summer, regarding physicochemical water parameters and total dissolved metal/metalloid concentrations, and pointed to significant seasonality of these parameters. Confirmed seasonality of river ecological status indicates that seasonal assessment represents a prerequisite for proper classification of the water quality in small- to medium-size temperate rivers. PMID:26745644

  12. Small or far away? Size and distance perception in the praying mantis

    PubMed Central

    Bissianna, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Stereo or ‘3D’ vision is an important but costly process seen in several evolutionarily distinct lineages including primates, birds and insects. Many selective advantages could have led to the evolution of stereo vision, including range finding, camouflage breaking and estimation of object size. In this paper, we investigate the possibility that stereo vision enables praying mantises to estimate the size of prey by using a combination of disparity cues and angular size cues. We used a recently developed insect 3D cinema paradigm to present mantises with virtual prey having differing disparity and angular size cues. We predicted that if they were able to use these cues to gauge the absolute size of objects, we should see evidence for size constancy where they would strike preferentially at prey of a particular physical size, across a range of simulated distances. We found that mantises struck most often when disparity cues implied a prey distance of 2.5 cm; increasing the implied distance caused a significant reduction in the number of strikes. We, however, found no evidence for size constancy. There was a significant interaction effect of the simulated distance and angular size on the number of strikes made by the mantis but this was not in the direction predicted by size constancy. This indicates that mantises do not use their stereo vision to estimate object size. We conclude that other selective advantages, not size constancy, have driven the evolution of stereo vision in the praying mantis. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Vision in our three-dimensional world’. PMID:27269605

  13. Small or far away? Size and distance perception in the praying mantis.

    PubMed

    Nityananda, Vivek; Bissianna, Geoffrey; Tarawneh, Ghaith; Read, Jenny

    2016-06-19

    Stereo or '3D' vision is an important but costly process seen in several evolutionarily distinct lineages including primates, birds and insects. Many selective advantages could have led to the evolution of stereo vision, including range finding, camouflage breaking and estimation of object size. In this paper, we investigate the possibility that stereo vision enables praying mantises to estimate the size of prey by using a combination of disparity cues and angular size cues. We used a recently developed insect 3D cinema paradigm to present mantises with virtual prey having differing disparity and angular size cues. We predicted that if they were able to use these cues to gauge the absolute size of objects, we should see evidence for size constancy where they would strike preferentially at prey of a particular physical size, across a range of simulated distances. We found that mantises struck most often when disparity cues implied a prey distance of 2.5 cm; increasing the implied distance caused a significant reduction in the number of strikes. We, however, found no evidence for size constancy. There was a significant interaction effect of the simulated distance and angular size on the number of strikes made by the mantis but this was not in the direction predicted by size constancy. This indicates that mantises do not use their stereo vision to estimate object size. We conclude that other selective advantages, not size constancy, have driven the evolution of stereo vision in the praying mantis.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'. PMID:27269605

  14. Migrate small, sound big: functional constraints on body size promote tracheal elongation in cranes.

    PubMed

    Jones, M R; Witt, C C

    2014-06-01

    Organismal traits often represent the outcome of opposing selection pressures. Although social or sexual selection can cause the evolution of traits that constrain function or survival (e.g. ornamental feathers), it is unclear how the strength and direction of selection respond to ecological shifts that increase the severity of the constraint. For example, reduced body size might evolve by natural selection to enhance flight performance in migratory birds, but social or sexual selection favouring large body size may provide a countervailing force. Tracheal elongation is a potential outcome of these opposing pressures because it allows birds to convey an auditory signal of exaggerated body size. We predicted that the evolution of migration in cranes has coincided with a reduction in body size and a concomitant intensification of social or sexual selection for apparent large body size via tracheal elongation. We used a phylogenetic comparative approach to examine the relationships among migration distance, body mass and trachea length in cranes. As predicted, we found that migration distance correlated negatively with body size and positively with proportional trachea length. This result was consistent with our hypothesis that evolutionary reductions in body size led to intensified selection for trachea length. The most likely ultimate causes of intensified positive selection on trachea length are the direct benefits of conveying a large body size in intraspecific contests for mates and territories. We conclude that the strength of social or sexual selection on crane body size is linked to the degree of functional constraint. PMID:24800977

  15. One Size Fits All? Promoting Condom Use for Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention among Heterosexual Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Visser, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this exploratory qualitative study were to increase our understanding of heterosexual young adults knowledge and beliefs about sexually transmitted infections (STIs) other than HIV, to explore their beliefs about the factors that influence condom use for STI prevention, and to explore their ideas about how best to promote condom use…

  16. The Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises Office (SME Office) at the European Medicines Agency.

    PubMed

    Carr, M

    2010-01-01

    On 15 December 2005, the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) launched an "SME Office" to provide financial and administrative assistance to micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), with the aim of promoting innovation and the development of new human and veterinary medicinal products by SMEs. According to current EU definition of an SME, companies with fewer than 250 employees, and an annual turnover of not more than 50 million euro or an annual balance sheet total of not more than 43 million euro, are eligible for assistance from the SME Office. Incentives available from the EMEA for SMEs, include: Administrative and procedural assistance from SME Office within the Agency; Fee reductions (90%) for scientific advice and inspections; Fee exemptions for certain administrative services (excluding parallel distribution); Deferral of the fee payable for an application for marketing authorisation or related inspection until after the grant of the marketing authorisation; Conditional fee exemption where scientific advice followed and marketing application is unsuccessful; Assistance with translations of the product information documents. At the end of May 2009, more than 380 companies from 21 countries across the European Economic Area (EEA) had SME status assigned by the EMEA. The large majority of companies are developing medicinal products for human use, 16 are veterinary companies, 15 companies are developing products for both human and veterinary use and 38 are regulatory consultants. Since the SME initiative started the Agency has processed more than 130 requests for scientific advice with fee reductions totalling of 6.9 million euro. Regulatory assistance has been provided to more than 170 companies and 12 companies have benefited from the SME translation service. Stakeholders have acknowledged the significant role the SME Office now plays as a service provider. In the period between January 2006 and June 2009, 34 applications for marketing authorization

  17. X-ray microanalysis in the environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM): Small size particles analysis limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khouchaf, L.; Verstraete, J.

    2002-07-01

    In this work we will present a study of the effects of some parameters such as pressure and data acquisition duration in EDS microanalysis results. The chamber pressure has been increased from 1Torr (133Pa) to 15 Torr (1995 Pa). Measurements with times of measurement varying between 180 seconds and 1800 seconds were carried out. Small size particles of iron and silicon are analyzed. The results show that at 1Torr (133Pa), the primary electron beam can move if the time of measurement is long, which introduces some mistakes in the microananlysis results. Moreover an increase in the chamber pressure induces an amplification of the skirt beam phenomena up to 160 microns. This fact adds some noise coming from the environment around the analyzed particle. We showed that, the displacement of the electron beam during measurement caused a decrease in the iron concentration versus the time of measurment which reachs approximately 15% when the time of measurement is 1800seconds. Dans cette étude nous présenterons les effets de certains paramètres tels que la durée d'acquisition et la pression dans la chambre du microscope électronique à balayage environnemental sur les résultats de la microanalyse X. La pression dans la chambre a été augmentée de 1 Torr (133 Pa) à 15 Torr (1995 Pa). Des mesures avec des durées d'acquisition entre 180 secondes et 1800 secondes ont été effectuées. Des particules de fer et de silicium de petites tailles sont analysées. Les résultats ont montré qu'à 1 Torr (133 Pa), le faisceau d'électrons primaire peut fluctuer si la durée d'acquisition est longue, ce qui induit quelques erreurs dans les résultats obtenus. Une augmentation de la pression dans la chambre induit une amplification des phénomènes de diffusion du faisceau d'électrons jusqu'à 160 microns. Ce fait, ajoute un certain bruit venant de l'environnement autour de la particule analysée. Nous avons ensuite montré que le déplacement du faisceau d'électrons pendant

  18. The influence of patient size on dose conversion coefficients: a hybrid phantom study for adult cardiac catheterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Perry; Lee, Choonsik; Johnson, Kevin; Siragusa, Daniel; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2009-06-01

    In this study, the influence of patient size on organ and effective dose conversion coefficients (DCCs) was investigated for a representative interventional fluoroscopic procedure—cardiac catheterization. The study was performed using hybrid phantoms representing an underweight, average and overweight American adult male. Reference body sizes were determined using the NHANES III database and parameterized based on standing height and total body mass. Organ and effective dose conversion coefficients were calculated for anterior-posterior, posterior-anterior, left anterior oblique and right anterior oblique projections using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX 2.5.0 with the metric dose area product being used as the normalization factor. Results show body size to have a clear influence on DCCs which increased noticeably when body size decreased. It was also shown that if patient size is neglected when choosing a DCC, the organ and effective dose will be underestimated to an underweight patient and will be overestimated to an underweight patient, with errors as large as 113% for certain projections. Results were further compared with those published for a KTMAN-2 Korean patient-specific tomographic phantom. The published DCCs aligned best with the hybrid phantom which most closely matched in overall body size. These results highlighted the need for and the advantages of phantom-patient matching, and it is recommended that hybrid phantoms be used to create a more diverse library of patient-dependent anthropomorphic phantoms for medical dose reconstruction.

  19. Spatial attention and reading ability: ERP correlates of flanker and cue-size effects in good and poor adult phonological decoders.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Allison Jane; Martin, Frances Heritage

    2015-12-01

    To investigate facilitatory and inhibitory processes during selective attention among adults with good (n=17) and poor (n=14) phonological decoding skills, a go/nogo flanker task was completed while EEG was recorded. Participants responded to a middle target letter flanked by compatible or incompatible flankers. The target was surrounded by a small or large circular cue which was presented simultaneously or 500ms prior. Poor decoders showed a greater RT cost for incompatible stimuli preceded by large cues and less RT benefit for compatible stimuli. Poor decoders also showed reduced modulation of ERPs by cue-size at left hemisphere posterior sites (N1) and by flanker compatibility at right hemisphere posterior sites (N1) and frontal sites (N2), consistent with processing differences in fronto-parietal attention networks. These findings have potential implications for understanding the relationship between spatial attention and phonological decoding in dyslexia. PMID:26562794

  20. Graduate Transition into Work: The Bridging Role of Graduate Placement Programmes in the Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprise Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Pádraig

    2015-01-01

    This research looks at the role of graduate placement programmes in bridging the gap between higher education and the small- and medium-sized enterprise (SME) sector. The research design and methodology used in this study was exploratory, in-depth and qualitative in nature. The research took the form of a multiple case study and focused on seven…

  1. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and...

  2. Entrepreneurial Training for the Growth of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Lessons from Central and Eastern Europe. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report brings together a number of principles as to best practice in supporting, through training, growth of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Central and Eastern Europe. Chapter 2 identifies key principles to be drawn from the West through a literature review. Chapter 3 reviews the "practice" of entrepreneurial training in Central…

  3. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and...

  4. Using Computer-Based Continuing Professional Education of Training Staff to Develop Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sooraksa, Nanta

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a career development program for staff involved in providing training for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand. Most of these staff were professional vocational teachers in schools. The program uses information communication technology (ICT), and its main objective is to teach Moodle software as a tool for…

  5. Virtual Class: Distance Learning for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in the Spanish Region of Castilla y Leon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Blanca; Perez, Maria Angeles; Verdu, Maria Jesus; Navazo, Maria Agustina; Lopez, Ricardo; Mompo, Rafael; Garcia, Joaquin

    Lifelong learning is becoming a necessity in the new Information Society where everyone, particularly small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), must keep up with new technologies. Education and training are of the most importance in this updating. An interdisciplinary and inter-university work group called "Canalejas" (Spain) has developed a…

  6. Staying Competitive. How Small and Mid-Sized Companies Are Meeting the Challenge of a Global Economy. Workforce Brief #1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Terri; Kaufmann, Barbara

    Small and mid-sized businesses must change their production and service delivery methods if they are to remain competitive in a global economy. According to businesspersons, service providers, and employees who participated in 18 focus groups in 10 cities throughout the United States, businesses are being forced to change their ways of doing…

  7. The Cooperation of Small and Middle-Sized Companies with Universities in Turkey: Acquiring Enterprising Skills Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalyan, Figen

    2004-01-01

    Higher education institutions are the places from where the societies base the information, deliver and apply it. Moreover, it is the place where the people who are required to bring innovations with required abilities, skills and attitudes are trained. Forming a network between the small and middle sized companies (SMSC) and higher education…

  8. Concept of an Exchange Network for the Development of Vocational Training in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudet, Rene

    An examination of the ways in which vocational training can be extended to small and medium-sized enterprises in the European Economic Community, this document consists of: an introduction; four parts containing multiple chapters; 10 case studies; and a bibliography. Following the introduction, which is an update of a report made in 1985, part one…

  9. Small Body Size at Birth and Behavioural Symptoms of ADHD in Children Aged Five to Six Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahti, J.; Raikkonen, K.; Kajantie, E.; Heinonen, K.; Pesonen, A.-K.; Jarvenpaa, A.-L.; Strandberg, T.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Behavioural disorders with a neurodevelopmental background, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), have been associated with a non-optimal foetal environment, reflected in small body size at birth. However, the evidence stems from highly selected groups with birth outcomes biased towards the extreme low end of the…

  10. A Bayesian Approach to International Distributor Selection for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Software Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lui, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying appropriate international distributors for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the software industry for overseas markets can determine a firm's future endeavors in international expansion. SMEs lack the complex skills in market research and decision analysis to identify suitable partners to engage in global market entry.…

  11. 77 FR 72766 - Small Business Size Standards: Support Activities for Mining

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... FR 41237). Because of changes in the Federal marketplace and industry structure since the last... caused by a large number of varying receipts based size standards (see 69 FR 13130 (March 4, 2004) and 57 FR 62515 (December 31, 1992)). At the beginning of the current comprehensive size standards...

  12. 77 FR 72691 - Small Business Size Standards: Administrative and Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ...)); NAICS Sector 72, Accommodation and Food Services (75 FR 61604,) (October 6, 2010)); and NAICS Sector 81... inflation adjustment to size standards was published in the Federal Register on July 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237... (76 FR 63510) seeking public comment on its proposal to increase the size standards for 37...

  13. Size-selective feeding on phytoplankton by two morpho-groups of the small freshwater fish Amblypharyngodon mola.

    PubMed

    Nandi, S; Saikia, S K

    2015-08-01

    Two morpho-groups (i.e., small, MGS and big, MGL) of the small freshwater fish Amblypharyngodon mola were studied for their feeding behaviour in the natural environment. Both the morpho-groups fed on a variety of phytoplankton including Cyanophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and Euglenophyceae. The fish had more Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae in their gut than other phytoplankton. Costello's selectivity plots revealed that the MGS fed on the smaller phytoplankters (2-6 µm in size), whereas the MGL fed on both the small and large (up to 12 µm in size) phytoplankters. The differences in mouth areas between the two morpho-groups were explained as a possible reason of size-selective feeding and contribute to overcome gape limitation in A. mola. This is further accompanied by the uniform pore size of the gills (2 µm) in all the morpho-groups. This study concluded that A. mola exhibits a size-dependent feeding strategy regulated by gape limitation at the ingestion level. With ontogenetic shifts, flexibility appears to overcome such a limitation in the MGL, having a wider mouth area supported by jaw opening ability. PMID:26084383

  14. Engineering pollinator phenotypes: consequences of induced size variation on adult morphology and flight performance metrics in the solitary bee, Osmia lignaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Body size is an important trait because it strongly correlates with morphology, performance, and fitness. In insects, the body size model argues that adult size is determined during the larval stage by the mechanisms regulating growth rate and the duration of growth. Though explicit links have been ...

