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Sample records for adult smoking prevalence

  1. Cigarette Consumption and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence Among Adults in Kansas

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Sue Min

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent tobacco prevention and cessation activities have focused on nonsmoking ordinances and behavioral changes, and in Kansas, the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults has decreased. The objective of this study was to determine whether overall cigarette consumption (mean annual number of cigarettes smoked) in Kansas also decreased. Methods Data on cigarette smoking prevalence for 91,465 adult Kansans were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey for 1999 through 2010. Data on annual cigarette consumption were obtained from the 2002 and 2006 Kansas Adult Tobacco Survey and analyzed by totals, by sex, and by smoking some days or smoking every day. Linear regression was used to evaluate rate changes over time. Results Among men, but not women, cigarette smoking prevalence decreased significantly over time. The prevalence of smoking every day decreased significantly among both men and women, whereas the prevalence of smoking on some days increased significantly for women but not men. For current smokers, the mean annual number of cigarettes consumed remained the same. Conclusion The decline in overall smoking prevalence coupled with the lack of change in mean annual cigarette consumption may have resulted in a more intense exposure to cigarettes for the smoking population. The significant increase in some day use among women indicates a need for additional prevention and education activities; the impact on future lung cancer incidence rates needs further investigation. PMID:26068414

  2. Epidemiology of smoking among Kuwaiti adults: prevalence, characteristics, and attitudes.

    PubMed Central

    Memon, A.; Moody, P. M.; Sugathan, T. N.; el-Gerges, N.; al-Bustan, M.; al-Shatti, A.; al-Jazzaf, H.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In 1996 we conducted a cross-sectional survey to study the epidemiology of smoking among Kuwaiti adults. METHODS: The 4000 participants were selected using a three-stage stratified cluster sampling design. Altogether 3859 participants (1798 males, 2061 females) returned a completed self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking was 34.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 32.2-36.6) among men and 1.9% (95% CI = 1.3-2.5) among women. Among men, the highest prevalence (56.5%; 95% CI = 36.2-76.8) was observed in the youngest age group (< or = 20 years). Among women the highest prevalence was observed in one of the older age groups (46-50 years) (7.1%; 95% CI = 3.1-11.1). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the following factors were independently associated with smoking: lower levels of education (odds ratio (OR) 3.5; 95% CI = 1.5-8.4), lower employment grade (OR = 4.1; 2.5-6.7), and being a separated, divorced, or widowed woman (OR = 4.9; 95% CI = 2.0-11.8). The majority of smokers (68%) began smoking when younger than 20 years; significantly more men (70%) than women (33%) began smoking at these ages (P < 0.0001). On average, men began smoking at an earlier age (18 years vs 21 years; P < 0.001) and therefore had smoked for a longer period (15 years vs 12 years; P < 0.05); men also consumed a higher number of cigarettes each day (26 vs 17; P < 0.05). A large proportion of smokers were ignorant about the health consequences of passive smoking: about 77% of those with children reported that they smoked in the presence of their children. Almost half (47%) of all smokers stated that they wanted to stop smoking, and about 56% had attempted to quit. The biggest perceived barrier to quitting was uncertainty about "how to quit". A total of 338 respondents (8.8%; 95% CI = 5.8-11.9) were classified as former smokers. About half of the former smokers had quit between the ages of 20 and 29 years; the average age of quitting was 28

  3. Impact of Tobacco Control Policies and Mass Media Campaigns on Monthly Adult Smoking Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Melanie A.; Durkin, Sarah; Spittal, Matthew J.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Scollo, Michelle; Simpson, Julie A.; Chapman, Simon; White, Victoria; Hill, David

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to assess the impact of several tobacco control policies and televised antismoking advertising on adult smoking prevalence. Methods. We used a population survey in which smoking prevalence was measured each month from 1995 through 2006. Time-series analysis assessed the effect on smoking prevalence of televised antismoking advertising (with gross audience rating points [GRPs] per month), cigarette costliness, monthly sales of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and bupropion, and smoke-free restaurant laws. Results. Increases in cigarette costliness and exposure to tobacco control media campaigns significantly reduced smoking prevalence. We found a 0.3-percentage-point reduction in smoking prevalence by either exposing the population to televised antismoking ads an average of almost 4 times per month (390 GRPs) or by increasing the costliness of a pack of cigarettes by 0.03% of gross average weekly earnings. Monthly sales of NRT and bupropion, exposure to NRT advertising, and smoke-free restaurant laws had no detectable impact on smoking prevalence. Conclusions. Increases in the real price of cigarettes and tobacco control mass media campaigns broadcast at sufficient exposure levels and at regular intervals are critical for reducing population smoking prevalence. PMID:18556601

  4. Prevalence and patterns of tobacco smoking among Chinese adult men and women: findings of the 2010 national smoking survey

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shiwei; Zhang, Mei; Yang, Ling; Li, Yichong; Wang, Limin; Huang, Zhengjing; Wang, Linhong; Chen, Zhengming; Zhou, Maigeng

    2017-01-01

    Background China consumes about 40% of the world's cigarettes, predominantly by men, following a large increase in recent decades. We assess sex-specific prevalence and changing patterns of smoking in Chinese adults in the current decade. Methods A nationally representative survey of smoking was conducted in 2010 among 100 000 Chinese adults aged ≥18 years, using a multistage stratified cluster sampling method. Information on smoking frequency, type, amount, age started and quitting was collected. Sex-specific standardised prevalence and means were analysed and compared with estimates in the 1996 national survey. Results In Chinese men aged ≥18, 62.4% were ever-smokers in 2010, including 54.0% current smokers and 8.4% ex-smokers. The smoking prevalence was higher in rural than in urban men (63.9% vs 58.4%). In younger men, the age to start smoking was earlier and exclusive cigarette use was much higher. Among current smokers, only 17.3% intended to quit. Compared with a similar survey in 1996 among adults aged 30–69, more smokers had quit in 2010 than in 1996 (11.0% vs 4.2%), but the number of cigarettes smoked per current smoker was higher (17.9 vs 15.2). In Chinese women, only 3.4% ever smoked and there has been a large intergenerational decrease in smoking uptake rates. In 2010, there were 318 million current smokers in China, consuming an estimated 1740 billion cigarettes. Conclusions The prevalence of smoking remained extremely high in men, but low and falling in Chinese women. Tobacco smoking remains an important public health issue in China, and stronger and more efficient tobacco control is urgently needed. PMID:27660401

  5. Prevalence of smoking and incidence of initiation in the Latin American adult population: the PLATINO study

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Ana M; Lopez, Maria V; Hallal, Pedro C; Muiño, Adriana; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Jardim, José R; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Pertuzé, Julio; de Oca, Maria M; Tálamo, Carlos; Victora, Cesar G

    2009-01-01

    Background The PLATINO project was launched in 2002 in order to study the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Latin America. Because smoking is the main risk factor for COPD, detailed data on it were obtained. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the prevalence of smoking and incidence of initiation among middle-aged and older adults (40 years or older). Special emphasis was given to the association between smoking and schooling. Methods PLATINO is a multicenter study comprising five cross-sectional population-based surveys of approximately 1,000 individuals per site in Sao Paulo (Brazil), Santiago (Chile), Mexico City (Mexico), Montevideo (Uruguay) and Caracas (Venezuela). The outcome variable was smoking status (never, former or current). Current smokers were those who reported to smoke within the previous 30 days. Former smokers were those who reported to quit smoking more than 30 days before the survey. Using information on year of birth and age of smoking onset and quitting, a retrospective cohort analysis was carried out. Smoking prevalence at each period was defined as the number of subjects who started to smoke during the period plus those who were already smokers at the beginning of the period, divided by the total number of subjects. Incidence of smoking initiation was calculated as the number of subjects who started to smoke during the period divided by the number of non-smokers at its beginning. The independent variables included were sex, age and schooling. Results Non-response rates ranged from 11.1% to 26.8%. The prevalence of smoking ranged from 23.9% (95%CI 21.3; 26.6) in Sao Paulo to 38.5% (95%CI 35.7; 41.2) in Santiago. Males and middle-aged adults were more likely to smoke in all sites. After adjustment for age, schooling was not associated with smoking. Using retrospective cohort analysis, it was possible to detect that the highest prevalence of smoking is found between 20–29 years, while the highest incidence is

  6. Time series analysis of the impact of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence among Australian adults, 2001–2011

    PubMed Central

    Coomber, Kerri; Durkin, Sarah J; Scollo, Michelle; Bayly, Megan; Spittal, Matthew J; Simpson, Julie A; Hill, David

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the impact of tobacco control policies and mass media campaigns on smoking prevalence in Australian adults. Methods Data for calculating the average monthly prevalence of smoking between January 2001 and June 2011 were obtained via structured interviews of randomly sampled adults aged 18 years or older from Australia’s five largest capital cities (monthly mean number of adults interviewed: 2375). The influence on smoking prevalence was estimated for increased tobacco taxes; strengthened smoke-free laws; increased monthly population exposure to televised tobacco control mass media campaigns and pharmaceutical company advertising for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), using gross ratings points; monthly sales of NRT, bupropion and varenicline; and introduction of graphic health warnings on cigarette packs. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were used to examine the influence of these interventions on smoking prevalence. Findings The mean smoking prevalence for the study period was 19.9% (standard deviation: 2.0%), with a drop from 23.6% (in January 2001) to 17.3% (in June 2011). The best-fitting model showed that stronger smoke-free laws, tobacco price increases and greater exposure to mass media campaigns independently explained 76% of the decrease in smoking prevalence from February 2002 to June 2011. Conclusion Increased tobacco taxation, more comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased investment in mass media campaigns played a substantial role in reducing smoking prevalence among Australian adults between 2001 and 2011. PMID:24940015

  7. State-specific prevalence of cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adults --- United States, 2009.

    PubMed

    2010-11-05

    The health consequences of cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use both have been well documented, including increased risk for lung, throat, oral, and other types of cancers. To assess state-specific current cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adults, CDC analyzed data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated wide variation in self-reported cigarette smoking prevalence (range: 6.4% [U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI)] to 25.6% [Kentucky and West Virginia]) and smokeless tobacco use (range: 0.8% [USVI] to 9.1% [Wyoming]). For 15 of the states, Puerto Rico, and Guam, smoking prevalence was significantly higher among men than among women. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use was higher among men than women in all states and territories. Smokeless tobacco use was highest among persons aged 18--24 years and those with a high school education or less. From 0.9% (Puerto Rico) to 13.7% (Wyoming) of current smokers reported also using smokeless tobacco. Clinicians should identify all tobacco use in their patients and advise those who use any tobacco product to quit. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends implementing this approach in combination with other measures, including raising excise taxes on tobacco and strengthening smoke-free policies to prevent tobacco-related deaths.

  8. Epidemiology of smoking among Malaysian adult males: prevalence and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Three National Health and Morbidity Surveys (NHMSs) had been conducted in Malaysia in 10-year intervals from 1986–2006. Based on the latest NHMS survey in 2006, we describe the prevalence of smoking and identify the social and demographic factors associated with smoking among adult males in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study among 15,639 Malaysian adult males aged 18 years and above was conducted using proportional to size stratified sampling method. The socio-demographic variables examined were level of education, occupation, marital status, residential area, age group and monthly household income. Results The prevalence of smoking among adult males in Malaysia was 46.5% (95% CI: 45.5–47.4%), which was 3% lower than a decade ago. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.3 years, and mean number of cigarettes smoked daily was 11.3. Prevalence of smoking was highest among the Malays (55.9%) and those aged 21–30 years (59.3%). Smoking was significantly associated with level of education (no education OR 2.09 95% CI (1.67–2.60), primary school OR 1.95, 95% CI (1.65–2.30), secondary school OR 1.88, 95% CI (1.63–2.11), with tertiary education as the reference group). Marital status (divorce OR 1.67, 95% CI (1.22–2.28), with married as the reference group), ethnicity (Malay, OR 2.29, 95% CI ( 1.98–2.66; Chinese OR 1.23 95% CI (1.05–1.91), Other Bumis OR 1.75, 95% CI (1.46–2.10, others OR 1.48 95% CI (1.15–1.91), with Indian as the reference group), age group (18–20 years OR 2.36, 95% CI (1.90–2.94); 20–29 years OR 3.31 , 95% CI 2.82–3.89; 31–40 years OR 2.85 , 95% CI ( 2.47–3.28); 41–50 years OR 1.93, 95% CI (1.69–2.20) ; 51–60 years OR 1.32, 95% CI (1.15–1.51), with 60 year-old and above as the reference group) and residential area (rural OR 1.12 , 95% CI ( 1.03–1.22)) urban as reference. Conclusion The prevalence of smoking among Malaysian males remained high in spite of several population interventions over

  9. Beyond Smoking Prevalence: Exploring the Variability of Associations between Neighborhood Exposures across Two Nested Spatial Units and Two-Year Smoking Trajectory among Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Ghenadenik, Adrian E; Frohlich, Katherine L; Gauvin, Lise

    2016-01-06

    Young adults have the highest prevalence of smoking amongst all age groups. Significant uptake occurs after high school age. Although neighborhood exposures have been found to be associated with smoking behavior, research on neighborhood exposures and the smoking trajectories among young adults, and on the role of geographic scale in shaping findings, is scarce. We examined associations between neighborhood exposures across two nested, increasingly large spatial units and smoking trajectory over two years among young adults living in Montreal, Canada. A sample of 2093 participants aged 18-25 years from the Interdisciplinary Study of Inequalities in Smoking (ISIS) was surveyed. The dependent variable was self-reported smoking trajectory over the course of two years. Residential addresses, data on presence of tobacco retail outlets, and the presence of smoking accommodation facilities were coded and linked to spatial units. Three-level multinomial models were used to examine associations. The likelihood of being a smoker for 2+ years was significantly greater among those living in larger spatial unit neighborhoods that had a greater presence of smoking accommodation. This association was not statistically significant at the smaller spatial units. Our findings highlight the importance of studying young adults' smoking trajectories in addition to static smoking outcomes, and point to the relevance of considering spatial scale in studies of neighborhoods and smoking.

  10. Beyond Smoking Prevalence: Exploring the Variability of Associations between Neighborhood Exposures across Two Nested Spatial Units and Two-Year Smoking Trajectory among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ghenadenik, Adrian E.; Frohlich, Katherine L.; Gauvin, Lise

    2016-01-01

    Young adults have the highest prevalence of smoking amongst all age groups. Significant uptake occurs after high school age. Although neighborhood exposures have been found to be associated with smoking behavior, research on neighborhood exposures and the smoking trajectories among young adults, and on the role of geographic scale in shaping findings, is scarce. We examined associations between neighborhood exposures across two nested, increasingly large spatial units and smoking trajectory over two years among young adults living in Montreal, Canada. A sample of 2093 participants aged 18–25 years from the Interdisciplinary Study of Inequalities in Smoking (ISIS) was surveyed. The dependent variable was self-reported smoking trajectory over the course of two years. Residential addresses, data on presence of tobacco retail outlets, and the presence of smoking accommodation facilities were coded and linked to spatial units. Three-level multinomial models were used to examine associations. The likelihood of being a smoker for 2+ years was significantly greater among those living in larger spatial unit neighborhoods that had a greater presence of smoking accommodation. This association was not statistically significant at the smaller spatial units. Our findings highlight the importance of studying young adults’ smoking trajectories in addition to static smoking outcomes, and point to the relevance of considering spatial scale in studies of neighborhoods and smoking. PMID:26751461

  11. Prevalence and determinants of current and secondhand smoking in Greece: results from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) study

    PubMed Central

    Rachiotis, George; Barbouni, Anastasia; Katsioulis, Antonis; Antoniadou, Eleni; Kostikas, Konstantinos; Merakou, Kyriakoula; Kourea, Kallirrhoe; Khoury, Rula N; Tsouros, Agis; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Greece is one of the leading tobacco-producing countries in European Union, and every year over 19 000 Greeks die from tobacco-attributable diseases. The aim of the present study was to provide nationally representative estimates on current and secondhand smoking prevalence in Greece and their determinants. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Greece. Participants A total of 4359 individuals participated in the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), a household survey of adults ≥15 years old (overall response rate 69%). They were selected through a multistage geographically clustered sampling design with face-to-face interview. Primary and secondary outcome measures In 2013, we investigated the prevalence of current and secondhand smoking and their determinants. Univariate and logistic regression analysis was used in order to identify possible risk factors associated with the prevalence of current and secondhand smoking. Results The prevalence of current smoking was 38.2% (95% CI 35.7% to 40.8%), and the mean number of cigarettes smoked per day was 19.8. Multivariate analysis confirmed that male gender (OR=3.24; 95% CI 2.62 to 4.00), age groups (25–39, OR=4.49; 95% CI 3.09 to 8.46 and 40–54, OR=3.51; 95% CI 1.88 to 5.87) and high school education (OR=1.97; 95% CI 1.41 to 2.74) were independently associated with the current smoking. Remarkably, responders with primary or less education had the lowest prevalence of current smoking (p<0.001). The prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke at work, home and restaurants, was 52.3%, 65.7% and 72.2%. In total, 90.0% (95% CI 87.8% to 91.9%) of Greek population is exposed to tobacco smoke (current smoking and secondhand smoke). Conclusions Our results revealed an extremely high prevalence of current smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke among the adult population and a positive gradient between education and current smoking. These findings are alarming and implementation of comprehensive tobacco control and

  12. State-Specific Prevalence of Current Cigarette Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco Use Among Adults - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kimberly H; Marshall, LaTisha; Brown, Susan; Neff, Linda

    2016-10-07

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, resulting in approximately 480,000 premature deaths and more than $300 billion in direct health care expenditures and productivity losses each year (1). In recent years, cigarette smoking prevalence has declined in many states; however, there has been relatively little change in the prevalence of current smokeless tobacco use or concurrent use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco in most states, and in some states prevalence has increased (2). CDC analyzed data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to assess state-specific prevalence estimates of current use of cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, and cigarette and/or smokeless tobacco (any cigarette/smokeless tobacco use) among U.S. adults. Current cigarette smoking ranged from 9.7% (Utah) to 26.7% (West Virginia); current smokeless tobacco use ranged from 1.4% (Hawaii) to 8.8% (Wyoming); current use of any cigarette and/or smokeless tobacco product ranged from 11.3% (Utah) to 32.2% (West Virginia). Disparities in tobacco use by sex and race/ethnicity were observed; any cigarette and/or smokeless tobacco use was higher among males than females in all 50 states. By race/ethnicity, non-Hispanic whites had the highest prevalence of any cigarette and/or smokeless tobacco use in eight states, followed by non-Hispanic other races in six states, non-Hispanic blacks in five states, and Hispanics in two states (p<0.05); the remaining states did not differ significantly by race/ethnicity. Evidence-based interventions, such as increasing tobacco prices, implementing comprehensive smoke-free policies, conducting mass media anti-tobacco use campaigns, and promoting accessible smoking cessation assistance, are important to reduce tobacco use and tobacco-related disease and death among U.S. adults, particularly among subpopulations with the highest use prevalence (3).

  13. Association of Leisure-Time Physical Activity to Cardiovascular Disease Prevalence in Relation to Smoking among Adult Nevadans.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Masaru; Moonie, Sheniz; Cross, Chad L; Chino, Michelle; Alpert, Patricia T

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that cigarette smoking and physical activity have significant impacts on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and morbidity. Meanwhile, it is of interest to understand whether physical activity protects against CVD for smokers in a similar manner as it does for non-smokers. The present study examined how leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) is associated with the prevalence of CVD in relation to smoking status among adult Nevadans, using data from the 2010 Nevada Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Of the 3,913 survey respondents, 8.5% self-reported that they had ever been diagnosed with CVD. People with a history of CVD were significantly less likely to engage in LTPA than those with no history of CVD (p < 0.05). After adjusting for common sociodemographic variables, it was revealed that people with CVD were twice more likely to not engage in LTPA than their counterparts independent of smoking status. Without taking LTPA into account, the odds of having CVD for current and former smokers was 1.87-2.25 times higher than the odds for non-smokers. Interestingly, however, if LTPA was accounted for, there was no significant difference in the odds of having CVD between current and non-smokers. These results indicate that LTPA is inversely associated with the prevalence of CVD independent of smoking status, and that regular physical activity may protect against CVD for smokers as well as for non-smokers. Physical activity, along with smoking cessation, should be promoted to better prevent and control CVD among smokers.

  14. Legislative smoking bans for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking prevalence: Opportunities for Georgians

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Anderson, Jennifer; Smith, Selina A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Secondhand smoke, which is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke and passive smoke, is a known human carcinogen. Secondhand smoke also causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children. Methods We summarize studies of secondhand smoke in public places before and after smoking bans, as well as studies of cardiovascular and respiratory disease before and after such bans. Results To protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Smoking bans in public places, which have been implemented in many jurisdictions across the U.S. and in other countries, have the potential to influence social norms and reduce smoking behavior. Conclusions Through legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure and smoking prevalence, opportunities exist to protect the health of Georgians and other Americans and to reduce health care costs. These opportunities include increasing the comprehensiveness of smoking bans in public places and ensuring adequate funding to quit line services. PMID:26345719

  15. Has smoking cessation ceased? Expected trends in the prevalence of smoking in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mendez, D; Warner, K E; Courant, P N

    1998-08-01

    From 1965 to 1990, the prevalence of cigarette smoking among US adults (aged > or = 18 years) fell steadily and substantially. Data for the 1990s suggest that the smoking initiation rate is increasing and that the decline in the prevalence of smoking may have stalled, raising the fear that the historical 25-year decline will not continue. The authors used a new dynamic forecasting model to show that although the decline may slow down, the demographics of smoking imply that prevalence will inexorably continue to decline over the next several decades, even without any intensified efforts aimed at tobacco control. The authors estimated and validated the model using historical (1965-1993) data collected by the National Health Interview Surveys on the prevalence of smoking among adults. Their results indicate that the current increase in the smoking initiation rate partially explains the fact that the prevalence of smoking has apparently leveled off, but even if the most grim assumptions about future initiation rates are used, the prevalence of smoking among adults will continue to decline for several more decades. The authors predict that if current initiation and cessation behaviors persist, the prevalence of smoking among adults will automatically decline from its current level of 25% to 15-16% by the second quarter of the next century. Even so, smoking will remain the nation's leading cause of premature death.

  16. Prevalence and Trends in Smoking: A National Rural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doescher, Mark P.; Jackson, J. Elizabeth; Jerant, Anthony; Hart, L. Gary

    2006-01-01

    Context: Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of and recent trends in smoking among adults by type of rural location and by state. Methods: Random-digit telephone survey of adults aged 18 years or older who participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance…

  17. State-specific prevalence of current cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adults aged ≥18 years - United States, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kimberly; Marshall, LaTisha; Hu, Sean; Neff, Linda

    2015-05-22

    Cigarette smoking and the use of smokeless tobacco both cause substantial morbidity and premature mortality. The concurrent use of these products might increase dependence and the risk for tobacco-related disease and death. State-specific estimates of prevalence and relative percent change in current cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and concurrent cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among U.S. adults during 2011-2013, developed using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), indicate statistically significant (p<0.05) changes for all three behaviors. From 2011 to 2013, there was a statistically significant decline in current cigarette smoking prevalence overall and in 26 states. During the same period, use of smokeless tobacco significantly increased in four states: Louisiana, Montana, South Carolina, and West Virginia; significant declines were observed in two states: Ohio and Tennessee. In addition, the use of smokeless tobacco among cigarette smokers (concurrent use) significantly increased in five states (Delaware, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, and West Virginia). Although annual decreases in overall cigarette smoking among adults in the United States have occurred in recent years, there is much variability in prevalence of cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco, and concurrent use across states. In 2013, the prevalence ranged from 10.3% (Utah) to 27.3% (West Virginia) for cigarette smoking; 1.5% (District of Columbia and Massachusetts) to 9.4% (West Virginia) for smokeless tobacco; and 3.1% (Vermont) to 13.5% (Idaho) for concurrent use. These findings highlight the importance of sustained comprehensive state tobacco-control programs funded at CDC-recommended levels, which can accelerate progress toward reducing tobacco-related disease and deaths by promoting evidence-based population-level interventions. These interventions include increasing the price of tobacco products, implementing comprehensive smoke-free laws

  18. The Association between Warning Label Requirements and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence by Education-Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Cheng, Kai-Wen; He, Yanyun; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The Guidelines for the implementation of Article 11 of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) require that cigarette health warning labels should include pictures and take up 50% or more of the principal display area. This study examined how the association between large pictorial warnings, those covering ≥50% of the front and back of the package, and the prevalence of cigarette smoking varies by educational attainment. Methods: We pooled individual-level tobacco use data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) in 18 countries between 2008 and 2013 and linked them with warning label requirements during the same period from the MPOWER database and reports regarding warnings. The respondents’ self-reported exposure to warnings was examined according to education. Logistic regressions were further employed to analyze education-specific associations between large pictorial warnings and smoking prevalence, and whether such association differed by education was examined using an interaction test. Results: At the time of the survey, eight out of 18 countries had imposed graphic warning labels that covered ≥50% of the package. These warnings were associated with a 10.0% (OR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.97; p ≤ 0.01) lower cigarette smoking prevalence among adults with less than a secondary education or no formal education, but not among respondents with at least a secondary education. Less educated respondents were also less likely to be exposed to warnings in all 18 countries. The association between strong warnings and lower smoking prevalence among less educated respondents could be greater if their exposure to warnings increases. Conclusions: Prominent pictorial warning labels can potentially reduce health disparities resulting from smoking across different education levels. PMID:28117729

  19. Intensified testing for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in girls should reduce depression and smoking in adult females and the prevalence of ADHD in the longterm.

    PubMed

    Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Kassubek, Jan; Brummer, Dagmar; Koelch, Michael; Ludolph, Albert C; Fegert, Joerg M; Ludolph, Andrea G

    2009-04-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral disorder in youth. About a third to one-half of the affected subjects continue to have symptoms in adulthood. Remarkably, the prevalence numbers published for adult females are higher than for girls. The differences in the epidemiological data between the age groups clearly point to underdiagnosed ADHD in girls. Major depression, the most frequent psychiatric condition worldwide in adulthood, is twice as common in female as in male adults. Anxiety and depression are also among the most common comorbidities in adults with ADHD. Therefore, an undiagnosed ADHD may often underlie the psychopathology in depressive women. Another possibly associated phenomenon is the increased frequency of smoking in adult females. Since nicotine indirectly enhances the intrasynaptic dopamine level which presumably is too low both in ADHD and in depression, smoking might be used as a self-medication in women with untreated ADHD and consecutive depression. Furthermore, smoking during pregnancy is a major risk factor for ADHD in the offspring, so the vicious circle is complete. Depression in mothers of children with ADHD is associated with a higher rate of comorbidity in the children. Improved screening for ADHD in girls and treatment in childhood might thus reduce the rate of depression and smoking in adult females. We hypothesize that earlier identification and interventions might not only improve the lives of millions of girls and women but might also reduce the prevalence rates in future generations or at least moderate the deviant behaviour in this highly heritable disorder in which the development and severity of symptoms and the functional impairment depend to a high degree on epigenetic factors.

  20. Prevalence of hand eczema in an adult Swedish population and the relationship to risk occupation and smoking.

    PubMed

    Montnémery, Peter; Nihlén, Ulf; Löfdahl, Claes Göran; Nyberg, Per; Svensson, Ake

    2005-01-01

    Using a postal questionnaire the prevalence of hand eczema was determined in a general population of 11,798 individuals aged 20-77 years who were randomly drawn from the population records. The response rate was 78.1%. One-year prevalence of hand eczema among women varied between 1.9% and 10.8%, with the highest figure among those aged 30-39 years. The corresponding figures for men were 2.3% and 5.6%, with the highest figure among those aged 20-29 years. Lifetime prevalence varied between 5.7% and 16.7% among women and between 5.2% and 9.5% among men. Using multiple logistic regression analysis female sex (OR=1.91, 95% CI 1.47-2.47) and smoking (OR=1.35, 95% CI 1.04-1.75) were independent risk factors for reporting 1-year prevalence of hand eczema, whereas age (OR=0.99, 95% CI 0.97-0.99) was inversely related to the 1-year prevalence of hand eczema. Aggregated risk occupation or categorized occupation such as medical and nursing work, production or service were not significantly associated with 1-year prevalence of hand eczema.

  1. Allowing cigarette or marijuana smoking in the home and car: prevalence and correlates in a young adult sample

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, Mabel; Berg, Carla J.; Schauer, Gillian L.; Lang, Delia L.; Kegler, Michelle C.

    2015-01-01

    Given the increased marijuana use, negative health consequences of marijuana secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) and dearth of research regarding marijuana SHSe in personal settings, we examined the prevalence and correlates of allowing marijuana versus cigarette smoking in personal settings among 2002 online survey respondents at two southeastern US universities in 2013. Findings indicated that 14.5% allowed cigarettes in the home, 17.0% marijuana in the home, 35.9% cigarettes in cars and 27.3% marijuana in cars. Allowing cigarettes in the home was associated with younger age, racial/ethnic minority status, living off campus, personal marijuana use, parental tobacco use and positive perceptions of cigarettes (P < 0.05). Correlates of allowing marijuana in the home included older age, not having children, living off campus, positive perceptions of marijuana and personal, parental and friend marijuana use (P < 0.05). Correlates of allowing cigarettes in cars included personal cigarette and marijuana use, parental tobacco and marijuana use, more cigarette-smoking friends and positive perceptions of cigarettes (P < 0.05). Correlates of allowing marijuana in cars included being non-Hispanic black; positive perceptions of marijuana; and personal, parental and friend marijuana use (P < 0.05). Interventions must target distinct factors influencing policies regarding cigarette versus marijuana use in personal settings to address the consequences of marijuana and cigarette SHSe. PMID:25214515

  2. Allowing cigarette or marijuana smoking in the home and car: prevalence and correlates in a young adult sample.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Mabel; Berg, Carla J; Schauer, Gillian L; Lang, Delia L; Kegler, Michelle C

    2015-02-01

    Given the increased marijuana use, negative health consequences of marijuana secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) and dearth of research regarding marijuana SHSe in personal settings, we examined the prevalence and correlates of allowing marijuana versus cigarette smoking in personal settings among 2002 online survey respondents at two southeastern US universities in 2013. Findings indicated that 14.5% allowed cigarettes in the home, 17.0% marijuana in the home, 35.9% cigarettes in cars and 27.3% marijuana in cars. Allowing cigarettes in the home was associated with younger age, racial/ethnic minority status, living off campus, personal marijuana use, parental tobacco use and positive perceptions of cigarettes (P < 0.05). Correlates of allowing marijuana in the home included older age, not having children, living off campus, positive perceptions of marijuana and personal, parental and friend marijuana use (P < 0.05). Correlates of allowing cigarettes in cars included personal cigarette and marijuana use, parental tobacco and marijuana use, more cigarette-smoking friends and positive perceptions of cigarettes (P < 0.05). Correlates of allowing marijuana in cars included being non-Hispanic black; positive perceptions of marijuana; and personal, parental and friend marijuana use (P < 0.05). Interventions must target distinct factors influencing policies regarding cigarette versus marijuana use in personal settings to address the consequences of marijuana and cigarette SHSe.

  3. Meta-analysis of Smoking Prevalence in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Ziaaddini, Hassan; Mirzazadeh, Ali; Ashrafi-Asgarabad, Ahad; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Background There are numerous studies and documents regarding the prevalence of smoking in Iran. Thus, to provide suitable information for decision-making and policy-making in this regard, the prevalence of smoking in Iran was evaluated using the meta-analysis of the results of the existing researches. Methods Data were collected by searching the keywords cigarette, smoking, tobacco, and nicotine in English databases, searching their Persian equivalents in Persian Databases, and in non-electronic resources. After studying the titles and texts of collected articles, the repeated and irrelevant cases were excluded. Cases which had the inclusion criteria of this meta-analysis were entered into the Stata software. According to heterogeneity results, random effect model was used to estimate the prevalence of smoking. Findings In initial studies and non-communicable surveillance system, 274992 Iranian adults were studied regarding daily smoking. Among initial studies, smoking prevalence varied from 12.3% to 38.5% in men, and from 0.6% to 9.8% in women. Based on the meta-analysis of initial studies and risk factors of non-communicable disease surveillance system, smoking prevalence was estimated 21.7% and 19.8% in men and 3.6% and 0.94% in women, respectively. Moreover, smoking prevalence in all subjects was estimated 13.9% according to the meta-analysis of the initial study. Conclusion The findings of this meta-analysis revealed that a significant part of the general population over 15 years of age, and one fifth of Iranian male adults smoke. Thus, concerning causal relationship confirmed between smoking and most diseases, if suitable guidelines are not employed the diseases related to this factor will increase in Iran. PMID:24494171

  4. Smoking Prevalence and Knowledge of Associated Risks in Adult Attenders at Day Centres for People with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, N. S.; Standen, P. J.; Cutajar, P.; Fox, D.; Wilson, D. N.

    2004-01-01

    Increased longevity among people with learning disabilities is accompanied by an increase in morbidity. A possible explanation is that living in the community and a move to greater independence may bring higher health risks through obesity and smoking. The study aimed to see if rates of smoking have increased from earlier published rates and to…

  5. Smoking in Movies and Increased Smoking Among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Song, Anna V.; Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study assessed whether smoking in the movies was associated with smoking in young adults. Methods A national web-enabled cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults, aged 18–25, was performed between September and November 2005. Logistic regression and path analysis using probit regression were used to assess relationships between exposure to smoking in the movies and smoking behavior. Analysis was completed in December 2006. Results Exposure to smoking in the movies predicted current smoking. The adjusted odds of current smoking increased by a factor of 1.21 for each quartile increase in exposure to smoking (p<0.01) in the movies, reaching 1.77 for the top exposure quartile. The unadjusted odds of established smoking (100+ cigarettes with current smoking) increased by 1.23 per quartile (p<0.001) of exposure, reaching 1.86 for the top quartile. This effect on established smoking was mediated by two factors related to smoking in the movies: positive expectations about smoking and exposure to friends and relatives who smoked, with positive expectations accounting for about two thirds of the effect. Conclusions The association between smoking in the movies and young adult smoking behavior exhibited a dose–response relationship; the more a young adult was exposed to smoking in the movies, the more likely he or she would have smoked in the past 30 days or have become an established smoker. PMID:17950405

  6. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Among Dental Practitioners: Prevalence and Health Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Dar-Odeh, Najla; Alnazzawi, Ahmad; Shoqair, Noora; Al-Shayyab, Mohammad H.; Abu-Hammad, Osama

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence, practice, and the associated health perceptions among dental practitioners have not been previously reported. This study aims to determine the prevalence of waterpipe smoking among dental practitioners and to evaluate their awareness of health hazards of waterpipe smoking, particularly the adverse effects on oral health. METHODS This was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey among dental practitioners. Surveyed dental practitioners practiced dentistry in the holy city of Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, a city in the Central-Western Region of Saudi Arabia, and the study was conducted during March 2015. The questionnaire consisted of questions on demographic data, history and practices of tobacco use, and perceptions toward the health hazards of smoking. Dentists were approached at their work places and invited to participate. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample’s demographic and smoking characteristics, while cross-tabulation and chi-square test were used to determine the statistical significance of association between the groups (P ≤ 0.05). RESULTS One hundred dental practitioners participated in the survey, with 55 males and 45 females. Twenty-six percent indicated that they were waterpipe smokers. Male gender and cigarette smoking were the only factors to be significantly associated with waterpipe smoking (P = 0.008 and P = 0.000, respectively). Most participants stated that waterpipe smoking is harmful to health, and the most commonly reported health hazard was respiratory disease, which was reported by 81% of participants. CONCLUSIONS Prevalence of waterpipe smoking among dental practitioners is comparable to adult populations but lower than younger populations of university students. Health awareness of dental practitioners regarding waterpipe smoking was judged to be insufficient. PMID:27695374

  7. Quitting Smoking for Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quitting Smoking for Older Adults Quitting When You’re Older If you’re older, you may wonder if it’s too late ... it can be challenging to quit when you're older, there are proven ways to do it. ...

  8. Disparities in Current Cigarette Smoking Prevalence by Type of Disability, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Alissa; Caraballo, Ralph; Ramon, Ismaila; Armour, Brian S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Smoking, the leading cause of disease and death in the United States, has been linked to a number of health conditions including cancer and cardiovascular disease. While people with a disability have been shown to be more likely to report smoking, little is known about the prevalence of smoking by type of disability, particularly for adults younger than 50 years of age. Methods We used data from the 2009–2011 National Health Interview Survey to estimate the prevalence of smoking by type of disability and to examine the association of functional disability type and smoking among adults aged 18–49 years. Results Adults with a disability were more likely than adults without a disability to be current smokers (38.8% vs. 20.7%, p<0.001). Among adults with disabilities, the prevalence of smoking ranged from 32.4% (self-care difficulty) to 43.8% (cognitive limitation). When controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, having a disability was associated with statistically significantly higher odds of current smoking (adjusted odds ratio = 1.57, 95% confidence interval 1.40, 1.77). Conclusions The prevalence of current smoking for adults was higher for every functional disability type than for adults without a disability. By understanding the association between smoking and disability type among adults younger than 50 years of age, resources for cessation services can be better targeted during the ages when increased time for health improvement can occur. PMID:24791023

  9. Smoking prevalence among monks in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kungskulniti, Nipapun; Charoenca, Naowarut; Kengganpanich, Tharadol; Kusolwisitkul, Wilai; Pichainarong, Natchaporn; Kerdmongkol, Patcharaporn; Silapasuwan, Phimpan; Hamann, Stephen L; Arpawong, Thalida Em

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies among Buddhist monks in Thailand have reported smoking rates to be as high as 55%. Because 95% of Thais are Buddhist, monks are highly influential in establishing normative behavioral patterns. As the first population-based study on smoking among Buddhist monks in Thailand, this study aims to determine the smoking prevalence in six regions of the country, and to examine smoking knowledge, risk perceptions, behaviors, and associated demographics among full-fledged and novice monks (n = 6,213). Results demonstrated that the overall prevalence for current smoking monks is 24.4% (95% confidence interval [24.453, 24.464]), with regional differences ranging from 14.6% (North) to 40.5% (East). Findings suggest that integrating prevention and cessation programming into religious courses may be one avenue for reaching many incoming monks. Further, involving monks in tobacco control education and setting a nonsmoking standard among them is vital to the success of reducing smoking rates among the general population in Thailand.

  10. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Szklo, André Salem; Costa, Letícia Casado; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4) had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2) smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8) smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use among young

  11. Cigarette Smoking among Korean Adolescents: Prevalence and Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juon, Hee-Soon; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines prevalence of cigarette smoking and explores its relationship with individual, family, school, and psychological factors among Korean adolescents. Current prevalence of cigarette smoking was 8.45 percent. Smoking prevalence increased with age among boys. Perceived peer use, academic stress, grade, and type of school were associated with…

  12. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults - United States, 2005-2015.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Ahmed; King, Brian A; Neff, Linda J; Whitmill, Jennifer; Babb, Stephen D; Graffunder, Corinne M

    2016-11-11

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, and cigarettes are the most commonly used tobacco product among U.S. adults (1,2). To assess progress toward achieving the Healthy People 2020 target of reducing the proportion of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes to ≤12.0% (objective TU1.1),* CDC assessed the most recent national estimates of cigarette smoking prevalence among adults aged ≥18 years using data from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The proportion of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes declined from 20.9% in 2005 to 15.1% in 2015, and the proportion of daily smokers declined from 16.9% to 11.4%. However, disparities in cigarette smoking persist. In 2015, prevalence of cigarette smoking was higher among adults who were male; were aged 25-44 years; were American Indian/Alaska Native; had a General Education Development certificate (GED); lived below the federal poverty level; lived in the Midwest; were insured through Medicaid or were uninsured; had a disability/limitation; were lesbian, gay, or bisexual; or who had serious psychological distress. Proven population-based interventions, including tobacco price increases, comprehensive smoke-free laws, anti-tobacco mass media campaigns, and barrier-free access to tobacco cessation counseling and medications, are critical to reducing cigarette smoking and smoking-related disease and death among U.S. adults, particularly among subpopulations with the highest smoking prevalences (3).

  13. Smoking outside: the effect of the Irish workplace smoking ban on smoking prevalence among the employed.

    PubMed

    Savage, Michael

    2014-10-01

    In March 2004, Ireland became the first country to introduce a nationwide workplace smoking ban. The primary aim of the ban was to reduce people's exposure to second-hand smoke. A 95% compliance rate among employers suggests this aim was achieved. By prohibiting smoking in the majority of indoor working places, an effect of the ban was to increase the non-monetary cost of smoking. The aim of this paper is to examine whether the extra non-monetary cost of smoking was concentrated on the employed. A difference-in-differences approach is used to measure changes in smoking behaviour among the employed relative to the non-working population following the introduction of the workplace smoking ban. The research finds that the workplace smoking ban did not induce a greater reduction in smoking prevalence among the employed population compared with the non-working population. In fact, the evidence suggests a significantly larger decrease in smoking prevalence among the non-workers relative to the employed. Changes in the real price of cigarettes and changes in attitudes to risk are discussed as possible causes for the pattern observed.

  14. Current cigarette smoking among adults - United States, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Ahmed; Homa, David M; O'Connor, Erin; Babb, Stephen D; Caraballo, Ralph S; Singh, Tushar; Hu, S Sean; King, Brian A

    2015-11-13

    Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, resulting in approximately 480,000 premature deaths and more than $300 billion in direct health care expenditures and productivity losses each year (1). To assess progress toward achieving the Healthy People 2020 objective of reducing the percentage of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes to ≤12.0%,* CDC assessed the most recent national estimates of smoking prevalence among adults aged ≥18 years using data from the 2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The percentage of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes declined from 20.9% in 2005 to 16.8% in 2014. Among daily cigarette smokers, declines were observed in the percentage who smoked 20–29 cigarettes per day (from 34.9% to 27.4%) or ≥30 cigarettes per day (from 12.7% to 6.9%). In 2014, prevalence of cigarette smoking was higher among males, adults aged 25–44 years, multiracial persons and American Indian/Alaska Natives, persons who have a General Education Development certificate, live below the federal poverty level, live in the Midwest, are insured through Medicaid or are uninsured, have a disability or limitation, or are lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Proven population-based interventions, including tobacco price increases, comprehensive smoke-free laws, high impact mass media campaigns, and barrier-free access to quitting assistance, are critical to reduce cigarette smoking and smoking-related disease and death among U.S. adults.

  15. Smoke-free home and vehicle rules by tobacco use status among US adults

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Judy; Jama, Amal; Homa, David M.; Babb, Stephen D.; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence and characteristics of smoke-free home and vehicle rules by tobacco use. Methods Data came from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a telephone survey of adults aged ≥18. Respondents who reported smoking is ‘never allowed’ inside their home or any family vehicle were considered to have smoke-free home and vehicle rules, respectively. Prevalence and characteristics of smoke-free rules were assessed overall and by current tobacco use (combustible only, noncombustible only, combustible and noncombustible, no current tobacco use). Assessed characteristics included: sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, income, region, and sexual orientation. Results Nationally, 83.7% of adults (n = 48,871) had smoke-free home rules and 78.1% (n = 46,183) had smoke-free vehicle rules. By tobacco use, prevalence was highest among nonusers of tobacco (homes: 90.8%; vehicles: 88.9%) and lowest among combustible-only users (homes: 53.7%; vehicles: 34.2%). Prevalence of smoke-free home and vehicle rules was higher among males, adults with a graduate degree, and adults living in the West. Conclusions Most adults have smoke-free home and vehicle rules, but differences exist by tobacco use. Opportunities exist to educate adults about the dangers of secondhand smoke and the benefits of smoke-free environments, particularly among combustible tobacco users. PMID:26092055

  16. An Updated Global Picture of Cigarette Smoking Persistence among Adults

    PubMed Central

    Troost, Jonathan P.; Barondess, David A.; Storr, Carla L.; Wells, J. Elisabeth; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Andrade, Laura Helena; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Aimee N.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Matschinger, Herbert; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; O'Neill, Siobhan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sagar, Rajesh; Takeshima, Tadashi; Tomov, Toma; Williams, David R.; Anthony, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cross-national variance in smoking prevalence is relatively well documented. The aim of this study is to estimate levels of smoking persistence across 21 countries with a hypothesized inverse relationship between country income level and smoking persistence. Methods Data from the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative were used to estimate cross-national differences in smoking persistence–the proportion of adults who started to smoke and persisted in smoking by the date of the survey. Result There is large variation in smoking persistence from 25% (Nigeria) to 85% (China), with a random-effects meta-analytic summary estimate of 55% with considerable cross-national variation. (Cochran's heterogeneity Q statistic=6,845; p<0.001). Meta-regressions indicated observed differences are not attributable to differences in country income level, age distribution of smokers, or how recent the onset of smoking began within each country. Conclusion While smoking should remain an important public health issue in any country where smokers are present, this report identifies several countries with higher levels of smoking persistence (namely, China and India). PMID:23626929

  17. Mexico SimSmoke: how changes in tobacco control policies would impact smoking prevalence and smoking attributable deaths in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Nancy L; Thrasher, James F; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Cummings, K Michael; Meza, Rafael; Zhang, Yian; Levy, David T

    2016-02-02

    We examined the effect of tobacco control policies in Mexico on smoking prevalence and smoking-related deaths using the Mexico SimSmoke model. The model is based on the previously developed SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy, and uses population size, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data for Mexico. It assesses, individually, and in combination, the effect of six tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-related deaths. Policies included: cigarette excise taxes, smoke-free laws, anti-smoking public education campaigns, marketing restrictions, access to tobacco cessation treatments and enforcement against tobacco sales youth. The model estimates that, if Mexico were to adopt strong tobacco control policies compared to current policy levels, smoking prevalence could be reduced by 30% in the next decade and by 50% by 2053; an additional 470,000 smoking-related premature deaths could be averted over the next 40 years. The greatest impact on smoking and smoking-related deaths would be achieved by raising excise taxes on cigarettes from 55% to at least 70% of the retail price, followed by strong youth access enforcement and access to cessation treatments. Implementing tobacco control policies in Mexico could reduce smoking prevalence by 50%, and prevent 470,000 smoking-related deaths by 2053.

  18. Changes in smoking prevalence and number of cigarettes smoked per day following the implementation of a comprehensive tobacco control plan in New York City.

    PubMed

    Coady, Micaela H; Jasek, John; Davis, Karen; Kerker, Bonnie; Kilgore, Elizabeth A; Perl, Sarah B

    2012-10-01

    The New York City (NYC) Health Department has implemented a comprehensive tobacco control plan since 2002, and there was a 27% decline in adult smoking prevalence in NYC from 2002 to 2008. There are conflicting reports in the literature on whether residual smoker populations have a larger or smaller share of "hardcore" smokers. Changes in daily consumption and daily and nondaily smoking prevalence, common components used to define hardcore smokers, were evaluated in the context of the smoking prevalence decline. Using the NYC Community Health Survey, an annual random digit dial, cross-sectional survey that samples approximately 10,000 adults, the prevalence of current heavy daily, light daily, and nondaily smokers among NYC adults was compared between 2002 and 2008. A five-level categorical cigarettes per day (CPD) variable was also used to compare the population of smokers between the 2 years. From 2002 to 2008, significant declines were seen in the prevalence of daily smoking, heavy daily smoking, and nondaily smoking. Among daily smokers, there is also evidence of population declines in all but the lowest smoking category (one to five CPD). The mean CPD among daily smokers declined significantly, from 14.6 to 12.5. After an overall decline in smoking since 2002, the remaining smokers may be less nicotine dependent, based on changes in daily consumption and daily and nondaily smoking prevalence. These findings suggest the need to increase media and cessation efforts targeted towards lighter smokers.

  19. Chronic periodontitis and smoking Prevalence and dose-response relationship

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shahrukh; Khalid, Taimur; Awan, Kamran H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence and dose-response relationship of chronic periodontitis among smokers in Pakistan. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study among participants seeking dental care in Karachi Medical and Dental College, Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 443 participants with a mean age of 44.3 (±6.5) participated in the study from April 2011 to December 2011. Males comprised 64.7%, and females comprised 35.2%. Participants were interviewed on social demographics and oral habits. Participants with shallow pockets (3.5-5.5 mm) and deep pockets (>5.5 mm) were considered suffering from chronic periodontitis. The characteristics of participants were assessed using frequency distribution for categorical variables and mean (standard deviation) for continuous variables. Results: Among 443 participants, smokers were distributed as 55.1% and non-smokers as 44.9%. Smoking was found to be significantly related to young adults (p<0.007), male gender (p<0.001), and lower education level (p<0.01). Overall prevalence of chronic periodontitis among smokers was estimated at 81.6%. Heavy smoking was found to have significantly high prevalence (p<0.001) and severity (p<0.001) of periodontitis as compared with moderate and light smokers. The multivariate unadjusted model depicted 3.5 times higher risk of chronic periodontitis among smokers (p<0.001). Conclusion: Chronic periodontitis had a high prevalence among smokers. Heavy smoking was found to have a higher risk for having periodontitis. PMID:27464867

  20. Evaluation of the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking and its related factors in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Hessami, Zahra; Masjedi, Mohammed R; Ghahremani, Reza; Kazempour, Mehdi; Emami, Habib

    2017-03-30

    This study is designed to evaluate the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking and its related factors among Iranian adults. This is a cross-sectional study carried out during 2013/14 in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran, among 1830 citizens aged over 15 years. Sampling was through Stratified multistage cluster sampling with proportional allocation within strata. Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) questionnaire for waterpipe consumption was used for data gathering. Data were statistically analyzed by SPSS software. The prevalence of current waterpipe tobacco smoking was 17.6% .Waterpipe use prevalence in men was significantly more than women (24.2% vs. 11.3%). Multivariate analysis showed that age, sex, cigarette consumption, waterpipe consumption at home and ignorance of safety issues significantly influenced current waterpipe smoking (P = 0.001). Thus, prevalence of waterpipe smoking in Iranian adults is high and significant. Tackling waterpipe smoking should be considered in tobacco control programmes. However, further studies in this field are needed.

  1. Prevalence and perception of smoking habits among the Palestinian population in the Gaza Strip

    PubMed Central

    Eldalo, Ahmed S

    2016-01-01

    Background The Gaza Strip is a densely populated place with ~2 million inhabitants in an area of 365 km2. The aim of this study was to determine the smoking prevalence in the Gaza Strip and to identify the perception of the Palestinian population on smoking. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Gaza Strip, Palestinian territories, during the period from June to September 2014. Convenient sampling method was adopted. A structured pretested questionnaire was used. Results A total of 600 adults aged 15 years or older completed the questionnaires with a response rate of 83.3%. The prevalence rate of smoking was 26.3%, with a significantly higher rate among males (31%) than females (6.9%) (P<0.001). The mean starting age was 17.4±3.9 years. The study revealed that influence of friends is the major reason for initiation of smoking and the most influential factor in convincing smokers to quit was the family. Smokers’ knowledge about smoking risks motivates them to try stop smoking (64.9%) or desire to stop smoking (65.2%). Conclusion The study revealed that tobacco use is significantly prevalent in the Gaza Strip. The author recommends rapid antismoking campaigns with stress on the family role and massive intervention programs to encourage young people to change their behavior toward smoking. PMID:27486330

  2. Austrian Students and Smoking: Prevalence and Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glawischnig, Markus; Reichmann, Gerhard; Sommersguter-Reichmann, Margit

    2009-01-01

    There is little data on the smoking behaviour of the population of Austria. The available information hardly goes beyond some figures on the number of regular smokers and the amount of cigarettes consumed per person per year. Equally, statutory anti-smoking measures in Austria lag considerably behind those of other countries, especially the U.S.…

  3. Smoking Prevalence in Harlem, New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnicow, Ken; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The Harlem Health Connection is a three-year project to develop and test smoking control interventions for African Americans, primarily those in Harlem (New York). Surveys of people from public housing, health care institutions, and churches found the highest smoking rates in public housing residents and people attending health care institutions.…

  4. Smoking prevalence, readiness to quit and smoking cessation in HIV+ patients in Germany and Austria

    PubMed Central

    Degen, Olaf; Arbter, Peter; Hartmann, Peter; Mayr, Christoph; Buhk, Thomas; Schalk, Horst; Brath, Helmut; Ernst Dorner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Due to the interaction between smoking and the virus and the antiretroviral therapy, the excess health hazard due to smoking is higher in HIV+ patients than in the general population. International studies suggest a higher prevalence of smoking in HIV+ subjects compared to the general population. It was the aim of the study to assess prevalence of smoking, to analyze determinants of smoking, and to evaluate readiness to quit in HIV+ patients in Germany and Austria. Material and Methods Consecutive patients with positive tested HIV status, smokers and non-smokers, who are treated in seven different HIV care centres in Austria and Germany were included. Nicotine dependence was assessed with the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependency (FTND), and stages of change by a standardized readiness to quit questionnaire. Self-reported smoking status was objectified by measuring exhaled carbon monoxide levels. Smokers who wanted to quit were offered a structured smoking cessation programme, and those who did not want to quit received a 1-minute consultation. After six months, the smoking status of all included subjects was reassessed. Results A total of 447 patients were included; the response rate was 92%. Prevalence of smoking was 49.4%. According to a multivariate logistic regression analysis, lower age, male sex, lower educational level, and smoking of the partner were significantly associated with the smoking status. According to the FTND, 25.3% showed a low (0–2 points), 27.6 a moderate (3–4 points) and 47.1% a high (5–10 points) dependency. Regarding stages of change, 15.4% of the smokers were in the stadium precontemplation, 48.4 in contemplation, 15.4 in preparation and 10.0 in the stadium action. 11.0% were not assignable in any stadium. Higher education level and lower grade of dependency were significantly associated with the wish to quit smoking. Six months after the baseline examination, smoking cessation visits (at least one session) was

  5. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking in the United States: Findings from the National Adult Tobacco Survey

    PubMed Central

    Salloum, Ramzi G.; Thrasher, James F.; Kates, Frederick R.; Maziak, Wasim

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report prevalence and correlates of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) use among U.S. adults. Methods Data were from the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Estimates of WTS ever and current use were reported overall, and by sex, age, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, annual household income, sexual orientation, and cigarette smoking status. State-level prevalence rates of WTS ever were reported using choropleth thematic maps for the overall population and by sex. Results The national prevalence of WTS ever was 9.8% and 1.5% for current use. WTS ever was more prevalent among those who are male (13.4%), 18–24 years old (28.4%) compared to older adults, non-Hispanic White (9.8%) compared to non-Hispanic Black, with some college education (12.4%) compared to no high school diploma, and reporting sexual minority status (21.1%) compared to heterosexuals. States with highest prevalence included DC(17.3%), NV(15.8%), and CA(15.5%). Conclusion WTS is now common among young adults in the US and high in regions where cigarette smoking prevalence is lowest and smoke-free policies have a longer history. To reduce its use, WTS should be included in smoke-free regulations and state and federal regulators should consider policy development in other areas, including taxes, labeling, and distribution. PMID:25535678

  6. Prevalence of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Among Population Aged 15 Years or Older, Vietnam, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Van Minh, Hoang; Giang, Kim Bao; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Hai, Phan Thi; Minh, Nguyen Thac; Hsia, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing globally and is associated with adverse outcomes requiring tobacco control interventions. We estimated the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among adult populations in Vietnam in 2010 and examined its association with sociodemographic factors. Methods We used data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in Vietnam in 2010. GATS surveyed a national representative sample of adults aged 15 years or older from 11,142 households by using a 2-phase sampling design analogous to a 3-stage stratified cluster sampling. Descriptive statistical analyses and multivariate logistic regression modeling were conducted. Results A total of 6.4% of Vietnamese aged 15 years or older (representing about 4.1 million adult waterpipe smokers) reported current waterpipe tobacco smoking. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking was significantly higher among men than women (13% vs 0.1%). Area of residence (rural or urban), age group, asset-based wealth quintile, and geographic region of residence were significantly associated with waterpipe tobacco smoking among men. The significant correlates of current waterpipe tobacco smoking among men were lower education levels, being middle-aged (45–54 years), lower asset-based wealth levels, living in rural areas, not living in the South East and the Mekong River Delta geographic regions, and the belief that smoking does not causes diseases. Conclusion Rural dwellers who are poor should be targeted in tobacco control programs. Further studies are needed that examine perceptions of the adverse health effects and the cultural factors of waterpipe tobacco smoking. PMID:23597395

  7. Smoking among adults in Syria: proxy reporting by 13-14 year olds.

    PubMed

    Maziak, W; Tabbah, K

    2005-07-01

    Despite active epidemiological research related to smoking in Syria in the past few years, there is currently no population-based prevalence data for adult smoking in this country. This study presents the first such figures based on information about the smoking habits of 3066 couples in Aleppo, Syria collected during a survey on respiratory morbidity among 13-14-year-old youths. Reports from the young people indicated levels of parental smoking to be 54% for men and 18% for women. This figure for women is twice that reported previously. The mean number of smokers within the studied households was one smoker per household. Smoking among women was found to be strongly associated with their educational status and their spouse's smoking status. This information is of major importance for public health efforts to deal with the smoking epidemic in Syria, as it indicates a hidden epidemic of smoking among women, most likely due to under-reporting.

  8. Do changes in neighborhood and household levels of smoking and deprivation result in changes in individual smoking behavior? A large-scale longitudinal study of New Zealand adults.

    PubMed

    Ivory, Vivienne C; Blakely, Tony; Richardson, Ken; Thomson, George; Carter, Kristie

    2015-09-01

    Health behavior takes place within social contexts. In this study, we investigated whether changes in exposure to neighborhood deprivation and smoking prevalence and to household smoking were associated with change in personal smoking behavior. Three waves of biannual data collection (2004-2009) in a New Zealand longitudinal study, the Survey of Family, Income and Employment (SoFIE)-Health, were used, with 13,815 adults (persons aged ≥15 years) contributing to the analyses. Smoking status was dichotomized as current smoking versus never/ex-smoking. Fixed-effects regression analyses removed time-invariant confounding and adjusted for time-varying covariates (neighborhood smoking prevalence and deprivation, household smoking, labor force status, income, household tenure, and family status). A between-wave decile increase in neighborhood deprivation was significantly associated with increased odds of smoking (odds ratio (OR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.14), but a between-wave increase in neighborhood smoking prevalence was not (OR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.10). Changing household exposures between waves to live with another smoker (compared with a nonsmoker (referent)) increased the odds of smoking (OR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.84, 3.34), as did changing to living in a sole-adult household (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.14). Tobacco control policies and programs should address the broader household and neighborhood circumstances within which individual smoking takes place.

  9. Prevalence of Smoking and Associated Risk Factors Among Medical Professionals in Hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Zafar, Mubashir

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is the largest preventable risk factor for morbidity and mortality in developed countries where at least one in four adults smoke cigarettes. Healthcare providers who smoke are less likely to advise patients to quit smoking. The aim of this study is to find out the frequency of tobacco smoking among medical professionals in tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, and to identify the common factors responsible for the continuation of smoking among healthcare providers. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at public and private tertiary Care Hospitals/Institutes at Karachi. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 180 subjects. An informed consent was obtained from all the subjects. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: Prevalence of smoking was 29%. High prevalence of smoking was among male doctors as compared to female doctors. Sixty-eight per cent of smokers started smoking between 20 to 30 years of age. Age less than 35 years, male and public sectors hospitals were more likely OR 1.23, CI (0.98-2.41), 6.40 CI (4.48-10.52) and 2.61 CI (2.20-3.78) respectively. Conclusions: The Result of the study suggests that while healthcare smoking habits appear to be high, they are not uniformly low when compared from an international perspective. Health promotion programs focused on self-efficacy may be an effective tool for reducing the initiation, frequency, and amount of cigarette smoking among healthcare providers. PMID:24829733

  10. Prevalence of smoking among school adolescents in Khartoum State

    PubMed Central

    Adil, Abo-mali; Mustafa, Babiker M.; Abdo, Hussein

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco is the single most important cause of chronic morbidity in the Developed World. Tobacco use primarily begins in early adolescence, reportedly before the time of high school graduation. By 2015 tobacco use is projected to cause 50% more deaths than AIDS. A cross sectional school based survey was conducted in primary and secondary school in Khartoum State. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of smoking in school adolescents and associated personal and social factors. A total of 910 students with complete questionnaires were included in the analysis, of whom 13.6% were found to be current cigarette smokers. Factors that played role in initiation of smoking included smoking among parents, other family members and close friends. School adolescents who have friends or parents who smoke should be the main target for tobacco control. Smoking should become public health priority in Sudan to educate adolescents and parents regarding its hazards. PMID:27493344

  11. Prevalence, Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Smoking Among SEPAR Members.

    PubMed

    Solano Reina, Segismundo; Jiménez Ruiz, Carlos A; de Higes Martinez, Eva; Garcia Rueda, Marcos; Callejas González, Francisco J; de Granda Orive, Jose I; Vaquero Lozano, Paz; de Lucas Ramos, Pilar; Alfageme Michavila, Inmaculada

    2016-12-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of smoking among SEPAR members, and their approach to smoking cessation in their patients. An online survey was completed by 640 members (496 pulmonologists, 45 nurses, 34 thoracic surgeons, 37 physiotherapists, and 28 other specialists). Of the members interviewed, 5% confessed that they were smokers: 3.5% pulmonologists; 8.9% nurses; 8.8% thoracic surgeons, and 13.5% physiotherapists. A total of 96% of members assign a lot or quite a lot of importance to setting an example; 98% of members always or often ask their patients about their smoking habit. The most effective anti-smoking intervention, according to 77% of members, is a combination of drugs and psychological support. These results are an indicator of the awareness and commitment of SEPAR members to smoking and its cessation.

  12. Exposure to secondhand smoke and voluntary adoption of smoke-free home and car rules among non-smoking South African adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is a well-established health hazard. To determine the effectiveness of existing smoke-free policies and adoption of smoke-free rules in South Africa, we assessed exposure to SHS from several sources among non-smoking adults during 2010. Methods Data were analyzed for 3,094 adults aged ≥16 years who participated in the 2010 South African Social Attitudes Survey. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analyses were used to assess presence of smoke-free rules among all South Africans, and prevalence and correlates of SHS exposure at work, at home, and at hospitality venues among non-smokers. Results Overall, 70.6% of all South African adults had 100% smoke-free rules in their private cars, 62.5% in their homes, while 63.9% worked in places with 100% smoke-free policies. Overall, 55.9% of all non-smokers reported exposure to SHS from at least one source (i.e., in the home, workplace or at a hospitality venue). By specific source of exposure, 18.4% reported being exposed to SHS at work, 25.2% at home, 33.4% in a restaurant, and 32.7% at a bar. Presence of work bans on indoor smoking conferred lower likelihood of SHS exposure at work among non-smokers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.09-0.60). Similarly, smoke-free home rules decreased the odds of being exposed to SHS at home among non-smokers (aOR =0.16; 95% CI: 0.09-0.30). Conclusion Over half of South African adults reported SHS exposure in the home or at public places such as the workplace and at hospitality venues. This underscores the need for comprehensive smoke-free laws that prohibit smoking in all public indoor areas without exemptions. PMID:24913038

  13. Global trends of lung cancer mortality and smoking prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Torre, Lindsey A.; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer killed approximately 1,590,000 persons in 2012 and currently is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. There is large variation in mortality rates across the world in both males and females. This variation follows trend of smoking, as tobacco smoking is responsible for the majority of lung cancer cases. In this article, we present estimated worldwide lung cancer mortality rates in 2012 using the World Health Organization (WHO) GLOBOCAN 2012 and changes in the rates during recent decades in select countries using WHO Mortality Database. We also show smoking prevalence and trends globally and at the regional level. By region, the highest lung cancer mortality rates (per 100,000) in 2012 were in Central and Eastern Europe (47.6) and Eastern Asia (44.8) among males and in Northern America (23.5) and Northern Europe (19.1) among females; the lowest rates were in sub-Saharan Africa in both males (4.4) and females (2.2). The highest smoking prevalence among males is generally in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia and Eastern Europe, and among females is in European countries, followed by Oceania and Northern and Southern America. Many countries, notably high-income countries, have seen a considerable decrease in smoking prevalence in both males and females, but in many other countries there has been little decrease or even an increase in smoking prevalence. Consequently, depending on whether or when smoking prevalence has started to decline, the lung cancer mortality trend is a mixture of decreasing, stable, or increasing. Despite major achievements in tobacco control, with current smoking patterns lung cancer will remain a major cause of death worldwide for several decades. The main priority to reduce the burden of lung cancer is to implement or enforce effective tobacco control policies in order to reduce smoking prevalence in all countries and prevent an increase in smoking in sub-Saharan Africa and women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). PMID

  14. Cigarette prices and smoking prevalence after a tobacco tax increase--Turkey, 2008 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Kostova, Deliana; Andes, Linda; Erguder, Toker; Yurekli, Ayda; Keskinkılıç, Bekir; Polat, Sertaç; Culha, Gönül; Kilinç, Evin Aras; Taştı, Enver; Erşahin, Yılmaz; Ozmen, Mehmet; San, Ramazan; Ozcebe, Hilal; Bilir, Nazmi; Asma, Samira

    2014-05-30

    Raising the price of tobacco products has been shown to reduce tobacco consumption in the United States and other high-income countries, and evidence of this impact has been growing for low- and middle-income countries as well. Turkey is a middle-income country surveyed by the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) twice in a 4-year period, in 2008 and 2012. During this time, the country introduced a policy raising its Special Consumption Tax on Tobacco and implemented a comprehensive tobacco control program banning smoking in public places, banning advertising, and introducing graphic health warnings. The higher tobacco tax took effect in early 2010, allowing sufficient time for subsequent changes in prices and smoking to be observed by the time of the 2012 GATS. This report uses data from GATS Turkey to examine how cigarette prices changed after the 2010 tax increase, describe the temporally associated changes in smoking prevalence, and learn whether this smoking prevalence changed more in some demographic groups than others. From 2008 to 2012, the average price paid for cigarettes increased by 42.1%, cigarettes became less affordable, and smoking prevalence decreased by 14.6%. The largest reduction in smoking was observed among persons with lower socioeconomic status (SES), highlighting the potential role of tax policy in reducing health disparities across socioeconomic groups.

