Foerster, Steffen; McLellan, Karen; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara; Murray, Carson M.; Krupenye, Christopher; Gilby, Ian C.; Pusey, Anne E.
In most primate societies, strong and enduring social bonds form preferentially among kin, who benefit from cooperation through direct and indirect fitness gains. Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, differ from most species by showing consistent female-biased dispersal and strict male philopatry. In most East African populations, females tend to forage alone in small core areas and were long thought to have weak social bonds of little biological significance. Recent work in some populations is challenging this view. However, challenges remain in quantifying the influence of shared space use on association patterns, and in identifying the drivers of partner preferences and social bonds. Here, we use the largest data set on wild chimpanzee behaviour currently available to assess potential determinants of female association patterns. We quantify pairwise similarities in ranging, dyadic association and grooming for 624 unique dyads over 38 years, including 17 adult female kin dyads. To search for social preferences that could not be explained by spatial overlap alone, we controlled for expected association based on pairwise kernel volume intersections of core areas. We found that association frequencies among females with above-average overlap correlated positively with grooming rates, suggesting that associations reflected social preferences in these dyads. Furthermore, when available, females preferred kin over nonkin partners for association and grooming, and variability was high among nonkin dyads. While variability in association above and below expected values was high, on average, nonkin associated more frequently if they had immature male offspring, while having female offspring had the opposite effect. Dominance rank, an important determinant of reproductive success at Gombe, influenced associations primarily for low-ranking females, who associated preferentially with each other. Our findings support the hypothesis that female chimpanzees form well
Pearce, Eiluned; Launay, Jacques; Machin, Anna; Dunbar, Robin I M
Evidence demonstrates that group singing improves health and well-being, but the precise mechanisms remain unknown. Given that cohesive social networks also positively influence health, we focus on the social aspects of singing, exploring whether improvements in health and well-being are mediated by stronger social bonds, both to the group as a whole (collective-bonding) and to individual classmates (relational-bonding). To do so, seven newly-formed community-based adult education classes (four singing, N=84, and three comparison classes studying creative writing or crafts, N=51) were followed over seven months. Self-report questionnaire data on mental and physical health, well-being, and social bonding were collected at Months 1, 3 and 7. We demonstrate that physical and mental health and satisfaction with life significantly improved over time in both conditions. Path analysis did not show any indirect effects via social bonding of Condition on health and well-being. However, higher collective-bonding at timepoint 3 significantly predicted increased flourishing, reduced anxiety and improved physical health independently of baseline levels. In contrast, relational-bonding showed no such effects, suggesting that it is feeling part of a group that particularly yields health and well-being benefits. Moreover, these results indicate that singing may not improve health and well-being more than other types of activities. Nonetheless, these findings encourage further work to refine our understanding of the social aspects of community-based adult education classes in promoting health, well-being and community cohesion.
Chen, He; Meng, Tianguang
Three main opposing camps exist over how social capital relates to population health, namely the social support perspective, the inequality thesis, and the political economy approach. The distinction among bonding, bridging, and linking social capital probably helps close the debates between these three camps, which is rarely investigated in existing literatures. Moreover, although self-rated health is a frequently used health indicator in studies on the relationship between social capital and health, the interpersonal incomparability of this measure has been largely neglected. This study has two main objectives. Firstly, we aim to investigate the relationship between bonding, bridging, and linking social capital and self-rated health among Chinese adults. Secondly, we aim to improve the interpersonal comparability in self-rated health measurement. We use data from a nationally representative survey in China. Self-rated health was adjusted using the anchoring vignettes technique to improve comparability. Two-level ordinal logistic regression was performed to model the association between social capital and self-rated health at both individual and community levels. The interaction between residence and social capital was included to examine urban/rural disparities in the relationship. We found that most social capital indicators had a significant relationship with adjusted self-rated health of Chinese adults, but the relationships were mixed. Individual-level bonding, linking social capital, and community-level bridging social capital were positively related with health. Significant urban/rural disparities appeared in the association between community-level bonding, linking social capital, and adjusted self-rated health. For example, people living in communities with higher bonding social capital tended to report poorer adjusted self-rated health in urban areas, but the opposite tendency held for rural areas. Furthermore, the comparison between multivariate analyses
Lieberwirth, Claudia; Wang, Zuoxin
Affiliative social relationships (e.g., among spouses, family members, and friends) play an essential role in human society. These relationships affect psychological, physiological, and behavioral functions. As positive and enduring bonds are critical for the overall well-being of humans, it is not surprising that considerable effort has been made to study the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie social bonding behaviors. The present review details the involvement of the nonapeptides, oxytocin (OT), and arginine vasopressin (AVP), in the regulation of social bonding in mammals including humans. In particular, we will discuss the role of OT and AVP in the formation of social bonds between partners of a mating pair as well as between parents and their offspring. Furthermore, the role of OT and AVP in the formation of interpersonal bonding involving trust is also discussed. PMID:25009457
Romero, Teresa; Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Kikusui, Takefumi
Recent evidence suggests that enduring social bonds have fitness benefits. However, very little is known about the neural circuitry and neurochemistry underlying the formation and maintenance of stable social bonds outside reproductive contexts. Oxytocin (OT), a neuropeptide synthetized by the hypothalamus in mammals, regulates many complex forms of social behavior and cognition in both human and nonhuman animals. Animal research, however, has concentrated on monogamous mammals, and it remains unknown whether OT also modulates social bonds in nonreproductive contexts. In this study we provide behavioral evidence that exogenous OT promotes positive social behaviors in the domestic dog toward not only conspecifics but also human partners. Specifically, when sprayed with OT, dogs showed higher social orientation and affiliation toward their owners and higher affiliation and approach behaviors toward dog partners than when sprayed with placebo. Additionally, the exchange of socio-positive behaviors with dog partners triggered the release of endogenous OT, highlighting the involvement of OT in the development of social relationships in the domestic dog. These data provide new insight into the mechanisms that facilitate the maintenance of close social bonds beyond immediate reproductive interest or genetic ties and complement a growing body of evidence that identifies OT as one of the neurochemical foundations of sociality in mammalian species. PMID:24927552
Tunçgenç, Bahar; Cohen, Emma
Group dynamics play an important role in the social interactions of both children and adults. A large amount of research has shown that merely being allocated to arbitrarily defined groups can evoke disproportionately positive attitudes toward one's in-group and negative attitudes toward out-groups, and that these biases emerge in early childhood. This prompts important empirical questions with far-reaching theoretical and applied significance. How robust are these inter-group biases? Can biases be mitigated by behaviors known to bond individuals and groups together? How can bonds be forged across existing group divides? To explore these questions, we examined the bonding effects of interpersonal synchrony on minimally constructed groups in a controlled experiment. In-group and out-group bonding were assessed using questionnaires administered before and after a task in which groups performed movements either synchronously or non-synchronously in a between-participants design. We also developed an implicit behavioral measure, the Island Game, in which physical proximity was used as an indirect measure of interpersonal closeness. Self-report and behavioral measures showed increased bonding between groups after synchronous movement. Bonding with the out-group was significantly higher in the condition in which movements were performed synchronously than when movements were performed non-synchronously between groups. The findings are discussed in terms of their importance for the developmental social psychology of group dynamics as well as their implications for applied intervention programs. PMID:27303341
Pearce, Eiluned; Launay, Jacques; Dunbar, Robin I M
It has been proposed that singing evolved to facilitate social cohesion. However, it remains unclear whether bonding arises out of properties intrinsic to singing or whether any social engagement can have a similar effect. Furthermore, previous research has used one-off singing sessions without exploring the emergence of social bonding over time. In this semi-naturalistic study, we followed newly formed singing and non-singing (crafts or creative writing) adult education classes over seven months. Participants rated their closeness to their group and their affect, and were given a proxy measure of endorphin release, before and after their class, at three timepoints (months 1, 3 and 7). We show that although singers and non-singers felt equally connected by timepoint 3, singers experienced much faster bonding: singers demonstrated a significantly greater increase in closeness at timepoint 1, but the more gradual increase shown by non-singers caught up over time. This represents the first evidence for an 'ice-breaker effect' of singing in promoting fast cohesion between unfamiliar individuals, which bypasses the need for personal knowledge of group members gained through prolonged interaction. We argue that singing may have evolved to quickly bond large human groups of relative strangers, potentially through encouraging willingness to coordinate by enhancing positive affect.
Pearce, Eiluned; Launay, Jacques; Dunbar, Robin I. M.
It has been proposed that singing evolved to facilitate social cohesion. However, it remains unclear whether bonding arises out of properties intrinsic to singing or whether any social engagement can have a similar effect. Furthermore, previous research has used one-off singing sessions without exploring the emergence of social bonding over time. In this semi-naturalistic study, we followed newly formed singing and non-singing (crafts or creative writing) adult education classes over seven months. Participants rated their closeness to their group and their affect, and were given a proxy measure of endorphin release, before and after their class, at three timepoints (months 1, 3 and 7). We show that although singers and non-singers felt equally connected by timepoint 3, singers experienced much faster bonding: singers demonstrated a significantly greater increase in closeness at timepoint 1, but the more gradual increase shown by non-singers caught up over time. This represents the first evidence for an ‘ice-breaker effect’ of singing in promoting fast cohesion between unfamiliar individuals, which bypasses the need for personal knowledge of group members gained through prolonged interaction. We argue that singing may have evolved to quickly bond large human groups of relative strangers, potentially through encouraging willingness to coordinate by enhancing positive affect. PMID:26587241
Wolf, Wouter; Launay, Jacques; Dunbar, Robin I. M.
There has recently been interest in the ways in which coordinated movements encourage coactors to feel social closer to one another, but this has generally overlooked the importance of necessary precursors to this joint action. Here we target two low-level behaviours involved in social coordination that may mediate a relationship between joint actions and social bonding, namely joint attention and shared goals. Participants engaged in a simple reaction time task whilst sitting next to a partner performing the same task. In a joint attention condition both participants attended to stimuli presented on the same half of a computer screen, while in a control condition they attended to opposite sides of the computer screen. Shared goals were manipulated by giving participants the instruction to keep below a threshold score for both individual response times and accuracy (individual goal), or their joint mean response time and accuracy (i.e. averaging their mean response time and accuracy with that of their partner: shared goal). Attending to the same side of the screen led to higher ratings on a composite social bonding index directed towards a partner, while shared goals did not cause any significant effects on partner ratings. Joint attention was sufficient to encourage social closeness with an interaction partner, which suggests that any activities which encourage attending to the same point in space could have some influence on how connected co-actors feel about one another. PMID:26256821
Wolf, Wouter; Launay, Jacques; Dunbar, Robin I M
There has recently been interest in the ways in which coordinated movements encourage coactors to feel socially closer to one another, but this has generally overlooked the importance of necessary precursors to this joint action. Here we target two low-level behaviours involved in social coordination that may mediate a relationship between joint actions and social bonding, namely joint attention and shared goals. Participants engaged in a simple reaction time task while sitting next to a partner performing the same task. In a joint attention condition, both participants attended to stimuli presented on the same half of a computer screen, while in a control condition, they attended to opposite sides of the computer screen. Shared goals were manipulated by giving participants the instruction to keep below a threshold score for both individual response times and accuracy (individual goal), or their joint mean response time and accuracy (i.e., averaging their mean response time and accuracy with that of their partner: shared goal). Attending to the same side of the screen led to higher ratings on a composite social bonding index directed towards a partner, while shared goals did not cause any effects on partner ratings. Joint attention was sufficient to encourage social closeness with an interaction partner, which suggests that any activities which encourage attending to the same point in space could have some influence on how connected coactors feel about one another.
Popp, Ann Marie; Peguero, Anthony A.
This study explores the impact of school-based victimization on the adolescent's social bond. Previous research has provided empirical support for Hirschi's social control theory that the strength of the adolescent's social bond is associated with the probability that he or she will engage in criminal offending. However, research identifying what…
Popp, Ann Marie; Peguero, Anthony A
This study explores the impact of school-based victimization on the adolescent's social bond. Previous research has provided empirical support for Hirschi's social control theory that the strength of the adolescent's social bond is associated with the probability that he or she will engage in criminal offending. However, research identifying what factors influence the strength of the adolescent's social bond is limited. In addition, research has established that school-based victimization is associated with numerous negative outcomes, including diminished educational outcomes and criminal offending. Therefore, it is plausible that school-based victimization undermines the adolescent's social bonds to school. Using a sample of 10th-grade students from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002, HLM models were developed to explore the relationship between school-based victimization and the adolescent's social bond to school. The results suggest that school-based victimization has a negative association with three elements of the adolescent's social bond to school: attachment, commitment, and belief. This study demonstrates the need for further research to identify the determinants of the strength of the adolescent's social bond to school.
Berlin, Gordon L.
The social sector's hottest "impact investing" product--the social impact bond (SIB)--has generated a range of reactions, from excitement to angst. An SIB uses private funds to pay for a social, educational, or health program, and the government repays investors (plus a return) only if the program achieves prespecified results. The…
Minnis, John R.
Argues that the process of education, including adult education, involves the adoption and possibly the transmission of values. Applies concepts of socialization theory and curriculum theory to adult education, focusing on the work of Brim, Berger and Luckmann, and Bourdieu. Discusses the relationship between adult education and social change.…
Giordano, Amanda L.; Cashwell, Craig S.
Substance abuse continues to be prevalent on college campuses. This study explored the relationships between social interest, social bonding, and hazardous drinking and marijuana use among college students. Results indicate that the social bonding elements of religious commitment, respect for authority, and acceptance of conventional beliefs,…
Suvilehto, Juulia T.; Glerean, Enrico; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; Hari, Riitta; Nummenmaa, Lauri
Nonhuman primates use social touch for maintenance and reinforcement of social structures, yet the role of social touch in human bonding in different reproductive, affiliative, and kinship-based relationships remains unresolved. Here we reveal quantified, relationship-specific maps of bodily regions where social touch is allowed in a large cross-cultural dataset (N = 1,368 from Finland, France, Italy, Russia, and the United Kingdom). Participants were shown front and back silhouettes of human bodies with a word denoting one member of their social network. They were asked to color, on separate trials, the bodily regions where each individual in their social network would be allowed to touch them. Across all tested cultures, the total bodily area where touching was allowed was linearly dependent (mean r2 = 0.54) on the emotional bond with the toucher, but independent of when that person was last encountered. Close acquaintances and family members were touched for more reasons than less familiar individuals. The bodily area others are allowed to touch thus represented, in a parametric fashion, the strength of the relationship-specific emotional bond. We propose that the spatial patterns of human social touch reflect an important mechanism supporting the maintenance of social bonds. PMID:26504228
Davis, Arran; Taylor, Jacob; Cohen, Emma
In two experimental studies, we investigated mechanisms hypothesized to underpin two pervasive and interrelated phenomena: that certain forms of group movement and exercise lead to social bonding and that social bonding can lead to enhanced exercise performance. In Study 1, we manipulated synchrony and exercise intensity among rowers and found that, compared with low intensity exercise, moderate intensity exercise led to significantly higher levels of cooperation in an economic game; no effect of synchrony vs. non-synchrony was found. In Study 2, we investigated the effects of bonding on performance, using synchrony as a cue of existing supportive social bonds among participants. An elite, highly bonded team of rugby players participated in solo, synchronized, and non-synchronized warm-up sessions; participants' anaerobic performance significantly improved after the brief synchronous warm-up relative to the non-synchronous warm-up. The findings substantiate claims concerning the reciprocal links between group exercise and social bonding, and may help to explain the ubiquity of collective physical activity across cultural domains as varied as play, ritual, sport, and dance. PMID:26317514
Young, Kimberly A.; Gobrogge, Kyle L.; Liu, Yan; Wang, Zuoxin
The formation of enduring relationships between adult mates (i.e., pair bonds) is an integral aspect of human social behavior and has been implicated in both physical and psychological health. However, due to the inherent complexity of these bonds and the relative rarity with which they are formed in other mammalian species, we know surprisingly little about their underlying neurobiology. Over the past few decades, the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) has emerged as an animal model of pair bonding. Research in this socially monogamous rodent has provided valuable insights into the neurobiological mechanisms that regulate pair bonding behaviors. Here, we review these studies and discuss the neural regulation of three behaviors inherent to pair bonding: the formation of partner preferences, the subsequent development of selective aggression toward unfamiliar conspecifics, and the bi-parental care of young. We focus on the role of vasopressin, oxytocin, and dopamine in the regulation of these behaviors, but also discuss the involvement of other neuropeptides, neurotransmitters, and hormones. These studies may not only contribute to the understanding of pair bonding in our own species, but may also offer insight into the underlying causes of social deficits noted in several mental health disorders. PMID:20688099
Gao, Y.; Raine, A.; Chan, F.; Venables, P. H.; Mednick, S. A.
Background A significant gap in the literature on risk factors for psychopathy is the relative lack of research on parental bonding. Method This study examines the cross-sectional relationship between maternal and paternal bonding, childhood physical abuse and psychopathic personality at age 28 years in a community sample of 333 males and females. It also assesses prospectively whether children separated from their parents in the first 3 years of life are more likely to have a psychopathic-like personality 25 years later. Results Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that: (1) poor parental bonding (lack of maternal care and low paternal overprotection) and childhood physical abuse were both associated with a psychopathic personality; (2) parental bonding was significantly associated with psychopathic personality after taking into account sex, social adversity, ethnicity and abuse; (3) those separated from parents in the first 3 years of life were particularly characterized by low parental bonding and a psychopathic personality in adulthood; and (4) the deviant behavior factor of psychopathy was more related to lack of maternal care whereas the emotional detachment factor was related to both lack of maternal care and paternal overprotection. Conclusions Findings draw attention to the importance of different components of early bonding in relation to adult psychopathy, and may have potential implications for early intervention and prevention of psychopathy. PMID:20441692
Krause, Neal; Borawski-Clark, Elaine
Tested for social class differences in social support among older adults. Data suggest social class differences emerge when measures of contact with friends, support provided to others, and satisfaction with support are examined. Significant differences failed to emerge with indicators of contact with family, support received from others, and…
Suggests some ideas that could stimulate and be incentives for defining programs of adult education in the future. These involve changing priorities, developing a framework which allows adult education programs to be established, and managing decision-making processes. (CT)
Kern, Julie M; Radford, Andrew N
Strong social bonds form between individuals in many group-living species, and these relationships can have important fitness benefits. When responding to vocalizations produced by groupmates, receivers are expected to adjust their behaviour depending on the nature of the bond they share with the signaller. Here we investigate whether the strength of the signaller-receiver social bond affects response to calls that attract others to help mob a predator. Using field-based playback experiments on a habituated population of wild dwarf mongooses (Helogale parvula), we first demonstrate that a particular vocalization given on detecting predatory snakes does act as a recruitment call; receivers were more likely to look, approach and engage in mobbing behaviour than in response to control close calls. We then show that individuals respond more strongly to these recruitment calls if they are from groupmates with whom they are more strongly bonded (those with whom they preferentially groom and forage). Our study, therefore, provides novel evidence about the anti-predator benefits of close bonds within social groups.
Fitzgerald, John L
Although preventive health in Australia has been acknowledged as central to national health and wellbeing, efforts to reform the delivery of preventive health have to date produced limited results. The financing of preventive health at a national level is based on outcome- or performance-based funding mechanisms; however, delivery of interventions and activities at a state level have not been subjected to outcome-based funding processes. A new financing tool being applied in the area of social services (social impact bonds) has emerged as a possible model for application in the prevention arena. This paper explores key issues in the consideration of this funding model in the prevention arena. When preventive health is conceptualised as a merit good, the role of government is clarified and outcome measures fully articulated, social impact bonds may be a viable funding option to supplement core public health activities. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? The complexities of outcome monitoring in preventive health are well understood.Likewise, the problem of linking funding to outcomes from preventive health practice has also been debated at length in health policy. However, not much is known about the application of social impact bonds into the preventive health arena.WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD? This paper discusses the limitations and opportunities facing the application of the social impact bond financing model in the preventive health arena. This has not been undertaken previously.WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTITIONERS? Social impact bonds have received significant recent attention from federal and state government treasury departments as potential financing tools for government. Health policy practitioners are watching this space very closely to see the outcomes of a New South Wales trial. Health promotion practitioners and primary care practitioners who deliver preventive services will need to keep abreast of this issue as it will have significant impact on their
Chen, Jen-Hao; Lauderdale, Diane S; Waite, Linda J
Sleep complaints are common among older adults, and poor sleep has been found to predict chronic diseases and mortality. Many studies suggest that social participation benefits healthy aging. We examined the relationships between older adults' social participation and their sleep using two waves (2005-2006, 2010-2011) of data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP). The NSHAP recorded older adults' social participation (including religious attendance, volunteer work, and attendance at meetings of organized groups) over five years, and included self-reported sleep duration in both waves and, in the second wave, measures of insomnia symptoms and measures of sleep patterns and rhythms using actigraphy for a subsample. Cross-sectional analysis of the second wave indicates that those reporting higher levels of social participation had better actigraphic sleep but not better self-reported sleep. However, longitudinal analysis suggests that change in social participation was not associated with actigraphic or self-reported sleep characteristics in the second wave data. Further analysis using fixed-effects model showed no association between change in social participation and change in self-reported sleep duration. Thus, although older adults with greater social participation slept better, we did not find that increasing social participation improved sleep. These findings imply that a self-selection process may at work; or if social participation does affect sleep, the causal effect may be over a much shorter time frame than five years.
An examination of the current government policy discourse on social value and the capturing of social impact leads immediately into the centre of the fast-moving and transforming public-sector reform agenda. The thinking around social value takes an individual to the heart of contracting, localism, the relationship between the public sector and…
Troll, Lillian E.; Smith, Jean
Dyadic bonds and adult linkages are examined as examples of adult attachments which are frequently manifested through the relationships among adult children and their aging parents. A pilot study supported the hypothesis that family bonds, both in dyadic affect and in family integration, override separation and distance. (MS)
Vogel, Susan A.; Forness, Steven R.