  15. One man's tall is another man's small: how the framing of portion size influences food choice.

    PubMed

    Just, David R; Wansink, Brian

    2014-07-01

    Labels such as 'Large' or 'Super-size' are often used to describe portion sizes. How do these normative labels influence consumer choice and how much they ultimately either consume or waste? Although one might believe that firms use normative labels to impact choice behavior through loss aversion, a field experiment shows consumer's willingness to pay is inconsistent with a loss aversion explanation. Although portions were clearly visible, individuals appeared to use the labels as objective information about their size. Importantly, a second study showed these labels also led people to eat less when food was given a larger sounding name than a smaller name (double vs. regular; regular vs. half-size). If labels are used as size information, policies governing normative names could help reduce food consumption or reduce waste. PMID:23765734

  16. Methidiumpropyl-EDTA.Fe(II) and DNase I footprinting report different small molecule binding site sizes on DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, M W; Dervan, P B

    1983-01-01

    DNase I and MPE.Fe (II) footprinting both employ partial cleavage of ligand-protected DNA restriction fragments and Maxam-Gilbert sequencing gel methods of analysis. One method utilizes the enzyme, DNase I, as the DNA cleaving agent while the other employs the synthetic molecule, methidium-propyl-EDTA (MPE). For actinomycin D, chromomycin A3 and distamycin A, DNase I footprinting reports larger binding site sizes than MPE.Fe (II). DNase I footprinting appears more sensitive for weakly bound sites. MPE.Fe (II) footprinting appears more accurate in determining the actual size and location of the binding sites for small molecules on DNA, especially in cases where several small molecules are closely spaced on the DNA. MPE.Fe (II) and DNase I report the same sequence and binding site size for lac repressor protein on operator DNA. Images PMID:6225070

  17. Undergraduates and Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Opportunities for a Symbiotic Partnership?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brindley, Clare; Ritchie, Bob

    2000-01-01

    A study of undergraduates before and after participation in partnership projects with small businesses found that (1) the majority preferred working for larger companies; (2) they felt small businesses were less desirable for promotion, pay, and job security; (3) businesses were slightly more inclined to hire graduates; and (4) employers felt…

  18. Is Small Beautiful? Work-Family Tension, Work Condition, and Organizational Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDermid, Shelley M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined relationships among work-family tension and work conditions. Hypothesized that links between work-family tension and work conditions would be stronger in small than in large workplaces. Results indicated that some perceptions of work conditions differed between small and large workplaces, and that connections between work-family tension…

  19. 78 FR 51263 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... Administration. ACTION: Reopen the public comment period for 78 FR 42817. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business..., 2013 (78 FR 42817,) and closed on August 1, 2013. A small business manufacturer requested the public... public comment on July 17, 2013 (78 FR 42817). The public comment period for the notice to rescind...

  20. Disease spread in small-size directed networks: epidemic threshold, correlation between links to and from nodes, and clustering.

    PubMed

    Moslonka-Lefebvre, Mathieu; Pautasso, Marco; Jeger, Mike J

    2009-10-01

    Network epidemiology has mainly focused on large-scale complex networks. It is unclear whether findings of these investigations also apply to networks of small size. This knowledge gap is of relevance for many biological applications, including meta-communities, plant-pollinator interactions and the spread of the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora ramorum in networks of plant nurseries. Moreover, many small-size biological networks are inherently asymmetrical and thus cannot be realistically modelled with undirected networks. We modelled disease spread and establishment in directed networks of 100 and 500 nodes at four levels of connectance in six network structures (local, small-world, random, one-way, uncorrelated, and two-way scale-free networks). The model was based on the probability of infection persistence in a node and of infection transmission between connected nodes. Regardless of the size of the network, the epidemic threshold did not depend on the starting node of infection but was negatively related to the correlation coefficient between in- and out-degree for all structures, unless networks were sparsely connected. In this case clustering played a significant role. For small-size scale-free directed networks to have a lower epidemic threshold than other network structures, there needs to be a positive correlation between number of links to and from nodes. When this correlation is negative (one-way scale-free networks), the epidemic threshold for small-size networks can be higher than in non-scale-free networks. Clustering does not necessarily have an influence on the epidemic threshold if connectance is kept constant. Analyses of the influence of the clustering on the epidemic threshold in directed networks can also be spurious if they do not consider simultaneously the effect of the correlation coefficient between in- and out-degree. PMID:19545575

  1. Stress-induced oxytocin release and oxytocin cell number and size in prepubertal and adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Minhas, Sumeet; Liu, Clarissa; Galdamez, Josselyn; So, Veronica M; Romeo, Russell D

    2016-08-01

    Studies indicate that adolescent exposure to stress is a potent environmental factor that contributes to psychological and physiological disorders, though the mechanisms that mediate these dysfunctions are not well understood. Periadolescent animals display greater stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses than adults, which may contribute to these vulnerabilities. In addition to the HPA axis, the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal tract (HNT) is also activated in response to stress. In adults, stress activates this system resulting in secretion of oxytocin from neurons in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei. However, it is currently unknown whether a similar or different response occurs in prepubertal animals. Given the influence of these hormones on a variety of emotional behaviors and physiological systems known to change as an animal transitions into adulthood, we investigated stress-induced HPA and HNT hormonal responses before and after stress, as well as the number and size of oxytocin-containing cells in the SON and PVN of prepubertal (30d) and adult (70d) male and female rats. Though we found the well-established protracted adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone response in prepubertal males and females, only adult males and prepubertal females showed a significant stress-induced increase in plasma oxytocin levels. Moreover, though we found no pubertal changes in the number of oxytocin cells, we did find a pubertal-related increase in oxytocin somal size in both the SON and PVN of males and females. Taken together, these data indicate that neuroendocrine systems can show different patterns of stress reactivity before and after adolescent development and that these responses can be further modified by sex. Given the impact of these hormones on a variety of systems, it will be imperative to further explore these changes in hormonal stress reactivity and their role in adolescent health. PMID:26972154

  2. Organ-Specific and Size-Dependent Ag Nanoparticle Toxicity in Gills and Intestines of Adult Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Olivia J; Lin, Sijie; Chang, Chong Hyun; Ji, Zhaoxia; Yu, Xuechen; Wang, Xiang; Lin, Shuo; Xia, Tian; Nel, André E

    2015-10-27

    We studied adult zebrafish to determine whether the size of 20 and 110 nm citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (AgC NPs) differentially impact the gills and intestines, known target organs for Ag toxicity in fish. Following exposure for 4 h, 4 days, or 4 days plus a 7 day depuration period, we obtained different toxicokinetic profiles for different particle sizes, as determined by Ag content of the tissues. Ionic AgNO3 served as a positive control. The gills showed a significantly higher Ag content for the 20 nm particles at 4 h and 4 days than the 110 nm particles, while the values were more similar in the intestines. Both particle types were retained in the intestines even after depuration. These toxicokinetics were accompanied by striking size-dependent differences in the ultrastructural features and histopathology in the target organs in response to the particulates. Ag staining of the gills and intestines confirmed prominent Ag deposition in the basolateral membranes for the 20 nm but not for the 110 nm particles. Furthermore, it was possible to link the site of tissue deposition to disruption of the Na(+)/K(+) ion channel, which is also localized to the basolateral membrane. This was confirmed by a reduction in ATPase activity and immunohistochemical detection of the α subunit of this channel in both target organs, with the 20 nm particles causing significantly higher inhibition and disruption than the larger size particles or AgNO3. These results demonstrate the importance of particle size in determining the hazardous impact of AgNPs in the gills and intestines of adult zebrafish. PMID:26327297

  3. Effect of grid size in RCMs on the representation of floods in small and medium sized catchments in Austria: added value of convection-permitting simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reszler, Christian; Truhetz, Heimo; Switanek, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a small multi-model ensemble study of coupling two different ERA-Interim driven RCMs (WRF and COSMO-CLM) using different grid sizes (0.44°, 0.11°, 0.03°) with a hydrological model for representing floods in small to medium sized catchments in South-eastern Austria. The aim is to evaluate the benefit of grid size reduction and in particular, the added value of convection-permitting simulations with 0.03° (~ 3 km) resolution. The hydrological model is a spatially distributed model (1 km² grid), which was previously developed for operational flood forecasting and calibrated against data of more than 20 stream gauges with corresponding catchment sizes between 30 and 1000 km². The hindcast simulations (1989-2010) are evaluated in terms of accurately representing flood frequency, seasonality, as well as other flood event characteristics, such as weather type, antecedent soil moisture, etc. The results show, that for small catchments (< 200 km²) a resolution of 3 km is essential to accurately simulate the magnitude of flood events. Flood frequency and seasonality is represented well in all catchments. In the larger catchments a resolution of 0.11° (~ 12.5 km) already yields statistically satisfying results. Also, due to the short response times in the small sub-catchments a time step of 1 hour is required. However, in all setups a bias still exists in precipitation and temperature, which sometimes leads to unrealistic hydrological conditions. Ongoing work comprises the test a of novel statistical error correction method, which is expected to improve results particularly for higher quantiles. Also, a future run ("time-slice" experiment) is planned with the coupled model setup using the RCP8.5 emission scenario, the GCM of the Max-Planck-Institute Hamburg (MPI-ESM-LR), dynamically downscaled to 3 km by COSMO-CLM, and the novel error correction method. The study is funded by the Austrian Klima- und Energiefonds through the Austrian Climate

  4. Exact off-resonance near fields of small-size extended hemielliptic 2-D lenses illuminated by plane waves.

    PubMed

    Boriskin, Artem V; Sauleau, Ronan; Nosich, Alexander I

    2009-02-01

    The near fields of small-size extended hemielliptic lenses made of rexolite and isotropic quartz and illuminated by E- and H-polarized plane waves are studied. Variations in the focal domain size, shape, and location are reported versus the angle of incidence of the incoming wave. The problem is solved numerically in a two-dimensional formulation. The accuracy of results is guaranteed by using a highly efficient numerical algorithm based on the combination of the Muller boundary integral equations, the method of analytical regularization, and the trigonometric Galerkin discretization scheme. The analysis fully accounts for the finite size of the lens as well as its curvature and thus can be considered as a reference solution for other electromagnetic solvers. Moreover, the trusted description of the focusing ability of a finite-size hemielliptic lens can be useful in the design of antenna receivers. PMID:19183675

  5. 75 FR 32519 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Administration. ACTION: Notice of Waiver to the Nonmanufacturer Rule for Liquid Propane Gas (LPG), North American.... Small Business Administration (SBA) is granting a waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule for Liquid...

  6. 75 FR 20870 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... submit comments and source information to Pamela M. McClam, Program Analyst, Small Business... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Pamela M. McClam, by telephone at (202) 205-7408; by FAX at (202)...

  7. A qualitative study of pandemic influenza preparedness among small and medium-sized businesses in New York City.

    PubMed

    Burton, Deron C; Confield, Evan; Gasner, Mary Rose; Weisfuse, Isaac

    2011-10-01

    Small businesses need to engage in continuity planning to assure delivery of goods and services and to sustain the economy during an influenza pandemic. This is especially true in New York City, where 98 per cent of businesses have fewer than 100 employees. It was an objective therefore, to determine pandemic influenza business continuity practices and strategies suitable for small and medium-sized NYC businesses. The study design used focus groups, and the participants were owners and managers of businesses with fewer than 500 employees in New York City. The main outcome measures looked for were the degree of pandemic preparedness, and the feasibility of currently proposed business continuity strategies. Most participants reported that their businesses had no pandemic influenza plan. Agreement with feasibility of specific business continuity strategies was influenced by the type of business represented, cost of the strategy, and business size. It was concluded that recommendations for pandemic-related business continuity plans for small and medium-sized businesses should be tailored to the type and size of business and should highlight the broad utility of the proposed strategies to address a range of business stressors. PMID:22308579

  8. Small population size and extremely low levels of genetic diversity in island populations of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus

    PubMed Central

    Furlan, Elise; Stoklosa, J; Griffiths, J; Gust, N; Ellis, R; Huggins, R M; Weeks, A R

    2012-01-01

    Genetic diversity generally underpins population resilience and persistence. Reductions in population size and absence of gene flow can lead to reductions in genetic diversity, reproductive fitness, and a limited ability to adapt to environmental change increasing the risk of extinction. Island populations are typically small and isolated, and as a result, inbreeding and reduced genetic diversity elevate their extinction risk. Two island populations of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, exist; a naturally occurring population on King Island in Bass Strait and a recently introduced population on Kangaroo Island off the coast of South Australia. Here we assessed the genetic diversity within these two island populations and contrasted these patterns with genetic diversity estimates in areas from which the populations are likely to have been founded. On Kangaroo Island, we also modeled live capture data to determine estimates of population size. Levels of genetic diversity in King Island platypuses are perilously low, with eight of 13 microsatellite loci fixed, likely reflecting their small population size and prolonged isolation. Estimates of heterozygosity detected by microsatellites (HE= 0.032) are among the lowest level of genetic diversity recorded by this method in a naturally outbreeding vertebrate population. In contrast, estimates of genetic diversity on Kangaroo Island are somewhat higher. However, estimates of small population size and the limited founders combined with genetic isolation are likely to lead to further losses of genetic diversity through time for the Kangaroo Island platypus population. Implications for the future of these and similarly isolated or genetically depauperate populations are discussed. PMID:22837830

  9. The effect of small class sizes on mortality through age 29 years: evidence from a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Muennig, Peter; Johnson, Gretchen; Wilde, Elizabeth Ty

    2011-06-15

    Limiting the number of students per classroom in the early years has been shown to improve educational outcomes. Improved education is, in turn, hypothesized to improve health. The authors examined whether smaller class sizes affect mortality through age 29 years and whether cognitive factors play a role. They used data from the Project Student Teacher Achievement Ratio, a 4-year multicenter randomized controlled trial of reduced class sizes in Tennessee involving 11,601 students between 1985 and 1989. Children randomized to small classes (13-17 students) experienced improved measures of cognition and academic performance relative to those assigned to regular classes (22-25 students). As expected, these cognitive measures were significantly inversely associated with mortality rates (P < 0.05). However, through age 29 years, students randomized to small class size nevertheless experienced higher mortality rates than those randomized to regular size classes (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07, 2.32). The groups at risk included males (HR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.85), whites/Asians (HR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.72), and higher income students (HR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.06, 4.57). The authors speculate that small classes might produce behavior changes that increase mortality through young adulthood that are stronger than the protective effects of enhanced cognition. PMID:21540326

  10. Management and outcomes of small bowel obstruction in older adult patients: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Jeremy E.; Bailey, Jonathan G.; Davis, Philip J.B.; Johnson, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this research was to examine the morbidity, mortality and rate of recurrent bowel obstruction associated with the treatment of small bowel obstruction (SBO) in older adults. Methods We prospectively enrolled all patients 70 years or older with an SBO who were admitted to a tertiary care teaching centre between Jul. 1, 2011, and Sept. 30, 2012. Data regarding presentation, investigations, treatment and outcomes were collected. Results Of the 104 patients admitted with an SBO, 49% were managed nonoperatively and 51% underwent surgery. Patients who underwent surgery experienced more complications (64% v. 27%, p = 0.002) and stayed in hospital longer (10 v. 3 d, p < 0.001) than patients managed nonoperatively. Nonoperative management was associated with a high rate of recurrent SBO: 31% after a median follow-up of 17 months. Of the patients managed operatively, 60% underwent immediate surgery and 40% underwent surgery after attempted nonoperative management. Patients in whom nonoperative management failed underwent surgery after a median of 2 days, and 89% underwent surgery within 5 days. The rate of bowel resection was high (29%) among those who underwent delayed surgery. Surgery after failed nonoperative management was associated with a mortality of 14% versus 3% for those who underwent immediate surgery; however, this difference was not significant. Conclusion These data suggest that some elderly patients with SBO may be waiting too long for surgery. PMID:25421079

  11. Relative-size Magnification versus Relative-distance Magnification: Effect on the Reading Performance of Adults with Normal and Low Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovie-Kitchen, Jan; Whittaker, Steve

    1998-01-01

    This Australian study compared effects of relative-size magnification and relative-distance magnification on the reading rates of 24 adults with normal vision and 22 adults with low vision. For the subjects with low vision, the magnification method did not affect their reading rates, although subjects with normal vision showed slower reading at…

  12. Dislocation arrangement in small crystal volumes determines power-law size dependence of yield strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, R.; Ngan, A. H. W.