  15. Cigarette Smoking Among Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Young Adults in Association With Food Insecurity and Other Factors

    PubMed Central

    Tsoh, Janice Y.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Low socioeconomic status is associated with high rates of cigarette smoking, and socioeconomic differences in cigarette smoking tend to emerge during young adulthood. To further our understanding of socioeconomic differences in smoking among young adults, we examined correlates of smoking, with attention to multiple socioeconomic indicators that have not been examined in this population. Methods We analyzed data from the 2011–2012 California Health Interview Survey. The analytic sample consisted of young adults aged 18–30 years who were considered socioeconomically disadvantaged as measured by education and poverty. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with smoking status in this group, and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine correlates of smoking frequency. Results In this sample (N = 1,511; 48% female, 66% Hispanic/Latino, 18% non-Hispanic white), 39.7% reported experiencing food insecurity in the past year. Smoking prevalence was significantly higher among young adults who reported being food insecure (26.9%) than among those who reported being food secure (16.4%). Past-year food insecurity was significantly associated with current smoking, independent of sociodemographic characteristics and alcohol use. Specifically, food insecurity was significantly associated with daily but not nondaily smoking. Conclusion Socioeconomically disadvantaged young adults with food insecurity may be considered a high-risk group with respect to cigarette smoking. Efforts to reduce tobacco-related health disparities should address diverse sources of socioeconomic influences, including experiences of food insecurity. PMID:26766849

  16. Mass Media Interventions to Reduce Youth Smoking Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Brian S.; Worden, John K.; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Solomon, Laura J.; Ashikaga, Takamaru; Connolly, Scott W.; Ramirez, Amelie G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Mass media interventions for reduction of youth cigarette smoking have been recommended based on a broad array of evidence, although few randomized community trials have been reported. Design Four matched pairs of independent media markets were identified; one member of each pair was randomized to receive the intervention. School surveys were conducted in all markets, in 2001 before (n=19,966) and in 2005 after (n=23,246) the interventions were completed. Setting/Participants Grade 7–12 students from public schools in these eight medium sized metropolitan areas participated in the summative evaluations; grades 4–12 students were targeted to receive mass media interventions in four of these markets. Intervention Four simultaneous campaigns consisting of specially developed messages based on behavioral theory and targeted to defined age groups of racially and ethnically diverse young people were placed in popular TV, cable, and radio programming using purchased time for 4 years. Main Outcome Measures Prevalence of youth smoking and psychosocial mediators of smoking. Results No significant impacts of these interventions on smoking behaviors or mediators were found for the overall samples. A positive effect was found for one mediator in subgroups. Among Hispanic participants a marginally favorable effect on smoking prevalence, and significant effects on mediators were found. General awareness of smoking prevention TV messages was slightly higher over time in the intervention areas. Conclusions Mass media interventions alone were unable to induce an incremental difference in youth smoking prevalence, likely due to a relatively strong tobacco control environment that included a substantial national smoking prevention media campaign. PMID:20537841

  17. National and State-Specific Attitudes toward Smoke-Free Parks among U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Judy; Jama, Amal; Kegler, Michelle; Marynak, Kristy; King, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor places, such as parks, remain a source of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. We assessed attitudes toward smoke-free parks among U.S. adults. Data came from the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a landline and cellular telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 in the 50 U.S. states and D.C. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to assess the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of attitudes toward smoke-free parks, overall and by current tobacco use. Overall, 38.5% of adults reported favorable attitudes toward complete smoke-free parks; prevalence ranged from 29.2% in Kentucky to 48.2% in Maine. Prevalence of favorable attitudes toward smoke-free parks was higher among nonusers of tobacco (44.6%) and noncombustible-only users (30.0%) than any combustible users (21.3%). The adjusted odds of having a favorable attitude were higher among: women; Hispanics and Black non-Hispanics, American Indian and Alaska Native non-Hispanics, and other non-Hispanics; those with an unspecified sexual orientation; and those with children aged ≤17 in the household, relative to each characteristics respective referent group. Odds were lower among: any combustible tobacco and noncombustible-only tobacco users; adults aged 45–64; and those with some college or an undergraduate degree. Opportunities exist to educate the public about the benefits of smoke-free outdoor environments. PMID:27589779

  18. National and State-Specific Attitudes toward Smoke-Free Parks among U.S. Adults.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Judy; Jama, Amal; Kegler, Michelle; Marynak, Kristy; King, Brian

    2016-08-31

    Outdoor places, such as parks, remain a source of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. We assessed attitudes toward smoke-free parks among U.S. adults. Data came from the 2009-2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a landline and cellular telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 in the 50 U.S. states and D.C. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to assess the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of attitudes toward smoke-free parks, overall and by current tobacco use. Overall, 38.5% of adults reported favorable attitudes toward complete smoke-free parks; prevalence ranged from 29.2% in Kentucky to 48.2% in Maine. Prevalence of favorable attitudes toward smoke-free parks was higher among nonusers of tobacco (44.6%) and noncombustible-only users (30.0%) than any combustible users (21.3%). The adjusted odds of having a favorable attitude were higher among: women; Hispanics and Black non-Hispanics, American Indian and Alaska Native non-Hispanics, and other non-Hispanics; those with an unspecified sexual orientation; and those with children aged ≤17 in the household, relative to each characteristics respective referent group. Odds were lower among: any combustible tobacco and noncombustible-only tobacco users; adults aged 45-64; and those with some college or an undergraduate degree. Opportunities exist to educate the public about the benefits of smoke-free outdoor environments.

  19. Effect of teenage smoking on the prevalence of periodontal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Anna Maria; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Kari, Kirsti; Pajukanta, Riitta; Elonheimo, Outi; Koskenvuo, Markku; Meurman, Jukka H

    2012-04-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate how teenage smoking affects the prevalence of periodontal bacteria and periodontal health with the hypothesis that smoking increases the prevalence of the bacteria. Oral health of 264 adolescents (15- to 16-year-olds) was clinically examined, and their smoking history was recorded. The participants also filled in a structured questionnaire recording their general health and health habits. Pooled subgingival plaque samples were taken for polymerase chain reaction analysis of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens, and Treponema denticola. The prevalence of P. intermedia (21% vs. 4%, p = 0.01) and T. forsythia and T. denticola (23% vs. 8%, p < 0.05, for both) was higher among female smokers than among non-smokers. T. forsythia and T. denticola were more often associated with bleeding on probing (29% vs. 12%; 25% vs. 10%, respectively) and deep pockets (25% vs. 15%; 23% vs. 10%, respectively) with smokers than non-smokers. Among the girls, a significant association was found between pack-years and the prevalence of P. nigrescens (p < 0.007). In both genders, A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis were rare in this study. To conclude, periodontal bacteria were associated with higher periodontal index scores among all teenage smokers. Smoking girls harbored more frequently certain periodontal bacteria than non-smokers, but this was not seen in boys. Hence, our study hypothesis was only partly confirmed.

  20. Smoking and chronic respiratory symptoms: prevalence in male and female smokers.

    PubMed Central

    Liard, R; Perdrizet, S; Correman, J; Bidou, S

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between respiratory symptoms and smoking habits, according to sex, was studied in 899 adults (average age 39, 55 per cent male) in a Paris industrial medical center. The relative risk of having chronic bronchitis among smokers, compared to nonsmokers, was higher in females (3.3) than in males (1.6). The prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms, dyspnoea and wheezing was more closely associated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day in females than in males. No confounding factor was found to be responsible for these results. PMID:7356091

  1. Prevalence of COPD and Tobacco Smoking in Tunisia — Results from the BOLD Study

    PubMed Central

    Daldoul, Hager; Denguezli, Meriam; Jithoo, Anamika; Gnatiuc, Louisa; Buist, Sonia; Burney, Peter; Tabka, Zouhair; Harrabi, Imed

    2013-01-01

    In Tunisia, there is a paucity of population-based data on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) prevalence. To address this problem, we estimated the prevalence of COPD following the Burden of Lung Disease Initiative. We surveyed 807 adults aged 40+ years and have collected information on respiratory history and symptoms, risk factors for COPD and quality of life. Post-bronchodilator spirometry was performed and COPD and its stages were defined according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines. Six hundred and sixty one (661) subjects were included in the final analysis. The prevalence of GOLD Stage I and II or higher COPD were 7.8% and 4.2%, respectively (Lower Limit of Normal modified stage I and II or higher COPD prevalence were 5.3% and 3.8%, respectively). COPD was more common in subjects aged 70+ years and in those with a BMI < 20 kg/m2. Prevalence of stage I+ COPD was 2.3% in <10 pack years smoked and 16.1% in 20+ pack years smoked. Only 3.5% of participants reported doctor-diagnosed COPD. In this Tunisian population, the prevalence of COPD is higher than reported before and higher than self-reported doctor-diagnosed COPD. In subjects with COPD, age is a much more powerful predictor of lung function than smoking. PMID:24351745

  2. Effect of Exposure to Smoking in Movies on Young Adult Smoking in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Gendall, Philip; Hoek, Janet; Edwards, Richard; Glantz, Stanton

    2016-01-01

    Onscreen Smoking Is a Form of Tobacco Marketing Tobacco advertising has been prohibited in New Zealand since 1990, and the government has set a goal of becoming a smokefree nation by 2025. However, tobacco marketing persists indirectly through smoking in motion pictures, and there is strong evidence that exposure to onscreen smoking causes young people to start smoking. We investigated the relationship between exposure to smoking in movies and youth smoking initiation among New Zealand young adults. Data from an online survey of 419 smokers and non-smokers aged 18 to 25 were used to estimate respondents’ exposure to smoking occurrences in 50 randomly-selected movies from the 423 US top box office movies released between 2008 and 2012. Analyses involved calculating movie smoking exposure (MSE) for each respondent, using logistic regression to analyse the relationship between MSE and current smoking behaviour, and estimating the attributable fraction due to smoking in movies. Effect of Smoking in Movies on New Zealand Youth Exposure to smoking occurrences in movies was associated with current smoking status. After allowing for the influence of family, friends and co-workers, age and rebelliousness, respondents’ likelihood of smoking increased by 11% for every 100-incident increase in exposure to smoking incidents, (aOR1.11; p< .05). The estimated attributable fraction due to smoking in movies was 54%; this risk could be substantially reduced by eliminating smoking from movies currently rated as appropriate for youth. We conclude that exposure to smoking in movies remains a potent risk factor associated with smoking among young adults, even in a progressive tobacco control setting such as New Zealand. Harmonising the age of legal tobacco purchase (18) with the age at which it is legal to view smoking in movies would support New Zealand’s smokefree 2025 goal. PMID:26960189

  3. Characterizing and identifying "hard-core" smokers: implications for further reducing smoking prevalence.

    PubMed Central

    Emery, S; Gilpin, E A; Ake, C; Farkas, A J; Pierce, J P

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Some smokers may never quit. Depending on how many of these "hard-core" smokers exist, tobacco control efforts could reach the limits of a minimum achievable smoking prevalence. We defined the hard core as heavy smokers with weak quitting histories who expect never to quit smoking. We compared them with other smokers and analyzed whether they represent a meaningful barrier to further reducing smoking prevalence. METHODS: We used data from the 1996 California Tobacco Surveys (18616 adults; response rate = 72.9%). RESULTS: In 1996, 5.2% of California smokers 26 years and older (1.3% of the California population) were hard-core smokers. Compared with other smokers, hard-core smokers were more likely to be retired non-Hispanic White males, with 12 years or less of education and incomes below $30,000 a year, who live alone. They began smoking at younger ages and attributed fewer negative health consequences to smoking than other smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Current tobacco control efforts have a long way to go before they "hit the wall." Nonetheless, the group of hard-core smokers represents a challenge because they appear to be largely unaffected by the messages of tobacco control. PMID:10705856

  4. Disparity in smoking prevalence by education: can we reduce it?

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shu-Hong; Hebert, Kiandra; Wong, Shiushing; Cummins, Sharon; Gamst, Anthony

    2010-03-01

    Can an intervention program that is highly effective in reducing the prevalence of an unhealthy behavior in the general population also reduce the disparity among its subgroups? That depends on what measure of disparity is used. Using simple algebraic models, this study demonstrates that disparity measured in terms of relative difference between two groups tends to increase when the prevalence of the behavior is in decline. The study then shows an empirical example, by analyzing the effects of the California tobacco control program on smoking prevalence of two education groups, the lowest (less than 12 years) and the highest (16 years or more). It examines the data from four California Tobacco Surveys covering the years 1996, 1999, 2002, and 2005. The effects of three components of the tobacco control program known to be effective in decreasing prevalence (media, worksite policy, and price) on the two education groups are assessed. The smoking prevalence for the two groups is obtained from these four surveys and a regression line is computed for each education group from 1996 to 2005. Results show that the California program is effective with both low education and high education groups and that the rate of decline in smoking prevalence from 1996 to 2005 is no smaller for the low education group than for the high education group. The paper then discusses that an analysis of disparity based on relative difference, however, could result in misleading recommendations that an intervention like the California tobacco program needs to change from its current whole-population approach to one that focuses on targeting subgroups because it has not reduced disparity. It proposes that research should focus more on increasing the rate of change among less advantage groups and less on the relative disparity compared to some other group.

  5. Gender empowerment and female-to-male smoking prevalence ratios

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Geoffrey T

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether in countries with high gender empowerment the female-to-male smoking prevalence ratio is also higher. Methods Bivariate and multiple regression analyses were performed to explore the relation between the United Nations Development Programme’s gender empowerment measure (GEM) and the female-to-male smoking prevalence ratio (calculated from the 2008 WHO global tobacco control report). Because a country’s progression through the various stages of the tobacco epidemic and its gender smoking ratio (GSR) are thought to be influenced by its level of development, we explored this correlation as well, with economic development defined in terms of gross national income (GNI) per capita and income inequality (Gini coefficient). Findings The GSR was significantly and positively correlated with the GEM (r = 0.680; P < 0.001). In addition, the GEM was the strongest predictor of the GSR (β, adjusted: 0.47; P < 0.0001) after controlling for GNI per capita and for Gini coefficient. Conclusion Whether progress towards gender empowerment can take place without a corresponding increase in smoking among women remains to be seen. Strong tobacco control measures are needed in countries where women are being increasingly empowered. PMID:21379415

  6. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking in Turkey: Policy Implications and Trends from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    PubMed Central

    Erdöl, Cevdet; Ergüder, Toker; Morton, Jeremy; Palipudi, Krishna; Gupta, Prakash; Asma, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is an emerging tobacco product globally, especially among adolescents and young adults who may perceive WTS as a safe alternative to smoking cigarettes. Monitoring the use of WTS in Turkey in relation to the tobacco control policy context is important to ensure that WTS does not become a major public health issue in Turkey. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was conducted in Turkey in 2008 and was repeated in 2012. GATS provided prevalence estimates on current WTS and change over time. Other indicators of WTS were also obtained, such as age of initiation and location of use. Among persons aged 15 and older in Turkey, the current prevalence of WTS decreased from 2.3% in 2008 to 0.8% in 2012, representing a 65% relative decline. Among males, WTS decreased from 4.0% to 1.1% (72% relative decline). While the overall smoking prevalence decreased among females, there was no change in the rate of WTS (0.7% in 2008 vs. 0.5% in 2012), though the WTS prevalence rate was already low in 2008. Comprehensive tobacco control efforts have been successful in reducing the overall smoking prevalence in Turkey, which includes the reduction of cigarette smoking and WTS. However, it is important to continue monitoring the use of waterpipes in Turkey and targeting tobacco control efforts to certain groups that may be vulnerable to future WTS marketing (e.g., youth, women). PMID:26670238

  7. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking in Turkey: Policy Implications and Trends from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    PubMed

    Erdöl, Cevdet; Ergüder, Toker; Morton, Jeremy; Palipudi, Krishna; Gupta, Prakash; Asma, Samira

    2015-12-08

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is an emerging tobacco product globally, especially among adolescents and young adults who may perceive WTS as a safe alternative to smoking cigarettes. Monitoring the use of WTS in Turkey in relation to the tobacco control policy context is important to ensure that WTS does not become a major public health issue in Turkey. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was conducted in Turkey in 2008 and was repeated in 2012. GATS provided prevalence estimates on current WTS and change over time. Other indicators of WTS were also obtained, such as age of initiation and location of use. Among persons aged 15 and older in Turkey, the current prevalence of WTS decreased from 2.3% in 2008 to 0.8% in 2012, representing a 65% relative decline. Among males, WTS decreased from 4.0% to 1.1% (72% relative decline). While the overall smoking prevalence decreased among females, there was no change in the rate of WTS (0.7% in 2008 vs. 0.5% in 2012), though the WTS prevalence rate was already low in 2008. Comprehensive tobacco control efforts have been successful in reducing the overall smoking prevalence in Turkey, which includes the reduction of cigarette smoking and WTS. However, it is important to continue monitoring the use of waterpipes in Turkey and targeting tobacco control efforts to certain groups that may be vulnerable to future WTS marketing (e.g., youth, women).

  8. The Economic Impact of Smoking and of Reducing Smoking Prevalence: Review of Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ekpu, Victor U; Brown, Abraham K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Tobacco smoking is the cause of many preventable diseases and premature deaths in the UK and around the world. It poses enormous health- and non-health-related costs to the affected individuals, employers, and the society at large. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that, globally, smoking causes over US$500 billion in economic damage each year. OBJECTIVES This paper examines global and UK evidence on the economic impact of smoking prevalence and evaluates the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of smoking cessation measures. STUDY SELECTION Search methods We used two major health care/economic research databases, namely PubMed and the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) database that contains the British National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database; Cochrane Library of systematic reviews in health care and health policy; and other health-care-related bibliographic sources. We also performed hand searching of relevant articles, health reports, and white papers issued by government bodies, international health organizations, and health intervention campaign agencies. Selection criteria The paper includes cost-effectiveness studies from medical journals, health reports, and white papers published between 1992 and July 2014, but included only eight relevant studies before 1992. Most of the papers reviewed reported outcomes on smoking prevalence, as well as the direct and indirect costs of smoking and the costs and benefits of smoking cessation interventions. We excluded papers that merely described the effectiveness of an intervention without including economic or cost considerations. We also excluded papers that combine smoking cessation with the reduction in the risk of other diseases. Data collection and analysis The included studies were assessed against criteria indicated in the Cochrane Reviewers Handbook version 5.0.0. Outcomes assessed in the review Primary outcomes of the selected studies are smoking prevalence

  9. Estimating the Smoking Ban Effects on Smoking Prevalence, Quitting and Cigarette Consumption in a Population Study of Apprentices in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Pieroni, Luca; Muzi, Giacomo; Quercia, Augusto; Lanari, Donatella; Rundo, Carmen; Minelli, Liliana; Salmasi, Luca; dell’Omo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We evaluated the effects of the Italian 2005 smoking ban in public places on the prevalence of smoking, quitting and cigarette consumption of young workers. Data and Methods: The dataset was obtained from non-computerized registers of medical examinations for a population of workers with apprenticeship contracts residing in the province of Viterbo, Italy, in the period 1996–2007. To estimate the effects of the ban, a segmented regression approach was used, exploiting the discontinuity introduced by the application of the law on apprentices’ smoking behavior. Results: It is estimated that the Italian smoking ban generally had no effect on smoking prevalence, quitting ratio, or cigarette consumption of apprentices. However, when the estimates were applied to subpopulations, significant effects were found: −1% in smoking prevalence, +2% in quitting, and −3% in smoking intensity of apprentices with at least a diploma. PMID:26287220

  10. Do local tobacco regulations influence perceived smoking norms? Evidence from adult and youth surveys in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, William L; Biener, Lois; Brennan, Robert T

    2008-08-01

    Smoking behavior has been shown to be influenced by individuals' perceptions of social norms about smoking. This study examines whether local regulations regarding clean indoor air and youth access to tobacco are associated with residents' subsequent perceptions of smoking norms. Data came from Massachusetts surveys of adults and youths and from records of local tobacco control policies. Indices of perceived smoking norms were based on perceived smoking prevalence and perceived community acceptance of smoking. Multilevel models tested the association between perceived norms and the presence of strong local regulations in four policy domains (restaurant smoking bans, smoking restrictions in other venues, enforcement of laws prohibiting sales to youths and youth-oriented marketing restrictions). The model controlled for town voting results on a tobacco tax referendum, which served as a measure of antismoking sentiment pre-dating the regulations. Results showed that youths perceived community norms to be significantly more 'antismoking' if they lived in a town that had strong regulations in at least three of the four domains. For adults, having strong regulations in as few as one to two domains was associated with perceiving community norms to be significantly more antismoking. Implementing and publicizing local regulations may help shape perceptions of community smoking norms.

  11. Can smoking initiation contexts predict how adult Aboriginal smokers assess their smoking risks? A cross-sectional study using the ‘Smoking Risk Assessment Target’

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Gillian Sandra; Watt, Kerrianne; West, Robert; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Clough, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Smoking prevalence is slow to reduce among Indigenous Australians of reproductive age. We analysed the relationships between age of smoking initiation, recalled initiation influences and self-assessment of smoking risks in Aboriginal smokers. Design, setting and participants A community-based cross-sectional survey of Aboriginal smokers aged 18–45 years (N=121; 58 men) was undertaken, using single-item measures. The Smoking Risk Assessment Target (SRAT) as the primary outcome measure enabled self-assessment of smoking risks from 12 options, recategorised into 3 groups. Participants recalled influences on their smoking initiation. Multinomial logistic regression modelling included age, gender, strength of urges to smoke, age at initiation (regular uptake) and statistically significant initiation influences on χ2 tests (‘to be cool’, alcohol and cannabis). Results Frequent initiation influences included friends (74%; SD 0.44), family (57%; SD 0.5) and alcohol (40%; SD 0.49). 54% (n=65) of smokers had the highest risk perception on the SRAT, selected by those who cared about the smoking risks and intended to quit soon. On multivariate analyses, compared with the highest level of SRAT, male gender, lower age of uptake and strong urges to smoke were significantly associated with the lowest level of SRAT, selected by those who refuted risks or thought they could not quit. Lower age of uptake and alcohol were associated with mid-level of SRAT, selected by those who cared about smoking risks, but did not consider quitting as a priority. Conclusions Characteristics of smoking initiation in youth may have far-reaching associations with how smoking risks are assessed by adults of reproductive age, and their intentions to quit smoking. Becoming a regular smoker at under the age of 16 years, and influences of alcohol on smoking uptake, were inversely associated with high-level assessment of smoking risks and intention to quit in regional Aboriginal smokers

  12. Smoking and attitudes on smoke-free air laws among club-going young adults.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Brian C; Weiser, Jonathan D; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2009-01-01

    This report assesses smoking rates and support for indoor smoking bans among club-going young adults in New York City. Nearly half of the sample were smokers. Gay, lesbian, and bisexual young adults were more likely to smoke than were heterosexual participants. No differences in smoking rates were found between sexes or between Whites and non-Whites. Support for the smoking ban exists among young adults (68.6%). This is universal, as no differences in support for the ban were found by sex, race, or sexual identity. Smokers supported the ban (57.8%) less than nonsmokers did (77.3%). Yet, it remains notable that a majority support the smoking ban among smokers.

  13. Movie Smoking and Youth Initiation: Parsing Smoking Imagery and Other Adult Content

    PubMed Central

    Farrelly, Matthew C.; Kamyab, Kian; Nonnemaker, James; Crankshaw, Erik; Allen, Jane A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To isolate the independent influence of exposure to smoking and other adult content in the movies on youth smoking uptake. Methods We used discrete time survival analysis to quantify the influence of exposure to smoking and other adult content in the movies on transitioning from (1) closed to open to smoking; (2) never to ever trying smoking; and (3) never to ever hitting, slapping, or shoving someone on two or more occasions in the past 30 days. The latter is a comparative outcome, hypothesized to have no correlation with exposure to smoking in the movies. Results Assessed separately, both exposure to smoking imagery and exposure to adult content were associated with increased likelihood of youth becoming open to smoking (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04–1.15 and OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.04–1.17) and having tried smoking (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.00–1.12 and OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.00–1.13). Both measures were also separately associated with aggressive behavior (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04–1.14 and OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04–1.15). A very high correlation between the two measures (0.995, p<0.000) prevented an assessment of their independent effects on smoking initiation. Conclusion Although exposure to smoking in the movies is correlated with smoking susceptibility and initiation, the high correlation between exposure to smoking in the movies and other adult content suggests that more research is needed to disentangle their independent influence on smoking. PMID:23251654

  14. Association Between Smoking and Back Pain in a Cross-Section of Adult Americans

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Claire D; Snodgrass, Jeff; Smith, Monica; Dunn, Andrew S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Back pain is the leading cause of global years lived with disability. This cross-sectional study assessed if a greater exposure to smoking cigarettes was associated with a greater prevalence of back pain. Methods: This study examined data from 34,525 United States adults from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey. Analyses assessed the difference in back pain prevalence among current smokers, former smokers, and never smokers and the number of cigarettes smoked between current smokers with and without back pain. Results: Back pain prevalence was 28%. There was a significant association between back pain and smoking, X2 (2, 599, n = 34, 241) = 546.3, p < .001. Back pain increased with increased smoking exposure; back pain was present in 23.5% of never-smokers, 33.1% of former smokers, and 36.9% of current smokers. The number of cigarettes smoked per day for current daily smokers was higher for those with back pain (Md = 13) than those without back pain (Md = 10), U = 2701065, z = -3.70, p < .001, r = .05. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there may be a biological gradient associated with exposure to smoking cigarettes and back pain in adult Americans. PMID:27790393

  15. Disparities in Adult Cigarette Smoking - United States, 2002-2005 and 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Martell, Brandi N; Garrett, Bridgette E; Caraballo, Ralph S

    2016-08-05

    Although cigarette smoking has substantially declined since the release of the 1964 Surgeon General's report on smoking and health,* disparities in tobacco use exist among racial/ethnic populations (1). Moreover, because estimates of U.S. adult cigarette smoking and tobacco use are usually limited to aggregate racial or ethnic population categories (i.e., non-Hispanic whites [whites]; non-Hispanic blacks or African Americans [blacks]; American Indians and Alaska Natives [American Indians/Alaska Natives]; Asians; Native Hawaiians or Pacific Islanders [Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders]; and Hispanics/Latinos [Hispanics]), these estimates can mask differences in cigarette smoking prevalence among subgroups of these populations. To assess the prevalence of and changes in cigarette smoking among persons aged ≥18 years in six racial/ethnic populations and 10 select subgroups in the United States,(†) CDC analyzed self-reported data collected during 2002-2005 and 2010-2013 from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) (2) and compared differences between the two periods. During 2010-2013, the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking among the racial/ethnic populations and subgroups ranged from 38.9% for American Indians/Alaska Natives to 7.6% for both Chinese and Asian Indians. During 2010-2013, although cigarette smoking prevalence was relatively low among Asians overall (10.9%) compared with whites (24.9%), wide within-group differences in smoking prevalence existed among Asian subgroups, from 7.6% among both Chinese and Asian Indians to 20.0% among Koreans. Similarly, among Hispanics, the overall prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 19.9%; however, within Hispanic subgroups, prevalences ranged from 15.6% among Central/South Americans to 28.5% among Puerto Ricans. The overall prevalence of cigarette smoking was higher among men than among women during both 2002-2005 (30.0% men versus 23.9% women) and 2010-2013 (26.4% versus 21.1%) (p<0.05). These

  16. Predicting lung cancer deaths from smoking prevalence data.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Volker; Ng, Nawi; Tesfaye, Fikru; Becher, Heiko

    2011-11-01

    Reliable data on lung cancer burden is not available from most developing countries as cancer registration is lacking. In a previously proposed model to estimate lung cancer deaths in those countries using smoking prevalence data, we estimated the current yearly number of lung cancer deaths in Ethiopia as 3356, a figure far above the WHO estimate of 1343 and the GLOBOCAN of 748. Our aim was to further develop and validate our estimation procedure. We included additional data on risk estimates for lung cancer mortality of ex-smokers and an approximation of duration of smoking into our model and reanalysed study results on non-smoker mortality, thus building two improved models. For validation the number of lung cancer deaths in Germany (2006), the UK (2006), Canada (2004), and Utah, USA (2000) were estimated based on all three models and compared to the observed number of deaths in these countries. We found that the refined model with a modified estimate of lung cancer mortality rates in non-smokers and a more detailed incorporation of smoking dose categories estimates rather well the observed lung cancer deaths in the above countries. With this model, the updated estimate of yearly lung cancer deaths in Ethiopia is 2946 deaths, close to the previous reported estimate. If Ethiopian lung cancer mortality rates in never-smokers and smoking relative risks are the same as in industrialised countries, our models suggests that WHO lung cancer deaths may be underestimated in Ethiopia.

  17. [Prevalence of tobacco smoking among phthisio-pulmonological inpatients].

    PubMed

    Ugriumov, A I

    2001-01-01

    A questionnaire survey of 222 phthisiopulmonological inpatients has indicated that 21.7 of the males and 4.05% of the females are smokers. Among clinical and morphological forms of tuberculosis, fibrocavernous tuberculosis is prevalent in smokers. Tuberculoma and post tuberculous fibrosis of varying severity are common in never smokers. Smokers are at high risk for lung cancer and at less risk for sarcoidosis with the equal incidence of chronic obstructive lung disease. The paper states that hospital physicians pay little attention to smoking among their patients.

  18. Modeling the future effects of a menthol ban on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths in the United States.

    PubMed

    Levy, David T; Pearson, Jennifer L; Villanti, Andrea C; Blackman, Kenneth; Vallone, Donna M; Niaura, Raymond S; Abrams, David B

    2011-07-01

    We used a validated smoking simulation model and data from the 2003 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey to project the impact that a US menthol ban would have on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. In a scenario in which 30% of menthol smokers quit and 30% of those who would have initiated as menthol smokers do not initiate, by 2050 the relative reduction in smoking prevalence would be 9.7% overall and 24.8% for Blacks; deaths averted would be 633,252 overall and 237,317 for Blacks.

  19. Prevalence and restrictiveness of smoking policies in King County, Washington, manufacturing worksites.

    PubMed Central

    Kinne, S

    1990-01-01

    This study examined prevalence of smoking policies and of significant smoking restrictions in a 1988 random sample of 1,528 manufacturing companies in the Seattle, Washington area, and related these characteristics to worksite size and industry type. Sixty-nine percent of companies had formal smoking policies and 85 percent regulated smoking to some degree. Workforce size was directly related to prevalence of significant smoking restrictions, but when type of industry was controlled, the linear trend in the size/prevalence relationship was sustained in only three of the 18 industry groupings. PMID:2240339

  20. Smoking among Aboriginal adults in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Arjunan, Punitha; Poder, Natasha; Welsh, Kerry; Bellear, LaVerne; Heathcote, Jeremy; Wright, Darryl; Millen, Elizabeth; Spinks, Mark; Williams, Mandy; Wen, Li Ming

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Tobacco consumption contributes to health disparities among Aboriginal Australians who experience a greater burden of smoking-related death and diseases. This paper reports findings from a baseline survey on factors associated with smoking, cessation behaviours and attitudes towards smoke-free homes among the Aboriginal population in inner and south-western Sydney. Methods A baseline survey was conducted in inner and south-western Sydney from October 2010 to July 2011. The survey applied both interviewer-administered and self-administered data collection methods. Multiple logistic regression was performed to determine the factors associated with smoking. Results Six hundred and sixty-three participants completed the survey. The majority were female (67.5%), below the age of 50 (66.6%) and more than half were employed (54.7%). Almost half were current smokers (48.4%) with the majority intending to quit in the next 6 months (79.0%) and living in a smoke-free home (70.4%). Those aged 30-39 years (AOR 3.28; 95% CI: 2.06-5.23) and the unemployed (AOR 1.67; 95% CI: 1.11-2.51) had higher odds for current smoking. Participants who had a more positive attitude towards smoke-free homes were less likely to smoke (AOR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.74-.85). Conclusions A high proportion of participants were current smokers among whom intention to quit was high. Age, work status and attitudes towards smoke-free home were factors associated with smoking. So what? The findings address the scarcity of local evidence crucial for promoting cessation among Aboriginal tobacco smokers. Targeted promotions for socio-demographic subgroups and of attitudes towards smoke-free homes could be meaningful strategies for future smoking-cessation initiatives.

  1. Smoking initiation, continuation and prevalence in deprived urban areas compared to non-deprived urban areas in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Mirte A G; Wingen, Marleen; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that smoking prevalence is higher in deprived areas than in affluent areas. We aimed to determine whether smoking initiation or continuation contributes most to inequalities in current smoking, and in which population subgroups these area differences were largest. Therefore, we assessed the relationship between area deprivation and current smoking, initiation and continuation in urban areas, in subgroups defined by gender, generation and educational level. Cross-sectional data of 20,603 Dutch adults (18 years and over) living in 963 urban areas in The Netherlands were obtained from the annual national health survey (2003-2009). Three interrelated smoking outcomes were used: current smoking (smokers/total population), initiation (ever-smokers/total population) and continuation (smokers/ever-smokers). Area deprivation was dichotomised; deprived urban areas (as defined by the Dutch government) and non-deprived urban areas (reference group) were distinguished. Multilevel logistic regression models controlled for individual characteristics (including education and income) and tested for interaction with gender, generation and education. After controlling for individual characteristics, odds for smoking were not significantly higher in deprived areas (current smoking: OR = 1.04 [0.92-1.18], initiation: OR = 1.05 [0.93-1.18], continuation: OR = 1.03 [0.88-1.19]). For smoking initiation, significant differences between deprived areas and other areas remained in younger generations (OR = 1.19 [1.02-1.38]) and higher educated (OR = 1.23 [1.04-1.45]) respondents. For continuation and current smoking, after controlling for individual characteristics, no associations were found in any subgroups. In conclusion, area deprivation appears to be independently related to smoking initiation in, respectively, higher educated and younger generations. These results suggest that initiatives to reduce area-level inequalities in smoking should focus on preventing

  2. Probing the Paradoxical Pattern of Cigarette Smoking among African-Americans: Low Teenage Consumption and High Adult Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feigelman, William; Lee, Julia

    1995-01-01

    Based on secondary analysis of the 1990 California Tobacco Survey of 24,296 adult and 7,767 adolescent respondents, this study investigates enigmatic results established by past research of comparatively low smoking prevalence rates among African American adolescents and high use patterns for African American adults. Findings support hypothesis…

  3. Exploring young adult sexual minority women's perspectives on LGBTQ smoking.

    PubMed

    Youatt, Emily J; Johns, Michelle M; Pingel, Emily S; Soler, Jorge H; Bauermeister, José A

    Smoking rates are higher among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals than among heterosexuals. These disparities are exacerbated during the transition from youth to young adulthood. The current study uses in-depth qualitative interviews to understand perceptions of LGBTQ smoking among LBQ-identified women (N=30, ages 18-24). Major themes identified include the belief that smoking was a way of overcoming stressors faced by heterosexual and LGBTQ young adults alike, a mechanism to relieve sexuality-related stressors, and an ingrained part of LGBTQ culture. Results suggest unique stressors influence LGBTQ smokers. Implications for smoking cessation interventions for LGBTQ youth are discussed.

  4. Smoke-Free Rules and Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Vehicles among U.S. Adults—National Adult Tobacco Survey, 2009–2010 and 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Judy; Jama, Amal; Kegler, Michelle; Baker Holmes, Carissa; Hu, Sean; King, Brian

    2016-01-01

    In the United States (U.S.), secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure causes more than 41,000 deaths among nonsmoking adults annually. Adoption of smoke-free laws in public areas has increased, but private settings such as vehicles remain a source of SHS exposure. This study assessed change in voluntary smoke-free vehicle rules and SHS exposure in personal vehicles among U.S. adults between two periods, 2009–2010 and 2013–2014, using data from the National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS). NATS is a national landline and cellular telephone survey of non-institutionalized adults aged ≥18 years in the 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia. We assessed percentage change in the prevalence of smoke-free vehicle rules among all adults and SHS exposure in vehicles among nonsmoking adults, overall, by sociodemographic factors (sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, annual household income, U.S. region), and by cigarette smoking status. During 2009–2010 to 2013–2014, the percentage of adults with a 100% smoke-free vehicle rule increased from 73.6% to 79.5% (% change = +8.0%; p < 0.05). Among nonsmokers, SHS exposure in vehicles in the previous 7 days decreased from 9.2% to 8.2% (% change = −10.9%; p < 0.05). Smoke-free rules in private settings such as vehicles, in coordination with comprehensive smoke-free policies in indoor public settings, can help reduce SHS exposure and promote smoke-free norms. PMID:27792208

  5. Symptom reporting among prevalent tuberculosis cases who smoke, are HIV-positive or have hyperglycaemia.

    PubMed

    Sattar, S; Van Schalkwyk, C; Claassens, M; Dunbar, R; Floyd, S; Enarson, D A; Godfrey-Faussett, P; Ayles, H; Beyers, N

    2014-12-21

    Data from a tuberculosis (TB) prevalence survey conducted in 24 communities in Zambia and the Western Cape, South Africa, January-December 2010, were analysed to determine the influence of smoking, hyperglycaemia and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on TB symptom reporting in culture-confirmed TB cases. Of 123 790 adults eligible for enrolment, 90 601 (73%) consented and 64 463 had evaluable sputum samples. ORs and 95%CIs were calculated using a robust standard errors logistic regression model adjusting for clustering at community level. HIV-positive TB cases were more likely to report cough, weight loss, night sweats and chest pain than non-HIV-positive TB cases. TB cases who smoked or had hyperglycaemia did not report symptoms differently from cases without these comorbidities.

  6. Social Branding to Decrease Smoking Among Young Adults in Bars

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youn Ok; Hong, Juliette; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated a Social Branding antitobacco intervention for “hipster” young adults that was implemented between 2008 and 2011 in San Diego, California. Methods. We conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys of random samples of young adults going to bars at baseline and over a 3-year follow-up. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate changes in daily smoking, nondaily smoking, and binge drinking, controlling for demographic characteristics, alcohol use, advertising receptivity, trend sensitivity, and tobacco-related attitudes. Results. During the intervention, current (past 30 day) smoking decreased from 57% (baseline) to 48% (at follow-up 3; P = .002), and daily smoking decreased from 22% to 15% (P < .001). There were significant interactions between hipster affiliation and alcohol use on smoking. Among hipster binge drinkers, the odds of daily smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30, 0.63) and nondaily smoking (OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.42, 0.77) decreased significantly at follow-up 3. Binge drinking also decreased significantly at follow-up 3 (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.53, 0.78). Conclusions. Social Branding campaigns are a promising strategy to decrease smoking in young adult bar patrons. PMID:24524502

  7. Gender-related interactive effect of smoking and rural/urban living on asthma prevalence: a longitudinal Canadian NPHS study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sunita; Pahwa, Punam; Rennie, Donna C; Janzen, Bonnie

    2009-12-01

    The effects of passive smoking on asthma are well documented, however there is limited research conducted to study the relationship of asthma and smoking among adult populations. This article aims to investigate the gender differences when studying the relationship of asthma prevalence and smoking and further explore if rural/urban living affects the relationship over time. The longitudinal National Population Health Survey (NPHS) dataset was used. For analytic purposes five time periods were used. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) approach was used to obtain the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. A total of 11,223 participants ranging in age from 18 to 64; 5,382 men and 5,841 women, were included in the baseline time point (1994-1995). Rural/urban living for the present analysis was an effect modifier for the relationship of asthma prevalence and smoking, and this was true only for women. The results showed that female smokers and ex-smokers residing in rural locations were 1.4 times (95% CI: Rural Smokers = 1.02-1.94, and Rural Ex-smokers = 1.02-2.02) more likely to be diagnosed with asthma compared to non-smoking urban women. Results indicate that the combination of living in a rural area and smoking increases the risk of asthma prevalence among women but not among men.

  8. African American Young Adult Smoking Initiation: Identifying Intervention Points and Prevention Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…

  9. Prevalence of tobacco use among adult and adolescent females in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El Awa, F; Fouad, H; El Naga, R A; Emam, A H; Labib, S

    2013-08-01

    Egypt assessed tobacco use among young people and adults through implementation in 2009 of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) among school students aged 13-15 years and the nationally representative Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) among adults aged 15+ years. Both surveys employed cluster sampling to produce nationally representative samples and used standard core questionnaires with optional, country-specific questions. The results indicated that a higher percentage of adolescent girls in Egypt used tobacco than did adult females. Overall, 3.8% of girls aged 13-15 years used some form of tobacco compared with 0.6% of women aged 15+ years. Adolescents were over 14 times more likely than adult women to currently smoke cigarettes and 11 times more likely to smoke waterpipes. Moreover, the prevalence of cigarette smoking among adolescent girls had increased from 1.4% in the 2005 GYTS to 2.8% in 2009, indicating that social and cultural norms may be changing.

  10. Specific dimensions of impulsivity are differentially associated with daily and non-daily cigarette smoking in young adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dustin C; Peters, Jessica R; Adams, Zachary W; Milich, Richard; Lynam, Donald R

    2015-07-01

    Young adults are at risk for initiation of tobacco use and progression to tobacco dependence. Not every person who smokes cigarettes becomes tobacco dependent, however, and non-daily smoking is becoming more prevalent among those who use tobacco. It is likely that individual differences in psychosocial and behavioral factors influence risk for engaging in non-daily and daily cigarette smoking. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between impulsivity and smoking status in young adults who vary in frequency of cigarette smoking. Young adult first-year college students between the ages of 18-24 (512) were classified to one of three groups: non-smokers, non-daily smokers, or daily smokers, and impulsivity was assessed using the UPPS-P (negative and positive urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, sensation seeking). When all impulsivity dimensions were used simultaneously to predict smoking status, negative urgency predicted increased risk of membership in the daily smoking group and lack of premeditation predicted increased risk of membership in the non-daily smoking group. These results suggest that dimensions of impulsivity may contribute differentially to forms of smoking behavior in young adults.

  11. Specific Dimensions of Impulsivity Are Differentially Associated with Daily and Non-Daily Cigarette Smoking in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dustin C.; Peters, Jessica R.; Adams, Zachary W.; Milich, Richard; Lynam, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    Young adults are at risk for initiation of tobacco use and progression to tobacco dependence. Not every person who smokes cigarettes becomes tobacco dependent, however, and non-daily smoking is becoming more prevalent among those who use tobacco. It is likely that individual differences in psychosocial and behavioral factors influence risk for engaging in non-daily and daily cigarette smoking. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between impulsivity and smoking status in young adults who vary in frequency of cigarette smoking. Young adult first-year college students between the ages of 18-24 (512) were classified to one of three groups: non-smokers, non-daily smokers, or daily smokers, and impulsivity was assessed using the UPPS-P(Negative and Positive Urgency, lack of Premeditation, lack of Perseverance, Sensation Seeking). When all impulsivity dimensions were used simultaneously to predict smoking status, negative urgency predicted increased risk of membership in the daily smoking group and lack of premeditation predicted increased risk of membership in the non-daily smoking group. These results suggest that dimensions of impulsivity may contribute differentially to forms of smoking behavior in young adults. PMID:25827335

  12. Prevalence of Environmental Smoke Exposure in Households with Children in Jodhpur District, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chopra, Anita; Dhawan, Anju; Sethi, Hem; Mohan, Devinder

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The present study assessed the prevalence of child exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) among families with smoking members. Methods: Secondary analysis was conducted on data from a survey done in Jodhpur district (Rajasthan) on substance use in 11459 households. Frequency of smoking by residents in households with children below 10…

  13. Group hypnosis vs. relaxation for smoking cessation in adults: a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the popularity of hypnotherapy for smoking cessation, the efficacy of this method is unclear. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of a single-session of group hypnotherapy for smoking cessation compared to relaxation in Swiss adult smokers. Methods This was a cluster-randomised, parallel-group, controlled trial. A single session of hypnosis or relaxation for smoking cessation was delivered to groups of smokers (median size = 11). Participants were 223 smokers consuming ≥ 5 cigarettes per day, willing to quit and not using cessation aids (47.1% females, M = 37.5 years [SD = 11.8], 86.1% Swiss). Nicotine withdrawal, smoking abstinence self-efficacy, and adverse reactions were assessed at a 2-week follow-up. The main outcome, self-reported 30-day point prevalence of smoking abstinence, was assessed at a 6-month follow up. Abstinence was validated through salivary analysis. Secondary outcomes included number of cigarettes smoked per day, smoking abstinence self-efficacy, and nicotine withdrawal. Results At the 6-month follow up, 14.7% in the hypnosis group and 17.8% in the relaxation group were abstinent. The intervention had no effect on smoking status (p = .73) or on the number of cigarettes smoked per day (p = .56). Smoking abstinence self-efficacy did not differ between the interventions (p = .14) at the 2-week follow-up, but non-smokers in the hypnosis group experienced reduced withdrawal (p = .02). Both interventions produced few adverse reactions (p = .81). Conclusions A single session of group hypnotherapy does not appear to be more effective for smoking cessation than a group relaxation session. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN72839675. PMID:24365274

  14. Correlates of Sexual Abuse and Smoking among French Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Gary; Guilbert, Philippe; Ward, D. Gant; Arwidson, Pierre; Noubary, Farzad

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to examine the association between sexual abuse (SA) and initiation, cessation, and current cigarette smoking among a large representative adult population in France. Method: A random sample size of 12,256 adults (18-75 years of age) was interviewed by telephone concerning demographic variables, health…

  15. The Prevalence of Lisping in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Borsel, John; Van Rentergem, Sigrid; Verhaeghe, Leen

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a pilot study that investigated the prevalence of lisping in a cohort of young adults. The motivation for the study was the observation that a substantial number of incoming students in speech language pathology at the Ghent University (Belgium), still presented with frontal lisping of the /s/, /z/ and sometimes…

  16. Smoking-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviors, Smoking Cessation Idea and Education Level among Young Adult Male Smokers in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xianglong; Liu, Lingli; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In 2012 in China, 52.9% of men were reported to smoke while only 2.4% of women smoked. This study explored the smoking-related Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) among young adult male smokers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in four municipal areas of Chongqing using a questionnaire administered to 536 natives young male smokers aged 18–45 years old. Results: The total score of smoking cognition, the total score of smoking attitude and the total score of positive behavior to quit smoking was significantly different among the three groups by education. Besides, 30.97% of male smokers never seriously thought about quitting smoking. Logistic regression analysis found smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and sociodemographic factors affect having smoking cessation idea. But no statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking in a sample of higher education. No statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.03012, p = 0.6811), and also no statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.08869, p = 0.2364)  in the sample of higher education young adult males Conclusions: Young adult males with higher education have a better knowledge of smoking hazards and a more positive attitude toward smoking, however, this knowledge and attitude do not necessarily translate into health behavioral outcomes such as not smoking. Overall the present findings indicate that no statistically significant correlation between the education level and quitting smoking idea exists among young adult male smokers in China. This survey gives a snapshot of the impact of education on smoking-related KAP among young adults male smokers. PMID:25689992

  17. Quitting Smoking Among Adults - United States, 2000-2015.

    PubMed

    Babb, Stephen; Malarcher, Ann; Schauer, Gillian; Asman, Kat; Jamal, Ahmed

    2017-01-06

    Quitting cigarette smoking benefits smokers at any age (1). Individual, group, and telephone counseling and seven Food and Drug Administration-approved medications increase quit rates (1-3). To assess progress toward the Healthy People 2020 objectives of increasing the proportion of U.S. adults who attempt to quit smoking cigarettes to ≥80.0% (TU-4.1), and increasing recent smoking cessation success to ≥8.0% (TU-5.1),* CDC assessed national estimates of cessation behaviors among adults aged ≥18 years using data from the 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS). During 2015, 68.0% of adult smokers wanted to stop smoking, 55.4% made a past-year quit attempt, 7.4% recently quit smoking, 57.2% had been advised by a health professional to quit, and 31.2% used cessation counseling and/or medication when trying to quit. During 2000-2015, increases occurred in the proportion of smokers who reported a past-year quit attempt, recently quit smoking, were advised to quit by a health professional, and used cessation counseling and/or medication (p<0.05). Throughout this period, fewer than one third of persons used evidence-based cessation methods when trying to quit smoking. As of 2015, 59.1% of adults who had ever smoked had quit. To further increase cessation, health care providers can consistently identify smokers, advise them to quit, and offer them cessation treatments (2-4). In addition, health insurers can increase cessation by covering and promoting evidence-based cessation treatments and removing barriers to treatment access (2,4-6).

  18. Smoking behaviour predicts tobacco control attitudes in a high smoking prevalence hospital: A cross-sectional study in a Portuguese teaching hospital prior to the national smoking ban

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies have investigated attitudes to and compliance with smoking bans, but few have been conducted in healthcare settings and none in such a setting in Portugal. Portugal is of particular interest because the current ban is not in line with World Health Organization recommendations for a "100% smoke-free" policy. In November 2007, a Portuguese teaching-hospital surveyed smoking behaviour and tobacco control (TC) attitudes before the national ban came into force in January 2008. Methods Questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, including all eligible staff. Sample: 52.9% of the 1, 112 staff; mean age 38.3 ± 9.9 years; 65.9% females. Smoking behaviour and TC attitudes and beliefs were the main outcomes. Bivariable analyses were conducted using chi-squared and MacNemar tests to compare categorical variables and Mann-Whitney tests to compare medians. Multilogistic regression (MLR) was performed to identify factors associated with smoking status and TC attitudes. Results Smoking prevalence was 40.5% (95% CI: 33.6-47.4) in males, 23.5% (95% CI: 19.2-27.8) in females (p < 0.001); 43.2% in auxiliaries, 26.1% in nurses, 18.9% among physicians, and 34.7% among other non-health professionals (p = 0.024). The findings showed a very high level of agreement with smoking bans, even among smokers, despite the fact that 70.3% of the smokers smoked on the premises and 76% of staff reported being frequently exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS). In addition 42.8% reported that SHS was unpleasant and 28.3% admitted complaining. MLR showed that smoking behaviour was the most important predictor of TC attitudes. Conclusions Smoking prevalence was high, especially among the lower socio-economic groups. The findings showed a very high level of support for smoking bans, despite the pro-smoking environment. Most staff reported passive behaviour, despite high SHS exposure. This and the high smoking prevalence may contribute to low compliance with the ban and low

  19. Impact of plain packaging of tobacco products on smoking in adults and children: an elicitation of international experts’ estimates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Governments sometimes face important decisions in the absence of direct evidence. In these cases, expert elicitation methods can be used to quantify uncertainty. We report the results of an expert elicitation study regarding the likely impact on smoking rates in adults and children of plain packaging of tobacco products. Methods Thirty-three tobacco control experts were recruited from the UK (n = 14), Australasia (n = 12) and North America (n = 7). Experts’ estimates were individually elicited via telephone interviews, and then linearly pooled. Elicited estimates consisted of (1) the most likely, (2) the highest possible, and (3) the lowest possible value for the percentage of (a) adult smokers and (b) children trying smoking, two years after the introduction of plain packaging (all other things being constant) in a target country in the expert’s region of residence. Results The median estimate for the impact on adult smoking prevalence was a 1 percentage point decline (99% range 2.25 to 0), and for the percentage of children trying smoking was a 3 percentage point decline (99% range 6.1 to 0), the latter estimated impact being larger than the former (P < 0.001, sign test). There were no differences in either estimate by region (I2: Adults: 0; Children: 0) but there was considerable variability between experts’ estimates within regions (I2: Adults: 0.91; Children: 0.89). Conclusions In the absence of direct evidence for the impact of introducing plain packaging on smoking rates in adults and children, this study shows that tobacco control experts felt the most likely outcomes would be a reduction in smoking prevalence in adults, and a greater reduction in the numbers of children trying smoking, although there was substantial variability in the estimated size of these impacts. No experts judged an increase in smoking as a likely outcome. PMID:23302325

  20. Factors affecting commencement and cessation of smoking behaviour in Malaysian adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tobacco consumption peak in developed countries has passed, however, it is on the increase in many developing countries. Apart from cigarettes, consumption of local hand-rolled cigarettes such as bidi and rokok daun are prevalent in specific communities. Although factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation has been investigated elsewhere, the only available data for Malaysia is on prevalence. This study aims to investigate factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation which is imperative in designing intervention programs. Methods Data were collected from 11,697 adults by trained recording clerks on sociodemographic characteristics, practice of other risk habit and details of smoking such as type, duration and frequency. Smoking commencement and cessation were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimates and log-rank tests. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the hazard rate ratios. Results Males had a much higher prevalence of the habit (61.7%) as compared to females (5.8%). Cessation was found to be most common among the Chinese and those regularly consuming alcoholic beverages. Kaplan-Meier plot shows that although males are more likely to start smoking, females are found to be less likely to stop. History of betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption significantly increase the likelihood of commencement (p < 0.0001), while cessation was least likely among Indians, current quid chewers and kretek users (p < 0.01). Conclusions Gender, ethnicity, history of quid chewing and alcohol consumption have been found to be important factors in smoking commencement; while ethnicity, betel quid chewing and type of tobacco smoked influences cessation. PMID:22429627

  1. A Study of Cigarett Smoking Among Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mausner, Bernard

    The various activities carried out under a grant from the Cancer Society are discussed, including preparatory work, pilot and exploratory studies, the conduct of the major study, and additional activities. The bulk of the report, however, is devoted to the major study in which measures were obtained of: 1) patterns of support for smoking; 2)…

  2. Prevalence and factors associated with smoking among form four students in Petaling District, Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, K H; Sumarni, M G; Kee, C C; Christopher, V M; Noruiza Hana, M; Lim, K K; Amal, N M

    2010-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted among form four students of secondary schools in the District of Petaling, Selangor, Malaysia from February 2008 to June 2008 with the aim of quantifying the prevalence of smoking and identifying the psychosocial factors related to smoking among adolescents in this district. A two-stage stratified sampling strategy was used to obtain a sample of 1300 students based on an estimated prevalence of 10%. The response rate was 80.5% (1045 out of 1298 students). Results showed that prevalence of smoking was higher among male students (22.3%) compared to females (5.5%) and the median age at smoking initiation was lower among males compared to female smokers (14 years old vs 15 years old). Modifiable risk factors associated with smoking were "percentage of friends who smoke" (OR 2.94, 95% CI [1.71- 5.06]) and "having a brother who smokes" (OR 1.97, 95% CI [1.20-3.31]). There was also a correlation between smoking prevalence and the number of risk factors present. Intensification of health education and anti-smoking programmes and modification of external factors in early adolescence are recommended to prevent smoking initiation.

  3. Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Erin A.; Saladin, Michael E.; Baker, Nathaniel L.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Gray, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e. smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated, but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad-libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4 weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers. PMID:24018226

  4. Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers.

    PubMed

    McClure, Erin A; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Gray, Kevin M

    2013-12-01

    Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e., smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers.

  5. Comparison of Prevalence- and Smoking Impact Ratio-Based Methods of Estimating Smoking-Attributable Fractions of Deaths

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Kyoung Ae; Jung-Choi, Kyung-Hee; Lim, Dohee; Lee, Hye Ah; Lee, Won Kyung; Baik, Sun Jung; Park, Su Hyun; Park, Hyesook

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking is a major modifiable risk factor for premature mortality. Estimating the smoking-attributable burden is important for public health policy. Typically, prevalence- or smoking impact ratio (SIR)-based methods are used to derive estimates, but there is controversy over which method is more appropriate for country-specific estimates. We compared smoking-attributable fractions (SAFs) of deaths estimated by these two methods. Methods To estimate SAFs in 2012, we used several different prevalence-based approaches using no lag and 10- and 20-year lags. For the SIR-based method, we obtained lung cancer mortality rates from the Korean Cancer Prevention Study (KCPS) and from the United States-based Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II). The relative risks for the diseases associated with smoking were also obtained from these cohort studies. Results For males, SAFs obtained using KCPS-derived SIRs were similar to those obtained using prevalence-based methods. For females, SAFs obtained using KCPS-derived SIRs were markedly greater than all prevalence-based SAFs. Differences in prevalence-based SAFs by time-lag period were minimal among males, but SAFs obtained using longer-lagged prevalence periods were significantly larger among females. SAFs obtained using CPS-II-based SIRs were lower than KCPS-based SAFs by >15 percentage points for most diseases, with the exceptions of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Conclusions SAFs obtained using prevalence- and SIR-based methods were similar for males. However, neither prevalence-based nor SIR-based methods resulted in precise SAFs among females. The characteristics of the study population should be carefully considered when choosing a method to estimate SAF. PMID:26477995

  6. Promoting smoking cessation in Bangladeshi and Pakistani male adults: design of a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial of trained community smoking cessation workers

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The prevalence of smoking is higher among Pakistani and Bangladeshi males than among the general population. Smokers who receive behavioural support and medication quadruple their chances of stopping smoking, but evidence suggests that these populations do not use National Health Service run stop smoking clinics as frequently as would be expected given their high prevalence of smoking. This study aims to tackle some of the main barriers to use of stop smoking services and adherence to treatment programmes by redesigning service delivery to be more acceptable to these adult male populations. The study compares the effectiveness of trained Pakistani and Bangladeshi smoking cessation workers operating in an outreach capacity ('clinic + outreach') with standard care ('clinic only') to improve access to and success of National Health Service smoking cessation services. Methods/design This is a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial based in Birmingham, UK. Super output areas of Birmingham will be identified in which more than 10% of the population are of Pakistani and/or Bangladeshi origin. From these areas, 'natural geographical communities' will be identified. Sixteen aggregated agglomerations of super output areas will be identified, separating areas from each other using buffer regions in order to reduce potential contamination. These natural communities will be randomised to 'clinic + outreach' (intervention) or 'clinic only' (control) arms. The use of stop smoking services and the numbers of people quitting smoking (defined as prolonged self-reported abstinence at four weeks, three months and six months) will be assessed in each area. In addition, we will assess the impact of the intervention on adherence to smoking cessation treatments and patient satisfaction. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN 82127540. PMID:19682374

  7. Smoking in hotels: prevalence, and opinions about restrictions.

    PubMed

    Semmonds, A; Bailey, K; Bentley, S; Chase, V; Fernando, S; Guruge, A; King, M; Tan, O M; Walsh, R

    1995-02-01

    Exposure to high levels of environmental tobacco smoke can occur in hotels. Controversy exists about smoking regulation on licensed premises. This survey of 138 people attending one of three Newcastle hotels during 1993 found that 57 per cent of respondents were nonsmokers. Fifty-eight per cent (95 per cent confidence interval (CI) 50 to 66 per cent) of respondents in these hotels believed their health was being adversely affected by other people's smoke in the hotel. Seventy per cent (CI 62 to 78 per cent), including half the smokers, were in favour of restriction of smoking in the hotels. Most preferred the establishment of smoke-free areas to the introduction of total smoking bans in hotels. The failure of hotels to regulate smoking suggests that a legislative approach is required. The case for legislation would be strengthened by a larger study elsewhere in Australia.

  8. A dynamic modelling framework towards the solution of reduction in smoking prevalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halim, Tisya Farida Abdul; Sapiri, Hasimah; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a hypothetical framework towards the solution for reduction in smoking prevalence in Malaysia. The framework is design to assist in decision making process related to reduction in smoking prevalence using SD and OCT. In general, this framework is developed using SD approach where OCT is embedded in the policy evaluation process. Smoking prevalence is one of the determinant which plays an important role in measuring a successful implementation of anti-smoking strategies. Therefore, it is critical to determine the optimal value of smoking prevalence in order to trim down the hazardous effects of smoking to society. Conversely, smoking problem becomes increasingly complex since many issues that ranged from behavioral to economical need to be considered simultaneously. Thus, a hypothetical framework of the control model embedded in the SD methodology is expected to obtain the minimum value of smoking prevalence which the output in turn will provide a guideline for tobacco researchers as well as decision makers for policy design and evaluation.

  9. Smoking behaviors in a community-based cohort of HIV-infected indigent adults.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, Maya; Penko, Joanne; Vittinghoff, Eric; Bangsberg, David R; Miaskowski, Christine; Kushel, Margot B

    2014-03-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study of a community-based cohort of HIV-infected indigent adults to examine smoking behaviors and factors associated with quitting. We assessed "hardcore" smoking behaviors associated with a low probability of quitting. Of the 296 participants, 218 were current smokers (73.6 %). The prevalence of "hardcore" smoking was high: 59.6 % smoked ≥15 cigarettes per day, and 67.3 % were daily smokers. During the study interval, 20.6 % made at least one quit attempt. Of these, 53.3 % were abstinent at 6 months. The successful quit rate over 2 years was 4.6 %. Illegal substance use (adjusted odds ratio, AOR 0.2, 95 % CI 0.1-0.6) and smoking within 30 min of waking (AOR 0.2, 95 % CI 0.1-0.7) were associated with lower likelihood of making a quit attempt. Interventions that reduce nicotine dependence prior to smoking cessation and those that are integrated with substance use treatment may be effective for this population.

  10. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking Among Young Adults in the United States, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Haider, M. Rifat; Barnett, Tracey E.; Guo, Yi; Getz, Kayla R.; Thrasher, James F.; Maziak, Wasim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Waterpipe tobacco smoking, also known as hookah and shisha, has surged in popularity among young people in the United States. Waterpipe is also increasingly becoming the first tobacco product that young people try. Given the limited access to and limited portability of waterpipes, waterpipe smokers who become more nicotine dependent over time may be more likely to turn to cigarettes. This study examined the relationship between waterpipe tobacco smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Methods Using data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative sample of US adults, we reported rates of current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking by demographic characteristics and by use of other tobacco products among survey participants aged 18 to 24 years. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or within the next year. Results Of 2,528 young adults who had never established cigarette smoking, 15.7% (n = 398) reported being waterpipe smokers (every day or some days [n = 97; 3.8%] or rarely [n = 301; 11.9%]); 44.2% (176/398) of waterpipe smokers reported being susceptible to cigarette smoking. Those who smoked waterpipe rarely were 2.3 times as susceptible to cigarette smoking as those who were not current waterpipe smokers (OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6–3.4). Conclusion Current waterpipe smoking is associated with susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Longitudinal studies are needed to demonstrate causality between waterpipe smoking and initiation of cigarette smoking. PMID:26890407

  11. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Smoking and Smoking Cessation in a Population of Young Adult Air Force Recruits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Kenneth D.; Vander Weg, Mark W.; Kovach, Kristen Wood; Klesges, Robert C.; DeBon, Margaret W.; Haddock, C. Keith; Talcott, G. Wayne; Lando, Harry A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated gender and ethnic differences in smoking and smoking cessation among young adult military recruits. Surveys administered at the start of basic training indicated that whites (especially white females) and Native Americans were more likely to smoke than other ethnic groups. Gender differences were not observed in cessation rates, which…

  12. Age Differences in the Trends of Smoking Among California Adults: Results from the California Health Interview Survey 2001-2012.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yue; Wang, Weize; Wang, Ke-Sheng; Moore, Kevin; Dunn, Erin; Huang, Shi; Feaster, Daniel J

    2015-12-01

    The aim is to study the trends of cigarette smoking from 2001 to 2012 using a California representative sample in the US. Data was taken from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) from 2001 to 2012, which is a population-based, biennial, random digit-dial telephone survey of the non-institutionalized population. The CHIS is the largest telephone survey in California and the largest state health survey in the US. 282,931 adults (n = 184,454 with age 18-60 and n = 98,477 with age >60) were included in the analysis. Data were weighted to be representative and adjusted for potential covariance and non-response biases. During 2001-2012, the prevalence of current smoking decreased from 18.86 to 15.4 % among adults age 18-60 (β = -0.8, p = 0.0041). As for adults age >60, the prevalence of current smoking trend decreased with variations, started from 9.66 % in 2001, slightly increased to 9.74 % in 2003, but then gradually decreased, falling to 8.18 % in 2012. In 2012, there was a 14 % reduction of daily smoking adults age 18-60 (OR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.76-0.93, p = 0.0006) compared to 2001, while no significant reduction of daily smoking was observed for those age >60. The reductions of smoking prevalence for adults younger than 60 are encouraging. However, there is a concern for smoking cessation rates among those older than 60 years of age, particularly for African Americans.