Reviews literature on possible causes of social functioning deficits in adults with learning disabilities including language disorders, information processing deficits, and behavioral and/or attention problems. Discusses co-occurrence of social functioning deficits with nonverbal learning disability, and effects of educational isolation,…
Chui, Wing Hong; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver
Background: Although there are studies that tested Hirschi's social bond elements with Asian samples in the past, however, no study has examined all his social bond elements. Objective: Therefore, this study aims to test all Hirschi's social bond elements with a sample of secondary educated male and female Hong Kong adolescents. Methods: A total…
Jacobs, Stephanie; Tsien, Joe Z
Motivation to engage in social interaction is critical to ensure normal social behaviors, whereas dysregulation in social motivation can contribute to psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, autism, social anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While dopamine is well known to regulate motivation, its downstream targets are poorly understood. Given the fact that the dopamine 1 (D1) receptors are often physically coupled with the NMDA receptors, we hypothesize that the NMDA receptor activity in the adult forebrain principal neurons are crucial not only for learning and memory, but also for the proper gating of social motivation. Here, we tested this hypothesis by examining sociability and social memory in inducible forebrain-specific NR1 knockout mice. These mice are ideal for exploring the role of the NR1 subunit in social behavior because the NR1 subunit can be selectively knocked out after the critical developmental period, in which NR1 is required for normal development. We found that the inducible deletion of the NMDA receptors prior to behavioral assays impaired, not only object and social recognition memory tests, but also resulted in profound deficits in social motivation. Mice with ablated NR1 subunits in the forebrain demonstrated significant decreases in sociability compared to their wild type counterparts. These results suggest that in addition to its crucial role in learning and memory, the NMDA receptors in the adult forebrain principal neurons gate social motivation, independent of neuronal development.
The "Programme for Government" is the Welsh Government's plan of action for this term of the Assembly. At the forefront of the programme is growth and sustainable jobs. As a small economy, still recovering from the decline of manufacturing and the coal industry, Wales' economic and social outcomes are inextricably linked. Certainly, the…
Ambruster, Ellen W.; Witherington, David C.
Adult attachment and parental bonding have been linked to anxiety disorders, but rarely have these associations been demonstrated in the same study. To fill this gap in the research literature, we utilized several different self-report measures to examine the relationships among adult attachment style, memories of early bonding experiences, and…
Cohen, Mary Riggs
All adults need strong social skills to find and keep a job, establish relationships, and participate fully in adult life--but building these skills can be a special challenge for people with autism, Asperger syndrome, nonverbal learning disorder, social anxiety, and other disorders affecting social learning. Give them the essential support they…
Young, Kimberly A; Liu, Yan; Gobrogge, Kyle L; Wang, Hui; Wang, Zuoxin
Drug addiction has devastating consequences on social behaviors and can lead to the impairment of social bonding. Accumulating evidence indicates that alterations in oxytocin (OT) and dopamine (DA) neurotransmission within brain reward circuitry may be involved. We investigated this possibility, as well as the therapeutic potential of OT for drug-induced social deficits, using the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster)-a socially monogamous rodent that forms enduring pair bonds between adult mates. We demonstrate that repeated exposure to the commonly abused psychostimulant amphetamine (AMPH) inhibits the formation of partner preferences (an index of pair bonding) in female prairie voles. AMPH exposure also altered OT and DA neurotransmission in regions that mediate partner preference formation: it decreased OT and DA D2 receptor immunoreactivity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc), respectively, and increased NAcc DA levels. Administration of OT directly into the mPFC of AMPH-exposed voles restored partner preferences, and altered NAcc DA levels, and this effect was dependent on OT receptor activation. Together, these data suggest that repeated AMPH exposure impairs pair bonding through an OT-mediated mechanism, and that OT and DA systems within brain reward circuitry may interact to mediate the complex relationship between drug abuse and social bonding. Further, these results provide empirical support for the idea that the central OT system may represent an important target for the treatment of social deficits in addiction.
Liu, Yan; Gobrogge, Kyle L.; Wang, Hui
Drug addiction has devastating consequences on social behaviors and can lead to the impairment of social bonding. Accumulating evidence indicates that alterations in oxytocin (OT) and dopamine (DA) neurotransmission within brain reward circuitry may be involved. We investigated this possibility, as well as the therapeutic potential of OT for drug-induced social deficits, using the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster)—a socially monogamous rodent that forms enduring pair bonds between adult mates. We demonstrate that repeated exposure to the commonly abused psychostimulant amphetamine (AMPH) inhibits the formation of partner preferences (an index of pair bonding) in female prairie voles. AMPH exposure also altered OT and DA neurotransmission in regions that mediate partner preference formation: it decreased OT and DA D2 receptor immunoreactivity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc), respectively, and increased NAcc DA levels. Administration of OT directly into the mPFC of AMPH-exposed voles restored partner preferences, and altered NAcc DA levels, and this effect was dependent on OT receptor activation. Together, these data suggest that repeated AMPH exposure impairs pair bonding through an OT-mediated mechanism, and that OT and DA systems within brain reward circuitry may interact to mediate the complex relationship between drug abuse and social bonding. Further, these results provide empirical support for the idea that the central OT system may represent an important target for the treatment of social deficits in addiction. PMID:24948805
The study examines two issues of the relationship between social capital and educational performance: the different effects of bridging and bonding social capital on urban educational performance and the contextual effects of social capital. The main argument states that bonding and bridging social capital are differently related to educational…
Kubitza, Robin J.; Bugnyar, Thomas; Schwab, Christine
Most birds rely on cooperation between pair partners for breeding. In long-term monogamous species, pair bonds are considered the basic units of social organization, albeit these birds often form foraging, roosting or breeding groups in which they repeatedly interact with numerous conspecifics. Focusing on jackdaws Corvus monedula, we here investigated 1) the interplay between pair bond and group dynamics in several social contexts and 2) how pair partners differ in individual effort of pair bond maintenance. Based on long-term data on free-flying birds, we quantified social interactions between group members within three positive contexts (spatial proximity, feeding and sociopositive interactions) for different periods of the year (non-breeding, pre-breeding, parental care). On the group level, we found that the number of interaction partners was highest in the spatial proximity context while in the feeding and sociopositive contexts the number of interaction partners was low and moderately low, respectively. Interactions were reciprocated within almost all contexts and periods. Investigating subgrouping within the flock, results showed that interactions were preferentially directed towards the respective pair partner compared to unmated adults. When determining pair partner effort, both sexes similarly invested most into mutual proximity during late winter, thereby refreshing their bond before the onset of breeding. Paired males fed their mates over the entire year at similar rates while paired females hardly fed their mates at all but engaged in sociopositive behaviors instead. We conclude that jackdaws actively seek out positive social ties to flock members (close proximity, sociopositive behavior), at certain times of the year. Thus, the group functions as a dynamic social unit, nested within are highly cooperative pair bonds. Both sexes invested into the bond with different social behaviors and different levels of effort, yet these are likely male and female
This article describes a research study about the experiences of adult educators in which the stories of three of the participants were central in exploring the issue of social care in adult education. It proposes that the adult educators with a social care orientation in this study acknowledge the importance of, and work to provide for, human…
Tarr, Bronwyn; Launay, Jacques; Cohen, Emma; Dunbar, Robin
Group dancing is a ubiquitous human activity that involves exertive synchronized movement to music. It is hypothesized to play a role in social bonding, potentially via the release of endorphins, which are analgesic and reward-inducing, and have been implicated in primate social bonding. We used a 2 × 2 experimental design to examine effects of exertion and synchrony on bonding. Both demonstrated significant independent positive effects on pain threshold (a proxy for endorphin activation) and in-group bonding. This suggests that dance which involves both exertive and synchronized movement may be an effective group bonding activity. PMID:26510676
Tarr, Bronwyn; Launay, Jacques; Cohen, Emma; Dunbar, Robin
Group dancing is a ubiquitous human activity that involves exertive synchronized movement to music. It is hypothesized to play a role in social bonding, potentially via the release of endorphins, which are analgesic and reward-inducing, and have been implicated in primate social bonding. We used a 2 × 2 experimental design to examine effects of exertion and synchrony on bonding. Both demonstrated significant independent positive effects on pain threshold (a proxy for endorphin activation) and in-group bonding. This suggests that dance which involves both exertive and synchronized movement may be an effective group bonding activity.
Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E., Jr.
Adults with intellectual disability are vulnerable to stressful social interactions. We determined frequency and severity of various stressful social interactions, identified the social partners in these interactions, and examined the specific interpersonal skill difficulties of 114 adults with mild intellectual disability. Participants'…
Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Arozullah, Ahsan M.; Cho, Young Ik; Crittenden, Kathleen; Vicencio, Daniel
The study examines whether social support interacts with health literacy in affecting the health status of older adults. Health literacy is assessed using the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Social support is measured with the Medical Outcome Study social support scale. Results show, unexpectedly, that rather…
Xu, Qingwen; Norstrand, Julie A; Du, Yan
Social capital has been connected with positive health outcomes across countries, including China. Given the rise in the number of seniors living alone, there is a need to examine the health benefits of social capital, accounting for living arrangements. Data from the 2005 Chinese General Social Survey were used to test research hypotheses. Controlling for demographics, elders living alone possessed similar level of social capital compared with elders living with others. While bonding and linking social capital were significant factors in urban areas and linking social capital was a significant factor in rural areas, the relationship between living alone and health did not differ based on the level of social capital possession. When the traditional intergenerational living arrangement has not been a valid option for many older adults in China, seeking new way of family caring, and developing appropriate social and institutional structures to assist elders living alone, becomes critical.
Durkin, Keith F.; Wolfe, Scott E.; May, Ross W.
This paper reports the finding from a study that examined the relationship between social bond variables and drunk driving in a sample of university students. A questionnaire containing indicators representing social bond variables, as well as a measure of drunk driving was administered to a sample of 1459 college students. The results of this…
Lieberwirth, Claudia; Wang, Zuoxin
Adult neurogenesis – the formation of new neurons in adulthood – has been shown to be modulated by a variety of endogenous (e.g., trophic factors, neurotransmitters, and hormones) as well as exogenous (e.g., physical activity and environmental complexity) factors. Research on exogenous regulators of adult neurogenesis has focused primarily on the non-social environment. More recently, however, evidence has emerged suggesting that the social environment can also affect adult neurogenesis. The present review details the effects of adult–adult (e.g., mating and chemosensory interactions) and adult–offspring (e.g., gestation, parenthood, and exposure to offspring) interactions on adult neurogenesis. In addition, the effects of a stressful social environment (e.g., lack of social support and dominant–subordinate interactions) on adult neurogenesis are reviewed. The underlying hormonal mechanisms and potential functional significance of adult-generated neurons in mediating social behaviors are also discussed. PMID:22586385
de Greef, Maurice; Verté, Dominique; Segers, Mien
To date a significant share of the European population can be considered at risk of social exclusion. It has been argued that adult education programmes are a powerful tool to support vulnerable adults increasing their social inclusion. This study aims to answer the question if and which subgroups of vulnerable adults experience an increase in…
Kulkofsky, Sarah; Behrens, Kazuko Y.; Battin, David B.
The present study investigated the relation between characteristics of mother-child reminiscing and children's perceived competence and social acceptance. We focused specifically on conversations for bonding purposes (i.e., conversations that serve the function of maintaining or strengthening the relationship between the child and the mother) as…
Kokkonen, J; Saukkonen, A L; Timonen, E; Serlo, W; Kinnunen, P
The social status of 52 disabled young adults (29 men, 23 women) was reviewed at the age of 19 to 25 years, and compared with that of 209 age-matched controls. 40 had successfully completed elementary school and 10 had completed high-school. 28 had gone on to basic further education and 11 had progressed to more advanced levels. 35 per cent of the study group and 11 per cent of the controls had had no further education. Half of the study group were receiving disability benefit and 12 had no occupation outside the home. There was little difference in present employment status between groups, but the study group had experienced twice as much unemployment as controls. Leaving the parents' home and sexual experience were delayed among the study group. The results indicate the need for more practical support for these adolescents and their parents.
Webley, Paul; Nyhus, Ellen K.
We analyze the role economic socialization plays in the economic behavior and asset accumulation of young adults by parents using data from European young adults and teenagers. We study the role of four distinct strands of economic socialization (providing pocket money, jobs at home, work for others, and parental encouragement) using a Dutch…
Peter, J P; Chinsky, R R; Fisher, M J
The patterns of social integration of adults with primary and secondary groups were evaluated for 196 adult cleft subjects, their 190 siblings and 209 random controls. Results indicated that cleft adults tended to rely on the extended family for mutual aid and social activities. They also participated less frequently in voluntary associations and relied on a few one-to-one friendships. Social activities tended to be that of informal visiting patterns. While it would be inaccurate to characterize the cleft adult family as grossly different from other American families, they are a definable population experiencing some degree of limitation associated with having a cleft.
Flatt, Jason D; Agimi, Yll; Albert, Steve M
A common network phenomenon, homophily, involves developing relationships with others who are similar to you. The intent of this study was to determine if older adults' health behaviors were shared within social networks. We interviewed older adults from low-income senior housing (egos) on egocentric social network characteristics and key health behaviors for themselves and for named social ties (alters). Findings suggest strong effects for homophily, especially for those who smoked and were physically inactive. Public health interventions for older adults should consider the influence that social relationships have on personal health behaviors. Network-based interventions may be required.
Davis, Sara D; Meade, Michelle L
In the present study, we examined the impacts of participant age and confederate age on social memory processes. During a collaborative recall phase, young and older adult participants were exposed to the erroneous memory reports of a young or an older adult confederate. On a subsequent individual recall test, young and older adult participants were equally likely to incorporate the confederates' erroneous suggestions into their memory reports, suggesting that participant age had a minimal effect on social memory processes. However, confederate age did have a marked effect: Young adult participants were less likely to incorporate misleading suggestions from older adult confederates and less likely to report "remembering" items suggested by older adult confederates. Critically, older adult participants were also less likely to incorporate misleading information from fellow older adult confederates. Both young and older adult participants discounted older adult confederates' contributions to a memory test.
Passmore, Nola L.; Fogarty, Gerard J.; Bourke, Carolyn J.; Baker-Evans, Sandra F.
Adult adoptees (n=100) and nonadoptees (n=100) were compared with regard to self-esteem, identity processing style, and parental bonding. Although some differences were found with regard to self-esteem, maternal care, and maternal overprotection, these differences were qualified by reunion status such that only reunited adoptees differed…
McNeal, Neal; Scotti, Melissa-Ann L; Wardwell, Joshua; Chandler, Danielle L; Bates, Suzanne L; Larocca, Meagan; Trahanas, Diane M; Grippo, Angela J
The social disruption of losing a partner may have particularly strong adverse effects on psychological and physiological functioning. More specifically, social stressors may play a mediating role in the association between mood disorders and cardiovascular dysfunction. This study investigated the hypothesis that the disruption of established social bonds between male and female prairie voles would produce depressive behaviors and cardiac dysregulation, coupled with endocrine and autonomic nervous system dysfunction. In Experiment 1, behaviors related to depression, cardiac function, and autonomic nervous system regulation were monitored in male prairie voles during social bonding with a female partner, social isolation from the bonded partner, and a behavioral stressor. Social isolation produced depressive behaviors, increased heart rate, heart rhythm dysregulation, and autonomic imbalance characterized by increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic drive to the heart. In Experiment 2, behaviors related to depression and endocrine function were measured following social bonding and social isolation in both male and female prairie voles. Social isolation produced similar levels of depressive behaviors in both sexes, as well as significant elevations of adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone. These alterations in behavioral and physiological functioning provide insight into the mechanisms by which social stressors negatively influence emotional and cardiovascular health in humans.
McNeal, Neal; Scotti, Melissa-Ann L.; Wardwell, Joshua; Chandler, Danielle L.; Bates, Suzanne L.; LaRocca, Meagan; Trahanas, Diane M.; Grippo, Angela J.
The social disruption of losing a partner may have particularly strong adverse effects on psychological and physiological functioning. More specifically, social stressors may play a mediating role in the association between mood disorders and cardiovascular dysfunction. This study investigated the hypothesis that the disruption of established social bonds between male and female prairie voles would produce depressive behaviors and cardiac dysregulation, coupled with endocrine and autonomic nervous system dysfunction. In Experiment 1, behaviors related to depression, cardiac function, and autonomic nervous system regulation were monitored in male prairie voles during social bonding with a female partner, social isolation from the bonded partner, and a behavioral stressor. Social isolation produced depressive behaviors, increased heart rate, heart rhythm dysregulation, and autonomic imbalance characterized by increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic drive to the heart. In Experiment 2, behaviors related to depression and endocrine function were measured following social bonding and social isolation in both male and female prairie voles. Social isolation produced similar levels of depressive behaviors in both sexes, as well as significant elevations of adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone. These alterations in behavioral and physiological functioning provide insight into the mechanisms by which social stressors negatively influence emotional and cardiovascular health in humans. PMID:24161576
Schulz, Anja; Bergen, Emilia; Schuhmann, Petya; Hoyer, Jürgen
This study examined the association of social anxiety, loneliness, and problematic Internet use (PIU) with the online solicitation of minors. Within a convenience sample of adult Internet users from Germany, Finland, and Sweden (N = 2,828), we compared the responses of participants who had not interacted sexually with strangers online (n = 2,049) with participants who sexually interacted with unknown adults online (n = 642), and both groups with adults who sexually solicited unknown minors online (n = 137). Online sexual interaction with adults was associated with higher levels of social anxiety, loneliness, and PIU compared with not sexually interacting with strangers online. Sexually soliciting minors online was associated with higher levels of social anxiety, loneliness, and PIU compared with sexually interacting with adults and not sexually interacting with strangers at all. Interestingly, compared with those with adult contacts, loneliness was specifically pronounced for participants who solicited children, whereas social anxiety and PIU were pronounced for participants soliciting adolescents. These findings suggest that social anxiety, loneliness, and PIU may be among the motivators for using the Internet to solicit individuals of different age groups for sexual purposes. These factors emerged as specifically relevant for adults who sexually solicited minors and who reported greater impairments compared with adults who sexually interacted with adults. These characteristics may thus be important to consider for assessment and treatment procedures for individuals soliciting minors online.
Stevens, Jeroen M G; Vervaecke, Hilde; De Vries, Han; Van Elsacker, Linda
Based on previous research in captivity, bonobos, Pan paniscus, have been called a female-bonded species. However, genetic and behavioural data indicate that wild females migrate. Bonding between these unrelated females would then be in contradiction with socio-ecological models. It has been argued that female bonding has been overemphasized in captive bonobos. We examine patterns of proximity, grooming and support behaviour in six well established captive groups of bonobos. We find that female bonding was not a typical characteristic of all captive bonobo groups. In only two groups there was a trend for females to prefer proximity with other females over association with males. We found no evidence that following or grooming between females was more frequent than between males and unrelated females or between males. Only in coalitions, females supported each other more than male-female or male-male dyads. We also investigated five mother-son pairs. Grooming was more frequent among mothers and sons than in any other dyad, but sons did not groom their mothers more than males groomed unrelated females. Mothers groomed their sons, or provided more support to them than females groomed or supported unrelated males. Thus, while bonds between females were clearly present, intersexual relations between males and either unrelated females or their mothers are of more, or equal importance.
Beach, Scott R; Schulz, Richard; Sneed, Rodlescia
Social support and social networks are important correlates of elder mistreatment. This study tests hypothesized associations between perceived social support, social network size, and financial exploitation (FE). A population-based survey of 903 older adults (60+) in Allegheny County (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) found that lower perceived social support and larger social networks were simultaneously associated with higher risk for FE since age 60, controlling for known risk factors. The same associations were found for FE in the last 6 months. Older adults with larger social networks combined with lower perceived social support were most likely to report FE. When it comes to the role of social relationships and risk for FE, "more may not always be better." Encouragement to widen the social network by "making new friends" should be stressed less than making sure these new network members will truly be supportive of the older adult.
Burton, Charles L.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Bonanno, George A.
Social support has been repeatedly associated with mental and physical health outcomes, with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity posited as a potential mechanism. The influence of social bonds appears particularly important in the face of stigma-related stress; however, there is a dearth of research examining social support and HPA axis response among members of a stigmatized group. To address this gap in the literature, we tested in a sample of 70 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) young adults whether family support or peer support differentially predict cortisol reactivity in response to a laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test. While greater levels of family support were associated with reduced cortisol reactivity, neither peer support nor overall support satisfaction was associated with cortisol response. These findings suggest that the association between social support and neuroendocrine functioning differs according to the source of support among members of one stigmatized group. PMID:24972382
Tampere Univ., Hameelinna (Finland). Dept. of Education.
This yearbook contains 18 papers reflecting the major trends in adult education research in the Nordic countries in 1992-93. The following papers are included: "Popular Adult Education and Social Mobilization: Reflections in Connection with the Swedish Committee on Power" (Rubenson); "Direction of Finnish Adult Education Policies…
Cnaan, Ram A; Boddie, Stephanie C; Kang, Jennifer
A large proportion of older adults are affiliated with congregations. The literature suggests that, in general, religious participation among the older adults enhances their quality of life and provides a network of social care. In this article, we explored the relevant literature on organized religion and social support for older adults. Based on a census study of congregations in Philadelphia (N = 1,393), we documented the following: (1) the number of congregations serving older adults, (2) the types of services provided, and (3) the number of beneficiaries. The study also identified the organizational factors that predict the provision of congregation-based services for older adults. The findings suggest that serving older adults is not a top priority for most congregations. Most senior programs are small and often informal. Approximately half (48%) of the congregations do not provide a formal social service. However, those congregations that are more likely to serve older adults have larger budgets, more members over 65-years-old, and a moderate political orientation. We recommend that congregations, social service providers, and older adults explore ways to maximize this underutilized resource of congregational services to meet the needs of the increasing number of older adults.
Kwon, Min-Woo; D'Angelo, Jonathan; McLeod, Douglas M.