    2013-06-01

    It is by now well-known that micron-sized metallic crystals exhibit a smaller-being-stronger size effect: the yield strength σ varies with specimen size D approximately as a power-law σ˜D-m, and the exponent m has been found to vary within a range of ˜0.3-1.0 for different metals. However, little is known about why such a power-law comes into play, and what determines the actual value of the exponent m involved. This work shows that if the yield strength is determined by the Taylor interaction mechanism within the initial dislocation network, then for the size dependence of strength to be of the power-law relation observed, it is necessary for the mesh lengths L of the dislocation network to be power-law distributed, i.e. p(L)˜L-q. In such a case, the exponent m of the size effect is predicted to be inversely proportional to the sum of q the exponent of the mesh-length distribution and n the exponent of the dislocation velocity vs. stress law. To verify these predictions, compression experiments on aluminum micro-pillars with different pre-strains from 0% to 15% were carried out. The different pre-strains led to different initial dislocation networks, as well as different exponent m in the size dependence of strength. Box-counting analyses of transmission electron micrographs of the initial dislocation networks showed that the 2-D projected dislocation patterns were approximate fractals. On increasing pre-strain, the exponent m for the size dependence of strength was found to decrease while the fractal dimension of the initial dislocation patterns increased, thus verifying the inverse relationship between the two quantities. These findings show that the commonly observed power-law scaling of strength with size is due to an approximate power-law distribution of the initial dislocation mesh lengths, which also appears to be a robust feature in deformed metals. Furthermore, for a given metal, it is the exponent q of the initial mesh-length distribution which

  13. Racial Differences in Left Atrial Size: Results from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Dewland, Thomas A.; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Lin, Feng; Vittinghoff, Eric; Foster, Elyse; Ogunyankin, Kofo O.; Lima, Joao A.; Jacobs, David R.; Hu, Donglei; Burchard, Esteban G.; Marcus, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    Whites have an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) compared to Blacks. The mechanism underlying this association is unknown. Left atrial (LA) size is an important AF risk factor, and studies in older adults suggest Whites have larger LA diameters. However, because AF itself causes LA dilation, LA size differences may be due to greater subclinical AF among older Whites. We therefore assessed for racial differences in LA size among young adults at low AF risk. The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study enrolled White and Black participants between 18 and 30 years of age. LA diameter was measured in a subset of participants using echocardiography at Year 5 (n = 4,201) and Year 25 (n = 3,373) of follow up. LA volume was also assessed at Year 5 (n = 2,489). Multivariate linear regression models were used to determine the adjusted association between race and LA size. In unadjusted analyses, mean LA diameter was significantly larger among Blacks compared to Whites both at Year 5 (35.5 ± 4.8 mm versus 35.1 ± 4.5 mm, p = 0.01) and Year 25 (37.4 ± 5.1 mm versus 36.8 ± 4.9 mm, p = 0.002). After adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, and echocardiographic parameters, Whites demonstrated an increased LA diameter (0.7 mm larger at Year 5, 95% CI 0.3–1.1, p<0.001; 0.6 mm larger at Year 25, 95% CI 0.3–1.0, p<0.001). There was no significant association between race and adjusted Year 5 LA volume. In conclusion, in a young, well-characterized cohort, the larger adjusted LA diameter among White participants suggests inherent differences in atrial structure may partially explain the higher risk of AF in Whites. The incongruent associations between race, LA diameter, and LA volume suggest that LA geometry, rather than size alone, may have implications for AF risk. PMID:26985672

  14. Racial Differences in Left Atrial Size: Results from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study.

    PubMed

    Dewland, Thomas A; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Lin, Feng; Vittinghoff, Eric; Foster, Elyse; Ogunyankin, Kofo O; Lima, Joao A; Jacobs, David R; Hu, Donglei; Burchard, Esteban G; Marcus, Gregory M

    2016-01-01

    Whites have an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) compared to Blacks. The mechanism underlying this association is unknown. Left atrial (LA) size is an important AF risk factor, and studies in older adults suggest Whites have larger LA diameters. However, because AF itself causes LA dilation, LA size differences may be due to greater subclinical AF among older Whites. We therefore assessed for racial differences in LA size among young adults at low AF risk. The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study enrolled White and Black participants between 18 and 30 years of age. LA diameter was measured in a subset of participants using echocardiography at Year 5 (n = 4,201) and Year 25 (n = 3,373) of follow up. LA volume was also assessed at Year 5 (n = 2,489). Multivariate linear regression models were used to determine the adjusted association between race and LA size. In unadjusted analyses, mean LA diameter was significantly larger among Blacks compared to Whites both at Year 5 (35.5 ± 4.8 mm versus 35.1 ± 4.5 mm, p = 0.01) and Year 25 (37.4 ± 5.1 mm versus 36.8 ± 4.9 mm, p = 0.002). After adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, and echocardiographic parameters, Whites demonstrated an increased LA diameter (0.7 mm larger at Year 5, 95% CI 0.3-1.1, p<0.001; 0.6 mm larger at Year 25, 95% CI 0.3-1.0, p<0.001). There was no significant association between race and adjusted Year 5 LA volume. In conclusion, in a young, well-characterized cohort, the larger adjusted LA diameter among White participants suggests inherent differences in atrial structure may partially explain the higher risk of AF in Whites. The incongruent associations between race, LA diameter, and LA volume suggest that LA geometry, rather than size alone, may have implications for AF risk. PMID:26985672

  15. Genetic effective size, N(e), tracks density in a small freshwater cyprinid, Pecos bluntnose shiner (Notropis simus pecosensis).

    PubMed

    Osborne, Megan J; Davenport, Stephen R; Hoagstrom, Christopher W; Turner, Thomas F

    2010-07-01

    Genetic monitoring tracks changes in measures of diversity including allelic richness, heterozygosity and genetic effective size over time, and has emerged as an important tool for understanding evolutionary consequences of population management. One proposed application of genetic monitoring has been to estimate abundance and its trajectory through time. Here, genetic monitoring was conducted across five consecutive year for the Pecos bluntnose shiner, a federally threatened minnow. Temporal changes in allele frequencies at seven microsatellite DNA loci were used to estimate variance effective size (N(eV)) across adjacent years in the time series. Likewise, effective size was computed using the linkage disequilibrium method (N(eD)) for each sample. Estimates of N(e) were then compared to estimates of adult fish density obtained from traditional demographic monitoring. For Pecos bluntnose shiner, density (catch-per-unit-effort), N(eV) and N(eD) were positively associated across this time series. Results for Pecos bluntnose shiner were compared to a related and ecologically similar species, the Rio Grande silvery minnow. In this species, density and N(eV) were negatively associated, which suggested decoupling of abundance and effective size trajectories. Conversely, density and N(eD) were positively associated. For Rio Grande silvery minnow, discrepancies among estimates of N(e) and their relationships with adult fish density could be related to effects of high variance in reproductive success in the wild and/or effects of supplementation of the wild population with captive-bred and reared fish. The efficacy of N(e) as a predictor of density and abundance may depend on intrinsic population dynamics of the species and how these dynamics are influenced by the landscape features, management protocols and other factors. PMID:20579288

  16. Impact of Relative Humidity on Adult Weight and Size of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), sweetpotato whitefly, is a serious global sap-sucking insect pest that carries many infectious diseases when feeding on many types of crops. A study was conducted to determine the influence of relative humidity (RH) on body size and mass of B. tabaci. The B-biotype B. t...

  17. Understanding the Effect Size of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate for Treating ADHD in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraone, Stephen V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: An earlier meta-analysis of pediatric clinical trials indicated that lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) had a greater effect size than other stimulant medications. This work tested the hypothesis that the apparent increased efficacy was artifactual. Method: The authors assessed two potential artifacts: an unusually high precision of…

  18. Flow management and fish density regulate salmonid recruitment and adult size in tailwaters across western North America.

    PubMed

    Dibble, Kimberly L; Yackulic, Charles B; Kennedy, Theodore A; Budy, Phaedra

    2015-12-01

    Rainbow and brown trout have been intentionally introduced into tailwaters downriver of dams globally and provide billions of dollars in economic benefits. At the same time, recruitment and maximum length of trout populations in tailwaters often fluctuate erratically, which negatively affects the value of fisheries. Large recruitment events may increase dispersal downriver where other fish species may be a priority (e.g., endangered species). There is an urgent need to understand the drivers of trout population dynamics in tailwaters, in particular the role of flow management. Here, we evaluate how flow, fish density, and other physical factors of the river influence recruitment and mean adult length in tailwaters across western North America, using data from 29 dams spanning 1-19 years. Rainbow trout recruitment was negatively correlated with high annual, summer, and spring flow and dam latitude, and positively correlated with high winter flow, subadult brown trout catch, and reservoir storage capacity. Brown trout recruitment was negatively correlated with high water velocity and daily fluctuations in flow (i.e., hydropeaking) and positively correlated with adult rainbow trout catch. Among these many drivers, rainbow trout recruitment was primarily correlated with high winter flow combined with low spring flow, whereas brown trout recruitment was most related to high water velocity. The mean lengths of adult rainbow and brown trout were influenced by similar flow and catch metrics. Length in both species was positively correlated with high annual flow but declined in tailwaters with high daily fluctuations in flow, high catch rates of conspecifics, and when large cohorts recruited to adult size. Whereas brown trout did not respond to the proportion of water allocated between seasons, rainbow trout length increased in rivers that released more water during winter than in spring. Rainbow trout length was primarily related to high catch rates of conspecifics

  19. The Influence of Small Class Size, Duration, Intensity, and Heterogeneity on Head Start Fade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huss, Christopher D.

    2010-01-01

    The researcher conducted a nonexperimental study to investigate and analyze the influence of reduced class sizes, intensity (all day and every day), duration (five years), and heterogeneity (random class assignment) on the Head Start Fade effect. The researcher employed retrospective data analysis using a longitudinal explanatory design on data…

  20. 76 FR 14323 - Small Business Size Standards: Professional, Scientific and Technical Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... standards was published in the Federal Register on July 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237). SBA recognizes that changes... caused by a large number of varying receipts based size standards (see 69 FR 13130 (March 4, 2004) and 57 FR 62515 (December 31, 1992)). Currently, there are 31 different levels of receipts based...

  1. 77 FR 55755 - Small Business Size Standards: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and Hunting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... Register on July 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237). NAICS 11, Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting, includes 46... business status caused by a large number of varying receipts based size standards (see 69 FR 13130 (March 4, 2004) and 57 FR 62515 (December 31, 1992)). At the beginning of the current comprehensive...

  2. Small size transformer provides high power regulation with low ripple and maximum control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manoli, R.; Ulrich, B. R.

    1971-01-01

    Single, variable, transformer/choke device does work of several. Technique reduces drawer assembly physical size and design and manufacturing cost. Device provides power, voltage current and impedance regulation while maintaining maximum control of linearity and ensuring extremely low ripple. Nulling is controlled to very fine degree.

  3. 78 FR 37409 - Small Business Size Standards: Finance and Insurance and Management of Companies and Enterprises

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... size standards was published in the Federal Register on July 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237). SBA recognizes... proposed rule in the Federal Register (76 FR 63216) seeking public comment on its proposal to increase the... September 11, 2012 proposed rule for NAICS Sector 52 and Sector 55 (77 FR 55737) at...

  4. 77 FR 55737 - Small Business Size Standards: Finance and Insurance and Management of Companies and Enterprises

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... standards was published in the Federal Register on July 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237). Because of changes in the... business status caused by a large number of varying receipts based size standards (see 69 FR 13130 (March 4, 2004) and 57 FR 62515 (December 31, 1992)). At the beginning of the current comprehensive...

  5. Size evolution in Goodwin?s small-eared shrew, Cryptotis goodwini

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.

    2005-01-01

    Fossils of Cryptotis goodwini from Honduras indicate that body sizes of modern individuals average at least 18% larger than among members of the late Pleistocene population of this species. Palynological and other paleoenvironmental studies provide evidence that the Neotropical montane environments that these shrews inhabit were cooler and drier in the late Pleistocene than at present and supported communities of plants without modern analog. Therefore, the most likely cause of this change in size ultimately was related to climatic change at the end of the Pleistocene?but to what specific factors did the species respond? I examined the possibilities that this species changed in size: to accommodate a change in temperature regime; to escape from predators; as a response to a change in intensity of interspecific competition; to take advantage of a newly abundant food resource. Based on evidence from studies of modern communities of shrews and niche partitioning, I hypothesized that size evolution in C. goodwini was directly related to changes in the community of soil and soil-surface invertebrates upon which the species depends, specifically an increase in the availability of earthworms (Annelida).

  6. 77 FR 58747 - Small Business Size Standards: Real Estate and Rental and Leasing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... 6, 2010)), NAICS Sector 72, Accommodation and Food Services (75 FR 61604 (October 6, 2010)), NAICS... 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237). SBA recognizes that changes in industry structure and the Federal marketplace... Register (76 FR 70680) on its proposal to increase the size standards for 20 industries and one...

  7. 76 FR 70680 - Small Business Size Standards: Real Estate and Rental and Leasing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... in the Federal Register on July 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237). Because of changes in the Federal marketplace... Registration (CCR) following a two-step procedure. First, using FPDS-NG, SBA identifies product service codes... a large number of varying receipts based size standards (see 69 FR 13130, March 4, 2004) and 57...

  8. 77 FR 49991 - Small Business Size Standards; Adoption of 2012 North American Industry Classification System for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ..., replacing the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) System, effective October 1, 2000 (65 FR 30836 (May 5... modification, NAICS 2002 (66 FR 3825 (January 16, 2001)), into its table of size standards, effective October 1, 2002 (67 FR 52597 (August 13, 2002)). SBA incorporated the second modification, NAICS 2007 (71 FR...