  13. Changes in the Prevalence of Tobacco Consumption and the Profile of Spanish Smokers after a Comprehensive Smoke-Free Policy

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Rios, Monica; Fernandez, Esteve; Schiaffino, Anna; Lopez, Maria Jose

    2015-01-01

    Background A partial smoke-free regulation in Spain was introduced on January 1, 2006, which was subsequently amended to introduce a comprehensive smoke-free policy from 2 January 2011 onward. The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of tobacco consumption in Spain and the profile of smokers before (2006) and after (2011) the comprehensive smoking ban passed in 2010. Methods Two independent, cross-sectional, population-based surveys were carried out among the adult (≥ 18 years old) Spanish population in 2006 and 2011 through telephone interviews. Both surveys used the same methods and questionnaire. Nicotine dependence was assessed with the Fagerström Test for nicotine dependence and readiness to quit according to the stages of change. Results The prevalence of tobacco consumption showed a nonsignificant decrease from 23.4% in 2006 to 20.7% in 2011. No changes were observed in nicotine dependence or readiness to quit. In 2011, most smokers (76%) showed low nicotine dependence and were mainly in the precontemplation stage (72%). Conclusions The prevalence of smokers has slightly decreased since the introduction of the total smoking ban in Spain. No differences were found in nicotine dependence or readiness to quit. PMID:26066497

  14. Smoking, alcohol consumption and betal-quid chewing among young adult Myanmar laborers in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Htin, Kyaw; Howteerakull, Nopporn; Suwannapong, Nawarat; TipayamongkholgulI, Mathuros

    2014-07-01

    Health-risk behaviors among young adults are a serious public health problem. This cross sectional study aimed to estimate the prevalence of single and concurrent multiple health-risk behaviors: smoking tobacco, consuming alcohol, and chewing betel quid among young adult Myanmar laborers in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand. Three hundred Myanmar laborers, aged 18-24 years, were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. About 33.6% reported no risk behaviors, 24.7% had one, and 41.7% had two or three risk behaviors. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed six variables were significantly associated with health-risk behaviors: male gender, high/moderate custom/traditional influences, friends who smoked/consumed alcohol/chewed betel quid, and exposure to betel-quid chewing by other family members.

  15. Maternal smoking in pregnancy and reproductive hormones in adult sons.

    PubMed

    Ramlau-Hansen, C H; Thulstrup, A M; Olsen, J; Ernst, E; Andersen, C Y; Bonde, J P

    2008-12-01

    Smoking during pregnancy has been reported to alter levels of reproductive hormones in adult sons. From a Danish pregnancy cohort established in 1984-1987, 347 out of 5109 sons were selected according to their exposure to tobacco smoke in foetal life. From February 2005 to January 2006, a blood sample from each young man (18-21 years) was collected and analysed for reproductive hormones. There were no apparent trends of increasing or decreasing hormonal levels with increased exposure to maternal tobacco smoking during pregnancy. Only the free testosterone/free estradiol ratios increased with increased maternal smoking during pregnancy (p for trend = 0.05). No trends for increasing odds ratios for high follicle-stimulating hormone (> or =25 percentile) or low inhibin B (< or =25 percentile) in relation to maternal smoking were observed. We found no major indication of long-term effects of pre-natal exposure to tobacco smoke on the levels of reproductive hormones later in life, but the data may suggest a shift in the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis towards higher androgenicity. This result was, however, of only borderline significance and could be because of chance.

  16. Differential impact of local and federal smoke-free legislation in Mexico: a longitudinal study among adult smokers

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F.; Swayampakala, Kamala; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Sebrié, Ernesto; Walsemann, Katrina M; Bottai, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of Mexico City and federal smoke-free legislation on secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure and support for smoke-free laws. Material and Methods Pre- and post-law data were analyzed from a cohort of adult smokers who participated in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Survey in four Mexican cities. For each indicator, we estimated prevalence, changes in prevalence, and between-city differences in rates of change. Results Self-reported exposure to smoke-free media campaigns generally increased more dramatically in Mexico City. Support for prohibiting smoking in regulated venues increased overall, but at a greater rate in Mexico City than in other cities. In bars and restaurants/cafés, self-reported SHS exposure had significantly greater decreases in Mexico City than in other cities; however, workplace exposure decreased in Tijuana and Guadalajara, but not in Mexico City or Ciudad Juárez. Conclusions Although federal smoke-free legislation was associated with important changes smoke-free policy impact, the comprehensive smoke-free law in Mexico City was generally accompanied by a greater rate of change. PMID:21243195

  17. The role of smoking in social networks on smoking cessation and relapse among adults: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Blok, David J; de Vlas, Sake J; van Empelen, Pepijn; van Lenthe, Frank J

    2017-02-16

    Understanding the spread of smoking cessation and relapse within social networks may offer new approaches to further curb the smoking epidemic. Whether smoking behavior among social network members determines smoking cessation and relapse of adults however, is less known. For this study, longitudinal data of 4623 adults participating in the Dutch Longitudinal Internet Studies for the Social sciences (LISS) panel were collected in March 2013 with a follow-up in 2014. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between the proportion of smokers in social networks, and (1) smoking cessation (n=762) and (2) smoking relapse (n=1905). Analyses were adjusted for the size of the network, age, sex, and education. Respondents with the largest proportion of smokers in their social network were less likely to quit smoking (OR=0.25; 95% CI=0.11-0.66) and more likely to experience a relapse (6.08; 3.01-12.00). Smoking cessation and relapse were most strongly associated with the proportion of smokers among household members and friends. The proportion of smokers in family outside the household was not related to smoking cessation and smoking relapse. In conclusion, smoking behavior in social networks, especially among household members and friends, is strongly associated with smoking cessation and relapse. These findings further support the spread of smoking within social networks, and provide evidence for network-based interventions, particularly including household members and friends.

  18. Small area mapping of domestic radon, smoking prevalence and lung cancer incidence--A case study in Northamptonshire, UK.

    PubMed

    Denman, Antony R; Rogers, Stephen; Ali, Akeem; Sinclair, John; Phillips, Paul S; Crockett, Robin G M; Groves-Kirkby, Christopher J

    2015-12-01

    Smoking and radon both cause lung cancer, and together the risk is significantly higher. UK public health campaigns continue to reduce smoking prevalence, and other initiatives identify houses with raised radon (radon-222) levels and encourage remedial action. Smoking prevalence and radon levels in the UK have been mapped at Primary Care Trust level. This paper extends that work, using a commercial socio-demographic database to estimate smoking prevalence at the postcode sector level, and to predict the population characteristics at postcode sector level for 87 postcode sectors in Northamptonshire. Likely smoking prevalence in each postcode sector is then modelled from estimates of the smoking prevalence in the different socio-economic groups used by the database. Mapping estimated smoking prevalence, radon potential and average lung cancer incidence for each postcode sector suggested that there was little correlation between smoking prevalence and radon levels, as radon potential was generally lower in urban areas in Northamptonshire, where the estimates of smoking prevalence were highest. However, the analysis demonstrated some sectors where both radon potential and smoking prevalence were moderately raised. This study showed the potential of this methodology to map estimated smoking prevalence and radon levels to inform locally targeted public health campaigns to reduce lung cancer incidence.

  19. Cigarette Smoking Trends Among U.S. Working Adult by Industry and Occupation: Findings From the 2004–2012 National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Syamlal, Girija; Mazurek, Jacek M.; Hendricks, Scott A.; Jamal, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine trends in age-adjusted cigarette smoking prevalence among working adults by industry and occupation during 2004–2012, and to project those prevalences and compare them to the 2020 Healthy People objective (TU-1) to reduce cigarette smoking prevalence to ≤12%. Methods We analyzed the 2004–2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data. Respondents were aged ≥18 years working in the week prior to the interview. Temporal changes in cigarette smoking prevalence were assessed using logistic regression. We used the regression model to extrapolate to the period 2013–2020. Results Overall, an estimated 19.0% of working adults smoked cigarettes: 22.4% in 2004 to 18.1% in 2012. The largest declines were among workers in the education services (6.5%) industry and in the life, physical, and social science (9.7%) occupations. The smallest declines were among workers in the real estate and rental and leasing (0.9%) industry and the legal (0.4%) occupations. The 2020 projected smoking prevalences in 15 of 21 industry groups and 13 of the 23 occupation groups were greater than the 2020 Healthy People goal. Conclusions During 2004–2012, smoking prevalence declined in the majority of industry and occupation groups. The decline rate varied by industry and occupation groups. Projections suggest that certain groups may not reach the 2020 Healthy People goal. Consequently, smoking cessation, prevention, and intervention efforts may need to be revised and strengthened, particularly in specific occupational groups. PMID:25239956

  20. Chapter 5: Actual and counterfactual smoking prevalence rates in the U.S. population via microsimulation.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jihyoun; Meza, Rafael; Krapcho, Martin; Clarke, Lauren D; Byrne, Jeff; Levy, David T

    2012-07-01

    The smoking history generator (SHG) developed by the National Cancer Institute simulates individual life/smoking histories that serve as inputs for the Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network (CISNET) lung cancer models. In this chapter, we review the SHG inputs, describe its outputs, and outline the methodology behind it. As an example, we use the SHG to simulate individual life histories for individuals born between 1890 and 1984 for each of the CISNET smoking scenarios and use those simulated histories to compute the corresponding smoking prevalence over the period 1975-2000.

  1. Adult passive smoking in the home environment: a risk factor for chronic airflow limitation.

    PubMed

    Kauffmann, F; Tessier, J F; Oriol, P

    1983-03-01

    Using the data of the French Cooperative Study PAARC (Pollution Atmosphérique et Affections Respiratoires Chroniques), which in 1975 surveyed more than 7800 adult residents of seven cities throughout France, the authors compared the spirometric measurements of two groups of nonsmokers: those with and without exposure to passive smoking in the home. They restricted the analysis to subjects aged 40 years of more (i.e., those presumably exposed for 15 years or more to smoking by their spouses) and who were living in households without other persons aged 18 years or older (to avoid potential misclassification as true nonsmokers of persons living with non-interviewed individuals). The authors found that nonsmoking subjects of either sex whose spouses were current smokers of at least 10 g of tobacco a day had significantly lower forced mid-expiratory flow rate (FEF25-75) than those married to nonsmokers. This difference was not explained by social class, educational level, air pollution, or family size. Women, among whom passive smoking is much more prevalent than it is among men, also showed a significant difference in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and a clear dose-effect relationship to amount of smoking by their husbands was found in the large subgroup of women without paid work (i.e., those not exposed to workplace smoking).

  2. A Coproduction Community Based Approach to Reducing Smoking Prevalence in a Local Community Setting

    PubMed Central

    McGeechan, G. J.; Woodall, D.; Anderson, L.; Wilson, L.; O'Neill, G.; Newbury-Birch, D.

    2016-01-01

    Research highlights that asset-based community development where local residents become equal partners in service development may help promote health and well-being. This paper outlines baseline results of a coproduction evaluation of an asset-based approach to improving health and well-being within a small community through promoting tobacco control. Local residents were recruited and trained as community researchers to deliver a smoking prevalence survey within their local community and became local health champions, promoting health and well-being. The results of the survey will be used to inform health promotion activities within the community. The local smoking prevalence was higher than the regional and national averages. Half of the households surveyed had at least one smoker, and 63.1% of children lived in a smoking household. Nonsmokers reported higher well-being than smokers; however, the differences were not significant. Whilst the community has a high smoking prevalence, more than half of the smokers surveyed would consider quitting. Providing smoking cessation advice in GP surgeries may help reduce smoking prevalence in this community. Work in the area could be done to reduce children's exposure to smoking in the home. PMID:27446219

  3. Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis of the Smoking Prevalence in Mazandaran Province of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Amiresmaili, Mohammadreza; Afshari, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Smoking is regarded as one of the main risk factors and additive to the global burden of diseases in the World. Objectives: This individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis aimed to estimate the smoking prevalence in Mazandaran province of Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was an IPD meta-analysis. The study data were part of the STEPS Study in Mazandaran province (northern Iran), conducted annually from 2005 to 2009. Sample size was 7759 subjects. Sampling method was census. Data entry was in Epi6 software and the analyses were with stata 11 software. Results: Mean (standard error) age of starting to smoke was 20.21 (0.6) years and females had started smoking 4 years later (P = 0.01). During the study, men smoked cigarettes more than women (total prevalence: 23.2%; 95% CI: 22.5-23.9 vs. 0.9%; 95% CI: 0.7-1.1 respectively). The pooled prevalence of the current smoking was estimated about 12.08 % (95% CI: 11.40-12.81). Conclusions: Present study showed that the prevalence of Smoking in men is very high in this region of Iran. Therefore to prevent the problem it is necessary that educational and research centres and health providers make suitable policies and strategies . PMID:25793112

  4. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Smoking Behavior Among Young Adult Bar Patrons

    PubMed Central

    Kalkhoran, Sara; Neilands, Torsten B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We described frequency of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among young adults patronizing bars and associations between SHS exposure, attitudes, and smoking behavior. Methods. We collected cross-sectional surveys from randomized time–location samples of bar patrons aged 18 to 26 years in San Diego, California, and Oklahoma City and Tulsa, Oklahoma, in 2010 to 2011. Multivariate logistic regression evaluated associations between SHS exposure, attitudes about dangers of SHS, susceptibility to smoking initiation among nonsmokers, and quit attempts among current smokers. Results. More than 80% of respondents reported past 7-day exposure to any SHS, and more than 70% reported exposure at a bar. Current smokers reported more SHS exposure in cars and their own homes than did nonsmokers. Among nonsmokers, SHS exposure was associated with susceptibility to initiation, but those who believed that SHS exposure is harmful were less susceptible. Belief that SHS is dangerous was associated with quit attempts among smokers. Conclusions. Smoke-free environments and education about the harms of SHS may decrease tobacco use among young adults who frequent bars, where they are heavily exposed to SHS. PMID:24028259

  5. Identifying "social smoking" U.S. young adults using an empirically-driven approach.

    PubMed

    Villanti, Andrea C; Johnson, Amanda L; Rath, Jessica M; Williams, Valerie; Vallone, Donna M; Abrams, David B; Hedeker, Donald; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2017-07-01

    The phenomenon of "social smoking" emerged in the past decade as an important area of research, largely due to its high prevalence in young adults. The purpose of this study was to identify classes of young adult ever smokers based on measures of social and contextual influences on tobacco use. Latent class models were developed using social smoking measures, and not the frequency or quantity of tobacco use. Data come from a national sample of young adult ever smokers aged 18-24 (Truth Initiative Young Adult Cohort Study, N=1564). The optimal models identified three latent classes: Class 1 - nonsmokers (52%); Class 2 - social smokers (18%); and Class 3 - smokers (30%). Nearly 60% of the "social smoker" class self-identified as a social smoker, 30% as an ex-smoker/tried smoking, and 12% as a non-smoker. The "social smoker" class was most likely to report using tobacco mainly or only with others. Past 30-day cigarette use was highest in the "smoker" class. Hookah use was highest in the "social smoker" class. Other tobacco and e-cigarette use was similar in the "social smoker" and "smoker" classes. Past 30-day tobacco and e-cigarette use was present for all products in the "non-smoker" class. Young adult social smokers emerge empirically as a sizable, distinct class from other smokers, even without accounting for tobacco use frequency or intensity. The prevalence of hookah use in "social smokers" indicates a group for which the social aspect of tobacco use could drive experimentation and progression to regular use.

  6. Urbanisation but not biomass fuel smoke exposure is associated with asthma prevalence in four resource-limited settings

    PubMed Central

    Gaviola, Chelsea; Miele, Catherine H; Wise, Robert A; Gilman, Robert H; Jaganath, Devan; Miranda, J Jaime; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Hansel, Nadia N; Checkley, William

    2017-01-01

    Background Urbanisation is an important contributor to the prevalence of asthma worldwide, and the burden of this effect in low-income and middle-income countries undergoing rapid industrialisation appears to be growing. We sought to characterise adult asthma prevalence across four geographically diverse settings in Peru and identify both individual and environmental risk factors associated with adult asthma. Methods We collected sociodemographics, clinical history and spirometry in adults aged ≥35 years. We defined asthma as meeting one of the three criteria: physician diagnosis, self-report of wheezing attack or use of asthma medications. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess individual and environmental factors associated with adult asthma. Results We analysed data from 2953 participants (mean age 55 years; 49% male). Overall asthma prevalence was 7.1%, which varied with urbanisation: highest in Lima (14.5%), followed by urban Puno (4.0%), semiurban Tumbes (3.8%) and rural Puno (1.8%). In multivariable analysis, being male (OR=0.60, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.93) and living at high altitude (OR=0.26, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.42) were associated with lower odds of having asthma, whereas living in an urban setting (OR=4.72, 95% CI 3.15 to 7.23) and family history of asthma (OR=1.83, 95% CI 1.19 to 2.73) were associated with higher odds. Current daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke (OR=1.18, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.91) and smoking (OR=0.99, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.22) were not associated with asthma. Conclusions These findings confirm that urbanisation is an environmental risk factor of asthma, questions biomass fuel smoke exposure as an important risk factor and proposes high altitude as possibly protective against the development of asthma. PMID:26699762

  7. The Distortion Effect in Student Perceptions of Smoking Prevalence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duryea, Elias J.; Martin, Gary L.

    1981-01-01

    The development of the Health Belief Model has been useful in the design of health education programs. The Model establishes a base of information from which actual smoking practices and beliefs can be compared. (JN)

  8. Prevalence and Impact of Active and Passive Cigarette Smoking in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, S. Jean; Zhuo, Hanjing; Benowitz, Neal L.; Thompson, B. Taylor; Liu, Kathleen D.; Matthay, Michael A.; Calfee, Carolyn S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cigarette smoke exposure has recently been found to be associated with increased susceptibility to trauma- and transfusion-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We sought to determine 1) the prevalence of cigarette smoke exposure in a diverse multi-center sample of ARDS patients, and 2) whether cigarette smoke exposure is associated with severity of lung injury and mortality in ARDS. Design Analysis of the Albuterol for the Treatment of ALI (ALTA) and Omega ARDS Network studies. Setting Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network hospitals. Patients Three hundred eighty one patients with ARDS. Interventions None. Measurements NNAL (4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol), a validated tobacco-specific marker, was measured in urine samples from subjects enrolled in two NHLBI ARDS Network randomized controlled trials. Main Results Urine NNAL levels were consistent with active smoking in 36% of ARDS patients and with passive smoking in 41% of nonsmokers (vs 20% and 40% in general population, respectively). Patients with NNAL levels in the active smoking range were younger and had a higher prevalence of alcohol misuse, fewer comorbidities, lower severity of illness, and less septic shock at enrollment compared to patients with undetectable NNAL levels. Despite this lower severity of illness, the severity of lung injury did not significantly differ based on biomarker-determined smoking status. Cigarette smoke exposure was not significantly associated with death after adjusting for differences in age, alcohol use, comorbidities, and severity of illness. Conclusions In this first multicenter study of biomarker-determined cigarette smoke exposure in ARDS patients, we found that active cigarette smoke exposure was significantly more prevalent among ARDS patients compared to population averages. Despite their younger age, better overall health, and lower severity of illness, smokers by NNAL had similar severity of lung injury as patients with

  9. Prevalence and Correlates of Smoking and Readiness to Quit Smoking in People Living with HIV in Austria and Germany

    PubMed Central

    Brath, Helmut; Grabovac, Igor; Schalk, Horst; Degen, Olaf; Dorner, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of smoking in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) in Germany and Austria and their readiness to quit. A total of 447 consecutive patients with confirmed positive HIV status who were treated in different outpatient HIV centres in Austria and Germany were included. Nicotine dependence and stages of change were assessed by standardized questionnaires, and this was confirmed by measuring exhaled carbon monoxide. Prevalence of smoking was 49.4%. According to a multivariate logistic regression analysis, higher age (for each year of life OR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.92–1.00) and tertiary education level (OR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.15–0.79) were associated with a lower chance, and occasional (OR = 3.75; 95% CI 1.74–8.07) and daily smoking of the partner (OR 8.78; 95% CI 4.49–17.17) were significantly associated with a higher chance of smoking. Moderate (OR = 3.41; 95% CI = 1.30–9.05) and higher nicotine dependency level (OR = 3.40; 95% CI 1.46–7.94), were significantly associated with higher chance, and older age (for each year of life OR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.91–0.99), with lower chance for readiness to quit smoking. Those results may be used to address preventive measures to quit smoking aimed at PLWHIV and the importance of addressing smoking habits. PMID:26919722

  10. Prevalence and correlates of initiation of smoking behavior among preteen black and white children.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nasar U; Ahmed, Noushin S; Semenya, Kofi A; Elzey, Jared D; Larson, Celia; Bennett, C Ray; Hinds, Joseph E

    2004-02-01

    This study estimated smoking prevalence and identified factors associated with initiation among preteens in Nashville, TN. An anonymous, self-administrated questionnaire was given to 238 fifth- and sixth-graders in a middle-class neighborhood school. The mean age at initiation was 8.5 years (range 6-11 years). Overall, 10.5% of students had ever smoked; 16.1% of blacks and 9.3% of whites. Eighty-six percent continued to smoke. Black sixth-graders smoked (26.9%) four times the rate of black fifth-graders and 2.5 times that of white sixth-graders. Relatives initiated 78% of blacks while friends initiated 68% of whites. One-quarter of smokers got their cigarettes at home. Regular attendees of religious services had a lower smoking rate (6.9% versus 16.4%; p=0.01). Smoking rates decreased with increased knowledge of risks (p=0.00001). Among smokers, none believed that smoking is a risk factor for heart disease, 96% did not believe that smoking has any short-term health effects or is a risk factor for stroke. Few ever-smokers had a complete understanding of the health risks. Targeted messages and curriculum should be developed to teach preteens about the short- and long-term dangers of smoking. Clinicians can play a major role in educating their clients about the risks of smoking.

  11. A Meta-Analysis of Cigarette Smoking Prevalence among Adolescents in China: 1981–2010

    PubMed Central

    Han, Juan; Chen, Xinguang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Systematic data regarding adolescent smoking are needed at the national level to support evidence-based tobacco control in China. The goal of this study was to estimate smoking prevalence among Chinese adolescents using published data. Methods: Published studies were located electronically from the commonly used databases in Chinese and English, complemented by manual searching. Forty-five studies were selected of the 9771 retrieved from the databases. These studies targeted adolescents aged 12–17 or middle/high school students, were conducted during the 1981–2010, and had adequate data for meta-analysis. The 45 selected studies covered 52 sites in different parts of China. Smoking rates were estimated using the sample-weighted and random effect method. Results: The estimated prevalence rate of lifetime smoking (ever smoked) varied within a narrow range (39.04%–46.03%) for males and progressively increased from 2.47% in 1981–1985 to 19.72% in 2001–2005 for females. The prevalence rate of current (30-day) smoking for males declined from 26.62% in 1981–1985 to 10.86% in 1996–2000 before increasing again. The prevalence of current smoking for females increased from 0.29% in 1981–1985 to 3.26% in 2006–2010. Conclusions: The high levels of male smoking and the rapid increase in female smoking indicate growing burdens from tobacco-related diseases, underscoring the urgent need to strengthen adolescent tobacco control in China. PMID:25922989

  12. The low prevalence of female smoking in the developing world: gender inequality or maternal adaptations for fetal protection?

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Edward H.; Garfield, Melissa J.; Sullivan, Roger J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Female smoking prevalence is dramatically lower in developing countries (3.1%) than developed countries (17.2%), whereas male smoking is similar (32% vs 30.1%). Low female smoking has been linked to high gender inequality. Alternatively, to protect their offspring from teratogenic substances, pregnant and lactating women appear to have evolved aversions to toxic plant substances like nicotine, which are reinforced by cultural proscriptions. Higher total fertility rates (TFRs) in developing countries could therefore explain their lower prevalence of female smoking. Objective: To compare the associations of TFR and gender inequality with national prevalence rates of female and male smoking. Methods: Data from a previous study of smoking prevalence vs gender inequality in 74 countries were reanalysed with a regression model that also included TFR. We replicated this analysis with three additional measures of gender equality and 2012 smoking data from 173 countries. Results: A 1 SD increase in TFR predicted a decrease in female smoking prevalence by factors of 0.58–0.77, adjusting for covariates. TFR had a smaller and unexpected negative association with male smoking prevalence. Increased gender equality was associated with increased female smoking prevalence, and, unexpectedly, with decreased male smoking prevalence. TFR was also associated with an increase in smoking prevalence among postmenopausal women. Conclusions: High TFR and gender inequality both predict reduced prevalence of female smoking across nations. In countries with high TFR, adaptations and cultural norms that protect fetuses from plant toxins might suppress smoking among frequently pregnant and lactating women. PMID:27193200

  13. Outdoor NOx and stroke mortality: adjusting for small area level smoking prevalence using a Bayesian approach.

    PubMed

    Maheswaran, Ravi; Haining, Robert P; Pearson, Tim; Law, Jane; Brindley, Paul; Best, Nicola G

    2006-10-01

    There is increasing evidence, mainly from daily time series studies, linking air pollution and stroke. Small area level geographical correlation studies offer another means of examining the air pollution-stroke association. Populations within small areas may be more homogeneous than those within larger areal units, and census-based socioeconomic information may be available to adjust for confounding effects. Data on smoking from health surveys may be incorporated in spatial analyses to adjust for potential confounding effects but may be sparse at the small area level. Smoothing, using data from neighbouring areas, may be used to increase the precision of smoking prevalence estimates for small areas. We examined the effect of modelled outdoor NOx levels on stroke mortality using a Bayesian hierarchical spatial model to incorporate random effects, in order to allow for unmeasured confounders and to acknowledge sampling error in the estimation of smoking prevalence. We observed an association between NOx and stroke mortality after taking into account random effects at the small area level. We found no association between smoking prevalence and stroke mortality at the small area level after modelling took into account imprecision in estimating smoking prevalence. The approach we used to incorporate smoking as a covariate in a single large model is conceptually sound, though it made little difference to the substantive results.

  14. An econometric analysis of smoking prevalence among lone mothers.

    PubMed

    Dorsett, R

    1999-08-01

    This paper uses panel data to examine the determinants of smoking among lone mothers over the period 1991-1996. Consideration is given to the initial conditions problem encountered when modelling dynamic panel probit models, and a recently suggested approach is applied to address this problem.

  15. Effects of Tobacco-Related Media Campaigns on Young Adult Smoking: Longitudinal Data from the United States

    PubMed Central

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; Emery, Sherry; Wakefield, Melanie A.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Szczypka, Glen; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Young adults in the U.S. have one of the highest smoking prevalence rates of any age group, and young adulthood is a critical time period of targeting by the tobacco industry. We examined relationships between potential exposure to tobacco-related media campaigns from a variety of sponsors and 2-year smoking change measures among a longitudinal sample of U.S. adults aged 20-30 from 2001-2008. Methods Self-report data were collected from a longitudinal sample of 13,076 U.S. young adults from age 20-30. These data were merged with tobacco-related advertising exposure data from Nielsen Media Research. Two-year measures of change in smoking were regressed on advertising exposures. Results Two-year smoking uptake was unrelated to advertising exposure. The odds of quitting among all smokers and reduction among daily smokers in the two years between the prior and current survey were positively related to anti-tobacco advertising, especially potential exposure levels of 104-155 ads over the past 24 months. Tobacco company advertising (including corporate image and anti-smoking) and pharmaceutical industry advertising were unrelated to quitting or reduction. Conclusions Continued support for sustained, public health-based, well-funded anti-tobacco media campaigns may help reduce tobacco use among young adults. PMID:21972061

  16. Smoking prevalence amongst UK Armed Forces recruits: changes in behaviour after 3 years follow-up and factors affecting smoking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Bray, Isabelle; Richardson, P; Harrison, K

    2013-03-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate smoking prevalence of Tri-Service recruits, and changes in smoking behaviour at 3-year follow-up, by trade group and gender. Associations with educational attainment and deprivation were also assessed. METHODS: Analysis of a survey into the health behaviours of 10 531 recruits in 1998/1999. A follow-up 3 years later measured changes in behaviour. Correlation and multiple regression was used to investigate the relationship between smoking prevalence in each trade group and both educational attainment and deprivation, using Index of Multiple Deprivation 2004 (IMD 2004) scores. RESULTS: Army recruits exhibited a significantly higher smoking prevalence (45%) than Royal Navy recruits (34%) and Royal Air Force (RAF) recruits (31%). There were marked differences between smoking levels amongst officer cadets (12%, 20% and 10% in the Navy, Army and RAF, respectively) and other rank trade groups (24-56%), with the exception of the Marines (13%). At follow up, smoking had generally increased, and in some parts of the infantry had risen to 66%. There was a clear correlation between smoking at enlistment and both educational attainment (correlation coefficient=0.7, p<0.005) and deprivation score (correlation coefficient=0.8, p<0.005). CONCLUSIONS: There were clear differences between Services, rank and trade groups in smoking prevalence at recruitment. Smoking levels increased in the 3 years after recruitment to the Armed Forces. Deprivation was more important than educational attainment in determining the smoking status of recruits.

  17. Otoacoustic Emissions in Smoking and Nonsmoking Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Koziel, Magdalena; Kochanek, Krzysztof; Skarzynski, Henryk

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study investigates the usefulness of transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) and distortion product OAEs (DPOAEs) in detecting small changes in the hearing of young smoking adults. Methods Otoacoustic emissions were acquired from the ears of 48 young adults (age, 20 to 27 years). The dataset was divided into two groups, smoking (24 persons/48 ears) and nonsmoking (24 persons/48 ears). The level of smoking was relatively small in comparison to previous studies, an average of 3.8 years and 8.7 cigarettes per day. In each ear three OAE measurements were made: TEOAEs, DPOAEs, and spontaneous OAEs (SOAEs). Pure tone audiometry and tympanometry were also conducted. Audiometric thresholds did not differ significantly between the datasets. Half-octave-band values of OAE signal to noise ratios and response levels were used to assess statistical differences. Results Averaged data initially revealed that differences between the two study groups occurred only for TEOAEs at 1 kHz. However when the datasets were divided into ears with and without SOAEs more differences became apparent, both for TEOAEs and DPOAEs. In ears that exhibited SOAEs, both smokers and nonsmokers, there were no statistically significant differences between evoked OAEs; however in all ears without SOAEs, evoked OAEs were higher in the ears of nonsmokers, by as much as 5 dB. These differences were most prominent in the 1-2 kHz range. Conclusion A general decrease in OAE levels was found in the group of smokers. However, in ears which exhibited SOAEs, there was no difference between the evoked OAEs of smokers and nonsmokers. We conclude that smoking had not yet measurably affected the ears of those with acute hearing (i.e., those who exhibit SOAEs). However, in ears without SOAEs, smokers exhibited smaller evoked OAE amplitudes than nonsmokers, even though their audiometric thresholds were within the norm. PMID:26622946

  18. A cross-country comparison of secondhand smoke exposure among adults: findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    PubMed Central

    King, Brian A; Mirza, Sara A; Babb, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Objective Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) from burning tobacco products causes disease and premature death among non-smoking adults and children. The objective of this study was to determine the nature, extent and demographic correlates of SHS exposure among adults in low- and middle-income countries with a high burden of tobacco use. Methods Data were obtained from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), a nationally representative household survey of individuals 15 years of age or older. Interviews were conducted during 2008–2010 in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, the Philippines, Poland, Russia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay and Vietnam. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the prevalence and correlates of SHS exposure in homes, workplaces, government buildings, restaurants, public transportation and healthcare facilities. Results Exposure to SHS in the home ranged from 17.3% (Mexico) to 73.1% (Vietnam). Among those who work in an indoor area outside the home, SHS exposure in the workplace ranged from 16.5% (Uruguay) to 63.3% (China). Exposure to SHS ranged from 6.9% (Uruguay) to 72.7% (Egypt) in government buildings, 4.4% (Uruguay) to 88.5% (China) in restaurants, 5.4% (Uruguay) to 79.6% (Egypt) on public transportation, and 3.8% (Uruguay) to 49.2% (Egypt) in healthcare facilities. Conclusions A large proportion of adults living in low-and middle-income countries are exposed to SHS in their homes, workplaces, and other public places. Countries can enact and enforce legislation requiring 100% smoke-free public places and workplaces, and can also conduct educational initiatives to reduce SHS exposure in homes. PMID:23019273

  19. Prevalence and risk factors of periodontitis among adults with or without diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Mihee; Kim, Hee Yeon; Seok, Hannah; Yeo, Chang Dong; Kim, Young Soo; Song, Jae Yen; Lee, Young Bok; Lee, Dong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Im; Lee, Tae-Kyu; Ahn, Hyo-Suk; Ko, Yoon Ho; Jeong, Seong Cheol; Chae, Hiun Suk; Sohn, Tae Seo

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: This study examined prevalence and risk factors of periodontitis in representative samples of Korean adults, with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: Data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey were analyzed. A total of 4,477 adults (≥ 30 years old) were selected from 8,057 individuals who completed a nutrition survey, a self-reported general health behavior questionnaire, an oral examination, an oral hygiene behaviors survey, and laboratory tests. DM was defined as a fasting plasma glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL, or self-reported diagnosed diabetes, or current use of oral hypoglycemic agents and/or insulin. The community periodontal index was used to assess periodontitis status and comparisons between the periodontitis and the non-periodontitis group, were performed, according to the presence of DM. Risk factors for periodontitis in adults with DM and without DM were evaluated by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher in adults with DM (43.7%) than in those without DM (25%, p < 0.001). In adults without DM, risk factors for periodontitis were older age, male, urban habitation, waist circumference, smoking, oral pain, and less frequent tooth brushing. Significant risk factors for periodontitis in adults with DM were the smoking, oral pain, and not-using an oral hygiene product. Conclusions: Adults with DM have an increased risk of periodontitis than those without DM. Current smoking and oral pain increase this risk. Using an oral hygiene product can reduce risk of periodontal disease in adults with DM. PMID:27604799

  20. Lay theories of smoking and young adult nonsmokers' and smokers' smoking expectations.

    PubMed

    Fitz, Caroline C; Kaufman, Annette; Moore, Philip J

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between lay theories of cigarette smoking and expectations to smoke. An incremental lay theory of smoking entails the belief that smoking behavior can change; an entity theory entails the belief that smoking behavior cannot change. Undergraduate nonsmokers and smokers completed a survey that assessed lay theories of smoking and smoking expectations. Results demonstrated that lay theories of smoking were differentially associated with smoking expectations for nonsmokers and smokers: stronger incremental beliefs were associated with greater expectations of trying smoking for nonsmokers but lower expectations of becoming a regular smoker for smokers. Implications for interventions are discussed.

  1. Small area estimates of smoking prevalence in London. Testing the effect of input data.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Kerstin; Poulsen, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Small area estimates (SAEs) can provide information about health behaviour at small area levels that is otherwise not available. Because of its increasing use by policy makers, more attention needs to be paid to the reliability of these estimates. This paper reports on smoking prevalence data generated for London at the neighbourhood level using spatial microsimulation modelling. We test the reliability of smoking prevalence estimates at the neighbourhood level using different input datasets. The paper further underlines the importance of estimating health behaviours at the small area level, particularly in diverse cities such as London, where estimation at the city level can mask significant spatial differences.

  2. [Prevalence of smoking habits of Upper Austria students of the 7th and 8th grade and effect of smoking habits of family and peers].

    PubMed

    Zidek, T; Haidinger, G; Zacharasiewicz, A; Waldhör, T; Vutuc, C

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the prevalence of different smoking habits in a population of Austrian pupils, 12 to 15 years old, and the relationship of familial and peer group smoking customs with these habits. In 1997 a population-based survey (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, ISAAC) was conducted of all 7th and 8th grade school children of a district of Upper Austria. Information on the smoking habits of the adolescents, the family members, and of the peer as well as smoking habits of the teacher, gender, and age of the children was collected. The overall-prevalence of having ever smoked in this population is 57.8%. The percentage of eversmokers among the 12-year-olds is 50%. This amount increases to 63.8% among the 14- to 15-year-olds. The odds ratios for smoking daily is highest among those whose best friend smokes (OR: 70.63, CI: 9.19, 542.40). The risk of daily smoking increases also if the siblings of the juvenile (OR: 4.71, CI: 1.15, 19.35) or the mother (OR: 4.95, CI: 1.67, 14.70) smoke. If the father smokes the risk to smoke monthly is increased (OR: 2.09, CI: 1.28, 3.40). These results point to the fact that smoking prevention programes should take into account the influence of peers and family of the adolescents.

  3. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Smoking Among Final Year Medical Students: A Multicentric Survey From Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Zuhaib Y; Lodhi, Sameed K; Malik, Hamza; Jan, Mohsin M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer around the world. In a developing country like Pakistan with low levels of literacy and general awareness about adverse effects of smoking, doctors play a pivotal role in educating the masses about its harmful consequences and providing support for smoking cessation. However, their efficacy is affected if they smoke themselves, and oftentimes the habits cultivated during educational recourse are carried into the professional careers. The aim of this study was to document the prevalence of smoking among final year medical students of Lahore, Pakistan, and the factors associated with it. Methodology Study approval was obtained from Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Lahore Medical College, Ethics Review Committee. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in four medical colleges and hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan. A questionnaire consisting of 14 questions related to basic demographics and smoking was used after being pilot tested on 20 students of CMH. The overall response rate was 74.89%. Data was collected from 337 respondents, of which 38 forms were discarded and 299 forms were analyzed by SPSS V21. Results Among the 299 respondents, there were 128 males (42.81%) and 171 females (57.19%) with 32 (10.70%) smokers. Male students reported smoking (n = 27, 21.09%) more than their female counterparts (n = 5, 0.02%). The mean age of participants was 23.01 years. Students having an active smoker at home had statistically significant positive correlations with current smoking status and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Students with household smoking contacts were also more likely to smoke if they belonged to the male gender. Conclusion Prevalence of smoking in medical students is lower than in the general population but still considerable in the male students. There is a need to target this particular population with interactive counseling sessions, education campaigns, and anti-smoking rules to decrease

  4. A Novel Indicator of Life-Course Smoking Prevalence in the United States Combining Popularity, Duration, Quantity, and Quality of Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Lillard, Dean R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To develop a smoking indicator that combines the popularity and duration of smoking and the quantity and quality of consumed cigarettes, factors that vary dramatically over time and across generations. Methods. We used retrospective reports on smoking behavior and a time series of cigarette tar yields to standardize nationally representative life-course smoking prevalence rates of 11 generations of US men and women, spanning 120 years. For each generation and gender, we related the standardized data with the corresponding rates of smoking-attributable mortality. Results. Our indicator suggests that US cigarette consumption spread, peaked, and contracted faster than commonly perceived; predicts a significantly stronger smoking–mortality correlation than unadjusted smoking prevalence; and reveals the emergence of a delay (by up to 8 years) in premature death from smoking that is consistent with increasing population access to effective treatments. In fact, we show that, among recent cohorts, smoking health-risk exposure is at a historic low and will account for less than 5% of deaths. Conclusions. Relative to unstandardized measures, our novel, standardized indicator of smoking prevalence describes a different history of smoking diffusion in the United States, and more strongly predicts later-life mortality. PMID:27077340

  5. Thai Adolescents' Normative Beliefs of the Popularity of Smoking among Peers, Adults, the Successful and Elite, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Sloan, Arielle; Kironde, Jennifer; West, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the perceptions of Thailand adolescents regarding the prevalence of smoking, the popularity of smoking among successful/elite elements of society, and disapproval of smoking by friends and parents. These perceptions were analyzed in conjunction with actual smoking and smoking susceptibility rates among the…

  6. Impact of Tobacco Control Interventions on Smoking Initiation, Cessation, and Prevalence: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Lisa M.; Avila Tang, Erika; Chander, Geetanjali; Hutton, Heidi E.; Odelola, Olaide A.; Elf, Jessica L.; Heckman-Stoddard, Brandy M.; Bass, Eric B.; Little, Emily A.; Haberl, Elisabeth B.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Policymakers need estimates of the impact of tobacco control (TC) policies to set priorities and targets for reducing tobacco use. We systematically reviewed the independent effects of TC policies on smoking behavior. Methods. We searched MEDLINE (through January 2012) and EMBASE and other databases through February 2009, looking for studies published after 1989 in any language that assessed the effects of each TC intervention on smoking prevalence, initiation, cessation, or price participation elasticity. Paired reviewers extracted data from studies that isolated the impact of a single TC intervention. Findings. We included 84 studies. The strength of evidence quantifying the independent effect on smoking prevalence was high for increasing tobacco prices and moderate for smoking bans in public places and antitobacco mass media campaigns. Limited direct evidence was available to quantify the effects of health warning labels and bans on advertising and sponsorship. Studies were too heterogeneous to pool effect estimates. Interpretations. We found evidence of an independent effect for several TC policies on smoking prevalence. However, we could not derive precise estimates of the effects across different settings because of variability in the characteristics of the intervention, level of policy enforcement, and underlying tobacco control environment. PMID:22719777

  7. Association between passive smoking and mental distress in adult never-smokers: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Lv, Xin; Gao, Chunshi; Song, Yuanyuan; Li, Zhijun; Yu, Yaqin; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many studies have suggested exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is a risk factor for various somatic diseases, but only few studies based on small sample size or specific groups have explored the association between passive smoking and mental distress. We performed this study to examine the relationship between passive smoking and mental distress in adult never-smokers of north-east China. Methods Multistage, stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this cross-sectional study in 2012. A total of 12 978 never-smokers from Jilin, north-east China, were included. Data on passive smoking and baseline characteristics were collected by face-to-face interviews. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used to measure mental health status. Rao-Scott χ2 tests were used to compare the prevalence between different groups; multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between passive smoking and mental distress, and Spearman rank analysis was employed to assess the correlation between passive smoking and GHQ-12 scores. Results The estimated prevalence of mental distress among never-smokers in Jilin province is 24.5%, and the estimated prevalence of passive smoking among the mental distressing group is 65.0%. After adjusting for gender, age, region, body mass index (BMI), occupation, marriage, education, drinking status and family monthly income per capita, passive smoking conferred a risk for mental distress (adjusted OR=1.26, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.40). A high proportion of adults, especially women, were passive smokers at home, but for men, passive smoking was more common at workplace. The more frequently participants exposed to SHS, the higher GHQ-12 scores they got. Conclusions Passive smoking is an important risk factor for mental distress in never-smokers of Jilin province, which reminds Chinese government of increasing the awareness of public health and take measure to prevent SHS, especially with regard to SHS

  8. [Prevalence and tobacco user profile in adult population in the South of Brazil (Joaçaba, SC)].

    PubMed

    Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; Kehrig, Ruth Terezinha; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Traebert, Jefferson Luiz

    2011-03-01

    The tobacco consumption has been pointed as an epidemic and the prevention to the smoking habit is indicated as high priority for the public health of the nations. This is an observational cross-sectional study comprising a representative sample of an adult population in a Southern Brazilian city aiming to know the tobacco consumption prevalence and the profile of the smoker. Smokers' prevalence was 17.3% and female subjects were 54.9% of the sample. Smoking occurred predominantly in subjects with age older than 39 years (p<0.001), with less than eight years of education (p<0.001), with moderate and severe scores of depression measured by Beck Depression Inventory (p=0.001) and low familiar income (p=0,029). The district shows high prevalence of smokers which are predominantly subjects older than 39 years, with low income and education. This study also showed an association with moderate or severe depression and the smoking habit.

  9. Smoking Motivation in Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Using the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Smokers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) differ from smokers without ADHD across a range of smoking outcomes (e.g., higher prevalence rates of smoking, faster progression to regular smoking, and greater difficulty quitting). Moreover, ADHD as a disorder has been characterized by deficits in fundamental motivational processes. To date, few studies have examined how motivation for smoking might differ between nicotine-dependent individuals with and without ADHD. The goal of this study was to assess whether specific smoking motivation factors differentiate smokers with and without ADHD as measured by an empirically derived self-report measure of smoking motivations. Methods: Smokers with (n = 61) and without (n = 89) ADHD participated in a range of laboratory and clinical studies that included the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM). Results: A series of one-way analysis of covariances statistically controlling for age and race indicated that smokers with ADHD scored higher on the following WISDM subscales than their non-ADHD peers: automaticity, loss of control, cognitive enhancement, cue exposure, and negative reinforcement. Smokers in the non-ADHD group yielded higher scores on the social– environmental goads WISDM subscale. No group by gender interactions emerged. Conclusions: Cigarette smokers with ADHD report different motives for smoking than smokers without ADHD. Clarifying the role of these motivational factors has implications for smoking prevention and treatment. PMID:24078759

  10. Validity of Self-Reported Tobacco Smoke Exposure among Non-Smoking Adult Public Housing Residents

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Shona C.; Chen, Shan; Trachtenberg, Felicia; Rokicki, Slawa; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Levy, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) in public multi-unit housing (MUH) is of concern. However, the validity of self-reports for determining TSE among non-smoking residents in such housing is unclear. Methods We analyzed data from 285 non-smoking public MUH residents living in non-smoking households in the Boston area. Participants were interviewed about personal TSE in various locations in the past 7 days and completed a diary of home TSE for 7 days. Self-reported TSE was validated against measurable saliva cotinine (lower limit of detection (LOD) 0.02 ng/ml) and airborne apartment nicotine (LOD 5 ng). Correlations, estimates of inter-measure agreement, and logistic regression assessed associations between self-reported TSE items and measurable cotinine and nicotine. Results Cotinine and nicotine levels were low in this sample (median = 0.026 ng/ml and 0.022 μg/m3, respectively). Prevalence of detectable personal TSE was 66.3% via self-report and 57.0% via measurable cotinine (median concentration among those with cotinine>LOD: 0.057 ng/ml), with poor agreement (kappa = 0.06; sensitivity = 68.9%; specificity = 37.1%). TSE in the home, car, and other peoples’ homes was weakly associated with cotinine levels (Spearman correlations rs = 0.15–0.25), while TSE in public places was not associated with cotinine. Among those with airborne nicotine and daily diary data (n = 161), a smaller proportion had household TSE via self-report (41.6%) compared with measurable airborne nicotine (53.4%) (median concentration among those with nicotine>LOD: 0.04 μg/m3) (kappa = 0.09, sensitivity = 46.5%, specificity = 62.7%). Conclusions Self-report alone was not adequate to identify individuals with TSE, as 31% with measurable cotinine and 53% with measurable nicotine did not report TSE. Self-report of TSE in private indoor spaces outside the home was most associated with measurable cotinine in this low-income non-smoking population. PMID:27171392

  11. [The prevalence of tobacco smoking and psychoactive substances use among students from High School of Country Economy in Kutno].

    PubMed

    Adamek, Renata; Zysnarska, Monika; Gromadecka-Sutkiewicz, Małgorzata; Kraśniewska, Beata; Jagielska, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of the study was to describe psychoactive substances prevalence among students and recognition of tobacco smoking, drinking alcohol and taking drugs reasons. Tobacco smoking was declared by 27.2% students, 26.1% of whom smokes regularly and 1.1% occasionally. The main reasons of tobacco smoking, in students opinion, were: addicted influence of nicotine, relaxing effects of smoking and smoking for company. According of the study, 6.5% respondents admitted drinking alcohol (77.2% drank occasionally) and 3.3% in the past had contact with drugs. The most famous drugs was marijuana.

  12. Association of Sociodemographic Factors, Smoking-Related Beliefs, and Smoking Restrictions With Intention to Quit Smoking in Korean Adults: Findings From the ITC Korea Survey

    PubMed Central

    Myung, Seung-Kwon; Seo, Hong Gwan; Cheong, Yoo-Seock; Park, Sohee; Lee, Wonkyong B; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have reported the factors associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adult smokers. This study aimed to examine sociodemographic characteristics, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking-restriction variables associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adult smokers. Methods We used data from the International Tobacco Control Korea Survey, which was conducted from November through December 2005 by using random-digit dialing and computer-assisted telephone interviewing of male and female smokers aged 19 years or older in 16 metropolitan areas and provinces of Korea. We performed univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis to identify predictors of intention to quit. Results A total of 995 respondents were included in the final analysis. Of those, 74.9% (n = 745) intended to quit smoking. In univariate analyses, smokers with an intention to quit were younger, smoked fewer cigarettes per day, had a higher annual income, were more educated, were more likely to have a religious affiliation, drank less alcohol per week, were less likely to have self-exempting beliefs, and were more likely to have self-efficacy beliefs regarding quitting, to believe that smoking had damaged their health, and to report that smoking was never allowed anywhere in their home. In multiple logistic regression analysis, higher education level, having a religious affiliation, and a higher self-efficacy regarding quitting were significantly associated with intention to quit. Conclusions Sociodemographic factors, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking restrictions at home were associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adults. PMID:22186157

  13. Respiratory effects of secondhand smoke exposure among young adults residing in a "clean" indoor air state.

    PubMed

    Lee, David J; Dietz, Noella A; Arheart, Kristopher L; Wilkinson, James D; Clark, John D; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of self-reported secondhand smoke (SHS) exposures and its association with respiratory symptoms in a sample of young adults residing in a state with a partial clean indoor air law. A cross-sectional telephone survey of Florida households and a single state University was conducted in 2005. Enrolled participants between 18 and 24 years of age completed a 15-20 min interview assessing past and current SHS exposure and current respiratory symptoms (n = 1858). Approximately 60% of the sample were female; nearly 70% were non-Hispanic white, 10% were non-Hispanic Black, and 11% were Hispanic. Over two-thirds reported completing at least some college; 23% reported smoking in the past month. Nearly two-thirds (64%) reported visiting a bar or nightclub which exposed them to SHS in the previous month; nearly half (46%) reported SHS exposure while riding in automobiles; 15% reported occupational SHS exposure; and nearly 9% reported living with at least one smoker. In multivariable models, personal smoking behavior, parental smoking history, and exposure to SHS in automobiles and in bars or nightclubs were significantly associated with increased reports of respiratory symptoms. Despite residing in a "clean" indoor air state, the majority of surveyed young adults continue to report exposure to SHS, especially in automobiles and in bars, and these exposures adversely impact respiratory health. All municipalities should pursue clean indoor air legislation which does not exempt bars and restaurants. Educational campaigns directed at reducing SHS exposure in motor vehicles also are needed.

  14. Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates of Current Smoking among Adolescent Students in Thailand, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight-Eily, Lela; Arrazola, Rene; Merritt, Robert; Malarcher, Ann; Sirichotiratana, Nithat

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the prevalence of current smoking and associated psychosocial correlates and whether these correlates differ by sex among adolescent students in Thailand. Data were analyzed from the Thailand Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), a school-based, cross-sectional survey conducted in 2005 and completed by Mathayom 1, 2, and 3…

  15. Prevalence and Patterns of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposures Among California Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Peggy; Goldberg, Debbie E.; Hurley, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence and patterns of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in a large, well-defined cohort of professional, female school employees in California. Design. This is a cross-sectional study based on survey responses from members of the California Teachers Study (CTS) cohort. Subjects. The analyses focused on…

  16. Contribution of Chronic Conditions to the Disability Burden across Smoking Categories in Middle-Aged Adults, Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Renata Tiene de Carvalho; Nusselder, Wilma Johanna; Robine, Jean-Marie; Tafforeau, Jean; Deboosere, Patrick; Van Oyen, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is considered the single most important preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, contributing to increased incidence and severity of disabling conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of chronic conditions to the disability burden across smoking categories in middle-aged adults in Belgium. Methods Data from 10,224 individuals aged 40 to 60 years who participated in the 1997, 2001, 2004, or 2008 Health Interview Surveys in Belgium were used. Smoking status was defined as never, former (cessation ≥2 years), former (cessation <2 years), occasional light (<20 cigarettes/day), daily light, and daily heavy (≥20 cigarettes/day). To attribute disability to chronic conditions, binomial additive hazards models were fitted separately for each smoking category adjusted for gender, except for former (cessation <2 years) and occasional light smokers due to the small sample size. Results An increasing trend in the disability prevalence was observed across smoking categories in men (never = 4.8%, former (cessation ≥2 years) = 5.8%, daily light = 7.8%, daily heavy = 10.7%) and women (never = 7.6%, former (cessation ≥2 years) = 8.0%, daily light = 10.2%, daily heavy = 12.0%). Musculoskeletal conditions showed a substantial contribution to the disability burden in men and women across all smoking categories. Other important contributors were depression and cardiovascular diseases in never smokers; depression, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes in former smokers (cessation ≥2 years); chronic respiratory diseases, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases in daily light smokers; cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases in men and depression and diabetes in women daily heavy smokers. Conclusions Beyond the well-known effect of smoking on mortality, our findings showed an increasing trend of the disability prevalence and different contributors to the disability burden across smoking categories. This

  17. Effects of environmental tobacco smoke on adult rat brain biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Brian F; Gold, Mark S; Wang, Kevin K W; Ottens, Andrew K

    2010-05-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been linked to deleterious health effects, particularly pulmonary and cardiac disease; yet, the general public considers ETS benign to brain function in adults. In contrast, epidemiological data have suggested that ETS impacts the brain and potentially modulates neurodegenerative disease. The present study begins to examine yet unknown biochemical effects of ETS on the adult mammalian brain. In the developed animal model, adult male rats were exposed to ETS 3 h a day for 3 weeks. Biochemical data showed altered glial fibrillary acid protein levels as a main treatment effect of ETS, suggestive of reactive astrogliosis. Yet, markers of oxidative and cell stress were unaffected by ETS exposure in the brain regions examined. Increased proteolytic degradation of alphaII-spectrin by caspase-3 and the dephosphorylation of serine(116) on PEA-15 indicated greater apoptotic cell death modulated by the extrinsic pathway in the brains of ETS-exposed animals. Further, beta-synuclein was upregulated by ETS, a neuroprotective protein previously reported to exhibit anti-apoptotic and anti-fibrillogenic properties. These findings demonstrate that ETS exposure alters the neuroproteome of the adult rat brain, and suggest modulation of inflammatory and cell death processes.

  18. A Comparison of Successful Smoking Cessation Interventions for Adults and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Mary G.; Pope, Mark

    2000-01-01

    This review of counseling literature analyzes the motivating and impeding factors for adults and adolescents regarding smoking cessation. Brief counseling increases adolescents' and adults' chances of success. Counselors can facilitate smoking cessation by increasing clients' motivation and teaching stress management. Counselors must be aware of…

  19. The Effects of Parental Health Shocks on Adult Offspring Smoking Behavior and Self-Assessed Health.

    PubMed

    Darden, Michael; Gilleskie, Donna

    2016-08-01

    An important avenue for smoking deterrence may be through familial ties if adult smokers respond to parental health shocks. In this paper, we merge the Original Cohort and the Offspring Cohort of the Framingham Heart Study to study how adult offspring smoking behavior and subjective health assessments vary with elder parent smoking behavior and health outcomes. These data allow us to model the smoking behavior of adult offspring over a 30-year period contemporaneously with parental behaviors and outcomes. We find strong 'like father, like son' and 'like mother, like daughter' correlations in smoking behavior. We find that adult offspring significantly curtail their own smoking following an own health shock; however, we find limited evidence that offspring smoking behavior is sensitive to parent health, with the notable exception that women significantly reduce both their smoking participation and intensity following a smoking-related cardiovascular event of a parent. We also model the subjective health assessment of adult offspring as a function of parent health, and we find that women report significantly worse health following the smoking-related death of a parent. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Prevalence of and factors influencing smoking among medical and non-medical students in Tbilisi, Georgia*

    PubMed Central

    Chkhaidze, Ivane; Maglakelidze, Nino; Maglakelidze, Tamaz; Khaltaev, Nikolai

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Smoking is a serious problem that has a devastating impact on health. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of and factors influencing smoking among medical and non-medical students in Tbilisi, Georgia, as well as to determine whether medical education has an impact on smoking. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out at Tbilisi State Medical University and Tbilisi State University, both of which are located in Tbilisi, Georgia. A total of 400 4th-year students (200 students at each university) were asked to complete standardized questionnaires. RESULTS: Of the sample as a whole, 48.75% were identified as smokers and 51.25% were identified as nonsmokers. The mean age was 20.24 years among smokers and 20.26 years among nonsmokers. Of the medical students, 49.5% were smokers, as were 48.0% of the non-medical students. The male-to-female ratio in the study population was 0.9:1.1. Smoking was found to have a strong relationship with gender, males accounting for 65% of all smokers. Of the smokers, 56.9% stated that they would like to quit smoking (for health or financial reasons). Of the medical students, 59.5% expressed a willingness to quit smoking, as did 54.2% of the non-medical students. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to improve smoking education for undergraduate students. Special attention should be given to the inclusion of anti-smoking education in undergraduate curricula, as well as to the implementation of smoking prevention campaigns at institutions of higher education. However, such measures will be effective only if tobacco control policies are strictly enforced on the national level as well. PMID:24310631

  1. [Contextual and individual inequalities in dental pain prevalence among Brazilian adults and elders].

    PubMed

    Peres, Marco A; Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Peres, Karen Glazer; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of dental pain among adults and older people living in Brazil's State capitals. Information was gathered from the Telephone Survey Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases (VIGITEL) in 2009 (n = 54,367). Dental pain was the outcome. Geographic region, age, gender, race, schooling, private health coverage, smoking, and soft drink consumption were the explanatory variables. Multilevel Poisson regression models were performed. Prevalence of dental pain was 15.2%; Macapá and São Luís had prevalence rates greater than 20%; all capitals in the South and Southeast, plus Cuiabá, Campo Grande, Maceió, Recife, and Natal had prevalence rates less than 15%. Factors associated with increased prevalence of dental pain were the North and Northeast regions, female gender, black/brown skin color, lack of private health insurance, smoking, and soft drink consumption. Dental pain is a public health problem that should be monitored by health surveillance systems.

  2. Consistency of daily cigarette smoking amount in dependent adults.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Jao, Nancy C; Karelitz, Joshua L

    2013-09-01

    Self-reported cigarettes per day (CPD) is a very common screening as well as dependent or independent measure in clinical and nonclinical research on smoking, but the consistency of CPD across days in dependent smokers is uncertain. Adult dependent smokers (N = 357; 170 men, 187 women) retrospectively reported "usual" CPD at screening and then prospectively self-monitored CPD on 3 consecutive days of 1 week during an ad libitum baseline period. Participants were those recruited for later tests of brief medication effects in those with high (n = 170) versus low (n = 187) interest in quitting smoking soon (within 3 months). Consistency was determined by intraclass correlation (ICC). Prospective daily CPD was generally consistent (ICC = 0.78, 95% CI of 0.74-0.81), but CPD changed (increased or decreased) by 5 cigarettes/day or more in 40% of participants and by at least 10/day in 10%. Consistency in CPD was greater in higher dependent smokers and in women with low (vs. high) quit interest, but consistency tended to be greater in men with high (vs. low) quit interest. Although retrospectively reported CPD at screening was consistent with the overall mean for prospectively monitored daily CPD, 15% of participants differed by at least 5/day between methods, and digit bias was twice as likely with retrospective versus prospective CPD, which was at chance levels. Understanding variability in CPD may improve knowledge of dependence and factors that foster or discourage daily smoking amount, but precise assessment of daily CPD likely requires prospective monitoring.

  3. Effect of Smoking on Cognitive Functioning in Young Saudi Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Shahid; Alghamdi, Faisal; Alhussien, Ahmed; Alohali, Meshal; Alatawi, Abdullah; Almusned, Tariq; Habib, Syed Shahid

    2017-01-01

    Background Smoking is the predominant form of tobacco consumption and is growing worldwide, particularly in the younger generation in the Middle-East. We aimed to determine the effects of tobacco smoking on cognitive functions among young Saudi adults. Material/Methods We recruited a group of cigarette smokers (N=22) and a group of controls (non-smokers) (N=30) from apparently healthy male volunteers aged 18–29 years. Cognitive function was assessed by using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Battery (CANTAB). The cognitive functions outcome variables were the response time (attention-switching task [AST]), and the percentage of correct response (pattern recognition memory [PRM] task). Clinical, demographic, blood markers (brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and apolipoprotein E) were assessed between groups. Results The 2 groups were matched for age and educational status. In comparison to the control group, smokers showed significant cognitive impairments in AST-Latency (p=0.001), AST-Congruent (p=0.001), and AST-Incongruent condition (p=0.001). There was not significant difference in BDNF APOE serum level between the 2 groups. Conclusions These results indicate that attention and alertness were significantly impaired in smokers compared to non-smokers. PMID:28223681

  4. Social Cohesion and the Smoking Behaviors of Adults Living with Children

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Mienah Z.; Albert, Stephanie L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The smoking behavior of adults can negatively impact children through exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and by modeling this unhealthy behavior. Little research has examined the role of the social environment in smoking behaviors of adults living with children. The present study specifically analyzed the relationship between social cohesion and smoking behaviors of adults living with children. Methods Data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey, a random-digit dial cross-sectional survey of California Adults, were used. Adults living with children reported their levels of social cohesion and smoking behaviors (N=13,978). Logistic regression models were used to predict odds of being a current smoker or living in a household in which smoking was allowed, from social cohesion. Results Overall, 13% of the sample was current smokers and 3.74% lived in households in which smoking was allowed. Logistic regression models showed that each one-unit increase in social cohesion is associated with reduced odds of being a current smoker (AOR= 0.92; 95% CI= 0.85–0.99) and reduced odds of living in a household in which smoking is allowed (AOR= 0.84; 95% CI= 0.75–0.93), after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusions Among adults living with children, higher social cohesion is associated with a lower likelihood of both being and smoker and living in a home where smoking is allowed. Thus, future research is needed to better understand mechanisms that explain the relationship between social cohesion and smoking-related behavior in order to prevent smoking-related health consequences and smoking initiation among children and adults. PMID:26562680

  5. In utero exposure to second-hand smoke aggravates adult responses to irritants: adult second-hand smoke.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Rui; Perveen, Zakia; Paulsen, Daniel; Rouse, Rodney; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Kearney, Michael; Penn, Arthur L

    2012-12-01

    In utero exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) is associated with exacerbated asthmatic responses in children. We tested the hypothesis that in utero SHS will aggravate the lung responses of young adult mice re-exposed to SHS. We exposed Balb/c mice in utero to SHS (S) or filtered air (AIR; A), and re-exposed the male offspring daily from 11-15 weeks of age to either SHS (AS and SS) or AIR (AA and SA). After the adult exposures, we analyzed samples of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), examined the results of histopathology, and assessed pulmonary function and gene expression changes in lung samples. In SS mice, compared with the other three groups (AA, AS, and SA), we found decreases in breathing frequency and increases in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), as well as low but significantly elevated concentrations of BALF proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1b, IL-6, and keratinocyte-derived chemokine). Lung morphometric analyses revealed enlarged airspaces and arteries in SA and SS mice compared with their in utero AIR counterparts, as well as increased collagen deposition in AS and SS mice. Unique gene expression profiles were found for in utero, adult, and combined exposures, as well as for mice with elevated AHR responses. The profibrotic metalloprotease genes, Adamts9 and Mmp3, were up-regulated in the SS and AHR groups, suggesting a role for in utero SHS exposure on the adult development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Our results indicate that in utero exposures to environmentally relevant concentrations of SHS alter lung structure more severely than do adult SHS exposures of longer duration. These in utero exposures also aggravate AHR and promote a profibrotic milieu in adult lungs.