This study employs the uses and gratification approach to investigate how different forms of Facebook use are linked to bridging social capital and bonding social capital. A survey of 152 college students was conducted to address research questions and to test hypotheses. Factor analysis identified six unique uses and gratifications: (a)…
Broad, K.D; Curley, J.P; Keverne, E.B
A wide variety of maternal, social and sexual bonding strategies have been described across mammalian species, including humans. Many of the neural and hormonal mechanisms that underpin the formation and maintenance of these bonds demonstrate a considerable degree of evolutionary conservation across a representative range of these species. However, there is also a considerable degree of diversity in both the way these mechanisms are activated and in the behavioural responses that result. In the majority of small-brained mammals (including rodents), the formation of a maternal or partner preference bond requires individual recognition by olfactory cues, activation of neural mechanisms concerned with social reward by these cues and gender-specific hormonal priming for behavioural output. With the evolutionary increase of neocortex seen in monkeys and apes, there has been a corresponding increase in the complexity of social relationships and bonding strategies together with a significant redundancy in hormonal priming for motivated behaviour. Olfactory recognition and olfactory inputs to areas of the brain concerned with social reward are downregulated and recognition is based on integration of multimodal sensory cues requiring an expanded neocortex, particularly the association cortex. This emancipation from olfactory and hormonal determinants of bonding has been succeeded by the increased importance of social learning that is necessitated by living in a complex social world and, especially in humans, a world that is dominated by cultural inheritance. PMID:17118933
Berndt, Nadine C.; O'Riordan, David L.; Winkler, Elisabeth; McDermott, Liane; Spathonis, Kym; Owen, Neville
Young adults participating in outdoor sports represent a high-risk group for excessive sun exposure. The purpose of this study was to identify modifiable social cognitive correlates of sunscreen use among young adult competitors. Participants aged 18 to 30 years who competed in soccer (n = 65), surf-lifesaving (n = 63), hockey (n = 61), and tennis…
This article presents the outcomes of recent research into adult education programs and experiences in the Shire of Campaspe, a region in northern Victoria. Research data of people from diverse cultural backgrounds reveal how individuals can utilize adult education as a space to explore their own social and cultural isolation in a regional…
Creswell, Kasey G; Sayette, Michael A; Manuck, Stephen B; Ferrell, Robert E; Hill, Shirley Y; Dimoff, John D
Development of interpersonal relationships is a fundamental human motivation, and behaviors facilitating social bonding are prized. Some individuals experience enhanced reward from alcohol in social contexts and may be at heightened risk for developing and maintaining problematic drinking. We employed a 3 (group beverage condition) ×2 (genotype) design (N = 422) to test the moderating influence of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4 VNTR) polymorphism on the effects of alcohol on social bonding. A significant gene x environment interaction showed that carriers of at least one copy of the 7-repeat allele reported higher social bonding in the alcohol, relative to placebo or control conditions, whereas alcohol did not affect ratings of 7-absent allele carriers. Carriers of the 7-repeat allele were especially sensitive to alcohol's effects on social bonding. These data converge with other recent gene-environment interaction findings implicating the DRD4 polymorphism in the development of alcohol use disorders, and results suggest a specific pathway by which social factors may increase risk for problematic drinking among 7-repeat carriers. More generally, our findings highlight the potential utility of employing transdisciplinary methods that integrate genetic methodologies, social psychology, and addiction theory to improve theories of alcohol use and abuse.
Creswell, Kasey G.; Sayette, Michael A.; Manuck, Stephen B.; Ferrell, Robert E.; Hill, Shirley Y.; Dimoff, John D.
Development of interpersonal relationships is a fundamental human motivation, and behaviors facilitating social bonding are prized. Some individuals experience enhanced reward from alcohol in social contexts and may be at heightened risk for developing and maintaining problematic drinking. We employed a 3 (group beverage condition) ×2 (genotype) design (N = 422) to test the moderating influence of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4 VNTR) polymorphism on the effects of alcohol on social bonding. A significant gene x environment interaction showed that carriers of at least one copy of the 7-repeat allele reported higher social bonding in the alcohol, relative to placebo or control conditions, whereas alcohol did not affect ratings of 7-absent allele carriers. Carriers of the 7-repeat allele were especially sensitive to alcohol's effects on social bonding. These data converge with other recent gene-environment interaction findings implicating the DRD4 polymorphism in the development of alcohol use disorders, and results suggest a specific pathway by which social factors may increase risk for problematic drinking among 7-repeat carriers. More generally, our findings highlight the potential utility of employing transdisciplinary methods that integrate genetic methodologies, social psychology, and addiction theory to improve theories of alcohol use and abuse. PMID:22347363
Mayo, Marjorie, Ed.; Thompson, Jane, Ed.
This collection of 21 essays reviews the context of developments in adult education in the last 15 years. "Adult Education for Change in the Nineties and Beyond" (Marjorie Mayo) is a critical review of the context for these changes and of the theoretical debates that attempt to analyze and explain them. "Challenging the Postmodern…
Matoba, Tomoyuki; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Toshikazu
Many social animals have a species-specific repertoire of affiliative behaviours that characterise individualised relationships within a group. To date, however, quantitative studies on intragroup affiliative behaviours in social carnivores have been limited. Here, we investigated the social functions of the two most commonly observed affiliative behaviours in captive African lions (Panthera leo): head rubbing and licking. We conducted behavioural observations on a captive group of lions composed of 7 males and 14 females, and tested hypotheses regarding three social functions: tension reduction, social bonding, and social status expression. Disproportionately frequent male-male and female-to-male head rubbing was observed, while more than 95% of all licking interactions occurred in female-female dyads. In accordance with the social bond hypothesis, and in disagreement with the social status expression hypothesis, both head rubbing and licking interactions were reciprocal. After controlling for spatial association, the dyadic frequency of head rubbing was negatively correlated with age difference while licking was positively correlated with relatedness. Group reunion after daily separation did not affect the frequencies of the affiliative behaviours, which was in disagreement with the predictions from the tension reduction hypothesis. These results support the social bond hypothesis for the functions of head rubbing and licking. Different patterns of affiliative behaviour between the sexes may reflect differences in the relationship quality in each sex or the differential predisposition to licking due to its original function in offspring care.
Orsmond, Gael I.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Sterzing, Paul R.; Anderson, Kristy A.
Investigating social participation of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important given the increasing number of youth aging into young adulthood. Social participation is an indicator of life quality and overall functioning. Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2, we examined rates of participation in…
Alexander, Melissa G. F.; Dummer, Gail M.; Smeltzer, Ashley; Denton, Stephen J.
The purpose of the study was to determine if young adult Special Olympics participants could develop, generalize, and maintain target social skills (eye contact, contributing relevant information, and turn taking) as a result of a 14-week Social Skills and Sports (S[superscript 3]) Program that combined classroom instruction with soccer…
Krause, Neal; Keith, Verna
Studies exposure to life stress as an explanation for gender differences in older adults' utilization of social support. Results suggest that, as stressful events increase, elderly men and women are equally likely to become more involved in their social network, while gender differences emerge in response to chronic financial strain. (JS)
Investigates social support for older adults in the computer-mediated environment. Finds that: satisfaction with Internet providers of social support was significantly higher for high Internet users than for low Internet users, whereas low Internet users were more satisfied with their non-Internet support networks than high Internet users; and…
Maddox, Brenna B.; White, Susan W.
Social anxiety symptoms are common among cognitively unimpaired youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Few studies have investigated the co-occurrence of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adults with ASD, although identification may aid access to effective treatments and inform our scientific efforts to parse heterogeneity. In this preliminary…
Erosheva, Elena A.; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Emlet, Charles; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.
Purpose This study examines global social networks—including friendship, support, and acquaintance networks—of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. Design and Methods Utilizing data from a large community-based study, we employ multiple regression analyses to examine correlates of social network size and diversity. Results Controlling for background characteristics, network size was positively associated with being female, transgender identity, employment, higher income, having a partner or a child, identity disclosure to a neighbor, engagement in religious activities, and service use. Controlling in addition for network size, network diversity was positively associated with younger age, being female, transgender identity, identity disclosure to a friend, religious activity, and service use. Implications According to social capital theory, social networks provide a vehicle for social resources that can be beneficial for successful aging and well-being. This study is a first step at understanding the correlates of social network size and diversity among LGBT older adults. PMID:25882129
Fukushiro, D F; Olivera, A; Liu, Y; Wang, Z
The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) is a socially monogamous rodent species that forms pair bonds after mating. Recent data have shown that amphetamine (AMPH) is rewarding to prairie voles as it induces conditioned place preferences. Further, repeated treatment with AMPH impairs social bonding in adult prairie voles through a central dopamine (DA)-dependent mechanism. The present study examined the effects of neonatal exposure to AMPH on behavior and central DA activity in adult male prairie voles. Our data show that neonatal exposure to AMPH makes voles less social in an affiliation test during adulthood, but does not affect animals' locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior. Neonatal exposure to AMPH also increases the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and DA transporter (DAT) mRNA expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in the brain, indicating an increase in central DA activity. As DA has been implicated in AMPH effects on behavioral and cognitive functions, altered DA activity in the vole brain may contribute to the observed changes in social behavior.
This paper outlines the state of affairs in psychobiological research on psychotrauma and PTSD with a focus on the role of the oxytocin system in traumatic stress. With a high prevalence of trauma and PTSD in the Netherlands, new preventive and therapeutic interventions are needed. The focus is on the role of social support and bonding in coming to grips with psychological trauma, about the oxytocin system as a basis for reducing the stress response and creating a feeling of bonding, about binding words to painful emotions in psychotherapy, and about the bonds between researchers and clinicians. PMID:22893838
Holst, John D.
The article identifies dispositions from a thematic investigation of the pedagogical practice of Ernesto Che Guevara and various social movements in the United States. The article outlines and places these dispositions within the context of debates over social justice and dispositions for education program accreditation in the United States that…
Presents conceptual reorientation for providing responsive psychological services to older adults, focusing on need to develop prevention programs that encourage maintenance of social roles. Discusses changes in social structures that encourage more active social engagement, with examples from housing options, part-time employment, and ways to…
Howarth, Sharon; Morris, David; Newlin, Meredith; Webber, Martin
People with learning disabilities are among the most socially excluded in society. There is a significant gap in research evidence showing how health and social care workers can intervene to improve the social participation of adults with learning disabilities. A systematic review and modified narrative synthesis was used to appraise the quality…
Mesch, Gustavo S.
Concern has grown regarding possible harm to the social and psychological development of children and adolescents exposed to Internet pornography. Parents, academics and researchers have documented pornography from the supply side, assuming that its availability explains consumption satisfactorily. The current paper explored the user's dimension,…
In this response to Konstantinos Alexakos, Jayson K. Jones, and Victor H. Rodriguez, I will focus primarily on the importance of relationality for the development of a science learner identity. Along the way I will review (1) The cultural dynamics involved with the formation and sustenance of relationships in social life; (2) The methodological…
Keeler, Jason R; Roth, Edward A; Neuser, Brittany L; Spitsbergen, John M; Waters, Daniel J M; Vianney, John-Mary
Music is used in healthcare to promote physical and psychological well-being. As clinical applications of music continue to expand, there is a growing need to understand the biological mechanisms by which music influences health. Here we explore the neurochemistry and social flow of group singing. Four participants from a vocal jazz ensemble were conveniently sampled to sing together in two separate performances: pre-composed and improvised. Concentrations of plasma oxytocin and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were measured before and after each singing condition to assess levels of social affiliation, engagement and arousal. A validated assessment of flow state was administered after each singing condition to assess participants' absorption in the task. The feasibility of the research methods were assessed and initial neurochemical data was generated on group singing. Mean scores of the flow state scale indicated that participants experienced flow in both the pre-composed (M = 37.06) and improvised singing conditions (M = 34.25), with no significant difference between conditions. ACTH concentrations decreased in both conditions, significantly so in the pre-composed singing condition, which may have contributed to the social flow experience. Mean plasma oxytocin levels increased only in response to improvised singing, with no significant difference between improvised and pre-composed singing conditions observed. The results indicate that group singing reduces stress and arousal, as measured by ACTH, and induces social flow in participants. The effects of pre-composed and improvised group singing on oxytocin are less clear. Higher levels of plasma oxytocin in the improvised condition may perhaps be attributed to the social effects of improvising musically with others. Further research with a larger sample size is warranted.
Keeler, Jason R.; Roth, Edward A.; Neuser, Brittany L.; Spitsbergen, John M.; Waters, Daniel J. M.; Vianney, John-Mary
Music is used in healthcare to promote physical and psychological well-being. As clinical applications of music continue to expand, there is a growing need to understand the biological mechanisms by which music influences health. Here we explore the neurochemistry and social flow of group singing. Four participants from a vocal jazz ensemble were conveniently sampled to sing together in two separate performances: pre-composed and improvised. Concentrations of plasma oxytocin and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were measured before and after each singing condition to assess levels of social affiliation, engagement and arousal. A validated assessment of flow state was administered after each singing condition to assess participants' absorption in the task. The feasibility of the research methods were assessed and initial neurochemical data was generated on group singing. Mean scores of the flow state scale indicated that participants experienced flow in both the pre-composed (M = 37.06) and improvised singing conditions (M = 34.25), with no significant difference between conditions. ACTH concentrations decreased in both conditions, significantly so in the pre-composed singing condition, which may have contributed to the social flow experience. Mean plasma oxytocin levels increased only in response to improvised singing, with no significant difference between improvised and pre-composed singing conditions observed. The results indicate that group singing reduces stress and arousal, as measured by ACTH, and induces social flow in participants. The effects of pre-composed and improvised group singing on oxytocin are less clear. Higher levels of plasma oxytocin in the improvised condition may perhaps be attributed to the social effects of improvising musically with others. Further research with a larger sample size is warranted. PMID:26441614
Ozbay, Ozden; Ozcan, Yusuf Ziya
Travis Hirschi's social bonding theory has mostly been tested in the West. In this study, the theory is tested on juvenile delinquency in a developing country, Turkey. Data were gathered from 1,710 high school students in Ankara by using two-stage stratified cluster sampling. Factor analysis was employed to determine the dimensions of juvenile delinquency (assault, school delinquency, and public disturbance), and regression analysis was used to test the theory. Similar to some other traditional societies, the social bonding theory plays an important role in the explanation of juvenile delinquency in Turkey.
Bulled, Nicola L
Extensive research over the past 30 years has revealed that individual and social determinants impact HIV risk. Even so, prevention efforts focus primarily on individual behaviour change, with little recognition of the dynamic interplay of individual and social environment factors that further exacerbate risk engagement. Drawing on long-term research with young adults in Lesotho, I examine how social environment factors contribute to HIV risk. During preliminary ethnographic analysis, I developed novel scales to measure social control, adoption of modernity, and HIV knowledge. In survey research, I examined the effects of individual characteristics (i.e., socioeconomic status, HIV knowledge, adoption of modernity) and social environment (i.e., social control) on HIV risk behaviours. In addition, I measured the impact of altered environments by taking advantage of an existing situation whereby young adults attending a national college are assigned to either a main campus in a metropolitan setting or a satellite campus in a remote setting, irrespective of the environment in which they were socialised as youth. This arbitrary assignment process generates four distinct groups of young adults with altered or constant environments. Regression models show that lower levels of perceived social control and greater adoption of modernity are associated with HIV risk, controlling for other factors. The impact of social control and modernity varies with environment dynamics.
Dillis, Christopher; Humle, Tatyana; Snowdon, Charles T
We presented adult cottontop tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) with a novel foraging task that had been used previously to examine socially biased learning of juvenile observers [Humle & Snowdon, Animal Behaviour 75:267-277, 2008]. The task could be solved in one of two ways, and thus allowed for an analysis of behavioral matching between an observer and a skilled demonstrator (trained to use one of the two methods exclusively). Because the demonstrator was an adult in both this study and the juvenile study, the influence of the observer's age could be isolated and examined, as well as the behavior of demonstrators toward observers of different ages. Our main goals were to (1) compare adults and juveniles acquiring the same task to identify how the age of the observer affects socially biased learning and (2) examine the relationship between socially biased learning and behavioral matching in adults. Although adults spent less time observing the trained demonstrators than did juveniles, the adults were more proficient at solving the task. Furthermore, even though observers did not overtly match the behavior of the demonstrator, observation remained an important factor in the success of these individuals. The findings suggested that adult observers could extract information needed to solve a novel foraging task without explicitly matching the behavior of the demonstrator. Adult observers begged much less than juveniles and demonstrators did not respond to begging from adult. Skill acquisition and the process of socially biased learning are, therefore, age-dependent and are influenced by the behavioral interactions between observer and demonstrator. To what extent this holds true for other primates or animal species still needs to be more fully investigated and considered when designing experiments and interpreting results.
Pittet, Florent; Babb, Jessica A; Carini, Lindsay; Nephew, Benjamin C
We investigated the consequences of chronic social instability (CSI) during adulthood on social and maternal behavior in females and social behavior of their offspring in a rat model. CSI consisted of changing the social partners of adult females every 2-3 days for 28 days, 2 weeks prior to mating. Females exposed to CSI behaved less aggressively and more pro-socially towards unfamiliar female intruders. Maternal care was not affected by CSI in a standard testing environment, but maternal behavior of CSI females was less disrupted by a male intruder. CSI females were quicker to attack prey and did not differ from control females in their saccharin consumption indicating, respectively, no stress-induced sensory-motor or reward system impairments. Offspring of CSI females exhibited slower growth and expressed more anxiety in social encounters. This study demonstrates continued adult vulnerability to social challenges with an impact specific to social situations for mothers and offspring.
Klatt, James D.; Goodson, James L.
Although many species form socially monogamous pair bonds, relevant neural mechanisms have been described for only a single species, the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). In this species, pair bonding is strongly dependent upon the nonapeptides oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin, in females and males, respectively. Because monogamy has evolved many times in multiple lineages, data from additional species are required to determine whether similar peptide mechanisms modulate bonding when monogamy evolves independently. Here we test the hypothesis that OT-like receptor activation is required for pair bond formation in the socially monogamous zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Males and females were administered chronic intracerebroventricular infusions of saline or an OT receptor antagonist and were observed twice daily for 3 days in a colony environment. A variety of affiliative, aggressive and other behaviours were quantified. The antagonist produced significant and selective effects on pair bonding (latency to pair; number of sessions paired; stable pairing) and the associated behaviour of allopreening. Importantly, findings for males follow the trends of females; this yields main effects of treatment in two-way ANOVAs, although within-sex analyses are significant only for females. These data provide evidence for both convergent evolution and species diversity in the neuroendocrine mechanisms of pair bonding. PMID:23173212
Jensen, Dorthe H; Jetten, Jolanda
It is increasingly recognized that graduates' achievements depend in important ways on their opportunities to develop an academic and a professional identity during their studies. Previous research has shown that students' socio-economic status (SES) and social capital prior to entering university affects their ability to obtain these identities in higher education. However, what is less well understood is whether social capital that is built during university studies shapes identity development, and if so, whether the social capital gained during university years impacts on academic and professional identity differently. In a qualitative study, we interviewed 26 Danish and 11 Australian university students about their social interaction experiences, their opportunities to develop bonding capital as well as bridging capital, and their academic and professional identity. Findings show that while bonding social capital with co-students facilitated academic identity formation, such social capital does not lead to professional identity development. We also found that the development of bridging social capital with educators facilitated students' professional identity formation. However, bonding social capital among students stood in the way of participating in bridging interaction with educators, thereby further hindering professional identity formation. Finally, while students' parental background did not affect the perceived difficulty of forming professional identity, there was a tendency for students from lower SES backgrounds to be more likely to make internal attributions while those from higher SES backgrounds were more likely to make external attributions for the failure to develop professional identity. Results point to the importance of creating opportunities for social interaction with educators at university because this facilitates the generation of bridging social capital, which, in turn, is essential for students' professional identity development.
Jensen, Dorthe H.; Jetten, Jolanda
It is increasingly recognized that graduates’ achievements depend in important ways on their opportunities to develop an academic and a professional identity during their studies. Previous research has shown that students’ socio-economic status (SES) and social capital prior to entering university affects their ability to obtain these identities in higher education. However, what is less well understood is whether social capital that is built during university studies shapes identity development, and if so, whether the social capital gained during university years impacts on academic and professional identity differently. In a qualitative study, we interviewed 26 Danish and 11 Australian university students about their social interaction experiences, their opportunities to develop bonding capital as well as bridging capital, and their academic and professional identity. Findings show that while bonding social capital with co-students facilitated academic identity formation, such social capital does not lead to professional identity development. We also found that the development of bridging social capital with educators facilitated students’ professional identity formation. However, bonding social capital among students stood in the way of participating in bridging interaction with educators, thereby further hindering professional identity formation. Finally, while students’ parental background did not affect the perceived difficulty of forming professional identity, there was a tendency for students from lower SES backgrounds to be more likely to make internal attributions while those from higher SES backgrounds were more likely to make external attributions for the failure to develop professional identity. Results point to the importance of creating opportunities for social interaction with educators at university because this facilitates the generation of bridging social capital, which, in turn, is essential for students’ professional identity
Cornwell, Benjamin; Laumann, Edward O; Schumm, L Philip
For decades, scholars have wrestled with the notion that old age is characterized by social isolation. However, there has been no systematic, nationally representative evaluation of this possibility in terms of social network connectedness. In this paper, the authors develop a profile of older adults' social integration with respect to nine dimensions of connectedness to interpersonal networks and voluntary associations. The authors use new data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), a population-based study of non-institutionalized older Americans aged 57-85 conducted in 2005-2006. Findings suggest that among older adults, age is negatively related to network size, closeness to network members, and number of non-primary-group ties. On the other hand, age is positively related to frequency of socializing with neighbors, religious participation, and volunteering. In addition, it has a U-shaped relationship with volume of contact with network members. These findings are inconsistent with the notion that old age has a universal negative influence on social connectedness. Instead, life course factors have divergent consequences for different forms of social connectedness. Some later life transitions, like retirement and bereavement, may prompt greater connectedness. The authors close by urging increased dialogue between social gerontological and social network research.