  9. 78 FR 37417 - Small Business Size Standards: Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237). SBA recognizes that changes in industry structure and the Federal marketplace... (77 FR 42211) on its proposal to increase the size standards for 17 industries in NAICS Sector 71. The... NAICS Sector 71 is consistent with SBA's recent final rules on NAICS Sector 44-45, Retail Trade (75...

  10. 75 FR 61604 - Small Business Size Standards; Accommodation and Food Services Industries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... other size standards for its financial and procurement programs. Over the years, SBA has received... standards used by Federal agencies (60 FR 57988, November 24, 1995). SBA is not aware of any Federal rule... retained or revised. DATES: This rule is effective November 5, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  11. Pore Size Effect on Methane Adsorption in Mesoporous Silica Materials Studied by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Wei-Shan; Fratini, Emiliano; Baglioni, Piero; Chen, Jin-Hong; Liu, Yun

    2016-09-01

    Methane adsorption in model mesoporous silica materials with the size range characteristic of shale is studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Size effect on the temperature-dependent gas adsorption at methane pressure about 100 kPa is investigated by SANS using MCM-41 and SBA-15 as adsorbents. Above the gas-liquid condensation temperature, the thickness of the adsorption layer is found to be roughly constant as a function of the temperature. Moreover, the gas adsorption properties, such as the adsorbed layer thickness and the specific amount of adsorbed gas, have little dependence on the pore size being studied, i.e., pore radius of 16.5 and 34.1 Å, but are mainly affected by the roughness of the pore surfaces. Hence, the surface properties of the pore wall are more dominant than the pore size in determining the methane gas adsorption of pores at the nanometer size range. Not surprisingly, the gas-liquid condensation temperature is observed to be sensitive to pore size and shifts to higher temperature when the pore size is smaller. Below the gas-liquid condensation temperature, even though the majority of gas adsorption experiments/simulations have assumed the density of confined liquid to be the same as the bulk density, the measured methane mass density in our samples is found to be appreciably smaller than the bulk methane density regardless of the pore sizes studied here. The mass density of liquid/solid methane in pores with different sizes shows different temperature dependence below the condensation temperature. With decreasing temperature, the methane density in larger pores (SBA-15) abruptly increases at approximately 65 K and then plateaus. In contrast, the density in smaller pores (MCM-41) monotonically increases with decreasing temperature before reaching a plateau at approximately 30 K. PMID:27512895

  12. The APACHE survey hardware and software design: Tools for an automatic search of small-size transiting exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christille, Jean-Marc; Bernagozzi, A.; Bertolini, E.; Calcidese, P.; Carbognani, A.; Cenadelli, D.; Damasso, M.; Giacobbe, P.; Lanteri, L.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Sozzetti, A.; Smart, R.

    2013-04-01

    Small-size ground-based telescopes can effectively be used to look for transiting rocky planets around nearby low-mass M stars using the photometric transit method, as recently demonstrated for example by the MEarth project. Since 2008 at the Astronomical Observatory of the Autonomous Region of Aosta Valley (OAVdA), we have been preparing for the long-term photometric survey APACHE, aimed at finding transiting small-size planets around thousands of nearby early and mid-M dwarfs. APACHE (A PAthway toward the Characterization of Habitable Earths) is designed to use an array of five dedicated and identical 40-cm Ritchey-Chretien telescopes and its observations started at the beginning of summer 2012. The main characteristics of the survey final set up and the preliminary results from the first weeks of observations will be discussed.

  13. Air emission regulations for small to moderate sized wood-fired boilers: Final report: Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, M.J.; Tennis, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    Potential commercial wood burners in the Northeast hold the general perception that air pollution regulations pose special difficulties for them. This notion is based on incomplete information regarding the regulations in place and their applicability to small to moderate sized commercial faciliaties (ie. <100 mmBtu/hr). This study was commission by the Coalition of Northeastern Governors (CONEG) Policy Research Center, Inc., under the Northeast Regional Biomass Program, to provide a review of the air quality regulations effecting commercial wood burning installations, specifically identifying those regulations applying to the small to medium size units. This report provides an organized regulatory comparison to relate the different state emission rates with various levels of control techniques. 3 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. 75 FR 52790 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... Administration. ACTION: Notice of intent to waive the Nonmanufacturer Rule for GEN II and GEN III Image... received a request that a class waiver be granted for GEN II and GEN III Image Intensifier Tubes, Product... government. Thus, SBA is seeking information on whether there are small business GEN II and GEN III...

  15. 78 FR 76886 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ...-Type Ovens, Ranges, and Gas ranges as listed under the North American Industry Classification System.... Small Business Administration (SBA) is granting a class waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule for Ovens... (Food Cooking, Baking, and Serving Equipment), under NAICS code 333318 (Other Commercial and...

  16. Recommended Reference Books for Small and Medium-Sized Libraries and Media Centers, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynar, Bohdan S., Ed.

    This annual review source is designed to assist smaller libraries in the systematic selection of suitable reference materials for their collections. Approximately 500 unabridged reviews, written by over 250 practicing librarians and subject specialists, identify and describe the most useful and affordable reference sources available for small and…

  17. A Forecasting Methodology for Academic Manpower Requirements in a Small Sized Technical University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldosary, Adel S.

    1999-01-01

    Outlines a stepwise regression analysis technique for predicting faculty needs in a small technical university, using King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (Saudi Arabia) for illustration. Validation with microcomputer software suggests the method is an attractive option for college and university planners in forecasting manpower needs.…

  18. Capitalizando en los cursos pequenos (Capitalizing on Small Class Size). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Jessica; Smith, Stuart C.

    This digest in Spanish examines school districts' efforts to reap the greatest benefit from smaller classes. Although the report discusses teaching strategies that are most effective in small classes, research has shown that teachers do not significantly change their teaching practices when they move from larger to smaller classes. Although…

  19. Assessing the Dimensionality of Item Response Matrices with Small Sample Sizes and Short Test Lengths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Champlain, Andre; Gessaroli, Marc E.

    1998-01-01

    Type I error rates and rejection rates for three-dimensionality assessment procedures were studied with data sets simulated to reflect short tests and small samples. Results show that the G-squared difference test (D. Bock, R. Gibbons, and E. Muraki, 1988) suffered from a severely inflated Type I error rate at all conditions simulated. (SLD)

  20. 75 FR 68394 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... waive the Nonmanufacturer Rule for the above listed item. 75 FR 38156 (2010). SBA explained in the... Dipped Rubber/Plastic Gloves. SUMMARY: The U. S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is granting a class waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule for Woven and Knit impregnated with Flat Dipped Rubber/Plastic...

  1. 75 FR 52789 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... Flat Dipped Rubber/Plastic Gloves. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is considering... rubber/plastic gloves, under the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code 315992 (Glove... business Woven and Knit impregnated with Flat Dipped Rubber/Plastic Gloves manufacturers. If granted,...

  2. Distance Training for Management in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and Craft Undertakings in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarromona, Jaime; Ferrer, Julia Ferran

    This document on Spain is one of a series of five published by the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training. The document includes five chapters, three appendices, descriptive form sheets for five distance learning projects, and a summary. Chapter 1 provides the introduction to the report. Chapter 2 describes small and…

  3. Heat exchanges between a fluidized bed and small-sized bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Teplitskii, Yu.S.

    1995-06-01

    On the basis of the two-zone model, a procedure is developed for calculating the complex heat exchange of a probe of small dimensions (comparable with the diameter of the bed particles). The procedure takes into account the influence of the fluidizing agent pressure.

  4. Analyzing the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises of a national technology innovation research and development program.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungmin

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) of a national technology innovation research and development (R&D) program. In particular, an empirical analysis is presented that aims to answer the following question: "Is there a difference in the efficiency between R&D collaboration types and between government R&D subsidy sizes?" Methodologically, the efficiency of a government-sponsored R&D project (i.e., GSP) is measured by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), and a nonparametric analysis of variance method, the Kruskal-Wallis (KW) test is adopted to see if the efficiency differences between R&D collaboration types and between government R&D subsidy sizes are statistically significant. This study's major findings are as follows. First, contrary to our hypothesis, when we controlled the influence of government R&D subsidy size, there was no statistically significant difference in the efficiency between R&D collaboration types. However, the R&D collaboration type, "SME-University-Laboratory" Joint-Venture was superior to the others, achieving the largest median and the smallest interquartile range of DEA efficiency scores. Second, the differences in the efficiency were statistically significant between government R&D subsidy sizes, and the phenomenon of diseconomies of scale was identified on the whole. As the government R&D subsidy size increases, the central measures of DEA efficiency scores were reduced, but the dispersion measures rather tended to get larger. PMID:25120949

  5. Portion size can be used strategically to increase vegetable consumption in adults123

    PubMed Central

    Roe, Liane S; Meengs, Jennifer S

    2010-01-01

    Background: An increase in the proportion of vegetables at meals could help achieve recommended vegetable intakes and facilitate weight management. Objective: We investigated the effects on food and energy intakes of varying the portion size and energy density of a vegetable that was added to a meal or substituted for other foods. Design: In 2 experiments with crossover designs, men and women were served a meal of a vegetable, grain, and meat. Across the meals, the vegetable was served in 3 portion sizes (180, 270, or 360 g) and 2 energy densities (0.8 or 0.4 kcal/g) by altering the type and amount of added fat. In the addition study (n = 49), as the vegetable portion was increased, amounts of the grain and meat were unchanged, whereas in the substitution study (n = 48), amounts of the grain and meat decreased equally. Results: An increase in the vegetable portion size resulted in greater vegetable consumption in both studies (mean ± SE: 60 ± 5 g; P < 0.0001). The addition of more of the vegetable did not significantly affect meal energy intake, whereas substitution of the vegetable for the grain and meat decreased meal energy intake (40 ± 10 kcal; P < 0.0001). A reduction in vegetable energy density decreased meal energy intake independent of portion size (55 ± 9 kcal; P < 0.0001). By combining substitution with a reduction in energy density, meal energy intake decreased by 14 ± 3%. Conclusions: Serving more vegetables, either by adding more or substituting them for other foods, is an effective strategy to increase vegetable intake at a meal. However, to moderate meal energy intake, vegetables should be low in energy density; furthermore, the substitution of vegetables for more energy-dense foods is more effective than simply adding extra vegetables. PMID:20147467

  6. 46 CFR 160.171-17 - Approval testing for adult size immersion suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... sufficient size to enclose the can between them. The control sample must have a thermal conductivity of not more than 0.055 watt/meter−° K (0.38 Btu−in./hr.−sq.ft.− °F). The thermal conductivity of the control... suit during the test, and the suits used in the impact test must also be used in the thermal...

  7. 46 CFR 160.171-17 - Approval testing for adult size immersion suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... sufficient size to enclose the can between them. The control sample must have a thermal conductivity of not more than 0.055 watt/meter−° K (0.38 Btu−in./hr.−sq.ft.− °F). The thermal conductivity of the control... suit during the test, and the suits used in the impact test must also be used in the thermal...

  8. Body size dynamics in young adults: 8-year follow up of cohorts in Brazil and Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Yiengprugsawan, V; Horta, B L; Motta, J V S; Gigante, D; Seubsman, S-A; Sleigh, A

    2016-01-01

    Increase in body size has appeared as an epidemic in Western countries and is now rapidly emerging in low- and middle-income countries, contributing to the rise in non-communicable diseases worldwide. Brazil and Thailand have gone through similar economic and health transitions, and this unique comparative study investigates changes in body size (body mass index) in relation to socioeconomic status in two cohorts of similar age followed from 2004/2005 to 2012/2013. At 20–24 years of age, Pelotas cohort members had a much higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (20.7 and 8.6%) than the Thai cohort (6.0 and 1.7%); these proportions rose to 34.6% and 22.9% vs 15.8% and 5.1%, respectively, in their early 30s. An association between a higher socioeconomic status and increase in overweight and obesity was observed among males; but an inverse pattern was noted for females in both cohorts and remained statistically significant after 8 years of follow up. Our comparative longitudinal analyses highlight the relationship between two middle-income settings facing rapid increases in body size (2–3 fold increase in the rate of overweight and obesity). Long-term follow up and a lifecourse approach for effective prevention of obesity will minimize adverse health burdens in later life. PMID:27428871

  9. Implanted adipose-derived stem cells attenuate small-for-size liver graft injury by secretion of VEGF in rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, T; Liu, H; Chen, W; Xia, X; Bai, X; Liang, L; Zhang, Y; Liang, T

    2012-03-01

    Graft injury after small-for-size liver transplantation impairs graft function and threatens the survival of the recipients. The use of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for liver injury protection and repair is promising. Our aim was to investigate the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secreted by ADSCs in the treatment of small-for-size liver graft injury. Studies were performed using ADSCs with VEGF secretion blocked by RNA interference. In vitro, ADSCs prevented apoptosis of freshly isolated liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) by secretion of VEGF. Syngeneic 35% orthotopic liver transplantation followed by implantation of syngeneic ADSCs through the portal vein system was performed using Wistar rats. We found VEGF secreted by implanted ADSCs improved graft microcirculatory disturbances, serum liver function parameters and survival. The improved microcirculatory status was also reflected by reduced hepatocellular damage, especially LSEC apoptosis and improved liver regeneration. These effects were accompanied by decreased expression of endothelin receptor type A, increased Bcl-2/Bax ratio, decreased expression of Bad and elevated proportion of phosphorylated Bad. In conclusion, implanted syngeneic ADSCs attenuated small-for-size liver graft injuries and subsequently enhanced liver regeneration in a rat 35% liver transplantation model. The VEGF secreted by implanted ADSCs played a crucial role in this process. PMID:22151301

  10. Fabrication of bright and small size semiconducting polymer nanoparticles for cellular labelling and single particle tracking.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lin; Zhou, Peng; Yang, Qingxiu; Yang, Qiaoyu; Ma, Ming; Chen, Bo; Xiao, Lehui

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we demonstrate a convenient and robust strategy for efficient fabrication of high fluorescence quantum yield (QY, 49.8 ± 3%) semiconducting polymer nanoparticles (SPNs), with size comparable with semiconductor quantum dots (Qdots). The SPNs were synthesized by co-precipitation of hydrophobic semiconducting polymer together with amphiphilic multidentate polymer. Comprehensive spectroscopic and microscopic characterizations showed that the SPNs possess superior photophysical performance, with excellent fluorescence brightness and reduced photoblinking in contrast with Qdots, as well as good photostability compared to a fluorescent protein of a similar size, phycoerythrin. More importantly, by conjugating membrane biomarkers onto the surface of SPNs, it was found that they were not only suitable for specific cellular labelling but also for single particle tracking because of the improved optical performance. PMID:25141182

  11. The single mirror small size telescope camera for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, Matthieu

    2015-07-01

    The UniGe group has proposed an innovative approach for the camera of a Davies-Cotton telescope of dish diameter 4 m and focal length 5.6 m, which would require single pixel SiPM with a size exceeding any commercial device. In collaboration with Hamamatsu, we have developed a large area (93.6 mm2) hexagonal SiPM operated in Geiger Avalanche mode. Coupled to a hollow hexagonal light concentrator, the sensitive area is extended to the required pixel size. The large area and the corresponding high capacitance (> 800 pF) of these sensors poses many difficulties in terms of operation. The characterization of these devices together with the dedicated electronics will be presented.