  6. Electronic Cigarettes Use and Intention to Cigarette Smoking among Never-Smoking Adolescents and Young Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jieming; Cao, Shuangshuang; Gong, Weiwei; Fei, Fangrong; Wang, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use is becoming increasingly common, especially among adolescents and young adults, and there is little evidence on the impact of e-cigarettes use on never-smokers. With a meta-analysis method, we explore the association between e-cigarettes use and smoking intention that predicts future cigarette smoking. Studies were identified by searching three databases up to January 2016. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) calculated by a fixed-effects model. A total of six studies (91,051 participants, including 1452 with ever e-cigarettes use) were included in this meta-analysis study. We found that never-smoking adolescents and young adults who used e-cigarettes have more than 2 times increased odds of intention to cigarette smoking (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.86–2.61) compared to those who never used, with low evidence of between-study heterogeneity (p = 0.28, I2 = 20.1%). Among never-smoking adolescents and young adults, e-cigarettes use was associated with increased smoking intention. PMID:27153077

  7. Trends of smoking prevalence among Lithuanian school-aged children in 1994-2006.

    PubMed

    Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Sumskas, Linas; Zemaitiene, Nida; Grabauskas, Vilius; Veryga, Aurelijus; Petkevicius, Robertas

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Despite much effort spent on antismoking programs in schools in different countries, limited effects have been observed in many cases. Evidence from European countries shows that active tobacco control actions such as ban on tobacco advertising, increase of tobacco taxes could lead to successful results. Our study was aimed to analyze time trends on smoking in Lithuanian school-aged children during the period of 1994-2006 in the context of antismoking policies, which were implemented in Lithuania. MATERIAL AND METHODS. This study was a part of WHO Cross-National Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study carried out in Lithuania. The standardized methods of international HBSC study protocol were applied. Stratified random representative samples of 5428, 4513, 5645, and 5632 students aged 11, 13, and 15 years were included into school-based anonymous questionnaire surveys in 1994, 1998, 2002, and 2006, respectively (spring semester). Questions on frequency of smoking, age of initiation and other questions were included. Response rates of each of these four questionnaire surveys were higher than 90%. RESULTS. Smoking behavior was more common among boys. The prevalence gap in smoking between boys and girls diminished during period of observation. Prevalence of smoking increased significantly among boys during the period of 1994-2002 (11.3%, 19.8%, and 23.6% in 1994, 1998, and 2002, respectively), but started to decline after (17.3% in 2006, P<0.05). Similar trends were observed among girls: 3.6%, 8.5%, 14.6%, and 12.5% of girls reported smoking in cross-sectional surveys of 1994, 1998, 2002, and 2006, respectively. Boys living in rural areas were more frequent smokers than those living in urban areas in 1994-1998 (9.5% vs 13.9%, P<0.05). However, the surveys of 2002-2006 showed opposite changes (25.6% vs 22.1%, P<0.05 and 17.8% vs 16.9%, P>0.05). Urban girls have reported smoking more frequently in comparison with rural girls. CONCLUSIONS. An

  8. Cigarette smoking is associated with body shape concerns and bulimia symptoms among young adult females.

    PubMed

    Kendzor, Darla E; Adams, Claire E; Stewart, Diana W; Baillie, Lauren E; Copeland, Amy L

    2009-01-01

    Elevated rates of cigarette smoking have been reported among individuals with Bulimia Nervosa. However, little is known about eating disorder symptoms within non-clinical samples of smokers. The purpose of the present study was to compare the eating disorder symptoms of young adult female smokers (n=184) and non-smokers (n=56), to determine whether smokers were more likely to endorse bulimic symptoms and report greater body shape concern than non-smokers. Analyses indicated that smokers scored significantly higher than non-smokers on the Body Shape Questionnaire, p=.03, and the Bulimia Test-Revised, p=.006. In addition, a higher proportion of smokers than non-smokers scored > or = 85 on the Bulimia Test-Revised, p=.05, suggesting the possibility that Bulimia Nervosa diagnoses were more prevalent among smokers. No differences were found between smokers and non-smokers on other measures of eating behavior. Overall, findings suggest that smoking is specifically associated with symptoms of Bulimia Nervosa and body shape concern among young adult females.

  9. A Text Messaging-Based Smoking Cessation Program for Adult Smokers: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bağcı Bosi, A Tülay; Korchmaros, Josephine; Emri, Salih

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite promising data in Western countries, there is a dearth of research into the efficacy of text messaging-based smoking cessation programs in other settings, including the Middle East, where smoking prevalence rates are higher. Objective This paper reports cessation rates observed in SMS Turkey, a text messaging-based smoking cessation program for adult smokers in Ankara, Turkey. Methods This study was a small-scale, parallel-group randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted in Ankara, Turkey. Participants were adult daily smokers who were seriously thinking about quitting in the next 15 days and living in Ankara, Turkey. The text messaging intervention, SMS Turkey, provided 6 weeks of daily messages aimed at giving participants skills to help them quit smoking. Messages were sent in an automated fashion, except 2 days and 7 days after the initial quit day. On days 2 and 7, the research assistant manually assigned participants to content “paths” based on whether they were still not smoking or had relapsed. The control arm received a brochure that provided similar information about smoking cessation. The main outcome measure was self-reported 3-month sustained abstinence, verified by carbon monoxide (CO) readings. Neither participants nor researchers were blinded to arm assignment. Results The 151 participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: 76 to the SMS Turkey intervention group and 75 to the brochure control group. Using intention to treat, all 151 participants were included in analyses. Three-month cessation trends were not significantly higher in the intervention group: 11% intervention vs 5% control had quit (χ2 1=1.4, P=.24; R2=2.0, 95% CI 0.62-6.3). When the sample was stratified by sex, female intervention participants (14%, n=5) were significantly more likely to have quit at 3 months than female control participants (0%, n=0; χ2 1=3.7, P=.05). Among light smokers (ie, those smoking less than 20 cigarettes per day

  10. Prevalence of Tobacco Smoking and Determinants of Success in Quitting Smoking among Patients with Chronic Diseases: A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural Western China

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Hang; Feng, Da; Tang, Shangfeng; He, Zhifei; Xiang, Yuanxi; Wu, Tailai; Wang, Ruoxi; Shao, Tian; Liu, Chunyan; Shao, Piaopiao; Feng, Zhanchun

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco use is one of the behavioral risk factors for chronic diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate smoking prevalence in chronically ill residents and their smoking behavior in western rural China, to identify factors associated with success in quitting smoking, and to provide appropriate intervention strategies for tobacco control. Cross-sectional survey data from patients with chronic diseases from rural western China were analyzed. Among the 906 chronically ill patients, the current smoking prevalence was 26.2%. About 64.3% of smokers with chronic diseases attempted to quit smoking, 21.0% of which successfully quitted. The odds ratio (OR) of smokers with only one chronic disease to quit smoking successfully was higher than that of those who have other diseases (OR = 2.037, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.060–3.912; p < 0.05). The smokers who were always restricted to smoking in public places were more likely to quit smoking successfully than those who were free to smoke (OR = 2.188, 95% CI = 1.116–4.291; p < 0.05). This study suggests that health literacy, comorbidity of diseases, and psychological counseling should be considered when developing targeted tobacco prevention strategies. Strengthening tobacco control measures in public places such as rural medical institutions will be effective. PMID:28208782

  11. Human rights violations and smoking status among South African adults enrolled in the South Africa Stress and Health (SASH) study

    PubMed Central

    Dutra, Lauren M; Williams, David R; Gupta, Jhumka; Kawachi, Ichiro; Okechukwu, Cassandra A

    2014-01-01

    Despite South Africa’s history of violent political conflict, and the link between stressful experiences and smoking in the literature, no public health study has examined South Africans’ experiences of human rights violations and smoking. Using data from participants in the nationally representative cross-sectional South Africa Stress and Health study (SASH), this analysis examined the association between respondent smoking status and both human rights violations experienced by the respondent and violations experienced by the respondents’ close friends and family members. SAS-Callable SUDAAN was used to construct separate log-binomial models by political affiliation during apartheid (government or liberation supporters). In comparison to those who reported no violations, in adjusted analyses, government supporters who reported violations of themselves but not others (RR=1.76, 95%CI: 1.25–2.46) had a significantly higher smoking prevalence. In comparison to liberation supporters who reported no violations, those who reported violations of self only (RR=1.56, 95%CI: 1.07–2.29), close others only (RR=1.97, 95%CI: 1.12–3.47), or violations of self and close others due to close others’ political beliefs and the respondent’s political beliefs (RR=2.86, 95%CI: 1.70–4.82) had a significantly higher prevalence of smoking. The results of this analysis suggest that a relationship may exist between human rights violations and smoking among South Africa adults. Future research should use longitudinal data to assess causality, test the generalizability of these findings, and consider how to apply these findings to smoking cessation interventions. PMID:24509050

  12. Human rights violations and smoking status among South African adults enrolled in the South Africa Stress and Health (SASH) study.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Lauren M; Williams, David R; Gupta, Jhumka; Kawachi, Ichiro; Okechukwu, Cassandra A

    2014-03-01

    Despite South Africa's history of violent political conflict, and the link between stressful experiences and smoking in the literature, no public health study has examined South Africans' experiences of human rights violations and smoking. Using data from participants in the nationally representative cross-sectional South Africa Stress and Health study (SASH), this analysis examined the association between respondent smoking status and both human rights violations experienced by the respondent and violations experienced by the respondents' close friends and family members. SAS-Callable SUDAAN was used to construct separate log-binomial models by political affiliation during apartheid (government or liberation supporters). In comparison to those who reported no violations, in adjusted analyses, government supporters who reported violations of themselves but not others (RR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.25-2.46) had a significantly higher smoking prevalence. In comparison to liberation supporters who reported no violations, those who reported violations of self only (RR = 1.56, 95%CI: 1.07-2.29), close others only (RR = 1.97, 95%CI: 1.12-3.47), or violations of self and close others due to close others' political beliefs and the respondent's political beliefs (RR = 2.86, 95%CI: 1.70-4.82) had a significantly higher prevalence of smoking. The results of this analysis suggest that a relationship may exist between human rights violations and smoking among South Africa adults. Future research should use longitudinal data to assess causality, test the generalizability of these findings, and consider how to apply these findings to smoking cessation interventions.

  13. Prevalence and Determinants of Male Adolescents’ Smoking in Iran: An Explanation Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Karimy, Mahmood; Niknami, Shamsaddin; Heidarnia, Ali Reza; Hajizadeh, Ibrahim; Montazeri, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Adolescent smoking problem has still remained as a public health concern, but factors that attributing to the initiation of adolescent smoking are not well known in Iran. Objectives The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of smoking, and its associations among high school male adolescents in Iran, in the context of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Patients and Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving male adolescent students (high school) in the city of Zarandieh, Iran. A multiple-stage sampling protocol was used. The participants completed an anonymous, voluntary, and self-report questionnaire. Prevalence was estimated, and demographic variables, psychological factors, and the theory of planned behavior components were used to indicate factors contributing to adolescents’ cigarette smoking. Results In all, 365 students were entered the study. The mean age of respondents was 16.49 ± 1.11 years. The prevalence of current smoking was 15.1%. The result obtained from logistic regression analysis revealed that all theory of planned behavior (TPB) components [knowledge (OR = 0.75; 95% CI: (0.59-0.97), attitude (OR = 0.75; 95% CI: (0.65-0.86), self-efficacy (OR = 0.82; 95% CI: (0.71-0.95), subjective norms (OR = 0.84; 95% CI: (0.72-0.98)] were significant predating factors for adolescents smoking habits. In addition, having parents who smoke (OR = 4.75; 95% CI: (1.38-12.35), smoking friends (OR = 3.76; 95% CI: (1.20-11.76), and smoking siblings (OR = 4.21; 95% CI: (1.17-11.16) were significant contributing factors to adolescents’ cigarette smoking behavior. Conclusions The results showed that the prevalence of cigarette smoking in adolescents was high, and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) components were significant predictors of cigarette smoking. It seems that interventions targeting adolescents’ smoking habits might benefit using the TPB model. PMID:23983996

  14. Adult Cigarette Smoking in the United States: Current Estimates

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014 [accessed 2016 ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Office on Smoking and Health E-mail: tobaccoinfo@ ...

  15. Narghile (water pipe) smoking among university students in Jordan: prevalence, pattern and beliefs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives Narghile is becoming the favorite form of tobacco use by youth globally. This problem has received more attention in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and pattern of narghile use among students in three public Jordanian universities; to assess their beliefs about narghile's adverse health consequences; and to evaluate their awareness of oral health and oral hygiene. Methods The study was a cross-sectional survey of university students. A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was distributed randomly to university students in three public Jordanian universities during December, 2008. The questionnaire was designed to ask specific questions that are related to smoking in general, and to narghile smoking in specific. There were also questions about oral health awareness and oral hygiene practices. Results 36.8% of the surveyed sample indicated they were smokers comprising 61.9% of the male students and 10.7% of the female students in the study sample. Cigarettes and narghile were the preferred smoking methods among male students (42%). On the other hand, female students preferred narghile only (53%). Parental smoking status but not their educational level was associated with the students smoking status. Smokers had also significantly poor dental attendance and poor oral hygiene habits. Conclusion This study confirmed the spreading narghile epidemic among young people in Jordan like the neighboring countries of the Eastern Mediterranean region. Alarming signs were the poor oral health awareness among students particularly smokers. PMID:20497563

  16. When one is not enough: prevalence and characteristics of homes not adequately protected by smoke alarms

    PubMed Central

    Peek-Asa, C; Allareddy, V; Yang, J; Taylor, C; Lundell, J; Zwerling, C

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has specific recommendations about the number, location, and type of smoke alarms that are needed to provide maximum protection for a household. No previous studies have examined whether or not homes are completely protected according to these guidelines. The authors describe the prevalence and home characteristics associated with compliance to recommendations for smoke alarm installation by the NFPA. Design, setting, and subjects: Data are from the baseline on-site survey of a randomized trial to measure smoke alarm effectiveness. The trial was housed in a longitudinal cohort study in a rural Iowa county. Of 1005 homes invited, 691 (68.8%) participated. Main outcome measures: Information about smoke alarm type, placement, and function, as well as home and occupant characteristics, was collected through an on-site household survey. Results: Although 86.0% of homes had at least one smoke alarm, only 22.3% of homes (approximately one in five) were adequately protected according to NFPA guidelines. Fourteen percent of homes had no functioning smoke alarms. More than half of the homes with smoke alarms did not have enough of them or had installed them incorrectly, and 42.4% of homes with alarms had at least one alarm that did not operate. Homes with at least one high school graduate were nearly four times more likely to be fully protected. Homes that had multiple levels, a basement, or were cluttered or poorly cleaned were significantly less likely to be fully protected. Conclusion: These findings indicate that consumers may not be knowledgeable about the number of alarms they need or how to properly install them. Occupants are also not adequately maintaining the alarms that are installed. PMID:16326772

  17. Tobacco Smoking: Patterns, Health Consequences for Adults, and the Long-term Health of the Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Maritz, Gert S.; Mutemwa, Muyunda

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco use started several centuries ago and increased markedly after the invention of the cigarette making machine. Once people start smoking they find it difficult to quit the habit. This is due to the addictive effect of nicotine in tobacco smoke. Various epidemiologic and laboratory studies clearly showed that smoking is associated with various diseases such as heart diseases, asthma and emphysema and the associated increase in morbidity and mortality of smokers. Several studies implicate nicotine as the causative factor in tobacco smoke. Apart from nicotine, various carcinogens also occur in tobacco smoke resulting in an increase in the incidence of cancer in smokers. While the smoking habit is decreasing in developed countries, tobacco use increases in the developing countries. Smoking prevalence is also highest in poor communities and amongst those with low education levels. It is important to note that, although ther is a decline in the number of smokers in the developed countries, there is a three to four decades lag between the peak in smoking prevalence and the subsequent peak in smoking related mortality. It has been shown that maternal smoking induces respiratory diseases in the offspring. There is also evidence that parental smoking may program the offspring to develop certain diseases later in life. Various studies showed that maternal nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation via tobacco smoke of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), program the offspring to develop compromised lung structure later in life with the consequent compromised lung function. This implies that NRT is not an option to assist pregnant or lactating smokers to quit the habit. Even paternal smoking may have an adverse effect on the health of the offspring since it has been shown that 2nd and 3rd hand smoking have adverse health consequences for those exposed to it. PMID:22980343

  18. Dynamic impact of social stratification and social influence on smoking prevalence by gender: An agent-based model.

    PubMed

    Chao, Dingding; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kondo, Naoki

    2015-12-01

    Smoking behavior is tightly related to socioeconomic status and gender, though the dynamic and non-linear association of smoking prevalence across socioeconomic status and gender groups has not been fully examined. With a special focus on gender-bound differences in the susceptibility to social influence of surrounding others' behaviors, we developed an agent-based model to explore how socioeconomic disparity between and within gender groups affects changes in smoking prevalence. Our developed base model reasonably reproduced the actual trend changes by gender groups over the past 5 years in Japan. Counterfactual experiments with the developed model revealed that closing within- and between-gender disparities in socioeconomic status had a limited impact on reducing smoking prevalence. To the contrary, greater socioeconomic disparity facilitated the reduction in prevalence among males, but it impeded that reduction in females. The counterfactual scenario with equalizing gender-bound susceptibility to social influence among women to men's level showed a dramatic reduction in female prevalence without changing the reduction in male prevalence. Simulation results may provide alternative explanation of the growing disparity in smoking prevalence despite improved welfare equality observed in many developed countries, and suggest that redistribution policies may have side effects of widening health gap. Instead, social policy to reduce social pressures to smoking and support interventions to enhance resilience to the pressure targeting the vulnerable population (in this study, women) would be a more effective strategy in combating the tobacco epidemic and closing the health gap.

  19. Somatotype and disease prevalence in adults.

    PubMed

    Koleva, M; Nacheva, A; Boev, M

    2002-01-01

    We examined the association between the somatotype and its main components (endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy), and the prevalence of several chronic diseases. The data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey designed to assess somatotype and morbidity with special reference to most often diagnosed diseases. The study population comprised 524 men and 250 women. The subjects underwent laboratory tests and clinical and anthropometric examinations. Of all examined workers, 94.8% fell into the five somatotype categories; of these, 394 were endomorphic mesomorphs. The most common somatotype was endomorphic mesomorph for men and mesomorph-endomorph for women. In five disease groups, prevalence was significantly related to a somatotype. Mesomorphic endomorphs most frequently suffered from digestive system diseases (40.6%, p < 0.05), neuroses (30.1%, p < 0.05), and radiculitis lumbosacralis (15.4%). The prevalence of arterial hypertension in mesomorph-endomorphs (37.1%), endomorphic mesomorphs (35.5%), and mesomorphic endomorphs (34.3%) was equal. In both genders, those with the highest endomorphy and mesomorphy and the lowest ectomorphy, grouped by cluster analysis, were those who suffered most frequently from arterial hypertension and liver disease. The authors conclude that the somatotype having a dominant mesomorphy and marked endomorphy constitutes a risk factor as a particular predisposition toward certain diseases and requires body weight control.

  20. National and state prevalence of smoke-free rules in homes with and without children and smokers: Two decades of progress☆

    PubMed Central

    King, Brian A.; Patel, Roshni; Babb, Stephen D.; Hartman, Anne M.; Freeman, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Objective The home is the primary source of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure for children. We assessed national and state progress in smoke-free home (SFH) rule adoption in homes with and without children and adult smokers. Methods Data came from the 1992–1993 and 2010–2011 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey, a U.S. national probability household survey. Households were defined as having a SFH rule if all household respondents aged ≥ 18 indicated no one was allowed to smoke inside the home at any time. Households with children were those with occupants aged <18. Smokers were those who smoked ≥ 100 lifetime cigarettes and now smoked “everyday” or “some days”. Results From 1992–1993 to 2010–2011, SFH rule prevalence increased from 43.0% to 83.0% (p < .05). Among households with children, SFH rules increased overall (44.9% to 88.6%), in households without smokers (59.7% to 95.0%), and households with ≥ 1 smokers (9.7% to 61.0%) (p < .05). Among households without children, SFH rules increased overall (40.8% to 81.1%), in households without smokers (53.4% to 90.1%), and households with ≥ 1 smokers (6.3% to 40.9%) (p < .05). Prevalence increased in all states, irrespective of smoker or child occupancy (p < .05). In 2010–2011, among homes with smokers and children, SFH rule prevalence ranged from 36.5% (West Virginia) to 86.8% (California). Conclusions Considerable progress has been made adopting SFH rules, but many U.S. children continue to be exposed to SHS because their homes are not smoke-free. Further efforts to promote adoption of SFH rules are essential to protect all children from this health risk. PMID:26601642

  1. Secondhand smoke exposure and mental health problems in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between secondhand smoke exposure (SHSE) and mental health problems among Korean adults. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2011 Korean Community Health Survey. From the total of 229,226 participants aged 19 years or above, we excluded 48,679 current smokers, 36,612 former smokers, 3,036 participants with a history of stroke, 2,264 participants with a history of myocardial infarction, 14,115 participants who experienced at least one day in bed per month due to disability, and 855 participants for whom information regarding SHSE or mental health problems was not available. The final analysis was performed with 22,818 men and 100,847 women. Participants were classified into four groups according to the duration of SHSE: none, <1 hr/d, 1-<3 hr/d, and ≥3 hr/d. The presence of depressive symptoms, diagnosed depression, and high stress were measured by questionnaire. RESULTS: After adjusting for demographic factors, lifestyle, and chronic disease, the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of depressive symptoms with 1-<3 hr/d and ≥3 hr/d SHSE were 1.44 (95% CI, 1.14 to 1.82) and 1.59 (95% CI, 1.46 to 1.74), respectively. However, SHSE ≥3 hr/d had a higher OR of 1.37 (95% CI, 1.20 to 1.58) for diagnosed depression. SHSE was also associated with high stress (1-<3 hr/d: OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.38 to 1.76; ≥3 hr/d: OR, 1.33 95% CI, 1.28 to 1.40). However, the association between SHSE and symptoms of depression and stress did not differ significantly by region. CONCLUSIONS: SHSE may be associated with mental health problems such as depression and stress in Korean adults. PMID:26988086

  2. Pertussis Prevalence in Korean Adolescents and Adults with Persistent Cough.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Young; Han, Seung Beom; Kang, Jin Han; Kim, Ju Sang

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the prevalence of pertussis in Korean adolescents and adults with persistent cough. Study population was adolescents (aged 11-20 yr) and adults (≥ 21 yr old) who showed persistent cough of 1-8 weeks' duration. Pertussis was diagnosed by culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and serology. A total of 310 subjects participated in this study, and 76 cases (24.5%) met the criteria for laboratory-confirmed pertussis. The majority of the pertussis cases (66/76) were confirmed by serology, while 3 cases (1.0%) were diagnosed with culture, and 10 cases (3.2%) were detected with PCR. Of the 76 subjects diagnosed with pertussis, 20/86 cases were adolescents and 56/224 cases were adults. Neither adolescents nor adults received adolescent-adult booster against pertussis within the previous 5 yr. Pertussis can be a primary cause of persistent cough in Korean adolescents and adults.

  3. Anxiety and depressed mood decline following smoking abstinence in adult smokers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Covey, Lirio S.; Hu, Mei-Chen; Winhusen, Theresa; Lima, Jennifer; Berlin, Ivan; Nunes, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A preponderance of relevant research has indicated reduction in anxiety and depressive symptoms following smoking abstinence. This secondary analysis investigated whether the phenomenon extends to smokers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods The study setting was an 11-Week double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial of osmotic release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) as a cessation aid when added to nicotine patch and counseling. Participants were 255 adult smokers with ADHD. The study outcomes are: anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)) and depressed mood (Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI)) measured one Week and six Weeks after a target quit day (TQD). The main predictor is point - prevalence abstinence measured at Weeks 1 and 6 after TQD. Covariates are treatment (OROS-MPH vs placebo), past major depression, past anxiety disorder, number of cigarettes smoked daily, demographics (age, gender, education, marital status) and baseline scores on the BAI, BDI, and the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale. Results Abstinence was significantly associated with lower anxiety ratings throughout the post-quit period (p<0.001). Depressed mood was lower for abstainers than non-abstainers at Week 1 (p<0.05), but no longer at Week 6 (p=0.83). Treatment with OROS-MPH relative to placebo showed significant reductions at Week 6 after TQD for both anxiety (p<0.05) and depressed mood (p<0.001), but not at Week 1. Differential abstinence effects of gender were observed. Anxiety and depression ratings at baseline predicted increased ratings of corresponding measures during the post-quit period. Conclusion Stopping smoking yielded reductions in anxiety and depressed mood in smokers with ADHD treated with nicotine patch and counseling. Treatment with OROS-MPH yielded mood reductions in delayed manner. PMID:26272693

  4. Social norms and its correlates as a pathway to smoking among young Latino adults

    PubMed Central

    Echeverría, Sandra E.; Gundersen, Daniel A.; Manderski, Michelle T.B.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2014-01-01

    Socially and culturally embedded norms regarding smoking may be one pathway by which individuals adopt smoking behaviors. However, few studies have examined if social norms operate in young adults, a population at high risk of becoming regular smokers. There is also little research examining correlates of social norms in populations with a large immigrant segment, where social norms are likely to differ from the receiving country and could contribute to a better understanding of previously reported acculturation-health associations. Using data from a nationally representative sample of young adults in the United States reached via a novel cell-phone sampling design, we explored the relationships between acculturation proxies (nativity, language spoken and generational status), socioeconomic position (SEP), smoking social norms and current smoking status among Latinos 18–34 years of age (n=873). Specifically, we examined if a measure of injunctive norms assessed by asking participants about the acceptability of smoking among Latino co-ethnic peers was associated with acculturation proxies and SEP. Results showed a strong gradient in smoking social norms by acculturation proxies, with significantly less acceptance of smoking reported among the foreign-born and increasing acceptance among those speaking only/ mostly English at home and third-generation individuals. No consistent and significant pattern in smoking social norms was observed by education, income or employment status, possibly due to the age of the study population. Lastly, those who reported that their Latino peers do not find smoking acceptable were significantly less likely to be current smokers compared to those who said their Latino peers were ambivalent about smoking (do not care either way) in crude models, and in models that adjusted for age, sex, generational status, language spoken, and SEP. This study provides new evidence regarding the role of social norms in shaping smoking behaviors among

  5. Social norms and its correlates as a pathway to smoking among young Latino adults.

    PubMed

    Echeverría, Sandra E; Gundersen, Daniel A; Manderski, Michelle T B; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2015-01-01

    Socially and culturally embedded norms regarding smoking may be one pathway by which individuals adopt smoking behaviors. However, few studies have examined if social norms operate in young adults, a population at high risk of becoming regular smokers. There is also little research examining correlates of social norms in populations with a large immigrant segment, where social norms are likely to differ from the receiving country and could contribute to a better understanding of previously reported acculturation-health associations. Using data from a nationally representative sample of young adults in the United States reached via a novel cell-phone sampling design, we explored the relationships between acculturation proxies (nativity, language spoken and generational status), socioeconomic position (SEP), smoking social norms and current smoking status among Latinos 18-34 years of age (n = 873). Specifically, we examined if a measure of injunctive norms assessed by asking participants about the acceptability of smoking among Latino co-ethnic peers was associated with acculturation proxies and SEP. Results showed a strong gradient in smoking social norms by acculturation proxies, with significantly less acceptance of smoking reported among the foreign-born and increasing acceptance among those speaking only/mostly English at home and third-generation individuals. No consistent and significant pattern in smoking social norms was observed by education, income or employment status, possibly due to the age of the study population. Lastly, those who reported that their Latino peers do not find smoking acceptable were significantly less likely to be current smokers compared to those who said their Latino peers were ambivalent about smoking (do not care either way) in crude models, and in models that adjusted for age, sex, generational status, language spoken, and SEP. This study provides new evidence regarding the role of social norms in shaping smoking behaviors among

  6. Smoking status and urine cadmium above levels associated with subclinical renal effects in U.S. adults without chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Mary Ellen; Wong, Lee-Yang; Osterloh, John D

    2011-07-01

    Tobacco smoke is a major source of adult exposure to cadmium (Cd). Urine Cd levels (CdU) above 1.0, 0.7, and 0.5 μgCd/g creatinine have been associated with increased rates of microproteinuria and reduction in glomerular filtration rate. The two study objectives were to determine the prevalence and relative risk (RR) by smoking status for CdU above 1.0, 0.7, and 0.5 μgCd/g creatinine in U.S. adults; and to describe geometric mean CdU by smoking status, age, and sex. NHANES 1999-2006 data for adults without chronic kidney disease were used to compute prevalence rates above the three CdU in current and former cigarette smokers, and non-smokers. RRs for smokers adjusted for age and sex were computed by logistic regression. Analysis of covariance was used to calculate geometric means of CdU adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, log urine creatinine, and interaction terms: age-smoking status and sex-smoking status. At selected ages, adjusted RR for exceeding each risk-associated CdU was highest for current smokers (3-13 times), followed by former smokers (2-3 times), compared to non-smokers. Adjusted RR for smokers increased with age and was higher in females than males. Adjusted geometric means of CdUs increased with age, were higher in females than in males regardless of smoking status, and were higher in current smokers than former smokers, who had higher levels than non-smokers at any age. Cigarette smoking greatly increases RR of exceeding renal risk-associated CdU. Former smokers retain significant risk of exceeding these levels compared to non-smokers. CdU increased with age, particularly in current smokers.

  7. Exploring young adult sexual minority women’s perspectives on LGBTQ smoking

    PubMed Central

    Youatt, Emily J.; Johns, Michelle M.; Pingel, Emily S.; Soler, Jorge H.; Bauermeister, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Smoking rates are higher among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals than among heterosexuals. These disparities are exacerbated during the transition from youth to young adulthood. The current study uses in-depth qualitative interviews to understand perceptions of LGBTQ smoking among LBQ-identified women (N=30, ages 18-24). Major themes identified include the belief that smoking was a way of overcoming stressors faced by heterosexual and LGBTQ young adults alike, a mechanism to relieve sexuality-related stressors, and an ingrained part of LGBTQ culture. Results suggest unique stressors influence LGBTQ smokers. Implications for smoking cessation interventions for LGBTQ youth are discussed. PMID:26508993

  8. Increase in prevalence and severity of asthma in young adults in Copenhagen

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, E. F.; Rappeport, Y.; Vestbo, J.; Lange, P.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—It is the general impression that the prevalence of asthma has increased during recent decades. A study was undertaken to investigate asthma prevalence, respiratory symptoms, and lung function in young adults in the City of Copenhagen 15 years apart.
METHODS—Men and women aged 20-35 years were sampled from the general population living in a defined area of central Copenhagen. The first examination took place in 1976-8 and comprised 1034 subjects (response rate 67.2%). A new sample comprising 1104 subjects (response rate 62.6%) from exactly the same area was examined 15 years later in 1991-4. All participants answered a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms and diseases and performed spirometric tests with measurement of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC).
RESULTS—The prevalence of self-reported asthma increased from 1.5% in the first survey to 4.8% in the second survey (p<0.001). Asthmatic subjects had, on average, poorer lung function than non-asthmatic subjects in terms of FEV1 and this difference was more pronounced in the second survey than in the first (10.0% of predicted versus 2.4% of predicted). Smoking decreased significantly from 62% in 1976-8 to 45% in 1991-4 (p<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS—The prevalence of self-reported asthma has increased significantly among young adults in Copenhagen over a 15 year period. The severity of asthma, as judged by the level of FEV1, has also increased. These findings cannot be explained by changes in smoking habits.

 PMID:10992534

  9. Retrospective analysis of changing characteristics of treatment-seeking smokers: implications for further reducing smoking prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Leyro, Teresa M; Crew, Erin E; Bryson, Susan W; Lembke, Anna; Bailey, Steffani R; Prochaska, Judith J; Henriksen, Lisa; Fortmann, Stephen P; Killen, Joel D; Killen, Diana T; Hall, Sharon M; David, Sean P

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of the current study was to empirically compare successive cohorts of treatment-seeking smokers who enrolled in randomised clinical trials in a region of the USA characterised by strong tobacco control policies and low smoking prevalence, over the past three decades. Design Retrospective treatment cohort comparison. Setting Data were collected from 9 randomised clinical trials conducted at Stanford University and the University of California, San Francisco, between 1990 and 2013. Participants Data from a total of 2083 participants were included (Stanford, n=1356; University of California San Francisco, n=727). Primary and secondary outcomes One-way analysis of variance and covariance, χ2 and logistic regression analyses were used to examine relations between nicotine dependence, cigarettes per day, depressive symptoms and demographic characteristics among study cohorts. Results Similar trends were observed at both settings. When compared to earlier trials, participants in more recent trials smoked fewer cigarettes, were less nicotine-dependent, reported more depressive symptoms, were more likely to be male and more likely to be from a minority ethnic/racial group, than those enrolled in initial trials (all p's<0.05). Analysis of covariances revealed that cigarettes per day, nicotine dependence and current depressive symptom scores were each significantly related to trial (all p's<0.001). Conclusions Our findings suggest that more recent smoking cessation treatment-seeking cohorts in a low prevalence region were characterised by less smoking severity, more severe symptoms of depression and were more likely to be male and from a minority racial/ethnic group. PMID:27357195

  10. Behavioral Associations with Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Dependence among U.S. Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sidani, Jaime E.; Shensa, Ariel; Shiffman, Saul; Switzer, Galen E.; Primack, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is increasingly prevalent in the U.S., especially among young adults. We aimed to (1) adapt items from established dependence measures into a WTS dependence scale for U.S. young adults (the “U.S. Waterpipe Dependence Scale”), (2) determine the factor structure of the items, and (3) assess associations between scale values and behavioral use characteristics known to be linked to dependence. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting United States. Participants 436 past-year waterpipe tobacco users ages 18 to 30 selected at random from a national probability-based panel. Measurements Participants responded to 6 tobacco dependence items adapted for WTS in U.S. populations. Behavioral use characteristics included factors such as frequency of use and age of initiation. Findings Principal components analysis yielded an unambiguous one-factor solution. About half (52.9%) of past-year waterpipe tobacco users received a score of 0, indicating none of the 6 WTS dependence items were endorsed. About one-quarter (25.4%) endorsed one dependence item, and 22.7% endorsed two or more items). Higher WTS dependence scores were significantly associated with all 5 behavioral use characteristics. For example, compared with those who endorsed no dependence items, those who endorsed 2 or more had an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of 3.90 (95% CI = 1.56–9.78) for having had earlier age of initiation and an AOR of 32.75 (95% CI = 9.76–109.86) for more frequent WTS sessions. Conclusions Scores on a 6-item waterpipe tobacco smoking dependence scale (the “U.S. Waterpipe Dependence Scale”) correlate with measures that would be expected to be related to dependence, such as amount used and age of initiation. PMID:26417942

  11. Social network characteristics and daily smoking among young adults in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Rostila, Mikael; Almquist, Ylva B; Östberg, Viveca; Edling, Christofer; Rydgren, Jens

    2013-11-29

    A large number of studies have shown that friends' smoking behavior is strongly associated with an individual's own risk for smoking. However, few studies have examined whether other features of social networks, independently or conjointly with friends' smoking behavior, may influence the risk for smoking. Because it is characterized by the growing importance of friendship networks, the transition from adolescence to young adulthood may constitute a particularly relevant period on which to focus our investigation of network influences on smoking behavior. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the consequences of peer smoking as well as other network characteristics (friends' other health behaviors, relationship content, and structural aspects of the network) on the risk for smoking among young adults. The data was based on a cross-sectional survey of Swedish 19-year-olds carried out in 2009 (n = 5,695) with a response rate of 51.6%. Logistic regression was the primary method of analysis. The results show that having a large percentage of smokers in one's network was by far the most important risk factor for daily smoking. The risk of daily smoking was 21.20 (CI 14.24. 31.54) if 76%-100% of the network members smoked. Having a high percentage of physically active friends was inversely associated with daily smoking. The risk of smoking was 0.65 (CI 0.42. 1.00) if 76%-100% of the network members were physically active. No main associations between the other network characteristics (relationship content and structural aspects of the network) and smoking were found. However, there was an interaction between the percentage of smokers in the network and relationship content (i.e., trust, relationship quality and propensity to discuss problems): positive relationship content in combination with peer smoking may increase the risk of smoking. Women with a high percentage of smokers in their networks were also at higher risk of daily smoking than were men with many

  12. Exploring Young Adult Sexual Minority Women's Perspectives on LGBTQ Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youatt, Emily J.; Johns, Michelle M.; Pingel, Emily S.; Soler, Jorge H.; Bauermeister, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking rates are higher among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals than among heterosexuals. These disparities are exacerbated during the transition from youth to young adulthood. The current study uses in-depth qualitative interviews to understand perceptions of LGBTQ smoking among LBQ-identified women (N = 30, ages…

  13. Anxiety, depression and smoking status among adults of Mexican heritage on the Texas-Mexico Border.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Anna V; Vatcheva, Kristina P; Pérez, Adriana; Reininger, Belinda M; McCormick, Joseph B; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P

    2014-08-01

    The goal of the current analysis is to examine relationships between smoking status and anxiety and depression among adults of Mexican heritage to inform the development of culturally relevant smoking cessations efforts. Mexican heritage residents (N=1,791) of the city of Brownsville, TX, aged 18 years or older, enrolled in the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort, were selected through two stage cluster sampling of randomly selected census tracts from the first and third quartile of SES using Census 2000. Among current smokers, anxiety and depression scores were highest among women who had not completed high school (p<0.05). Former smoking women, but not men, with at least a high school education and former smoking women born in the United States reported higher levels of anxiety and depression than never smoking women. Negative affective states may represent a greater barrier to smoking cessation among women than men.

  14. Anxiety, depression and smoking status among adults of Mexican heritage on the Texas-Mexico Border

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Anna V.; Vatcheva, Kristina P.; Pérez, Adriana; Reininger, Belinda M.; McCormick, Joseph B.; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the current analysis is to examine relationships between smoking status and anxiety and depression among adults of Mexican heritage to inform the development of culturally relevant smoking cessations efforts. Mexican heritage residents (N=1,791) of the city of Brownsville, TX, aged 18 years or older, enrolled in the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort, were selected through two stage cluster sampling of randomly selected census tracts from the first and third quartile of SES using Census 2000. Among current smokers, anxiety and depression scores were highest among women who had not completed high school (p<0.05). Former smoking women, but not men, with at least a high school education and former smoking women born in the United States reported higher levels of anxiety and depression than never smoking women. Negative affective states may represent a greater barrier to smoking cessation among women than men. PMID:26120245

  15. Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... harms nearly every organ of the body. Cigarette smoking causes 87 percent of lung cancer deaths. It is also responsible for many other cancers ... or having a baby die from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Your smoke is ... are battery-operated smoking devices. Not much is known about the health ...

  16. Body weight and mortality among adults who never smoked.

    PubMed

    Singh, P N; Lindsted, K D; Fraser, G E

    1999-12-01

    In a 12-year prospective study, the authors examined the relation between body mass index (BMI) and mortality among the 20,346 middle-aged (25-54 years) and older (55-84 years) non-Hispanic white cohort members of the Adventist Health Study (California, 1976-1988) who had never smoked cigarettes and had no history of coronary heart disease, cancer, or stroke. In analyses that accounted for putative indicators (weight change relative to 17 years before baseline, death during early follow-up) of pre-existing illness, the authors found a direct positive relation between BMI and all-cause mortality among middle-aged men (minimum risk at BMI (kg/m2) 15-22.3, older men (minimum risk at BMI 13.5-22.3), middle-aged women (minimum risk at BMI 13.9-20.6), and older women who had undergone postmenopausal hormone replacement (minimum risk at BMI 13.4-20.6). Among older women who had not undergone postmenopausal hormone replacement, the authors found a J-shaped relation (minimum risk at BMI 20.7-27.4) in which BMI <20.7 was associated with a twofold increase in mortality risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3, 3.5) that was primarily due to cardiovascular and respiratory disease. These findings not only identify adiposity as a risk factor among adults, but also raise the possibility that very lean older women can experience an increased mortality risk that may be due to their lower levels of adipose tissue-derived estrogen.

  17. Prevalence of persistent cough and phlegm in young adults in relation to long-term ambient sulfur oxide exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, R.S.; Calafiore, D.C.; Hasselblad, V.

    1985-01-01

    In early 1976, a survey of persistent co gh and plegma (PCP) prevalence was conducted in 5623 young adults in four Utah communities. Over the previous five years, community specific mean sulfur dioxide levels had been 11, 18, 36, and 115 ug/mT. Corresponding mean suspended sulfate levels had been 5, 7, 8, and 14 g/mT No intercommunity exposure gradient of total suspended particulates or suspended nitrates was observed. In mothers, PCP prevalence among non-smokers was 4.2% in the high-exposure community and about 2.0% in all other communities. In smoking mothers, PCP prevalence was 21.8% in the high-exposure community and about 15.0% elsewhere. In fathers, PCP prevalence among non-smokers was about 8.0% in the high-exposure community and averaged about 3.0% elsewhere. In smoking fathers, PCP prevalence was less strongly associated with sulfur oxide exposure. PCP prevalence rates estimated in a categorical logistic regression model were qualitatively consistent with the prevalences presented above.

  18. The High Prevalence of Symptomatic Degenerative Lumbar Osteoarthritis in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yajun; Xiao, Bin; Han, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Study Design. A population-based study. Objective. To study the prevalence and features of symptomatic degenerative lumbar osteoarthritis in adults. Summary of Background Data. Lumbar osteoarthritis adversely affects individuals and is a heavy burden. There are limited data on the prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis. Methods. A representative, multistage sample of adults was collected. Symptomatic degenerative lumbar osteoarthritis was diagnosed by clinical symptoms, physical examinations, and imaging examinations. Personal information was obtained by face-to-face interview. Information included the place of residence, age, sex, income, type of medical insurance, education level, body mass index, habits of smoking and drinking, type of work, working posture, duration of the same working posture during the day, mode of transportation, exposure to vibration, and daily amount of sleep. Crude and adjusted prevalence was calculated. The features of populations were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression in total and subgroup populations. Results. The study included 3859 adults. The crude and adjusted prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis was 9.02% and 8.90%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis between urban, suburban, and rural populations (7.66%, 9.97%, and 9.44%) (P = 0.100). The prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis was higher in females (10.05%) than in males (9.1%, P = 0.021). The prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis increased with increasing age. Obese people (body mass index >28 kg/m2), those engaged in physical work, those who maintained the same work posture for 1 to 1.9 hours per day, those who were exposed to vibration during daily work, and those who got less than 7 hours of sleep per day had a higher prevalence. These features differed by subgroup. Conclusion. This study established epidemiological baseline data for degenerative lumbar osteoarthritis in adults, especially for people younger than 45

  19. Internet Gambling, Health, Smoking and Alcohol Use: Findings from the 2007 British Gambling Prevalence Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Mark; Wardle, Heather; Orford, Jim; Sproston, Kerry; Erens, Bob

    2011-01-01

    This study provides analysis of a representative national sample of Internet gamblers. Using participant data from the 2007 British Gambling Prevalence Survey (n = 9003 adults aged 16 years and over), all participants who had gambled online, bet online, and/or who had used a betting exchange in the last 12 months (6% of the total sample) were…

  20. Adolescent Attributes and Young Adult Smoking Cessation Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Marcus, Stephen E.; Zhang, Chenshu; Stimmel, Matthew A.; Balka, Elinor B.; Brook, David W.

    2010-01-01

    This study collected data five times between 1983–2002 from 400 participants who originally came from upstate New York. These participants completed structured interviews as did their mothers three times. LISREL analysis generally supported the hypothesized model. The results indicated that having parents who smoked and having low educational aspirations and expectations were associated with being unconventional, which, in turn, was related to having low emotional control and reporting more internalizing behaviors. Internalizing behaviors were directly associated with a lower likelihood of smoking cessation, as was parental smoking. Research and clinical implications are discussed and the limitations noted. PMID:20482339

  1. Evidence of a Dose—Response Relationship Between “truth” Antismoking Ads and Youth Smoking Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Farrelly, Matthew C.; Davis, Kevin C.; Haviland, M. Lyndon; Messeri, Peter; Healton, Cheryl G.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. In early 2000, the American Legacy Foundation launched the national “truth” campaign, the first national antismoking campaign to discourage tobacco use among youths. We studied the impact of the campaign on national smoking rates among US youths (students in grades 8, 10, and 12). Methods. We used data from the Monitoring the Future survey in a pre/post quasi-experimental design to relate trends in youth smoking prevalence to varied doses of the “truth” campaign in a national sample of approximately 50000 students in grades 8, 10, and 12, surveyed each spring from 1997 through 2002. Results. Findings indicate that the campaign accounted for a significant portion of the recent decline in youth smoking prevalence. We found that smoking prevalence among all students declined from 25.3% to 18.0% between 1999 and 2002 and that the campaign accounted for approximately 22% of this decline. Conclusions. This study showed that the campaign was associated with substantial declines in youth smoking and has accelerated recent declines in youth smoking prevalence. PMID:15727971

  2. The Role of Public Policies in Reducing Smoking Prevalence in California: Results from the California Tobacco Policy Simulation Model

    PubMed Central

    Levy, David T.; Hyland, Andrew; Higbee, Cheryl; Remer, Lillian; Compton, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Summary Tobacco control policies are examined utilizing a simulation model for California, the state with the longest running comprehensive program. We assess the impact of the California Tobacco Control Program (CTCP) and surrounding price changes on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. Modeling begins in 1988 and progresses chronologically to 2004, and considers four types of policies (taxes, mass media, clean air laws, and youth access policies) independently and as a package. The model is validated against existing smoking prevalence estimates. The difference in trends between predicted smoking rates from the model and other commonly used estimates of smoking prevalence for the overall period were generally small. The model also predicted some important changes in trend, which occurred with changes in policy. The California SimSmoke model estimates that tobacco control policies reduced smoking rates in California by an additional 25% relative to the level that they would have been if policies were kept at their 1988 level. By 2004, the model attributes over 60% of the reduction to price increases, over 25% of the overall effect to media policies, 10% to clean air laws, and only a small percent to youth access policies. The model estimates that over 5,000 lives will be saved in the year 2010 alone as a result of the CTCP and industry-initiated price increases, and that over 50,000 lives were saved over the period 1988-2010. Tobacco control policies implemented as comprehensive tobacco control strategies have significantly impacted smoking rates. Further tax increases should lead to additional lives saved, and additional policies may result in further impacts on smoking rates, and consequently on smoking-attributable health outcomes in the population. PMID:17055104

  3. The role of public policies in reducing smoking prevalence in California: results from the California tobacco policy simulation model.

    PubMed

    Levy, David T; Hyland, Andrew; Higbee, Cheryl; Remer, Lillian; Compton, Christine

    2007-07-01

    Tobacco control policies are examined utilizing a simulation model for California, the state with the longest running comprehensive program. We assess the impact of the California Tobacco Control Program (CTCP) and surrounding price changes on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. Modeling begins in 1988 and progresses chronologically to 2004, and considers four types of policies (taxes, mass media, clean air laws, and youth access policies) independently and as a package. The model is validated against existing smoking prevalence estimates. The difference in trends between predicted smoking rates from the model and other commonly used estimates of smoking prevalence for the overall period were generally small. The model also predicted some important changes in trend, which occurred with changes in policy. The California SimSmoke model estimates that tobacco control policies reduced smoking rates in California by an additional 25% relative to the level that they would have been if policies were kept at their 1988 level. By 2004, the model attributes 59% of the reduction to price increases, 28% of the overall effect to media policies, 11% to clean air laws, and only a small percent to youth access policies. The model estimates that over 5000 lives will be saved in the year 2010 alone as a result of the CTCP and industry-initiated price increases, and that over 50,000 lives were saved over the period 1988-2010. Tobacco control policies implemented as comprehensive tobacco control strategies have significantly impacted smoking rates. Further tax increases should lead to additional lives saved, and additional policies may result in further impacts on smoking rates, and consequently on smoking-attributable health outcomes in the population.

  4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality and prevalence: the associations with smoking and poverty—a BOLD analysis

    PubMed Central

    Burney, Peter; Jithoo, Anamika; Kato, Bernet; Janson, Christer; Mannino, David; Niżankowska-Mogilnicka, Ewa; Studnicka, Michael; Tan, Wan; Bateman, Eric; Koçabas, Ali; Vollmer, William M; Gislason, Thorarrin; Marks, Guy; Koul, Parvaiz A; Harrabi, Imed; Gnatiuc, Louisa; Buist, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a commonly reported cause of death and associated with smoking. However, COPD mortality is high in poor countries with low smoking rates. Spirometric restriction predicts mortality better than airflow obstruction, suggesting that the prevalence of restriction could explain mortality rates attributed to COPD. We have studied associations between mortality from COPD and low lung function, and between both lung function and death rates and cigarette consumption and gross national income per capita (GNI). Methods National COPD mortality rates were regressed against the prevalence of airflow obstruction and spirometric restriction in 22 Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study sites and against GNI, and national smoking prevalence. The prevalence of airflow obstruction and spirometric restriction in the BOLD sites were regressed against GNI and mean pack years smoked. Results National COPD mortality rates were more strongly associated with spirometric restriction in the BOLD sites (<60 years: men rs=0.73, p=0.0001; women rs=0.90, p<0.0001; 60+ years: men rs=0.63, p=0.0022; women rs=0.37, p=0.1) than obstruction (<60 years: men rs=0.28, p=0.20; women rs=0.17, p<0.46; 60+ years: men rs=0.28, p=0.23; women rs=0.22, p=0.33). Obstruction increased with mean pack years smoked, but COPD mortality fell with increased cigarette consumption and rose rapidly as GNI fell below US$15 000. Prevalence of restriction was not associated with smoking but also increased rapidly as GNI fell below US$15 000. Conclusions Smoking remains the single most important cause of obstruction but a high prevalence of restriction associated with poverty could explain the high ‘COPD’ mortality in poor countries. PMID:24353008

  5. Prevalence and Indicators of Tooth Wear among Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zhao; Du, Yangge; Zhang, Jing; Tai, Baojun

    2016-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have focused on the prevalence and related indicators of tooth wear. However, no sufficient studies have been conducted with Chinese adults. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of tooth wear and identify related indicators among adults aged 36 to 74 years in Wuhan City, P.R. China. A cross-sectional and analytic study was conducted with 720 participants, aged 35–49 yrs and 50–74 yrs, in 2014. Each age group included 360 participants, of which 50% were males and 50% were females. All participants completed a questionnaire before examination. Tooth wear was assessed using the modified Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) index. The data were analyzed using the chi-square test and binary logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of tooth wear was 67.5% and 100% in the 35–49 and 50–74 age groups, respectively. The prevalence of dentin exposure was 64.7% and 98.3%, respectively. A significantly higher prevalence of tooth wear and dentin exposure was found in the 50–74 yr group than in the 35–49 yr group (p < 0.05). Critical indicators of tooth wear and dentin exposure included high frequency of acidic drinks and foods consumption, low socio-economic status, and unilateral chewing. The frequency of changing toothbrushes and the habit of drinking water during meals were associated with tooth wear. In addition, the usage of hard-bristle toothbrushes and consuming vitamin C and aspirin were found to be linked with dentin exposure. In conclusion, the prevalence of tooth wear and dentin exposure observed in Chinese adults was high, and the results revealed an association between tooth wear and socio-behavioral risk indicators. PMID:27583435

  6. Status of Cardiovascular Health in US Adults: Prevalence Estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2003-2008

    PubMed Central

    Shay, Christina M.; Ning, Hongyan; Allen, Norrina B.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Greenlund, Kurt J.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The American Heart Association's 2020 Strategic Impact Goals define a new concept, “cardiovascular (CV) health”; however, current prevalence estimates of the status of CV health in U.S. adults according to age, sex and race/ethnicity have not been published. Methods and Results We included 14,515 adults (≥20 years) from the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Participants were stratified by young (20-39 years), middle (40-64 years), and older ages (65+ years). CV health behaviors (diet, physical activity, body mass index, smoking) and CV health factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, smoking) were defined as poor, intermediate, or ideal. Less than 1% of adults exhibited ideal CV health for all 7 metrics. For CV health behaviors, non-smoking was most prevalent (range:60.2-90.4%) while ideal Healthy Diet Score was least prevalent (range:0.2-2.6%) across groups. Prevalence of ideal BMI (range:36.5-45.3%) and ideal physical activity levels (range:50.2-58.8%) were higher in young adults compared to middle or older ages. Ideal total cholesterol (range:23.7-36.2%), blood pressure (range:11.9-16.3%) and fasting blood glucose (range:31.2-42.9%) were lower in older adults compared with young and middle age adults.Prevalence of poor CV health factors was lowest in young age but higher at middle and older ages. Prevalence estimates by age and sex were consistent across race/ethnic groups. Conclusions These prevalence estimates of CV health represent a starting point from which effectiveness of efforts to promote CV health and prevent CV disease can be monitored and compared in U.S. adult populations. PMID:22095826

  7. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Brazilian adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a complex of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This syndrome increases the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. It has been demonstrated that the prevalence of MS is increasing worldwide. Despite the importance of MS in the context of metabolic and cardiovascular disease, few studies have described the prevalence of MS and its determinants in Latin America. The present study aims to assess studies describing the prevalence of MS in Brazil in order to determine the global prevalence of the syndrome and its components. Methods Systematic review. Searches were carried out in PubMed and Scielo from the earliest available online indexing year through May 2013. There were no restrictions on language. The search terms used to describe MS were taken from the PubMed (MeSH) dictionary: “metabolic syndrome x”, “prevalence” and “Brazil”. Studies were included if they were cross-sectional, described the prevalence of MS and were conducted in apparently healthy subjects, from the general population, 19-64 years old (adult and middle aged) of both genders. The titles and abstracts of all the articles identified were screened for eligibility. Results Ten cross-sectional studies were selected. The weighted mean for general prevalence of MS in Brazil was 29.6% (range: 14.9%-65.3%). Half of the studies used the criteria for clinical diagnosis of MS proposed by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) (2001). The highest prevalence of MS (65.3%) was found in a study conducted in an indigenous population, whereas the lowest prevalence of MS (14.9%) was reported in a rural area. The most frequent MS components were low HDL-cholesterol (59.3%) and hypertension (52.5%). Conclusions Despite methodological differences among the studies selected, our findings suggested a high prevalence of MS in the Brazilian adult population. PMID:24350922

  8. Smoking spaces and practices in pubs, bars and clubs: young adults and the English smokefree legislation.

    PubMed

    Rooke, Catriona; Amos, Amanda; Highet, Gill; Hargreaves, Katrina

    2013-01-01

    Young adulthood is an important but overlooked period in the development of smoking behaviour. We know little about the impact of smokefree policies on this group. In a secondary analysis of longitudinal, qualitative interview data we explore smoking practices in young adulthood, the role of smoking in the spaces of the night-time economy, and the impact of smokefree legislation. Participants carefully managed their smoking in different spaces in relation to the self they wished to present. This was shaped by the transitional nature of young adulthood. Smoking played a role in constructing time-out periods from the demands of everyday life in a similar way to alcohol use. The restrictions imposed by the smokefree legislation quickly became normal for most; however, the experience of smoking was influenced by the nature and quality of smoking spaces. The re-spatialisation of smoking necessitated by the smokefree legislation may reaffirm processes of social denormalisation and stigmatisation of smoking, whilst simultaneously allowing young adult smokers to produce, in some contexts, a positive, fun, sociable smoker identity.

  9. Analysis of the Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Tinnitus in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung-Jong; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; An, Soo-Youn; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Kim, Si Whan; Lee, Joong Seob; Hong, Sung Kwang; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2015-01-01

    Background Tinnitus is a common condition in adults; however, the pathophysiology of tinnitus remains unclear, and no large population-based study has assessed the associated risk factors. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence and associated risk factors of tinnitus. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, with 19,290 participants ranging in age from 20 to 98 years old, between 2009 and 2012. We investigated the prevalence of tinnitus using a questionnaire and analyzed various possible factors associated with tinnitus using simple and multiple logistic regression analysis with complex sampling. Results The prevalence of tinnitus was 20.7%, and the rates of tinnitus associated with no discomfort, moderate annoyance, and severe annoyance were 69.2%, 27.9%, and 3.0%, respectively. The prevalence of tinnitus and the rates of annoying tinnitus increased with age. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of tinnitus was higher for females, those with a smoking history, those reporting less sleep (≤ 6 h), those with more stress, those in smaller households, those with a history of hyperlipidemia osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, depression, thyroid disease, an abnormal tympanic membrane, unilateral hearing loss, bilateral hearing loss, noise exposure from earphones, noise exposure at the workplace, noise exposure outside the workplace, and brief noise exposure. Additionally, unemployed individuals and soldiers had higher AORs for tinnitus. The AOR of annoying tinnitus increased with age, stress, history of hyperlipidemia, unilateral hearing loss, and bilateral hearing loss. Conclusions Tinnitus is very common in the general population and is associated with gender, smoking, stress, sleep, hearing loss, hyperlipidemia, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, depression, and thyroid disease history. PMID:26020239

  10. Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes among High-Risk Adults in Shanghai from 2002 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xuhong; Lu, Huijuan; Shen, Yixie; Chen, Ruihua; Fang, Pingyan; Yu, Hong; Li, Ming; Zhang, Feng; Chen, Haibing; Yu, Haoyong; Zhou, Jian; Liu, Fang; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the trend and prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes among high-risk adults in Shanghai from 2002 to 2012. Methods From 2002 to 2012, 10043 subjects with known risk factors for diabetes participated in the diabetes-screening project at the Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Jiao Tong University. All participants were asked to complete a nurse-administered standard questionnaire concerning age, sex, smoking status, and personal and family histories of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension and other diseases. The participants’ body mass index scores, blood pressures and blood glucose levels at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min were measured in response to a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Results The overall prevalence of diabetes increased from 27.93% to 34.78% between 2002 and 2012 in high-risk subjects. The study also showed that the prevalence increased much faster in male compared to female subjects. Specifically, an increased rate was seen in middle-aged men, with no change observed in middle-aged females over the eleven-year period. Conclusion This study showed that sex, age, parental diabetic history, and being overweight were associated with an increased risk for diabetes in high-risk people. Therefore, as prediabetes and diabetes are highly prevalent in people with multiple diabetes risk factors in Shanghai, screening programs targeting these individuals may be beneficial. PMID:25047241

  11. Associations Between Initial Water Pipe Tobacco Smoking and Snus Use and Subsequent Cigarette Smoking Results From a Longitudinal Study of US Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Soneji, Samir; Sargent, James D.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Primack, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Many adolescents and young adults use alternative tobacco products, such as water pipes and snus, instead of cigarettes. OBJECTIVE To assess whether prior water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use among never smokers are risk factors for subsequent cigarette smoking. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We conducted a 2-wave national longitudinal study in the United States among 2541 individuals aged 15 to 23 years old. At baseline (October 25, 2010, through June 11, 2011), we ascertained whether respondents had smoked cigarettes, smoked water pipe tobacco, or used snus. At the 2-year follow-up (October 27, 2012, through March 31, 2013), we determined whether baseline non–cigarette smokers had subsequently tried cigarette smoking, were current (past 30 days) cigarette smokers, or were high-intensity cigarette smokers. We fit multivariable logistic regression models among baseline non–cigarette smokers to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with subsequent cigarette smoking initiation and current cigarette smoking, accounting for established sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors. We fit similarly specified multivariable ordinal logistic regression models to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with high-intensity cigarette smoking at follow-up. EXPOSURES Water pipe tobacco smoking and the use of snus at baseline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Among baseline non–cigarette smokers, cigarette smoking initiation, current (past 30 days) cigarette smoking at follow-up, and the intensity of cigarette smoking at follow-up. RESULTS Among 1596 respondents, 1048 had never smoked cigarettes at baseline, of whom 71 had smoked water pipe tobacco and 20 had used snus at baseline. At follow-up, accounting for behavioral and sociodemographic risk factors, baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use were independently associated with cigarette smoking

  12. Implications of tobacco smoking on the oral health of older adults.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Rupali; Gaur, Sumit

    2014-07-01

    Cigarette smoking is the foremost health risk issue affecting individuals of all age groups globally. It specifically influences the geriatric population as a result of chronic exposure to toxins. Its role in various systemic and oral diseases including cancer, premalignant lesions, periodontitis, tooth loss, dental caries and implant failures is well established. Smoking causes immuno-inflammatory imbalances resulting in increased oxidative stress in the body. The latter hastens the immunosenescence and inflammaging process, which increases the susceptibility to infections. Thus, implementation of smoking cessation programs among older adults is imperative to prevent the development and progression of oral and systemic diseases. The present review focuses on smoking-associated oral health problems in older adults, and the steps required for cessation of the habit.

  13. Comparison of Regional Brain Perfusion Levels in Chronically Smoking and Non-Smoking Adults

    PubMed Central

    Durazzo, Timothy C.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Murray, Donna E.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with numerous abnormalities in brain neurobiology, but few studies specifically investigated the chronic effects of smoking (compared to the acute effects of smoking, nicotine administration, or nicotine withdrawal) on cerebral perfusion (i.e., blood flow). Predominately middle-aged male (47 ± 11 years of age) smokers (n = 34) and non-smokers (n = 27) were compared on regional cortical perfusion measured by continuous arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance studies at 4 Tesla. Smokers showed significantly lower perfusion than non-smokers in the bilateral medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortices, bilateral inferior parietal lobules, bilateral superior temporal gyri, left posterior cingulate, right isthmus of cingulate, and right supramarginal gyrus. Greater lifetime duration of smoking (adjusted for age) was related to lower perfusion in multiple brain regions. The results indicated smokers showed significant perfusion deficits in anterior cortical regions implicated in the development, progression, and maintenance of all addictive disorders. Smokers concurrently demonstrated reduced blood flow in posterior brain regions that show morphological and metabolic aberrations as well as elevated beta amyloid deposition demonstrated by those with early stage Alzheimer disease. The findings provide additional novel evidence of the adverse effects of cigarette smoking on the human brain. PMID:26193290

  14. Correlates and Prevalence of Menthol Cigarette Use Among Adults With Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Young-Wolff, Kelly C.; Hickman, Norval J.; Kim, Romina; Gali, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: With a focus on protecting vulnerable groups from initiating and continuing tobacco use, the FDA has been considering the regulation of menthol in cigarettes. Using a large sample of adult smokers with serious mental illness (SMI) in the San Francisco Bay Area, we examined demographic and clinical correlates of menthol use, and we compared the prevalence of menthol use among our study participants to that of adult smokers in the general population in California. Methods: Adult smokers with SMI (N = 1,042) were recruited from 7 acute inpatient psychiatric units in the San Francisco Bay Area. Demographic, tobacco, and clinical correlates of menthol use were examined with bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, and prevalence of menthol use was compared within racial/ethnic groups to California population estimates from the 2008–2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Results: A sample majority (57%) reported smoking menthol cigarettes. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that adult smokers with SMI who were younger, who had racial/ethnic minority status, who had fewer perceived interpersonal problems, and who had greater psychotic symptoms also had a significantly greater likelihood of menthol use. Smokers with SMI had a higher prevalence of menthol use relative to the general population in California overall (24%). Conclusions: Individuals with SMI—particularly those who are younger, have racial/ethnic minority status, and have been diagnosed with a psychotic disorder—are vulnerable to menthol cigarette use. FDA regulation of menthol may prevent initiation and may encourage cessation among smokers with SMI. PMID:25190706

  15. Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis genotypes in adult dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Trout, James M; Santín, Mónica; Fayer, Ronald

    2007-07-20

    The prevalence of Giardia duodenalis genotypes was determined in adult dairy cows. Fecal specimens were collected from two farms each in Vermont, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and Florida. Specimens, cleaned of fecal debris and concentrated using CsCl density gradient centrifugation, were subjected to PCR and DNA sequence analysis. The prevalence of G. duodenalis infection, ranged from 3% to 64%, with an average prevalence of 27% (144 positive cows out of 541 examined). DNA sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed the presence of both Assemblage A and Assemblage E, G. duodenalis. Overall, Assemblage E was present in 25% of all animals tested and Assemblage A was present in 2% of the animals. As a percentage of G. duodenalis isolates, Assemblage E represented 94% and Assemblage A represented 6%. Although, most of the cows were infected with a genotype that is not known to be infectious for humans, adult cows on five farms did harbor varying levels of zoonotic Assemblage A, G. duodenalis. Therefore, although adult cows do not appear to be a significant source of human infectious cysts in the environment, the risk from this age group should not entirely be discounted.