Bond, Max; Broches, Paul
An interview with Max Bond, Professor of Architecture at Columbia University, is presented. Minority architects, social architecture, history and architecture, craftsmanship, quality in building, the design process, and architectural education are discussed. Architecture schools, it is suggested, should put more emphasis on the architect's place…
Han, Heeyoung; Johnson, Scott D.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between students' emotional intelligence, social bond, and their interactions in an online learning environment. The research setting in this study was a 100% online master's degree program within a university located in the Midwest of the United States. Eighty-four students participated…
Poresky, Robert H.; Hendrix, Charles
These exploratory studies focused on child-pet bonding and the effect of the quality of chldren's home environments on the social development of preschoolers. Survey data from 88 parents regarding the parents, their homes, and their preschool child provided empirical support for the hypothesis that young children derive developmental benefits from…
Cornwell, Erin York; Waite, Linda J
Previous research has identified a wide range of indicators of social isolation that pose health risks, including living alone, having a small social network, infrequent participation in social activities, and feelings of loneliness. However multiple forms of isolation are rarely studied together making it difficult to determine which aspects of isolation are most deleterious for health. Using population-based data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, we combine multiple indicators of social isolation into scales assessing social disconnectedness (e.g., small social network, infrequent participation in social activities) and perceived isolation (e.g., loneliness, perceived lack of social support). We examine the extent to which social disconnectedness and perceived isolation have distinct associations with physical and mental health among older adults. Results indicate that social disconnectedness and perceived isolation are independently associated with lower levels of self-rated physical health. However, the association between disconnectedness and mental health may operate through the strong relationship between perceived isolation and mental health. We conclude that health researchers need to consider social disconnectedness and perceived isolation simultaneously.
CORNWELL, ERIN YORK; WAITE, LINDA J.
Previous research has identified a wide range of indicators of social isolation that pose health risks, including living alone, having a small social network, infrequent participation in social activities, and feelings of loneliness. However, multiple forms of isolation are rarely studied together, making it difficult to determine which aspects of isolation are most deleterious for health. Using population-based data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, we combine multiple indicators of social isolation into scales assessing social disconnectedness (e.g., small social network, infrequent participation in social activities) and perceived isolation (e.g., loneliness, perceived lack of social support). We examine the extent to which social disconnectedness and perceived isolation have distinct associations with physical and mental health among older adults. Results indicate that social disconnectedness and perceived isolation are independently associated with lower levels of self-rated physical health. However, the association between disconnectedness and mental health may operate through the strong relationship between perceived isolation and mental health. We conclude that health researchers need to consider social disconnectedness and perceived isolation simultaneously. PMID:19413133
Gaylord, Vicki, Ed.
This feature issue presents articles on the social inclusion of people with developmental disabilities into the community and also some related news items. This issue provides profiles of organizations, workplaces, and schools that are successfully integrating people with developmental disabilities into community activities. The articles are:…
Cassidy, Brittany S; Gutchess, Angela H
Previous research has demonstrated that older adults have difficulty retrieving contextual material over items alone. Recent research suggests this deficit can be reduced by adding emotional context, allowing for the possibility that memory for social impressions may show less age-related decline than memory for other types of contextual information. Two studies investigated how orienting to social or self-relevant aspects of information contributed to the learning and retrieval of impressions in young and older adults. Participants encoded impressions of others in conditions varying in the use of self-reference (Experiment 1) and interpersonal meaningfulness (Experiment 2), and completed memory tasks requiring the retrieval of specific traits. For both experiments, age groups remembered similar numbers of impressions. In Experiment 1 using more self-relevant encoding contexts increased memory for impressions over orienting to stimuli in a non-social way, regardless of age. In Experiment 2 older adults had enhanced memory for impressions presented in an interpersonally meaningful relative to a personally irrelevant way, whereas young adults were unaffected by this manipulation. The results provide evidence that increasing social relevance ameliorates age differences in memory for impressions, and enhances older adults' ability to successfully retrieve contextual information.
Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Papakonstantinou, Doxa; Montgomery, Anthony; Solomou, Argyro
Relatively little research exists with regard to the relationship between social support and depression among adults with visual impairments. Such a gap is noteworthy when one considers that individuals become more dependent on others as they enter middle and late adulthood. The present research will examine the association between social networks, social support and depression among adults with visual impairments. Seventy-seven adults with visual impairments participated in the study. Depression, social network and emotional/practical social support were measured with self-report measures. Additionally, the degree to which emotional/practical social support received were positive or negative and the ability of respondents to self-manage their daily living were assessed. Less than a third of respondents scored above the threshold for depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were not related to gender or vision status. Depression was correlated with age, educational level, less positive practical support, more negative practical support and more negative emotional support, with lower perceptions of self-management representing the most robust predictor of depression. Age moderated the relationship between depression and self-management, and between depression and negative emotional support. Lower perceptions of self-management and negative emotional support were significantly associated with depressive symptoms.
Background Little is known about social capital and health among older adults in South Africa. This study investigates the association between social capital and several health variables, namely: self-rated health, depressive symptoms, cognitive functioning and physical inactivity, among older South Africans. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a national probability sample of 3840 individuals aged 50 years or older who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE wave 1) in 2008 in South Africa. Measures included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, cognitive functioning and physical activity. Social capital was assessed with six components, namely: marital status, social action, sociability, trust and solidarity, safety, and civic engagement. Results The social capital assessment revealed that 56% of the respondents were married or cohabiting, 45% reported low (0) social action, 42% reported medium (2–3) sociability, 43% reported high (2) trust and solidarity, 50% reported high (2–4) civic engagement and 42% reported medium (6) psychological resources. In multivariate analysis, self-reported good health was associated with younger age, having secondary education and higher social capital (being married or cohabiting, high trust and solidarity and greater psychological resources). Depressive symptoms were associated with lower social capital (not being married or cohabiting, lack of high trust and solidarity and low psychological resources). Better cognitive functioning was associated with younger age, higher educational level, greater wealth and higher social capital (being married or cohabiting, high trust and solidarity, lack of safety, higher civic engagement and greater psychological resources). Physical inactivity was associated with older age and lower social capital (lower social action, lack of safety, lower civic engagement and poorer psychological resources). Conclusions
Buettner, Cynthia K.; Debies-Carl, Jeffrey S.
Objective: This study explored the relationship between bonding and bridging social capital and college student attendance at alcohol-present parties, a common method for building informal social networks. Method: A random sample of students (n = 6,291; 52% female) from a large public midwestern university completed a survey regarding their alcohol use and party-related behaviors on targeted weekends. The survey also included questions regarding students’ living arrangements, romantic relationships, and membership in student and community organizations. Results: Based on a dichotomous logistic regression analysis, we concluded that the act of attending parties largely serves as a complement to, rather than a substitute for, more conventional and formal social capital. Membership in bonding groups is associated with increased odds of party attendance, and bridging exerts no direct effect on party attendance. However, bridging capital does mitigate the effect of bonding capital, reducing its apparent tendency to promote or contribute to partying. Conclusions: Off-campus parties may offer an informal supplement to more conventional social capital as students establish themselves in their new context. These findings may have implications for structural decisions (e.g., number of roommates) as well as the design of context-based prevention programs that address students’ need to quickly build social capital without exposing both themselves and the students around them to the harms associated with high-risk drinking. PMID:22630799
Sneed, Rodlescia S.; Cohen, Sheldon
Objective To determine if negative social interactions are prospectively associated with hypertension among older adults. Methods This is a secondary analysis of data from the 2006 and 2010 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, a survey of community-dwelling older adults (age >50). Total average negative social interactions were assessed at baseline by averaging the frequency of negative interactions across four domains (partner, children, other family, friends). Blood pressure was measured at both waves. Individuals were considered to have hypertension if they reported use of antihypertensive medications, had measured average resting systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, or measured average resting diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg. Analyses excluded those hypertensive at baseline and controlled for demographics, personality, positive social interactions, and baseline health. Results Twenty-nine percent of participants developed hypertension over the four-year follow-up. Each one-unit increase in the total average negative social interaction score was associated with a 38% increased odds of developing hypertension. Sex moderated the association between total average negative social interactions and hypertension, with effects observed among women but not men. The association of total average negative interactions and hypertension in women was attributable primarily to interactions with friends, but also to negative interactions with family and partners. Age also moderated the association between total average negative social interactions and hypertension, with effects observed among those ages 51–64, but not those ages ≥65. Conclusion In this sample of older adults, negative social interactions were associated with increased hypertension risk in women and the youngest older adults. PMID:24884909
Some studies of technology use by immigrants have explored the role of digital media in their maintenance of affiliations with their nations of origin. However, the potential for transnational social networks to serve as "resources" that facilitate digital literacy socialization for adult immigrant learners remains unexplored. In this…
Horton, Todd A.
This paper explores educating for democratic citizenship with a focus on the intersection between reading and values, specifically the nurturing of social responsibility. Using a pre-designed framework for teaching for social responsibility, excerpts from a young adult historical fiction series are used to consider learning possibilities in the…
Silva, Nicole M; Henrie, James A; Patrick, Julie Hicks
While much research has investigated the association between personality and health, little research has done so using a bereaved sample. Additionally, little research has investigated how personality influences the frequency of negative social exchanges bereaved individuals receive. This study utilized a structural equation model to investigate the associations among age, gender, personality, negative social exchanges, length of bereavement, and self-reported physical health in a sample of bereaved adults. Results indicated that personality was associated with negative social exchanges and physical health. Therefore, these variables are important and should be studied further in this context. PMID:28070398
Hawkins, J. David; Guo, Jie; Hill, Karl G.; Battin-Pearson, Sara; Abbott, Robert D.
Bonding to school has been shown to be a protective factor against many problem behaviors. This study examines the effects of intervention during the elementary grades on changes in school bonding from middle school through high school, using hierarchical linear modeling. A full intervention group (Grades 1–6), a late intervention group (interventions in Grades 5 and 6 only), and a control group offered no special intervention were compared. The full intervention group was significantly more bonded to school than the control group at ages 13 and 18. Moreover, the full intervention group showed a curvilinear change in school bonding over time, decreasing to age 16 and then increasing to age 18, whereas bonding to school in both the control and late intervention groups continued to decline from age 13 to age 18. These findings suggest that social development interventions through elementary school can have positive long-term effects on school bonding and demonstrate the importance of long-term follow-up studies of preventive interventions. PMID:17955057
Drawing on the Community of Inquiry model (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000), this mixed-method case study examined the nature and interactions of teaching, cognitive, and social presence created by online instructors and adult students in diverse course contexts. The study results indicated online instructional design and teaching elements that…
Frekko, Susan E.
Adult students of Catalan are worthy of study because they reveal complexities underlying taken-for-granted assumptions about Catalan speakers and Castilian speakers. Far from fitting into neat bundles aligning language of origin, social class, and national orientation, the students in this study exemplify the breakdown of boundaries traditionally…
Wahlgren, Bjarne; Mariager-Anderson, Kristina
Dropout is a serious problem within education. This article reports on an intervention project, titled "New Roles for the Teacher--Increased Completion Rates Through Social Responsibility," which sought to reduce nonattendance and drop-out rates in the Danish adult educational system by improving teachers' competences. This goal was…
Changes in British social policy regarding community health care has implications for local education agency (LEA) providers of adult continuing education. LEAs will either have a role in providing staff training and other learning opportunities, will be forced to provide cheaper forms of community care, or will be ignored altogether. (SK)
Mortberg, Ewa; Tilfors, Kerstin; Bejerot, Susanne
Objective: Recent studies have suggested a link between a primary anxiety disorder and ADHD. Method: A total of 39 participants with a primary diagnosis of social phobia were compared with 178 patients with ADHD and 88 patients with other psychiatric disorders on measures for childhood and adult ADHD (the Wender Utah Rating Scale and the Adult…
Teasdale, Ben; Thompson, Jackie; Budelmann, Felix; Duncan, Sophie; van Emde Boas, Evert; Maguire, Laurie
Fiction, whether in the form of storytelling or plays, has a particular attraction for us: we repeatedly return to it and are willing to invest money and time in doing so. Why this is so is an evolutionary enigma that has been surprisingly underexplored. We hypothesize that emotionally arousing drama, in particular, triggers the same neurobiological mechanism (the endorphin system, reflected in increased pain thresholds) that underpins anthropoid primate and human social bonding. We show that, compared to subjects who watch an emotionally neutral film, subjects who watch an emotionally arousing film have increased pain thresholds and an increased sense of group bonding. PMID:27703694
Nobre, Nuno Ribeiro; Kylmä, Jari; Kirsi, Tapio; Pereira, Marco
The aim of this study was to explore the social networks of older adults living with HIV. Interviews were conducted with nine individuals aged 50 or older living with HIV in Helsinki, Finland. Analysis of transcripts was analysed by inductive qualitative content analysis. Results indicated that these participants' networks tended to be large, including those both aware and unaware of the participants' health status. Analysis identified three main themes: large multifaceted social networks, importance of a support group, and downsizing of social networks. Support received appeared to be of great importance in coping with their health condition, especially since the time of diagnosis. Friends and family were the primary source of informal support. The majority of participants relied mostly on friends, some of whom were HIV-positive. Formal support came primarily from the HIV organisation's support group. In this study group, non-disclosure did not impact participants' well-being. In years to come, social networks of older adults living with HIV may shrink due to personal reasons other than HIV-disclosure. What is of primary importance is that healthcare professionals become knowledgeable about psychosocial issues of older adults living with HIV, identifying latent problems and developing adequate interventions in the early stages of the disease; this would help prevent social isolation and foster successful ageing with HIV.
Ponce, María Soledad Herrera; Rosas, Raúl Pedro Elgueta; Lorca, María Beatriz Fernández
OBJECTIVE To examine factors associated with social participation and their relationship with self-perceived well-being in older adults. METHODS This study was based on data obtained from the National Socioeconomic Characterization (CASEN) Survey conducted in Chile, in 2011, on a probability sample of households. We examined information of 31,428 older adults living in these households. Descriptive and explanatory analyses were performed using linear and multivariate logistic regression models. We assessed the respondents’ participation in different types of associations: egotropic, sociotropic, and religious. RESULTS Social participation increased with advancing age and then declined after the age of 80. The main finding of this study was that family social capital is a major determinant of social participation of older adults. Their involvement was associated with high levels of self-perceived subjective well-being. We identified four settings as sources of social participation: home-based; rural community-based; social policy programs; and religious. Older adults were significantly more likely to participate when other members of the household were also involved in social activities evidencing an intergenerational transmission of social participation. Rural communities, especially territorial associations, were the most favorable setting for participation. There has been a steady increase in the rates of involvement of older adults in social groups in Chile, especially after retirement. Religiosity remains a major determinant of associativism. The proportion of participation was higher among older women than men but these proportions equaled after the age of 80. CONCLUSIONS Self-perceived subjective well-being is not only dependent upon objective factors such as health and income, but is also dependent upon active participation in social life, measured as participation in associations, though its effects are moderate. PMID:25372164
Snyder, Susan M; Gwaltney, Angela You; Landeck, Emily
Child-welfare-involved youth may lack protective social bonds that could reduce their risk of substance use. We investigated whether caregiver, school, or peer bonds predict distinct patterns of substance use among child-welfare-involved youth. The sample included 720 participants in the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II. Latent class analysis (LCA) and the three-step approach to incorporate indicator variables onto the latent classes were used. We found the following classes: (1) severe polysubstance use; (2) moderate polysubstance use; and (3) low use. Youth bonded to primary caregivers were less likely to be severe polysubstance drug users, but caregiver bonds did not protect against moderate polysubstance use. School bonds protected against severe polysubstance and moderate polysubstance. Youth bonded to deviant peers were more likely to be in the severe polysubstance use and moderate polysubstance use classes. Interventions targeting child-welfare-involved youth need to account for social bonds' effect on substance use.
Cornwell, Benjamin; Laumann, Edward O.; Schumm, L. Philip
For decades, scholars have wrestled with the notion that old age is characterized by social isolation. However, there has been no systematic, nationally representative evaluation of this possibility in terms of social network connectedness. In this paper, the authors develop a profile of older adults’ social integration with respect to nine dimensions of connectedness to interpersonal networks and voluntary associations. The authors use new data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), a population-based study of non-institutionalized older Americans aged 57–85 conducted in 2005–2006. Findings suggest that among older adults, age is negatively related to network size, closeness to network members, and number of non-primary-group ties. On the other hand, age is positively related to frequency of socializing with neighbors, religious participation, and volunteering. In addition, it has a U-shaped relationship with volume of contact with network members. These findings are inconsistent with the notion that old age has a universal negative influence on social connectedness. Instead, life course factors have divergent consequences for different forms of social connectedness. Some later life transitions, like retirement and bereavement, may prompt greater connectedness. The authors close by urging increased dialogue between social gerontological and social network research. PMID:19018292
Arai, Aki; Hirota, Yu; Miyase, Naoki; Miyata, Shiori; Young, Larry J; Osako, Yoji; Yuri, Kazunari; Mitsui, Shinichi
Traumatic events such as natural disasters, violent crimes, tragic accidents, and war, can have devastating impacts on social relationships, including marital partnerships. We developed a single prolonged stress (SPS) paradigm, which consisted of restraint, forced swimming, and ether anesthesia, to establish an animal model relevant to post-traumatic stress disorder. We applied a SPS paradigm to a monogamous rodent, the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) in order to determine whether a traumatic event affects the establishment of pair bonds. We did not detect effects of the SPS treatment on anhedonic or anxiety-like behavior. Sham-treated male voles huddled with their partner females, following a 6day cohabitation, for a longer duration than with a novel female, indicative of a pair bond. In contrast, SPS-treated voles indiscriminately huddled with the novel and partner females. Interestingly, the impairment of pair bonding was rescued by oral administration of paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), after the SPS treatment. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that oxytocin immunoreactivity (IR) was significantly decreased in the supraoptic nucleus (SON), but not in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), 7days after SPS treatment, and recovered 14days after SPS treatment. After the presentation of a partner female, oxytocin neurons labeled with Fos IR was significantly increased in SPS-treated voles compared with sham-treated voles regardless of paroxetine administration. Our results suggest that traumatic events disturb the formation of pair bond possibly through an interaction with the serotonergic system, and that SSRIs are candidates for the treatment of social problems caused by traumatic events. Further, a vole SPS model may be useful for understanding mechanisms underlying the impairment of social bonding by traumatic events.
Arthur, Heather M
Research evidence related specifically to psychosocial issues in older adults with cardiovascular disease remains sparse; however, widespread recognition of the impact of the changing population demographic is spurring new research in this important area. National guidelines for cardiac rehabilitation and secondary prevention in several countries include recommendations related to psychosocial issues; authors are beginning to address the older cardiac patient in their recommendations. The purpose of this article is to highlight some key psychosocial factors that have been independently associated with coronary heart disease but to do so with a focus on the older adult in the secondary prevention setting. The selected psychosocial factors are social support, social isolation, and depression. Although evidence supports a relationship between psychosocial factors and coronary heart disease, the issue addressed in this article is whether such relationships hold true in the older adult and whether rehabilitation and secondary prevention interventions are targeted to address these factors. As much as possible, current recommendations (related to psychosocial issues) from worldwide Clinical Practice Guidelines are highlighted. Finally, any examination of psychosocial factors and coronary heart disease must consider the possibility of sex and/or gender differences. Therefore, a commentary on reported differences between men and women with respect to social support, social isolation, and depression is included.
Recent statistics show a growing number of older adults who are living alone and are socially isolated. It is against this background that, in recent years, many interventions have been developed to address social isolation among the elderly. Evaluative studies show that most interventions are hardly effective, though. An important reason for this is the heterogeneity of the socially isolated. This article offers insight into this heterogeneity by presenting a typology with different profiles of socially isolated older adults and the intervention implications of this typology. The typology is derived from an extensive qualitative study on socially isolated elderly individuals in the Netherlands. The typology imposes some degree of order to a diversity of circumstances, ambitions, and possibilities of the socially isolated elderly, thereby deepening the understanding of the heterogeneity of this population. The definition of social isolation used in this study starts from a societal angle of incidence, namely the current policy context of Western European welfare states, in which governments emphasize the importance of independence and self-reliance of their citizens. Developed from that perspective, the typology provides a theoretical basis for applying interventions aimed at increasing self-reliance of social isolated elderly. This perspective on social isolation also has consequences for the way in which the effectiveness of interventions to alleviate social isolation is assessed.
Wang, Donna; Chonody, Jill
Ageist attitudes toward older adults have been recognized as barriers to recruiting and training competent social workers. This article provides a systematic review of the literature that focused on social workers' and social work students' attitudes toward older adults and working with older adults. The authors sought empirical studies…
Hausberger, Martine; Fureix, Carole; Bourjade, Marie; Wessel-Robert, Sabine; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick
Play remains a mystery and adult play even more so. More typical of young stages in healthy individuals, it occurs rarely at adult stages but then more often in captive/domestic animals, which can imply spatial, social and/or feeding deprivations or restrictions that are challenging to welfare, than in animals living in natural conditions. Here, we tested the hypothesis that adult play may reflect altered welfare states and chronic stress in horses, in which, as in several species, play rarely occurs at adult stages in natural conditions. We observed the behaviour (in particular, social play) of riding school horses during occasional outings in a paddock and measured several stress indicators when these horses were in their individual home boxes. Our results revealed that (1) the number of horses and rates of adult play appeared very high compared to field report data and (2) most stress indicators measured differed between `players' and `non-players', revealing that most `playful' animals were suffering from more chronic stress than `non-playful' horses. Frequency of play behaviour correlated with a score of chronic stress. This first discovery of a relationship between adult play and altered welfare opens new lines of research that certainly deserves comparative studies in a variety of species.
The body of evidence on older adults' sexual health is beginning to grow. However, it remains an under-researched area particularly within the social sciences. This viewpoint outlines four considerations for those who carry out social science research in this area: 1. defining the age category "older adults"; 2. being clear about the types of sex under research; 3. capturing a range of diverse voices; and 4. considering the use of qualitative research methods to explore the topic in depth. These suggestions are aimed at helping researchers to avoid some of the pitfalls of research in this area, as well as improving the evidence base in order to advance recognition of the issues and drive change in service provision.
Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P
Adolescence is associated with potentially stressful challenges, and adolescents may differ from adults in their stress responsivity. To investigate possible age-related differences in stress responsiveness, the consequences of repeated restraint stress (90 min/day for 5 days) on anxiety, as indexed using the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and modified social interaction (SI) tests, were assessed in adolescent and adult Sprague-Dawley male and female rats. Control groups at each age included non-stressed and socially deprived animals, with plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels also measured in another group of rats on days 1 and 5 of stress (sampled 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min following restraint onset). While repeatedly restrained animals exhibited similar anxiety levels compared to non-stressed controls in the EPM, restraint stress increased anxiety at both ages in the SI test (as indexed by reduced social investigation and social preference). Daily weight gain measurements, however, revealed more marked stress-related suppression of body weight in adolescents versus adults. Analysis of stress-induced increases in CORT likewise showed that adolescents demonstrated less habituation than adults, embedded within typical sex differences in CORT magnitude (females greater than males) and age differences in CORT recovery (adolescents slower than adults). Despite no observable age-related differences in the behavioral response to restraint, adolescents were more sensitive to the repeated stressor in terms of physiological indices of attenuated weight gain and habituation of stress-induced CORT.
Channon, Shelley; Crawford, Sarah; Orlowska, Danuta; Parikh, Nimmi; Thoma, Patrizia
Introduction It is well established that autistic spectrum disorder is linked to difficulties with mentalising, but the ways in which this affects everyday behaviour is less well understood. This study explored the nature and extent of difficulties in everyday social functioning in adults with Asperger's syndrome (AS), since increased understanding can enhance the development of more effective intervention strategies. Methods Individuals with AS (n = 21) were compared with healthy control participants (n = 21) on three tests of social cognition: the Mentalistic Interpretation task, which assesses interpretation of sarcasm and actions; the Social Problem Fluency task, which assesses ability to generate problem solutions; and the Social Problem Resolution task, which assesses judgement in selecting problem solutions. Results Comprehension of both sarcastic remarks and actions was impaired in those with AS on the mentalistic interpretation task. Participants with AS showed difficulties in identifying the awkward elements of everyday social scenarios, and they were also impaired in generating problem solutions but not in judging alternative solutions on the social problem fluency and resolution tasks. Conclusions These tasks potentially provide a means of profiling strengths and weaknesses in social processing, which in turn has implications for informing clinical evaluation and training. PMID:23875885
Emlet, Charles A.
This study examined social networks and social isolation in older (50 years or more) and younger (ages 20 to 39) adults with HIV/AIDS. The author conducted interviews with 88 individuals living with HIV/AIDS in the Pacific Northwest. Both groups' social networks had similar patterns; however, older adults were more likely to live alone. More than…
Greene, Kaylin M; Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David
American Indians are disproportionately burdened by alcohol-related problems. Yet, research exploring predictors of alcohol use among American Indians has been limited by cross-sectional designs and reservation-based samples. Guided by a life course developmental perspective, the current study used a subsample of American Indians (n=927) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to explore alcohol use (current drinking, usual number of drinks, and binge drinking) among this population. We examined whether adult social roles (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, parenthood, college enrollment, and full-time work) were linked to the rise and fall of alcohol use. Multi-level models demonstrated that adult social roles were linked to alcohol use at the within- and between-person levels. Becoming a parent was linked to a lower likelihood of being a current drinker, fewer alcoholic drinks, and less frequent binge drinking. Transitioning to full-time work was associated with a higher likelihood of being a current drinker and more frequent binge drinking. Results point to the importance of exploring within-group trajectories of alcohol use and highlight the protective and risky nature of adult social roles among American Indians.
Opendak, Maya; Offit, Lily; Monari, Patrick; Schoenfeld, Timothy J.; Sonti, Anup N.; Cameron, Heather A.
Research on social instability has focused on its detrimental consequences, but most people are resilient and respond by invoking various coping strategies. To investigate cellular processes underlying such strategies, a dominance hierarchy of rats was formed and then destabilized. Regardless of social position, rats from disrupted hierarchies had fewer new neurons in the hippocampus compared with rats from control cages and those from stable hierarchies. Social disruption produced a preference for familiar over novel conspecifics, a change that did not involve global memory impairments or increased anxiety. Using the neuropeptide oxytocin as a tool to increase neurogenesis in the hippocampus of disrupted rats restored preference for novel conspecifics to predisruption levels. Conversely, reducing the number of new neurons by limited inhibition of adult neurogenesis in naive transgenic GFAP–thymidine kinase rats resulted in social behavior similar to disrupted rats. Together, these results provide novel mechanistic evidence that social disruption shapes behavior in a potentially adaptive way, possibly by reducing adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To investigate cellular processes underlying adaptation to social instability, a dominance hierarchy of rats was formed and then destabilized. Regardless of social position, rats from disrupted hierarchies had fewer new neurons in the hippocampus compared with rats from control cages and those from stable hierarchies. Unexpectedly, these changes were accompanied by changes in social strategies without evidence of impairments in cognition or anxiety regulation. Restoring adult neurogenesis in disrupted rats using oxytocin and conditionally suppressing the production of new neurons in socially naive GFAP–thymidine kinase rats showed that loss of 6-week-old neurons may be responsible for adaptive changes in social behavior. PMID:27358459
Goll, Johanna C.; Charlesworth, Georgina; Scior, Katrina; Stott, Joshua
Introduction Loneliness among older adults is a major public health problem that may be associated with processes of social participation and identity. This study therefore sought to examine the relationship between social participation and identity in a sample of lonely older adults living independently in London, England. Method An inductive qualitative approach, based on semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis, was employed. Results Participants commonly spoke of barriers to social participation that have been reported elsewhere, including illness/disability, loss of contact with friends/relatives, lack of a supportive community, and lack of acceptable social opportunities. However, novel findings were also derived. In particular, participants commonly minimised the difficulties they faced alone, and described attempts to avoid social opportunities. These behaviours were linked to fears about engaging in social participation opportunities, including fears of social rejection and/or exploitation, and fears of losing valued aspects of identity. Discussion It is concluded that social participation amongst lonely older people will not improve through the removal of previously reported barriers alone; instead, older peoples’ beliefs, fears and identities must be addressed. Suggestions for implementing these findings within community organisations are provided. PMID:25706933
Brennan-Ing, Mark; Seidel, Liz; Karpiak, Stephen E
Social networks of older adults with HIV have been characterized as fragile, with a greater reliance on friends as compared to family. However, we know little about the subgroup differences in the social network constellations of this population, how such characteristics are related to social support resources, and their relationship with psychosocial well-being. We developed a typology of social networks of older HIV-positive adults and examined if they would be related to receipt of informal assistance, perceptions of support sufficiency, and psychosocial well-being. Data were obtained from Research on Older Adults with HIV (n = 914). Participants were 50 years and older, HIV positive, and diverse in terms of race/ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation. Cluster analysis identified Isolated, Friend-centered, and Integrated social network types. The Isolated reported significantly lower levels of assistance, lower perceptions of support availability and adequacy, greater stigma and psychological distress, and lower well-being compared to their peers. While friends dominate many social networks in this population, a more nuanced interpretation is needed; many have no friends and a substantial proportion receive significant family support. Those with Isolated network types will likely need to access a high volume of community-based services as they age as they lack informal support resources.
Legh-Jones, Hannah; Moore, Spencer
Research on individual social capital and physical activity has tended to focus on the association among physical activity, generalized trust, and social participation. Less is known about the association between network social capital, i.e., the resources accessed through one's social connections, and physical inactivity. Using formal network measures of social capital, this study examined which specific dimension of network capital (i.e. diversity, reach and range) was associated with physical inactivity, and whether network social capital mediated the association between physical inactivity and social participation. Data came from the 2008 Montreal (Canada) Neighbourhood Networks and Healthy Aging survey, in which 2707 adults 25 years and older in 300 Montreal neighbourhoods were surveyed. Physical activity was self-reported using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). IPAQ guidelines provided the basis for the physical inactivity cutoff. Network social capital was measured with a position generator instrument. Multilevel logistic methods were used to examine the association between physical inactivity and individual social capital dimensions, while adjusting for socio-demographic and -economic factors. Higher network diversity was associated with a decreased likelihood of physical inactivity. Consistent with previous findings, individuals who did not participate in any formal associations were more likely to be physically inactive compared to those with high levels of participation. Network diversity mediated the association between physical inactivity and participation. Generalized trust and the network components of reach and range were not shown associated with physical inactivity. Findings highlight the importance of social participation and network social capital and the added value of network measures in the study of social capital and physical inactivity. Population-based programs targeting physical inactivity among adults might
Vrtička, Pascal; Vuilleumier, Patrik
Since its first description four decades ago, attachment theory (AT) has become one of the principal developmental psychological frameworks for describing the role of individual differences in the establishment and maintenance of social bonds between people. Yet, still little is known about the neurobiological underpinnings of attachment orientations and their well-established impact on a range of social and affective behaviors. In the present review, we summarize data from recent studies using cognitive and imaging approaches to characterize attachment styles and their effect on emotion and social cognition. We propose a functional neuroanatomical framework to integrate the key brain mechanisms involved in the perception and regulation of social emotional information, and their modulation by individual differences in terms of secure versus insecure (more specifically avoidant, anxious, or resolved versus unresolved) attachment traits. This framework describes how each individual's attachment style (built through interactions between personal relationship history and predispositions) may influence the encoding of approach versus aversion tendencies (safety versus threat) in social encounters, implicating the activation of a network of subcortical (amygdala, hippocampus, striatum) and cortical (insula, cingulate) limbic areas. These basic and automatic affective evaluation mechanisms are in turn modulated by more elaborate and voluntary cognitive control processes, subserving mental state attribution and emotion regulation capacities, implicating a distinct network in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), among others. Recent neuroimaging data suggest that affective evaluation is decreased in avoidantly but increased in anxiously attached individuals. In turn, although data on cognitive control is still scarce, it points toward a possible enhancement of mental state representations associated with
Novick, Andrew M; Forster, Gina L; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz M; Watt, Michael J
Stressful experiences during adolescence can alter the trajectory of neural development and contribute to psychiatric disorders in adulthood. We previously demonstrated that adolescent male rats exposed to repeated social defeat stress show changes in mesocorticolimbic dopamine content both at baseline and in response to amphetamine when tested in adulthood. In the present study we examined whether markers of adult dopamine function are also compromised by adolescent experience of social defeat. Given that the dopamine transporter as well as dopamine D1 receptors act as regulators of psychostimulant action, are stress sensitive and undergo changes during adolescence, quantitative autoradiography was used to measure [(3)H]-GBR12935 binding to the dopamine transporter and [(3)H]-SCH23390 binding to dopamine D1 receptors, respectively. Our results indicate that social defeat during adolescence led to higher dopamine transporter binding in the infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex and higher dopamine D1 receptor binding in the caudate putamen, while other brain regions analyzed were comparable to controls. Thus it appears that social defeat during adolescence causes specific changes to the adult dopamine system, which may contribute to behavioral alterations and increased drug seeking.
Novick, Andrew M.; Forster, Gina L.; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz M.; Watt, Michael J.
Stressful experiences during adolescence can alter the trajectory of neural development and contribute to psychiatric disorders in adulthood. We previously demonstrated that adolescent male rats exposed to repeated social defeat stress show changes in mesocorticolimbic dopamine content both at baseline and in response to amphetamine when tested in adulthood. In the present study we examined whether markers of adult dopamine function are also compromised by adolescent experience of social defeat. Given that the dopamine transporter as well as dopamine D1 receptors act as regulators of psychostimulant action, are stress sensitive and undergo changes during adolescence, quantitative autoradiography was used to measure [3H]-GBR12935 binding to the dopamine transporter and [3H]-SCH23390 binding to dopamine D1 receptors, respectively. Our results indicate that social defeat during adolescence led to higher dopamine transporter binding in the infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex and higher dopamine D1 receptor binding in the caudate putamen, while other brain regions analyzed were comparable to controls. Thus it appears that social defeat during adolescence causes specific changes to the adult DA system, which may contribute to behavioral alterations and increased drug seeking. PMID:21741457
Dykstra, Pearl A; de Jong Gierveld, Jenny
In this study, Weiss's (1973) theorizing about the sources of emotional and social loneliness is elaborated--with notions about the asymmetric gratifications derived from marriage, about the conflicting loyalties that result from remarriage, and about selection into marriage--in order to reach an understanding of gender differences in loneliness, both in and outside of marriage. First and subsequent marriages are considered, as well as marital disruptions and never marrying. The data (N = 3737) are from the 1992 Dutch survey on older adults' living arrangements and social networks (NESTOR-LSN). Marital-history differences emerge, not only for emotional loneliness, but also (and contrary to Weiss's theoretical conceptualizations) for social loneliness. The marital-history differences in emotional and social loneliness are greater among men than women. For men, the marriage bond appears not only to be more central to emotional well-being than is the case for women but also to play a pivotal role in their involvement with others. Marital history offers the best explanation for differences in emotional loneliness among men, but social embeddedness characteristics also account for differences in emotional loneliness among women. Apparently, whereas men are more likely to find an intimate attachment in marriage, women also find protection from emotional loneliness in other close ties. The marital-history differences in social loneliness are largely mediated by social embeddedness characteristics, partly in different ways for men and women. Involvement in activities outside the home serves as the context for sociability for men, whereas parenthood plays a more important role in women's social engagements.
Quigley, B. Allan
Compares three social policy models (market, progressive-liberal-welfare, social redistribution); links them to adult education models (vocational-behaviorist, liberal-humanist-progressive, liberatory/social reconstruction) and to sociological theories (structural functionalism and conflict theory). (SK)
Murayama, Hiroshi; Nofuji, Yu; Matsuo, Eri; Nishi, Mariko; Taniguchi, Yu; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Shinkai, Shoji
While the importance of distinguishing between bonding and bridging social capital is now understood, evidence remains sparse on their contextual effects on health. We examined the associations of neighborhood bonding and bridging social capital with depressive mood among older Japanese. A questionnaire survey of all community residents aged 65 and older in the city of Yabu, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan was conducted in July and August 2012. Bonding and bridging social capital were assessed by evaluating individual homogeneous and heterogeneous social networks in relation to age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Individual responses in each neighborhood were aggregated to create an index of neighborhood-level bonding/bridging social capital. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the associations of such social capital with depressive mood using multilevel binomial logistic regression analysis. Of the 7271 questionnaires distributed, 6416 were analyzed (covering 152 administrative neighborhoods). Approximately 56.8% of respondents were women, and the mean age was 76.2 ± 7.1 years. Neighborhood-level bonding social capital was inversely associated with depressive mood (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.75-0.94), but neighborhood-level bridging social capital was not. Gender-stratified analysis revealed that neighborhood-level bonding social capital was inversely associated with depressive mood in both genders (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.72-0.96 for men; OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.72-0.99 for women), while neighborhood-level bridging social capital was positively associated with depressive mood in women (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.00-1.34). There was also a significant interaction between individual- and neighborhood-level bonding social capital, indicating that people with a weaker homogeneous network and living in a neighborhood with weaker bonding social capital were more likely to have depressive mood. Our results suggest that neighborhood social
Haddad, Anneke D. M.; Norman, Thomas
There is a paucity of experimental data addressing how peers influence adolescent risk-taking. Here, we examined peer effects on risky decision-making in adults and adolescents using a virtual social context that enabled experimental control over the peer “interactions.” 40 adolescents (age 11–18) and 28 adults (age 20–38) completed a risk-taking (Wheel of Fortune) task under four conditions: in private; while being observed by (fictitious) peers; and after receiving ‘risky’ or ‘safe’ advice from the peers. For high-risk gambles (but not medium-risk or even gambles), adolescents made more risky decisions under peer observation than adults. Adolescents, but not adults, tended to resist ‘safe’ advice for high-risk gambles. Although both groups tended to follow ‘risky’ advice for high-risk gambles, adults did so more than adolescents. These findings highlight the importance of distinguishing between the effects of peer observation and peer advice on risky decision-making. PMID:25566150
Human social evolution has most often been treated in a piecemeal fashion, with studies focusing on the evolution of specific components of human society such as pair-bonding, cooperative hunting, male provisioning, grandmothering, cooperative breeding, food sharing, male competition, male violence, sexual coercion, territoriality, and between-group conflicts. Evolutionary models about any one of those components are usually concerned with two categories of questions, one relating to the origins of the component and the other to its impact on the evolution of human cognition and social life. Remarkably few studies have been concerned with the evolution of the entity that integrates all components, the human social system itself. That social system has as its core feature human social structure, which I define here as the common denominator of all human societies in terms of group composition, mating system, residence patterns, and kinship structures. The paucity of information on the evolution of human social structure poses substantial problems because that information is useful, if not essential, to assess both the origins and impact of any particular aspect of human society.
Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Reich, Stephanie M.; Waechter, Natalia; Espinoza, Guadalupe
Social networking sites (e.g., MySpace and Facebook) are popular online communication forms among adolescents and emerging adults. Yet little is known about young people's activities on these sites and how their networks of "friends" relate to their other online (e.g., instant messaging) and offline networks. In this study, college students…
Samek, Diana R.; Rueter, Martha A.
Adolescent siblings are often similar in a variety of adjustment outcomes, yet little is known about the processes that explain sibling influences during adolescence. Two alternative explanations were tested, attachment (based in social bonding theory) and anaclitic identification (based in social learning theory). Hypotheses were tested using a sample of 613 adolescent sibling pairs (206 non-adopted, 407 adopted; elder sibling Mage = 16.1, younger sibling Mage = 13.8) across three sibling contexts (gender composition, age difference, and genetic similarity). Attachment explanations were supported such that the greater the perceived sibling emotional and behavioral closeness, the lower the likelihood of substance use; however, there were considerable moderating effects of sibling gender composition. Anaclitic identification explanations were not supported; closeness and elder sibling substance use did not interact to predict younger sibling substance use. Overall, this research adds to a body of work demonstrating important sibling influences on adolescent substance use. PMID:21988080
Lee, Youn Ok; Hong, Juliette; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.; Glantz, Stanton A.
Objectives. We evaluated a Social Branding antitobacco intervention for “hipster” young adults that was implemented between 2008 and 2011 in San Diego, California. Methods. We conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys of random samples of young adults going to bars at baseline and over a 3-year follow-up. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate changes in daily smoking, nondaily smoking, and binge drinking, controlling for demographic characteristics, alcohol use, advertising receptivity, trend sensitivity, and tobacco-related attitudes. Results. During the intervention, current (past 30 day) smoking decreased from 57% (baseline) to 48% (at follow-up 3; P = .002), and daily smoking decreased from 22% to 15% (P < .001). There were significant interactions between hipster affiliation and alcohol use on smoking. Among hipster binge drinkers, the odds of daily smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30, 0.63) and nondaily smoking (OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.42, 0.77) decreased significantly at follow-up 3. Binge drinking also decreased significantly at follow-up 3 (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.53, 0.78). Conclusions. Social Branding campaigns are a promising strategy to decrease smoking in young adult bar patrons. PMID:24524502
Roberts, Anna Ilona; Roberts, Sam George Bradley
Primates form strong and enduring social bonds with others and these bonds have important fitness consequences. However, how different types of communication are associated with different types of social bonds is poorly understood. Wild chimpanzees have a large repertoire of gestures, from visual gestures to tactile and auditory gestures. We used social network analysis to examine the association between proximity bonds (time spent in close proximity) and rates of gestural communication in pairs of chimpanzees when the intended recipient was within 10 m of the signaller. Pairs of chimpanzees with strong proximity bonds had higher rates of visual gestures, but lower rates of auditory long-range and tactile gestures. However, individual chimpanzees that had a larger number of proximity bonds had higher rates of auditory and tactile gestures and lower rates of visual gestures. These results suggest that visual gestures may be an efficient way to communicate with a small number of regular interaction partners, but that tactile and auditory gestures may be more effective at communicating with larger numbers of weaker bonds. Increasing flexibility of communication may have played an important role in managing differentiated social relationships in groups of increasing size and complexity in both primate and human evolution. PMID:27649626
Eggers, S; Zatz, M
Adult male patients affected with Becker (BMD, N = 22), limb girdle (LGMD, N = 22) and facioscapulohumeral (FSHMD, N = 18) muscular dystrophy were interviewed to assess for the first time how the disease's severity and recurrence risk (RR) magnitude alter their social adjustment. BMD (X-linked recessive) is the severest form and confers an intermediate RR because all daughters will be carriers, LGMD (autosomal-recessive) is moderately severe with a low RR in the absence of consanguineous marriage, and FSHMD (autosomal-dominant) is clinically the mildest of these three forms of MD but with the highest RR, of 50%. Results of the semistructured questionnaire [WHO (1988): Psychiatric Disability Assessment Schedule] showed no significant difference between the three clinical groups, but more severely handicapped patients as well as patients belonging to lower socioeconomic levels from all clinical groups showed poorer social adjustment. Taken together, myopathic patients displayed intermediate social dysfunction compared to controls and schizophrenics studied by Jablensky [1988: WHO Psychiatric Disability Assessment Schedule]. Since the items of major dysfunction proportion among myopathic patients concern intimate relationships (70%), interest in working among those unemployed (67%), and social isolation (53%), emotional support and social and legal assistance should concentrate on these aspects. Interestingly, the results of this study also suggest that high RRs do not affect relationships to the opposite sex.
Nagasawa, Miho; Mitsui, Shouhei; En, Shiori; Ohtani, Nobuyo; Ohta, Mitsuaki; Sakuma, Yasuo; Onaka, Tatsushi; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi
Human-like modes of communication, including mutual gaze, in dogs may have been acquired during domestication with humans. We show that gazing behavior from dogs, but not wolves, increased urinary oxytocin concentrations in owners, which consequently facilitated owners' affiliation and increased oxytocin concentration in dogs. Further, nasally administered oxytocin increased gazing behavior in dogs, which in turn increased urinary oxytocin concentrations in owners. These findings support the existence of an interspecies oxytocin-mediated positive loop facilitated and modulated by gazing, which may have supported the coevolution of human-dog bonding by engaging common modes of communicating social attachment.
Emlet, Charles A
This study examined social networks and social isolation in older (50 years or more) and younger (ages 20 to 39) adults with HIV/AIDS. The author conducted interviews with 88 individuals living with HIV/AIDS in the Pacific Northwest. Both groups' social networks had similar patterns; however, older adults were more likely to live alone. More than 38 percent of older adults and 54 percent of older adults of color were at risk of social isolation compared with 25 percent of those 20 to 39 years of age. Older men and older adults of color had significantly lower scores on the social network scale than others. Having a confidant and receiving instrumental support were significantly correlated with reduced HIV stigma. Implications for social work practitioners are discussed.
Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Cassel, Kevin; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe‘aimoku; Herzog, Thaddeus A.
Cigarette smoking may be one of the factors contributing to the high levels of cancer-related mortality experienced by certain Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) subgroups (e.g., Native Hawaiian). Given the collectivist cultural orientation attributed to A/PI groups, social strategies are recommended for substance abuse or smoking cessation treatment among A/PI. However, research examining how social network characteristics and social support relate to smoking across A/PI subgroups has been lacking. This study investigated the associations between social network characteristics (e.g., size, composition), perceived social support, and recent cigarette use across Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and East Asian (e.g., Japanese, Chinese) young adults (18–35 year old). Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from N = 435 participants (M age = 25.6, SD = 8.3; 61% women). Ethnic differences were found in a number of pathways linking social network characteristics, perceived social support, and cigarette smoking. Larger network size was strongly associated with higher perceived social support and lower recent cigarette smoking among Native Hawaiians but not Filipinos or East Asians. Higher perceived social support was associated with lower recent smoking among East Asians and Filipinos but not Native Hawaiians. Implications are discussed with regard to smoking prevention and cessation among A/PI. PMID:27297612
Zomer, A Carla; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P; van der Velde, Enno T; Sieswerda, Gert-Jan T; Wajon, Elly M C; Plomp, Koos; van Bergen, Paul F M; Verheugt, Carianne L; Krivka, Eva; de Vries, Cees J; Lok, Dirk J A; Grobbee, Diederick E; Mulder, Barbara J M
We aimed to evaluate how the presence and severity of congenital heart disease (CHD) influence social life and lifestyle in adult patients. A random sample (n = 1,496) from the CONgenital CORvitia (n = 11,047), the Dutch national registry of adult patients with CHD, completed a questionnaire on educational attainment, employment and marital statuses, and lifestyle (response 76%). The Utrecht Health Project provided a large reference group (n = 6,810) of unaffected subjects. Logistic regression models were used for subgroup analyses and to adjust for age, gender, and socioeconomic status where appropriate. Of all patients 51.5% were men (median age 39 years, interquartile range 29 to 51) with mild (46%), moderate (44%), and severe (10%) CHD. Young (<40-year-old) patients with CHD were more likely to have achieved a lower education (adjusted odds ratios [ORs] 1.6 for men and 1.9 for women, p <0.05 for the 2 comparisons), significantly more often unemployed (adjusted ORs 5.9 and 2.0 for men and women, respectively), and less likely to be in a relationship compared to the reference group (adjusted ORs 8.5 for men and 4.5 for women). These poorer outcomes were seen in all severity groups. Overall, the CHD population smoked less (adjusted OR 0.5, p <0.05), had more sports participation (adjusted OR 1.2, p <0.05), and had less obesity (adjusted OR 0.7, p <0.05) than the reference group. In conclusion, there was a substantial social disadvantage in adult patients with CHD, which was seen in all severity groups and primarily in young men. In contrast, adults with CHD had healthier lifestyles compared to the reference group.
Stokes, Mark; Newton, Naomi; Kaur, Archana
We examine the nature and predictors of social and romantic functioning in adolescents and adults with ASD. Parental reports were obtained for 25 ASD adolescents and adults (13-36 years), and 38 typical adolescents and adults (13-30 years). The ASD group relied less upon peers and friends for social (OR = 52.16, p less than 0.01) and romantic…
Cosden, M; Cortez-Ison, E
Residential programs that provide safe environments and child care can attract perinatal women into treatment. Other factors, however, may prevent some women from benefiting from these programs. Attachment theory suggests that one's early history determines the effectiveness with which one can utilize available social supports. Lower levels of program retention were predicted for women who had been sexually abused and for those who had poor early bonding. Eighty-four women in residential substance abuse treatment programs were studied. Clients who reported sexual abuse also reported lower parental care. Parental care and overprotection were inversely related, and related, in predicted directions, to perceptions of social supports. Sexual abuse alone was associated with time in treatment and the likelihood of graduation. Implications for developing effective counseling programs for women in substance abuse treatment are discussed.
Monteiro, Brisa M M; Moreira, Fabrício A; Massensini, André R; Moraes, Márcio F D; Pereira, Grace S
Social memory consists of the information necessary to identify and recognize cospecifics and is essential to many forms of social interaction. Social memory persistence is strongly modulated by the animal's experiences. We have shown in previous studies that social isolation (SI) in adulthood impairs social memory persistence and that an enriched environment (EE) prevents this impairment. However, the mechanisms involved in the effects of SI and EE on social memory persistence remain unknown. We hypothesized that the mechanism by which SI and EE affect social memory persistence is through their modulation of neurogenesis. To investigate this hypothesis, adult mice were submitted to 7 days of one of the following conditions: group-housing in a standard (GH) or enriched environment (GH+EE); social isolation in standard (SI) or enriched environment (SI+EE). We observed an increase in the number of newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG) and glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb (OB) in both GH+EE and SI+EE mice. However, this increase of newborn neurons in the granule cell layer of the OB was restricted to the GH+EE group. Furthermore, both SI and SI+EE groups showed less neurogenesis in the mitral layer of the OB. Interestingly, the performance of the SI mice in the buried food-finding task was inferior to that of the GH mice. To further analyze whether increased neurogenesis is in fact the mechanism by which the EE improves social memory persistence in SI mice, we administered the mitotic inhibitor AraC or saline directly into the lateral ventricles of the SI+EE mice. We found that the AraC treatment decreased cell proliferation in both the DG and OB, and impaired social memory persistence in the SI+EE mice. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that neurogenesis is what supports social memory persistence in socially isolated mice.
Chaichanawirote, Uraiwan; Higgins, Patricia A
The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed snapshot of the diversity of social support networks of 95 independent-living older adults (mean age = 76). Participants in the convenience sample were recruited from senior centers and a retirement community. Using the Arizona Social Support Interview Schedule and egocentric network analysis, participants' networks are described in terms of patterns, density, size of positive networks (available and utilized), size of negative networks (available and utilized), support need, and support satisfaction. Each participant and the identified members of his or her network were considered a complex adaptive system. Network boundary was 7 members; average network size was 6.22 members (SD = 1.50); network density was moderate (mean = 0.53, SD = 0.33); positive interaction networks were larger than negative networks; and overall, participants reported moderate support need (mean = 2.5, SD = 0.7) and high support satisfaction (mean = 5.9, SD = 1.0).
From the perspective of evolutionary psychology music can be seen as problematic. Despite its ubiquity there is still no clearly agreed function in terms of improving the fitness of the species. Is it therefore fairer to judge it as 'auditory cheesecake' (see ) rather than attributing it with any specific purpose? An alternative argument is that it plays a fundamental role in the formation of human social bonds, and the authors of ;Music, empathy, and cultural understanding; concur with the view that music has a unique capacity to help people connect with others . There is now evidence that even in the modern world there is a significant effect of our social bonds on health and longevity , suggesting that our hominid ancestors might have relied heavily on their social network for survival. If music has the capacity to encourage the formation of these social bonds it could form a powerful tool in the success of our species.
Ballesta, Sébastien; Mosher, Clayton P.; Szep, Jeno; Fischl, Kate D.; Gothard, Katalin M.
Videos with rich social and emotional content elicit natural social behaviors in primates. Indeed, while watching videos of conspecifics, monkeys engage in eye contact, gaze follow, and reciprocate facial expressions. We hypothesized that the frequency and timing of eyeblinks also depends on the social signals contained in videos. We monitored the eyeblinks of four male adult macaques while they watched videos of conspecifics displaying facial expressions with direct or averted gaze. The instantaneous blink rate of all four animals decreased during videos. The temporal synchrony of blinking, however, increased in response to segments depicting appeasing or aggressive facial expressions directed at the viewer. Two of the four monkeys, who systematically reciprocated the direct gaze of the stimulus monkeys, also showed eyeblink entrainment, a temporal coordination of blinking between social partners engaged in dyadic interactions. Together, our results suggest that in macaques, as in humans, blinking depends not only on the physiological imperative to protect the eyes and spread a film of tears over the cornea, but also on several socio-emotional factors. PMID:27922101
Johnson, Hilary; Douglas, Jacinta; Bigby, Christine; Iacono, Teresa
Background: Social interaction is integral to social inclusion. Little is known about the nature of social interaction between adults with severe intellectual disability and those with whom they engage. Method: Participants were six adults with intellectual disability and people identified as those with whom they shared demonstrable pleasurable…
Burdon, Paul; Dipper, Lucy; Cocks, Naomi
Background: Social perception is an important skill. One assessment that is commonly used to assess social perception abilities is The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT). The only normative data available for this test are for Australian younger adults. Despite no normative data being available for British adults, the test is widely used…
Lisha, Nadra E.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.; Holmes, Louisa M.; Ling, Pamela M.
Social benefits likely play a role in young adult tobacco use. The Social Prioritization Index (SPI) was developed to measure the degree to which young adults place a great importance on their social lives. We examined the usefulness of this measure as a potential predictor of tobacco use controlling for demographics and tobacco-related attitudes.…
Hall, Sarah A.
Social inclusion enhances the quality of life of young adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Young adults with ID continue to face prejudice and discrimination that limit their social inclusion. They experience limited social inclusion because there are not enough appropriate activities available and they have limited opportunities to…
Teaching for social responsibility should be one of the vital aims of our schools. Young adult literature offers an authentic, meaningful, and critical way to teach for social responsibility. This article offers an overview of the different elements of social responsibility and some young adult novels and graphic novels that could be used to teach…
Martin-Du Pan, R C
Oxytocin, an octapeptide synthesized in the hypothalamus, stimulates milk election and uterine contractions. In the brain this hormone acts as a neuropeptide. It could inhibit through the GABAergic system the activity of limbic amygdala, which is involved in the response to fear. Oxytocin could also induce the protective behaviour of the mother towards its offspring through the dopaminergic system. In mankind, oxytocin plays a role in trust, empathy, generosity, stress and sexuality. Clinical studies are testing potential benefits of oxytocin administration in autism, depression and social phobia. Results are still preliminary.
Straccia, Claudio; Baggio, Stéphanie; Barisnikov, Koviljka
Little is known about the behavioral characteristics of adults with Down syndrome (DS) without dementia. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the psychopathology and social behavior among adults with DS compared to adults with nonspecific intellectual disability (NSID). Thirty-four adults with DS were individually matched with 34…
Arcury, Thomas A.; Chen, Haiying; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.
This analysis examines the associations of oral health with social integration among ethnically diverse (African American, American Indian, white) rural older adults. Data are from a cross-sectional survey of 635 randomly selected community-dwelling adults aged 60+. Measures include self-rated oral health, number of teeth, number of oral health problems, social engagement, and social network size. Minority elders have poorer oral health than do white older adults. Most rural elders have substantial social engagement and social networks. Better oral health (greater number of teeth) is directly associated with social engagement, while the relationship of oral health to social network size is complex. The association of oral health with social engagement does not differ by ethnicity. Poorer oral health is associated with less social integration among African American, American Indian and white elders. More research on the ways oral health affects the lives of older adults is warranted. PMID:23788829
Arcury, Thomas A; Chen, Haiying; Savoca, Margaret R; Anderson, Andrea M; Leng, Xiaoyan; Bell, Ronny A; Quandt, Sara A
This analysis examines the associations of oral health with social integration among ethnically diverse (African American, American Indian, White) rural older adults. Data are from a cross-sectional survey of 635 randomly selected community-dwelling adults aged 60+. Measures include self-rated oral health, number of teeth, number of oral health problems, social engagement, and social network size. Minority elders have poorer oral health than do White older adults. Most rural elders have substantial social engagement and social networks. Better oral health (greater number of teeth) is directly associated with social engagement, whereas the relationship of oral health to social network size is complex. The association of oral health with social engagement does not differ by ethnicity. Poorer oral health is associated with less social integration among African American, American Indian, and White elders. More research on the ways oral health affects the lives of older adults is warranted.
Berger, Vérane; Lemaître, Jean-François; Allainé, Dominique; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Cohas, Aurélie
Evidence that the social environment at critical stages of life-history shapes individual trajectories is accumulating. Previous studies have identified either current or delayed effects of social environments on fitness components, but no study has yet analysed fitness consequences of social environments at different life stages simultaneously. To fill the gap, we use an extensive dataset collected during a 24-year intensive monitoring of a population of Alpine marmots (Marmota marmota), a long-lived social rodent. We test whether the number of helpers in early life and over the dominance tenure length has an impact on litter size at weaning, juvenile survival, longevity and lifetime reproductive success (LRS) of dominant females. Dominant females, who were born into a group containing many helpers and experiencing a high number of accumulated helpers over dominance tenure length showed an increased LRS through an increased longevity. We provide evidence that in a wild vertebrate, both early and adult social environments influence individual fitness, acting additionally and independently. These findings demonstrate that helpers have both short- and long-term effects on dominant female Alpine marmots and that the social environment at the time of birth can play a key role in shaping individual fitness in social vertebrates.
Berger, Vérane; Lemaître, Jean-François; Allainé, Dominique; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Cohas, Aurélie
Evidence that the social environment at critical stages of life-history shapes individual trajectories is accumulating. Previous studies have identified either current or delayed effects of social environments on fitness components, but no study has yet analysed fitness consequences of social environments at different life stages simultaneously. To fill the gap, we use an extensive dataset collected during a 24-year intensive monitoring of a population of Alpine marmots (Marmota marmota), a long-lived social rodent. We test whether the number of helpers in early life and over the dominance tenure length has an impact on litter size at weaning, juvenile survival, longevity and lifetime reproductive success (LRS) of dominant females. Dominant females, who were born into a group containing many helpers and experiencing a high number of accumulated helpers over dominance tenure length showed an increased LRS through an increased longevity. We provide evidence that in a wild vertebrate, both early and adult social environments influence individual fitness, acting additionally and independently. These findings demonstrate that helpers have both short- and long-term effects on dominant female Alpine marmots and that the social environment at the time of birth can play a key role in shaping individual fitness in social vertebrates. PMID:26246552
Lange, Elizabeth; Baillie Abidi, Catherine
This chapter summarizes the key themes across the articles on transnational migration, social inclusion, and adult education, using Nancy Fraser's framework of redistributive, recognitive, and representational justice.
Han, Yoonsun; Kim, Heejoo; Ma, Julie
This study examined the association between school bonds and the onset of substance use among adolescents in South Korea. Based on Hirschi's social control theory, this study tested the roles of teacher attachment, educational aspiration, extracurricular activities, and rule internalization--four elements of social bonds within the school setting--in delayed initiation of alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking. Discrete-time logistic regression was used to analyze five waves of the Korea Youth Panel Survey (N=3449 at baseline), a nationally representative sample of Korean youth. Stronger teacher attachment, higher educational aspiration, and higher rule internalization were correlated with delayed onset of alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking. On the other hand, participation in school extracurricular activities was positively associated with the onset of alcohol drinking, but not statistically significantly linked with the onset of cigarette smoking. These findings suggest that early prevention strategies for youth substance use should specifically target school-related factors that represent social bonds developed among youth.
Social capital is a difficult concept to define, and the task of defining the social capital of youth is even more complicated. The concept has not only been poorly researched but is also imperfectly understood. This article examines the problems faced in the use of adult indicators in youth social capital research and explores current…
Currently, some of the most significant moral issues involving genetic links relate to genetic knowledge. In this paper, instead of looking at the frequently addressed issues of responsibilities professionals or institutions have to individuals, I take up the question of what responsibilities individuals have to one another with respect to genetic knowledge. I address the questions of whether individuals have a moral right to pursue their own goals without contributing to society's knowledge of population genetics, without adding to their family's knowledge of its genetic history, and without discovering genetic information about themselves and their offspring. These questions lead to an examination of the presumed right to genetic ignorance and an exploration of a variety of social bonds. Analyzing cases in light of these considerations leads to a surprising conclusion about a widely accepted precept of genetic counseling, to some ethical insights into typical problems, and to some further unanswered questions about personal responsibility in the face of genetic knowledge.
Pelletier, Jennifer E.; Graham, Dan J.; Laska, Melissa N.
Objective To examine associations between young adults’ dietary behaviors and perceived social norms for healthy eating. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 1000 diverse college students. Associations between perceived behaviors of family, friends, and significant other and participants’ dietary behaviors were examined using t-tests and linear regressions. Results Young adults consumed more fast food if they perceived that their family, friends, or significant other did so (p < .003). Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was associated with perceived consumption by family and friends (p < .034). Fruit and vegetable consumption and dinner preparation were associated with perceived behavior of friends only (p < .001). Conclusions Young adults’ dietary behaviors appear to reflect their perceptions of normative behavior, particularly among friends. PMID:24034689
Kalcher-Sommersguter, Elfriede; Preuschoft, Signe; Crailsheim, Karl; Franz, Cornelia
Early social deprivation in highly social mammals interferes with their varying needs for security and stimulation. Toleration of social stimulation was studied in 18 adult ex-laboratory chimpanzees, who had been deprived for 16 to 27 years, during their 1st year after resocialization into 1 of 3 social groups. For this, a model of social…
Kandalaft, Michelle R.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Allen, Tandra T.; Chapman, Sandra B.
Few evidence-based social interventions exist for young adults with high-functioning autism, many of whom encounter significant challenges during the transition into adulthood. The current study investigated the feasibility of an engaging Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training intervention focused on enhancing social skills, social cognition,…
Balatti, Jo; Falk, Ian
The socioeconomic contributions of adult learning to community were examined from a social capital perspective. The concepts of human capital and social capital were differentiated, and the relationship between learning, human capital, and social capital was explored. The relevance of social capital in describing the wider benefits of adult…
Nicholson, Nicholas R; Shellman, Juliette
Older adults reporting social isolation are at increased risk for numerous negative health outcomes, including depressive symptoms, decreased quality of life, and cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of a university student model of care intervention offered through the CARELINK program on social isolation in a sample of community-dwelling older adults (N = 56). Older adults in the comparison group, who had not yet received the CARELINK program, were nearly 12 times more likely to be socially isolated. Results indicate the empowerment intervention offered through the CARELINK program had positive effects on reducing social isolation in older adults. The CARELINK program has important implications for nursing as it provides an uncomplicated and inexpensive intervention to decrease social isolation for older adults in the community. Given the sample selection limitation in this study, a randomized controlled trial is warranted. Future research should examine specific aspects of the CARELINK program and the amount each aspect affects social isolation.
Swain, Deanna; Scarpa, Angela; White, Susan; Laugeson, Elizabeth
Young adults with ASD and no intellectual impairment are more likely to exhibit clinical levels of anxiety than typically developing peers (DSM-5, American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study tests a mechanistic model in which anxiety culminates via emotion dysregulation and social motivation. Adults with ASD (49 males, 20 females) completed self-report measures on emotion regulation, caregivers completed measures on ASD severity and both on social anxiety. Results indicated that emotion dysregulation (p < .001; p < .05) and social motivation (p < .05, p < .001) significantly predicted social anxiety as reported by caregivers and young adults respectively. However, social motivation did not appear to play a moderating role in the relationship between emotion regulation and anxiety, even when controlling for social awareness. Significant predictor variables of social anxiety varied based on reporter (i.e. caregiver versus young adult), with difficulty engaging in goal-directed behaviors during negative emotions serving as the only shared predictor.
Nicholson, Nicholas R
Social isolation is a major and prevalent health problem among community-dwelling older adults, leading to numerous detrimental health conditions. With a high prevalence, and an increasing number of older persons, social isolation will impact the health, well-being, and quality of life of numerous older adults now and in the foreseeable future. For this review, a series of literature searches of the CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Medline databases were conducted, using the key words "social isolation," "social networks," "older adults," "elderly," "belonging," "perceived isolation," "social engagement," "social contacts," and "social integration," for the period of 1995-2010. The results show that there is an overabundance of evidence demonstrating numerous negative health outcomes and potential risk factors related to social isolation. However, there is scarce evidence that public health professionals are assessing social isolation in older persons, despite their unique access to very socially isolated, homebound older adults. Additionally, few viable interventions were found; therefore, it is advisable to focus on the prevention of social isolation in older adults. Public health professionals can take steps toward increasing the early assessment of social isolation and referring at-risk individuals to available community resources in order to prevent social isolation or further isolation, which would serve to reduce the numerous negative health outcomes associated with this condition.
Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P
Interactions with peers become particularly important during adolescence, and age differences in social interactions have been successfully modeled in rats. To determine the impact of social deprivation on social interactions under anxiogenic (unfamiliar) or non-anxiogenic (familiar) test circumstances during ontogeny, the present study used a modified social interaction test to assess the effects of 5 days of social isolation or group housing on different components of social behavior in early [postnatal day (P) 28], mid (P35), or late (P42) adolescent and adult (P70) male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. As expected, testing in an unfamiliar environment suppressed social interactions regardless of age, housing, and sex. Social deprivation drastically enhanced all forms of social behavior in P28 animals regardless of test situation, whereas depriving older animals of social interactions had more modest effects and was restricted predominantly to play fighting -- an adolescent-characteristic form of social interactions. Social investigation -- more adult-typical form of social behavior was relatively resistant to isolation-induced enhancement and was elevated in early adolescent isolates only. These findings confirm that different forms of social behavior are differentially sensitive to social deprivation across ontogeny.
The purpose of this study is to explore the social outcomes of older adult learning in Taiwan. In light of our society's aging population structure, the task of establishing evaluation framework and indicators for the social outcomes of learning (SOL) as applied to older adults is urgent. In order to construct evaluation indicators for older adult…
Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A.
The multiple dimensions of social integration among formerly homeless adults with severe mental illness have not been well-studied. Previous studies have focused on clinical measures or narrow components of social integration. We used a multisite study of chronically homeless adults who were provided housing to (a) identify the main factors…
Hester, Eva Jackson
The purpose of this study was to examine connections between health literacy and social communication skills in older adults, a population that experiences chronic health conditions but is reported to have low health literacy and declines in communication skills. Sixty-three older adults were administered the "Social Communication"…
Feldman, Eric M.