  12. Fabrication of bright and small size semiconducting polymer nanoparticles for cellular labelling and single particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Lin; Zhou, Peng; Yang, Qingxiu; Yang, Qiaoyu; Ma, Ming; Chen, Bo; Xiao, Lehui

    2014-09-01

    In this work, we demonstrate a convenient and robust strategy for efficient fabrication of high fluorescence quantum yield (QY, 49.8 +/- 3%) semiconducting polymer nanoparticles (SPNs), with size comparable with semiconductor quantum dots (Qdots). The SPNs were synthesized by co-precipitation of hydrophobic semiconducting polymer together with amphiphilic multidentate polymer. Comprehensive spectroscopic and microscopic characterizations showed that the SPNs possess superior photophysical performance, with excellent fluorescence brightness and reduced photoblinking in contrast with Qdots, as well as good photostability compared to a fluorescent protein of a similar size, phycoerythrin. More importantly, by conjugating membrane biomarkers onto the surface of SPNs, it was found that they were not only suitable for specific cellular labelling but also for single particle tracking because of the improved optical performance.In this work, we demonstrate a convenient and robust strategy for efficient fabrication of high fluorescence quantum yield (QY, 49.8 +/- 3%) semiconducting polymer nanoparticles (SPNs), with size comparable with semiconductor quantum dots (Qdots). The SPNs were synthesized by co-precipitation of hydrophobic semiconducting polymer together with amphiphilic multidentate polymer. Comprehensive spectroscopic and microscopic characterizations showed that the SPNs possess superior photophysical performance, with excellent fluorescence brightness and reduced photoblinking in contrast with Qdots, as well as good photostability compared to a fluorescent protein of a similar size, phycoerythrin. More importantly, by conjugating membrane biomarkers onto the surface of SPNs, it was found that they were not only suitable for specific cellular labelling but also for single particle tracking because of the improved optical performance. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section and additional supporting results as noted in the text

  13. A simple non-invasive method for measuring gross brain size in small live fish with semi-transparent heads

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a non-invasive method for estimating gross brain size in small fish with semi-transparent heads, using system camera equipment. Macro-photographs were taken from above on backlit free-swimming fish undergoing light anaesthesia. From the photographs, the width of the optic tectum was measured. This measure (TeO-measure) correlates well with the width of the optic tectum as measured from out-dissected brains in both brown trout fry and zebrafish (Pearson r > 0.90). The TeO-measure also correlates well with overall brain wet weight in brown trout fry (r = 0.90), but less well for zebrafish (r = 0.79). A non-invasive measure makes it possible to quickly assess brain size from a large number of individuals, as well as repeatedly measuring brain size of live individuals allowing calculation of brain growth. PMID:25279266

  14. Detection, 3-D positioning, and sizing of small pore defects using digital radiography and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, Erik

    2014-12-01

    This article presents an algorithm that handles the detection, positioning, and sizing of submillimeter-sized pores in welds using radiographic inspection and tracking. The possibility to detect, position, and size pores which have a low contrast-to-noise ratio increases the value of the nondestructive evaluation of welds by facilitating fatigue life predictions with lower uncertainty. In this article, a multiple hypothesis tracker with an extended Kalman filter is used to track an unknown number of pore indications in a sequence of radiographs as an object is rotated. Each pore is not required to be detected in all radiographs. In addition, in the tracking step, three-dimensional (3-D) positions of pore defects are calculated. To optimize, set up, and pre-evaluate the algorithm, the article explores a design of experimental approach in combination with synthetic radiographs of titanium laser welds containing pore defects. The pre-evaluation on synthetic radiographs at industrially reasonable contrast-to-noise ratios indicate less than 1% false detection rates at high detection rates and less than 0.1 mm of positioning errors for more than 90% of the pores. A comparison between experimental results of the presented algorithm and a computerized tomography reference measurement shows qualitatively good agreement in the 3-D positions of approximately 0.1-mm diameter pores in 5-mm-thick Ti-6242.

  15. Estimate of sizes of small asteroids (cosmic bodies) by the method of stroboscopic radiolocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharchenko, V. D.; Kovalenko, I. G.; Pak, O. V.

    2015-03-01

    Radiolocation methods of probing minor celestial bodies (asteroids) by the nanosecond pulses can be used for monitoring of near-Earth space with the purpose of identification of hazardous cosmic objects able to impact the Earth. Development of the methods that allow us to improve the accuracy of determining the asteroids size (i.e. whether it measures tens or hundreds meters in diameter) is important for correctly estimating the degree of damage which they can cause (either regional or global catastrophes, respectively). In this paper we suggest a novel method of estimating the sizes of the passive cosmic objects using the radiolocation probing by ultra-high-resolution nanosecond signals to obtain radar signatures. The modulation envelope of the reflected signal, which is a radar portrait of the cosmic object, is subjected to time scale transformation to carrier Doppler frequency by means of radioimpulse strobing. The shift of a strobe within the probing period will be performed by radial motion of the object which will allow us to forgo the special autoshift circuit used in the oscillographic technical equipment. The measured values of duration of radiolocation portrait can be used to estimate the mean radius of the object by using the average spatial length of the portrait. The method makes it possible to appraise the sizes of cosmic objects through their radiolocation portrait duration, with accuracy that is independent of the objects range.

  16. Juvenile frogs compensate for small metamorph size with terrestrial growth: Overcoming the effects of larval density and insecticide exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boone, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    I reared four species of anurans (Rana sphenocephala [Southern Leopard Frog], Rana blairi [Plains Leopard Frog], Rana clamitans [Green Frog], and Bufo woodhousii [Woodhouse's Toad]) for seven to 12 months in small, outdoor terrestrial enclosures (1 x 2 m) to examine the consequences of larval competition (via density) and contaminant exposure (via the insecticide carbaryl). I added six Rana clamitans, eight Rana sphenocephala, eight Rana blairi, and 10 Bufo woodhousii to terrestrial enclosures shortly after metamorphosis and recaptured them during the following spring. All anurans from low-density ponds were significantly larger than those from high-density ponds, but these size differences did not significantly affect survival to or size at spring emergence. However, R. sphenocephala, R. blairi, and R. clamitans that survived to spring had been larger at metamorphosis on average than those that did not survive; in contrast, B. woodhousii that survived the winter were smaller at metamorphosis on average than those that did not survive. Carbaryl exposure affected mass at metamorphosis of R. clamitans and B. woodhousii that were added to enclosures, but this difference disappeared or did not increase by spring emergence. Overall, exposure to carbaryl during the larval period did not have any apparent effects on survival or growth during the terrestrial phase. In my study, anurans were able to offset small size at metamorphosis with terrestrial growth, although there was a trend of reduced overwinter survival for ranid species that metamorphosed at a smaller size. Copyright 2005 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  17. Small Molecular-Sized Artesunate Attenuates Ocular Neovascularization via VEGFR2, PKCα, and PDGFR Targets.

    PubMed

    Zong, Yao; Yuan, Yongguang; Qian, Xiaobing; Huang, Zhen; Yang, Wei; Lin, Leilei; Zheng, Qishan; Li, Yujie; He, Huining; Gao, Qianying

    2016-01-01

    Ocular neovascularization (NV) is the primary cause of blindness in many ocular diseases. Large molecular weight anti- vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein drugs, such as Avastin and Lucentis, have saved the vision of millions. However, approximately 20-30% of patients respond poorly to anti-VEGF treatment. We found that artesunate (ART), a small molecular derivative of artemisinin, had a significant inhibitory effect on ocular NV by downregulating the expression of VEGFR2, PKCα, and PDGFR. ART significantly inhibited retinal NV in rabbits and macular edema in monkeys with greater anterior chamber penetrability and more durable efficacy than Avastin. Our pilot study showed that intravitreal injection of 80 μg ART significantly inhibited iris and corneal NV in a severe retinal detachment case. Our results suggest that ART might be a potential persistent small-molecule drug to manage ocular NV via multi-targets. PMID:27480521

  18. Small Molecular-Sized Artesunate Attenuates Ocular Neovascularization via VEGFR2, PKCα, and PDGFR Targets

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Yao; Yuan, Yongguang; Qian, Xiaobing; Huang, Zhen; Yang, Wei; Lin, Leilei; Zheng, Qishan; Li, Yujie; He, Huining; Gao, Qianying

    2016-01-01

    Ocular neovascularization (NV) is the primary cause of blindness in many ocular diseases. Large molecular weight anti- vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein drugs, such as Avastin and Lucentis, have saved the vision of millions. However, approximately 20–30% of patients respond poorly to anti-VEGF treatment. We found that artesunate (ART), a small molecular derivative of artemisinin, had a significant inhibitory effect on ocular NV by downregulating the expression of VEGFR2, PKCα, and PDGFR. ART significantly inhibited retinal NV in rabbits and macular edema in monkeys with greater anterior chamber penetrability and more durable efficacy than Avastin. Our pilot study showed that intravitreal injection of 80 μg ART significantly inhibited iris and corneal NV in a severe retinal detachment case. Our results suggest that ART might be a potential persistent small-molecule drug to manage ocular NV via multi-targets. PMID:27480521

  19. Morphometry of small recent impact craters on Mars: Size and terrain dependence, short-term modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watters, W. A.; Geiger, L. M.; Fendrock, M.; Gibson, R.

    2015-02-01

    Most recent studies of crater morphometry on Mars have addressed large craters (D>5 km) using elevation models derived from laser altimetry. In the present work, we examine a global population of small (25 m ≤D≤5 km), relatively well-preserved simple impact craters using HiRISE stereo-derived elevation models. We find that scaling laws from prior studies of large simple craters generally overestimate the depth and volume at small diameters. We show that crater rim curvature exhibits a strong diameter dependence that is well-described by scaling laws for D<1 km. Above this diameter, upper rim slopes begin to exceed typical repose angles and crater rims sharpen significantly. This transition is likely the result of gravity-driven collapse of the upper cavity walls during crater formation or short-term modification. In addition, we identify a tendency for small craters (D<500m) to be more conical than large craters, and we show that the average cavity cross section is well-described by a power law with exponent ˜1.75 (neither conical nor paraboloidal). We also conduct a statistical comparison of crater subpopulations to illuminate trends with increasing modification and target strength. These results have important implications for describing the "initial condition" of simple crater shape as a function of diameter and geological setting and for understanding how impact craters are modified on the Martian surface over time.

  20. On the Scaling of Small, Heat Simulated Jet Noise Measurements to Moderate Size Exhaust Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLaughlin, Dennis K.; Bridges, James; Kuo, Ching-Wen

    2010-01-01

    Modern military aircraft jet engines are designed with variable geometry nozzles to provide optimum thrust in different operating conditions, depending on the flight envelope. However, the acoustic measurements for such nozzles are scarce, due to the cost involved in making full scale measurements and the lack of details about the exact geometry of these nozzles. Thus the present effort at The Pennsylvania State University and the NASA Glenn Research Center- in partnership with GE Aviation is aiming to study and characterize the acoustic field produced by supersonic jets issuing from converging-diverging military style nozzles. An equally important objective is to validate methodology for using data obtained from small and moderate scale experiments to reliably predict the most important components of full scale engine noise. The experimental results presented show reasonable agreement between small scale and moderate scale jet acoustic data, as well as between heated jets and heat-simulated ones. Unresolved issues however are identified that are currently receiving our attention, in particular the effect of the small bypass ratio airflow. Future activities will identify and test promising noise reduction techniques in an effort to predict how well such concepts will work with full scale engines in flight conditions.

  1. [Microbiological study of soft cheese purchased in small and middle-sized distribution networks].

    PubMed

    Melluso, G; Guida, M; Giunta, M

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the work is the evaluation of the microbial content of soft cheese when it comes on the table of the consumer. To reach this purpose we have bought, as simple clients, the product in the small and average distributions that apply the HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) plain and in the small distributions which don't apply it, the collecting and the microbiological analysis of the product has been performed on the different pieces that belong to the whole form of cheese during the days of the week, observing a progressive increase of the bacterial number; besides we have found in the bought cheese that when the form of cheese was at the end, values overcame the limits of law. The increase of the bacterial numbers was greater in the products purchased in the average distributions in order with the application of the self-control, and in the small ones that don't effect this type of selling. The deduction was that the HACCP system has not been correctly applied in all the shops tested and in the exercises without the HACCP plain the contamination levels are higher. The health risk connected with not correct manipulation by the employees still results very elevated. PMID:12638351

  2. No effect of hypergravity on adult rat ventral horn neuron size or SDH activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, R. R.; Ishihara, A.; Moran, M. M.; Wade, C. E.; Edgerton, V. R.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spaceflights of short duration (approximately 2 wk) result in adaptations in the size and/or metabolic properties of a select population of motoneurons located in the lumbosacral region of the rat spinal cord. A decrease in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH, an oxidative marker enzyme) activity of moderately sized (500-800 microm2) motoneurons in the retrodorsolateral region of the spinal cord (L6) has been observed after a 14-d flight. HYPOTHESIS: Our hypothesis was that exposure to short-term hypergravity would result in adaptations in the opposite direction, reflecting a continuum of morphological and biochemical responses in the spinal motoneurons from zero gravity to hypergravity. METHODS: Young, male rats were centrifuged at either 1.5 or 2.0 G for 2 wk. The size and SDH activity of a population of motoneurons in the retrodorsolateral region of the spinal cord (L5) were determined and compared with age-matched rats maintained at 1.0 G. The absolute and relative (to body weight) masses of the soleus, gastrocnemius, adductor longus and tibialis anterior muscles were compared among the three groups. RESULTS: There were no effects of either hypergravity intervention on the motoneuron properties. Rats maintained under hypergravity conditions gained less body mass than rats kept at 1.0 G. For the 1.5 and 2.0 G groups, the muscle absolute mass was smaller and relative mass similar to that observed in the 1.0 G rats, except for the adductor longus. The adductor longus absolute mass was similar to and the relative mass larger in both hypergravity groups than in the 1.0 G group. CONCLUSIONS: Our hypothesis was rejected. The findings suggest that rat motoneurons are more responsive to short-term chronic exposure to spaceflight than to hypergravity conditions.