  16. Prevalence of Smoking and Related Risk Factors among Physical Education and Sports School Students at Istanbul University

    PubMed Central

    Ulus, Tümer; Yurtseven, Eray; Donuk, Bilge

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate smoking prevalence and factors associated with smoking among students at the Physical Education and Sports School of Istanbul University. A cross-sectional study was performed on total of 373 students who have been continuing their education at the school from February to March 2011. A total of 166 responders were male (44.5%) and 207 responders were female (55.5%) out of 373 participants. Of the 373 students, 94 (25.2%) were current smokers and the average age for beginning smoking was 18.03 ± 2.6 (min: 12–max: 30). In this study, we found that the smoking prevalence associated with some variables such as age place of residence, mother’s education, father’s education, cigarette or tobacco use in the living place, knowledge status of students about their teacher’s smoking habits and alcohol consumption (p ≤ 0.05). These findings suggest that the students, who will train the sportspeople of the future, and should be considered a role model of healthy behavior in society. Consequently, we believe that sports school students should take an active role in providing health education programs to increase their awareness about the detrimental effects of smoking and to extensively quit smoking in public. PMID:22690155

  17. Prevalence of smoking and related risk factors among Physical Education and Sports School students at Istanbul University.

    PubMed

    Ulus, Tümer; Yurtseven, Eray; Donuk, Bilge

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate smoking prevalence and factors associated with smoking among students at the Physical Education and Sports School of Istanbul University. A cross-sectional study was performed on total of 373 students who have been continuing their education at the school from February to March 2011. A total of 166 responders were male (44.5%) and 207 responders were female (55.5%) out of 373 participants. Of the 373 students, 94 (25.2%) were current smokers and the average age for beginning smoking was 18.03 ± 2.6 (min: 12-max: 30). In this study, we found that the smoking prevalence associated with some variables such as age place of residence, mother's education, father's education, cigarette or tobacco use in the living place, knowledge status of students about their teacher's smoking habits and alcohol consumption (p ≤ 0.05). These findings suggest that the students, who will train the sportspeople of the future, and should be considered a role model of healthy behavior in society. Consequently, we believe that sports school students should take an active role in providing health education programs to increase their awareness about the detrimental effects of smoking and to extensively quit smoking in public.

  18. Smoking Status and Exercise in relation to PTSD Symptoms: A Test among Trauma-Exposed Adults

    PubMed Central

    Vujanovic, Anka A.; Farris, Samantha G.; Harte, Christopher B.; Smits, Jasper A. J.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation examined the interactive effect of cigarette smoking status (i.e., regular smoking versus non-smoking) and weekly exercise (i.e., weekly metabolic equivalent) in terms of posttraumatic stress (PTSD) symptom severity among a community sample of trauma-exposed adults. Participants included 86 trauma-exposed adults (58.1% female; Mage = 24.3). Approximately 59.7% of participants reported regular (≥ 10 cigarettes per day) daily smoking over the past year. The interactive effect of smoking status by weekly exercise was significantly associated with hyperarousal and avoidance symptom cluster severity (p ≤ .05). These effects were evident above and beyond number of trauma types and gender, as well as the respective main effects of smoking status and weekly exercise. Follow-up tests indicated support for the moderating role of exercise on the association between smoking and PTSD symptoms, such that the highest levels of PTSD symptoms were observed among regular smokers reporting low weekly exercise levels. Theoretical and clinical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:24273598

  19. Loose Cigarette Purchasing and Nondaily Smoking Among Young Adult Bar Patrons in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Guillory, Jamie; Johns, Michael; Farley, Shannon M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined loose cigarette (loosie) purchasing behavior among young adult (aged 18–26 years) smokers at bars in New York City and factors associated with purchase and use. Methods. Between June and December 2013, we conducted cross-sectional surveys (n = 1916) in randomly selected bars and nightclubs. Using multivariable logistic regression models, we examined associations of loose cigarette purchasing and use with smoking frequency, price, social norms, cessation behaviors, and demographics. Results. Forty-five percent (n = 621) of nondaily smokers and 57% (n = 133) of daily smokers had ever purchased a loosie; 15% of nondaily smokers and 4% of daily smokers reported that their last cigarette was a loosie. Nondaily smokers who never smoked daily were more likely than were daily smokers to have last smoked a loosie (odds ratio = 7.27; 95% confidence interval = 2.35, 22.48). Quitting behaviors and perceived approval of smoking were associated with ever purchasing and recently smoking loosies. Conclusions. Loosie purchase and use is common among young adults, especially nondaily smokers. Smoking patterns and attitudes should be considered to reduce loose cigarette purchasing among young adults in New York City. PMID:25880951

  20. Prevalence and correlates of vaping cannabis in a sample of young adults.

    PubMed

    Jones, Connor B; Hill, Melanie L; Pardini, Dustin A; Meier, Madeline H

    2016-12-01

    Vaping nicotine (i.e., the use of e-cigarettes and similar devices to inhale nicotine) is becoming increasingly popular among young people. Though some vaporizers are capable of vaporizing cannabis, sparse research has investigated this method of cannabis administration. The present study examines the prevalence and correlates of vaping cannabis in a sample of 482 college students. Participants reported high lifetime rates of vaping nicotine (37%) and cannabis (29%). Men (rs = 0.09, p = .047) and individuals from higher socioeconomic status families (rs = 0.14, p = .003) vaped cannabis more frequently than women and individuals from lower SES families. In addition, those who vaped cannabis more frequently were more open to new experiences (rs = 0.17, p < .001) and showed greater approval of smoking cannabis regularly (rs = 0.35, p < .001). Among the largest correlates of cannabis vaping were frequent cannabis use (rs = 0.70, p < .001) and nicotine vaping (rs = 0.46, p < .001), suggesting that availability of cannabis and vaporizers is particularly important. Participants' top reason for vaping cannabis, endorsed by 65% of those who had vaped cannabis, was convenience and discreetness for use in public places. Several correlates distinguished cannabis users who vaped from cannabis users who did not vape, most notably more frequent cannabis use (odds ratios [OR] = 3.68, p < .001), alcohol use (OR = 2.07, p < .001), nicotine vaping (OR = 1.73, p < .001), and greater approval of smoking cannabis regularly (OR = 2.15, p < .001). Findings suggest that cannabis vaping is prevalent among young adults, particularly among those who use other substances frequently and have more favorable attitudes toward smoking cannabis. Research is needed on the antecedents and potential harms and benefits of cannabis vaping in young adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. No change in prevalence of symptoms of COPD between 1996 and 2006 in Finnish adults – a report from the FinEsS Helsinki Study

    PubMed Central

    Kainu, Annette; Pallasaho, Paula; Pietinalho, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background The age-dependent increase of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prevalence caused by smoking and other inhalational exposures in the general population is well-known worldwide. However, time trends are poorly known, due to lower number of high-quality studies especially following nationwide efforts on diminishing exposure levels. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of COPD symptoms and their major determinants in Finnish adults in 1996 and 2006. Methods Two identical postal surveys were conducted among two random population samples from Helsinki using identical methodologies in 1996 and 2006, with 6,062 (76%) and 2,449 (62%) participants, respectively. Results The physician-diagnoses of COPD remained at 3.7%, whereas physician-diagnoses of asthma and use of asthma medicines increased in both genders. Current smoking reduced from 33.4 to 27.3% (p<0.001), and the amount of cigarettes smoked also reduced significantly. The crude prevalence of chronic productive cough was 12.1 and 11.1%, wheezing with dyspnoea without a cold (wheezing triad) 7.3 and 7.7%, and dyspnoea grade II 13.8 and 13.6%, in 1996 and 2006, respectively. Among subjects with physician-diagnosed COPD, the prevalences of chronic productive cough and recurrent wheeze reduced significantly, from 60.6 to 40.7% and 53.5 to 38.5%, respectively. Conclusion From 1996 to 2006, the prevalence of obstructive airway symptoms common in different phenotypes of COPD did not increase in Finnish adults. This suggests that the upward trend of COPD prevalence might have reached a plateau. Current smoking and the quantities smoked diminished suggesting a wider impact of stronger legislation and smoking-cessation efforts during the Finnish National Programme for COPD. PMID:27534614

  2. Adult smoking in the home environment and children's IQ.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D L; Swank, P R; Baldwin, C D; McCormick, D

    1999-02-01

    In a sample of 3- and 5-yr.-old children, smoking in the home was found to be significantly and inversely related to IQ. Children of normal birth weight and without neurological impairment had been enrolled in a longitudinal study of child development. Analyses were conducted with sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, educational stimulation in the home, day care, and mother's intelligence controlled. Significant results were obtained for scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised at age three years and on the major Stanford-Binet Fourth Edition scales at ages three and five years. All effects were for the mother, not the father, smoking in the home.

  3. Periodontitis prevalence in adults ≥ 65 years of age, in the USA.

    PubMed

    Eke, Paul I; Wei, Liang; Borgnakke, Wenche S; Thornton-Evans, Gina; Zhang, Xingyou; Lu, Hua; McGuire, Lisa C; Genco, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    The older adult population is growing rapidly in the USA and it is expected that by 2040 the number of adults ≥ 65 years of age will have increased by about 50%. With the growth of this subpopulation, oral health status, and periodontal status in particular, becomes important in the quest to maintain an adequate quality of life. Poor oral health can have a major impact, leading to tooth loss, pain and discomfort, and may prevent older adults from chewing food properly, often leading to poor nutrition. Periodontitis is monitored in the USA at the national level as part of the Healthy People 2020 initiative. In this report, we provide estimates of the overall burden of periodontitis among adults ≥ 65 years of age and after stratification according to sociodemographic factors, modifiable risk factors (such as smoking status), the presence of other systemic conditions (such as diabetes) and access to dental care. We also estimated the burden of periodontitis within this age group at the state and local levels. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009/2010 and 2011/2012 cycles were analyzed. Periodontal measures from both survey cycles were based on a full-mouth periodontal examination. Nineteen per cent of adults in this subpopulation were edentulous. The mean age was 73 years, 7% were current smokers, 8% lived below the 100% Federal Poverty Level and < 40% had seen a dentist in the past year. Almost two-thirds (62.3%) had one or more sites with ≥ 5 mm of clinical attachment loss and almost half had at least one site with probing pocket depth of ≥ 4 mm. We estimated the lowest prevalence of periodontitis in Utah (62.3%) and New Hampshire (62.6%) and the highest in New Mexico, Hawaii, and the District of Columbia each with a prevalence of higher than 70%. Overall, periodontitis is highly prevalent in this subpopulation, with two-thirds of dentate older adults affected at any geographic level. These findings provide an

  4. Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Consumption among Chinese Older Adults: Do Living Arrangements Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiaan; Wu, Liyun

    2015-01-01

    This study used five waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to examine the relationship between living arrangements, smoking, and drinking among older adults in China from 1998–2008. We found that living arrangements had strong implications for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among the elderly. First, the likelihood of smoking was lower among older men living with children, and older women living either with a spouse, or with both a spouse and children; and the likelihood of drinking was lower among both older men, and women living with both a spouse and children, compared with those living alone. Second, among dual consumers (i.e., being a drinker and a smoker), the amount of alcohol consumption was lower among male dual consumers living with children, while the number of cigarettes smoked was higher among female dual consumers living with others, compared with those living alone. Third, among non-smoking drinkers, the alcohol consumption was lower among non-smoking male drinkers in all types of co-residential arrangements (i.e., living with a spouse, living with children, living with both a spouse and children, or living with others), and non-smoking female drinkers living with others, compared with those living alone. Results highlighted the importance of living arrangements to cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese elderly. Co-residential arrangements provided constraints on Chinese older adults’ health-risk behaviors, and had differential effects for men and women. PMID:25711361

  5. Prevalence and Characteristics of Smokers Interested in Internet-Based Smoking Cessation Interventions: Cross-sectional Findings From a National Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Michie, Susan; Raupach, Tobias; West, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background An accurate and up-to-date estimate of the potential reach of Internet-based smoking cessation interventions (ISCIs) would improve calculations of impact while an understanding of the characteristics of potential users would facilitate the design of interventions. Objective This study reports the prevalence and the sociodemographic, smoking, and Internet-use characteristics of smokers interested in using ISCIs in a nationally representative sample. Methods Data were collected using cross-sectional household surveys of representative samples of adults in England. Interest in trying an Internet site or “app” that was proven to help with stopping smoking was assessed in 1128 adult smokers in addition to sociodemographic characteristics, dependence, motivation to quit, previous attempts to quit smoking, Internet and handheld computer access, and recent types of information searched online. Results Of a representative sample of current smokers, 46.6% (95% CI 43.5%-49.6%) were interested in using an Internet-based smoking cessation intervention. In contrast, only 0.3% (95% CI 0%-0.7%) of smokers reported having used such an intervention to support their most recent quit attempt within the past year. After adjusting for all other background characteristics, interested smokers were younger (OR=0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99), reported stronger urges (OR=1.29, 95% CI 1.10-1.51), were more motivated to quit within 3 months (OR=2.16, 95% CI 1.54-3.02), and were more likely to have made a quit attempt in the past year (OR=1.76, 95% CI 1.30-2.37), access the Internet at least weekly (OR=2.17, 95% CI 1.40-3.36), have handheld computer access (OR=1.65, 95% CI 1.22-2.24), and have used the Internet to search for online smoking cessation information or support in past 3 months (OR=2.82, 95% CI 1.20-6.62). There was no association with social grade. Conclusions Almost half of all smokers in England are interested in using online smoking cessation interventions, yet fewer than

  6. [SMOKING PREVALENCE AND RISK FOR THE SMOKING- RELATED LOSS OF HEALTH OF THE POPULATION OF THE KRASNOIARSK KRAĬ].

    PubMed

    Goryaev, D V; Tikhonova, I V; Dogadin, F V

    2015-01-01

    There are presented data on the consumption of tobacco in the Krasnoyarsk Territory in the context of age-sex and social groups. Representatives of the workers specialties, students were shown to smoke more frequently, men smoke 2 times more often than women. For the population of the Krasnoyarsk Territory there were evaluated carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks for the loss of health, related with the factor of tobacco smoking. The significant portion of residents was established to accept tobacco smoking. The lack of a purposeful policy on the formation of the image of a non-smoker does as not only increase the interest in this bad habit from the part of young people as well determined the early age of the beginning of smoking, but also stimulates the continuation of smoking in an older age. The measures aimed at the reduction or cessation of smoking: education the population and informing about the dangers of smoking, promotion of healthy lifestyles; offensive disciplinary, civil, administrative responsibility; measures aimed on the increase in the cost, the provision of (free) medical care aimed at the treatment of tobacco dependence.

  7. Can Public Policy Deter Smoking Escalation among Young Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauras, John A.

    2005-01-01

    In the wake of significant budget shortfalls, 37 states and the District of Columbia have recently increased cigarette excise taxes to boost revenues. This study examines the impact of increasing the price of cigarettes, which will occur as a consequence of cigarette excise tax increases, and implementing restrictions on smoking in private…

  8. The Prevalence of Tooth Wear in the Dutch Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Wetselaar, Peter; Vermaire, Jan H.; Visscher, Corine M.; Lobbezoo, Frank; Schuller, Annemarie A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of tooth wear in different age groups of the Dutch adult population and to determine this tooth wear distribution by gender, socioeconomic class, and type of teeth. Results were compared with the outcomes of a previous study in a comparable population. As part of a comprehensive investigation of the oral health of the general Dutch adult population in 2013, tooth wear was assessed among 1,125 subjects in the city of ‘s-Hertogenbosch. The data collected were subjected to stratified analysis by 5 age groups (25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65-74 years), gender, socioeconomic class, and type of teeth. Tooth wear was assessed using a 5-point ordinal occlusal/incisal grading scale. The number of teeth affected was higher in older age groups. Men showed more tooth wear than women, and subjects with low socioeconomic status (low SES) showed on average higher scores than those with high SES. Tooth wear prevalence found in this study was higher in all age groups than in the previous study. The present study found prevalences of 13% for mild tooth wear and 80% for moderate tooth wear, leading to the conclusion that these are common conditions in the Dutch adult population. Severe tooth wear (prevalence 6%) may however be characterized as rare. A tendency was found for there to be more tooth wear in older age groups, in men as compared with women, in persons with lower SES, and in the present survey as compared with the previous one. PMID:27694757

  9. Association Between Electronic Cigarette Use and Openness to Cigarette Smoking Among US Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Ambrose, Bridget K.; Green, Kerry M.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Bunnell, Rebecca; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), is increasing. One concern is the appeal of these products to youth and young adults and the potential to influence perceptions and use of conventional cigarettes. Methods: Using data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, characteristics of adults aged 18–29 years who had never established cigarette smoking behavior were examined by ever use of e-cigarettes, demographics, and ever use of other tobacco products (smokeless tobacco, cigars, hookah, and cigarettes). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between e-cigarette use and openness to cigarette smoking among young adults, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or in the next year. Results: Among young adults who had never established cigarette smoking behavior (unweighted n = 4,310), 7.9% reported having ever tried e-cigarettes, and 14.6% of those who reported having ever tried e-cigarettes also reported current use of the product. Ever e-cigarette use was associated with being open to cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratio = 2.4; 95% confidence interval = 1.7, 3.3), as was being male, aged 18–24 years, less educated, and having ever used hookah or experimented with conventional cigarettes. Conclusions: Ever use of e-cigarettes and other tobacco products was associated with being open to cigarette smoking. This study does not allow us to assess the directionality of this association, so future longitudinal research is needed to illuminate tobacco use behaviors over time as well as provide additional insight on the relationship between ENDS use and conventional cigarette use among young adult populations. PMID:25378683

  10. Low intensity, long term exposure to tobacco smoke inhibits hippocampal neurogenesis in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Csabai, Dávid; Csekő, Kata; Szaiff, Lilla; Varga, Zsófia; Miseta, Attila; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Czéh, Boldizsár

    2016-04-01

    Previous data have shown that high dose of nicotine administration or tobacco smoke exposure can reduce cell formation and the survival rate of adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus. Here, we subjected adult mice to low intensity cigarette smoke exposure over long time periods. We did a 2×30min/day smoke exposure with two cigarettes per occasion over 1- or 2-months. Subsequently, we carried out a systematic quantitative histopathological analysis to assess the number of newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus. To investigate cell proliferation, the exogenous marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered on the last experimental day and animals were sacrificed 2h later. To investigate the effect of tobacco smoke on the population of immature neurons, we quantified the number of doublecortin-positive (DCX+) neurons in the same animals. We found that exposing animals to cigarette smoke for 1- or 2-months had no influence on cell proliferation rate, but significantly reduced the number of DCX-positive immature neurons. Our tobacco smoke exposure regimen caused no substantial changes in respiratory functions, but histopathological analysis of the pulmonary tissue revealed a marked perivascular/peribronchial edema formation after 1-month and signs of chronic pulmonary inflammation after 2-months of cigarette smoke exposure. These data demonstrate that even mild exposure to cigarette smoke, without significantly affecting respiratory functions, can have a negative effect on adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus, when applied over longer time periods. Our data indicate that besides nicotine other factors, such as inflammatory mediators, may also contribute to this effect.

  11. Efficacy of a text messaging (SMS) based smoking cessation intervention for adolescents and young adults: Study protocol of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Particularly in groups of adolescents with lower educational level the smoking prevalence is still high and constitutes a serious public health problem. There is limited evidence of effective smoking cessation interventions in this group. Individualised text messaging (SMS) based interventions are promising to support smoking cessation and could be provided to adolescents irrespective of their motivation to quit. The aim of the current paper is to outline the study protocol of a trial testing the efficacy of an SMS based intervention for smoking cessation in apprentices. Methods/Design A two-arm cluster-randomised controlled trial will be conducted to test the efficacy of an SMS intervention for smoking cessation in adolescents and young adults compared to an assessment only control group. A total of 910 daily or occasional (≥ 4 cigarettes in the preceding month and ≥ 1 cigarette in the preceding week) smoking apprentices will be proactively recruited in vocational school classes and, using school class as a randomisation unit, randomly assigned to an intervention group (n = 455) receiving the SMS based intervention or an assessment only control group (n = 455). Individualised text messages taking into account demographic data and the individuals' smoking behaviours will be sent to the participants of the intervention group over a period of 3 months. Participants will receive two text messages promoting smoking cessation per week. Program participants who intend to quit smoking have the opportunity to use a more intensive SMS program to prepare for their quit day and to prevent a subsequent relapse. The primary outcome measure will be the proportion of participants with 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence assessed at 6-months follow-up. The research assistants conducting the baseline and the follow-up assessments will be blinded regarding group assignment. Discussion It is expected that the program offers an effective and inexpensive way to

  12. Prevalence and characteristics of misreporting of energy intake in US adults: NHANES 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2015-10-28

    Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012, we investigated the prevalence and characteristics of under-reporting and over-reporting of energy intake (EI) among 19 693 US adults ≥20 years of age. For the assessment of EI, two 24-h dietary recalls were conducted using the US Department of Agriculture Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Under-reporters, acceptable reporters and over-reporters of EI were identified by two methods based on the 95 % confidence limits: (1) for agreement between the ratio of EI to BMR and a physical activity level for sedentary lifestyle (1·55) and (2) of the expected ratio of EI to estimated energy requirement (EER) of 1·0. BMR was calculated using Schofield's equations. EER was calculated using equations from the US Dietary Reference Intakes, assuming 'low active' level of physical activity. The risk of being an under-reporter or over-reporter compared with an acceptable reporter was analysed using multiple logistic regression. Percentages of under-reporters, acceptable reporters and over-reporters were 25·1, 73·5 and 1·4 %, respectively, based on EI:BMR, and 25·7, 71·8 and 2·5 %, respectively, based on EI:EER. Under-reporting was associated with female sex, older age, non-Hispanic blacks (compared with non-Hispanic whites), lower education, lower family poverty income ratio and overweight and obesity. Over-reporting was associated with male sex, younger age, lower family poverty income ratio, current smoking (compared with never smoking) and underweight. Similar findings were obtained when analysing only the first 24-h recall data from NHANES 1999-2012 (n 28 794). In conclusion, we found that misreporting of EI, particularly under-reporting, remains prevalent and differential in US adults.

  13. Racial and nonracial discrimination and smoking status among South African adults ten years after apartheid

    PubMed Central

    Dutra, Lauren M; Williams, David R; Kawachi, Ichiro; Okechukwu, Cassandra A

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite a long history of discrimination and persisting racial disparities in smoking prevalence, little research exists on the relationship between discrimination and smoking in South Africa. Methods This analysis examined chronic (day to day) and acute (lifetime) experiences of racial and nonracial (e.g., age, gender, or physical appearance) discrimination and smoking status among respondents to the South Africa Stress and Health Study (SASH). Logistic regression models were constructed using SAS-Callable SUDAAN. Results Both chronic racial discrimination (RR=1.45, 95%CI: 1.14–1.85) and chronic nonracial discrimination (RR=1.69, 95%CI: 1.37–2.08) predicted a higher risk of smoking, but neither type of acute discrimination did. Total (sum of racial and nonracial) chronic discrimination (RR=1.46, 95%CI: 1.20–1.78) and total acute discrimination (RR=1.28, 95%CI: 1.01–1.60) predicted a higher risk of current smoking. Conclusions Racial and nonracial discrimination may be related to South African adults’ smoking behavior, but this relationship likely varies by the timing and frequency of these experiences. Future research should use longitudinal data to identify the temporal ordering of the relationships studied, include areas outside of South Africa to increase generalizability, and consider the implications of these findings for smoking cessation approaches in South Africa. PMID:24789604

  14. Prevalence and Determinants of Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Women in Bangladesh, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Minnwegen, Martina; Kaneider, Ulrike; Kraemer, Alexander; Khan, Md. Mobarak Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The population of Bangladesh is highly susceptible to secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure due to high smoking rates and low awareness about the harmful effects of SHS. This study aims to determine the prevalence of SHS exposure and highlight the essential determinants in developing successful strategies to prevent adverse health effects in Bangladesh. Methods: The analysis is based on the Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey 2011, in which 17,749 women in the reproductive age group (12–49 years) were included. The information regarding SHS exposure at home was derived from the question: “How often does anyone smoke inside your house?” The variable was recoded into 3 groups: daily exposure, low exposure (exposed weekly, monthly, or less than monthly), and no SHS exposure. We performed descriptive and bivariable analyses and multinomial logistic regression. Results: A total of 46.7% of the women reported high exposure to SHS at home. According to the multinomial logistic regression model, relatively lower education and lower wealth index were significantly associated with daily SHS exposure at home. The exposure differed significantly between the divisions of Bangladesh. Having children at home (vs. not) and being Islamic (compared to other religious affiliations) were protective factors. Conclusions: The study indicates that women from socioeconomically disadvantaged households are more likely to experience daily exposure to SHS at home. Therefore, especially these groups have to be targeted to reduce tobacco consumption. In addition to aspects of legislation, future strategies need to focus educational aspects to improve the population’s health status in Bangladesh. PMID:25125322

  15. Osteoporosis and Prevalent Fractures among Adult Filipino Men Screened for Bone Mineral Density in a Tertiary Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Amy A.; Valdez, Valerie Ann U.; Mercado-Asis, Leilani B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis in men is markedly underdiagnosed and undertreated despite higher morbidity and mortality associated with fractures. This study aimed to characterize adult Filipino men with osteopenia, osteoporosis and prevalent fractures. Methods A cross-sectional study of 184 Filipino men ≥50 years screened for bone mineral density was performed. Age, weight, body mass index (BMI), Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) score, smoking status, family history of fracture, diabetes mellitus, physical inactivity, and T-score were considered. Results Of the 184 patients, 40.2% and 29.9% have osteopenia and osteoporosis. Sixteen (21.6%) and 18 (32.1%) osteopenic and osteoporotic men have fragility hip, spine, or forearm fractures. Men aged 50 to 69 years have the same risk of osteoporosis and fractures as those ≥70 years. While hip fractures are higher in osteoporotic men, vertebral fractures are increased in both osteopenic and osteoporotic men. Mere osteopenia predicts the presence of prevalent fractures. A high risk OSTA score can predict fracture. A BMI <21 kg/m2 (P<0.05) and current smoking are associated with osteoporosis. Conclusion A significant fraction of Filipino men with osteopenia and osteoporosis have prevalent fractures. Our data suggest that fractures occur in men <70 years even before osteoporosis sets in. Low BMI, high OSTA score, and smoking are significant risk factors of osteoporosis. PMID:27546872

  16. Prevalence of asthma–COPD overlap syndrome among primary care asthmatics with a smoking history: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kiljander, Toni; Helin, Timo; Venho, Kari; Jaakkola, Antero; Lehtimäki, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    Background: The overlap between asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an important clinical phenomenon. However, the prevalence of asthma–COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) is not known. Aims: To investigate the prevalence of ACOS among asthmatic patients with a smoking history, and evaluate the factors predicting ACOS in this patient group. Methods: We investigated 190 primary care asthma patients with no previous diagnosis of COPD, but who were either current or ex-smokers, with a smoking history of at least 10 pack-years. Spirometry was performed on all the patients while they were taking their normal asthma medication. Patients were considered to have ACOS if their postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity was <0.70. Results: Fifty-two (27.4%) of the patients were found to have ACOS. Age ⩾60 years and smoking for ⩾20 pack-years were the best predictors of ACOS. If both of these criteria were met, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for ACOS was 6.08 (2.11–17.49), compared with the situation where neither of these criteria were fulfilled. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of ACOS among primary health care asthmatics with a positive smoking history but no previous diagnosis of COPD. In this population, age over 60 years and a smoking history of more than 20 pack-years were the best predictors of ACOS. PMID:26182124

  17. A prospective examination of distress tolerance and early smoking lapse in adult self-quitters

    PubMed Central

    Lejuez, C. W.; Strong, David R.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Carpenter, Linda L.; Niaura, Raymond; Price, Lawrence H.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: A significant percentage of smokers attempting cessation lapse to smoking within a matter of days, and current models of relapse devote insufficient attention to such early smoking lapse. Studies attempting to relate severity of nicotine withdrawal symptoms to short-term smoking cessation outcomes have yielded equivocal results. How one reacts to the discomfort of nicotine withdrawal and quitting smoking (i.e., distress tolerance) may be a more promising avenue of investigation with important treatment implications. Methods: The present investigation examined distress tolerance and early smoking lapse using a prospective design. Participants were 81 adult daily smokers recruited through newspaper advertisements targeted at smokers planning to quit smoking without assistance (i.e., no pharmacotherapy or psychosocial treatment; 42 males and 39 females; mean age = 42.6 years, SD = 12.20). Results: As hypothesized, both greater breath-holding duration and carbon dioxide–enriched air persistence were associated with a significantly lower risk of smoking lapse following an unaided quit attempt. These effects were above and beyond the risk associated with levels of nicotine dependence, education, and history of major depressive disorder, suggesting that distress tolerance and task persistence may operate independently of risk factors such as nicotine dependence and depressive history. In contrast to expectation, persistence on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (a psychological challenge task) was not a significant predictor of earlier smoking lapse. Discussion: These results are discussed in relation to refining theoretical models of the role of distress tolerance in early smoking lapse and the utility of such models in the development of specialized treatment approaches for smoking cessation. PMID:19372572

  18. Prevalence and determinants of overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Yap, Roseline Wai Kuan; Loy, See Ling; Norris, Shane A; Biesma, Regien; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens

    2015-03-01

    This systematic review aimed to examine trends in overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among Malaysian adults, and to identify its underlying determinants. A review of studies published between 2000 and 2012 on overweight, obesity, and T2DM was conducted. The Cochrane library of systematic reviews, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Biosis, Scopus, and MyJurnal digital database were searched. According to national studies, the prevalence of overweight increased from 26.7% in 2003 to 29.4% in 2011; obesity prevalence increased from 12.2% in 2003 to 15.1% in 2011, and T2DM prevalence was reported as 11.6% in 2006 and 15.2% in 2011. Distal determinants of increased risk of overweight, obesity, and T2DM were as follows: female, Malay/Indian ethnicity, and low educational level. The limited number of studies on proximal determinants of these noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) indicated that an unhealthy diet was associated with increased risk, whereas smoking was associated with decreased risk. However, more studies on the proximal determinants of overweight, obesity, and T2DM within the Malaysian context are needed. Overall, our findings provide insights for designing both future investigative studies and strategies to control and prevent these NCDs in Malaysia.

  19. Prevalence and causes of visual impairment among Saudi adults

    PubMed Central

    Parrey, Mujeeb Ur Rehman; Alswelmi, Farhan Khashim

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment (VI) among Saudi adults in Arar City, the capital of Northern Border Region of Saudi Arabia. Methods: This population-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 705 Saudi adults aged 18 years and older. All participants underwent ophthalmic examination including visual acuity (VA) testing, auto refraction, intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement and fundus examination. Results: In the present study 166 cases (23.5%) were found to have VI, while only 12 cases (1.7%) were considered as blind following the WHO definitions. Cataract was found to be the main cause of VI [51 cases (30.7%)] followed by refractive error (RE) [41 cases (24.7%)] and diabetic retinopathy (DR) [22 cases (13.2%)]. Seventy one cases of the studied subjects (10.07 %) had shown unilateral VI, while 13 cases (1.8%) had shown unilateral blindness with the other eye normal (VA ≥ 20/20). Conclusion: Visual impairment is highly prevalent among Saudi adults in Arar city. Cataract, refractive error and diabetic retinopathy are the main 3 leading causes. Better plans for diagnosis and treatment should be considered to decrease the magnitude of the problem. PMID:28367193

  20. Associations between a History of Traumatic Brain Injuries and Current Cigarette Smoking, Substance Use, and Elevated Psychological Distress in a Population Sample of Canadian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Adlaf, Edward M.; Mann, Robert E.; Ialomiteanu, Anca; Hamilton, Hayley; Rehm, Jürgen; Asbridge, Mark; Cusimano, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study describes the prevalence of reported history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its association with reports of current substance use, cigarette smoking, and psychological distress among Canadian adults in a population sample. A cross-sectional sample of 1999 Ontario adults 18–93 years of age were surveyed by telephone in 2011 as part of the Center for Addiction and Mental Health's ongoing representative survey of adult mental health and substance use in Ontario, Canada. Loss of consciousness for at least 5 min or at least one overnight hospitalization resulting from symptoms associated with the TBI injury represented minimum criteria for TBI. An estimated 16.8% (95% confidence interval, 14.8, 19.0) of adults reported a TBI in their lifetime. Men had higher prevalence of TBI than women. Adults who reported a history of TBI had higher odds of reported past-year daily smoking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.15), using cannabis (AOR=2.80) and nonmedical opioids (AOR=2.90), as well as screened significantly for recent elevated psychological distress (AOR=1.97) in the past few weeks, compared to adults without a history of TBI. Co-occurrence of a history of TBI with current elevated psychological distress and substance use warrants vigilance among medical practitioners to assess the possibility of a history of TBI during reviews of the history leading to the occurrence of these conditions. PMID:25496189

  1. The Prevalence of Self-Reported Smoking and Validation with Urinary Cotinine Among Commercial Drivers in Major Parks in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Dania, Michelle G.; Irusen, Elvis M.

    2014-01-01

    The validity of self-reported smoking is questionable because smokers are inclined to deny smoking. We aimed to determine the prevalence of self-reported smoking among intra-city commercial drivers in Lagos, and assess its validity based on urinary cotinine assessment. This study was conducted at three major motor parks in Lagos, Nigeria. Information on smoking status and habits was obtained from 500 consecutive male drivers using a structured questionnaire during a face-to-face interview. Eighty-one self-reported smokers and non-smokers were selected by systematic random sampling for urinary cotinine assessment using cotinine strips. The prevalence of self-reported smoking was compared to the prevalence of smoking based on urinary cotinine and the specificity and positive predictive values of self-reported smoking was determined. Prevalence of self-reported current smoking was 32% and 17.9% of non-smokers were passive smokers. Among 81 drivers in whom urinary cotinine assessment was performed, the prevalence of smoking based on self-report was 34 (42%) compared to 41 (50.6%) when based on urinary cotinine, (X2=38.56, P<0.001). The rate of misclassification among self-reported non-smokers as smokers was 21.3% and misclassification rate for self-reported smokers as non-smokers was 8.8%. The sensitivity of self-reported smoking in accurately classifying smoking status was 91.2% and the specificity was 78.7%. The prevalence of self-reported cigarette smoking among commercial drivers in Lagos is high and a significant proportion of self-reported non-smokers are passive smokers. Self-reported smoking status obtained during face-to-face interview appears unreliable in obtaining accurate smoking data in our locality. PMID:28299115

  2. Racial differences in heritability of cigarette smoking in adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Bares, Cristina B.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Maes, Hermine H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although epidemiologic studies suggest low levels of cigarette use among African American adolescents relative to White U.S. adolescents, it is not known whether this may be due to racial differences in the relative contribution of genes and environment to cigarette use initiation and progression to regular use. Methods Using data from White (n=2,665) and African American (n=809) twins and full siblings sampled in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent, we fitted age-, sex- and race-specific variance decomposition models to estimate the magnitude of genetic and environmental effects on cigarette use initiation and cigarette use quantity in Whites and African Americans across adolescence and adulthood. We employ a causal-contingent-common pathway model to estimate the amount of variance explained in quantity of cigarettes smoked contingent on cigarette use initiation. Results African Americans had lower cigarette use prevalence from adolescence through adulthood, and used cigarettes less heavily than Whites. Race-specific causal-contingent-common pathway models indicate that racial differences in genetic and environmental contributions to cigarette use initiation and cigarette use quantities are not present in adolescence but appear in young adulthood. Additive genetic factors were an important risk factor for cigarette use initiation for White but less so for African American young adults and adults. Conclusions Genetic and environmental contributions for cigarette use are similar by race in adolescence. In adulthood, genes have a stronger influence for cigarette use among White adolescents while the influence of the environment is minimal. For African Americans, both genetic and environmental influences are important in young adulthood and adulthood. PMID:27427414

  3. Social Network Characteristics, Social Support, and Cigarette Smoking among Asian/Pacific Islander Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Cassel, Kevin; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe‘aimoku; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking may be one of the factors contributing to the high levels of cancer-related mortality experienced by certain Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) subgroups (e.g., Native Hawaiian). Given the collectivist cultural orientation attributed to A/PI groups, social strategies are recommended for substance abuse or smoking cessation treatment among A/PI. However, research examining how social network characteristics and social support relate to smoking across A/PI subgroups has been lacking. This study investigated the associations between social network characteristics (e.g., size, composition), perceived social support, and recent cigarette use across Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and East Asian (e.g., Japanese, Chinese) young adults (18–35 year old). Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from N = 435 participants (M age = 25.6, SD = 8.3; 61% women). Ethnic differences were found in a number of pathways linking social network characteristics, perceived social support, and cigarette smoking. Larger network size was strongly associated with higher perceived social support and lower recent cigarette smoking among Native Hawaiians but not Filipinos or East Asians. Higher perceived social support was associated with lower recent smoking among East Asians and Filipinos but not Native Hawaiians. Implications are discussed with regard to smoking prevention and cessation among A/PI. PMID:27297612

  4. Does social status predict adult smoking and obesity? Results from the 2000 Mexican National Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Buttenheim, A M; Wong, R; Goldman, N; Pebley, A R

    2010-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is generally associated with better health, but recent evidence suggests that this 'social gradient' in health is far from universal. This study examines whether social gradients in smoking and obesity in Mexico - a country in the midst of rapid socioeconomic change - conform to or diverge from results for richer countries. Using a nationally representative sample of 39,129 Mexican adults, we calculate the odds of smoking and of being obese by educational attainment and by household wealth. We conclude that socioeconomic determinants of smoking and obesity in Mexico are complex, with some flat gradients and some strong positive or negative gradients. Higher social status (education and assets) is associated with more smoking and less obesity for urban women. Higher status rural women also smoke more, but obesity for these women has a non-linear relationship to education. For urban men, higher asset levels (but not education) are associated with obesity, whereas education is protective of smoking. Higher status rural men with more assets are more likely to smoke and be obese. As household wealth, education and urbanisation continue to increase in Mexico, these patterns suggest potential targets for public health intervention now and in the future.

  5. Does social status predict adult smoking and obesity? Results from the 2000 Mexican National Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Buttenheim, A.M.; Wong, R.; Goldman, N.; Pebley, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is generally associated with better health, but recent evidence suggests that this ‘social gradient’ in health is far from universal. This study examines whether social gradients in smoking and obesity in Mexico—a country in the midst of rapid socioeconomic change—conform to or diverge from results for richer countries. Using a nationally-representative sample of 39 129 Mexican adults, we calculate the odds of smoking and of being obese by educational attainment and by household wealth. We conclude that socioeconomic determinants of smoking and obesity in Mexico are complex, with some flat gradients and some strong positive or negative gradients. Higher social status (education and assets) is associated with more smoking and less obesity for urban women. Higher status rural women also smoke more, but obesity for these women has a non-linear relationship to education. For urban men, higher asset levels (but not education) are associated with obesity, whereas education is protective of smoking. Higher status rural men with more assets are more likely to smoke and be obese. As household wealth, education, and urbanisation continue to increase in Mexico, these patterns suggest potential targets for public health intervention now and in the future. PMID:19367478

  6. Changes in Smoking Prevalence, Attitudes, and Beliefs over 4 Years Following a Campus-Wide Anti-Tobacco Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lechner, William V.; Meier, Ellen; Miller, Mary Beth; Wiener, Josh L.; Fils-Aime, Yvon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the effectiveness of an institutional intervention aimed at decreasing prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to smoke on campus over a 4-year period. Participants: Participants were undergraduate students (N = 4,947) enrolled at a large Midwestern university between 2007 and 2010. Methods: In 2008, tobacco…

  7. Prevalence of Hookah Smoking and Its Related Factors Among Students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 2012 - 2013

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi-Ghahramanloo, Abbas; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Zeraati, Hojjat; Safiri, Saeid; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Background Hookah smoking has increased worldwide, especially among young people. Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of hookah use and related factors in a sample of Iranian students of medical sciences. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1992 randomly selected sample of students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences during 2012 - 2013. A multistage sampling method was used and anonymous structured questionnaires were distributed to the students of each selected class. Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and multiple binary logistic regression analyses were performed and P < 0.05 was considered as a significance level. Results Lifetime, last year and last month prevalence rates of hookah smoking were 26.6% (95% CI: 24.7 - 28.6), 17.8% (95% CI: 16.1 - 19.5) and 8.9% (95% CI: 7.7 - 10.2), respectively. The results of logistic regression model showed that male gender [odds ratio (OR) = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.86 - 4.21], cigarette smoking in the past year (OR = 5.6, 95% CI: 3.21 - 9.83), alcohol use in the past year (OR = 7.4, 95% CI: 4.01 - 13.06), cigarette or hookah smoking in the family members (OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.13 - 2.51), cigarette or hookah smoking among friends (OR = 4.4, 95% CI: 2.69 - 7.33), alcohol use by friends in the past year (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.20 - 3.14), and illicit substance use among friends (OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.22 - 4.05) were associated with hookah smoking. Conclusions The results of our study indicate a relatively high prevalence of hookah smoking among Iranian students. The findings emphasize the importance of planning preventive interventions by considering different high-risk behaviors simultaneously. PMID:27803724

  8. Point prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of chronic cough in the general adult population

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Song, Woo-Jung; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Won, Ha-Kyeong; Sohn, Kyoung-Hee; Kang, Sung-Yoon; Jo, Eun-Jung; Kim, Min-Hye; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Heon; Park, Heung-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Lee, Byung-Jae; Morice, Alyn H.; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Cough is frequently self-limiting, but may persist longer in certain individuals. Most of previous studies on the epidemiology of chronic cough have only measured period prevalence, and thus have afforded limited information on the burden and natural course. We aimed to investigate the epidemiology of chronic cough by using a point prevalence measure in a large-scale general population. We analyzed cross-sectional data collected from 18,071 adults who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2012. Presence and duration of current cough was ascertained by structured questionnaires, and cough was classified into acute (<3 weeks), subacute (3–8 weeks), or chronic cough (≥8 weeks). Demographic and clinical parameters were examined in relation to chronic cough. The point prevalences of acute, subacute, and chronic cough were 2.5 ± 0.2%, 0.8 ± 0.1% and 2.6 ± 0.2%, respectively. The proportion of current cough showed a steep decrease after 1 week of duration. However, 2 peaks in the prevalence of current cough were revealed; cough durations of less than 1 week and longer than 1 year were most common (31.1% and 27.7% of current cough, respectively). Subacute and chronic cough were more prevalent in the elderly (≥65 years); the positive associations with older age were independent of other confounders, including current smoking and comorbidities. This is the first report on the epidemiology of cough using a point prevalence measure in a nationally representative population sample. Our findings indicate a high burden of chronic cough among adults with current cough in the community. The dual-peak of cough duration suggested that the pathophysiology of acute and chronic cough may differ. The preponderance of elderly people in the prevalence of chronic cough warrants further investigation. In addition, more sophistication and validation of tools to define chronic cough will help our understanding of the

  9. Effect of a Mobile Phone Intervention on Quitting Smoking in a Young Adult Population of Smokers: Randomized Controlled Trial Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Struik, Laura Louise; Hammond, David; Guindon, G Emmanuel; Norman, Cameron D; Whittaker, Robyn; Burns, Catherine M; Grindrod, Kelly A; Brown, K Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Background Tobacco use remains the number one cause of preventable chronic disease and death in developed countries worldwide. In North America, smoking rates are highest among young adults. Despite that the majority of young adult smokers indicate wanting to quit, smoking rates among this age demographic have yet to decline. Helping young adults quit smoking continues to be a public health priority. Digital mobile technology presents a promising medium for reaching this population with smoking cessation interventions, especially because young adults are the heaviest users of this technology. Objective The primary aim of this trial is to determine the effectiveness of an evidence-informed mobile phone app for smoking cessation, Crush the Crave, on reducing smoking prevalence among young adult smokers. Methods A parallel randomized controlled trial (RCT) with two arms will be conducted in Canada to evaluate Crush the Crave. In total, 1354 young adult smokers (19 to 29 years old) will be randomized to receive the evidence-informed mobile phone app, Crush the Crave, or an evidence-based self-help guide known as “On the Road to Quitting” (control) for a period of 6 months. The primary outcome measure is a 30-day point prevalence of abstinence at the 6-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes include a 7-day point prevalence of abstinence, number of quit attempts, reduction in consumption of cigarettes, self-efficacy, satisfaction, app utilization metrics, and use of smoking cessation services. A cost-effectiveness analysis is included. Results This trial is currently open for recruitment. The anticipated completion date for the study is April 2016. Conclusions This randomized controlled trial will provide the evidence to move forward on decision making regarding the inclusion of technology-based mobile phone interventions as part of existing smoking cessation efforts made by health care providers. Evidence from the trial will also inform the development of future apps

  10. Perceptions Toward a Smoking Cessation App Targeting LGBTQ+ Youth and Young Adults: A Qualitative Framework Analysis of Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Darly; Wong, Katy; Shuh, Alanna; Abramowicz, Aneta

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of smoking among lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, queer, and other sexual minority (LGBTQ+) youth and young adults (YYA) is significantly higher compared with that among non-LGBTQ+ persons. However, in the past, interventions were primarily group cessation classes that targeted LGBTQ+ persons of all ages. mHealth interventions offer an alternate and modern intervention platform for this subpopulation and may be of particular interest for young LGBTQ+ persons. Objective This study explored LGBTQ+ YYA (the potential users’) perceptions of a culturally tailored mobile app for smoking cessation. Specifically, we sought to understand what LGBTQ+ YYA like and dislike about this potential cessation tool, along with how such interventions could be improved. Methods We conducted 24 focus groups with 204 LGBTQ+ YYA (aged 16-29 years) in Toronto and Ottawa, Canada. Participants reflected on how an app might support LGBTQ+ persons with smoking cessation. Participants indicated their feelings, likes and dislikes, concerns, and additional ideas for culturally tailored smoking cessation apps. Framework analysis was used to code transcripts and identify the overarching themes. Results Study findings suggested that LGBTQ+ YYA were eager about using culturally tailored mobile apps for smoking cessation. Accessibility, monitoring and tracking, connecting with community members, tailoring, connecting with social networks, and personalization were key reasons that were valued for a mobile app cessation program. However, concerns were raised about individual privacy and that not all individuals had access to a mobile phone, users might lose interest quickly, an app would need to be marketed effectively, and app users might cheat and lie about progress to themselves. Participants highlighted that the addition of distractions, rewards, notifications, and Web-based and print versions of the app would be extremely useful to mitigate some of their concerns

  11. What Is the Prevalence of Adult ADHD? Results of a Population Screen of 966 Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    To provide a better estimate of the prevalence of ADHD in adulthood, the authors complete a telephone survey of 966 randomly selected adults. They compute two diagnoses from the survey data. Participants meeting "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) criteria for both childhood and adulthood are defined as narrow ADHD.…

  12. Mapping Engagement in Twitter-Based Support Networks for Adult Smoking Cessation.

    PubMed

    Lakon, Cynthia M; Pechmann, Cornelia; Wang, Cheng; Pan, Li; Delucchi, Kevin; Prochaska, Judith J

    2016-08-01

    We examined engagement in novel quit-smoking private social support networks on Twitter, January 2012 to April 2014. We mapped communication patterns within 8 networks of adult smokers (n = 160) with network ties defined by participants' tweets over 3 time intervals, and examined tie reciprocity, tie strength, in-degree centrality (popularity), 3-person triangles, 4-person cliques, network density, and abstinence status. On average, more than 50% of ties were reciprocated in most networks and most ties were between abstainers and nonabstainers. Tweets formed into more aggregated patterns especially early in the study. Across networks, 35.00% (7 days after the quit date), 49.38% (30 days), and 46.88% (60 days) abstained from smoking. We demonstrated that abstainers and nonabstainers engaged with one another in dyads and small groups. This study preliminarily suggests potential for Twitter as a platform for adult smoking-cessation interventions.

  13. Constructing a Short Form of the Smoking Consequences Questionnaire With Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Mark G.; McCarthy, Denis M.; MacPherson, Laura; Brown, Sandra A.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the present studies was to construct and validate a short form of the 50-item Smoking Consequences Questionnaire (SCQ; T. H. Brandon & T. B. Baker, 1991), a measure of smoking outcome expectancies. In Study 1, a 21-item short form (S-SCQ) was derived from a sample of 107 young adults previously treated for substance abuse. In Study 2, the measure was cross-validated on 125 adolescents in treatment for substance abuse. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed good model fit and factorial invariance for the 4 S-SCQ subscales across both samples. Validation analyses on each sample found that subscale scores generally correlated significantly with smoking-related variables. The present studies provide initial evidence for the utility of the S-SCQ when used with young adults and adolescents. PMID:12847776

  14. Can a deterministic spatial microsimulation model provide reliable small-area estimates of health behaviours? An example of smoking prevalence in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dianna M; Pearce, Jamie R; Harland, Kirk

    2011-03-01

    Models created to estimate neighbourhood level health outcomes and behaviours can be difficult to validate as prevalence is often unknown at the local level. This paper tests the reliability of a spatial microsimulation model, using a deterministic reweighting method, to predict smoking prevalence in small areas across New Zealand. The difference in the prevalence of smoking between those estimated by the model and those calculated from census data is less than 20% in 1745 out of 1760 areas. The accuracy of these results provides users with greater confidence to utilize similar approaches in countries where local-level smoking prevalence is unknown.

  15. Increased Prevalence of Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peppard, Paul E.; Young, Terry; Barnet, Jodi H.; Palta, Mari; Hagen, Erika W.; Hla, Khin Mae

    2013-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing is a common disorder with a range of harmful sequelae. Obesity is a strong causal factor for sleep-disordered breathing, and because of the ongoing obesity epidemic, previous estimates of sleep-disordered breathing prevalence require updating. We estimated the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in the United States for the periods of 1988–1994 and 2007–2010 using data from the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study, an ongoing community-based study that was established in 1988 with participants randomly selected from an employed population of Wisconsin adults. A total of 1,520 participants who were 30–70 years of age had baseline polysomnography studies to assess the presence of sleep-disordered breathing. Participants were invited for repeat studies at 4-year intervals. The prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing was modeled as a function of age, sex, and body mass index, and estimates were extrapolated to US body mass index distributions estimated using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The current prevalence estimates of moderate to severe sleep-disordered breathing (apnea-hypopnea index, measured as events/hour, ≥15) are 10% (95% confidence interval (CI): 7, 12) among 30–49-year-old men; 17% (95% CI: 15, 21) among 50–70-year-old men; 3% (95% CI: 2, 4) among 30–49-year-old women; and 9% (95% CI: 7, 11) among 50–70 year-old women. These estimated prevalence rates represent substantial increases over the last 2 decades (relative increases of between 14% and 55% depending on the subgroup). PMID:23589584

  16. Factors Associated with Smoking Cessation among Chinese Adults in Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Tingzhong; Abdullah, Abu Saleh M.; Mustafa, Jabed; Chen, Bin; Feng, Xiangxian

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the factors associated with smoking cessation among adult Chinese males in rural China. Methods: The data were collected by face-to-face interviews at the respondents' household using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Results: The factors associated with quitting were being residents of Guiyang, having received junior…

  17. Ecological momentary assessment of antecedents and consequences of smoking in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, John T; Dennis, Michelle F; English, Joseph S; Dennis, Paul A; Brightwood, Amy; Beckham, Jean C; Kollins, Scott H

    2014-09-01

    The current study assessed antecedents and consequences of ad lib cigarette smoking in smokers diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Adult smokers with ADHD (n = 17) completed 870 smoking and 622 nonsmoking electronic diary entries over a 7-day observation period of their naturalistic smoking behavior. Data collection occurred from 2011 to 2012. Generalized estimating equations indicated that ADHD smokers were more likely to smoke when urge to smoke, negative affect, boredom, stress, worry, and restlessness were elevated. In addition, participants were more likely to smoke in situations that elicited higher levels of nervousness and frustration. ADHD symptoms, in general, did not differ between smoking and nonsmoking contexts, though hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms were elevated prior to smoking in frustrating situations. Additional situational antecedent variables were associated with smoking, including being in the presence of others smoking, being in a bar or restaurant, while outside, and while consuming caffeinated or alcoholic beverages. Participants also reported a significant improvement in urge to smoke, negative affect, stress, hunger, and ADHD symptoms after smoking a cigarette. Findings suggest certain contextual factors that may maintain ad lib cigarette smoking in smokers with ADHD and identify potential treatment targets in smoking cessation interventions for this at-risk group. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed. Funding for this study was provided by the National Institute on Drug Abuse.

  18. Smoking and Hand Dermatitis in the United States Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yi Chun

    2016-01-01

    Background Hand dermatitis is a common chronic relapsing skin disease resulting from a variety of causes, including endogenous predisposition and environmental exposures to irritants and allergens. Lifestyle factors such as smoking have been implicated in hand dermatitis. Objective To evaluate the association between tobacco exposure and hand dermatitis using the 2003~2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) database. Methods Data were retrieved and analyzed from 1,301 participants, aged 20~59 years, from the 2003~2004 NHANES questionnaire study who completed health examination and blood tests. Diagnosis of hand dermatitis was based on standardized photographs of the dorsal and palmar views of the hands read by two dermatologists. Results There were 38 diagnosed cases of active hand dermatitis out of the 1,301 study participants (2.9%). Heavy smokers (>15 g tobacco daily) were 5.11 times more likely to have active hand dermatitis (odds ratio [OR], 5.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39~18.88; p=0.014). Those with serum cotinine >3 ng/ml were also more likely to have active hand dermatitis, compared with those with serum cotinine ≤3 ng/ml (OR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.26~4.95; p=0.007). After adjusting for confounding factors such as age, atopic diathesis, occupational groups, and physical activity, the association between tobacco exposure and active hand dermatitis remained significant. Conclusion Smoking has a significant association with the presence of active hand dermatitis. It is important to consider smoking cessation as part of management of hand dermatitis. PMID:27081262

  19. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults from North Africa.

    PubMed

    Toselli, Stefania; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Boulos, Dina N K; Anwar, Wagida A; Lakhoua, Chérifa; Jaouadi, Imen; Khyatti, Meriem; Hemminki, Kari

    2014-08-01

    The share of North African immigrants in Europe is growing continuously. In this review, we aimed to systematically analyse and describe the literature on weight status and physical activity in North African adults, both in their home country and after immigration to Europe. Existing data on North African residents and on North African immigrants in Europe were analysed by a systematic search on PUBMED. There is a wide variation among countries in the prevalence of overweight/obesity, with immigrants showing higher values. The overall results revealed a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity in females than in males in North African residents. Females also show higher levels of obesity among immigrants. In particular, literature reports indicate that 1.3-47.8% of North African residents and 3.6-49.4% of North African immigrants in adult age are overweight or obese. Physical inactivity is higher than 20% in males and 40% in females in North African residents. The highest frequency of physically inactive or lightly active people among immigrants was observed in first-generation Sudanese and Moroccans in Amsterdam (males: 57.1%; females: 74.2%), with increasing rates in second-generation females. The results underline a higher health risk in North African immigrants than in residents. Specific public health strategies should be adopted in various populations of North African origin to control the obesity epidemic.

  20. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Frailty Among Peruvian Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Runzer-Colmenares, Fernando M.; Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Snih, Soham Al; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.; Parodi, José F.; Wong, Rebeca

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the prevalence and factors associated with frailty in Peruvian Navy Veteran's older adults and family members. A total of 311 non-institutionalized men and women aged 60 years and older, from the Geriatrics Service of the Peruvian Navy Medical Center (Centro Médico Naval “Cirujano Mayor Santiago Távara”) were assessed between May and October 2010. Frailty was defined as having two or more of the following components: 1) unintentional weight-loss, 2) weakness (lowest 20% in grip-strength), 3) self-reported exhaustion, and 4) slow walking speed (lowest 20% 8-meter walk-time in seconds). Additionally, information on socio-demographic factors, medical conditions, depressive symptoms, disability, and cognitive function were obtained. Of the 311 participants, 78 (25.1%) were not frail, 147 (47.3%) were pre-frail, and 86 (27.8%) were frail. Using logistic regression analysis, we found that older age, being married, falls in the last year and disability were factors significantly associated with being frail. We conclude that prevalence of pre-frail and frail status in Peruvian Navy Veterans and family members is high. Our data reports risk factors for frailty that have been reported in the past in other population groups. A larger sample and longitudinal follow-up are needed to design and implement comprehensive geriatric interventions that can benefit Peruvian Navy Veteran's older adults at risk of becoming frail. PMID:23978328

  1. Prevalence of Anemia among Older Adults Residing in the Coastal and Andes Mountains in Ecuador: Results of the SABE Survey

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the prevalence of anemia and its determinants among older adults in Ecuador. Methods. The present study was based on data from the National Survey of Health, Wellbeing, and Aging. Hemoglobin concentrations were adjusted by participants' smoking status and altitude of residence, and anemia was defined according to the World Health Organization criteria (<12 g/dL in women and <13 g/dL in men). Gender-specific logistic regression models were used to examine the association between demographic and health characteristics and anemia. Results. A total of 2,372 subjects with a mean age of 71.8 (SD 8.2) years had their hemoglobin measured, representing an estimated 1.1 million older adults. The crude prevalence of anemia was 20.0% in women and 25.2% in men. However, higher anemia prevalence rates were seen with advancing age among black women and subjects residing in the urban coast. Likewise, certain health conditions such as hypoalbuminemia, cancer in men, chronic kidney disease, iron deficiency, and low grade inflammation were associated with increased odds of having anemia. Conclusions. Anemia is a prevalent condition among older adults in Ecuador. Moreover, further research is needed to examine the association between anemia and adverse health-related outcomes among older Ecuadorians. PMID:28321252

  2. Prevalence of Anemia among Older Adults Residing in the Coastal and Andes Mountains in Ecuador: Results of the SABE Survey.

    PubMed

    Orces, Carlos H

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the prevalence of anemia and its determinants among older adults in Ecuador. Methods. The present study was based on data from the National Survey of Health, Wellbeing, and Aging. Hemoglobin concentrations were adjusted by participants' smoking status and altitude of residence, and anemia was defined according to the World Health Organization criteria (<12 g/dL in women and <13 g/dL in men). Gender-specific logistic regression models were used to examine the association between demographic and health characteristics and anemia. Results. A total of 2,372 subjects with a mean age of 71.8 (SD 8.2) years had their hemoglobin measured, representing an estimated 1.1 million older adults. The crude prevalence of anemia was 20.0% in women and 25.2% in men. However, higher anemia prevalence rates were seen with advancing age among black women and subjects residing in the urban coast. Likewise, certain health conditions such as hypoalbuminemia, cancer in men, chronic kidney disease, iron deficiency, and low grade inflammation were associated with increased odds of having anemia. Conclusions. Anemia is a prevalent condition among older adults in Ecuador. Moreover, further research is needed to examine the association between anemia and adverse health-related outcomes among older Ecuadorians.

  3. Determinants of oral cancer at the national level: just a question of smoking and alcohol drinking prevalence?

    PubMed

    Petti, Stefano; Scully, Crispian

    2010-07-01

    In addition to individual-based prevention strategies, the burden of oral cancer could be decreased by controlling its national level determinants. Population-based studies have found smoking, drinking, and wealth to be associated with oral cancer incidence and mortality rates. However, these studies merely reported trends, or did not account for confounders or for intercorrelation between predictor variables. This ecologic study sought to investigate oral cancer determinants at the country level. The male, age-standardized mortality rate was the dependent variable. The explanatory variables, obtained from reliable international agencies, were life expectancy, frequency of physicians, gross national product (GNP), expenditure on health, literacy rate, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence, smoking prevalence, alcohol drinking prevalence, drinking modality, average daily calorie consumption, and average calorie intake from fruit and vegetables. Common factor analysis was used to generate a new dimension that incorporated all of the strongly intercorrelated variables. These were life expectancy, physician frequency, GNP, expenditure on health, literacy rate, calorie consumption, smoking prevalence, and drinking modality. According to this dimension, arbitrarily called the country development level (CDL), countries were split into quartiles. The ecologic risk for high mortality from oral cancer, estimated using logistic regression analysis, was three to five times higher among the second, third, and fourth CDL quartiles than among the first CDL quartile, which included the highest-income countries. HIV, drinking prevalence, and fruit and vegetable intake did not affect significantly mortality. These results suggest that it might be possible to improve oral cancer mortality by modifying country-based determinants related to aberrant lifestyles (not only smoking and drinking prevalence) and improving healthcare system efficiency, approximately estimated by CDL

  4. Tobacco use in India: prevalence and predictors of smoking and chewing in a national cross sectional household survey

    PubMed Central

    Rani, M; Bonu, S; Jha, P; Nguyen, S; Jamjoum, L

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence and the socioeconomic and demographic correlates of tobacco consumption in India. Design: Cross sectional, nationally representative population based household survey. Subjects: 315 598 individuals 15 years or older from 91 196 households were sampled in National Family Health Survey-2 (1998–99). Data on tobacco consumption were elicited from household informants. Measures and methods: Prevalence of current smoking and current chewing of tobacco were used as outcome measures. Simple and two way cross tabulations and multivariate logistic regression analysis were the main analytical methods. Results: Thirty per cent of the population 15 years or older—47% men and 14% of women—either smoked or chewed tobacco, which translates to almost 195 million people—154 million men and 41million women in India. However, the prevalence may be underestimated by almost 11% and 1.5% for chewing tobacco among men and women, respectively, and by 5% and 0.5% for smoking among men and women, respectively, because of use of household informants. Tobacco consumption was significantly higher in poor, less educated, scheduled castes and scheduled tribe populations. The prevalence of tobacco consumption increased up to the age of 50 years and then levelled or declined. The prevalence of smoking and chewing also varied widely between different states and had a strong association with individual's sociocultural characteristics. Conclusion: The findings of the study highlight that an agenda to improve health outcomes among the poor in India must include effective interventions to control tobacco use. Failure to do so would most likely result in doubling the burden of diseases—both communicable and non-communicable—among India's teeming poor. There is a need for periodical surveys using more consistent definitions of tobacco use and eliciting information on different types of tobacco consumed. The study also suggests a need to adjust the

  5. Education Associations With Smoking and Leisure-Time Physical Inactivity Among Hispanic and Asian Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Nancy E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed whether associations between education and 2 health behaviors—smoking and leisure-time physical inactivity (LTPI)—depended on nativity and age at immigration among Hispanic and Asian young adults. Methods. Data came from the 2000–2008 National Health Interview Survey. The sample included 13 345 Hispanics and 2528 Asians aged 18 to 30 years. Variables for smoking and LTPI were based on self-reported data. We used logistic regression to examine education differentials in these behaviors by nativity and age at immigration. Results. The association of education with both smoking and LTPI was weaker for foreign-born Hispanics than for US-born Hispanics but did not vary by nativity for Asians. Education associations for smoking and LTPI among foreign-born Hispanics who had immigrated at an early age more closely resembled those of US-born Hispanics than did education associations among foreign-born Hispanics who had immigrated at an older age. A similar pattern for smoking was evident among Asians. Conclusions. Health-promotion efforts aimed at reducing disparities in key health behaviors among Hispanic and Asian young adults should take into account country of residence in childhood and adolescence as well as nativity. PMID:21233440

  6. Is the prevalence of youth smoking affected by efforts to increase retailer compliance with a minors' access law?

    PubMed

    Cummings, K Michael; Hyland, Andrew; Perla, Jeanne; Giovino, Gary A

    2003-08-01

    This study correlated measures of youth smoking behavior with community-level indicators of retailer compliance with a minors' tobacco access law. The study was carried out between 1992 and 1996 in 12 communities in Erie County, New York. Retailer compliance was assessed by having adolescents attempt to purchase tobacco products in licensed tobacco-selling outlets in fall 1994 and fall 1995 after implementation of an aggressive enforcement program. Communities were grouped in two ways: (a) those that did or did not increase retailer compliance rates by 200% or more between 1994 and 1995 and (b) those that did or did not achieve an 80% retailer compliance rate in 1995. School-based surveys conducted in 1992 and 1996 assessed the tobacco use behaviors of ninth-grade public school students. Between 1994 and 1995, retailer compliance increased in all 12 communities by an average of 155%. In 1995, six of the 12 communities achieved retailer compliance rates in excess of 80%. Indicators of youth smoking behavior did not vary significantly between communities that increased their retailer compliance rates by more or less than 200%. The prevalence of past 30-day smoking remained stable between 1992 and 1996 in the six communities that achieved a retailer compliance rate of at least 80% and increased slightly in the remaining communities. The prevalence of frequent smoking decreased between 1992 and 1996 in the communities that achieved a retailer compliance rate of at least 80% and increased slightly in the six communities that failed to achieve this rate. Achieving a high rate of retailer compliance with a minors' access law appears to have caused youths to rely more on noncommercial sources of cigarettes and may have had a small effect on adolescent smoking prevalence, especially frequent smoking.