This paper provides a resource on the impact of social media on adult learners' construction of knowledge, particularly as it pertains to adult education's role in fostering a robust democratic society. There has been an increase in the literature in recent years that explores the various aspects of social media use, such as the incivility of…
Afshar, Pouya Farokhnezhad; Foroughan, Mahshid; Vedadhir, AbouAli; Tabatabaei, Mahmoud Ghazi
Social well-being and place attachment are two important concepts in health and quality of life of older adults. There are few studies on the relationship between these concepts at the individual level. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of place attachment dimensions on social well-being dimensions in older adults. This study was…
Miller, David James
Young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) face unique social skills challenges as they transition into independent living environments and seek fulfilling relationships within their communities. Research has focused on social education and interventions for children with autism, while transitioning young adults with ASD have received…
Cusick, Gretchen Ruth; Havlicek, Judy R; Courtney, Mark E
This study examines a sample of foster youth at the onset of the transition to adulthood and explores how social bonds are related to the risk of arrest during adulthood. Drawing from official arrest records, event history models are used to examine the time to arrest. Because individuals may be at risk for different types of crime, competing risk regression models are used to distinguish among arrests for drug-related, nonviolent, or violent crimes. Between the ages of 17-18 and 24, 46% of former foster youth experience an arrest. Arrests were evenly distributed across drug, nonviolent, and violent crimes columns. Although findings fail to support the significance of social bonds to interpersonal domains, bonds to employment and education are associated with a lower risk for arrest. Child welfare policy and practice implications for building connections and protections around foster youth are discussed.
Cusick, Gretchen Ruth; Havlicek, Judy R.; Courtney, Mark E.
This study examines a sample of foster youth at the onset of the transition to adulthood and explores how social bonds are related to the risk of arrest during adulthood. Drawing from official arrest records, event history models are used to examine the time to arrest. Because individuals may be at risk for different types of crime, competing risk regression models are used to distinguish among arrests for drug-related, nonviolent, or violent crimes. Between the ages of 17–18 and 24, 46% of former foster youth experience an arrest. Arrests were evenly distributed across drug, nonviolent, and violent crimes columns. Although findings fail to support the significance of social bonds to interpersonal domains, bonds to employment and education are associated with a lower risk for arrest. Child welfare policy and practice implications for building connections and protections around foster youth are discussed. PMID:22239390
Baez, Sandra; Rattazzi, Alexia; Gonzalez-Gadea, María L.; Torralva, Teresa; Vigliecca, Nora Silvana; Decety, Jean; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin
Deficits in social cognition are an evident clinical feature of the Asperger syndrome (AS). Although many daily life problems of adults with AS are related to social cognition impairments, few studies have conducted comprehensive research in this area. The current study examined multiple domains of social cognition in adults with AS assessing the executive functions (EF) and exploring the intra and inter-individual variability. Fifteen adult's diagnosed with AS and 15 matched healthy controls completed a battery of social cognition tasks. This battery included measures of emotion recognition, theory of mind (ToM), empathy, moral judgment, social norms knowledge, and self-monitoring behavior in social settings. We controlled for the effect of EF and explored the individual variability. The results indicated that adults with AS had a fundamental deficit in several domains of social cognition. We also found high variability in the social cognition tasks. In these tasks, AS participants obtained mostly subnormal performance. EF did not seem to play a major role in the social cognition impairments. Our results suggest that adults with AS present a pattern of social cognition deficits characterized by the decreased ability to implicitly encode and integrate contextual information in order to access to the social meaning. Nevertheless, when social information is explicitly presented or the situation can be navigated with abstract rules, performance is improved. Our findings have implications for the diagnosis and treatment of individuals with AS as well as for the neurocognitive models of this syndrome. PMID:23162450
Bellocchi, Alberto; Mills, Kathy A.; Ritchie, Stephen M.
The enactment of learning to become a science teacher in online mode is an emotionally charged experience. We attend to the formation, maintenance and disruption of social bonds experienced by online preservice science teachers as they shared their emotional online learning experiences through blogs, or e-motion diaries, in reaction to videos of…
Veenstra, Rene; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Tinga, Frank; Ormel, Johan
Some pupils already show unexcused, illegal, surreptitious absences in elementary education or the first years of secondary education. Are weak social bonds (see also Hirschi, 1969) and a lack of self-control (Gottfredson & Hirschi, 1990) indicative of truancy at an early age? Of the children in our sample, 5% were persistent truants in late…
Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.
Background: To understand how neighborhoods influence the development of youth violence, we investigated intrapersonal mediators of the relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and youth violence trajectories between ages 11 and 18. The hypothesized mediators included indicators of social bonding (belief in conventional values, involvement…
Holst, John D.
This book explores the relationship between adult education and social change and argues that it is vital for all adult educators to continuously engage radical theory in their teaching, reassess radical adult education's doubting and abandonment of the Marxist tradition in favor of postmodernism and radical pluralism, and seek to reinject the…
Hartley, Sigan L.; Birgenheir, Denis G.
Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in adults with intellectual disability (ID), yet little is known about depressive behaviors in an ID population. This study examined the nonverbal social skills of 18 adults with mild ID diagnosed with depression and a matched sample of adults with mild ID without depression. Nonverbal…
Shireman, Molly L; Lerman, Dorothea C; Hillman, Conrad B
Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and no intellectual disabilities were taught to increase the social play skills of children with ASD as part of a vocational training program. Participants included 3 adults, aged 21 to 27 years, and 6 children with ASD. Probes conducted throughout the study evaluated whether play skills training affected a measure of rapport between the adult and child. Results demonstrated the effectiveness of behavioral skills training for teaching the adult participants the appropriate play skills. In addition, the children's social engagement increased. Finally, rapport probes showed that play skills training increased levels of proximity, our measure of rapport, between the adults and children.
Nonnenmacher, N; Noe, D; Ehrenthal, J C; Reck, C
Maternal depression poses a risk for the developing mother-infant relationship. Similarly, maternal insecure attachment styles may limit the ability to adequately connect with the newborn during the postpartum period. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal depression and insecure attachment (insecure and dual/disorganized) on maternal bonding in a sample of n = 34 women with depression according to DSM-IV and n = 59 healthy women. Maternal depression was assessed 3 to 4 months postpartum with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), bonding with the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire, and maternal attachment style with the Attachment Style Interview. Women with current and lifetime depression as well as women with dual/disorganized attachment style reported lower bonding. Explorative analysis revealed that depression partially mediated the link between dual/disorganized attachment style and bonding with a medium-sized mediation effect. The combination of maternal depression and dual/disorganized attachment style may pose a special risk constellation for the developing mother-infant bond that should be addressed in prevention and early intervention programs.
Norstrand, Julie A.; Xu, Qingwen
Purpose: This study examines different types of individual-level social capital (bonding, bridging, and linking) and their relationships with physical and emotional health among older Chinese living in urban and rural settings. Design and Methods: Using the 2005 China General Social Survey, physical and emotional health were regressed on social…
Márquez, Natalia; Martínez-Harms, Jaime; Vásquez, Rodrigo A.; Mpodozis, Jorge
We evaluated the extent to which manipulation of early olfactory environment can influence social behaviours in the South American Hystricognath rodent Octodon degus. The early olfactory environment of newborn degus was manipulated by scenting all litter members with eucalyptol during the first month of life. The social behaviour of sexually mature animals (5–7 months old) towards conspecifics was then assessed using a y-maze to compare the response of control (naïve) and treated animals to two different olfactory configurations (experiment 1): (i) a non-familiarized conspecific impregnated with eucalyptol (eucalyptol arm) presented against (ii) a non-familiarized unscented conspecific (control arm). In addition, in dyadic encounters, we assessed the behaviour of control and eucalyptol treated animals towards a non-familiarized conspecific scented with eucalyptol (experiment 2). We found that control subjects explored and spent significantly less time in the eucalyptol arm, indicating neophobic behaviours towards the artificially scented conspecific. Treated subjects explored and spent similar time in both arms of the maze, showing the same interest for both olfactory stimuli presented. During dyadic encounters in experiment 2, an interaction effect between early experience and sex was observed. Control males escaped and avoided their scented partner more frequently than eucalyptol treated male subjects and than females. Both groups did not differ in the exploration of their scented partners, suggesting that avoidance within agonistic context does not relate to neophobic behaviours. Our results suggest that the exposure to eucalyptol during early ontogeny decreases evasive behaviours within an agonistic context as a result of olfactory learning. Altogether, these results indicate that olfactory cues learned in early ontogeny can influence olfactory-guided behaviours in adult degus. PMID:25671542
Wong, Charlene A.; Merchant, Raina M.; Moreno, Megan A.
We focus on the potential of social media related to the health of adolescent and young adults, who are nearly ubiquitous social media users but difficult to engage with their health and relatively low healthcare utilizers. Opportunities to better engage adolescents and young adults through social media exist in healthcare delivery, health education and health policy. However, challenges remain for harnessing social media, including making a clear value proposition and developing evidence-based frameworks for measuring the impact of social media on health. PMID:25984444
Cramm, Jane M.; van Dijk, Hanna M.; Nieboer, Anna P.
Purpose of the Study: We aimed to investigate whether social capital (obtaining support through indirect ties such as from neighbors) and social cohesion (interdependencies among neighbors) within neighborhoods positively affect the well being of older adults. Design and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 945 of 1,440 (66% response rate)…
Sheets, Raymond L., Jr.; Mohr, Jonathan J.
In this study, the authors investigated the degree to which perceived social support was associated with depression, life satisfaction, and internalized binegativity in a sample of 210 bisexual young adult college students. Two types of social support (general and sexuality specific) and 2 sources of social support (family and friends) were…
Guerette, Amy R.; Smedema, Susan Miller
The relationship between perceived social support and multiple indicators of well-being in adults with visual impairments was investigated. The results included significant correlation of social support and depressive symptoms, satisfaction with life, as well as with physical, psychological, economic, family, and social well-being. Implications…
Brandt, Martina; Deindl, Christian
Understanding the role of social policies in intergenerational transfers from old to young people is especially important in times of population aging. This paper focuses on the influences of social expenditures and social services on financial support and on practical help from older parents to their adult children based on the first two waves…
Spain, Debbie; Blainey, Sarah H.
Autism spectrum disorders are characterised by impairments in communication and social interaction. Social skills interventions have been found to ameliorate socio-communication deficits in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Little is known about the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with…
National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2010
This good practice guide is based on research that looked at how to teach adult literacy and numeracy using a social capital approach. The guide suggests ways vocational education and training (VET) practitioners can adopt a social capital approach to their teaching practice. A social capital approach refers to the process in which networks are…
Albrecht, Gary L.
This paper is concerned with the dynamics of the adult socialization process. The general hypothesis is: the level of aspiration of a patient is positively associated with his socialization (his rehabilitation) outcome. Subjects were 105 patients with spinal cord injuries or amputations. The two aspects of socialization considered in the study are…
Schiamberg, Lawrence B.; Abler, William
A detailed review of research was conducted on the relationship of social support of older adults to their general health and well being, and the findings were applied to educational outcomes and performance. The following dimensions of social support were examined: (1) an ecological framework or perspective of social support, (2) definitions and…
Colvin, Jan; Chenoweth, Lillian; Bold, Mary; Harding, Cheryl
We explored the perceptions of caregivers of older adults using Internet-based social support networks regarding the unique advantages and disadvantages of online social support. Participants were recruited with permission of Web owners through 15 Web sites that offered social networks, and responses from 63 electronically submitted surveys were…
Dugan, Elizabeth; Kivett, Vira R.
Examined relative importance of emotional and social isolation to loneliness among very old rural adults (n=119). Found that emotional isolation, specifically loss of spouse, accounted for more loneliness than did social isolation. Hearing acuity and visits with siblings (social isolation variables) also were significant predictors of loneliness.…
Little research has focused on the risk factors, effects, and experiences of compassion fatigue among gerontological social workers. This qualitative study explores the experiences and perspectives of nine Adult Protective Services (APS) social workers in relation to compassion fatigue. Results show that the APS social workers combined personal…
Wilson, Kathryn; Fornasier, Stephanie; White, Katherine M
Young people are increasingly using social networking sites (SNSs) like MySpace and Facebook to engage with others. The use of SNSs can have both positive and negative effects on the individual; however, few studies identify the types of people who frequent these Internet sites. This study sought to predict young adults' use of SNSs and addictive tendency toward the use of SNSs from their personality characteristics and levels of self-esteem. University students (N = 201), aged 17 to 24 years, reported their use of SNSs and addictive tendencies for SNSs use and completed the NEO Five-Factor Personality Inventory and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Multiple regression analyses revealed that, as a group, the personality and self-esteem factors significantly predicted both level of SNS use and addictive tendency but did not explain a large amount of variance in either outcome measure. The findings indicated that extroverted and unconscientious individuals reported higher levels of both SNS use and addictive tendencies. Future research should attempt to identify which other psychosocial characteristics explain young people's level of use and propensity for addictive tendencies for these popular Internet sites.
Winningham, R G; Pike, N L
Nearly all older adults experience social losses, which can disrupt their social support networks and impair their quality of life. Events such as retirement, an inability to drive, death of a spouse and/or close life-long friends, or moving to an elder care facility may negatively affect the quality of older adults' social support networks. Low levels of perceived social support are associated with increased depression, impaired immune functioning and reduced life expectancy. Moreover, social interactions can be cognitively stimulating and may help older adults preserve their cognitive abilities. In the present study, institutionalized older adults were exposed to either a cognitive enhancement programme designed to enhance social networks or a control group. Measures of perceived social support and loneliness were administered before and after a 3-month, group-based intervention. There was a significant interaction between group and time. Those who did not participate in the intervention experienced a decrease in perceived social support and an increase in perceived loneliness. Participants in the intervention group stayed the same on the above measures. Helping older adults increase or maintain the quality of their social networks may lead to enhanced cognitive functioning, decreased depression and improved quality of life. Recommendations to help assisted living facilities, nursing homes, retirement communities and senior centres develop social and cognitive interventions are provided.
Nahm, Eun Shim; Resnick, Barbara; Mills, Mary Etta
Internet use has been growing exponentially, and older adults are one of the fastest growing online user groups. Due to the various physiological and psychosocial changes associated with aging, older adults are prone to social isolation. The Internet and e-mail may serve as a new source of support for older adults by connecting them with friends and family members, as well as providing useful information. In this study, based on prior research findings in sociology, communications, and informatics, A Model of Computer-Mediated Social Support Among Older Adults that explains relationships among a computer-mediated social network (CMSN), perceived functional social support from that network, and psychological well-being of community dwelling older adults was proposed. The primary purpose of this study was to test this model using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM).
Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; De Donder, Liesbeth; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Owen, Neville; Dury, Sarah; De Witte, Nico; Buffel, Tine; Verté, Dominique; Deforche, Benedicte
Sedentary behaviors (involving prolonged sitting) can be associated detrimentally with health outcomes. Older adults, the most sedentary age group, are especially at risk due to their high levels of television viewing time. This study examined individual, social, and physical environmental correlates of older adults' television viewing. Data on daily television viewing time, plus individual, social, and physical environmental factors were collected from 50,986 noninstitutionalized older adults (≥ 65 years) in Flanders (Belgium). The results showed significant relationships between television viewing time and individual, social, and physical environmental factors. Subgroups at risk for high levels of television viewing were those who were functionally limited, less educated, widowed, and (semi)urban-dwelling older adults. Our findings illustrate a cross-sectional link between older adults' television viewing time and social composition of their neighborhood, formal participation, access to alternative activities, and safety from crime.
Meranius, Martina Summer; Josefsson, Karin
Multimorbidity, a condition common among older adults, may be regarded as a failure of a complex system. The aim of this study was to describe the core components in health and social care management for older adults with multimorbidity. A cross-sectional design included two methods: individual interviews and group discussions. A total of 105 participants included older adults with multimorbidity and their relatives, care staff and healthcare policymakers. Data were analysed using content analysis. The results show that seven core components comprise a multiperspective view of health and social care management for older adults with multimorbidity: political steering, leadership, cooperation, competence, support for relatives, availability and continuity. Steps should be taken to ensure that every older adult with multimorbidity has a treatment plan according to a multiperspective view to prevent fragmentation of their health care. This study provides relevant evidence developing a multiperspective model of health and social care management for older adults with multimorbidity.
Zweig, Richard A; Turkel, Elihu
To assess the reliability and validity of the Social Adjustment Scale-Self-Report for older adults, 129 community dwelling elderly ranging in age from 63 to 87 years (M=72.3 yr., SD=5.0) were surveyed using a modified version of the scale. The average internal consistency of subscales was satisfactory (mean coefficient alpha=.62). Overall social functioning impairment (total score) was associated with measures of depression (Beck Depression Inventory, r =.58) and global psychiatric symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory, r = .55). Older adults scored higher on Marital role, Family Unit role, and overall social functioning impairment compared to mixed-age adults assessed in previous research, and higher on marital role impairment but similarly on overall social functioning when compared with a mixed-age sample from primary care. The modified Social Adjustment Scale-Self-Report has acceptable psychometric characteristics for research use with older adults, and select subscales may account for findings of age-related differences.
O'Donnell, Jennifer Lee
This article looks at popular adult educators' care of the self practices within social movements in Buenos Aires, Argentina. It answers the following questions: How is popular adult education practiced amongst educators in social movements? What can studying popular adult educators' care of the self practices offer the field of adult education?…
Newall, Nancy E G; Menec, Verena H
The Seniors Centre Without Walls (SCWOW) program provides free social and educational programming for older adults via telephone. The target population for SCWOW is socially isolated older adults, a hard to reach population. The aim of this process evaluation was to examine whether SCWOW was reaching its target population and to gather participant feedback about program implementation and the perceived satisfaction and impact of the program. Telephone interviews were conducted with 26 participants (92% females; aged 57-85 years). Forty-two percent of the sample was socially isolated and more than half reported being lonely. Participants reported having no difficulty using the telephone system. On average, participants were very satisfied with the program and reported that SCWOW had several positive effects (e.g., connecting to the larger community, affecting mental well-being). Importantly, no barriers to participation were identified. The study suggests that telephone-based programs can successfully reach socially isolated older adults.
Jorgensen, Bryce L.; Savla, Jyoti
This article tests a conceptual model of perceived parental influence on the financial literacy of young adults. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether (a) parents were perceived to influence young adults' financial knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors and (b) the degree to which young adults' financial attitudes mediated financial…
Vogelsang, Eric M
In an aging world, there is increased need to identify places and characteristics of places that promote health among older adults. This study examines whether there are rural-urban differences in older adult social participation and its relationship with health. Using the 2003 and 2011 waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (n=3006), I find that older adults living in rural counties are less socially active than their counterparts in more-urban counties. I also find that relationships between social participation and health vary by the type of activity and rural-urban context.
Many older adults struggle to manage their health care problems. Low health literacy exacerbates such struggles and contributes to a variety of adverse health behaviors and outcomes. Addressing how health literacy impinges on the lives of older adults is a neglected area of social work practice and knowledge. This article explores seven areas: defining health literacy, the problem and prevalence of low health literacy among older adults, health inequalities and health literacy, a brief literature review, neglected issues in the literature, suggestions for macro and micro social work interventions to improve health literacy for older adult populations, and conclusion.
Van den Berg, C L; Kitchen, I; Gerrits, M A; Spruijt, B M; Van Ree, J M
The consequences of juvenile isolation and morphine treatment on general activity, social activity and endogenous opioid release during a social interaction test were investigated in the adult rat. Rats were either isolated or socially housed during weeks 4 and 5 of age and treated daily during this isolation period subcutaneously with either saline or morphine. Directly after a social interaction test at 10 weeks of age, rats were injected with [3H]-diprenorphine and subsequently prepared for in vivo autoradiography. The autoradiographic technique was used to visualise neuroanatomical changes in opioid receptor occupancy, probably reflecting changes in opioid peptide release, as a result of social activity. Juvenile isolation increased general activity during the social interaction test, an effect which was accompanied by a reduction of opioid receptor occupancy in many brain areas, suggesting an increased opioid peptide release as a consequence of socially-induced general activity. Morphine treatment in isolated rats caused an increase in adult social activity and enhanced opioid peptide release in some cortical regions and the ventral tegmental area as compared to saline treated rats. Both social activity and opioid receptor occupancy were unaffected by morphine treatment in non-isolated rats. The present study underscores the role of opioid systems in adult social behaviors as a consequence of juvenile isolation. The results suggest a relationship between social activity and opioid peptide release during social contact. Increased social activity seems to be accompanied by elevated opioid peptide release in distinct brain areas after morphine treatment during juvenile isolation.
Koegel, Lynn Kern; Ashbaugh, Kristen; Koegel, Robert L.; Detar, Whitney J.; Regester, April
Difficulties engaging in social activities are considered to be a core symptom of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Both the literature and our clinical observations suggest that most individuals with ASD have a desire to engage in social activities, but social skill deficits make social interaction challenging, and in turn can lead…
Boesveldt, Sanne; Yee, Jason R.; McClintock, Martha K.; Lundström, Johan N.
Social factors play a critical role in a panoply of health processes, including, as recently demonstrated, olfaction. Here, we investigated sex-dependent differences in the relationship between social lives and ability to identify odors in a large sample of nationally representative older US adults (n = 3005, National Social Life and Aging Project (NSHAP)). Social life was measured by the number of friends and close relatives as well as frequency of socializing. We here confirm the association between social lives and olfactory function and extend the notion by showing specifically that olfactory identification ability is modulated by sex in older adults. The connection between olfactory performance and social lives could reflect social modulation of aging as has been reported for health in general. Future studies are necessary to elucidate the precise mechanisms underlying this association and sex difference. PMID:28327569
Boesveldt, Sanne; Yee, Jason R; McClintock, Martha K; Lundström, Johan N
Social factors play a critical role in a panoply of health processes, including, as recently demonstrated, olfaction. Here, we investigated sex-dependent differences in the relationship between social lives and ability to identify odors in a large sample of nationally representative older US adults (n = 3005, National Social Life and Aging Project (NSHAP)). Social life was measured by the number of friends and close relatives as well as frequency of socializing. We here confirm the association between social lives and olfactory function and extend the notion by showing specifically that olfactory identification ability is modulated by sex in older adults. The connection between olfactory performance and social lives could reflect social modulation of aging as has been reported for health in general. Future studies are necessary to elucidate the precise mechanisms underlying this association and sex difference.