  3. Selection of the optimum font type and size interface for on screen continuous reading by young adults: an ergonomic approach.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Jayeeta; Bhattacharyya, Moushum

    2011-12-01

    There is a rapid shifting of media: from printed paper to computer screens. This transition is modifying the process of how we read and understand text. The efficiency of reading is dependent on how ergonomically the visual information is presented. Font types and size characteristics have been shown to affect reading. A detailed investigation of the effect of the font type and size on reading on computer screens has been carried out by using subjective, objective and physiological evaluation methods on young adults. A group of young participants volunteered for this study. Two types of fonts were used: Serif fonts (Times New Roman, Georgia, Courier New) and Sans serif fonts (Verdana, Arial, Tahoma). All fonts were presented in 10, 12 and 14 point sizes. This study used a 6 X 3 (font type X size) design matrix. Participants read 18 passages of approximately the same length and reading level on a computer monitor. Reading time, ranking and overall mental workload were measured. Eye movements were recorded by a binocular eye movement recorder. Reading time was minimum for Courier New l4 point. The participants' ranking was highest and mental workload was least for Verdana 14 point. The pupil diameter, fixation duration and gaze duration were least for Courier New 14 point. The present study recommends using 14 point sized fonts for reading on computer screen. Courier New is recommended for fast reading while for on screen presentation Verdana is recommended. The outcome of this study will help as a guideline to all the PC users, software developers, web page designers and computer industry as a whole. PMID:25665207

  4. Small size probe for inner profile measurement of pipes using optical fiber ring beam device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakayama, Toshitaka; Machi, Kizuku; Yoshizawa, Toru

    2012-11-01

    The requirements of inner profile measurement of pipes and holes become recently larger and larger, and applications of inner profile measurement have rapidly expanded to medical field as well as industrial fields such as mechanical, automobile and heavy industries. We have proposed measurement method by incorporating a ring beam device that produces a disk beam and have developed various probes for different inner profile measurement. To meet request for applying to smaller diameter pipes, we tried to improve the ring beam light source using a conical mirror, optical fiber collimator and a laser diode. At this moment a probe with the size of 5 mm in diameter has been realized.

  5. Substrate size rather than heterogeneity controls downstream travel time distributions in replicate small streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubeneau, A. F.; Hanrahan, B.; Tank, J. L.; Bolster, D.

    2013-12-01

    Dissolved solutes are exported from watersheds with water flow and fluxes are therefore influenced by advection, that carries them further, but also retention processes, that delay their travel. It is especially important to understand the factors controlling network solute retention for biogeoreactive species that can be processed if afforded extended residence. In alluvial systems, substrate characteristics play a crucial role in slowing downstream transport. The roughness size (i.e., grain size relative to water depth) is associated with the distortion of the velocity profile and therefore is related to short term delays from additional dispersion. Surface and subsurface water also continually turn over, creating longer delays in the slow-flowing hyporheic region below the water/sediment interface. Sediment structure could also control transport, as pockets of slower hydraulic conductivity may influence the longest travel times. We present results from multiple solute injection experiments testing the influence of sediment size (pea gravel vs. coarse gravel) and heterogeneity (alternating sections vs. well mixed) on solute transport dynamics in four experimental streams located at the Notre Dame Linked Experimental Ecosystem Facility (ND-LEEF). We show that the stream with homogeneously coarse gravel induced more short-term delays but less long-term retention than the stream with smaller pea gravel. Inverse modeling suggested that the short-term delays were exponentially distributed while the long-term retention followed a truncated power-law behavior. Even though transport in all four streams was anomalous, the scaling truncation time was influenced by sediment size, with the smaller pea gravel exhibiting scaling longer than the coarse gravel. Streams with heterogeneous substrate had an intermediate cut-off. These results uniquely associate transport scaling in fluvial systems and substrate characteristics. The streams revealed truncation timescales that had

  6. Reduction of feral cat (Felis catus Linnaeus 1758) colony size following hysterectomy of adult female cats.

    PubMed

    Mendes-de-Almeida, Flavya; Remy, Gabriella L; Gershony, Liza C; Rodrigues, Daniela P; Chame, Marcia; Labarthe, Norma V

    2011-06-01

    The size of urban cat colonies is limited only by the availability of food and shelter; therefore, their population growth challenges all known population control programs. To test a new population control method, a free-roaming feral cat colony at the Zoological Park in the city of Rio de Janeiro was studied, beginning in 2001. The novel method consisted of performing a hysterectomy on all captured female cats over 6 months of age. To estimate the size of the colony and compare population from year to year, a method of capture-mark-release-recapture was used. The aim was to capture as many individuals as possible, including cats of all ages and gender to estimate numbers of cats in all population categories. Results indicated that the feral cat population remained constant from 2001 to 2004. From 2004 to 2008, the hysterectomy program and population estimates were performed every other year (2006 and 2008). The population was estimated to be 40 cats in 2004, 26 in 2006, and 17 cats in 2008. Although pathogens tend to infect more individuals as the population grows older and maintains natural behavior, these results show that free-roaming feral cat colonies could have their population controlled by a biannual program that focuses on hysterectomy of sexually active female cats. PMID:21440475

  7. Serial volumetric assessment of large for size liver grafts after whole cadaveric liver transplant in adults: do large liver grafts shrink in size?

    PubMed Central

    Bekheit, Mohamed; Rajakannu, Muthukumarassamy; Bucur, Petru; Adam, Rene; SaCunha, Antonio; Castaing, Denis; Cherqui, Daniel; Vibert, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background After whole graft orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), adaptation of the large grafts' volume to recipient weight is widely accepted despite the paucity of evidence on this subject. Methods Thirty nine patients with GRWR > 2.5% were included in this study and subsequently divided into two groups with 3 ≥ GRWR > 3%. Patients had CT scans at three predetermined time points after OLT used for measuring the liver volume. The objective of this study is to evaluate the volumetric changes of whole large liver grafts after adult OLT. Results At LT, the mean graft recipient body weight ratio (GRWR) was 3.1 ± 0.4%. The mean liver weight was 1881 ± 68 g at LT, 2014 ± 99 ml at one week, 1725 ± 126 ml at 3 months, and 1632 ± 117 (ml) at >6 months. There is an initial increase at 1 week after LT and a subsequent decrease of liver volume on later measurements. None of the late volume measurements were significantly different from the initial graft volume at liver transplant in pair wise comparisons ANOVA repeated measures (p > 0.05). Similarly, the mean GRWR did not change significantly between the initial calculation at transplantation date and the subsequent measurements during the different study time points (F = 0.04, p = 0.96) with a mean of 3.1% (95% CI = 2.2–4.2). AUC ROC discriminated a cutoff of 3% for the initial GRWR above which grafts tend to decrease in size over time (c statistics = 0.74, p = 0.036). In a Clustered ANOVA repeated measures, there was no significant difference in the changes of liver volume between both groups. However, patients with GRWR > 3 showed a trend towards a latent reduction in volume over the tracing period. There was a tendency, but none significant; towards a higher bilirubin, AST, ALT levels over the first postoperative days in recipients with GRWR > 3. Conclusion Large grafts do not significantly decrease in size. Nonetheless, grafts weighing >3% of the GRWR show a different trend

  8. Effects of adult body size on fecundity and the pre-gravid rate of Anopheles gambiae females in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lyimo, E O; Takken, W

    1993-10-01

    The influence of adult body size on the pre-gravid state and fecundity was studied in Anopheles gambiae Giles females hand-caught inside houses and virgin females collected as pupae in Tanzania. Blood-fed mosquitoes were kept for 2-3 days before dissection and examination for insemination and ovarian condition. Those females which did not develop eggs were classified as pre-gravid. The number of mature eggs in those mosquitoes which became gravid was counted. Virgin females were fed and kept for egg maturation in the laboratory. Wing-length of females was measured as an index of mosquito size. The overall pre-gravid rate in the resting An.gambiae population was found to be 21% and, of these, 66% had been inseminated. In the virgin females the pre-gravid rate was 92.6%. The mean wing-length of wild females which became gravid was significantly larger than those which remained pre-gravid. There was a positive correlation between fecundity and wing-length. Smaller females tended to require two or three bloodmeals to facilitate completion of the first gonotrophic cycle. The critical size permitting oviposition from the first blood-meal was a wing-length of 3 mm. PMID:8268486

  9. Small population size and extremely low levels of genetic diversity in island populations of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Elise; Stoklosa, J; Griffiths, J; Gust, N; Ellis, R; Huggins, R M; Weeks, A R

    2012-04-01

    Genetic diversity generally underpins population resilience and persistence. Reductions in population size and absence of gene flow can lead to reductions in genetic diversity, reproductive fitness, and a limited ability to adapt to environmental change increasing the risk of extinction. Island populations are typically small and isolated, and as a result, inbreeding and reduced genetic diversity elevate their extinction risk. Two island populations of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, exist; a naturally occurring population on King Island in Bass Strait and a recently introduced population on Kangaroo Island off the coast of South Australia. Here we assessed the genetic diversity within these two island populations and contrasted these patterns with genetic diversity estimates in areas from which the populations are likely to have been founded. On Kangaroo Island, we also modeled live capture data to determine estimates of population size. Levels of genetic diversity in King Island platypuses are perilously low, with eight of 13 microsatellite loci fixed, likely reflecting their small population size and prolonged isolation. Estimates of heterozygosity detected by microsatellites (H(E)= 0.032) are among the lowest level of genetic diversity recorded by this method in a naturally outbreeding vertebrate population. In contrast, estimates of genetic diversity on Kangaroo Island are somewhat higher. However, estimates of small population size and the limited founders combined with genetic isolation are likely to lead to further losses of genetic diversity through time for the Kangaroo Island platypus population. Implications for the future of these and similarly isolated or genetically depauperate populations are discussed. PMID:22837830

  10. Sizing of "Mother Ship and Catcher" Concepts for LEO Small Debris Capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, John B.

    2009-01-01

    Most Low Earth Orbit (LEO) debris lies in a limited number of inclination "bands" associated with launch latitudes, or with specific useful orbit inclinations (such as polar orbits). Such narrow inclination bands generally have a uniform spread over all possible Right Ascensions of Ascending Node (RAANs), creating a different orbit plane for nearly every piece of debris. This complicates concept of rendezvous and capture for debris removal. However, a low-orbiting satellite will always phase in RAAN faster than debris objects in higher orbits at the same inclination, potentially solving the problem. Such a base can serve as a single space-based launch facility (a "mother ship") that can tend and then send tiny individual catcher devices for each debris object, as the facility drifts into the same RAAN as the higher object. This presentation will highlight characteristic system requirements of such an architecture, including structural and navigation requirements, power, mass and dV budgets for both the mother ship and the mass-produced common catcher devices that would clean out selected inclination bands. The altitude and inclination regime over which a band is to be cleared, the size distribution of the debris, and the inclusion of additional mission priorities all affect the sizing of the system. It is demonstrated that major LEO hazardous debris reductions can be realized in each band with a single LEO launch of a single mother ship, with simple attached catchers of total mass less than typical commercial LEO launch capability.

  11. X-ray analysis of fully depleted CCDs with small pixel size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotov, I. V.; Haupt, J.; Kubanek, P.; O`Connor, P.; Takacs, P.

    2015-07-01

    X-ray frames offer a lot of information about CCD. 55 Fe sources are traditionally being used for CCD gain and charge transfer efficiency (CTE) measurements. In addition X-rays can be used for the system linearity test. We demonstrate how spectral lines of 55Fe and 241Am rad. sources are used for system linearity measurements. The pixel size of modern scientific CCDs is getting smaller. The charge diffusion causes the charge spread among neighboring pixels especially in thick fully depleted sensors. This enables measurement of the charge diffusion using 55Fe X-rays. On the other hand, the usual CTE characterization method based on single pixel X-ray events becomes statistically deficient. A new way of measuring CTE using shape and amplitude analysis of X-ray clusters is presented and discussed. This method requires high statistical samples. Advances in test automation and express analysis technique allow for acquiring such statistical samples in a short period of time. The lateral diffusion measured using e2v CCD250 is presented and implications for X-ray cluster size and expected cluster shape are discussed. The CTE analysis using total X-ray cluster amplitude is presented. This analysis can reveal CTE problems for certain conditions. The statistical analysis of average X-ray cluster shape is presented. The details of our measurement procedure are presented.

  12. Ethanol production in small- to medium-size facilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hiler, E.A.; Coble, C.G.; O'Neal, H.P.

    1982-04-01

    In early 1980 system design criteria were developed for a small-scale ethanol production plant. The plant was eventually acquired from Coulter Copper and Brass Company in Toronto and was installed on November 1, 1980. It has a production capacity of 30 liters per hour; this can be increased easily (if desired) to 60 liters per hour with additional fermentation tanks. Sixty-six test runs have been conducted to date in the alcohol production facility. Feedstocks evaluated in these tests include: corn (28 runs); grain sorghum (33 runs); grain sorghum grits (1 run); half corn/half sorghum (1 run); and sugarcane juice (3 runs). In addition, a small bench-scale fermentation and distillation system has been used to evaluate sugarcane and sweet sorghum feedstocks prior to their evaluation in the larger unit. In each of these tests, evaluation of the following items was conducted: preprocessing requirements; operational problems; conversion efficienty (for example, liters of alcohol produced per kilogram of feedstock); energy balance and efficiency; nutritional recovery from stillage; solids separation by screw press; chemical characterization of stillage including liquid and solids fractions; wastewater requirements; and air pollution potential.

  13. Small population size of Pribilof Rock Sandpipers confirmed through distance-sampling surveys in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Gill, Robert E., Jr.; Dementyev, Maksim N.; Handel, Colleen M.

    2012-01-01

    The Rock Sandpiper (Calidris ptilocnemis) is endemic to the Bering Sea region and unique among shorebirds in the North Pacific for wintering at high latitudes. The nominate subspecies, the Pribilof Rock Sandpiper (C. p. ptilocnemis), breeds on four isolated islands in the Bering Sea and appears to spend the winter primarily in Cook Inlet, Alaska. We used a stratified systematic sampling design and line-transect method to survey the entire breeding range of this population during springs 2001-2003. Densities were up to four times higher on the uninhabited and more northerly St. Matthew and Hall islands than on St. Paul and St. George islands, which both have small human settlements and introduced reindeer herds. Differences in density, however, appeared to be more related to differences in vegetation than to anthropogenic factors, raising some concern for prospective effects of climate change. We estimated the total population at 19 832 birds (95% CI 17 853–21 930), ranking it among the smallest of North American shorebird populations. To determine the vulnerability of C. p. ptilocnemis to anthropogenic and stochastic environmental threats, future studies should focus on determining the amount of gene flow among island subpopulations, the full extent of the subspecies' winter range, and the current trajectory of this small population.

  14. Assessment of Spectral Doppler in Preclinical Ultrasound Using a Small-Size Rotating Phantom

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xin; Sun, Chao; Anderson, Tom; Moran, Carmel M.; Hadoke, Patrick W.F.; Gray, Gillian A.; Hoskins, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    Preclinical ultrasound scanners are used to measure blood flow in small animals, but the potential errors in blood velocity measurements have not been quantified. This investigation rectifies this omission through the design and use of phantoms and evaluation of measurement errors for a preclinical ultrasound system (Vevo 770, Visualsonics, Toronto, ON, Canada). A ray model of geometric spectral broadening was used to predict velocity errors. A small-scale rotating phantom, made from tissue-mimicking material, was developed. True and Doppler-measured maximum velocities of the moving targets were compared over a range of angles from 10° to 80°. Results indicate that the maximum velocity was overestimated by up to 158% by spectral Doppler. There was good agreement (<10%) between theoretical velocity errors and measured errors for beam-target angles of 50°–80°. However, for angles of 10°–40°, the agreement was not as good (>50%). The phantom is capable of validating the performance of blood velocity measurement in preclinical ultrasound. PMID:23711503

  15. Software-Defined Solutions for Managing Energy Use in Small to Medium Sized Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Peffer, Therese; Blumstein, Carl; Culler, David; Modera, Mark; Meier, Alan

    2015-09-10

    The Project uses state-of-the-art computer science to extend the benefits of Building Automation Systems (BAS) typically found in large buildings (>100,000 square foot) to medium-sized commercial buildings (<50,000 sq ft). The BAS developed in this project, termed OpenBAS, uses an open-source and open software architecture platform, user interface, and plug-and-play control devices to facilitate adoption of energy efficiency strategies in the commercial building sector throughout the United States. At the heart of this “turn key” BAS is the platform with three types of controllers—thermostat, lighting controller, and general controller—that are easily “discovered” by the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. The user interface showcases the platform and provides the control system set-up, system status display and means of automatically mapping the control points in the system.