  7. Sexual orientation disparities in smoking vary by sex and household smoking among US adults: Findings from the 2003–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Gamarel, Kristi E.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Lee, Ji Hyun; Reisner, Sari L.; Mereish, Ethan H.; Matthews, Alicia K.; Operario, Don

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examined whether sexual orientation-related smoking disparities in males and females varied by household smoking behaviors in a nationally representative sample of US adults. Methods Data were drawn from the 2003–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, which assessed 14,972 individuals ages 20 to 59 years for sexual orientation, current smoking status, and household smoking. Weighted multivariable logistic models were fit to examine whether differences in current smoking status among sexual minority adults compared to heterosexuals was moderated by household smoking and sex, adjusting for covariates. Results The main effects of identifying as a sexual minority, being male, and living with a household smoker were all associated with a significantly higher odds of being a current smoker. However, there also was a significant three-way interaction among these variables (AOR=3.75, 95% CI: 1.33, 10.54). Follow-up analyses by sex indicated that the interaction between sexual identity and household smoking was significant for both males (AOR=6.40, 95% CI: 1.27, 32.28) and females (AOR=0.43, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.81) but was in the opposite direction. Among male, living with a smoker was associated more strongly with greater odds of smoking among gay and bisexual males, compared to heterosexual males. In contrast, among females, living with a smoker was more strongly associated with greater odds of smoking for heterosexuals compared to lesbians and bisexuals. Conclusions Future research is warranted to examine characteristics of households, including smoking behaviors and composition, to guide more effective and tailored smoking cessation interventions for males and females by sexual orientation. PMID:26598804

  8. State Clean Indoor Air Laws and smoking among adults with poor mental health.

    PubMed

    Larson, Anne; Bovbjerg, Victor; Luck, Jeff

    2016-05-05

    Persons with mental illness smoke at twice the rate of the general United States (US) population and die an average of 25-years younger, often from preventable diseases. This study seeks to determine whether disparities in smoking have increased over the past decade and whether Clean Indoor Air Laws (CIALs) are associated with changes in smoking among those with poor mental health. We used a fixed-effects model for estimation. CIALs were associated with 15 per cent decreased odds of smoking among adults in the US. Among those with poor mental health, these same laws had no effect. Between 2000 and 2010, the disparity in smoking rates between these two populations has steadily increased from 1.8 to 2.2 times greater. Given the lack of association between tobacco laws and smoking among those with poor mental health, alternative and more targeted tobacco reduction efforts may be necessary.Journal of Public Health Policy advance online publication, 5 May 2016; doi:10.1057/jphp.2016.17.

  9. Personality Disorders and Cigarette Smoking among Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Zvolensky, Michael J.; Jenkins, Elizabeth F.; Johnson, Kirsten A.; Goodwin, Renee D.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction There is a paucity of empirical information pertaining to the association between personality disorders and cigarette smoking. The present study examined whether, and to what degree, personality disorders are associated with cigarette smoking; investigated the specificity of any observed smoking-personality disorder association; and the role of mood/anxiety disorders, substance use, and nicotine dependence in those relations. Methods Data were drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a nationally representative sample of 43,083 adults in the United States. Results Results indicated a substantial percentage of those with personality disorders are nicotine dependent. Interestingly, the association between dependent, avoidant, histrionic, schizoid and paranoid personality disorders as well as former dependent smoking was partially explained by co-occurring mood/anxiety disorders, and adjusting for such clinical conditions appeared to generally attenuate the strength of many other associations. Finally, the association between personality disorders and smoking appears to differ by specific personality disorder, with some of the strongest relations being evident for antisocial personality disorder. Discussion These novel empirical findings are discussed in relation to the relevance of cigarette smoking among those with personality disorders. PMID:21168156

  10. Social Branding to Decrease Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Young Adult Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Fallin, Amanda; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals are more likely to smoke than the general population. This study evaluated a Social Branding intervention, CRUSH, which included an aspirational brand, social events, and targeted media to discourage smoking among LGBT young adults in Las Vegas, NV. Methods: Cross-sectional surveys (N = 2,395) were collected in Las Vegas LGBT bars at 2 time points 1 year apart. Multivariate logistic regressions examined associations between campaign exposure, message understanding, and current (past 30 days) smoking, controlling for demographics. Results: LGBT individuals were significantly more likely to report current (past 30 day) smoking than heterosexual/straight, gender-conforming participants. Overall, 53% of respondents reported exposure to CRUSH; of those exposed, 60% liked the campaign, 60.3% reported they would attend a CRUSH event on a night when they usually went somewhere else, and 86.3% correctly identified that the campaign was about “partying fresh and smokefree.” Current smoking was reported by 47% of respondents at Time 1 and 39.6% at Time 2. There were significant interactions between time and campaign exposure and campaign exposure and understanding the message. Among those who understood the CRUSH smokefree message, the highest level of campaign exposure was significantly associated with 37%–48% lower odds for current smoking. Conclusions: While longitudinal studies would better assess the impact of this intervention, CRUSH shows promise to reduce tobacco use among LGBT bar patrons. PMID:26180223

  11. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Hypertension among Adults in Rural Nepal: A Community Based Study.

    PubMed

    Chataut, J; Khanal, K; Manandhar, K

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension is a major health problem throughout the world and is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. It is important to detect and manage prehypertension and hypertension to reduce the risk of correlated complications especially cardiovascular diseases. Objective The objective of the study was to find the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension among the adults in rural Nepal. Method A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 648 respondents. The information was obtained using pre-tested questionnaire which included demographic information of individuals and other risk factors like alcohol and tobacco use, physical activity and diet preference. Height, weight and blood pressure were recorded and hypertension was defined as per Joint National Committee (JNC) VII guidelines. Result The overall prevalence of hypertension was 20.5 % and pre-hypertension was 46.6%. The males had higher prevalence of hypertension (30.6%) compared to females (13.8%). Bivariate analysis showed male gender, smoking and non vegetarian diet have association with hypertension. Male gender [OR 2.50 (1.68 - 3.74)] and non vegetarian diet [OR 0.11 (0.01 - 0.85)] were found to be significantly associated with hypertension in multivariate analysis. Conclusion The prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension was high in the study population. In absence of life style modification and risk reduction the individuals categorized as prehypertension have great risk of developing hypertension in the future which may pose a great challenge in the future. Hence, there is a big scope for screening and primary prevention strategies to curb the epidemic of hypertension.

  12. Smoking Trajectories Among Monoracial and Biracial Black Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Trenette T.; Nguyen, Anh B.; Coman, Emanuel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cigarette smoking trajectories were assessed among monorace Blacks, Black-American Indians, Black-Asians, Black-Hispanics, and Black-Whites. Method We used a subsample of nationally representative data obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The sample consisted of adolescents who were in Grades 7 – 12 in 1994, and followed across four waves of data collection into adulthood. Wave 4 data were collected in 2007–2008 when most respondents were between 24 and 32 years old. Respondents could report more than one race/ethnicity. Poisson regression was used to analyze the data. Results We found distinct smoking trajectories among monorace and biracial/ethnic Blacks, with all groups eventually equaling or surpassing trajectories of Whites. The age of cross-over varied by gender for some subgroups, with Black-American Indian males catching up earlier than Black-American Indian females. Black-White females smoked on more days than monorace Black females until age 26 and also smoked more than Black-White males between ages 11 and 29 years. Black-Hispanic males smoked on more days than Black-Hispanic females from ages 11 to 14. The results of the interaction tests also indicated different smoking trajectories across SES levels among White, Black, and Black-White respondents. Conclusion Significant heterogeneity was observed regarding smoking trajectories between monoracel and biracial/ethnic Blacks. Knowledge of cigarette smoking patterns among monorace and biracial/ethnic Black youth and young adults extends our understanding of the etiology of tobacco use and may inform interventions. PMID:28344360

  13. Independent and Interactive Effects of Smoking Bans and Tobacco Taxes on a Cohort of US Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Brian C.; Kadowaki, Joy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the mutual effects of smoking bans and taxes on smoking among a longitudinal cohort of young adults. Methods. We combined a repository of US tobacco policies at the state and local level with the nationally representative geocoded National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (2004–2011) from ages 19 to 31 years and Census data, to examine the impact of tobacco policies on any current and daily pack smoking. The analytic sample amounts to 19 668 observations among 4341 individuals within 487 cities. Results. For current smoking, we found significant effects for comprehensive smoking bans, but not excise taxes. We also found an interaction effect, with bans being most effective in locales with no or low taxes. For daily pack smoking, we found significant effects for taxes, but limited support for bans. Conclusions. Social smoking among young adults is primarily inhibited by smoking bans, but excise taxes only deter such smoking in the absence of a ban. Heavy smokers are primarily deterred by taxes. Although both policies have an impact on young adult smoking behaviors, their dual presence does not intensify each policy’s efficacy. PMID:26691133

  14. Prevalence of Major Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Coronary Heart Disease in a Sample of Greek Adults: The Saronikos Study

    PubMed Central

    Gikas, Aristofanis; Lambadiari, Vaia; Sotiropoulos, Alexios; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Pappas, Stavros

    2016-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive data regarding prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and associated factors in different geographical regions are very important to our understanding of global distribution and evolution of CHD. The aim of this study was to assess the current prevalence of self-reported risk factors and CHD in Greek adult population. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in May 2014, during an election day, among residents of Saronikos municipality (Attica region). Data were collected from face-to-face interviews. The study sample included 2636 subjects (men, 49.5%; mean age, 50.5; range 20-95 years), with similar age and sex distribution to the target population. Results: The age-standardized prevalence rates of five major risk factors were as follows: type 2 diabetes 11.1%, hypercholesterolemia (cholesterol>240 mg/dl or using cholesterol-lowering medication) 23.8%, hypertension 27.2%, current smoking 38.9% and physical inactivity 43%. Of the participants, only 21% were free of any of these factors. Clustering of two to five risk factors was more frequent among persons aged 50 years and older as compared with younger ones (60% vs 27%, P=0.000). The age-adjusted prevalence of CHD was 6.3% (in men, 8.9%; in women, 3.8%) and that of myocardial infarction was 3.6% (in men, 5.2%; in women, 2.1%). According to multivariate analysis age, gender, education level, obesity, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and ever smoking were strongly associated with CHD. Conclusion: Classic risk factors are highly prevalent and frequently clustered, especially in adults aged 50 years and older. These findings raise concerns about future trends of already increased rates of CHD. Multifactorial and integrated population-based interventions need to be applied to reduce the burden of cardiovascular conditions. PMID:27429668

  15. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Diabetes and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Chinese Hypertensive Adults Aged 45 to 75 Years

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Ma, Wei; Fan, Fangfang; Wang, Binyan; Xing, Houxun; Tang, Genfu; Wang, Xiaobin; Xu, Xin; Xu, Xiping; Huo, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examined the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and diabetes and their associated factors in 17,184 Chinese hypertensive adults aged 45–75 years. Methods A cross-sectional investigation was carried out in a rural area of Lianyungang, China. Previously undiagnosed diabetes [fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥7.0mmol/l] and IFG (6.1–6.9mmol/l) were defined based on FPG concentration. Previously diagnosed diabetes was determined on the basis of self-report. Total diabetes included both previously diagnosed diabetes and previously undiagnosed diabetes. Results The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and IFG were 3.4%, 9.8%, and 14.1%, respectively. About 74.2% of the participants with diabetes had not previously been diagnosed. In the multivariable logistic-regression model, older age, men, antihypertensive treatment, obesity (BMI ≥25kg/m2), abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥90cm for men and ≥80cm for women), non-current smoking, a family history of diabetes, higher heart rate, lower physical activity levels, and inland residence (versus coastal) were significantly associated with both total diabetes and previously undiagnosed diabetes. Furthermore, methylene- tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677 TT genotype was an independent associated factor for total diabetes, and current alcohol drinking was an independent associated factor for previously undiagnosed diabetes. At the same time, older age, men, abdominal obesity, non-current smoking, current alcohol drinking, a family history of diabetes, higher heart rate, and inland residence (versus coastal) were important independent associated factors for IFG. Conclusion In conclusion, we found a high prevalence of diabetes in Chinese hypertensive adults. Furthermore, about three out of every four diabetic adults were undiagnosed. Our results suggest that population-level measures aimed at the prevention, identification (even if only based on the FPG

  16. Prevalence, patterns, and predictors of meditation use among US adults: A nationally representative survey

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, Holger; Hall, Helen; Leach, Matthew; Frawley, Jane; Zhang, Yan; Leung, Brenda; Adams, Jon; Lauche, Romy

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests substantial health benefits from using meditation. While there are some indications that the popularity of meditation is increasing, little is known about the prevalence, patterns, and predictors of meditation use in the general population. In this secondary analysis of data from the 2012 US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (n = 34,525), lifetime and 12-month prevalence of meditation use were 5.2% and 4.1%, respectively. Compared to non-users, those who had used meditation in the past 12 months were more likely to be 40–64 years, female, non-Hispanic White, living in the West, at least college-educated, not in a relationship, diagnosed with one or more chronic conditions, smoking, consuming alcohol and physically active. Meditation was mainly used for general wellness (76.2%), improving energy (60.0%), and aiding memory or concentration (50.0%). Anxiety (29.2%), stress (21.6%), and depression (17.8%) were the top health problems for which people used meditation; 63.6% reported that meditation had helped a great deal with these conditions. Only 34.8% disclosed their use of meditation with a health provider. These findings indicate that about 9.3 million US adults have used meditation in the past 12 months; and that mental health problems were the most important reason for meditation use. PMID:27829670

  17. Prevalence, patterns, and predictors of meditation use among US adults: A nationally representative survey.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Holger; Hall, Helen; Leach, Matthew; Frawley, Jane; Zhang, Yan; Leung, Brenda; Adams, Jon; Lauche, Romy

    2016-11-10

    Emerging evidence suggests substantial health benefits from using meditation. While there are some indications that the popularity of meditation is increasing, little is known about the prevalence, patterns, and predictors of meditation use in the general population. In this secondary analysis of data from the 2012 US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (n = 34,525), lifetime and 12-month prevalence of meditation use were 5.2% and 4.1%, respectively. Compared to non-users, those who had used meditation in the past 12 months were more likely to be 40-64 years, female, non-Hispanic White, living in the West, at least college-educated, not in a relationship, diagnosed with one or more chronic conditions, smoking, consuming alcohol and physically active. Meditation was mainly used for general wellness (76.2%), improving energy (60.0%), and aiding memory or concentration (50.0%). Anxiety (29.2%), stress (21.6%), and depression (17.8%) were the top health problems for which people used meditation; 63.6% reported that meditation had helped a great deal with these conditions. Only 34.8% disclosed their use of meditation with a health provider. These findings indicate that about 9.3 million US adults have used meditation in the past 12 months; and that mental health problems were the most important reason for meditation use.

  18. Teen Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... or product placement in movies that create the perception that smoking is glamorous and more prevalent than ... org/healthy-lifestyle/tween-and-teen-health/in-depth/teen-smoking/art-20047069 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal ...

  19. The impact of smoking in adolescence on early adult anxiety symptoms and the relationship between infant vulnerability factors for anxiety and early adult anxiety symptoms: the TOPP Study.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Steven; Gustavson, Kristin; Karevold, Evalill; Øverland, Simon; Jacka, Felice N; Pasco, Julie A; Berk, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is increased in people with trait anxiety and anxiety disorders, however no longitudinal data exist illuminating whether smoking in adolescence can influence the developmental trajectory of anxiety symptoms from early vulnerability in infancy to adult anxiety expression. Using The Tracing Opportunities and Problems in Childhood and Adolescence (TOPP) Study, a community-based cohort of children and adolescents from Norway who were observed from the age of 18 months to age 18-19 years, we explored the relationship between adolescent smoking, early vulnerability for anxiety in infancy (e.g. shyness, internalizing behaviors, emotional temperaments) and reported early adult anxiety. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that adolescent active smoking was positively associated with increased early adulthood anxiety (β = 0.17, p<0.05), after controlling for maternal education (proxy for socioeconomic status). Adolescent anxiety did not predict early adult smoking. Adolescent active smoking was a significant effect modifier in the relationship between some infant vulnerability factors and later anxiety; smoking during adolescence moderated the relationship between infant internalizing behaviors (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.85, p<0.01, non-active smokers: ns) and highly emotional temperament (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.55, p<0.01,non-active smokers: ns), but not shyness, and anxiety in early adulthood. The results support a model where smoking acts as an exogenous risk factor in the development of anxiety, and smoking may alter the developmental trajectory of anxiety from infant vulnerability to early adult anxiety symptom expression. Although alternative non-mutually exclusive models may explain these findings, the results suggest that adolescent smoking may be a risk factor for adult anxiety, potentially by influencing anxiety developmental trajectories. Given the known adverse health effects of cigarette smoking and

  20. The Prevalence and Associated Factors of Periodontitis According to Fasting Plasma Glucose in the Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the relationship between diabetes and periodontitis is well established, the association between periodontitis and prediabetes has been investigated less extensively. Furthermore, there has been little research on the prevalence of periodontitis among individuals with prediabetes and diabetes as well as in the overall population using nationally representative data. Among 12,406 adults (≥19 years’ old) who participated in the 2012–2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 9977 subjects completed oral and laboratory examinations and were included in this analysis. Periodontitis was defined as a community periodontal index score of ≥3 according to the World Health Organization criteria. The fasting plasma glucose level was categorized into the following 5 groups: normal fasting glucose (NFG) 1 (<90 mg/dL), NFG 2 (90–99 mg/dL), impaired fasting glucose (IFG) 1 (100–110 mg/dL), IFG 2 (111–125 mg/dL), and diabetes (≥126 mg/dL). Overall, the weighted prevalence of periodontitis among the Korean adult population was 24.8% (23.3–26.4%) (weight n = 8,455,952/34,086,014). The unadjusted weighted prevalences of periodontitis were 16.7%, 22.8%, 29.6%, 40.7%, and 46.7% in the NFG 1, NFG 2, IFG 1, IFG 2, and diabetes groups, respectively (P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking history, heavy alcohol drinking, college graduation, household income, waist circumference, serum triglyceride level, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and the presence of hypertension, the adjusted weighted prevalence of periodontitis increased to 29.7% in the IFG 2 group (P = 0.045) and 32.5% in the diabetes group (P < 0.001), compared with the NFG 1 group (24%). The odds ratios for periodontitis with the above-mentioned variables as covariates were 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14–1.77, P = 0.002) in the diabetes group and 1.33 (95% CI 1.01–1.75, P = 0.044) in the IFG

  1. High prevalence of self-reported photophobia in adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Kooij, J J Sandra; Bijlenga, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Many adult outpatients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) report an oversensitivity to light. We explored the link between ADHD and photophobia in an online survey (N = 494). Self-reported photophobia was prevalent in 69% of respondents with, and in 28% of respondents without, ADHD (symptoms). The ADHD (symptoms) group wore sunglasses longer during daytime in all seasons. Photophobia may be related to the functioning of the eyes, which mediate dopamine and melatonin production systems in the eye. In the brain, dopamine and melatonin are involved in both ADHD and circadian rhythm disturbances. Possibly, the regulation of the dopamine and melatonin systems in the eyes and in the brain are related. Despite the study's limitations, the results are encouraging for further study on the pathophysiology of ADHD, eye functioning, and circadian rhythm disturbances.

  2. Child Maltreatment and Adult Cigarette Smoking: A Long-term Developmental Model

    PubMed Central

    Mersky, Joshua P.; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine: (a) child maltreatment’s association with young adult daily cigarette smoking, (b) variations in this association by gender, and (c) mediators of this association. Methods For all study participants (N = 1,125, 94% African American), data from multiple sources (e.g., child welfare records) were collected prospectively at child, adolescent, and young adult time points. Authors enlisted multivariate probit regression for objectives a and b versus exploratory and confirmatory mediation strategies for objective c. Results Maltreatment was significantly associated with daily cigarette smoking. Although not moderated by gender, this relation was fully mediated by adolescent indicators of family support/stability, social adjustment, and cognitive/school performance along with young adult indicators of educational attainment, life satisfaction, substance abuse, and criminality. Conclusions Maltreatment places low-income, minority children at risk for daily cigarette smoking and other deleterious young adult health outcomes. Recommended treatment targets include family support/stability, emotion regulation, social skills, and cognitive/academic functioning. PMID:19995869

  3. An examination of the association between seeing smoking in films and tobacco use in young adults in the west of Scotland: cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Sargent, James; Lewars, Heather; Dal Cin, Sonya; Worth, Keilah

    2009-02-01

    The objective is to examine the association between the amount of smoking seen in films and current smoking in young adults living in the west of Scotland in the UK. Cross-sectional analyses (using multivariable logistic regression) of data collected at age 19 (2002-04) from a longitudinal cohort originally surveyed at age 11 (1994-95) were conducted. The main outcome measure is smoking at age 19. No association was found between the number of occurrences of smoking estimated to have been seen in films (film smoking exposure) and current (or ever) smoking in young adults. This lack of association was unaffected by adjustment for predictors of smoking, including education, risk-taking orientation and smoking among peers. There was no association between film smoking exposure and smoking behaviour for any covariate-defined subgroup. Associations have been found between film smoking exposure and smoking initiation in younger adolescents in the United States. In this study, conducted in Scotland, no similar association was seen, suggesting that there may be age or cultural limitations on the effects of film smoking exposure on smoking. The lack of association could be due to methodological issues or greater sophistication of older adolescents and young adults in interpreting media images or the greater ubiquity of real-life smoking instances in Scotland. If the latter, film smoking exposure could become a more important risk factor for smoking uptake and maintenants in older adolescents following the recent ban on smoking in public places in Scotland.

  4. An examination of the association between seeing smoking in films and tobacco use in young adults in the west of Scotland: cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Sargent, James; Lewars, Heather; Cin, Sonya Dal; Worth, Keilah

    2009-01-01

    The objective is to examine the association between the amount of smoking seen in films and current smoking in young adults living in the west of Scotland in the UK. Cross-sectional analyses (using multivariable logistic regression) of data collected at age 19 (2002–04) from a longitudinal cohort originally surveyed at age 11 (1994–95) were conducted. The main outcome measure is smoking at age 19. No association was found between the number of occurrences of smoking estimated to have been seen in films (film smoking exposure) and current (or ever) smoking in young adults. This lack of association was unaffected by adjustment for predictors of smoking, including education, risk-taking orientation and smoking among peers. There was no association between film smoking exposure and smoking behaviour for any covariate-defined subgroup. Associations have been found between film smoking exposure and smoking initiation in younger adolescents in the United States. In this study, conducted in Scotland, no similar association was seen, suggesting that there may be age or cultural limitations on the effects of film smoking exposure on smoking. The lack of association could be due to methodological issues or greater sophistication of older adolescents and young adults in interpreting media images or the greater ubiquity of real-life smoking instances in Scotland. If the latter, film smoking exposure could become a more important risk factor for smoking uptake and maintenants in older adolescents following the recent ban on smoking in public places in Scotland. PMID:18203682

  5. Tobacco use and asking prices of used cars: prevalence, costs, and new opportunities for changing smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Matt, Georg E; Romero, Romina; Ma, Debbie S; Quintana, Penelope Je; Hovell, Melbourne F; Donohue, Michael; Messer, Karen; Salem, Simon; Aguilar, Mauricio; Boland, Justin; Cullimore, Jennifer; Crane, Marissa; Junker, Jonathan; Tassinario, Peter; Timmermann, Vera; Wong, Kristen; Chatfield, Dale

    2008-07-31

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) causes premature death and disease in children and adults, and the scientific evidence indicates that there is no risk-free level of exposure to SHS. Smoking tobacco in a car can pollute the microenvironment of the car with residual SHS, leaving telltale signs to potential buyers (e.g., odor, used ash tray). This study examined (a) the proportion of used cars sold in the private party market that may be polluted with tobacco smoke and (b) whether asking prices of smoker and nonsmoker cars differed for cars of otherwise equivalent value. A random sample of 1,642 private party sellers were interviewed by telephone, and content analyses of print advertisements were conducted. Findings indicate that 22% of used cars were advertised by smokers or had been smoked in during the previous year. Among nonsmokers, 94% did not allow smoking in their car during the past year. Only 33% of smokers had the same restrictions. The smoking status of the seller and tobacco use in the car were significantly (p < .01) associated with the asking price independent of a car's Kelley Blue Book value (KBB). Used nonsmoker cars were offered at a considerable premium above their KBB value (>11%) and above comparable smoker cars (7-9%). These findings suggest that community preferences are affecting the value of smoke-free cars. New directions for research, tobacco control policies, and health education are discussed to further reduce smoking behavior, to help consumers make informed purchasing decisions, and to protect nonsmokers from SHS exposure.

  6. Prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among saudi medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Almutairi, Khalid M

    2014-08-01

    This study was designed to determine the prevalence of active smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure among medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and to examine their attitudes and beliefs towards tobacco control programs. The investigation was a cross-sectional study conducted during the first semester of 2013 at King Saud University School of Medicine located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Invited to participate in this study were 1,789 medical students. A descriptive data analysis was performed. A total of 805 medical students completed the questionnaire. The prevalence of experimentation with cigarette smoking was 11.3%. The estimated prevalence of current smoking among the study participants was 4.7%. The majority of the students held positive attitudes toward tobacco control and approximately 93.1% of the students felt that health care professionals should be required to receive training for cessation counseling while only 36.8% of the students reported having received any training in this area. Over the study's duration 57.7% of participants reported that ETS exposure was much higher in public places, while 13.9% reported exposure at home. This investigation revealed that ETS exposure among medical students in Riyadh is at an alarmingly high rate. The data suggests a need for a more robust smoke-free policy and a commitment to greater enforcement in public places. The results of the study also demonstrate a positive attitude among participants for tobacco control. It also indicates a need for cessation counseling and training which could be incorporated into medical school curriculum.

  7. Prevalence of Dental Caries in Kosovar Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Begzati, Agim; Kelmendi, Jeta; Ilijazi, Donika; Kqiku, Lumnije

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries in the Kosovar adult population. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study in Kosovo was conducted examining 9387 patients, aged 18 upwards, between January 2010 and December 2011. Clinical evaluation was done using WHO criteria for evaluation of dental health status and data collection. Results. The prevalence of caries for the whole study was 72.80%. The mean DMFT index was 9.61 (±5.12) in the 18–34-year age group, 11.6 (±6.42) in the 35–44-year age group, 13.68 (±8.12) among the 45–64-year age group, 17.98 (±9.81) in the 65–74-year age group, and 23.19 (±9.41) in the age group of 75+ years, respectively. A significant difference of mean DMFT and its each component was observed between the ages (P < 0.001). Conclusion. This study comes out with the significant levels of dental caries among young Kosovar population (18–34 years old). PMID:27516774

  8. Young Adult Utilization of a Smoking Cessation Website: An Observational Study Comparing Young and Older Adult Patterns of Use

    PubMed Central

    Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Graham, Amanda L; Richardson, Amanda; Xiao, Haijun; Mermelstein, Robin J; Curry, Susan J; Sporer, Amy K; Vallone, Donna M

    2016-01-01

    Background There is little research on how young adults or young adult subgroups utilize and engage with Web-based cessation interventions when trying to quit smoking. Addressing this knowledge gap is important to identify opportunities to optimize the effectiveness of online cessation programs across diverse young adult users. Objective This study examines utilization of the BecomeAnEX.org smoking cessation website among young adults and young adult subgroups compared with older adults to identify patterns of use by age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Methods Study participants were 5983 new registered users on a free smoking cessation website who were aged 18 to 70 years. Website utilization was tracked for 6 months; metrics of use included website visits, pages per visit, length of visit, and interaction with specific website features. Differences in website use by age were examined via bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Interactions were examined to determine differences by gender and race/ethnicity within young (18- to 24-year-olds and 25- to 34-year-olds) and older (35 years and older) adult segments. Results A greater percentage of young adults aged 18 to 34 years visited the site only once compared with older adults aged 35 years and older (72.05% vs 56.59%, respectively; P<.001). Young adults also spent less time on the site and viewed fewer pages than older adults. In adjusted analyses, young adults were significantly less likely than older adults to visit the site more than once (18-24 years: adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.58, 95% CI 0.49-0.68, P<.001; 25-34 years: AOR 0.56, 95% CI 0.50-0.64, P<.001), spend more than 3 minutes on the site (18-24 years: AOR 0.67, 95% CI 0.57-0.79, P<.001; 25-34 years: AOR 0.56, 95% CI 0.49-0.64, P<.001), view 12 or more pages (18-24 years: AOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.61-0.83; P<.001; 25-34 years: AOR 0.67, 95% CI 0.59-0.76, P<.001), utilize the BecomeAnEX.org community

  9. Insights into social disparities in smoking prevalence using Mosaic, a novel measure of socioeconomic status: an analysis using a large primary care dataset

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There are well-established socio-economic differences in the prevalence of smoking in the UK, but conventional socio-economic measures may not capture the range and degree of these associations. We have used a commercial geodemographic profiling system, Mosaic, to explore associations with smoking prevalence in a large primary care dataset and to establish whether this tool provides new insights into socio-economic determinants of smoking. Methods We analysed anonymised data on over 2 million patients from The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database, linked via patients' postcodes to Mosaic classifications (11 groups and 61 types) and quintiles of Townsend Index of Multiple Deprivation. Patients' current smoking status was identified using Read Codes, and logistic regression was used to explore the associations between the available measures of socioeconomic status and smoking prevalence. Results As anticipated, smoking prevalence increased with increasing deprivation according to the Townsend Index (age and sex adjusted OR for highest vs lowest quintile 2.96, 95% CI 2.92-2.99). There were more marked differences in prevalence across Mosaic groups (OR for group G vs group A 4.41, 95% CI 4.33-4.49). Across the 61 Mosaic types, smoking prevalence varied from 8.6% to 42.7%. Mosaic types with high smoking prevalence were characterised by relative deprivation, but also more specifically by single-parent households living in public rented accommodation in areas with little community support, having no access to a car, few qualifications and high TV viewing behaviour. Conclusion Conventional socio-economic measures may underplay social disparities in smoking prevalence. Newer classification systems, such as Mosaic, encompass a wider range of demographic, lifestyle and behaviour data, and are valuable in identifying characteristics of groups of heavy smokers which might be used to tailor cessation interventions. PMID:21138555

  10. Parental smoking in pregnancy and the risks of adult-onset hypertension.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Layla L; Harris, Holly R; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Willett, Walter C; Forman, Michele R; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Michels, Karin B

    2013-02-01

    Fetal exposure to parental smoking may lead to developmental adaptations and promote various diseases in later life. This study evaluated the associations of parental smoking during pregnancy with the risk of hypertension in the daughter in adulthood, and assessed whether these associations are explained by birth weight or body weight throughout life. We used data on 33086 participants of the Nurses' Health Study II and the Nurses' Mothers' Cohort. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the associations of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy with the nurse daughter, with self-reported physician-diagnosed hypertension from 1989 until 2007. Overall, 8575 (25.9%) mothers and 18874 (57.0%) fathers smoked during pregnancy. During follow-up, 7825 incident cases of adult-onset hypertension were reported. Both maternal and paternal smoking of ≥ 15 cigarettes/d during pregnancy were associated with increased risks of hypertension (rate ratio, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.09-1.29; and rate ratio, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.12-1.25, respectively) in the age-adjusted models. Further adjustment for birth weight did not affect the effect estimates appreciably, whereas additional adjustment for body shape and weight until age 18, or current body mass index, attenuated the associations with both maternal and paternal smoking (rate ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.98-1.16; and rate ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01-1.12, respectively). The associations of parental smoking during pregnancy with the risk of hypertension in the offspring were largely explained by body weight throughout life, suggesting that these associations may not reflect direct intrauterine mechanisms.

  11. Associations of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptom Dimensions with Smoking Deprivation Effects in Adult Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; Ameringer, Katherine J.; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying relations of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptom dimensions to individual facets of the tobacco withdrawal syndrome could elucidate the mechanisms linking ADHD and regular smoking. This study examined the unique relations of inattention (IN) and hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) symptom dimensions of ADHD to a variety of tobacco withdrawal symptoms. 132 community-dwelling adult smokers recruited without regard to ADHD status completed a self-report measure of ADHD symptoms experienced over the past 6 months at a baseline visit. At two subsequent experimental sessions (one following overnight tobacco deprivation and one nondeprived; order counterbalanced), participants completed measures of tobacco withdrawal symptoms, mood, and desire to smoke. Preliminary analyses showed that higher levels of IN and HI symptoms were both associated with higher levels of negative affect and concentration difficulties during nondeprived (“baseline”) states (Ps < .01). Over and above nondeprived ratings, higher levels of HI symptoms were associated with larger deprivation-induced increases in negative affect, concentration problems, and desire to smoke, particularly for negative affect relief, during deprived states (Ps < .01). ADHD symptoms, particularly HI symptoms, are associated with more severe exacerbations in abstinence-induced withdrawal symptoms, which could be an important mechanism of ADHD-smoking comorbidity. These findings suggest the need for clinical studies examining the role of these unique and potentially more severe withdrawal profiles experienced by smokers with high-levels of ADHD symptoms in smoking reinstatement and cessation outcomes. PMID:24731115

  12. Cigarette smoking and the risk of adult leukemia: results from the Three Mile Island cohort study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohui; Talbott, Evelyn O; Zborowski, Jeanne V; Rager, Judith R

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is an unconfirmed risk factor for the development of leukemia. The authors examined the potential link using data from the Three Mile Island cohort for the period 1979-1995. Eligible for analysis were 24,539 individuals aged 14 years or older who were followed up over 16 years from the Three Mile Island cohort. The authors identified all incident leukemia cases through the Pennsylvania Department of Health Cancer Registry. They used the Cox proportional hazards model to evaluate the relationships and observed 42 incident leukemia cases, including 15 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases, in the cohort. After controlling for other confounding factors, the authors found current smoking to be associated with an increased risk of adult AML (relative risk = 3.47; 95% confidence interval = 1.002-11.99). The authors also observed a marginally significant linear trend of risk of AML associated with the number of years smoked (p = .06). The results from this study suggested that cigarette smoking was associated with an increased risk of adult AML. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings.

  13. Cigarette Smoke-Induced Interleukin-1 Alpha May Be Involved in the Pathogenesis of Adult Acne

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yun Seok; Lim, Hee Kyeong; Hong, Kyung Kook; Shin, Min Kyung; Lee, Jin Woo; Lee, Sung Won

    2014-01-01

    Background Lipid peroxide (LPO) in comedones, which are produced as a result of sebum oxidation, might potentially induce interleukin-1α (IL-1α) and exacerbate comedogenesis and inflammatory changes in comedones. Objective To investigate the relationship of proinflammatory cytokines and LPO levels in the extracts of comedones with the acne of clinical difference between smokers and non-smokers, and with the severity and distribution of the acne lesions. Methods Twenty-two non-smoking and 21 smoking adult acne patients were evaluated by comedone extraction and measurement of proinflammatory cytokines and LPO levels. Acne severity and distribution of the lesions were also analyzed. Results Relative to the non-smoking group, smokers had significantly higher levels of IL-1α and LPO in comedones. Their levels showed a positive correlation. However, there were no statistically significant difference between the severity or distribution of the disease and the levels of LPO and IL-1α in comedones. Conclusion Smoking may be involved in the pathogenesis of adult acne by increasing the oxidative stress that results in subsequent accumulation of LPO in comedones. PMID:24648681

  14. Workplace secondhand smoke exposure: a lingering hazard for young adults in California

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Louisa M; Ling, Pamela M

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine occupational differences in workplace exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) among young adults in California. Methods Data are taken from the 2014 Bay Area Young Adult Health Survey, a probabilistic multimode cross-sectional household survey of young adults, aged 18–26, in Alameda and San Francisco Counties. Respondents were asked whether they had been exposed to SHS ‘indoors’ or ‘outdoors’ at their workplace in the previous 7 days and also reported their current employment status, industry and occupation. Sociodemographic characteristics and measures of health perception and behaviour were included in the final model. Results Young adults employed in service (p<0.001), construction and maintenance (p<0.01), and transportation and material moving (p<0.05) sectors were more likely to report workplace SHS exposure while those reporting very good or excellent self-rated health were less likely (p<0.001). Conclusions Despite California’s clean indoor air policy, 33% of young adults in the San Francisco Bay Area still reported workplace SHS exposure in the past week, with those in lower income occupations and working in non-office environments experiencing the greatest exposure. Closing the gaps that exempt certain types of workplaces from the Smoke-Free Workplace Act may be especially beneficial for young adults. PMID:27417380

  15. Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Adults with Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Passananti, V.; Siniscalchi, M.; Zingone, F.; Bucci, C.; Tortora, R.; Iovino, P.; Ciacci, C.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Symptoms of celiac disease negatively impact social activities and emotional state. Aim was to investigate the prevalence of altered eating behaviour in celiac patients. Methods. Celiac patients and controls completed a dietary interview and the Binge Eating Staircases, Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2), Eating Attitudes Test, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, State Trait Anxiety Inventory Forma Y (STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2), and Symptom Check List (SCL-90). Results. One hundred celiac adults and 100 controls were not statistically different for gender, age, and physical activity. STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2, Somatization, Interpersonal, Sensitivity, and Anxiety scores of the SLC-90 were higher in CD patients than controls. EDI-2 was different in pulse thinness, social insecurity, perfectionism, inadequacy, ascetisms, and interpersonal diffidence between CD and HC women, whilst only in interceptive awareness between CD and HC men. A higher EAT-26 score was associated with the CD group dependently with gastrointestinal symptoms. The EAT26 demonstrated association between indices of diet-related disorders in both CD and the feminine gender after controlling for anxiety and depression. Conclusion. CD itself and not gastrointestinal related symptoms or psychological factors may contribute pathological eating behavior in celiac adults. Eating disorders appear to be more frequent in young celiac women than in CD men and in HC. PMID:24369457

  16. Functional disability of adults in Brazil: prevalence and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Keitty Regina Cordeiro; Silva, Marcus Tolentino; Galvão, Taís Freire; Pereira, Maurício Gomes

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with functional disability in adults in Brazil. METHODS We used information from the health supplement of the National Household Sample Survey in 2008. The dependent variable was the functional disability among adults of 18 to 65 years, measured by the difficulty of walking about 100 meters; independent variables were: health plan membership, region of residence, state of domicile, education level, household income, economic activity, self-perception of health, hospitalization, chronic diseases, age group, sex, and color. We calculated the gross odds ratios (OR), and their respective confidence intervals (95%), and adjusted them for variables of study by ordinal logistic regression, following hierarchical model. Sample weights were considered in all calculations. RESULTS We included 18,745 subjects, 74.0% of whom were women. More than a third of adults reported having functional disability. The disability was significantly higher among men (OR = 1.17; 95%CI 1.09;1.27), people from 35 to 49 years (OR = 1.30; 95%CI 1.17;1.45) and 50 to 65 years (OR = 1.38; 95%CI 1.24;1.54); economically inactive individuals (OR = 2.21; 95%CI 1.65;2.96); adults who reported heart disease (OR = 1.13; 95%CI 1.03;1.24), diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.16; 95%CI 1.05;1.29), arterial systemic hypertension (OR = 1.10; 95%CI 1.02;1.18), and arthritis/rheumatism (OR = 1.24; 95%CI 1.15;1.34); and participants who were admitted in the last 12 months (OR = 2.35; 95%CI 1.73;3.2). CONCLUSIONS Functional disability is common among Brazilian adults. Hospitalization is the most strongly associated factor, followed by economic activity, and chronic diseases. Sex, age, education, and income are also associated. Results indicate specific targets for actions that address the main factors associated with functional disabilities and contribute to the projection of interventions for the improvement of the well-being and promotion of adults

  17. Predictors of long-term smoking cessation: results from the global adult tobacco survey in Poland (2009–2010)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Expanding the information on determinants of smoking cessation is crucial for developing and implementing more effective tobacco control measures at the national as well as European levels. Data on smoking cessation and its social correlates among adults from middle-income countries of Central and Eastern Europe are still poorly reported in the literature. The aim of the study was to analyze the association of socio-demographic indicators with long term tobacco smoking cessation (quit smoking for at least one year prior to interview) among adults. Moreover, we evaluated motives for giving up smoking from former smokers. Methods Data on former as well as current smokers’ socio-demographic and smoking-related characteristics were derived from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). GATS is a cross-sectional, nationally representative household survey implemented in Poland between 2009 and 2010. GATS collected data on a representative sample of 7,840 individuals including 1,206 individuals who met the criteria of long-term smoking cessation and 2,233 current smokers. Smoking cessation rate was calculated as the number of former smokers divided by the number of ever smokers. Logistic regression analyses were used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the broad number of variables on successful cessation of smoking. Results Among females the quit rate was 30.4% compared to 37.9% in males (p < 0.01). Former smokers declared concerns about the health hazard of smoking (60.8%) and the high price of cigarettes (11.6%) as primary reasons for smoking cessation. Older age, high education attainment, awareness of smoking health consequences was associated with long-term quitting among both genders. Also employed males had over twice the probability of giving up smoking compared with unemployed, and being religious did not contribute to successful smoking cessation. Conclusion Results indicated that smoking cessation policies focused on

  18. Feasibility and Quit Rates of the Tobacco Status Project: A Facebook Smoking Cessation Intervention for Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Thrul, Johannes; Chavez, Kathryn; Delucchi, Kevin L; Prochaska, Judith J

    2015-01-01

    Background Young adult smokers are a challenging group to engage in smoking cessation interventions. With wide reach and engagement among users, Facebook offers opportunity to engage young people in socially supportive communities for quitting smoking and sustaining abstinence. Objective We developed and tested initial efficacy, engagement, and acceptability of the Tobacco Status Project, a smoking cessation intervention for young adults delivered within Facebook. Methods The intervention was based on the US Public Health Service Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Transtheoretical Model and enrolled participants into study-run 3-month secret Facebook groups matched on readiness to quit smoking. Cigarette smokers (N=79) aged 18-25, who used Facebook on most days, were recruited via Facebook. All participants received the intervention and were randomized to one of three monetary incentive groups tied to engagement (commenting in groups). Assessments were completed at baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-months follow-up. Analyses examined retention, smoking outcomes over 12 months (7-day point prevalence abstinence, ≥50% reduction in cigarettes smoked, quit attempts and strategies used, readiness to quit), engagement, and satisfaction with the intervention. Results Retention was 82% (65/79) at 6 months and 72% (57/79) at 12 months. From baseline to 12-months follow-up, there was a significant increase in the proportion prepared to quit (10/79, 13%; 36/79, 46%, P<.001). Over a third (28/79, 35%) reduced their cigarette consumption by 50% or greater, and 66% (52/79) made at least one 24-hour quit attempt during the study. In an intent-to-treat analysis, 13% (10/79) self-reported 7-day abstinence (6/79, 8% verified biochemically) at 12-months follow-up. In their quit attempts, 11% (9/79) used a nicotine replacement therapy approved by the Food and Drug Administration, while 18% (14/79) used an electronic nicotine delivery system to quit (eg, electronic cigarette). A majority

  19. Improving smoking cessation policy by assessing user demand for an inpatient smoking cessation service in adult psychiatric wards.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kathy; Creamer, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Smoking rates are higher among people with mental health conditions compared to the general population. Smoking reduces physical, mental and financial well-being, and interacts with psychotropic drugs. An inpatient admission provides an opportunity to engage and support smokers in smoking cessation. Compliance with Trust/NICE smoking cessation guidelines was assessed in two inpatient wards, and a questionnaire evaluated user demand for an inpatient smoking cessation service. A need for improved documentation of smoking status to identify and treat smokers routinely was revealed. A new electronic health form was designed and introduced, and a clear pathway for onward referrals was developed. This intervention preceded the introduction of the Trust-wide smoke free policy from October 2014. The intervention doubled rates of documentation of smoking status, cessation advice and offer of NRT/referral. There were large differences between the two wards, highlighting the need for a tailored approach.

  20. The Prevalence and Incidence of Mental Ill-Health in Adults with Autism and Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, Craig A.; Cooper, Sally-Ann; Morrison, Jill; Smiley, Elita; Allan, Linda; Jackson, Alison; Finlayson, Janet; Mantry, Dipali

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence, and incidence, of mental ill-health in adults with intellectual disabilities and autism were compared with the whole population with intellectual disabilities, and with controls, matched individually for age, gender, ability-level, and Down syndrome. Although the adults with autism had a higher point prevalence of problem…

  1. Prevalence and correlates of internet cigarette purchasing among adult smokers in New Jersey

    PubMed Central

    Hrywna, M; Delnevo, C; Staniewska, D

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence and correlates of internet cigarette purchasing among adult smokers. Design: Analysis of internet purchasing in data from a population based telephone survey of New Jersey households. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with internet cigarette purchasing, adjusting for year, demographic, and smoking behaviour variables. Participants: 3447 current cigarette smokers pooled from three cross sectional surveys conducted in 2000, 2001, and 2002. Main outcome measures: Ever purchasing tobacco and usually buying cigarettes via the internet. Results: Among all current cigarette smokers, ever having purchased tobacco via the internet increased from 1.1% in 2000 to 6.7% in 2002 and usually buying cigarettes via the internet increased from 0.8% in 2000 to 3.1% in 2002. Among current cigarette smokers with internet access, ever having purchased tobacco via the internet was higher among those who reported smoking 31 or more cigarettes per day (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5 to 10.2) and those without a past year quit attempt (adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.0). Usually purchasing cigarettes via the internet was higher among those aged 45–64 years (adjusted OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 17.1) and who reported having their first cigarette ⩽ 30 minutes after waking (adjusted OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.2 to 9.2). Conclusions: Although higher prices are known to reduce the demand for cigarettes, internet cigarette purchasing is likely to weaken this effect, particularly among heavy, more dependent smokers who are less interested in quitting. PMID:15333887

  2. Occupations with an increased prevalence of self-reported asthma in Indian adults

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Neil; Millett, Christopher; Subramanian, S.V.; Ebrahim, Shah

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Occupational asthma remains relatively under-recognized in India with little or no information regarding preventable causes. We studied occupations with an increased prevalence of self-reported asthma among adult men and women in India. Methods Analysis is based on 64 725 men aged 15–54 years and 52 994 women aged 15–49 years who participated in India’s third National Family Health Survey, 2005–2006, and reported their current occupation. Prevalence odds ratios (ORs) for specific occupations and asthma were estimated using multivariate logistic regression, separately for men and women, adjusting for age, education, household wealth index, current tobacco smoking, cooking fuel use, rural/urban residence and access to healthcare. Results The prevalence of asthma among the working population was 1.9%. The highest odds ratios for asthma were found among men in the plant and machine operators and assemblers major occupation category (OR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.14–2.45; p = 0.009). Men working in occupation subcategories of machine operators and assemblers (OR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.24–2.76; p = 0.002) and mining, construction, manufacturing and transport (OR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.00–1.77; p = 0.051) were at the highest risk of asthma. Reduced odds of asthma prevalence in men was observed among extraction and building trades workers (OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.53–0.97; p = 0.029). Among women none of the occupation categories or subcategories was found significant for asthma risk. Men and women employed in high-risk occupations were not at a higher risk of asthma when compared with those in low-risk occupations. Conclusions This large population-based, nationally representative cross-sectional study has confirmed findings from high income countries showing high prevalence of asthma in men in a number of occupational categories and subcategories; however, with no evidence of increased risks for women in the same occupations. PMID:24712498

  3. Prevalence of smoking and other smoking related behaviors reported by the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in four Peruvian cities

    PubMed Central

    Zavaleta, Alfonso; Salas, Maria; Peruga, Armando; Hallal, Ana Luiza Curi; Warren, Charles W; Jones, Nathan R; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Introduction In 2004, Peru ratified the Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and in 2006 passed Law 28705 for tobacco consumption and exposure reduction. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) provides data on youth tobacco use for development of tobacco control programs. Findings from the GYTS conducted in four main cities in Peru in 2000 and 2003 are reported in this paper and can be used to monitor provisions of the WHO FCTC. Methods The GYTS is a school-based survey that uses a standardized methodology for sampling, questionnaire construction, field procedures, and data management. In total, 5,332 and 7,824 students aged 13 to 15 years participated in the 2000 and 2003 surveys conducted in Huancayo, Lima, Tarapoto and Trujillo. Results In both years, Lima had the highest lifetime (54.6% and 59.6%) and current use of tobacco (18.6% and 19.2%) of the four cities. According to gender, boys smoked more than girls and less than 20% of students initiated smoking before the age of 10. Among smokers, more than 60% bought their cigarettes in a store with no restriction for their age, and approximately 12% had ever been offered "free cigarettes". Around 90% of students were in favor of banning smoking in public places. Changes between 2000 and 2003 included an increase in the percentage of smokers who wanted to have a cigarette first thing in the morning in Tarapoto (from 0% to 1.2%) and a decrease in exposure to tobacco at home in Huancayo (from 23.7% to 17.8%) and Trujillo (from 27.8% to 19.8%) Conclusion While few changes in tobacco use among youth have been observed in the GYTS in Peru, the data in this report can be used as baseline measures for future evaluation efforts. At this time, tobacco control efforts in Peru need to focus on enhancing Law 28705 to include enforcement of existing provisions and inclusion of new laws and regulations. Most of these provisions are required of all countries, such as Peru, that have ratified

  4. Hookah tobacco smoking in a large urban sample of adult cigarette smokers: Links with alcohol and poly-tobacco use.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Amy M; Ehlke, Sarah J; Cobb, Caroline O; Soule, Eric K

    2017-05-01

    Hookah tobacco smoking (HTS) has been increasing, particularly among young adults and has similar health effects compared to cigarette smoking. The link between HTS and poly-tobacco use is well documented, but fewer show an association between HTS and alcohol use. It is essential to identify factors that increase the risk for or addictiveness and consequences of HTS, given its growing prevalence. This study examined whether the association between HTS and poly-tobacco use differed as a function of age and alcohol consumption within in a sample of 1223 adult cigarette smokers. Approximately 20% of participants reported HTS. Compared to non-users, hookah users were more likely to be male, highly educated, and to report drug and alcohol use, binge drinking, and poly-tobacco use but were less likely to be heavy smokers (≥10 cigarettes per day). Regression analyses predicting number of tobacco products used (excluding cigarettes and HTS) indicated a three-way interaction of HTS, frequency of alcohol use, and age such that the association between HTS and number of tobacco products used was strongest for younger respondents who consumed alcohol more frequently. As observed in previous studies, alcohol is an important risk factor in the relationship between HTS and poly-tobacco use, particularly among younger cigarette smokers. The links between alcohol, HTS, and poly-tobacco use should be considered when developing HTS education and prevention materials directed toward younger cigarette smokers. Findings provide information relevant to FDA's interest in the addiction potential of HTS and its link to poly-tobacco use.

  5. Knowledge and attitudes of adults towards smoking in pregnancy: results from the HealthStyles© 2008 survey.

    PubMed

    Polen, Kara N D; Sandhu, Paramjit K; Honein, Margaret A; Green, Katie K; Berkowitz, Judy M; Pace, Jill; Rasmussen, Sonja A

    2015-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is causally associated with many adverse health outcomes. Quitting smoking, even late in pregnancy, improves some outcomes. Among adults in general and reproductive-aged women, we sought to understand knowledge and attitudes towards prenatal smoking and its effects on pregnancy outcomes. Using data from the 2008 HealthStyles© survey, we assessed knowledge and attitudes about prenatal smoking and smoking cessation. We classified respondents as having high knowledge if they gave ≥ 5 correct responses to six knowledge questions regarding the health effects of prenatal smoking. We calculated frequencies of correct responses to assess knowledge about prenatal smoking and estimated relative risk to examine knowledge by demographic and lifestyle factors. Only 15 % of all respondents and 23 % of reproductive-aged women had high knowledge of the adverse effects of prenatal smoking on pregnancy outcomes. Preterm birth and low birth weight were most often recognized as adverse outcomes associated with prenatal smoking. Nearly 70 % of reproductive-aged women smokers reported they would quit smoking if they became pregnant without any specific reasons from their doctor. Few respondents recognized the benefits of quitting smoking after the first trimester of pregnancy. Our results suggest that many women lack knowledge regarding the increased risks for adverse outcomes associated with prenatal smoking. Healthcare providers should follow the recommendations provided by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, which include educating women about the health risks of prenatal smoking and the benefits of quitting. Healthcare providers should emphasize quitting smoking even after the first trimester of pregnancy.

  6. Knowledge and Attitudes of Adults towards Smoking in Pregnancy: Results from the HealthStyles© 2008 Survey

    PubMed Central

    Polen, Kara ND; Sandhu, Paramjit K.; Honein, Margaret A.; Green, Katie K.; Berkowitz, Judy M.; Pace, Jill; Rasmussen, Sonja A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Smoking during pregnancy is causally associated with many adverse health outcomes. Quitting smoking, even late in pregnancy, improves some outcomes. Among adults in general and reproductive-aged women, we sought to understand knowledge and attitudes towards prenatal smoking and its effects on pregnancy outcomes. Methods Using data from the 2008 HealthStyles© survey, we assessed knowledge and attitudes about prenatal smoking and smoking cessation. We classified respondents as having high knowledge if they gave ≥5 correct responses to 6 knowledge questions regarding the health effects of prenatal smoking. We calculated frequencies of correct responses to assess knowledge about prenatal smoking and estimated relative risk (RR) to examine knowledge by demographic and lifestyle factors. Results Only 15% of all respondents and 23% of reproductive-aged women had high knowledge of the adverse effects of prenatal smoking on pregnancy outcomes. Preterm birth and low birth weight were most often recognized as adverse outcomes associated with prenatal smoking. Nearly 70% of reproductive-aged women smokers reported they would quit smoking if they became pregnant without any specific reasons from their doctor. Few respondents recognized the benefits of quitting smoking after the first trimester of pregnancy. Conclusions Our results suggest that many women lack knowledge regarding the increased risks for adverse outcomes associated with prenatal smoking. Healthcare providers should follow the recommendations provided by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, which include educating women about the health risks of prenatal smoking and the benefits of quitting. Healthcare providers should emphasize quitting smoking even after the first trimester of pregnancy. PMID:24825031

  7. SMOKING STATUS IS A CLINICAL INDICATOR FOR ALCOHOL MISUSE IN US ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Sherry A.; Falba, Tracy; O’Malley, Stephanie S.; Sindelar, Jody; O’Connor, Patrick G.

    2010-01-01

    Context Screening for alcohol use in primary care settings is recommended by clinical care guidelines, but is not adhered to as strongly as screening for smoking. It has been proposed that smoking status could be used to enhance the identification of alcohol misuse in primary and other medical settings but national data are lacking. Objective To investigate smoking status as a clinical indicator for alcohol misuse in a national sample of US adults, following clinical care guidelines for the assessment of these behaviors. Design, Setting, and Participants Analyses are based on a sample of 42,565 US adults from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (Wave I, 2001–2002). Main Outcome Measures Odds ratios (O.R.) and test characteristics (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value [PPV, NPV], and likelihood ratio [LR] of smoking behavior (daily, occasional, former) were determined for the detection of hazardous drinking behavior and alcohol-related diagnoses, assessed by the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-IV. Results Daily, occasional, and ex-smokers were more likely than never smokers to be hazardous drinkers (O.R.3.23 [95% CI 3.02–3.46]; O.R.5.33 [95% CI 4.70–6.04]; O.R.1.19 [95% CI 1.10–1.28], respectively). Daily and occasional smokers were more likely to meet criteria for alcohol diagnoses (O.R.3.52 [95% CI 3.19–3.90], O.R.5.39 [95% CI 4.60–6.31]; respectively). For the detection of hazardous drinking by current smoking (occasional + daily), sensitivity was 42.5%; specificity 81.9%, PPV 45.3% (vs. population rate of 26.1%), and LR+ 2.34. For the detection of alcohol diagnoses by current smoking; sensitivity was 51.4%; specificity 78.0%, PPV 17.8% (vs. population rate of 8.5%), and LR+ 2.33. Conclusions Occasional and daily smokers were at heightened risk for hazardous drinking and alcohol use diagnoses. Smoking status can be used as a clinical indicator for alcohol

  8. 'Imported risk' or 'health transition'? Smoking prevalence among ethnic German immigrants from the Former Soviet Union by duration of stay in Germany - analysis of microcensus data

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It can be assumed that resettlers (ethnic German immigrants from the Former Soviet Union) show similar smoking patterns as persons in their countries of origin at the time of migration. We analysed how the smoking prevalence among resettlers differs from that among the general population of Germany and whether the prevalence differs between groups with increasing duration of stay. Methods To estimate the smoking prevalence we used the scientific-use-file (n = 477,239) of the German 2005 microcensus, an annual census representing 1% of all German households. Participation in the microcensus is obligatory (unit-nonresponse <7%). We stratified the prevalence of smoking among resettlers and the comparison group (population of Germany without resettlers) by age, sex, educational level and duration of stay. In total, 14,373 (3% of the total) persons were identified as resettlers. Results Female resettlers with short duration of stay had a significantly lower smoking prevalence than women in the comparison group. With increasing duration of stay their smoking prevalence appears to converge to that of the comparison group (e.g.: high educational level, age group 25-44 years: short duration of stay 15%, long duration of stay 24%, comparison group 28%). In contrast, the smoking prevalence among male resettlers with short duration of stay was significantly higher than that among men in the comparison group, but also with a trend towards converging (e.g.: high educational level, age group 25-44 years: short duration of stay 44%, long duration of stay 35%, comparison group 36%). Except for female resettlers with short duration of stay, the participants with low educational level had on average a higher smoking prevalence than those with a high educational level. Conclusions This is the first study estimating the smoking prevalence among resettlers by duration of stay. The results support the hypothesis that resettlers brought different smoking habits from their

  9. Self-reported Prevalence and Risk Factors of Non-communicable Diseases in the Albanian Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Kraja, Fatjona; Kraja, Bledar; Mone, Iris; Harizi, Ilda; Babameto, Adriana; Burazeri, Genc

    2016-01-01

    Aim: There is growing evidence that non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a major health problem in developing and transitional countries. The prevalence of NCDs and associated factors are under-researched in Albania. We aimed to assess the prevalence and socio-demographic and lifestyle correlates of NCDs in the Albanian adult population. Methods: The study was carried out in the framework of Albania Living Standard Measurement Survey (LSMS), a national population-based cross-sectional study conducted in 2012 including 12,554 men and women aged ≥35 years. All participants reported on the presence of at least one chronic condition, which in the analysis was dichotomized into “yes” vs. “no”. Information on socio-demographic characteristics (age, gender, education, employment status, residence) and lifestyle factors (smoking and alcohol consumption) was also collected. Logistic regression was used to assess socio-demographic and behavioral correlates of NCDs. Results: Overall, the prevalence of chronic diseases in this population-based sample of Albanian adults was 2864/12554=22.8%. Upon multivariable adjustment for all covariates, positive correlates of chronic conditions were older age (OR=6.0, 95%CI=5.3-6.8), female gender (OR=1.2, 95%CI=1.1-1.4), residence in coastal areas of Albania (OR=2.0, 95%CI=1.7-2.5), unemployment (OR=1.8, 95%CI=1.6-2.0), low education (OR=1.6, OR=1.3-1.9) and current smoking (OR=1.2, 95%CI=1.1-1.5). Conversely, there was an inverse association with poverty (OR=0.8, 95%CI=0.7-1.0). Conclusions: This study provides evidence on self-reported NCDs and its determinants in transitional Albania. These baseline data may be useful for assessment of future NCD trends in Albania and cross-comparisons with the neighboring countries. PMID:27594748

  10. Does the availability of single cigarettes promote or inhibit cigarette consumption? Perceptions, prevalence and correlates of single cigarette use among adult Mexican smokers

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, J F; Villalobos, V; Dorantes-Alonso, A; Arillo-Santillán, E; Cummings, K Michael; O’Connor, R; Fong, G T

    2009-01-01

    Background: Single cigarette use and its implications have rarely been studied among adults. Objective: To assess perceptions, prevalence and correlates of single cigarette purchase behaviour and its relation to harm reduction. Design: Focus group transcripts and cross-sectional data were analysed. Setting and participants: Focus groups among convenience samples of adult smokers in two Mexican cities and a population-based sample of 1079 adult smokers from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project in four Mexican cities. Main outcome measures: Purchase of single cigarettes last time cigarettes were bought, frequency of purchasing single cigarettes in the previous month and intention to quit in the next 6 months. Results: Focus group data indicated that smokers bought single cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy. Survey data indicated that 38% of participants purchased single cigarettes in the last month and 10% purchased them the last time they bought cigarettes, with more frequent consumption among young adults and those with lower income. Purchasing single cigarettes was independently associated with the frequency of using single cigarettes to reduce consumption and, less consistently, with the frequency of being cued to smoke after seeing single cigarettes for sale. Using single cigarettes to reduce consumption was positively associated with quit intention, whereas being cued to smoke by single cigarettes was negatively associated with quit intention. Conclusions: Study results suggest that some adult Mexican smokers purchase single cigarettes as a method to limit, cut down on and even quit smoking. Nevertheless, promotion of the availability of single cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy could provide additional smoking cues that undermine quit attempts and promote youth smoking. PMID:19671535

  11. Complete Health: Prevalence and Predictors among U.S. Adults in 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Corey L. M.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed 3,032 U.S. adults to operationalize, estimate the prevalence, and ascertain the epidemiology of complete health. Overall, 19 percent of adults were completely healthy, 18.8 percent were completely unhealthy, and 62.2 percent had a version of incomplete health. Completely healthy adults were likely to be young (age 25-34 years) or old…

  12. Adult onset asthma and interaction between genes and active tobacco smoking: The GABRIEL consortium

    PubMed Central

    Postma, D. S.; Moffatt, M. F.; Jarvis, D.; Ramasamy, A.; Wjst, M.; Omenaas, E. R.; Bouzigon, E.; Demenais, F.; Nadif, R.; Siroux, V.; Polonikov, A. V.; Solodilova, M.; Ivanov, V. P.; Curjuric, I.; Imboden, M.; Kumar, A.; Probst-Hensch, N.; Ogorodova, L. M.; Puzyrev, V. P.; Bragina, E. Yu; Freidin, M. B.; Nolte, I. M.; Farrall, A. M.; Cookson, W. O. C. M.; Strachan, D. P.; Koppelman, G. H.; Boezen, H. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies have identified novel genetic associations for asthma, but without taking into account the role of active tobacco smoking. This study aimed to identify novel genes that interact with ever active tobacco smoking in adult onset asthma. Methods We performed a genome-wide interaction analysis in six studies participating in the GABRIEL consortium following two meta-analyses approaches based on 1) the overall interaction effect and 2) the genetic effect in subjects with and without smoking exposure. We performed a discovery meta-analysis including 4,057 subjects of European descent and replicated our findings in an independent cohort (LifeLines Cohort Study), including 12,475 subjects. Results First approach: 50 SNPs were selected based on an overall interaction effect at p<10−4. The most pronounced interaction effect was observed for rs9969775 on chromosome 9 (discovery meta-analysis: ORint = 0.50, p = 7.63*10−5, replication: ORint = 0.65, p = 0.02). Second approach: 35 SNPs were selected based on the overall genetic effect in exposed subjects (p <10−4). The most pronounced genetic effect was observed for rs5011804 on chromosome 12 (discovery meta-analysis ORint = 1.50, p = 1.21*10−4; replication: ORint = 1.40, p = 0.03). Conclusions Using two genome-wide interaction approaches, we identified novel polymorphisms in non-annotated intergenic regions on chromosomes 9 and 12, that showed suggestive evidence for interaction with active tobacco smoking in the onset of adult asthma. PMID:28253294

  13. Is Workplace Smoking Policy Equally Prevalent and Equally Effective Among Immigrants?

    PubMed Central

    Osypuk, Theresa L.; Subramanian, S.V.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores

    2009-01-01

    Background We examined whether immigrants were less likely to be covered by a smokefree workplace policy, as well as whether workplace smoking policies garnered comparable associations with smoking for immigrants and the US-born, in the US. Methods We applied the 2001/02 Current Population Survey Tobacco Use Supplement among US indoor workers (n=85,784) using multiple logistic regression analyses. First, we examined whether nativity (immigrants vs. US-born) was independently associated with smokefree policy coverage. Second, we examined whether the smokefree policy association with current smoking was differential by nativity (effect modification). Results Immigrants were less likely to work in smokefree workplaces than the US-born; however occupation and industry accounted for these disparities. Employment in a workplace that was not smokefree was associated with higher odds of smoking (vs. smokefree workplaces), both before (OR=1.83, 95% CI:1.74–1.92) and after (OR=1.36, (1.29–1.44)) covariate adjustment among the US-born, but associations were weaker among immigrants (OR=1.39(1.20–1.61) unadjusted, OR=1.15(0.97–1.35) adjusted). Worker industry partly explained (16% of) the weaker policy-smoking association among immigrants, while other socioeconomic variables reduced the policy-smoking association without explaining the disparity. Conclusions The patchwork of US workplace smoking restriction policy at different governmental levels, combined with a voluntary regime among some employers, generates coverage inequalities. Workplace smokefree policies may be less effective for immigrants, and this is related to differential coverage by such policies due to occupational segregation. Understanding the complex patterns of the social context of smoking is important for understanding how policy interventions might have heterogeneous effects for different demographic groups. PMID:19359272

  14. The prevalence of positive urinary cotinine tests in Korean infertile couples and the effect of smoking on assisted conception outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hoon; Kim, Seul Ki; Yu, Eun Jeong; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Objective Smoking has been reported to harm nearly every organ of the body, but conflicting results have been reported regarding the effects of smoking on assisted conception. In this prospective cohort study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of positive urinary cotinine tests in infertile couples and whether cotinine positivity was associated with infertility treatment outcomes. Methods A qualitative urinary cotinine test was administered to 127 couples who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF, n=92) or intrauterine insemination (IUI, n=35). Results The overall prevalence of positive urinary cotinine test was 43.3% (55/127) in the male partners and 10.2% (13/127) in the female partners with similar prevalence rates in both genders in the IUI and IVF groups. Semen characteristics, serum markers of ovarian reserve, and number of retrieved oocytes were comparable among cotinine-positive and cotinine-negative men or women (with the exception of sperm count, which was higher among cotinine-positive men). The results of urinary cotinine tests in infertile couples were not associated with IVF and IUI outcomes. Conclusion The presence of cotinine in the system, as indicated by a positive urinary cotinine test, was not associated with poorer outcomes of infertility treatment. PMID:26816872

  15. [The "Smoke-free hospital" project: prevalence of smokers in a large hospital in Pavia (Italy) from 2006 to 2010].

    PubMed

    Sacco, Sara; Campanella, Francesca; Cavalotti, Alessandro; Consiglio, Marco; Salerno, Christian; Arpesella, Marisa; Tenconi, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in the context of the "Smoke-free Hospital" project and its aims were to describe the prevalence of smokers among employees and patients of the Hospital of Pavia from 2006 to 2010, and to evaluate its determinants. The target population was represented by all employees (healthcare and other staff) and patients (inpatients and outpatients) of the Hospital of Pavia. Data collection took place by means of two self-administered and anonymous questionnaires (one for employees and one for patients). Overall, 3,996 employees and 2,301 patients completed the questionnaires. The prevalence of smokers among participating individuals remained largely unchanged in the observed period. The percentage of smokers among employees ranged from 21.88% in 2007 to 23% in 2006, while among patients it ranged from 16.67% in 2006 to 24.05% in 2008. Knowledge about tobacco-related issues was found to be poor and did not change over time. The low response rate did not allow us to generalize results to the entire target population. However, results indicate the need for health promotion campaigns both among hospital employees and among the general population, to raise awareness regarding the risks of tobacco smoking and to reduce the prevalence of smokers.

  16. Snus use and smoking behaviors: preliminary findings from a prospective cohort study among US Midwest young adults.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Naomi; Choi, Kelvin; Forster, Jean

    2015-04-01

    The effect of snus use on smoking behaviors among US young adults is largely unknown. Data from the Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort Study collected in 2010 to 2011 and 2011 to 2012 (participants aged 20-28 years) showed that young adult nonsmokers who had tried snus were subsequently more likely than those who had not tried snus to become current smokers (n = 1696; adjusted odds ratio = 1.79; 95% confidence interval = 1.01, 3.14). Snus use was not associated with subsequent smoking cessation or reduction among young adult current smokers (n = 488; P > .46).

  17. Factors Associated with American Indian Cigarette Smoking in Rural Settings

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, Felicia; Nandy, Karabi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports on the prevalence, factors and patterns of cigarette smoking among rural California American Indian (AI) adults. Methods: Thirteen Indian health clinic registries formed the random household survey sampling frame (N = 457). Measures included socio-demographics, age at smoking initiation, intention to quit, smoking usage, smoking during pregnancy, health effects of smoking, suicide attempts or ideation, history of physical abuse, neglect and the role of the environment (smoking at home and at work). Statistical tests included Chi Square and Fisher’s Exact test, as well as multiple logistic regression analysis among never, former, and current smokers. Results: Findings confirm high smoking prevalence among male and female participants (44% and 37% respectively). American Indians begin smoking in early adolescence (age 14.7). Also, 65% of current smokers are less than 50% Indian blood and 76% of current smokers have no intention to quit smoking. Current and former smokers are statistically more likely to report having suicidal ideation than those who never smoked. Current smokers also report being neglected and physically abused in childhood and adolescence, are statistically more likely to smoke ½ pack or less (39% vs. 10% who smoke 1+ pack), smoke during pregnancy, and have others who smoke in the house compared with former and never smokers. Conclusion: Understanding the factors associated with smoking will help to bring about policy changes and more effective programs to address the problem of high smoking rates among American Indians. PMID:21695023

  18. Effect of cigarette smoking on evolution of ventilatory lung function in young adults: an eight year longitudinal study.

    PubMed Central

    Jaakkola, M S; Ernst, P; Jaakkola, J J; N'gan'ga, L W; Becklake, M R

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are few data on the quantitative effects of cigarette smoking on lung function in young adults. These effects are important in the understanding of the early stages of chronic airflow obstruction. METHODS: A longitudinal study over eight years was carried out to estimate quantitatively the effect of cigarette smoking on ventilatory lung function in young adults and to examine the possibility that the effect is modified by other factors. The study population were 15 to 40 years of age at initial examination, when they underwent spirometry and completed an interviewer administered questionnaire on respiratory health. Eight years later 391 of the subjects were re-examined (38% response rate). The quantitative effect of cigarette smoking during the study period on the average change of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) over time (delta FEV1) was estimated in two linear regression models that included potential confounders and other determinants of outcome. RESULTS: The first model showed a significant dose-response relation between the average rate of smoking during the study period and delta FEV1, giving an estimate of annual change in FEV1 of -0.42 ml for each cigarette smoked per day (-8.4 ml for each pack) (p = 0.04). In the second model, which took smoking before the study period as a potential confounder, the effect of smoking during the study period was slightly smaller (-0.33 ml/year for each cigarette smoked per day). This indicated that smoking before the study period had a marginal latent effect on delta FEV1 during the study. However, neither the effect of smoking before the study nor that of smoking during the study was significant, presumably because of collinearity. Interactions between cigarette smoking and gender, wheezing, atopy, and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke during the growth period were not significant with respect to their effect on the relation between cigarette smoking and delta FEV1. CONCLUSION

  19. Effectiveness of a complex intervention in reducing the prevalence of smoking among adolescents: study design of a cluster-randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The likelihood of an adolescent taking up smoking may be influenced by his or her society, school and family. Thus, changes in the immediate environment may alter a young person’s perception of smoking. Methods/Design The proposed multi-center, cluster-randomized controlled trial will be stratified by the baseline prevalence of smoking in schools. Municipalities with fewer than 100,000 inhabitants will be randomly assigned to a control or intervention group. One secondary school will be randomly selected from each municipality. These schools will be randomized to two groups: the students of one will receive any existing educational course regarding smoking, while those of the other school will receive a four-year, class-based curriculum intervention (22 classroom lessons) aimed at reinforcing a smoke-free school policy and encouraging smoking cessation in parents, pupils, and teachers. The intervention will also include annual meetings with parents and efforts to empower adolescents to change the smoking-related attitudes and behaviors in their homes, classrooms and communities. We will enroll children aged 12-13 years as they enter secondary school during two consecutive school years (to obtain sufficient enrolled subjects). We will follow them for five years, until two years after they leave secondary school. All external evaluators and analysts will be blinded to school allocation. The aim of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of a complex intervention in reducing the prevalence of smoking in the third year of compulsory secondary education (ESO) and two years after secondary school, when the participants are 14-15 and 17-18 years old, respectively. Discussion Most interventions aimed at preventing smoking among adolescents yield little to no positive long-term effects. This clinical trial will analyze the effectiveness of a complex intervention aimed at reducing the incidence and prevalence of smoking in this vulnerable age group. Trial

  20. Smoking, Social Support, and Hassles in an Urban African-American Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Patrick S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A random household survey of 569 African-American adults in Oakland and 568 in San Francisco (California) indicates a high prevalence of smoking (41.9 percent), with smoking more likely by those reporting high stress. Stressful environment may contribute to high-risk smoking behavior among urban African Americans. (SLD)

  1. Hookah Smoking and Harm Perception among Asthmatic Adolescents: Findings from the Florida Youth Tobacco Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinasek, Mary P.; Gibson-Young, Linda; Forrest, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hookah tobacco smoking has increased in prevalence among Florida adolescents and is often viewed as a safer alternative to cigarette smoking by young adults. Asthmatic adolescents are at increased risk of the negative health effects of hookah smoking. The purpose of this study is to examine if hookah use and harm perception vary by…

  2. Interactions between Diet and Exposure to Secondhand Smoke on the Prevalence of Childhood Obesity: Results from NHANES, 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brianna F.; Clark, Maggie L.; Bachand, Annette; Reynolds, Stephen J.; Nelson, Tracy L.; Peel, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) may increase risk for obesity, but few studies have investigated the joint effects of exposure to SHS and diet. Objectives: We examined the interaction of exposure to SHS and diet on the prevalence of obesity among 6- to 19-year-olds who participated in the 2007–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods: We characterized exposure using a novel biomarker [4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL)], an established biomarker (cotinine), and self-report. Multinomial logistic regression models examined the association of SHS exposure on the prevalence of overweight and obesity as separate outcomes (compared with normal/underweight). Interaction by diet was assessed by introducing interaction terms (with SHS) of the individual nutrients [dietary fiber, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), vitamin C, and vitamin E] into separate models. Results: Approximately half of the children had NNAL and cotinine levels above the limit of detection, indicating exposure to SHS. Interaction results suggest that the prevalence of obesity among children with both high exposure to SHS and low levels of certain nutrients (dietary fiber, DHA, or EPA) is greater than would be expected due to the effects of the individual exposures alone. Little or no evidence suggesting more or less than additive or multiplicative interaction was observed for vitamin C or vitamin E. The association between SHS and obesity did not appear to be modified by dietary vitamin C or vitamin E. Conclusions: Childhood obesity prevention strategies aimed at reducing SHS exposures and improving diets may exceed the expected benefits based on targeting either risk factor alone. Citation: Moore BF, Clark ML, Bachand A, Reynolds SJ, Nelson TL, Peel JL. 2016. Interactions between diet and exposure to secondhand smoke on the prevalence of childhood obesity: results from NHANES, 2007–2010. Environ Health Perspect 124:1316

  3. Association between population prevalence of smoking and incidence of meningococcal disease in Norway, Sweden, Denmark and the Netherlands between 1975 and 2009: a population-based time series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Norheim, Gunnstein; Sadarangani, Manish; Omar, Omar; Yu, Ly-Mee; Mølbak, Kåre; Howitz, Michael; Olcén, Per; Haglund, Margaretha; van der Ende, Arie; Pollard, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the prevalence of smoking in the population and incidence of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) among children under 5 years of age. Design Retrospective, longitudinal, observational study. Poisson regression controlled for confounding factors. Setting Norway, Sweden, Denmark and the Netherlands between 1975 and 2009. Population Total population of approximately 35 million people in these four countries. Data sources Data were collected from the Ministries of Health, National Statistics Bureaus and other relevant national institutes. Results In Norway, there was a significant positive relationship between the annual prevalence of daily smokers among individuals aged 25–49 years and the incidence of IMD in children under 5 years of age, unadjusted (RR=1.04–1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.07, p<0.001) and after adjustment for time of year (quarter), incidence of influenza-like illness and household crowding (RR=1.05–1.07, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.09, p<0.001). Depending on age group, the risk of IMD increased by 5.2–6.9% per 1% increase in smoking prevalence among individuals aged 25–49 years in adjusted analyses. Using limited datasets from the three other countries, unadjusted analysis showed positive associations between IMD in children related to older smokers in Sweden and the Netherlands and negative associations related to younger smokers in Sweden. However, there were no demonstrable associations between incidence of IMD and prevalence of smoking, after adjustment for the same confounding variables. Conclusions The reduced incidence of IMD in Norway between 1975 and 2009 may partly be explained by the reduced prevalence of smoking during this period. High-quality surveillance data are required to confirm this in other countries. Strong efforts to reduce smoking in the whole population including targeted campaigns to reduce smoking among adults may have a role to play in the prevention of IMD in children

  4. Reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity and the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms among young adults

    PubMed Central

    Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Strasser, Andrew A.; Ashare, Rebecca; Wileyto, E. Paul

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate whether individual differences in the reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity (RRVS) moderated the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms in young adult smokers. The repeated measures within-subjects design included daily smokers (n=79) 18–26 years old. RRVS was measured with a validated behavioral choice task. On two subsequent visits, participants completed self-report measures of craving, withdrawal, mood, and affective valence before and after they engaged in passive sitting or a bout of physical activity. RRVS did not moderate any effects of physical activity (p’s > .05). Physical activity compared to passive sitting predicted decreased withdrawal symptoms (β=−5.23, CI= −6.93, −3.52; p<0.001), negative mood (β=−2.92, CI= −4.13, −1.72; p<0.001), and urge to smoke (β=−7.13, CI= −9.39, −4.86; p<0.001). Also, physical activity compared to passive sitting predicted increased positive affect (β=3.08, CI= 1.87, 4.28; p<0.001) and pleasurable feelings (β=1.07, CI= 0.58, 1.55; p<0.001), and greater time to first cigarette during the ad-libitum smoking period (β=211.76, CI= 32.54, 390.98; p=0.02). RRVS predicted higher levels of pleasurable feelings (β=0.22, CI= 0.01 – 0.43, p=0.045), increased odds of smoking versus remaining abstinent during the ad-libitum smoking period (β=0.04, CI= 0.01, 0.08; p=0.02), and reduced time to first cigarette (β=−163.00, CI = −323.50, −2.49; p=0.047). Regardless of the RRVS, physical activity produces effects that may aid smoking cessation in young adult smokers. However, young adult smokers who have a higher RRVS will be less likely to choose to engage physical activity, especially when smoking is an alternative. PMID:26348158

  5. A 14-year longitudinal study of the impact of clean indoor air legislation on state smoking prevalence, USA, 1997-2010.

    PubMed

    Becker, Craig M; Lee, Joseph G L; Hudson, Suzanne; Hoover, Jeanne; Civils, Donald

    2017-02-08

    While clean indoor air legislation at the state level is an evidence-based recommendation, only limited evidence exists regarding the impact of clean indoor air policies on state smoking prevalence. Using state smoking prevalence data from 1997 to 2010, a repeated measures observational analysis assessed the association between clean indoor air policies (i.e., workplace, restaurant, and bar) and state smoking prevalence while controlling for state cigarette taxes and year. The impacts from the number of previous years with any clean indoor air policy, the number of policies in effect during the current year, and the number of policies in effect the previous year were analyzed. Findings indicate a smoking prevalence predicted decrease of 0.13 percentage points (p=0.03) for each additional year one or more clean indoor air policies were in effect, a predicted decrease of 0.12 percentage points (p=0.09) for each policy in effect in the current year, and a predicted decrease of 0.22 percentage points (p=0.01) for each policy in effect in the previous year on the subsequent year. Clean indoor air policies show measurable associations with reductions in smoking prevalence within a year of implementation above and beyond taxes and time trends. Further efforts are needed to diffuse clean indoor air policies across states and provinces that have not yet adopted such policies.

  6. 8-year trends in physical activity, nutrition, TV viewing time, smoking, alcohol and BMI: A comparison of younger and older Queensland adults

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Mitch J.; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Rebar, Amanda L.; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2017-01-01

    Lifestyle behaviours significantly contribute to high levels of chronic disease in older adults. The aims of the study were to compare the prevalence and the prevalence trends of health behaviours (physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, fast food consumption, TV viewing, smoking and alcohol consumption), BMI and a summary health behaviour indicator score in older (65+ years) versus younger adults (18–65 years). The self-report outcomes were assessed through the Queensland Social Survey annually between 2007–2014 (n = 12,552). Regression analyses were conducted to compare the proportion of older versus younger adults engaging in health behaviours and of healthy weight in all years combined and examine trends in the proportion of younger and older adults engaging in health behaviours and of healthy weight over time. Older adults were more likely to meet recommended intakes of fruit and vegetable (OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.23–1.67), not consume fast food (OR = 2.54, 95%CI = 2.25–2.86) and be non-smokers (OR = 3.02, 95%CI = 2.53–3.60) in comparison to younger adults. Conversely, older adults were less likely to meet the physical activity recommendations (OR = 0.86, 95%CI = 0.78–0.95) and watch less than 14 hours of TV per week (OR = 0.65, 95%CI = 0.58–0.74). Overall, older adults were more likely to report engaging in 3, or at least 4 out of 5 healthy behaviours. The proportion of both older and younger adults meeting the physical activity recommendations (OR = 0.97, 95%CI = 0.95–0.98 and OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0.91–0.97 respectively), watching less than 14 hours of TV per week (OR = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.94–0.99 and OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0.90–0.99 respectively) and who were a healthy weight (OR = 0.95, 95%CI = 0.92–0.99 and OR = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.94–0.98 respectively) decreased over time. The proportion of older adults meeting the fruit and vegetable recommendations (OR = 0.90, 95%CI = 0.84–0.96) and not consuming fast food (OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0

  7. Association of serum ferritin levels with smoking and lung function in the Korean adult population: analysis of the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chan Ho; Goag, Eun Kyung; Lee, Su Hwan; Chung, Kyung Soo; Jung, Ji Ye; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Song, Joo Han

    2016-01-01

    Background Iron-catalyzed oxidative stress contributes to lung injury after exposure to various toxins, including cigarette smoke. An oxidant/antioxidant imbalance is considered to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of COPD. Ferritin is a key protein in iron homeostasis, and its capacity to oxidize and sequester the metal preventing iron prooxidant activity implicates its possible role in the alteration of antioxidant imbalance. We investigated the relationship among cigarette smoking, lung function, and serum ferritin concentration in a large cohort representative of the Korean adult population. Materials and methods Among 50,405 participants of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2014, 15,239 adult subjects older than 40 years with serum ferritin levels and spirometric data were selected for this study. Results The mean age was 56.5 years for men (43%) and 56.9 years for women (57%). The prevalence of airway obstruction was 13.4%, which was significantly higher in men than in women, and increased in former or current smokers. The median levels of serum ferritin were highest in the airway obstruction group, followed by the restrictive pattern group, and lowest in the normal lung function group. The median ferritin levels were increased by smoking status and amounts in each spirometric subgroup. In multivariable regression analysis, serum ferritin was positively associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity, whereas the smoking amount was negatively associated with the adjustment with age, sex, height, and weight. Conclusion Serum ferritin levels were increased in former or current smokers and were increased with smoking amount in all subgroups of participants categorized according to spirometric results. The result was also evident in the subgroups divided by obstructive severity. While smoking amount was inversely related to lung function, higher

  8. Prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from fresh and smoked fish in Poland.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Kinga; Osek, Jacek

    2017-06-01

    A total of 57 out of 301 (18.9%) fresh and smoked fish samples in Poland were positive for Listeria monocytotgenes. The bacteria were most frequently identified in fresh and smoked salmon (32.0% and 33.8% respectively) as well as in fresh cod (31.8%). Only three samples of smoked salmon were contaminated with the bacteria above 100 CFU/g. Four molecular serogroups were identified and the most prevalent, 1/2a-3a (40 isolates; 70.2%), was present in samples from both marine (33 strains; 71.7%) and freshwater fish (7 isolates; 63.6%). Similar duality of prevalence was observed only for L. monocytogenes of 1/2b-3b-7 serogroup (14 strains; 24.6%), which was identified in 11 (23.9%) marine and 3 (27.3%) freshwater fish. All isolates harboured 10 virulence-associated genes (inlA, inlB, inlC, inlJ, lmo2672, plcA, plcB, hlyA, actA, and mpl) and most of them (56; 98.2%) also possessed the flaA marker. Several strains displayed resistance to oxacillin (33; 57.9%), ceftriaxone (18; 31.6%), or clindamycin (5; 8.8%), and two isolates of serogroup 1/2a-3a showed multiresistance to all three. Genetic subtyping showed the presence of different pulsotypes belonging to six PFGE clusters. The obtained results provide useful information regarding fish contamination with L. monocytogenes which may have implications for public health.

  9. Environmental prevalence and persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in cold-smoked trout processing plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes on the surfaces of equipment and workers' hands during different production stages, as well as on fish skin and meat during processing and storage of cold-smoked trout, was investigated. Listeria monocytogenes was recovered from 10 (6.06%) of a total 165 cotto...

  10. Low Prevalence of Clostridium septicum Fecal Carriage in an Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Kopliku, Fatos; Schubert, Alyxandria M.; Mogle, Jill; Schloss, Patrick D.; Young, Vincent B.; Aronoff, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium septicum is an uncommon cause of severe infection. Real-time PCR against the C. septicum-specific alpha-toxin gene (csa) was used to estimate the prevalence of this microbe in human stool from 161 asymptomatic community-dwelling adults and 192 hospitalized patients with diarrhea. All samples were negative, suggesting a low prevalence. PMID:25481351

  11. Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Disorders in Adult Clients with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galli-Carminati, G.; Chauvet, I.; Deriaz, N.

    2006-01-01

    Background: In clients with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), some authors have noticed the presence of gastrointestinal disorders and behavioural disorders. An augmented prevalence of different histological anomalies has also been reported. The aim of our study is to highlight the prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders in this adult with…

  12. Prevalence and Associations of Anxiety Disorders in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, K. A.; Smiley, E.; Cooper, S.-A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Anxiety disorders are known to be common in the general population. Previous studies with adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) report a prevalence of general anxiety disorder ranging from less than 2% to 17.4%. Little is known about associated factors in this population. This study investigates point prevalence of anxiety…

  13. Prevalence of Hypertension in Adults with Intellectual Disability in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Louw, Joyce; Vorstenbosch, R.; Vinck, L.; Penning, C.; Evenhuis, H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Literature on the prevalence of hypertension in people with intellectual disability (ID) is mostly based on file studies or on measurements limited to the age group below 50 years. We measured and calculated the prevalence of hypertension in adults with ID and studied the distribution of hypertension in relation to age, gender,…

  14. High Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi among Adult Blacklegged Ticks from White-Tailed Deer.

    PubMed

    Han, Seungeun; Hickling, Graham J; Tsao, Jean I

    2016-02-01

    We compared the prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi infection in questing and deer-associated adult Ixodes scapularis ticks in Wisconsin, USA. Prevalence among deer-associated ticks (4.5% overall, 7.1% in females) was significantly higher than among questing ticks (1.0% overall, 0.6% in females). Deer may be a sylvatic reservoir for this newly recognized zoonotic pathogen.

  15. Prevalence of Epilepsy in Adults with Mental Retardation and Related Disabilities in Primary Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Suzanne; Moran, Robert; Platt, Tan; Wood, Hope; Isaac, Terri; Dasari, Srikanth

    2005-01-01

    Two primary care practices were used to recruit adults with and without disability. Disability groups included autism, Down syndrome, cerebral palsy, and mental retardation. The patients without disability had an epilepsy prevalence rate of 1%. The prevalence of epilepsy within the disability groups was 13% for cerebral palsy, 13.6% for Down…

  16. Smoking and smokeless tobacco use in nine South and Southeast Asian countries: prevalence estimates and social determinants from Demographic and Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In South and Southeast Asian countries, tobacco is consumed in diverse forms, and smoking among women is very low. We aimed to provide national estimates of prevalence and social determinants of smoking and smokeless tobacco use among men and women separately. Methods Data from Demographic and Health Surveys completed in nine countries (India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Maldives, Philippines, Cambodia, Indonesia, and Timor Leste) were analyzed. Current smoking or smokeless tobacco use was assessed as response “yes” to one or more of three questions, such as “Do you currently smoke cigarettes?” Weighted country-level prevalence rates for socio-economic subgroups were calculated for smoking and smokeless tobacco use. Binary logistic regression analyses were done on STATA/IC (version 10) by ‘svy’ command. Results Prevalence and type of tobacco use among men and women varied across the countries and among socio-economic sub groups. Smoking prevalence was much lower in women than men in all countries. Smoking among men was very high in Indonesia, Maldives, and Bangladesh. Smokeless tobacco (mainly chewable) was used in diverse forms, particularly in India, among both men and women. Chewing tobacco was common in Nepal, Bangladesh, Maldives, and Cambodia. Both smoking and smokeless tobacco use were associated with higher age, lower education, and poverty, but their association with place of residence and marital status was not uniform between men and women across the countries. Conclusion Policymakers should consider type of tobacco consumption and their differentials among various population subgroups to implement country-specific tobacco control policies and target the vulnerable groups. Smokeless tobacco use should also be prioritized in tobacco control efforts. PMID:25183954

  17. [Smoking prevalence, nicotine dependence and effects of low cost cigarette sale among military healthcare personal in Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus].

    PubMed

    Günay, Ersin; Simşek, Ziya; Kutucularoğlu, Gürkan; Metinyurt, Gürkan

    2010-01-01

    Health professionals, particularly clinicians and nurses in the community have an important role in preventing to start smoking. In our study; we aimed to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking, nicotine dependence level and the effects of low price tobacco sale among healthcare personal in a military hospital. A questionnaire was applied to healthcare personal, which evaluates their smoking habits, nicotine dependence level with Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and the effects of low cost cigarette sale on smoking habits. Seventy male and 46 female among 138 healthcare personals (84%) responded to the questionnaire. Mean age of participants was 33.7 ± 5.6. Among all participants, 53.4% were smoking. There was no significant difference between male and female participants in case of smoking prevalence (p> 0.05). Seven participants who started smoking regularly after they appointed to Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus explained why they started smoking as secondary to lower cigarette prices in this country. 48.3% of participants (40% of male smokers and 59.3% of female smokers) reported increased cigarette consumption as a result of low cost cigarette sales. There was a significant difference between male and female participants in case of increase in cigarette consumption (< 0.05). According to results of FTND, about 70% of participants were low and very low-dependant, and about 22% were high and very high- dependant smokers. Smoking prevalence of healthcare personal who participated in our study was higher than that reported for community and for other healthcare personal.

  18. The Prevalence and Determinants of Obesity in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, C. A.; Cooper, S. -A.; Morrison, J.; Allan, L.; Smiley, E.; Williamson, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major public health concern internationally and this study aimed to measure the prevalence of obesity in adults with intellectual disabilities in comparison with general population data, and examine the factors associated with obesity. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of all adults with intellectual disabilities,…

  19. Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Prevalence, Incidence and Remission of Aggressive Behaviour and Related Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, S.-A.; Smiley, E.; Jackson, A.; Finlayson, J.; Allan, L.; Mantry, D.; Morrison, J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Aggressive behaviours can be disabling for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), with negative consequences for the adult, their family and paid carers. It is surprising how little research has been conducted into the epidemiology of these needs, given the impact they can have. This study investigates point prevalence, 2-year…

  20. Prevalence of Falls and Risk Factors in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Kelly; Rimmer, James; Heller, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of falls and risk factors for falls in 1,515 adults (greater than or equal to 18 years) with intellectual disability using baseline data from the Longitudinal Health and Intellectual Disability Study. Nearly 25% of adults from the study were reported to have had one or more falls in the past…

  1. Prevalence and risk factors for self-reported asthma in an adult Indian population: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, N.; Ebrahim, S.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND METHODS: We estimated the prevalence of self-reported asthma in adult Indians and examined several risk factors influencing disease prevalence. Analysis is based on 99 574 women and 56 742 men aged 20–49 years included in India’s third National Family Health Survey, 2005–2006. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the prevalence odds ratios for asthma, adjusting for various risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of self-reported asthma was 1.8% (95%CI 1.6–2.0) among men and 1.9% (95%CI 1.8–2.0) among women, with higher rates in rural than in urban areas and marked geographic differences. After adjustment for known asthma risk factors, women were 1.2 times more likely to have asthma than men. Daily/weekly consumption of milk/milk products, green leafy vegetables and fruits were associated with a lower asthma risk, whereas consumption of chicken/meat, a lower body mass index (BMI; <16 kg/m2, OR 2.08, 95%CI 1.73–2.50) as well as a higher BMI (>30 kg/m2, OR 1.67, 95%CI 1.36–2.06), current tobacco smoking (OR 1.30, 95%CI 1.12–1.50) and ever use of alcohol (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.05–1.39) were associated with an increased asthma risk. CONCLUSIONS: There are wide regional variations in the prevalence of asthma in India. With the exception of the findings for BMI, however, most of the associations of asthma with the risk factors are relatively weak and account for only a small proportion of cases. PMID:23317966

  2. In Utero Exposure to Second-Hand Smoke Aggravates Adult Responses to Irritants

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Rui; Perveen, Zakia; Paulsen, Daniel; Rouse, Rodney; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Kearney, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In utero exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) is associated with exacerbated asthmatic responses in children. We tested the hypothesis that in utero SHS will aggravate the lung responses of young adult mice re-exposed to SHS. We exposed Balb/c mice in utero to SHS (S) or filtered air (AIR; A), and re-exposed the male offspring daily from 11–15 weeks of age to either SHS (AS and SS) or AIR (AA and SA). After the adult exposures, we analyzed samples of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), examined the results of histopathology, and assessed pulmonary function and gene expression changes in lung samples. In SS mice, compared with the other three groups (AA, AS, and SA), we found decreases in breathing frequency and increases in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), as well as low but significantly elevated concentrations of BALF proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1b, IL-6, and keratinocyte-derived chemokine). Lung morphometric analyses revealed enlarged airspaces and arteries in SA and SS mice compared with their in utero AIR counterparts, as well as increased collagen deposition in AS and SS mice. Unique gene expression profiles were found for in utero, adult, and combined exposures, as well as for mice with elevated AHR responses. The profibrotic metalloprotease genes, Adamts9 and Mmp3, were up-regulated in the SS and AHR groups, suggesting a role for in utero SHS exposure on the adult development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Our results indicate that in utero exposures to environmentally relevant concentrations of SHS alter lung structure more severely than do adult SHS exposures of longer duration. These in utero exposures also aggravate AHR and promote a profibrotic milieu in adult lungs. PMID:22962063

  3. Prevalence of undiagnosed airflow obstruction among people with a history of smoking in a primary care setting

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Sau Nga; Yu, Wai Cho; Wong, Carlos King-Ho; Lam, Margaret Choi-Hing

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to define the prevalence of undiagnosed airflow obstruction (AO) among subjects with a history of smoking but no previous diagnosis of chronic lung disease. The finding of AO likely represents diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Patients People aged ≥30 years with a history of smoking who attended public outpatient clinics for primary care services were included in this study. Methods A cross-sectional survey in five clinics in Hong Kong using the Breathlessness, Cough, and Sputum Scale, the Lung Function Questionnaire, and office spirometry was conducted. Results In total, 731 subjects (response rate =97.9%) completed the questionnaires and spirometry tests. Most of the subjects were men (92.5%) in the older age group (mean age =62.2 years; standard deviation =11.7). Of the 731 subjects, 107 had AO, giving a prevalence of 14.6% (95% confidence interval =12.1–17.2); 45 subjects with AO underwent a postbronchodilator test. By classifying the severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, 27 (60%) were considered to be in mild category and 18 (40%) in moderate category. None of them belonged to the severe or very severe category. The total score of Lung Function Questionnaire showed that majority of the subjects with AO also had chronic cough, wheezing attack, or breathlessness, although most did not show any acute respiratory symptoms in accordance with the Breathlessness, Cough, and Sputum Scale. Diagnosis of AO was positively associated with the number of years of smoking (odds ratio =1.044, P=0.035) and being normal or underweight (odds ratio =1.605, P=0.046). It was negatively associated with a history of hypertension (odds ratio =0.491, P=0.003). Conclusion One-seventh of smokers have undiagnosed AO. Spirometry screening of smokers should be considered in order to diagnose AO at an early stage, with an emphasis on smoking cessation

  4. Maternal allergy acts synergistically with cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy to induce hepatic fibrosis in adult male offspring.

    PubMed

    Allina, Jorge; Grabowski, Jacquelin; Doherty-Lyons, Shannon; Fiel, M Isabel; Jackson, Christine E; Zelikoff, Judith T; Odin, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Maternal environmental exposures during pregnancy are known to affect disease onset in adult offspring. For example, maternal asthma exacerbations during pregnancy can worsen adult asthma in the offspring. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with future onset of cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes. However, little is known about the effect of maternal environmental exposures on offspring susceptibility to liver disease. This pilot study examined the long-term effect of maternal allergen challenge and/or cigarette smoking during pregnancy on hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in adult mouse offspring. Ovalbumin (OVA) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-sensitized/challenged CD-1 dams were exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) or filtered air from gestational day 4 until parturition. Eight weeks postnatally, offspring were sacrificed for comparison of hepatic histology and mRNA expression. Adult male offspring of OVA-sensitized/challenged dams exposed to MCS (OSM) displayed significantly increased liver fibrosis (9.2% collagen content vs. <4% for all other treatment groups). These mice also had 1.8-fold greater collagen 1A1 mRNA levels. From the results here, we concluded that maternal allergen challenge in combination with cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy may be an important risk factor for liver disease in adult male offspring.

  5. Associations between smoking cessation and anxiety and depression among U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    McClave, Annette K; Dube, Shanta R; Strine, Tara W; Kroenke, Kurt; Caraballo, Ralph S; Mokdad, Ali H

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have shown a relationship between smoking and depression. However, few studies have examined the association between current depression and smoking and even fewer used large cross-sectional data to support these findings. Using the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data (n=248,800), we compared rates of lifetime depression, lifetime anxiety, current depression, and current depressive symptoms among smokers who unsuccessfully attempted to quit (unsuccessful quitters), former smokers (successful quitters), and smokers who made no attempts to quit (non-quitters). Unsuccessful quitters experienced more lifetime depression and anxiety than non-quitters (OR=1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.4), whereas successful quitters experienced less (OR=0.7, 95% CI, 0.6-0.8). Current depression prevalence was 14.3% among non-quitters, 18.8% among unsuccessful quitters, and 8.0% among successful quitters. On average, unsuccessful quitters also experienced more days of depressive symptoms during the previous month than either non-quitters or successful quitters. Our results suggest that smokers who attempt to quit unsuccessfully may experience lifetime depression as well as current depression at a higher rate than other smokers and former smokers.

  6. Predictors of cigarette smoking by young adults and readiness to change.

    PubMed

    Schmid, H

    2001-09-01

    A survey on cigarette smoking of a sample of 406 students aged 16/17 years from a Swiss city was carried out in 1995, and the sample was reinvestigated in 1998. Measures were taken of gender, age, school attendance (vocational or other), negative feelings, perception of danger. parental smoking, and reasons for smoking or not smoking at Time 1. Time-2 measures included stages-of-change in smoking cessation and nicotine addiction. Negative feelings at ages 16/17 were predictive of nicotine addiction at ages 19/20, and highly predictive for starting smoking within this period. Frequent smoking and relaxation as a reason for smoking was more likely for sustained smokers than for quitters. The results suggest that if adolescents begin to smoke in order to cope with negative feelings they continue to do so and increase their smoking. Cessation can probably be promoted by advice to reduce the frequency of smoking.

  7. Prevalence of passive smoking in the community population aged 15 years and older in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jing; Yang, Shanshan; Wu, Lei; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Yiyan; Liu, Miao; Zhang, Di; Jiang, Bin; He, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence and distribution of passive smoking in the community population aged 15 years and older in China. Design A systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies reporting the prevalence of passive smoking in China and a series of subgroup, trend and sensitivity analyses were conducted in this study. Data source The systematic review and meta-analysis, which included 46 studies with 381 580 non-smokers, estimated the prevalence and distribution of passive smoking in China. All studies were published between 1997 and 2015. Results The pooled prevalence of passive smoking was 48.7% (95% CI 44.8% to 52.5%) and was relatively stable from 1995 to 2013. The prevalence in the subgroups of gender, area, age and time varied from 35.1% (95% CI 31.8% to 38.3%) in the elderly (≥60 years) to 48.6% (95% CI 42.9% to 54.2%) in urban areas. The prevalence was lower in the elderly (≥60 years) than in those between 15 and 59 years of age (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.44 to 1.81). The difference between females and males in urban and rural areas was not statistically significant (OR: 1.27, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.74 and OR: 1.14, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.58, respectively). In addition, a significantly increasing trend was found among males from 2002 to 2010. Heterogeneity was high in all pooled estimates (I2>98%, p<0.001). Conclusions The high and stable prevalence of passive smoking in China is raising increasing national concern regarding specific research and tobacco control programmes. Attention should be focused on young, middle-aged and male non-smokers regardless of region. PMID:27059465

  8. A Study of Smoking Disparity and Factors Associated with Children Smoking Behavior in the Mountain and City Schools in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Chen, Ted; Chen, Fu-Li; Magnus, Jeanette; Rice, Janet; Yen, Yea-Yin; Hsu, Chih-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Background: While higher smoking prevalences have been better described for adults and adolescents in the mountainous areas than in the plain area in Taiwan, no studies have previously examined whether this disparity begins with children in elementary schools. The purpose of this study was thus designed to explore clustering in smoking behavior…

  9. Smoking and Risk of All-cause Deaths in Younger and Older Adults: A Population-based Prospective Cohort Study Among Beijing Adults in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Kuibao; Yao, Chonghua; Di, Xuan; Yang, Xinchun; Dong, Lei; Xu, Li; Zheng, Meili

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. Few studies, however, have examined the modified effects of age on the association between smoking and all-cause mortality.In the current study, the authors estimated the association between smoking and age-specific mortality in adults from Beijing, China. This is a large community-based prospective cohort study comprising of 6209 Beijing adults (aged ≥40 years) studied for approximately 8 years (1991-1999). Hazard ratios (HRs) and attributable fractions associated with smoking were estimated by Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for age, sex, alcohol intake, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, hypertension, and heart rate.The results showed, compared with nonsmokers, the multivariable-adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality were 2.7(95% confidence interval (CI):1.56-4.69) in young adult smokers (40-50 years) and 1.31 (95% CI: 1.13-1.52) in old smokers (>50 years); and the interaction term between smoking and age was significant (P = 0.026). Attributable fractions for all-cause mortality in young and old adults were 63% (95% CI: 41%-85%) and 24% (95% CI: 12%-36%), respectively. The authors estimated multivariate adjusted absolute risk (mortality) by Poisson regression and calculated risk differences and 95% CI by bootstrap estimation. Mortality differences (/10,000 person-years) were 15.99 (95% CI: 15.34-16.64) in the young and 74.61(68.57-80.65) in the old. Compared with current smokers, the HRs of all-cause deaths for former smokers in younger and older adults were 0.57 (95% CI: 0.23-1.42) and 0.96 (95% CI: 0.73-1.26), respectively.The results indicate smoking significantly increases the risks of all-cause mortality in both young and old Beijing adults from the relative and absolute risk perspectives. Smoking cessation could also reduce the excess risk of mortality caused by continuing smoking in younger adults compared with older individuals.

  10. The fMRI BOLD response to unisensory and multisensory smoking cues in nicotine-dependent adults

    PubMed Central

    Cortese, Bernadette M.; Uhde, Thomas W.; Brady, Kathleen T.; McClernon, F. Joseph; Yang, Qing X.; Collins, Heather R.; LeMatty, Todd; Hartwell, Karen J.

    2015-01-01

    Given that the vast majority of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of drug cue reactivity use unisensory visual cues, but that multisensory cues may elicit greater craving-related brain responses, the current study sought to compare the fMRI BOLD response to unisensory visual and multisensory, visual plus odor, smoking cues in 17 nicotine-dependent adult cigarette smokers. Brain activation to smoking-related, compared to neutral, pictures was assessed under cigarette smoke and odorless odor conditions. While smoking pictures elicited a pattern of activation consistent with the addiction literature, the multisensory (odor + picture) smoking cues elicited significantly greater and more widespread activation in mainly frontal and temporal regions. BOLD signal elicited by the multi-sensory, but not unisensory cues, was significantly related to participants’ level of control over craving as well. Results demonstrated that the co-presentation of cigarette smoke odor with smoking-related visual cues, compared to the visual cues alone, elicited greater levels of craving-related brain activation in key regions implicated in reward. These preliminary findings support future research aimed at a better understanding of multisensory integration of drug cues and craving. PMID:26475784

  11. Sociodemographic Differences Among U.S. Children and Adults Exposed to Secondhand Smoke at Home: National Health Interview Surveys 2000 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Hai-Yen; Wang, Yingning; Lightwood, James; Max, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Objective We examined the levels and change in prevalence of self-reported secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at home, and analyzed sociodemographic differences in exposure among children (aged 0–17 years) and nonsmoking adults (aged ≥18 years) in the United States in 2000 and 2010. Methods We included 18,731 children and 44,049 adults from the 2000 and 2010 National Health Interview Survey Cancer Control Supplements. We used multivariate logistic regression to determine the factors associated with exposure. Results The prevalence of self-reported SHS exposure declined from 2,627 of 10,636 (24.7%) to 663 of 8,095 (8.2%) for children and from 2,863 of 23,665 (12.1%) to 897 of 20,384 (4.4%) for adults from 2000 to 2010. SHS exposure declined for all population subgroups between the two years, but differences were found. Compared with 2000, children aged 12–17 years in 2010 were no longer more likely than children aged 0–5 years to be exposed to SHS. Non-Hispanic black children and adults were more likely than non-Hispanic white children and adults to be exposed to SHS in 2010. In 2010, no differences were found for children whose parents had a higher level of education, and no differences were observed for children or adults with high family income vs. other levels of family income. Children living in the Midwest and South had higher levels of SHS exposure than children in other regions in 2010. Conclusions Self-reported SHS exposure at home declined for all population subgroups from 2000 to 2010, but socioeconomic differences existed for some subgroups in both years. Current tobacco control policies need to be improved to reach all population subgroups so that SHS exposure can be further reduced, especially among vulnerable populations. PMID:26957671

  12. Prevalence and correlates of heart disease among adults in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Picco, Louisa; Subramaniam, Mythily; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann

    2016-02-01

    Heart disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and it has been well established that it is associated with both mental and physical conditions. This paper describes the prevalence of heart disease with mental disorders and other chronic physical conditions among the Singapore resident population. Data were from the Singapore Mental Health Study which was a representative, cross-sectional epidemiological survey undertaken with 6616 Singapore residents, between December 2009 and December 2010. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 was used to establish the diagnosis of mental disorders, while a chronic medical conditions checklist was used to gather information on 15 physical conditions, including various forms of heart disease. Health-related quality of life was measured using the Euro-Quality of Life Scale (EQ-5D). The lifetime prevalence of heart disease was 2.8%. Socio-demographic correlates of heart disease included older age, Indian ethnicity, secondary education (vs. tertiary) and being economically inactive. After adjusting for socio-demographic variables and other comorbid physical and mental disorders, the prevalence of major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder were significantly higher among those with heart disease, as were diabetes, arthritis, kidney failure and lung disease. These findings highlight important associations between heart disease and various socio-demographic correlates, mental disorders and physical conditions. Given the high prevalence of mood disorders among heart disease patients, timely and appropriate screening and treatment of mental disorders among this group is essential.

  13. Rural print media portrayal of secondhand smoke and smoke-free policy.

    PubMed

    Helme, Donald W; Rayens, Mary Kay; Kercsmar, Sarah E; Adkins, Sarah M; Amundsen, Shelby J; Lee, Erin; Riker, Carol A; Hahn, Ellen J

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how the print media portrays secondhand smoke and smoke-free policy in rural communities. Baseline print media clips from an ongoing 5-year study of smoke-free policy development in 40 rural communities were analyzed. The authors hypothesized that community population size would be positively associated with media favorability toward smoke-free policy. Conversely, pounds of tobacco produced and adult smoking prevalence would be negatively associated with media favorability. There was a positive correlation between population size and percentage of articles favorable toward smoke-free policy. The authors did not find a correlation between adult smoking or tobacco produced and media favorability toward smoke-free policy, but we did find a positive relationship between tobacco produced and percentage of pro-tobacco articles and a negative relationship between adult smoking prevalence and percentage of articles about health/comfort. Implications for targeting pro-health media in rural communities as well as policy-based initiatives for tobacco control are discussed.

  14. Secondhand smoke exposure among young adults in a developing country – a Jordanian case

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Linda; Abu Baker, Nesrin; El-Shahawy, Omar; Al-Ali, Nahla; Shudayfat, Tamadur

    2013-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is a potentially preventable environmental pollutant that remains a major global public health concern. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used to assess secondhand smoke exposure, knowledge, attitudes, and avoidance behaviors, as well as policy agreements related to SHS among young adult university students in the northern part of Jordan. A convenience sample of 800 university students from three public universities participated in the present study. They completed four questionnaires: the Sociodemographic Questionnaire, the Household SHS Exposure Questionnaire, the Knowledge and Attitudes Toward SHS Exposure Questionnaire, and the Avoidance of SHS Exposure Scale. Findings showed that SHS exposure among nonsmoking university students was 96%. In addition, the mean hours of exposure per day was 4.64 hours (standard deviation = 4.28), and the mean days of exposure per week was 5.14 days (standard deviation = 2.1). Based on the students reported high hours of exposure, our results suggest that even though a student has knowledge of the dangers of SHS and suitable avoidance behaviors, he or she is unable to avoid SHS. Advocacy for effective interventions to avoid exposure to SHS should be initiated for Jordanian society as a whole. PMID:24648787

  15. Gender differences in general mental health, smoking, drinking and chronic diseases in older adults in Jilin province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shibin; Ungvari, Gabor S; Forester, Brent P; Chiu, Helen F K; Wu, Yanhua; Kou, Changgui; Fu, Yingli; Qi, Yue; Liu, Yawen; Tao, Yuchun; Yu, Yaqin; Li, Bo; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2017-05-01

    There is little information on gender differences in general mental health, smoking, drinking and chronic diseases in Chinese elderly. We examined the gender differences in general mental health, smoking, drinking and a number of chronic diseases in a large Chinese old population. Multistage stratified cluster sampling was used in this cross-sectional study. A total of 4115 people (2198 women; 1917 men) aged between 60 and 79 years were included and their general mental health, smoking, drinking and chronic diseases were recorded with standardized assessment tools. Multivariate analyses revealed that women were less likely to be current smokers and frequent drinkers, but had higher prevalence of poor mental health compared with their male counterparts. In addition, the prevalence rate of chronic diseases and multi-morbidities were higher in women than that in men (both p values <0.05). Health professionals and policy makers need to pay special attention to the common chronic diseases and poor mental health in older women and higher prevalence of smoking and drinking in men.

  16. Smoking is associated with lower performance in WAIS-R Block Design scores in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Kalil, Katiane L S; Bau, Claiton H D; Grevet, Eugenio H; Sousa, Nyvia O; Garcia, Christiane R; Victor, Marcelo M; Fischer, Aline G; Salgado, Carlos A I; Belmonte-de-Abreu, Paulo

    2008-04-01

    Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are predisposed to smoking, but the neuropsychological correlates of this association have not been elucidated so far. The present study evaluates possible associations between cognitive performance and smoking and other comorbidities in adults with ADHD. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) patients were evaluated in the adult ADHD outpatient clinic of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. The diagnoses were based on the DSM-IV criteria and interviews were performed with the Portuguese version of K-SADS-E for ADHD and oppositional-defiant disorder. Axis I psychiatric comorbidities were evaluated with the SCID-IV and the cognitive performance with the Vocabulary and Block Design subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R). The evaluation of the influence of the WAIS-R scores on each dependent variable was performed with logistic regression analyses. Lower scores in the Block Design subtest of WAIS-R were associated with smoking and the presence of anxiety disorder. These results suggest that a subgroup of ADHD patients with lower Block Design subtest scores may be at increased risk of smoking as a cognitive enhancement. Our findings also confirmed the previously suggested association between anxiety and lower Block Design scores.

  17. Beliefs About the Health Effects of “Thirdhand” Smoke and Home Smoking Bans

    PubMed Central

    Winickoff, Jonathan P.; Friebely, Joan; Tanski, Susanne E.; Sherrod, Cheryl; Matt, Georg E.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; McMillen, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE There is no safe level of exposure to tobacco smoke. Thirdhand smoke is residual tobacco smoke contamination that remains after the cigarette is extinguished. Children are uniquely susceptible to thirdhand smoke exposure. The objective of this study was to assess health beliefs of adults regarding thirdhand smoke exposure of children and whether smokers and nonsmokers differ in those beliefs. We hypothesized that beliefs about thirdhand smoke would be associated with household smoking bans. METHODS Data were collected by a national random-digit-dial telephone survey from September to November 2005. The sample was weighted by race and gender within Census region on the basis of US Census data. The study questions assessed the level of agreement with statements that breathing air in a room today where people smoked yesterday can harm the health of children. RESULTS Of 2000 eligible respondents contacted, 1510 (87%) completed surveys, 1478 (97.9%) answered all questions pertinent to this analysis, and 273 (18.9%) were smokers. Overall, 95.4% of nonsmokers versus 84.1% of smokers agreed that secondhand smoke harms the health of children, and 65.2% of nonsmokers versus 43.3% of smokers agreed that thirdhand smoke harms children. Strict rules prohibiting smoking in the home were more prevalent among nonsmokers: 88.4% vs 26.7%. In multivariate logistic regression, after controlling for certain variables, belief that thirdhand smoke harms the health of children remained independently associated with rules prohibiting smoking in the home. Belief that secondhand smoke harms the health of children was not independently associated with rules prohibiting smoking in the home and car. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates that beliefs about the health effects of thirdhand smoke are independently associated with home smoking bans. Emphasizing that thirdhand smoke harms the health of children may be an important element in encouraging home smoking bans. PMID:19117850

  18. Risk factors and prevalence of Demodex mites in young adults.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Andrea; Neubrandt, Dóra Maja; Ghidán, Á; Nagy, K

    2011-06-01

    Demodex mites are ectoparasites often found in follicles of facial skin. Their role in human diseases is under investigation, and a growing number of studies indicated that they contribute to chronic inflammatory conditions of the skin, such as rosacea, blepharitis, otitis externa, alopecia and folliculitis. In our study we tested 96 healthy adults for the presence of Demodex mites. Risk factors influencing presence of mites and skin types of the tested individuals were evaluated. We found Demodex folliculorum or Demodex brevis in 17.7% of the samples, more frequently in males (21.9%) and in older adults (20%). Use of make-up seems to reduce the likelihood of Demodex carriage, while pet ownership, use of shared items and living in close contact with older adults had no significant influence of presence of mites. Demodex positive individuals described their skin to be drier, more prone to erythema, but less for folliculitis compared to Demodex negative subjects.

  19. The relationship between smoking, body weight, body mass index, and dietary intake among Thai adults: results of the national Thai Food Consumption Survey.

    PubMed

    Jitnarin, Nattinee; Kosulwat, Vongsvat; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Boonpraderm, Atitada; Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S C

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the relationship between dietary intake, body weight, and body mass index (BMI) in adult Thais as a function of smoking status. A cross-sectional, nationally representative survey using health and dietary questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were used. Participants were 7858 Thai adults aged 18 years and older recruited from 17 provinces in Thailand. Results demonstrated that smoking is associated with lower weights and BMI. However, when smokers were stratified by smoking intensity, there was no dose-response relationship between smoking and body weight. There is no conclusive explanation for weight differences across smoking groups in this sample, and the results of the present study did not clearly support any of the purported mechanisms for the differences in body weight or BMI. In addition, because the substantial negative health consequences of smoking are far stronger than those associated with modest weight differences, smoking cannot be viewed as an appropriate weight management strategy.

  20. Prevalence of secondary impairments of adults with cerebral palsy according to gross motor function classification system

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Won-Ho

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of secondary impairments in adults with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 52 adults with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for physical disabilities in South Korea. [Results] The univariate analysis showed that the Gross Motor Functional Classification System level was a significant predictor of spondylopathies, general pain, arthropathies, and motor ability loss. The prevalence of these impairments at Gross Motor Functional Classification System level I and II was low compared with the prevalence found at Gross Motor Functional Classification System level III–V. The prevalence of secondary impairments among adults with cerebral palsy at Gross Motor Functional Classification System level III–V was high: loss of motor ability, 42.3%; spondylopathies, 38.4%; general pain, 32.7%; and arthropathies, 28.8%. [Conclusion] In this study, adults with severe cerebral palsy showed a high prevalence of motor ability loss, spondylopathies, arthropathies, and pain. It is necessary to develop intervention programs to prevent secondary impairments in adults with cerebral palsy. PMID:28265154

  1. Prevalence of secondary impairments of adults with cerebral palsy according to gross motor function classification system.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Won-Ho

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of secondary impairments in adults with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 52 adults with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for physical disabilities in South Korea. [Results] The univariate analysis showed that the Gross Motor Functional Classification System level was a significant predictor of spondylopathies, general pain, arthropathies, and motor ability loss. The prevalence of these impairments at Gross Motor Functional Classification System level I and II was low compared with the prevalence found at Gross Motor Functional Classification System level III-V. The prevalence of secondary impairments among adults with cerebral palsy at Gross Motor Functional Classification System level III-V was high: loss of motor ability, 42.3%; spondylopathies, 38.4%; general pain, 32.7%; and arthropathies, 28.8%. [Conclusion] In this study, adults with severe cerebral palsy showed a high prevalence of motor ability loss, spondylopathies, arthropathies, and pain. It is necessary to develop intervention programs to prevent secondary impairments in adults with cerebral palsy.

  2. Prevalence of Childhood Physical Abuse in Adult Male Veteran Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Melodie R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The study of 100 adult male alcoholics found that about one-third reported they had been physically abused as children. Abused alcoholics reported having more severe psychological symptoms and distress than nonabused counterparts, though they did not differ in the onset, severity, or treatment history for alcohol dependency. (Author/DB)

  3. Sex Differences in Substance Use Among Adult Emergency Department Patients: Prevalence, Severity, and Need for Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Beaudoin, Francesca L.; Baird, Janette; Liu, Tao; Merchant, Roland C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Substance use is prevalent among emergency department (ED) patients, and sex has been implicated as an important factor in the etiology, pathophysiology, sequelae, and treatment of substance use disorders. However, additional information is needed about the epidemiology of substance use as it relates to sex among ED patients. Objectives This study examined sex differences in the prevalence and severity of self-reported tobacco, alcohol, and drug use among adult ED patients. Methods A random sample of English- or Spanish-speaking, non–critically ill or injured, 18- to 64-year-old patients was approached at two urban EDs and asked to self-report their lifetime and past 3-month tobacco, alcohol, and drug use. Participants completed the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) using an audio computer-assisted self-interview. Participants were categorized by their substance severity (ASSIST score) and need for a brief or more intensive intervention per World Health Organization recommendations. Substance misuse prevalence, frequency, severity, and need for interventions were compared between sexes by substance category. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the association between sexes and the need for intervention after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Results Of the 6,432 participants in the study, the median age was 37 years (interquartile range = 26 to 48 years), and 56.6% were female. Overall, lifetime, and past 3-month use was higher for men across all substances (tobacco, alcohol, and drugs). Among those reporting past 3-month use, the frequency of use was similar between sexes for tobacco and all drugs, but men reported more frequent alcohol use. Men had higher mean ASSIST scores compared to women, 30.3 (standard error [SE] ± 0.8) vs. 21.1 (SE ± 0.5); mean difference 9.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.4 to 10.9). The need for any intervention (brief or intensive) was similar

  4. A controlled trial of bupropion added to nicotine patch and behavioral therapy for smoking cessation in adults with unipolar depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Evins, A Eden; Culhane, Melissa A; Alpert, Jonathan E; Pava, Joel; Liese, Bruce S; Farabaugh, Amy; Fava, Maurizio

    2008-12-01

    Although there is a strong relationship between depression and smoking, most nicotine dependence treatment trials exclude depressed smokers. Our objective was to determine whether bupropion improves abstinence rates and abstinence-associated depressive symptoms when added to transdermal nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in smokers with unipolar depressive disorder (UDD). Adult smokers with current (n = 90) or past (n = 109) UDD were randomly assigned to receive bupropion or placebo added to NRT and CBT for 13 weeks. In the primary analysis, with dropouts considered smokers, 36% (35/97) of those on bupropion and 31% (32/102) on placebo attained biochemically validated 7-day point prevalence abstinence at end of treatment (not significant). Because of a high dropout rate (50%) and a significant difference in abstinence status at dropout by treatment group, a traditional intent-to-treat analysis with last observation carried forward imputation of abstinence status was performed. In this secondary analysis, 56% (54/97) of those on bupropion and 41% (42/102) on placebo met criteria for abstinence at end of trial, chi2 = 4.18, P = 0.04. Nicotine replacement therapy usage and absence of a comorbid anxiety disorder predicted abstinence. Abstinence was associated with increased depressive symptoms, regardless of bupropion treatment. Thus, in the primary analysis, bupropion neither increased the efficacy of intensive group CBT and NRT for smoking cessation in smokers with UDD nor prevented abstinence-associated depressive symptoms. Bupropion seemed to provide an advantage for smoking cessation for those who remained in the trial. The dropout rate was high and was characterized by a higher prevalence of current comorbid anxiety disorder. Given the high abstinence rate achieved with CBT plus NRT, a ceiling effect related to the high level of intervention received by all subjects may have prevented an adequate test of bupropion.

  5. Photoaging smartphone app promoting poster campaign to reduce smoking prevalence in secondary schools: the Smokerface Randomized Trial: design and baseline characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Holzapfel, Julia; Baudson, Tanja G; Sies, Katharina; Jakob, Lena; Baumert, Hannah Maria; Heckl, Marlene; Cirac, Ana; Suhre, Janina L; Mathes, Verena; Spielmann, Hannah; Rigotti, Nancy; Herth, Felix; Groneberg, David A; Raupach, Tobias; Gall, Henning; Bauer, Claudia; Marek, Pat; Batra, Anil; Harrison, Chase H; Taha, Lava; Owczarek, Andreas; Hofmann, Felix J; Thomas, Roger; Mons, Ute; Kreuter, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is the largest cause of preventable death globally. Most smokers smoke their first cigarette in early adolescence. We took advantage of the widespread availability of mobile phones and adolescents’ interest in appearance to develop a free photoaging app which is promoted via a poster campaign in secondary schools. This study aims to evaluate its effectiveness regarding smoking prevalence and students’ attitudes towards smoking. Methods and analysis A randomised controlled trial is conducted with 9851 students of both genders with an average age of 12 years in grades 6 and 7 of 126 secondary schools in Germany. At present, cigarette smoking prevalence in our sample is 4.7%, with 4.6% of the students currently using e-cigarettes (1.6% use both). The prospective experimental study design includes measurements at baseline and at 6, 12 and 24 months postintervention via a questionnaire plus a random cotinine saliva sample at 24 months postintervention. The study groups consist of randomised schools receiving the Smokerface poster campaign and control schools with comparable baseline data (no intervention). The primary end point is the difference of change in smoking prevalence in the intervention group versus the difference in the control group at 24 months follow-up. Longitudinal changes in smoking-related attitudes, the number of new smokers and quitters and the change in the number of never-smokers will be compared between the two groups as secondary outcomes. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from the ethics committee of the University of Gießen and the ministries of cultural affairs, both in Germany. Results will be disseminated at conferences, in peer-reviewed journals, on our websites and throughout the multinational Education Against Tobacco network. Trial registration number NCT02544360, Pre-results. PMID:27821601

  6. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking: An Emerging Health Crisis in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Caroline; Ward, Kenneth D.; Maziak, Wasim; Shihadeh, Alan L.; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence and potential health risks of waterpipe tobacco smoking. Methods A literature review was performed to compile information relating to waterpipe tobacco smoking. Results Waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing in prevalence worldwide; in the United States, 10–20% of some young adult populations are current waterpipe users. Depending on the toxicant measured, a single waterpipe session produces the equivalent of at least 1 and as many as 50 cigarettes. Misconceptions about waterpipe smoke content may lead users to underestimate health risks. Conclusion Inclusion of waterpipe tobacco smoking in tobacco control activities may help reduce its spread. PMID:20001185

  7. Major depressive disorder and smoking relapse among adults in the United States: a 10-year, prospective investigation.

    PubMed

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Sheffer, Christine; Perez, Adriana; Goodwin, Renee D

    2015-03-30

    This study investigated the relation between major depressive disorder (MDD) and smoking relapse in the U.S. over a 10-year period. Data were drawn from the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) Survey Waves I & II. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore the associations between past-year MDD in 1994, past-year MDD in 2005 and persistent depression (1994 and 2005) and risk of smoking relapse in 2005 among former smokers, adjusting for demographics, anxiety disorders, and substance use problems and smoking characteristics. Among former smokers, MDD in 1994, compared to without MDD in 1994, was associated with significantly increased odds of smoking relapse by 2005. Current MDD in 2005 was associated with an even stronger risk of relapse in 2005 and persistent depression even more strongly predicted relapse by 2005. These associations remained significant and were not substantially attenuated by the covariates. In conclusion, MDD appears to confer long-term vulnerability to smoking relapse among adults in the general population. These results suggest interventions for smoking cessation should include screening and treatment for MDD if programs are to be optimally effective at achieving initial quit success as well as enduring abstinence.

  8. Joint Effect of Cigarette Smoking and Body Mass Index on White Blood Cell Count in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cho, A-Ra; Choi, Won-Jun; Kim, Shin-Hye; Shim, Jae-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Background White blood cell count is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Several lifestyle and metabolic factors such as cigarette smoking and obesity are known to be associated with an elevated white blood cell count. However, the joint effect of cigarette smoking and obesity on white blood cell count has not yet been fully described. Methods We explored the joint effect of cigarette smoking and obesity on white blood cell count using multiple logistic regression analyses after adjusting for confounding variables in a population-based, cross-sectional study of 416,065 Korean adults. Results Cigarette smoking and body mass index have a dose-response relationship with a higher white blood cell count, but no synergistic interaction is observed between them (men, P for interaction=0.797; women, P for interaction=0.311). Cigarette smoking and body mass index might have an additive combination effect on high white blood cell count. Obese male smokers were 2.36 times more likely and obese female smokers 2.35 times more likely to have a high white blood cell count when compared with normal body mass index non-smokers. Conclusion Cigarette smoking and body mass index are independently associated with an elevated white blood cell count in both men and women. PMID:28360982

  9. Update on Prevalence of Periodontitis in Adults in the United States: NHANES 2009 – 2012

    PubMed Central

    Eke, Paul I.; Dye, Bruce A.; Wei, Liang; Slade, Gary D.; Thornton-Evans, Gina O.; Borgnakke, Wenche S.; Taylor, George W.; Page, Roy C.; Beck, James D.; Genco, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes prevalence, severity, and extent of periodontitis in the US adult population using combined data from the 2009–2010 and 2011–2012 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods Estimates were derived for dentate adults 30 years and older from the civilian non-institutionalized population. Periodontitis was defined by combinations of clinical attachment loss (CAL) and periodontal probing depth (PPD) from six sites per tooth on all teeth, except third molars, using standard surveillance case definitions. For the first time in NHANES history, sufficient numbers of Non-Hispanic Asians were sampled in 2011–2012 to provide reliable estimates of their periodontitis prevalence. Results In 2009–2012, 46% of US adults representing 64.7 million people had periodontitis, with 8.9% having severe periodontitis. Overall, 3.8% of all periodontal sites (10.6% of all teeth) had PPD≥4 mm and 19.3% of sites (37.4% teeth) had CAL≥3 mm. Periodontitis prevalence was positively associated with increasing age and was higher among males. Periodontitis prevalence was highest in Hispanics (63.5%) and Non-Hispanic blacks (59.1%), followed by Non-Hispanic Asian Americans (50.0%), and lowest in Non-Hispanic whites (40.8%). Prevalence varied two-fold between the lowest and highest levels of socioeconomic status, whether defined by poverty or education. Conclusion(s) This study confirms a high prevalence of periodontitis in US adults aged 30 years and older. Prevalence was greater in Non-Hispanic Asians than Non-Hispanic whites, although lower than other minorities. The distribution provides valuable information for population-based action to prevent periodontitis in US adults. PMID:25688694

  10. A prevalence study of recurrent shoulder dislocations in young adults.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, C; Mann, G; Finestone, A

    1998-01-01

    The computerized database of the Israeli Defence Forces Medical Corps monitors recurrent shoulder dislocations before citizens are eligible for military induction, during the years of regular military service, and during the time of eligibility for reserve army service. With the computerized database of the Israeli Defence Forces Medical Corps, between the years of 1978 to 1995 the prevalence rate of subjects with recurrent shoulder dislocations less than or equal to 21 years of age was found to be 19.7 of 10,000 for men and 5.01 of 10,000 for women. The prevalence rate of subjects with a history of shoulder dislocations in the male population between the ages of 22 and 33 years was 42.4 of 10,000. Forty-four percent were judged to be sufficiently unstable to warrant surgery, but only 55% of these actually underwent surgery. These epidemiologic data may be important if arthroscopic shoulder surgery is being considered after a first shoulder dislocation.