  16. Thin-film sensors with small structure size on flat and curved surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmaljohann, F.; Hagedorn, D.; Buß, A.; Kumme, R.; Löffler, F.

    2012-07-01

    We have developed a fabrication technology for thin-film sensors on metallic substrates with flat and curved surfaces. Physical vapour deposition by means of a magnetron sputtering system is used to deposit an insulating layer and a following functional layer. This layer is structured by distinct photolithographic steps utilizing a self-developed spray coating technique, four-axis robotics with micrometer precision and a UV laser with a spot size below 10 μm. This highly flexible technique allows a rapid change of design to produce various sensor layouts in a short time. Besides the fabrication technology, we present two realized applications for thin-film sensor technology in this paper. First, a tool wear sensor for rotating cutting tools, directly detecting the flank-wear land width, and second, sputtered resistance strain gauges for force measurement. Measurement results showing the potential of thin-film sensors are given briefly.

  17. Detection of small-sized near-surface under-clad cracks for reactor pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, T.T.; Crawford, S.L.; Doctor, S.R.; Posakony, G.J.

    1983-02-01

    The analysis of pressurized thermal shock (PTS) shows it is necessary for nondestructive evaluation to demonstrate high probability of detecting evaluation to demonstrate high probability of detecting cracks 0.250 inches deep and deeper at the clad/base metal interface. Ultrasonic techniques developed and used in Europe are evaluated in this paper for their applicability to US reactor pressure vessels for detecting cracks of interest for PTS. Flaw detectability experiments were carried out by testing the inspection technique's ability to detect artificial flaws under several types of clad, including some Manual Metal Arc (MMA) clad. Both ground and unground clad surfaces were evaluated. Crack sizing tests of the inspection technique were made using a crack tip diffraction technique.

  18. Evolutionary genetics and implications of small size and twinning in callitrichine primates

    PubMed Central

    Harris, R. Alan; Tardif, Suzette D.; Vinar, Tomas; Wildman, Derek E.; Rutherford, Julienne N.; Rogers, Jeffrey; Worley, Kim C.; Aagaard, Kjersti M.

    2014-01-01

    New World monkeys (NWMs) are characterized by an extensive size range, with clawed NWMs (subfamily Callitrichinae, or callitrichines) such as the common marmoset manifesting diminutive size and unique reproductive adaptations. Perhaps the most notable of these adaptations is their propensity toward multiple gestations (i.e., dichorionic twins and trichorionic triplets). Indeed, with the exception of Goeldi’s monkey (Callimico), callitrichine singleton pregnancies rarely occur. Multiple gestations seem to have coevolved with a suite of reproductive adaptations, including hematopoetic chimerism of siblings, suppression of reproduction in nondominant females, and cooperative alloparenting. The sequencing of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) genome offers the opportunity to explore the genetic basis of these unusual traits within this primate lineage. In this study, we hypothesized that genetic changes arising during callitrichine evolution resulted in multiple ovulated ova with each cycle, and that these changes triggered adaptations that minimized complications common to multiple gestations in other primates, including humans. Callitrichine-specific nonsynonymous substitutions were identified in GDF9, BMP15, BMP4, and WFIKKN1. WFIKKN1, a multidomain protease inhibitor that binds growth factors and bone morphogenetic proteins, has nonsynonymous changes found exclusively in common marmosets and other tested callitrichine species that twin. In the one callitrichine species that does not produce twins (Callimico), this change has reverted back to the ancestral (nontwinning) primate sequence. Polymorphisms in GDF9 occur among human cohorts with a propensity for dizygotic twins, and polymorphisms in GDF9 and BMP15 are associated with twinning in sheep. We postulate that positive selection affected NWM growth patterns, with callitrichine miniaturization coevolving with a series of reproductive adaptations. PMID:24379383

  19. Evolutionary genetics and implications of small size and twinning in callitrichine primates.

    PubMed

    Harris, R Alan; Tardif, Suzette D; Vinar, Tomas; Wildman, Derek E; Rutherford, Julienne N; Rogers, Jeffrey; Worley, Kim C; Aagaard, Kjersti M

    2014-01-28

    New World monkeys (NWMs) are characterized by an extensive size range, with clawed NWMs (subfamily Callitrichinae, or callitrichines) such as the common marmoset manifesting diminutive size and unique reproductive adaptations. Perhaps the most notable of these adaptations is their propensity toward multiple gestations (i.e., dichorionic twins and trichorionic triplets). Indeed, with the exception of Goeldi's monkey (Callimico), callitrichine singleton pregnancies rarely occur. Multiple gestations seem to have coevolved with a suite of reproductive adaptations, including hematopoetic chimerism of siblings, suppression of reproduction in nondominant females, and cooperative alloparenting. The sequencing of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) genome offers the opportunity to explore the genetic basis of these unusual traits within this primate lineage. In this study, we hypothesized that genetic changes arising during callitrichine evolution resulted in multiple ovulated ova with each cycle, and that these changes triggered adaptations that minimized complications common to multiple gestations in other primates, including humans. Callitrichine-specific nonsynonymous substitutions were identified in GDF9, BMP15, BMP4, and WFIKKN1. WFIKKN1, a multidomain protease inhibitor that binds growth factors and bone morphogenetic proteins, has nonsynonymous changes found exclusively in common marmosets and other tested callitrichine species that twin. In the one callitrichine species that does not produce twins (Callimico), this change has reverted back to the ancestral (nontwinning) primate sequence. Polymorphisms in GDF9 occur among human cohorts with a propensity for dizygotic twins, and polymorphisms in GDF9 and BMP15 are associated with twinning in sheep. We postulate that positive selection affected NWM growth patterns, with callitrichine miniaturization coevolving with a series of reproductive adaptations. PMID:24379383

  20. Muscle Size Not Density Predicts Variance in Muscle Strength and Neuromuscular Performance in Healthy Adult Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Benjamin K; Gerrits, Tom A J; Horan, Sean A; Beck, Belinda R

    2016-06-01

    Weeks, BK, Gerrits, TAJ, Horan, SA, and Beck, BR. Muscle size not density predicts variance in muscle strength and neuromuscular performance in healthy adult men and women. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1577-1584, 2016-The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT)-derived measures of muscle area and density and markers of muscle strength and performance in men and women. Fifty-two apparently healthy adults (26 men, 26 women; age 33.8 ± 12.0 years) volunteered to participate. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (XR-800; Norland Medical Systems, Inc., Trumbull, CT, USA) was used to determine whole body and regional lean and fat tissue mass, whereas pQCT (XCT-3000; Stratec, Pforzheim, Germany) was used to determine muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA) and muscle density of the leg, thigh, and forearm. Ankle plantar flexor and knee extensor strengths were examined using isokinetic dynamometry, and grip strength was examined with dynamometry. Impulse generated during a maximal vertical jump was used as an index of neuromuscular performance. Thigh, forearm, and leg MCSA strongly predicted variance in knee extensor (R = 0.77, p < 0.001) and grip strength (R = 0.77, p < 0.001) and weakly predicted variance in ankle plantar flexor strength (R = 0.20, p < 0.001), respectively, whereas muscle density was only a weak predictor of variance in knee extensor strength (R = 0.18, p < 0.001). Thigh and leg MCSA accounted for 79 and 69% of the variance in impulse generated from a maximal vertical jump (p < 0.001), whereas thigh muscle density predicted only 18% of the variance (p < 0.002). In conclusion, we found that pQCT-derived muscle area is more strongly related to strength and neuromuscular performance than muscle density in adult men and women. PMID:26473521

  1. Muscle size and arterial stiffness after blood flow-restricted low-intensity resistance training in older adults.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, T; Fukumura, K; Fukuda, T; Uchida, Y; Iida, H; Meguro, M; Sato, Y; Yamasoba, T; Nakajima, T

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that blood flow-restricted low-intensity resistance training (BFR-RT) causes muscle hypertrophy while maintaining arterial function in young adults. We examined the effects of BFR-RT on muscle size and arterial stiffness in older adults. Healthy subjects (ages 61-84 years) were divided into BFR-RT (n = 9) or non-training control (CON; n = 10) groups. The BFR-RT group performed 20% and 30%, respectively, of one-repetition maximal (1-RM) knee extension and leg press exercises, 2 days/wk for 12 weeks. The BFR-RT group wore elastic cuffs (120-270 mmHg) on both legs during training. Magnetic resonance imaging-measured muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), 1-RM strength, chair stand (CS) test, and cardio-ankle vascular index testing (CAVI), an index of arterial stiffness, were measured before and 3-5 days after the final training session. Muscle CSA of the quadriceps (8.0%), adductors (6.5%), and gluteus maximus (4.4%), leg extension and leg press 1-RM strength (26.1% and 33.4%), and CS performance (18.3%) improved (P < 0.05) in the BFR-RT group, but not in the CON group. In CAVI testing, there were no changes in both two groups. In conclusion, BFR-RT improves muscle CSA as well as maximal muscle strength, but does not negatively affect arterial stiffness or humeral coagulation factors in older adults. PMID:23730848

  2. A Review of Supply Chain Collaboration Practices for Small and Medium-sized Manufacturers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, SY; Thoo, AC; Z, Sulaiman; FM, Muharam

    2016-05-01

    For the decades, organizations have endeavored to look for external sources for opportunities to achieve efficient and responsive supply chain with their partners especially for small and medium manufacturers (SMM). In this scenario, supply chain collaboration (SCC) is an interaction between supply chain members with the purpose of utilizes the knowledge and resources of customers and suppliers, and integrates the flows of products and information in order to achieve a common goal and obtain mutual benefit. The essential SCC dimensions for SMMs comprised of information sharing, joint knowledge creation, joint decision making, goal congruence and incentive sharing. The successful implementation of SCC can give SMMs an edge over their competitors. This paper aims to introduce a review of SCC practices for SMM. Overall, the findings provide managerial insights for the SMM in SCC implementation owing to resource scarcity and the need to draw SCC in order to ensure a sustainable competitive advantage.

  3. Method to study sample object size limit of small-angle x-ray scattering computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Mina; Ghammraoui, Bahaa; Badal, Andreu; Badano, Aldo

    2016-03-01

    Small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) imaging is an emerging medical tool that can be used for in vivo detailed tissue characterization and has the potential to provide added contrast to conventional x-ray projection and CT imaging. We used a publicly available MC-GPU code to simulate x-ray trajectories in a SAXS-CT geometry for a target material embedded in a water background material with varying sample sizes (1, 3, 5, and 10 mm). Our target materials were water solution of gold nanoparticle (GNP) spheres with a radius of 6 nm and a water solution with dissolved serum albumin (BSA) proteins due to their well-characterized scatter profiles at small angles and highly scattering properties. The background material was water. Our objective is to study how the reconstructed scatter profile degrades at larger target imaging depths and increasing sample sizes. We have found that scatter profiles of the GNP in water can still be reconstructed at depths up to 5 mm embedded at the center of a 10 mm sample. Scatter profiles of BSA in water were also reconstructed at depths up to 5 mm in a 10 mm sample but with noticeable signal degradation as compared to the GNP sample. This work presents a method to study the sample size limits for future SAXS-CT imaging systems.

  4. Transgenerational Effects of Parental Larval Diet on Offspring Development Time, Adult Body Size and Pathogen Resistance in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Valtonen, Terhi M.; Kangassalo, Katariina; Pölkki, Mari; Rantala, Markus J.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental conditions experienced by parents are increasingly recognized to affect offspring performance. We set out to investigate the effect of parental larval diet on offspring development time, adult body size and adult resistance to the bacterium Serratia marcescens in Drosophila melanogaster. Flies for the parental generation were raised on either poor or standard diet and then mated in the four possible sex-by-parental diet crosses. Females that were raised on poor food produced larger offspring than females that were raised on standard food. Furthermore, male progeny sired by fathers that were raised on poor food were larger than male progeny sired by males raised on standard food. Development times were shortest for offspring whose one parent (mother or the father) was raised on standard and the other parent on poor food and longest for offspring whose parents both were raised on poor food. No evidence for transgenerational effects of parental diet on offspring disease resistance was found. Although paternal effects have been previously demonstrated in D. melanogaster, no earlier studies have investigated male-mediated transgenerational effects of diet in this species. The results highlight the importance of not only considering the relative contribution each parental sex has on progeny performance but also the combined effects that the two sexes may have on offspring performance. PMID:22359607

  5. Does the timing of attainment of maturity influence sexual size dimorphism and adult sex ratio in turtles?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Gibbons, J. Whitfield; Agha, Mickey

    2014-01-01

    The attainment of sexual maturity has been shown to affect measures of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and adult sex ratios in several groups of vertebrates. Using data for turtles, we tested the model that sex ratios are expected to be male-biased when females are larger than males and female-biased when males are larger than females because of the relationship of each with the attainment of maturity. Our model is based on the premise that the earlier-maturing sex remains smaller, on average throughout life, and predominates numerically unless the sexes are strongly affected by differential mortality, differential emigration, and immigration, or biased primary sex ratios. Based on data for 24 species in seven families, SSD and sex ratios were significantly negatively correlated for most analyses, even after the effect of phylogenetic bias was removed. The analyses provide support for the model that SSD and adult sex ratios are correlated in turtles as a result of simultaneous correlation of each with sexual differences in attainment of maturity (bimaturism). Environmental sex determination provides a possible mechanism for the phenomenon in turtles and some other organisms.

  6. Subnanosecond X-ray apparatus with flexible cable radiator probe based on small-size explosive emission vacuum diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, S. N.; Mesyats, G. A.; Shpak, V. G.

    2011-05-01

    Subnanosecond X-ray apparatus with a miniature radiator tube, which was connected to a source of high-voltage pulses through a commercial thin flexible radio-frequency coaxial cable (PK50, production of Russia), rated at 50 Ohm and having a length of 1 m, was created. Miniature explosive emission vacuum diodes were used as the picosecond X-ray emitter. The main advantages of the new subnanosecond X-ray apparatus with a flexible cable radiator probe, in comparison with a conventional one, include a small size and a lightweight (from 10 to 32 kg in our performance), as well as the possibility to bring the small-size X-ray tube by means of a long and thin flexible supply cable immediately to an object, which is hard to reach with available X-ray apparatus. The developed X-ray apparatus may find application in medicine for close-focus intracavitary roentgenotherapy, and also in industry for X-ray non-destructive inspection of small diameter lengthy intricate hollow parts.