  11. Secondhand Smoke is Associated with Hearing Threshold Shifts in Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yuan-Yung; Wu, Li-Wei; Kao, Tung-Wei; Wu, Chen-Jung; Yang, Hui-Fang; Peng, Tao-Chun; Lin, Yu-Jen; Chen, Wei-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss resulted from multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Secondhand smoke (SHS) and obesity had been reported to be related to hearing loss. This study explored the possible associations of SHS and obesity with the hearing threshold. The relations between SHS and the hearing threshold in subjects from three different body mass index classes were analyzed. Our study included data from 1,961 subjects aged 20–69 years that were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 1999–2004. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the subjects with the higher tertiles of serum cotinine levels tended to have higher hearing thresholds than those with the lowest tertile of serum cotinine levels (for both trends, p < 0.05). Notably, the obese subjects with the higher tertiles of serum cotinine levels had significantly higher hearing thresholds for high frequencies and low frequencies than those with the lowest tertile of serum cotinine levels (for both trends, p < 0.05). Our study showed a significant positive association between SHS exposure and hearing thresholds in the adult population, especially in obese individuals. Based on our findings, avoiding exposure to SHS, especially in obese adults, may decrease the risk of hearing loss. PMID:27605137

  12. Isolated Diastolic Hypertension among Adults in Saudi Arabia: Prevalence, Risk Factors, Predictors and Treatment. Results of a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Abdalla Abdelwahid; Al-Hamdan, Nasser Abdulrahman

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the past, diastolic hypertension was the main criterion for treatment, but currently, systolic pressure is the main criterion because it was thought that Isolated Diastolic Hypertension (IDH) is not associated with complications. Studies later revealed that IDH carries significant risks. Quantifying the magnitude and risk factors of IDH in the community is essential for all intervention strategies. Aims: This study aims to determine the prevalence, risk factors, predictors, treatment modalities and lifestyle practices of IDH adult patients in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study using STEPwise approach among adults using a multistage, stratified, cluster random sample was carried out. Data were collected using questionnaires which included socio-demographics, blood pressure, biochemical, anthropometric measurements and lifestyle practices. Statistical analysis included calculating means and standard deviations, proportions, univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: Of a total 4562 subjects, 180 (3.95%) suffered from IDH, which was significantly related to age, gender, employment, smoking, diabetes mellitus, obesity and hypercholesterolemia. More than 93% were using some form of treatment, with 77.2% on prescribed drugs, 63% using diet, and 23% using exercise. Significant predictors of IDH were retirement and hypercholesterolemia. Conclusion: IDH is associated with some sociodemographic characteristics and co-morbidity. Given the risk of cardiovascular disease associated with IDH, the findings of this study emphasize the need for diagnosing the disease in middle-aged persons focusing on the modifiable risk factors of IDH. PMID:26966618

  13. Preparing for Completely Smoke-Free Mental Health Settings: Findings on Patient Smoking, Resources Spent Facilitating Smoking Breaks, and the Role of Smoking in Reported Incidents from a Large Mental Health Trust in England

    PubMed Central

    Sohal, Harpreet; Huddlestone, Lisa; Ratschen, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Despite high smoking prevalence and excessive smoking-related morbidity and mortality among people with mental disorder compared to the general population, smoking treatment is often neglected in mental health settings. The UK National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) recently issued public health guidance stipulating completely smoke-free mental health settings. This project evaluated existing smoking-related practices in preparation for guidance implementation. The objectives were to: audit the recording of smoking-related information and treatment provision; explore current arrangements relating to the facilitation of patient smoking; measure staff time spent and identify costs of facilitating smoking; and explore the role of smoking in smoking-related incidents. Methods: A mixed-methods study was conducted across four acute adult mental health wards, accommodating 16 patients each, over six months. It included a case-note audit, on-site observations, and a qualitative content analysis of incident reports. Results: Smoking status was recorded for less than half of the 290 patients admitted (138, 48%). Of those, 98 (71%) were recorded as current smokers, of whom 72 (74%) had received brief smoking cessation advice. Staff spent 6028 h facilitating smoking, representing an annual cost of £131,040 across four wards. Incident reports demonstrated that smoking facilitation was often central to the cause of incidences, triggered frustration in patients, and strained staff resources. Conclusion: The findings highlight the importance and potential of implementing completely smoke-free policies using comprehensive pathways. PMID:26927143

  14. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Workers in Accommodation and Food Services--United States, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Syamlal, Girija; Jamal, Ahmed; Mazurek, Jacek M

    2015-07-31

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. One of the Healthy People 2020 objectives calls for reducing the proportion of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes to ≤12% (objective TU-1.1). Despite progress in reducing smoking prevalence over the past several decades, nearly one in five U.S. adults, including millions of workers, still smoke cigarettes. During 2004-2010, nearly one fifth (19.6%) of U.S. working adults aged ≥18 years smoked cigarettes, and of all the industry sectors, current smoking prevalence among the accommodation and food services sector workers (30%) was the highest. CDC analyzed National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data for 2011-2013 to estimate current cigarette smoking prevalence among adults working in the accommodation and food services sector, and found that these workers had higher cigarette smoking prevalence (25.9%) than all other workers (17.3%). Among workers in accommodation and food services sector, the highest smoking prevalences were observed among males, non-Hispanic whites, those aged 25-44 years, those with a high school diploma or a General Educational Development (GED) certificate and no college education, those with an annual family income <$35,000, those with no health insurance, and those working in the food services and drinking places industry. These results indicate a need to better understand the reasons for higher smoking prevalence observed among accommodation and food services workers (e.g., workplace culture), so that appropriate intervention strategies can be developed and implemented. Evidence suggests that smoke-free worksites and workplace cessation programs, including comprehensive worksite smoke-free policies, health promotion, access to smoking cessation programs, and increasing the cost of tobacco products, can substantially reduce smoking among workers.

  15. Endemic prevalence of hepatitis B and C in Mongolia: A nationwide survey among Mongolian adults.

    PubMed

    Dashtseren, Bekhbold; Bungert, Andreas; Bat-Ulzii, Purevjargal; Enkhbat, Maralmaa; Lkhagva-Ochir, Oyungerel; Jargalsaikhan, Ganbolor; Enkhbat, Anir; Oidovsambuu, Odgerel; Klemen, Jane; Dashdorj, Naranbaatar; Dashdorj, Naranjargal; Genden, Zulkhuu; Yagaanbuyant, Dahgwahdorj

    2017-02-17

    In this study a representative group of Mongolian adults was tested for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Screening was conducted at 17 different locations on a randomly sampled group, representative of the Mongolian adult population. A total of 1158 adults, 500 (43.1%) men and 659 (56.9%) women were included. The prevalence estimates of HBV and HCV among the general Mongolian adult population were found to be 11.1%± 1% (SE) and 8.5% ± 0.7% or 207,418 and 160,228 cases, respectively. For HCV the majority of cases are concentrated in older age groups with a prevalence of 25.8% among those aged 50 years and above, while the prevalence of HBV does not vary significantly among age groups. For both, HBV and HCV, the data indicates a higher risk of infection and a higher mortality due to hepatitis among men than among women. This study is the first nationwide estimate of the prevalence of HBV in Mongolia and the first for HCV since 2005 and confirm the position of Mongolia as one of the hotspots of chronic hepatitis infection in the world with about 19.4% of the adult population being infected with either HBV or HCV. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence and predictors of change in adult-child primary caregivers.

    PubMed

    Szinovacz, Maximiliane E; Davey, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Family caregiving research is increasingly contextual and dynamic, but few studies have examined prevalence and predictors of change in primary caregivers, those with the most frequent contact with healthcare professionals. We identified prevalence and predictors of 2-year change in primary adult-child caregivers. Data pooled from the 1992-2000 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) represent 1,068 parent-level care occasions and 3,616 child-level occasions. There is considerable 2-year stability in primary adult-child caregivers. Parents are more prone to experience a change in adult-child primary caregivers if they live by themselves and if they have more sons and daughters. As far as the adult children are concerned, daughters and children living closer to parents are more likely to remain primary caregivers. Results suggest that change in primary caregivers is more strongly associated with available alternatives and gender norms than burden and competing obligations.

  17. Prevalence of acute respiratory infections in women and children in Western Sierra Leone due to smoke from wood and charcoal stoves.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Eldred Tunde; Nakai, Satoshi

    2012-06-01

    Combustion of biomass fuels (wood and charcoal) for cooking releases smoke that contains health damaging pollutants. Women and children are the most affected. Exposure to biomass smoke is associated with acute respiratory infections (ARI). This study investigated the prevalence of ARI potentially caused by smoke from wood and charcoal stoves in Western Sierra Leone, as these two fuels are the predominant fuel types used for cooking. A cross sectional study was conducted for 520 women age 15-45 years; and 520 children under 5 years of age in homes that burn wood and charcoal. A questionnaire assessing demographic, household and exposure characteristics and ARI was administered to every woman who further gave information for the child. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) was continuously monitored in fifteen homes. ARI prevalence revealed 32% and 24% for women, 64% and 44% for children in homes with wood and charcoal stoves, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders for each group, the odds ratio of having suffered from ARI was similar for women, but remained large for children in homes with wood stoves relative to charcoal stoves (OR = 1.14, 95%CI: 0.71-1.82) and (OR = 2.03, 95%CI: 1.31-3.13), respectively. ARI prevalence was higher for children in homes with wood stoves compared with homes with charcoal stoves, but ARI prevalence for both types of fuels is higher compared with reported prevalence elsewhere. To achieve a reduction in ARI would require switching from wood and charcoal to cleaner fuels.

  18. Features of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the General Adults and Their Dependency on Age, Sex, and Smoking: Results from the German KORA Study

    PubMed Central

    Brandl, Caroline; Breinlich, Valentin; Stark, Klaus J.; Enzinger, Sabrina; Aßenmacher, Matthias; Olden, Matthias; Grassmann, Felix; Graw, Jochen; Heier, Margit; Peters, Annette; Helbig, Horst; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Weber, Bernhard H. F.; Heid, Iris M.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a vision impairing disease of the central retina characterized by early and late forms in individuals older than 50 years of age. However, there is little knowledge to what extent also younger adults are affected. We have thus set out to estimate the prevalence of early AMD features and late AMD in a general adult population by acquiring color fundus images in 2,840 individuals aged 25 to 74 years of the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg project (KORA) in South Germany. Among the 2,546 participants with gradable images for each eye, 10.9% (n = 277) had early AMD features (applying the 9-step Age-Related Eye Disease Study Severity Scale), 0.2% (n = 6) had late AMD. Prevalence increased with age, reaching 26.3% for early AMD features and 1.9% for late AMD at the age 70+. However, signs of early AMD were found in subjects as young as 25 years, with the risk for early AMD features increasing linearly by years of age in men, and, less consistent with a linear increase, in women. Risk for early AMD features increased linearly by pack years of smoking in men, not in women, nor was there any association with other lifestyle or metabolic factors. By providing much sought-after prevalence estimates for AMD from Central Europe, our data underscores a substantial proportion of the adult population with signs of early AMD, including individuals younger than 50 years. This supports the notion that early AMD features in the young might be under-acknowledged. PMID:27893849

  19. Transient receptor potential genes, smoking, occupational exposures and cough in adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid and ankyrin cation channels are activated by various noxious chemicals and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cough. The aim was to study the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TRP genes and irritant exposures on cough. Methods Nocturnal, usual, and chronic cough, smoking, and job history were obtained by questionnaire in 844 asthmatic and 2046 non-asthmatic adults from the Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA) and the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). Occupational exposures to vapors, gases, dusts, and/or fumes were assessed by a job-exposure matrix. Fifty-eight tagging SNPs in TRPV1, TRPV4, and TRPA1 were tested under an additive model. Results Statistically significant associations of 6 TRPV1 SNPs with cough symptoms were found in non-asthmatics after correction for multiple comparisons. Results were consistent across the eight countries examined. Haplotype-based association analysis confirmed the single SNP analyses for nocturnal cough (7-SNP haplotype: p-global = 4.8 × 10-6) and usual cough (9-SNP haplotype: p-global = 4.5 × 10-6). Cough symptoms were associated with exposure to irritants such as cigarette smoke and occupational exposures (p < 0.05). Four polymorphisms in TRPV1 further increased the risk of cough symptoms from irritant exposures in asthmatics and non-asthmatics (interaction p < 0.05). Conclusions TRPV1 SNPs were associated with cough among subjects without asthma from two independent studies in eight European countries. TRPV1 SNPs may enhance susceptibility to cough in current smokers and in subjects with a history of workplace exposures. PMID:22443337

  20. Effects of a Mindfulness-Based Smoking Cessation Program for an Adult with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Ashvind N. A.; Singh, Judy; Singh, Angela D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for a number of health conditions and many smokers find it difficult to quit smoking without specific interventions. We developed and used a mindfulness-based smoking cessation program with a 31-year-old man with mild intellectual disabilities who had been a smoker for 17 years. The mindfulness-based smoking…

  1. Daily consumption of apple, pear and orange juice differently affects plasma lipids and antioxidant capacity of smoking and non-smoking adults.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; De La Rosa, Laura A; Legarreta, Patricia; Saenz, Laura; Rodrigo-García, Joaquín; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2010-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse correlation between a fruit and vegetable-rich diet and cardiovascular diseases; this beneficial effect of fruits and vegetables is probably due to the presence of antioxidant phytochemicals. In contrast, cigarette smoking is a high risk factor for lung and heart diseases, associated with chronic oxidative stress. In the present study, the effect of the consumption of a pear, an apple and 200 ml orange juice, during 26 days, on total plasma antioxidant capacity (TAC) and lipid profile of chronic smokers and non-smoking healthy adults was analyzed. Fruit consumption increased TAC in non-smokers, but not in smokers. In non-smokers, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol increased significantly; while in smokers, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol decreased. We may conclude fruit/juice supplementation showed different effects, depending on the smoking habit: in non-smokers it increased TAC and cholesterol; in smokers it reduced cholesterol, without inducing a TAC increase.

  2. Exploring Impacts of Taxes and Hospitality Bans on Cigarette Prices and Smoking Prevalence Using a Large Dataset of Cigarette Prices at Stores 2001–2011, USA

    PubMed Central

    Ballester, Lance S.; Auchincloss, Amy H.; Robinson, Lucy F.; Mayne, Stephanie L.

    2017-01-01

    In the USA, little is known about local variation in retail cigarette prices; price variation explained by taxes, bans, and area-level socio-demographics, and whether taxes and hospitality bans have synergistic effects on smoking prevalence. Cigarette prices 2001–2011 from chain supermarkets and drug stores (n = 2973) were linked to state taxes (n = 41), state and county bar/restaurant smoking bans, and census block group socio-demographics. Hierarchical models explored effects of taxes and bans on retail cigarette prices as well as county smoking prevalence (daily, non-daily). There was wide variation in store-level cigarette prices in part due to differences in state excise taxes. Excise taxes were only partially passed onto consumers (after adjustment, $1 tax associated with $0.90 increase in price, p < 0.0001) and the pass-through was slightly higher in areas that had bans but did not differ by area-level socio-demographics. Bans were associated with a slight increase in cigarette price (after adjustment, $0.09 per-pack, p < 0.0001). Taxes and bans were associated with reduction in smoking prevalence and taxes had a stronger association when combined with bans, suggesting a synergistic effect. Given wide variation in store-level prices, and uneven state/county implementation of taxes and bans, more federal policies should be considered. PMID:28335533

  3. Dietary Patterns of Korean Adults and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hae Dong; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants’ dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the ‘traditional’ pattern, the ‘meat’ pattern, and the ‘snack’ pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00–2.15, p for trend = 0.016). A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10–4.21, p for trend = 0.005). The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults. PMID:25365577

  4. Chlamydial conjunctivitis: prevalence and serovar distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis in adults.

    PubMed

    Petrovay, Fruzsina; Németh, István; Balázs, Andrea; Balla, Eszter

    2015-09-01

    The extragenital manifestation of Chlamydia trachomatis infection frequently results in non-specific conjunctivitis among sexually active adults. The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis, to describe the distribution of serovars among patients with conjunctivitis and to characterize the relationship between the prevalence and patient demographics such as age and gender. A total of 245 conjunctival specimens were screened for C. trachomatis DNA targeting the plasmid gene. Serovar determination of the C. trachomatis-positive specimens was carried out by an omp1 PCR-based RFLP analysis method. Statistical analysis was done using a generalized linear model. C. trachomatis was detected in 53 cases (21.6 %) of adult conjunctivitis. Molecular genotyping differentiated seven distinct urogenital serovars, the most prevalent being serovar E (16/53), followed by F (15/53), D (6/53), K (6/53), G (4/53), H (4/53) and J (2/53). Statistical analysis showed higher C. trachomatis prevalence in the younger age groups, and this peaked at younger age in women than in men. The high prevalence of this pathogen found in ocular samples should alert ophthalmologists to focus on the role of C. trachomatis in adult conjunctivitis. The serovar distribution indicated that ocular chlamydial infections usually have a genital source. Nevertheless, conjunctivitis might be the only sign of this sexually transmitted infection. Further comparative genotyping of C. trachomatis in ocular and genital specimens might give more detailed epidemiological information about the aetiology of the disease.

  5. Prevalence and psychological correlates of complicated grief among bereaved adults 2.5-3.5 years after September 11th attacks.

    PubMed

    Neria, Yuval; Gross, Raz; Litz, Brett; Maguen, Shira; Insel, Beverly; Seirmarco, Gretchen; Rosenfeld, Helena; Suh, Eun Jung; Kishon, Ronit; Cook, Joan; Marshall, Randall D

    2007-06-01

    A Web-based survey of adults who experienced loss during the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks was conducted to examine the prevalence and correlates of complicated grief (CG) 2.5-3.5 years after the attacks. Forty-three percent of a study group of 704 bereaved adults across the United States screened positive for CG. In multivariate analyses, CG was associated with female gender, loss of a child, death of deceased at the World Trade Center, and live exposure to coverage of the attacks on television. Posttraumatic stress disorder, major depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, and increase in post-9/11 smoking were common among participants with CG. A majority of the participants with CG reported receiving grief counseling and psychiatric medication after 9/11. Clinical and policy implications are discussed.

  6. Prevalence and Demographic Correlates of Childhood Maltreatment in an Adult Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scher, Christine D.; Forde, David R.; McQuaid, John R.; Stein, Murray B.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: This study had two aims: (1) to determine the prevalence of five categories of retrospectively reported childhood maltreatment in an adult community sample and (2) to examine relationships between three theoretically and practically chosen demographic variables and childhood maltreatment. Method: Participants were a representative sample…

  7. Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Adults With Mental Retardation Living in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hove, Oddbjorn

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of eating disorders among 311 adults with mental retardation living in the West Coast of Norway was investigated. Reports stemming from a questionnaire completed by health workers were the data source. Diagnostic criteria adapted for persons with mental retardation were used. The main finding was that 27% of cases showed indices of…

  8. Prevalence and Correlates of Postsecondary Residential Status among Young Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kristy A.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Roux, Anne M.; Wagner, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and correlates of three living arrangements (with a parent or guardian, independently or with a roommate, or in a supervised setting) among a nationally representative sample of postsecondary young adults with an autism spectrum disorder. We assessed living arrangements since leaving high school. Compared with…

  9. Prevalence and Correlates of Suicidal Behavior among Adult Female Victims of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Messing, Jill Theresa; Del-Colle, Melissa; O'Sullivan, Chris; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence and correlates of suicidal threats and attempts among 662 racially and ethnically diverse adult female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) were studied. One in five women had threatened or attempted suicide during her lifetime. They observed that multiple logistic regression results indicated that women at greater risk of…

  10. Incidence and Prevalence of Dementia in Elderly Adults with Mental Retardation without Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigman, Warren B.; Schupf, Nicole; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Miezejeski, Charles; Ryan, Robert; Urv, Tiina K.; Schubert, Romaine; Silverman, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    Rates of dementia in adults with mental retardation without Down syndrome were equivalent to or lower than would be expected compared to general population rates, whereas prevalence rates of other chronic health concerns varied as a function of condition. Given that individual differences in vulnerability to Alzheimer's disease have been…

  11. The Prevalence of Undiagnosed Geriatric Health Conditions among Adult Protective Service Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, John M.; Brown, Merle; Kobylarz, Fred A.; Castano, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to determine the prevalence of remediable health conditions from in-home geriatric assessments of referred adult protective service (APS) clients suffering elder mistreatment. Design and Methods: We used a retrospective cohort study of 211 APS clients (74% female; age, M = 77 years) in two central New Jersey counties. Results:…

  12. Prevalence and Trends of Urinary Incontinence in Adults in the United States, 2001 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Markland, Alayne D.; Richter, Holly E.; Fwu, Chyng-Wen; Eggers, Paul; Kusek, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We estimate trends in the prevalence of urinary incontinence in the adult population of the United States from 2001 through 2008 before and after adjusting for other potential associated factors. Materials and Methods We analyzed data on 17,850 adults 20 years old or older who participated in the 2001 to 2008 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Any urinary incontinence was defined as a positive response to questions on urine leakage during physical activity, before reaching the toilet and during nonphysical activity. During this period changes in demographic and clinical factors associated with urinary incontinence included age, race/ethnicity, obesity, diabetes and chronic medical conditions (prostate disease in men). Age standardized prevalence estimates and prevalence ORs of urinary incontinence trends were determined using adjusted multivariate models with appropriate sampling weights. Results The age standardized prevalence of urinary incontinence in the combined surveys was 51.1% in women and 13.9% in men. Prevalence in women increased from 49.5% in 2001 to 2002, to 53.4% in 2007 to 2008 (Ptrend = 0.01) and in men from 11.5% to 15.1%, respectively (Ptrend = 0.01). In women increased prevalence was partially explained by differences in age, race/ethnicity, obesity, diabetes and select chronic diseases across the survey periods. After adjustment the prevalence OR for 2007 to 2008 vs 2001 to 2002 decreased from 1.22 (95% CI 1.03–1.45) to 1.16 (95% CI 0.99–1.37). in men adjustment for potentially associated factors did not explain the increasing prevalence of urinary incontinence. Conclusions The age standardized prevalence of urinary incontinence increased in men and women from 2001 through 2008. Decreasing obesity and diabetes may lessen the burden of urinary incontinence, especially in women. PMID:21684555

  13. The Relationship Between Young Adult Smokers' Beliefs About Nicotine Addiction and Smoking-Related Affect and Cognitions.

    PubMed

    Waters, Erika A; Janssen, Eva; Kaufman, Annette R; Peterson, Laurel M; Muscanell, Nicole L; Guadagno, Rosanna E; Stock, Michelle L

    2016-06-01

    Risk beliefs and self-efficacy play important roles in explaining smoking-related outcomes and are important to target in tobacco control interventions. However, information is lacking about the underlying beliefs that drive these constructs. The present study investigated the interrelationships among young adult smokers' beliefs about the nature of nicotine addiction and smoking-related affect and cognitions (i.e., feelings of risk, worry about experiencing the harms of smoking, self-efficacy of quitting, and intentions to quit). Smokers (n = 333) were recruited from two large universities. Results showed that quit intentions were associated with feelings of risk, but not with worry or self-efficacy. Furthermore, higher feelings of risk were associated with lower beliefs that addiction is an inevitable consequence of smoking and with lower beliefs that the harms of smoking are delayed. This suggests that it is important for health messages to counter the possible negative effects of messages that strongly emphasize the addictiveness of nicotine, possibly by emphasizing the importance of quitting earlier rather than later. The findings also add to the evidence base that feelings of risk are powerful predictors of behavioral intentions. Furthermore, our results suggest that in some circumstances, feelings of risk predict quit intentions beyond that predicted by worry and self-efficacy. Gaining additional understanding of the tobacco-related beliefs that can increase feelings of risk and incorporating those beliefs into educational campaigns may improve the quality of such campaigns and reduce tobacco use.

  14. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension among Saudi Adult Population: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Abdalla A.; Al-Hamdan, Nasser A.; Bahnassy, Ahmed A.; Abdalla, Abdelshakour M.; Abbas, Mostafa A. F.; Abuzaid, Lamiaa Z.

    2011-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed at estimating prevalence, awareness, treatment, control, and predictors of hypertension among Saudi adult population. Multistage stratified sampling was used to select 4758 adult participants. Three blood pressure measurements using an automatic sphygmomanometer, sociodemographics, and antihypertensive modalities were obtained. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 25.5%. Only 44.7% of hypertensives were aware, 71.8% of them received pharmacotherapy, and only 37.0% were controlled. Awareness was significantly associated with gender, age, geographical location, occupation, and comorbidity. Applying drug treatment was significantly more among older patients, but control was significantly higher among younger patients and patients with higher level of physical activity. Significant predictors of hypertension included male gender, urbanization, low education, low physical activity, obesity, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. In conclusion prevalence is high, but awareness, treatment, and control levels are low indicating a need to develop a national program for prevention, early detection, and control of hypertension. PMID:21912737

  15. Survey on the use of health services by adult men: prevalence rates and associated factors1

    PubMed Central

    de Arruda, Guilherme Oliveira; Marcon, Sonia Silva

    2016-01-01

    Objective estimate the prevalence and identify factors associated with the use of health services by men between 20 and 59 years of age. Method population-based, cross-sectional domestic survey undertaken with 421 adult men, selected through systematic random sampling. The data were collected through a structured instrument and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with multiple logistic regression. Results the prevalence rate of health service use during the three months before the interviews was 42.8%, being higher among unemployed men with a religious creed who used private hospitals more frequently, had been hospitalized in the previous 12 months and referred some disease. Conclusion the prevalence of health service use by adult men does not differ from other studies and was considered high. It shows to be related with the need for curative care, based on the associated factors found. PMID:27027680

  16. An Examination of the Association between Seeing Smoking in Films and Tobacco Use in Young Adults in the West of Scotland: Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Sargent, James; Lewars, Heather; Cin, Sonya Dal; Worth, Keilah

    2009-01-01

    The objective is to examine the association between the amount of smoking seen in films and current smoking in young adults living in the west of Scotland in the UK. Cross-sectional analyses (using multivariable logistic regression) of data collected at age 19 (2002-04) from a longitudinal cohort originally surveyed at age 11 (1994-95) were…

  17. Prevalence of HIV risk behaviors, risk perceptions, and testing among US adults with mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Stephen J; Dickey, Wayne C

    2003-01-01

    Persons with mental disorders may lack the knowledge, skills, and social networks that help limit the spread of HIV by reducing risk behaviors. Nationally representative data from the 1999 U.S. National Health Interview Survey were used to estimate the prevalence of HIV risk behaviors among civilian noninstitutionalized adults with and without at least one of three psychiatric conditions (depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and panic attacks) in the previous 12 months. Relative to adults without these mental disorders, adults with a mental disorder (8.8% of adults nationally) were more likely to have engaged in HIV risk behaviors since 1980 (5.5% vs. 1.6%). Adults with a mental disorder were also more likely to report a high or medium chance of becoming infected, were more likely to have been tested for HIV infection, and were more likely to expect to be tested within the next 12 months.

  18. Prevalence of Advance Directives Among Older Adults Admitted to Intensive Care Units and Requiring Mechanical Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Gamertsfelder, Elise M; Seaman, Jennifer Burgher; Tate, Judith; Buddadhumaruk, Praewpannarai; Happ, Mary Beth

    2016-04-01

    Because older adults are at high risk for hospitalization and potential decisional incapacity, advance directives are important components of pre-hospital advanced care planning, as they document individual preferences for future medical care. The prevalence of pre-hospital advance directive completion in 450 critically ill older adults requiring mechanical ventilation from two Mid-Atlantic hospitals is described, and demographic and clinical predictors of pre-hospital advance directive completion are explored. The overall advance directive completion rate was 42.4%, with those in older age groups (75 to 84 years and 85 and older) having approximately two times the odds of completion. No significant differences in the likelihood of advance directive completion were noted by sex, race, or admitting diagnosis. The relatively low prevalence of advance directive completion among older adults with critical illness and high mortality rate (24%) suggest a need for greater awareness and education.

  19. The influence of active and passive smoking on the cardiorespiratory fitness of adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of active and passive smoking on cardiorespiratory responses in asymptomatic adults during a sub-maximal-exertion incremental test. Methods The participants (n = 43) were divided into three different groups: active smokers (n = 14; aged 36.5 ± 8 years), passive smokers (n = 14; aged 34.6 ± 11.9 years) and non-smokers (n = 15; aged 30 ± 8.1 years). They all answered the Test for Nicotine Dependence and underwent anthropometric evaluation, spirometry and ergospirometry according to the Bruce Treadmill Protocol. Results VO2max differed statistically between active and non-smokers groups (p < 0.001) and between non-smokers and passive group (p=0.022). However, there was no difference between the passive and active smokers groups (p=0.053). Negative and significant correlations occurred between VO2max and age (r = - 0.401, p = 0.044), percentage of body fat (r = - 0.429, p = 0.011), and waist circumference (WC) (r = - 0.382, p = 0.025). Conclusion VO2max was significantly higher in non-smokers compared to active smokers and passive smokers. However, the VO2max of passive smokers did not differ from active smokers. PMID:25009739

  20. Prevalence of smoking and other smoking-related behaviours among students aged 13 to 15 years in Montenegro: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey of 2008.

    PubMed

    Ljaljević, Agima; Zvrko, Elvir; Mugosa, Boban; Matijević, Snezana; Andjelić, Jasmina

    2010-06-01

    The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) is an international study that provides data on youth tobacco use for development of tobacco control programs. It is a school-based survey that uses a standardised methodology for sampling, core questionnaire items, training protocol, field procedures, and data management. This article reports the findings from a GYTS conducted in Montenegro in 2008, which included 5723 adolescents. More than 30 % of students aged 13 to 15 tried smoking, 5.1 % smoked cigarettes, and 3.6 % of students used tobacco products other than cigarettes. Four in 10 ever smokers started to smoke before the age of 10. More than half the students reported secondary smoke exposure at home. Almost all (96.5 %) current smokers bought cigarettes in a store. Two in 10 students owned an artifact with a cigarette or tobacco brand logo on it. The GYTS study has shown that there is an urgent need to introduce effective child-oriented smoking prevention programmes in early elementary school classes. These should be accompanied by public awareness campaigns on smoke-free homes.

  1. Ethnic differences in smoking rate, nicotine dependence, and cessation-related variables among adult smokers in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Thaddeus A; Pokhrel, Pallav

    2012-12-01

    This study tests hypotheses concerning ethnic disparities in daily cigarette smoking rates, nicotine dependence, cessation motivation, and knowledge and past use of cessation methods (e.g., counseling) and products (e.g., nicotine patch) in a multiethnic sample of smokers in Hawaii. Previous research has revealed significant differences in smoking prevalence among Native Hawaiians, Filipinos, Japanese, and Caucasians in Hawaii. However, no study has examined differences in dependence and cessation-related knowledge and practices among smokers representing these ethnic groups. Participants were recruited through newspaper advertisement as part of a larger smoking cessation intervention study. Participants (N = 919; M age = 45.6, SD = 12.7; 48 % women) eligible to participate provided self-report data through mail and telephone. Participants included 271 self-identified Native Hawaiians, 63 Filipinos, 316 Caucasians, 145 "East Asians" (e.g., Japanese, Chinese), and 124 "other" (e.g., Hispanic, African-American). Pair-wise comparisons of means, controlling for age, gender, income, education, and marital status, indicated that Native Hawaiian smokers reported significantly higher daily smoking rates and higher levels of nicotine dependence compared to East Asians. Native Hawaiian smokers reported significantly lower motivation to quit smoking than Caucasians. Further, Filipino and Native Hawaiian smokers reported lesser knowledge of cessation methods and products, and less frequent use of these methods and products than Caucasians. The results suggest that Native Hawaiian and Filipino smokers could be underserved with regard to receiving cessation-related advice, and may lack adequate access to smoking cessation products and services. In addition, cessation interventions tailored for Native Hawaiian smokers could benefit from a motivational enhancement component.

  2. Evaluation of the Prevalence of Drug Abuse and Smoking in Parents of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Parvaresh, Nooshin; Mazhari, Shahrzad; Mohamadi, Neda; Mohamadi, Najmeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 5% of children. In addition to pharmacotherapy, non-drug treatments such as appropriate parenting are also very important in the treatment of these children. Diagnosis and treatment of parents with psychiatric disorders and substance abuse and evaluation of the frequency of these disorders in parents is critical. Methods In this case-control study, 200 parents were studied. The target population included parents of 7 to 12 year-old children who referred to child and adolescent psychiatric clinics. The control group included parents of children who referred to child non-psychiatric clinics. The parents were evaluated via a demographic information form, and structured interviews based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) for nicotine and drug addiction. Then, the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) was used to assess their anxiety and depression. Findings Among the studied parents, the comparison of drug abuse, smoking, and stress showed significant differences between the two groups. In terms of depression and ADHD, the difference between the case and control groups was not statistically significant. Conclusion The higher prevalence of these disorders in parents of children with ADHD may indicate the possible role of this disorder in the etiology. PMID:27274792

  3. Prevalence of Smoking in 8 Countries of the Former Soviet Union: Results From the Living Conditions, Lifestyles and Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Anna; Pomerleau, Joceline; McKee, Martin; Rose, Richard; Haerpfer, Christian W.; Rotman, David; Tumanov, Sergej

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to provide comparative data on smoking habits in countries of the former Soviet Union. Methods. We conducted cross-sectional surveys in 8 former Soviet countries with representative national samples of the population 18 years or older. Results. Smoking rates varied among men, from 43.3% to 65.3% among the countries examined. Results showed that smoking among women remains uncommon in Armenia, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, and Moldova (rates of 2.4%–6.3%). In Belarus, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Russia, rates were higher (9.3%–15.5%). Men start smoking at significantly younger ages than women, smoke more cigarettes per day, and are more likely to be nicotine dependent. Conclusions. Smoking rates among men in these countries have been high for some time and remain among the highest in the world. Smoking rates among women have increased from previous years and appear to reflect transnational tobacco company activity. PMID:15569971

  4. Prevalence of cataract in adult Down's syndrome patients aged 28 to 83 years

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Background Age-related cataract is the major cause of blindness in humans throughout the world. The majority of previous studies of cataract in Down's syndrome (which usually results from trisomy 21) have reported that the prevalence of this ocular abnormality is higher for a given age range than in the general population. The objective of the present study was to study the prevalence of cataract in a well-defined population of adults with Down's syndrome. Methods An in-patient population of 68 adults (35 males and 33 females) with Down's syndrome, aged between 28.9 and 83.3 years, underwent ophthalmological examination for the presence of cataracts. Results Overall, the prevalence of cataract was 16.2%, with no significant difference in the prevalence between males (17.1%) and females (15.2%). In those aged between 45 and 64 years, the prevalence was 16.7%, rising in those aged between 65 and 75 years to 28.6%. Conclusion Compared with the general population, the prevalence of cataract in Down's syndrome was raised in those aged 45 to 64, but not in those aged 65 to 75 years; the latter might be a function of the relatively small number of patients in this age group. The increased prevalence of cataract found in those in the 45- to 64-year-old age group may be the result of increased levels of the copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase enzyme (CuZnSOD), in turn resulting from the location of the associated five exons of SOD1 on chromosome 21. These elevated levels of superoxide dismutase may give rise to increased levels of reactive species, including hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals, which may increase the risk of cataractogenesis. It is suggested that nutritional supplementation with antioxidants may therefore help reduce the prevalence of cataract in Down's syndrome. PMID:18034878

  5. Prevalence of adult Huntington's disease in the UK based on diagnoses recorded in general practice records

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Stephen JW; Douglas, Ian; Rawlins, Michael D; Wexler, Nancy S; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Smeeth, Liam

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose The prevalence of Huntington's disease (HD) in the UK is uncertain. Recently, it has been suggested that the prevalence may be substantially greater than previously reported. This study was undertaken to estimate the overall UK prevalence in adults diagnosed with HD, using data from primary care. Methods The electronic medical records of patients aged 21 years or more, with recorded diagnoses of HD, were retrieved from the UK's General Practice Research Database. Prevalence was estimated from the number of persons with recorded diagnoses of HD, on 1 July each year, between 1990 and 2010. This number was divided by the total number of persons registered with participating general practices on that same date. These data were also used to estimate both age specific prevalence and prevalence in various regions of the UK. Results A total of 1136 patients diagnosed with HD, aged 21 years or more, were identified from the database. The estimated prevalence (expressed per 100 000 population) rose from 5.4 (95% CI 3.8 to 7.5) in 1990 to 12.3 (95% CI 11.2 to 13.5) in 2010. Although an increased prevalence was observed within every age group, the most dramatic was in older patients. Age specific prevalence was highest in the 51–60 year age range (15.8 95% CI 9.0 to 22.3). The prevalence of adult HD was lowest in the London region (5.4 (95% CI 3.0 to 8.9)) and highest in the North East of England (18.3 (95% CI 8.6 to 34.6)) and Scotland (16.1 (95% CI 10.8 to 22.9)). Conclusions The prevalence of diagnosed HD is clearly substantially higher in the UK than suggested from previous studies. By extrapolation to the UK as a whole, it is estimated that there are more than 5700 people, aged 21 years or more, with HD. There has also been a surprising doubling of the HD population between 1990 and 2010. Many factors may have caused this increase, including more accurate diagnoses, better and more available therapies and an improved life expectancy

  6. The PACE study: lifetime and past-year prevalence of headache in Parma's adult general population.

    PubMed

    Taga, Arens; Russo, Marco; Manzoni, Gian Camillo; Torelli, Paola

    2017-02-17

    Headache is a widespread disorder and therefore it has a strong impact on quality of life. In the present work we focused on lifetime and past-year prevalence of headache in general and by gender, in a population-based sample in Parma. A total of 904 subjects representative of Parma's adult general population were interviewed face-to-face by a physician from the Parma Headache Centre, using a validated questionnaire. The lifetime prevalence of headache was 69.1%, i.e. 75.8% in women and 60.6% in men; the crude past-year prevalence of headache was 42.8%, i.e. 52.0% in women and 31.1% in men. Both lifetime and past-year prevalence rates were significantly higher in females than in males (odds ratio, respectively, 2.0 and 2.4). In our study, past-year prevalence decreased after age 50 in both genders. Most people suffer from one headache subtype. In over 80% of cases, headache starts before age 40 and therefore people were not very likely to develop headache after 50 years. The past-year and lifetime prevalence rate of headache in general that we found in our study falls within the lower range of values for headache prevalence in European countries. Further researches need to be set in the Italian epidemiological background.

  7. Hair nicotine/cotinine concentrations as a method of monitoring exposure to tobacco smoke among infants and adults.

    PubMed

    Tzatzarakis, M N; Vardavas, C I; Terzi, I; Kavalakis, M; Kokkinakis, M; Liesivuori, J; Tsatsakis, A M

    2012-03-01

    In this pilot study, we examined the validity and usefulness of hair nicotine-cotinine evaluation as a biomarker of monitoring exposure to tobacco. Head hair samples were collected from 22 infants (<2 years of age) and 44 adults with different exposures to tobacco (through either active or passive smoking) and analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for nicotine and cotinine. Hair samples were divided into three groups, infants, passive smoker adults and active smoker adults, and into eight subgroups according to the degree of exposure. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.1 ng/mg for nicotine and 0.05 ng/mg for cotinine. Mean recovery was 69.15% for nicotine and 72.08% for cotinine. The within- and between-day precision for cotinine and nicotine was calculated at different concentrations. Moreover, hair nicotine and cotinine concentrations were highly correlated among adult active smokers (R (2) = 0.710, p < 0.001), among adult nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS; R (2) = 0.729, p < 0.001) and among infants (R (2) = 0.538, p = 0.01). Among the infants exposed to SHS from both parents the noted correlations were even stronger (R (2) = 0.835, p = 0.02). The above results identify the use of hair samples as an effective method for assessing exposure to tobacco, with a high association between nicotine and cotinine especially among infants heavily exposed to SHS.

  8. First findings and prevalence of adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) in wild carnivores from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Penezić, Aleksandra; Selaković, Sanja; Pavlović, Ivan; Ćirović, Duško

    2014-09-01

    Heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) is a parasitic roundworm that causes a zoonotic disease known as dirofilariosis. Little is known about the role of wild carnivores serving as reservoirs in nature. Therefore, we examined 738 hearts and lungs of free ranging wild carnivores from Serbia to determine the presence of adult heartworms. During the period 2009-2013, the prevalence in golden jackals (Canis aureus) was 7.32%, in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) 1.55%, in wolves (Canis lupus) 1.43%, and in wild cats (Felis silvestris) 7.69%. No adult heartworm specimens were found in beech martens (Martes foina), stone martens (Martes martes), European polecats (Mustela putorius), badgers (Meles meles) or otter (Lutra lutra). The highest recorded prevalence was in 2013 (7.30%) and the lowest in 2012 (1.6%). In jackals, the prevalence was higher in males (10%) than in females (4.06%), while in foxes the prevalence was 1.75% in males and 1.26% in females. The most infected host was a wolf in which 37 adult specimens were found. Because of the potentially significant role in the life cycle of D. immitis, populations of wild carnivores in Europe should be further examined and tested for heartworm infections.

  9. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China's Labor-Force Dynamic Survey.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-04-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women's reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women's risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%-46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%-36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of "Widowed" had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of "Cohabitation" had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants' different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS.

  10. Systematic review and meta-analysis of Internet interventions for smoking cessation among adults

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Amanda L; Carpenter, Kelly M; Cha, Sarah; Cole, Sam; Jacobs, Megan A; Raskob, Margaret; Cole-Lewis, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of Internet interventions in promoting smoking cessation among adult tobacco users relative to other forms of intervention recommended in treatment guidelines. Methods This review followed Cochrane Collaboration guidelines for systematic reviews. Combinations of “Internet,” “web-based,” and “smoking cessation intervention” and related keywords were used in both automated and manual searches. We included randomized trials published from January 1990 through to April 2015. A modified version of the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool was used. We calculated risk ratios (RRs) for each study. Meta-analysis was conducted using random-effects method to pool RRs. Presentation of results follows the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Results Forty randomized trials involving 98,530 participants were included. Most trials had a low risk of bias in most domains. Pooled results comparing Internet interventions to assessment-only/waitlist control were significant (RR 1.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15–2.21, I2=51.7%; four studies). Pooled results of largely static Internet interventions compared to print materials were not significant (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.63–1.10, I2=0%; two studies), whereas comparisons of interactive Internet interventions to print materials were significant (RR 2.10, 95% CI 1.25–3.52, I2=41.6%; two studies). No significant effects were observed in pooled results of Internet interventions compared to face-to-face counseling (RR 1.35, 95% CI 0.97–1.87, I2=0%; four studies) or to telephone counseling (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.79–1.13, I2=0%; two studies). The majority of trials compared different Internet interventions; pooled results from 15 such trials (24 comparisons) found a significant effect in favor of experimental Internet interventions (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.03–1.31, I2=76.7%). Conclusion Internet

  11. Update on Performance in Tobacco Control: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Impact of Tobacco Control Policy and the US Adult Smoking Rate, 2011-2013

    PubMed Central

    Lapin, Brittany; Cameron, Brianna J.; Carr, Thomas A.; Morley, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Tobacco use remains the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. States and municipalities have instituted a variety of tobacco control measures (TCMs) to address the significant impact tobacco use has on population health. The American Lung Association annually grades state performance of tobacco control using the State of Tobacco Control grading framework. Objective: To gain an updated understanding of how recent efforts in tobacco control have impacted tobacco use across the United States, using yearly State of Tobacco Control TCM assessments. Design: The independent TCM variables of smoke-free air score, cessation score, excise tax, and percentage of recommended funding were selected from the American Lung Association State of Tobacco Control reports. Predictors of adult smoking rates were determined by a mixed-effects model. Setting/Participants: The 50 US states and District of Columbia. Main Outcome Measure: Adult smoking rate in each state from 2011 to 2013. Results: The average adult smoking rate decreased significantly from 2011 to 2013 (21.3% [SD: 3.5] to 19.3% [SD: 3.5], P = .016). All forms of TCMs varied widely in implementation levels across states. Excise taxes (β = −.812, P = .006) and smoke-free air regulations (β = −.057, P = .008) were significant, negative predictors of adult smoking. Cessation services (β = .015, P = .46) did not have a measurable effect on adult smoking. Conclusion: Tobacco control measures with the strongest influence on adult smoking include the state excise tax and state smoke-free air regulations. The lack of robust funding for tobacco cessation services across the majority of US states highlights an important shortfall in current tobacco control policy. PMID:26618847

  12. Multimorbidity prevalence and pattern in Indonesian adults: an exploratory study using national survey data

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Mohammad Akhtar; Huxley, Rachel R; Al Mamun, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence and pattern of multimorbidity in the Indonesian adult population. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Community-based survey. The sampling frame was based on households in 13 of the 27 Indonesian provinces, representing about 83% of the Indonesian population. Participants 9438 Indonesian adults aged 40 years and above. Main outcome measures Prevalence and pattern of multimorbidity by age, gender and socioeconomic status. Results The mean number of morbidities in the sample was 1.27 (SE±0.01). The overall age and sex standardised prevalence of multimorbidity was 35.7% (34.8% to 36.7%), with women having significantly higher prevalence of multimorbidity than men (41.5% vs 29.5%; p<0.001). Of those with multimorbidity, 64.6% (62.8% to 66.3%) were aged less than 60 years. Prevalence of multimorbidity was positively associated with age (p for trend <0.001) and affluence (p for trend <0.001) and significantly greater in women at all ages compared with men. For each 5-year increment in age there was an approximate 20% greater risk of multimorbidity in both sexes (18% in women 95% CI 1.14 to 1.22 and 22% in men 95% CI 1.18 to 1.26). Increasing age, female gender, non-Javanese ethnicity, and high per-capital expenditure were all significantly associated with higher odds of multimorbidity. The combination of hypertension with cardiac diseases, hypercholesterolemia, arthritis, and uric acid/gout were the most commonly occurring disease pairs in both sexes. Conclusions More than one-third of the Indonesian adult population are living with multimorbidity with women and the more wealthy being particularly affected. Of especial concern was the high prevalence of multimorbidity among younger individuals. Hypertension was the most frequently occurring condition common to most individuals with multimorbidity. PMID:26656028

  13. The Next Generation of Users: Prevalence and Longitudinal Patterns of Tobacco Use Among US Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Valerie; Rath, Jessica; Villanti, Andrea C.; Vallone, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We monitored the prevalence and patterns of use of the array of tobacco products available to young adults, who are at risk for initiation and progression to established tobacco use. Methods. We used data from waves 1 to 3 of GfK’s KnowledgePanel (2011–2012), a nationally representative cohort of young adults aged 18 to 34 years (n = 2144). We examined prevalence and patterns of tobacco product use over time, associated demographics, and state-level tobacco policy. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine predictors of initiation of cigarettes as well as noncombustible and other combustible products. Results. The prevalence of ever tobacco use rose from 57.28% at wave 1 to 67.43% at wave 3. Use of multiple products was the most common pattern (66.39% of tobacco users by wave 3). Predictors of initiation differed by product type and included age, race/ethnicity, policy, and use of other tobacco products. Conclusions. Tobacco use is high among young adults and many are using multiple products. Efforts to implement policy and educate young adults about the risks associated with new and emerging products are critical to prevent increased initiation of tobacco use. PMID:24922152

  14. Cigarette smoking and risk of lymphoma in adults: a comprehensive meta-analysis on Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin disease.

    PubMed

    Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Kanavidis, Prodromos; Michelakos, Theodoros; Petridou, Eleni Th

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present meta-analysis was to examine comprehensively the association between smoking and lymphoma [Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)] in adults. Eligible studies were identified, and pooled-effect estimates (odds ratios and relative risks) were calculated for ever, current and former smoking, separately by lymphoma subtype and gender. Metaregression analysis with percentage of male patients, mean age, duration (years of smoking), intensity (pack-years and cigarettes per day) and years since quitting was carried out. Out of the 50 eligible articles, 41 used a case-control design (20 143 NHL cases, 4340 HL cases and 61 517 controls), whereas nine used a cohort design (5748 incident NHL cases, 334 HL cases, total cohort size comprising 1 530 833 smokers). Ever smoking was associated with increased risk for NHL [pooled-effect estimate=1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00-1.09] mainly because of the association with T-NHL (pooled-effect estimate=1.23, 95% CI: 1.09-1.38). Ever smoking was also associated with increased risk for HL (pooled-effect estimate=1.15, 95% CI: 1.02-1.30); sizeable associations were observed regarding both nodular sclerosis and mixed cellularity subtypes. Although male study arms pointed to predominantly increased risk for HL, metaregression did not confirm the male preponderance. Dose-response patterns were particularly evident for HL. Cigarette smoking seems to be associated with increased lymphoma risk, especially HL and T-NHL. Further well-designed studies seem to be needed so as to investigate the risk thoroughly, especially for T-NHL subentities, and the extent to which confounding may interfere with gender-related disparities.

  15. Prevalence of low back pain and associated risk factors amongst adult patients presenting to a Nigerian family practice clinic, a hospital-based study

    PubMed Central

    Adebusoye, Lawrence A.; Alonge, Temitope O.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP) is a common health problem with concomitant disability which has assumed a public health importance in our setting. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of LBP and associated risk factors amongst adult patients attending the General Outpatients’ Clinic of the University College Hospital in Ibadan, Nigeria. Method This was a cross-sectional study of 485 respondents. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demography, lifestyle, occupation and other risk factors associated with LBP. Results There were 288 (59.4%) female and 197 (40.6%) male respondents. The point prevalence of LBP was 46.8%. Occupational activities, previous back injury and tobacco smoking were significant associated factors for the total population. For the female respondents, logistic regression analysis showed that a waist circumference of 88 cm or more, dysmenorrhea, previous back injury and being engaged in an occupation were the most significant factors associated with LBP. However, previous back injury was the most significant factor associated with LBP for the male respondents. Conclusion The prevalence of LBP amongst adult patients in our setting is high, with preventable and treatable predisposing factors. Public health efforts should be directed at educating people on occupational activities and lifestyle habits.

  16. Prevalence of taking actions to control blood pressure among adults with self-reported hypertension in 18 states and the District of Columbia, 2009.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Carma; Fang, Jing; Yuan, Keming

    2015-03-01

    The authors used 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data to assess the prevalence of taking actions to control hypertension among adults with self-reported hypertension. Differences by descriptive characteristics (sex, age, race/ethnicity, access to health care, medication adherence), presence of other health risk factors (overweight/obesity, smoking, heavy drinking, inadequate fruit/vegetable intake, and physical inactivity), and comorbidities (diabetes, high cholesterol, coronary heart disease, and stroke) were compared. The prevalence of hypertension was 29.6%, and 75.0% of these patients reported taking antihypertensive medications, 73.1% changed eating habits, 72.8% decreased the use of salt, 78.8% reduced alcohol consumption, and 69.9% increased their physical activity. Overall, 87.2% reported taking two or more actions to reduce blood pressure. Patients taking antihypertensive medications were more likely to take two or more actions than their counterparts (90.6% vs 79.4%, P<.01). Those with at least one other health risk factor were 1.85 times as likely to take two or more actions as their counterparts (95% confidence interval, 1.18-2.92 times). More than 80% of hypertensive adults reported taking two or more actions to control blood pressure. The prevalence of taking actions differed significantly by descriptive characteristics, the presence health risk factors, and comorbidities.

  17. An Early-Stage Epidemic: A Systematic Review of Correlates of Smoking Among Chinese Women

    PubMed Central

    Gebel, Klaus; Oldenburg, Brian F.; Wan, Xia; Zhong, Xuefeng; Novotny, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the historically low smoking prevalence among Chinese women, there is a trend of future increase. Purpose We systematically reviewed the correlates of smoking among Chinese girls and women. Method We conducted a systematic review of literature on correlates of smoking among Chinese women using Medline and China Academic Journals databases. Following the PRISMA statement, two investigators independently searched for literature, identified and reviewed papers, assessed the quality of the papers, and extracted information. The characteristics of studies and correlates of smoking were synthesized separately for youth and adults. Results A total of 15 articles (11 on adults, 4 on youth) met the inclusion criteria. Based on these studies, peer smoking was the most consistent correlate of smoking among Chinese girls. Among Chinese women, partner smoking, job-related stress, and exposure to cigarettes made for women were consistent correlates of smoking. Knowledge of harms and negative attitudes towards smoking were found to be negatively associated with smoking. Conclusion Overall, the evidence base for smoking among Chinese women is limited. Although smoking among Chinese women is still at an early stage, it is becoming more prevalent among specific population subgroups, such as rural-to-urban migrant workers. Although further research is needed, findings from the current study provide a roadmap for research and policy on prevention of smoking among Chinese girls and women. PMID:24222041

  18. Prevalence of urinary incontinence among community-dwelling adults receiving home care.

    PubMed

    Du Moulin, M F M T; Hamers, J P H; Ambergen, A W; Janssen, M A P; Halfens, R J G

    2008-12-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 2005 to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with urinary incontinence (UI) in adults receiving home care. Of the 2,866 patients surveyed, 46% suffered from UI; 6.5% had stress, 16.6% had urge, 9% had mixed, and 17.6% had functional incontinence. No diagnosis regarding type of UI had been established in 50.2%. Factors associated with UI were advanced age, higher body mass index, and impaired mobility. UI is prevalent in older persons receiving home care, but the lack of diagnosis of type of UI in half of the participants surveyed impedes management of UI.

  19. Prevalence of Overweight, Obesity, and Abdominal Obesity in a Representative Sample of Portuguese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sardinha, Luís B.; Santos, Diana A.; Silva, Analiza M.; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J.; Raimundo, Armando M.; Moreira, Helena; Santos, Rute; Vale, Susana; Baptista, Fátima; Mota, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity in the Portuguese adults and examined the relationship between above mentioned prevalences and educational level. Body mass, stature, and waist circumference were measured in a representative sample of the Portuguese population aged 18–103 years (n = 9,447; 18–64 years: n = 6,908; ≥65 years: n = 2,539). Overweight and obesity corresponded to a body mass index ranging between 25–29.9 kg/m2 and ≥30 kg/m2, respectively. Abdominal obesity was assessed as >102 cm for males and >88 cm for females. After adjusting for educational level, the combined prevalences of overweight and obesity were 66.6% in males and 57.9% in females (18–64 years). Respective values in older adults (≥65 years) were 70.4% for males and 74.7% for females. About 19.3% of adult males and 37.9% of adult females presented abdominal obesity. Correspondent values in older adults were 32.1%, for males, and 69.7%, for females. In adults, low educational level was related to an increased risk for overweight (OR = 2.54; 95% CI: 2.08–3.09), obesity (OR = 2.76; 95% CI: 2.20–3.45), and abdominal obesity (OR = 5.48; 95% CI: 4.60–6.52). This reinforces the importance of adjusting public health strategies for educational level. PMID:23118905

  20. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in U.S. adults: 2001, 2006, and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Bruns, Richard; Luccioli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence indicates that food allergies are increasing in the population. Information on a change in self-reported food allergy (srFA) in adults over time is lacking. Objective: To report the prevalence of srFA and compare differences at three time points over a decade. Methods: We analyzed srFA and reported physician-diagnosed food allergy in >4000 U.S. adults who participated in the 2010 U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Survey. Information on causative food(s), reaction severity characteristics, and various diagnostic factors was also analyzed. We compared 2010 Food Safety Survey data with 2006 and 2001 data, and highlighted relevant differences. Results: SrFA prevalence increased significantly, to 13% in 2010 and 14.9% in 2006 compared with 9.1% in 2001 (p < 0.001). Physician diagnosed food allergy was 6.5% in 2010, which was not significantly different compared with 7.6% in 2006 and 5.3% in 2001. SrFA increased in both men and women, non-Hispanic white and black adults, 50–59 year olds, and in adults with a high school or lower education. In 2010, milk, shellfish, and fruits were the most commonly reported food allergens, similar to 2001. Also, in 2010, 15% of reactions reportedly required a hospital visit and 8.4% were treated with epinephrine. Minor differences in reaction severity characteristics were noted among the surveys. Conclusions: Analysis of survey results indicates that the prevalence of srFA increased among U.S. adults from 2001 to 2010 and that adults are increasingly self-reporting FAs without obtaining medical diagnosis. Improved education about food allergies is needed for this risk group. PMID:26453524

  1. Prevalence of Risk Factors for Chronic Non-communicable Diseases Using WHO Steps Approach in an Adult Population in Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Ankur; Anand, Tanu; Sharma, Urvi; Kishore, Jugal; Chakraborty, Mantosh; Ray, Prakash Chandra; Ingle, Gopal Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing worldwide largely due to prevalence of various risk factors, which can be controlled. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to measure the prevalence of major preventable risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases in an urban resettlement colony of Delhi, using STEPS approach. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study, that included a random sample of 200 adults, was conducted. A study tool based on the WHO STEPS questionnaire for assessing non-communicable diseases and their risk factors was used. Fasting venous blood sample was collected to assess the lipid profile and fasting blood sugar. Anthropometric measurements of the participants were also taken. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: Out of the 200 participants, 26% (n = 52) were consuming alcohol and 17% (n = 34) were smoking. Majority (77.5%) had a raised waist circumference, and more than two-thirds were either overweight or obese. Fasting blood sugar levels were found to be raised in 18% of the study population. More than third participants had raised systolic and diastolic blood pressures and abnormal lipid profiles. More males were found to be overweight in comparison to females (P < 0.01), but in contrast, obesity (P < 0.05) and raised waist circumference (P < 0.001) were more common in females. Tobacco use was more common in lower class (P < 0.05), whereas obesity was commoner in the upper socio-economic class (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Study showed a high burden of risk factors for NCDs in the study population, pointing towards changing disease epidemiology of non-communicable diseases in India. PMID:25161966

  2. Smoking, antioxidant supplementation and dietary intakes among older adults with age-related macular degeneration over 10 years.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Kifley, Annette; Liew, Gerald; Mitchell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to compare the micronutrient usage and other lifestyle behaviors over 10 years among those with and without age-related macular degeneration (AMD). 1612 participants aged 49+ years at baseline were re-examined over 10 years, west of Sydney, Australia. AMD was assessed from retinal photographs. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Smoking status was self-reported. 56 participants had any AMD at baseline, of these 25% quit smoking at 5 years and were still not smoking at 10-year follow-up. Among participants who had below the recommended intake of vitamins A, C or E supplements at baseline, those who did compared to those who did not develop late AMD over 10 years were more likely to report vitamins A (total), C or E supplement intake above the recommended intake at 10-year follow-up: multivariable-adjusted OR 4.21 (95% CI 1.65-10.73); OR 6.52 (95% CI 2.76-15.41); and OR 5.71 (95% CI 2.42-13.51), respectively. Participants with compared to without AMD did not appreciably increase fish, fruit and vegetable consumption and overall diet quality. Adherence to smoking and dietary recommendations was poor among older adults with AMD. However, uptake of antioxidant supplements increased significantly among those with late AMD.

  3. Prevalence and challenge tests of Listeria monocytogenes in Belgian produced and retailed mayonnaise-based deli-salads, cooked meat products and smoked fish between 2005 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Uyttendaele, M; Busschaert, P; Valero, A; Geeraerd, A H; Vermeulen, A; Jacxsens, L; Goh, K K; De Loy, A; Van Impe, J F; Devlieghere, F

    2009-07-31

    Processed ready-to-eat (RTE) foods with a prolonged shelf-life under refrigeration are at risk products for listeriosis. This manuscript provides an overview of prevalence data (n=1974) and challenge tests (n=299) related to Listeria monocytogenes for three categories of RTE food i) mayonnaise-based deli-salads (1187 presence/absence tests and 182 challenge tests), ii) cooked meat products (639 presence/absence tests and 92 challenge tests), and iii) smoked fish (90 presence/absence tests and 25 challenge tests), based on data records obtained from various food business operators in Belgium in the frame of the validation and verification of their HACCP plans over the period 2005-2007. Overall, the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in these RTE foods in the present study was lower compared to former studies in Belgium. For mayonnaise-based deli-salads, in 80 out of 1187 samples (6.7%) the pathogen was detected in 25 g. L. monocytogenes positive samples were often associated with smoked fish deli-salads. Cooked meat products showed a 1.1% (n=639) prevalence of the pathogen. For both food categories, numbers per gram never exceeded 100 CFU. L. monocytogenes was detected in 27.8% (25/90) smoked fish samples, while 4/25 positive samples failed to comply to the 100 CFU/g limit set out in EU Regulation 2073/2005. Challenge testing showed growth potential in 18/182 (9.9%) deli-salads and 61/92 (66%) cooked meat products. Nevertheless, both for deli-salads and cooked meat products, appropriate product formulation and storage conditions based upon hurdle technology could guarantee no growth of L. monocytogenes throughout the shelf-life as specified by the food business operator. Challenge testing of smoked fish showed growth of L. monocytogenes in 12/25 samples stored for 3-4 weeks at 4 degrees C. Of 45 (non-inoculated) smoked fish samples (13 of which were initially positive in 25 g) which were subjected to shelf-life testing, numbers exceeded 100 CFU/g in only one sample

  4. Impact of school and vocational education on smoking behaviour: results from a large-scale study on adolescents and young adults in Germany.

    PubMed

    Setter, C; Peter, R; Siegrist, J; Hort, W

    1998-01-01

    While level of school education has been related to prevalence of cigarette smoking in a number of studies, less information is available on the role of vocational education and related occupational contexts. This study analyses the relative contribution of different types of educational experience to explaining prevalence and intensity of cigarette smoking in a large sample of female and male vocational trainees in Germany. A standardized questionnaire on smoking behaviour and educational performance was applied in 27 educational centers across the country, covering a total of 20,527 respondents (77.3% of the original sample; women: 59.5%, men: 40.5%). Bivariate analysis revealed a high prevalence of current smokers among vocational trainees, both men (51.2%) and women (49.4%). Men were more likely to be heavy smokers, especially with increasing age. In both sexes, prevalence of smoking was particularly high in the following occupational groups: hairdressers, butchers, painters, service personnel (hotels, restaurants), shop assistants/sellers and cooks. Multivariate analysis taking educational level, type of vocational training (occupation), age, sex and urban-rural background into account revealed the highest prevalence odds ratios (POR) of smoking in subjects with the lowest educational level (POR = 5.19 for men and 4.56 for women). Even stronger effects were observed with smoking intensity (> or = 20 cigarettes/day): in men with the lowest educational level the risk of being a heavy smoker was 8.92, and in women 13.54 compared to subjects with a high-school leaving qualification. Poor school education must be considered the relatively strongest predictor of prevalence and intensity of cigarette smoking in a large sample of female and male vocational trainees. Preventive efforts should be directed at specific target groups such as those identified by this study.

  5. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in adult Nigerians – a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Chukwuonye, Innocent Ijezie; Chuku, Abali; John, Collins; Ohagwu, Kenneth Arinze; Imoh, Miracle Erinma; Isa, Samson Ejiji; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel; Oviasu, Efosa

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is a major health problem, and there is an increasing trend of overweight and obese individuals in developing countries. Being overweight or obese is known to contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality rates in various countries around the world. We therefore aimed to identify and discuss current epidemiological data on the prevalence of obesity in Nigeria. Method A systematic review of papers published on the prevalence of obesity among adults in the country was carried out. We covered work published in MEDLINE, PubMed, Google, and African Journals Online