  7. The RSC chromatin remodelling ATPase translocates DNA with high force and small step size

    PubMed Central

    Sirinakis, George; Clapier, Cedric R; Gao, Ying; Viswanathan, Ramya; Cairns, Bradley R; Zhang, Yongli

    2011-01-01

    ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling complexes use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to reposition and reconfigure nucleosomes. Despite their diverse functions, all remodellers share highly conserved ATPase domains, many shown to translocate DNA. Understanding remodelling requires biophysical knowledge of the DNA translocation process: how the ATPase moves DNA and generates force, and how translocation and force generation are coupled on nucleosomes. Here, we characterize the real-time activity of a minimal RSC translocase ‘motor' on bare DNA, using high-resolution optical tweezers and a ‘tethered' translocase system. We observe on dsDNA a processivity of ∼35 bp, a speed of ∼25 bp/s, and a step size of 2.0 (±0.4, s.e.m.) bp. Surprisingly, the motor is capable of moving against high force, up to 30 pN, making it one of the most force-resistant motors known. We also provide evidence for DNA ‘buckling' at initiation. These observations reveal the ATPase as a powerful DNA translocating motor capable of disrupting DNA–histone interactions by mechanical force. PMID:21552204

  8. High-latitude HF Doppler observations of ULF waves: 2. Waves with small spatial scale sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, D. M.; Yeoman, T. K.

    1999-07-01

    The DOPE (Doppler Pulsation Experiment) HF Doppler sounder located near Tromsø, Norway (geographic: 69.6°N 19.2°E; L = 6.3) is deployed to observe signatures, in the high-latitude ionosphere, of magnetospheric ULF waves. A type of wave has been identified which exhibits no simultaneous ground magnetic signature. They can be subdivided into two classes which occur in the dawn and dusk local time sectors respectively. They generally have frequencies greater than the resonance fundamentals of local field lines. It is suggested that these may be the signatures of high-m ULF waves where the ground magnetic signature has been strongly attenuated as a result of the scale size of the waves. The dawn population demonstrate similarities to a type of magnetospheric wave known as giant (Pg) pulsations which tend to be resonant at higher harmonics on magnetic field lines. In contrast, the waves occurring in the dusk sector are believed to be related to the storm-time Pc5s previously reported in VHF radar data. Dst measurements support these observations by indicating that the dawn and dusk classes of waves occur respectively during geomagnetically quiet and more active intervals.

  9. Does size matter? Statistical limits of paleomagnetic field reconstruction from small rock specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berndt, Thomas; Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Fabian, Karl

    2016-01-01

    As samples of ever decreasing sizes are being studied paleomagnetically, care has to be taken that the underlying assumptions of statistical thermodynamics (Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics) are being met. Here we determine how many grains and how large a magnetic moment a sample needs to have to be able to accurately record an ambient field. It is found that for samples with a thermoremanent magnetic moment larger than 10-11Am2 the assumption of a sufficiently large number of grains is usually given. Standard 25 mm diameter paleomagnetic samples usually contain enough magnetic grains such that statistical errors are negligible, but "single silicate crystal" works on, for example, zircon, plagioclase, and olivine crystals are approaching the limits of what is physically possible, leading to statistic errors in both the angular deviation and paleointensity that are comparable to other sources of error. The reliability of nanopaleomagnetic imaging techniques capable of resolving individual grains (used, for example, to study the cloudy zone in meteorites), however, is questionable due to the limited area of the material covered.

  10. Small-size mass spectrometer for determining gases and volatile compounds in air during breathing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, V. T.; Kozlenok, A. V.; Chichagov, Yu. V.; Antonov, A. S.; Lebedev, D. S.; Bogdanov, A. A.; Moroshkin, V. S.; Berezina, A. V.; Viktorova-Leclerc, O. S.; Vlasov, S. A.; Tubol'tsev, Yu. V.

    2015-10-01

    We describe an automated mass spectrometer for diagnostics of deceases from the composition of exhaled air. It includes a capillary system, which performs a rapid direct feeding of the sample to the instrument without changing substantially its composition and serves for studying the dynamics of variation of the ratio between various components of exhaled air. The membrane system for introducing the sample is intended for determining low concentrations of volatile organic compounds which are biomarkers of pathologies. It is characterized by selective transmittance and ensures the detection limits of target compounds at the parts per million-parts per billion (ppm-ppb) level. A static mass analyzer operating on permanent magnets possesses advantages important for mobile devices as compared to its dynamic analogs: it is more reliable in operation, has a larger dynamic range, and can be used for determining the concentration of components in the mixture one-by-one or simultaneously. The curvilinear output boundary of the magnetic lens of the mass analyzer makes it possible to reduce its weight and size by 2.5 times without deteriorating the mass resolution. We report on the results of testing of the instrument and consider the possibility of its application for early detection of deceases of respiratory and blood circulation system, gastrointestinal tract, and endocrine system.

  11. Conditions of possible programs using small and medium size ground-based astrometric instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalevsky, J.

    The post-HIPPARCOS era has brought some uncertainty on the future of ground-based astrometry. However, the discussions that were initiated by the IAU Working Group on future development of ground-based astrometry, showed that there are a number of fields that will not be satisfactorily covered by space astrometry. The instruments that could be used are shortly described. Then the complementarity of ground-based and space astrometry is discussed. The papers presented at this very session confirm the point of view that, with minor modifications and improvement of existing instruments, many sound scientific programs can be undertaken. The principal domains in which major scientific inputs are expected from ground-based astrometry concern the dynamics of minor planets and satellites, the shape of the Sun, double stars, kinematics within stellar clusters and radiosource optical counterparts. In addition, the use of some small telescopes for monitoring long period irregular variable stars could be a useful reconversion of astrometric activity. Some possible projects in these fields will be presented, but the Working Group cannot manage such programs. Its objective is to help organizing them and to encourage people to join them. An important point concerning these programs is that all the participants should have a reward in their work in terms of publications.

  12. Superior room-temperature ductility of typically brittle quasicrystals at small sizes

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yu; Kuczera, Pawel; Sologubenko, Alla; Sumigawa, Takashi; Kitamura, Takayuki; Steurer, Walter; Spolenak, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of quasicrystals three decades ago unveiled a class of matter that exhibits long-range order but lacks translational periodicity. Owing to their unique structures, quasicrystals possess many unusual properties. However, a well-known bottleneck that impedes their widespread application is their intrinsic brittleness: plastic deformation has been found to only be possible at high temperatures or under hydrostatic pressures, and their deformation mechanism at low temperatures is still unclear. Here, we report that typically brittle quasicrystals can exhibit remarkable ductility of over 50% strains and high strengths of ∼4.5 GPa at room temperature and sub-micrometer scales. In contrast to the generally accepted dominant deformation mechanism in quasicrystals—dislocation climb, our observation suggests that dislocation glide may govern plasticity under high-stress and low-temperature conditions. The ability to plastically deform quasicrystals at room temperature should lead to an improved understanding of their deformation mechanism and application in small-scale devices. PMID:27515779

  13. Superior room-temperature ductility of typically brittle quasicrystals at small sizes.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yu; Kuczera, Pawel; Sologubenko, Alla; Sumigawa, Takashi; Kitamura, Takayuki; Steurer, Walter; Spolenak, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of quasicrystals three decades ago unveiled a class of matter that exhibits long-range order but lacks translational periodicity. Owing to their unique structures, quasicrystals possess many unusual properties. However, a well-known bottleneck that impedes their widespread application is their intrinsic brittleness: plastic deformation has been found to only be possible at high temperatures or under hydrostatic pressures, and their deformation mechanism at low temperatures is still unclear. Here, we report that typically brittle quasicrystals can exhibit remarkable ductility of over 50% strains and high strengths of ∼4.5 GPa at room temperature and sub-micrometer scales. In contrast to the generally accepted dominant deformation mechanism in quasicrystals-dislocation climb, our observation suggests that dislocation glide may govern plasticity under high-stress and low-temperature conditions. The ability to plastically deform quasicrystals at room temperature should lead to an improved understanding of their deformation mechanism and application in small-scale devices. PMID:27515779

  14. A Study on the Small-size Self-propelled Stewart-platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, Akihiro; Banno, Masaaki; Ueda, Akiteru; Doki, Kae

    This paper describes a self-propelled Stewart-platform. The Stewart-platform usually consists of a base platform, a moving platform, and linear actuators connecting both the platforms. We use six stacked-type piezoelectric actuators as the linear actuators. Mechanical joints connect the linear actuators and both the platforms. We insert electromagnets between the linear actuators and the base platform instead of the mechanical joints. This structure enables the Stewart-platfom to move on a surface by using the principle of an inchworm. While the electromagnets fix the linear actuators on the base platform, the proposed Stewart-platform realizes a precise 6-DOF motion. Control signals are designed for the small displacement based on the inverse kinematics, and for the wide working area based on the principle of an inchworm. The position and orientation of the moving platform is measured, and some experimental results indicate the feasibility of the proposed mechanism. The mechanism is effective for a precise positioning system which has unlimitted working area.

  15. Novel focal point multipass cell for absorption spectroscopy on small sized atmospheric pressure plasmas.

    PubMed

    Winter, Jörn; Hänel, Mattis; Reuter, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    A novel focal point multipass cell (FPMPC) was developed, in which all laser beams propagate through a common focal point. It is exclusively constructed from standard optical elements. Main functional elements are two 90(∘) off-axis parabolic mirrors and two retroreflectors. Up to 17 laser passes are demonstrated with a near-infrared laser beam. The number of laser passes is precisely adjustable by changing the retroreflector distance. At the focal point beams are constricted to fit through an aperture of 0.8 mm. This is shown for 11 beam passes. Moreover, the fast temporal response of the cell permits investigation of transient processes with frequencies up to 10 MHz. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the FPMPC for atmospheric pressure plasma jets, laser absorption spectroscopy on the lowest excited argon state (1s5) was performed on a 1 MHz argon atmospheric pressure plasma jet. From the obtained optical depth profiles, the signal-to-noise ratio was deduced. It is shown that an elevation of the laser pass number results in an proportional increase of the signal-to-noise ratio making the FPMPC an appropriate tool for absorption spectroscopy on plasmas of small dimensions. PMID:27131664

  16. Emergency Preparedness for Catastrophic Events at Small and Medium Sized Airports: Lacking or Not?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, Kathleen M.

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of security methods and processes in general has had a decisive impact on the aviation industry. However, efforts to effectively coordinate varied aspects of security protocols between agencies and general aviation components have not been adequately addressed. Whether or not overall security issues, especially with regard to planning for catastrophic terrorist events, have been neglected at the nation's smaller airports is the main topic of this paper. For perspective, the term general aviation is generally accepted to include all flying except for military and scheduled airline operations. Genera aviation makes up more than 1 percent of the U.S. Gross Domestic Product and supports almost 1.3 mission high-skilled jobs in professional services and manufacturing and hence is an important component of the aviation industry (AOPA, n.d.). In both conceptual and practical terms, this paper argues for the proactive management of security planning and repeated security awareness training from both an individual and an organizational perspective within the general aviation venue. The results of a research project incorporating survey data from general aviation and small commercial airport managers as well as Transportation Security Administration (TSA) employees are reported. Survey findings suggest that miscommunication does take place on different organizational levels and that between TSA employees and airport management interaction can be contentious and cooperation diminished. The importance of organizational training for decreasing conflict and increasing security and preparedness is discussed as a primary implication.

  17. Novel focal point multipass cell for absorption spectroscopy on small sized atmospheric pressure plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Jörn; Hänel, Mattis; Reuter, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    A novel focal point multipass cell (FPMPC) was developed, in which all laser beams propagate through a common focal point. It is exclusively constructed from standard optical elements. Main functional elements are two 90∘ off-axis parabolic mirrors and two retroreflectors. Up to 17 laser passes are demonstrated with a near-infrared laser beam. The number of laser passes is precisely adjustable by changing the retroreflector distance. At the focal point beams are constricted to fit through an aperture of 0.8 mm. This is shown for 11 beam passes. Moreover, the fast temporal response of the cell permits investigation of transient processes with frequencies up to 10 MHz. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the FPMPC for atmospheric pressure plasma jets, laser absorption spectroscopy on the lowest excited argon state (1s5) was performed on a 1 MHz argon atmospheric pressure plasma jet. From the obtained optical depth profiles, the signal-to-noise ratio was deduced. It is shown that an elevation of the laser pass number results in an proportional increase of the signal-to-noise ratio making the FPMPC an appropriate tool for absorption spectroscopy on plasmas of small dimensions.

  18. SU-E-T-141: Effect of a Single Gold Nanoparticle with Different Sizes Inside a Small Water Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, J; Lin, H; Xiong, Z

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This study is to investigate the effects of the gold nanoparticles (GNP), a series of micrometre scale simulations have been constructed with Geant4 to track particles and simulate the effects of those particles as they pass through water phantom. Methods: The simulations were used to calculate the number of secondary electrons which are emitted from the particle tracks and the amount of energy which is deposited in the cell tissue. More electrons means that more water molecules can undergo hydrolysis and create potentially dangerous free radical molecules, therefore breaking up DNA and killing off cells or causing damaging mutations. Results: For the 20nm GNP, all three proton energies saw a small increase of electrons above the control, while the X-rays nearly tripled the number of electrons in the phantom. For the 50 nm GNP, the 3 and 2 MeV protons saw a small increase again, however the 1 MeV protons saw a decrease in electrons, the X-rays saw a large increase of nearly 4 times the number of electrons. For the 110nm GNP, all three proton energies saw a decrease in the total number of electrons in the phantom, while the X-rays saw an increase of 8 times as many electrons. Conclusion: From the range of GNP sizes used, it was found that the X-rays have a larger dose enhancement effect as the GNP size increases, the relation between electron emissions and GNP size was linear. This is because the majority of the dose from the X-rays is delivered to the cell tissue through the initial high energy secondary electrons, any dose lost from the Augerelectrons being trapped inside the GNP volume is small compared to the dose that escapes with the high energy electrons.

  19. Use of Ultra Small Angle X-Ray Scattering to Measure Grain Size of Styrene-Butadiene Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Robert E.; Myers, Randall T.; Bellare, Anuj

    1998-03-01

    Simultaneous determination of the lamellar morphological length scale and the grain size of several commercial heterogeneous styrene - butadiene block copolymers was accomplished through the use of ultra small angle x-ray scattering measurements. NIST's X23A3 ultra SAXS beamline at the Brookhaven National Laboratory provided a range of scattering vector q from 0.0004 to 0.1 ÅThe grain dimension was determined by analysis of both the Bragg peaks and the Porod region coupled with the invarient assosciated with the scattering intensities at very low values of q. Grain size was controlled in a given block copolymer by the choice of evaporation solvent and temperature as well as annealing time and temperature. Conventional 2-dimensional SAXS and transmission electron microscopy corroborated the ultra SAXS analysis.

  20. Analysis of efficiency of using hybrid propulsion for accelerating small-size rockets starting from the earth surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, V. M.; Zvegintsev, V. I.; Mazhuls, I. I.; Shumskii, V. V.

    2010-12-01

    The flight trajectories of a hypothetical small-size rocket starting from the Earth surface and driven by hybrid propulsion, which involves a solid-propellant rocket motor (SRM) and a ramjet-type air-breathing engine (ramjet), are calculated and analyzed. The basic varied parameter is the ratio of the fuel masses used for operation of various engine types with the total fuel mass being unchanged. The objective function is the flight range of the rocket under different initial conditions. Based on a model problem considered as an example, it is demonstrated that the flight range can be substantially increased by using hybrid propulsion (SRM and ramjet), as compared with the vehicle having identical mass and size characteristics and using the SRM only.