Kandalaft, Michelle R; Didehbani, Nyaz; Krawczyk, Daniel C; Allen, Tandra T; Chapman, Sandra B
Few evidence-based social interventions exist for young adults with high-functioning autism, many of whom encounter significant challenges during the transition into adulthood. The current study investigated the feasibility of an engaging Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training intervention focused on enhancing social skills, social cognition, and social functioning. Eight young adults diagnosed with high-functioning autism completed 10 sessions across 5 weeks. Significant increases on social cognitive measures of theory of mind and emotion recognition, as well as in real life social and occupational functioning were found post-training. These findings suggest that the virtual reality platform is a promising tool for improving social skills, cognition, and functioning in autism.
Lunsky, Yona; Neely, Lynn C
The extra-individual social support responses provided by adults with intellectual disabilities on a social support survey were examined. Felton and Berry (1992) argued that extra-individual social support, support from larger than individual entities, is a valid source of social support for older adults. We hypothesized that extra-individual support would also be relevant to adults with intellectual disabilities. Results showed that 43% of participants with intellectual disabilities listed extra-individual support sources in their social networks or as providers of one of several support functions. The most popular forms of extra-individual support were those from "staff" and "work." Findings are discussed in terms of implications for social support measurement for persons with intellectual disabilities.
Bromell, Lea; Cagney, Kathleen A
This study investigated the impact of neighborhood social cohesion on the perceived companionship of nearly 1,500 community-dwelling older adults from the Neighborhood, Organization, Aging and Health project (NOAH), a Chicago-based study of older adult well-being in the neighborhood context. We hypothesized that the relationship between neighborhood-level social cohesion and individual residents' reports of companionship would be more pronounced among those who lived alone than those who resided with others. Controlling for age, gender, education, race, marital status, length of neighborhood residence, and self-rated health, neighborhood social cohesion predicted companionship among those who lived alone; for a one-unit increase in neighborhood social cohesion, the odds of reporting companionship increased by half. In contrast, social cohesion did not predict the companionship of those who resided with others. The results suggest that older adults who live alone particularly profit from the benefits of socially cohesive neighborhood environments.
Smith, Tim J.; Senju, Atsushi
While numerous studies have demonstrated that infants and adults preferentially orient to social stimuli, it remains unclear as to what drives such preferential orienting. It has been suggested that the learned association between social cues and subsequent reward delivery might shape such social orienting. Using a novel, spontaneous indication of reinforcement learning (with the use of a gaze contingent reward-learning task), we investigated whether children and adults' orienting towards social and non-social visual cues can be elicited by the association between participants' visual attention and a rewarding outcome. Critically, we assessed whether the engaging nature of the social cues influences the process of reinforcement learning. Both children and adults learned to orient more often to the visual cues associated with reward delivery, demonstrating that cue–reward association reinforced visual orienting. More importantly, when the reward-predictive cue was social and engaging, both children and adults learned the cue–reward association faster and more efficiently than when the reward-predictive cue was social but non-engaging. These new findings indicate that social engaging cues have a positive incentive value. This could possibly be because they usually coincide with positive outcomes in real life, which could partly drive the development of social orienting. PMID:28250186
Vernetti, Angélina; Smith, Tim J; Senju, Atsushi
While numerous studies have demonstrated that infants and adults preferentially orient to social stimuli, it remains unclear as to what drives such preferential orienting. It has been suggested that the learned association between social cues and subsequent reward delivery might shape such social orienting. Using a novel, spontaneous indication of reinforcement learning (with the use of a gaze contingent reward-learning task), we investigated whether children and adults' orienting towards social and non-social visual cues can be elicited by the association between participants' visual attention and a rewarding outcome. Critically, we assessed whether the engaging nature of the social cues influences the process of reinforcement learning. Both children and adults learned to orient more often to the visual cues associated with reward delivery, demonstrating that cue-reward association reinforced visual orienting. More importantly, when the reward-predictive cue was social and engaging, both children and adults learned the cue-reward association faster and more efficiently than when the reward-predictive cue was social but non-engaging. These new findings indicate that social engaging cues have a positive incentive value. This could possibly be because they usually coincide with positive outcomes in real life, which could partly drive the development of social orienting.
To what extent was social change on center stage during adult education's formative years? Whose vision embraced social change and whose did not? What factors led to the decline of social action as a goal of adult education, and what factors suggest renewed interest in social goals? This paper examines these questions, beginning in the 1920s with…
Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Janssen, Ian
This study analyzed the prospective relationship of community social disorder with sedentary behavior, sport participation, and adiposity in Mexican adults from the National Mexican Family Life Survey (MxFLS). The sample included 8307 adults (aged ≥20 years) from 145 communities. During a three-year follow-up, participants from communities with high social disorder had a 1.36cm larger increase in waist circumference than participants from communities with low social disorder. However, there were no differences in body mass index, television, or sport participation. These findings emphasize the need to promote healthy social environments in local communities.
Waite, Linda J.
Objectives The National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) data contain multiple indicators of social connectedness, social participation, social support, and loneliness among older adults. We suggest that these indicators can be combined to measure two aspects of social isolation: social disconnectedness (i.e., physical separation from others) and perceived isolation (i.e., feelings of loneliness and a lack of social support). We use the NSHAP data to create scales measuring social disconnectedness and perceived isolation and examine their distribution among older adults. Methods We assess the reliability of the scales using Cronbach’s alpha and item-total correlations and perform confirmatory factor analysis to test the model against the data. Finally, we test differences in scale means across subgroups to assess the distribution of social disconnectedness and perceived isolation among older adults. Results We find that 17 indicators combine into two reliable scales. The social disconnectedness scale has a two-factor structure, including the restricted social network dimension and the social inactivity dimension. The perceived isolation scale also comprises two dimensions: lack of support and loneliness. We find that social disconnectedness does not vary across age groups, but the oldest old feel more isolated than the young old. Social disconnectedness and perceived isolation are greater among those who have worse health. Discussion The creation of scales measuring social disconnectedness and perceived isolation provides one way to utilize the wide variety of indicators of social isolation collected in the NSHAP study. Although individual indicators of social connectedness or isolation are useful in their own right, these scales provide parsimonious, continuous variables that account for a variety of aspects of social isolation, which may be especially useful for inclusion in multivariate analyses predicting health outcomes. PMID:19508982
Bogart, Kathleen R; Tickle-Degnen, Linda; Joffe, Matthew S
This focus group study explored the social interaction experiences and strategies of 12 adults with Moebius Syndrome, a rare congenital condition characterized by facial paralysis. Content analysis revealed five themes of social functioning: social engagement/disengagement; resilience/sensitivity; social support/stigma; being understood/misunderstood; and public awareness/lack of awareness of Moebius Syndrome. Participants used compensatory expressive strategies such as vocal tone, gestures, and humor. The combination of being unable to express oneself with the face, having a facial difference, and having a rare disease is particularly stigmatizing. Increasing public awareness and developing social skills programs for people with facial paralysis could facilitate social functioning.
Zoicas, Iulia; Neumann, Inga D
Early life stress, such as child abuse or neglect, is a risk factor for the development of psychopathologies characterized by abnormal social and emotional behaviors. In rodents, long-lasting changes in stress coping and emotional behavior can be induced by separating pups from their mother. We used maternal separation (MS; 3h daily on postnatal days 1-14) to test whether early life stress alters acquisition and extinction of social fear in adult male mice as studied in a specific model of social fear, i.e., in the social fear conditioning paradigm. We show that MS facilitated extinction of social fear without altering acquisition or expression of social fear. This facilitatory effect of MS on social fear extinction was not due to improved social learning and memory abilities or to increased social interest, as MS rather impaired social memory in the social discrimination test and did not alter social preference in the social preference-avoidance test. In contrast, MS did not alter acquisition and extinction of non-social, cued fear, or non-social memory as assessed in the object discrimination test and non-social anxiety as assessed in the elevated plus-maze. These results suggest that a social stress like MS in early life may improve coping with and recovery from a traumatic social experience in adulthood in mice.
Emlet, Charles A.
LGBT older adults are a heterogeneous population with collective and unique strengths and challenges. Health, personal, and economic disparities exist in this group when compared to the general population of older adults, yet subgroups such as transgender and bisexual older adults and individuals living with HIV are at greater risk for disparities and poorer health outcomes. As this population grows, further research is needed on factors that contribute to promoting health equity, while decreasing discrimination and improving competent service delivery. PMID:28366981
Han, Yoonsun; Kim, Heejoo; Ma, Julie
This study examined the association between school bonds and the onset of substance use among adolescents in South Korea. Based on Hirschi’s social control theory, this study tested the roles of teacher attachment, educational aspiration, extracurricular activities, and rule internalization—four elements of social bonds within the school setting—in delayed initiation of alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking. Discrete-time logistic regression was used to analyze five waves of the Korea Youth Panel Survey (N = 3449 at baseline), a nationally representative sample of Korean youth. Stronger teacher attachment, higher educational aspiration, and higher rule internalization were correlated with delayed onset of alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking. On the other hand, participation in school extracurricular activities was positively associated with the onset of alcohol drinking, but not statistically significantly linked with the onset of cigarette smoking. These findings suggest that early prevention strategies for youth substance use should specifically target school-related factors that represent social bonds developed among youth. PMID:25761170
Cady, Christina J.
The household and family have received considerable interest in studies of early modern English drama, but less attention has been paid to how writers represent intimate affective bonds on the stage. Emotion is intangible; yet many writers convincingly convey the intensity of emotional bonds through rhetoric. Rhetoric is a mainstay in…
Paulson, James F.; Buermeyer, Curt; Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.
Poor outcomes in ADHD may be related to problematic social functioning and consequences of social rejection. This study examines how ADHD symptom expression affects mood and social rejection. Working from findings in depression that describe maintenance through negative interpersonal interactions, the authors seek to examine this theory's…
van Leeuwen, K M; Malley, J; Bosmans, J E; Jansen, A P D; Ostelo, R W; van der Horst, H E; Netten, A
Local authorities spend considerable resources on social care at home for older adults. Given the expected growth in the population of older adults and budget cuts on local government, it is important to find efficient ways of maintaining and improving the quality of life of older adults. The ageing in place literature suggests that policies in other functions of local authorities may have a significant role to play. This study aims to examine the associations between social care-related quality of life (SCRQoL) in older adults and three potential policy targets for local authorities: (i) accessibility of information and advice, (ii) design of the home and (iii) accessibility of the local area. We used cross-sectional data from the English national Adult Social Care Survey (ASCS) 2010/2011 on service users aged 65 years and older and living at home (N=29,935). To examine the association between SCRQoL, as measured by the ASCOT, and three single-item questions about accessibility of information, design of the home and accessibility of the local area, we estimate linear and quantile regression models. After adjusting for physical and mental health factors and other confounders our findings indicate that SCRQoL is significantly lower for older adults who find it more difficult to find information and advice, for those who report that their home design is inappropriate for their needs and for those who find it more difficult to get around their local area. In addition, these three variables are as strongly associated with SCRQoL as physical and mental health factors. We conclude that in seeking to find ways to maintain and improve the quality of life of social care users living at home, local authorities could look more broadly across their responsibilities. Further research is required to explore the cost-effectiveness of these options compared to standard social care services.
Sohn, Sung Yun; Joo, Won-Tak; Kim, Woo Jung; Kim, Se Joo; Youm, Yoosik; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Park, Yeong-Ran; Lee, Eun
With population aging now a global phenomenon, the health of older adults is becoming an increasingly important issue. Because the Korean population is aging at an unprecedented rate, preparing for public health problems associated with old age is particularly salient in this country. As the physical and mental health of older adults is related to their social relationships, investigating the social networks of older adults and their relationship to health status is important for establishing public health policies. The aims of this study were to identify social network types among older adults in South Korea and to examine the relationship of these social network types with self-rated health and depression. Data from the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project were analyzed. Model-based clustering using finite normal mixture modeling was conducted to identify the social network types based on ten criterion variables of social relationships and activities: marital status, number of children, number of close relatives, number of friends, frequency of attendance at religious services, attendance at organized group meetings, in-degree centrality, out-degree centrality, closeness centrality, and betweenness centrality. Multivariate regression analysis was conducted to examine associations between the identified social network types and self-rated health and depression. The model-based clustering analysis revealed that social networks clustered into five types: diverse, family, congregant, congregant-restricted, and restricted. Diverse or family social network types were significantly associated with more favorable subjective mental health, whereas the restricted network type was significantly associated with poorer ratings of mental and physical health. In addition, our analysis identified unique social network types related to religious activities. In summary, we developed a comprehensive social network typology for older Korean adults.
Villanti, Andrea C; Johnson, Amanda L; Rath, Jessica M; Williams, Valerie; Vallone, Donna M; Abrams, David B; Hedeker, Donald; Mermelstein, Robin J
The phenomenon of "social smoking" emerged in the past decade as an important area of research, largely due to its high prevalence in young adults. The purpose of this study was to identify classes of young adult ever smokers based on measures of social and contextual influences on tobacco use. Latent class models were developed using social smoking measures, and not the frequency or quantity of tobacco use. Data come from a national sample of young adult ever smokers aged 18-24 (Truth Initiative Young Adult Cohort Study, N=1564). The optimal models identified three latent classes: Class 1 - nonsmokers (52%); Class 2 - social smokers (18%); and Class 3 - smokers (30%). Nearly 60% of the "social smoker" class self-identified as a social smoker, 30% as an ex-smoker/tried smoking, and 12% as a non-smoker. The "social smoker" class was most likely to report using tobacco mainly or only with others. Past 30-day cigarette use was highest in the "smoker" class. Hookah use was highest in the "social smoker" class. Other tobacco and e-cigarette use was similar in the "social smoker" and "smoker" classes. Past 30-day tobacco and e-cigarette use was present for all products in the "non-smoker" class. Young adult social smokers emerge empirically as a sizable, distinct class from other smokers, even without accounting for tobacco use frequency or intensity. The prevalence of hookah use in "social smokers" indicates a group for which the social aspect of tobacco use could drive experimentation and progression to regular use.
Barrett, Shermaine Ann Marie
The purpose of this qualitative case study was to demonstrate how adult education enabled the process of economic and social change, and national development in Jamaica through a critical review of two cases of adult education provisions in Jamaica since the country gained independence in 1962. Content analysis of various documents from primary…
Gellis, Zvi D.; Sherman, Susan; Lawrance, Frances
Results of the Aging Semantic Differential and Facts on Aging Quiz II for 96 social work graduate students indicated they had limited contact with older adults and knowledge of aging; they displayed negative attitudes about older adults' productivity, adaptability, independence, and optimism. Multivariate analysis showed male and younger students'…
Beecham, Jennifer; Snell, Tom; Perkins, Margaret; Knapp, Martin
Maintaining contact with services will help improve clinical and social outcomes as children with epilepsy move into their adult lives. This study has collated evidence on the extent to which young adults with epilepsy are supported by health and social care services posttransition, and the costs of such support. UK prevalence and service use data were taken from policy and research literature, as well as national data sets and reports. Costs were attached to these data to arrive at agency and overall total costs. There are approximately 42,000 young adults (18-25 years) with epilepsy costing the UK health and social care budgets 715.3 pound million per annum, on average 17,000 found per young adult with epilepsy. A further 61 pound million falls to the social security budget. Most young adults with epilepsy will rarely use these services, but those with additional health needs have high and often long-term support needs, including supported accommodation and personal care. Current resources used by these young adults are summarised but deficits in service availability can mean long waiting times and sub-optimal treatment. Young adults also want more support to help them take advantage of education and employment opportunities and more information about managing the impacts of epilepsy on their lives. Improving services will cost money, but has the potential to lead to better outcomes for young adults.
This paper explores the connection between participation in community-based adult learning (CBAL) and the development of social capital. It is based on a life-history study of participation in community-based adult learning opportunities undertaken in two local authority areas in Scotland. A life-history approach was chosen in order to ensure that…
Brooks, Whitney T.; Benson, Betsey A.
This study assessed the validity of the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) in a sample of 69 adults, aged 18-40 years old. Participants included 21 adults diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID), and 48 individuals diagnosed with ID and no diagnosis of an ASD. The SCQ yielded a sensitivity of 0.71…
Shireman, Molly L.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Hillman, Conrad B.
Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and no intellectual disabilities were taught to increase the social play skills of children with ASD as part of a vocational training program. Participants included 3 adults, aged 21 to 27 years, and 6 children with ASD. Probes conducted throughout the study evaluated whether play skills training affected…
Ashworth, Melody; Hirdes, John P.; Martin, Lynn
This paper reports on the social life of adults with intellectual disability (ID) who engage in pica behaviour (i.e., ingestion of non-food items). Secondary analyses were conducted on the population of adults residing in Ontario's three remaining specialized institutions for persons with ID (N = 1008); 220 individuals (21.8%) had pica. All…
Feinstein, Leon; Hammond, Cathie; Woods, Laura; Preston, John; Bynner, John
Researchers investigated effects of adult learning (AL) on a range of measures of health and social capital and cohesion. Data from the National Child Development Study relating to almost 10,000 adults born in Britain in 1958 were used, with focus on changes in their lives between age 33 in 1991 and 42 in 2000. Findings indicated AL played an…
Swain, Deanna; Scarpa, Angela; White, Susan; Laugeson, Elizabeth
Young adults with ASD and no intellectual impairment are more likely to exhibit clinical levels of anxiety than typically developing peers (DSM-5, American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study tests a mechanistic model in which anxiety culminates via emotion dysregulation and social motivation. Adults with ASD (49 males, 20 females)…
Black, Stephen; Balatti, Jo; Falk, Ian
This paper makes the case for adult literacy (including numeracy) practitioners to play a greater role in health literacy initiatives in Australia. The paper draws on data from a national research project that investigated adult literacy partnerships and pedagogy viewed from a social capital perspective. The primary purpose of the project was to…
Lenhart, Amanda; Purcell, Kristen; Smith, Aaron; Zickuhr, Kathryn
Since 2006, blogging has dropped among teens and young adults while simultaneously rising among older adults. As the tools and technology embedded in social networking sites change, and use of the sites continues to grow, youth may be exchanging "macro blogging" for microblogging with status updates. Blogging has declined in popularity among both…
Leekam, Susan R.; Solomon, Tracy L.; Teoh, Yee-San
Three experiments investigated the effect of an adult's social cues on 2- and 3-year-old children's ability to use a sign or symbol to locate a hidden object. Results showed that an adult's positive, engaging facial expression facilitated children's ability to identify the correct referent, particularly for 3-year-olds. A neutral facial expression…
Garcia-Villamisar, Domingo; Rojahn, Johannes; Zaja, Rebecca H.; Jodra, Marina
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and individuals with intellectual disabilities without ASD have limited facial emotion recognition abilities, which may adversely impact social adjustment and other adaptive behavior. This study was designed to examine this relationship in adults with and without ASD. Two groups of adults with…
Beer, Carole T.; Darkenwald, Gordon G.
Adult male and female students' perceptions of classroom social environments were compared on the dimensions of affiliation and involvement as measured by the Adult Classroom Environment Scale. Data from 439 students in an urban community college were tested using the general linear model procedure. Women perceived more affiliation and a greater…
Hall, Sarah A.
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the social inclusion of young adults with intellectual disabilities. Participants included 14 adults from 21 to 35 years of age with a mild or moderate intellectual disability who were able to verbally communicate their thoughts and experiences. I ensued with open-ended questions about…
Turner, George W.
The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore how adults with mild intellectual disabilities live out their social-sexual lives. Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) are often assumed to be asexual or incapable of having sexual lives, resulting in a paucity of research-based knowledge. Research and educational efforts with this…
Gutman, Carolyn; Hantman, Shira; Ben-Oz, Miriam; Criden, Wendy; Anghel, Roxana; Ramon, Shula
This article examines the contribution of older adults as co-researchers to the evaluation of a gerontological social work course. The evaluation was conducted at an Israeli college as part of a collaborative project with a United Kingdom university. Here, we follow the older adults who are service users through their transition to the role of…
Zhang, Fan; Yuan, Sanna; Shao, Feng; Wang, Weiwen
Negative social experiences during adolescence increase the risk of psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Using "resident-intruder" stress, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of adolescent social defeat on emotional and cognitive symptoms associated with psychiatric disorders during adulthood and the effects of the developmental stage and social condition on this process. In Experiment 1, animals were exposed to social defeat or manipulation for 10 days during early adolescence (EA, postnatal days [PND] 28-37), late adolescence (LA, PND 38-47), and adulthood (ADULT, PND 70-79) and then singly housed until the behavioral tests. Behaviors, including social avoidance of the defeat context and cortically mediated cognitive flexibility in an attentional set-shifting task (AST), were assessed during the week following stress or after 6 weeks during adulthood. We determined that social defeat induced significant and continuous social avoidance across age groups at both time points. The mice that experienced social defeat during adulthood exhibited short-term impairments in reversal learning (RL) on the AST that dissipated after 6 weeks. In contrast, social defeat during EA but not LA induced a delayed deficit in extra-dimensional set-shifting (EDS) in adulthood but not during adolescence. In Experiment 2, we further examined the effects of social condition (isolation or social housing after stress) on the alterations induced by social defeat during EA in adult mice. The adult mice that had experienced stress during EA exhibited social avoidance similar to the avoidance identified in Experiment 1 regardless of the isolation or social housing after the stress. However, social housing after the stress ameliorated the cognitive flexibility deficits induced by early adolescent social defeat in the adult mice, and the social condition had no effect on cognitive function. These findings suggest that the effects of social defeat on emotion and cognitive function are
Zhang, Fan; Yuan, Sanna; Shao, Feng; Wang, Weiwen
Negative social experiences during adolescence increase the risk of psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Using “resident-intruder” stress, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of adolescent social defeat on emotional and cognitive symptoms associated with psychiatric disorders during adulthood and the effects of the developmental stage and social condition on this process. In Experiment 1, animals were exposed to social defeat or manipulation for 10 days during early adolescence (EA, postnatal days [PND] 28–37), late adolescence (LA, PND 38–47), and adulthood (ADULT, PND 70–79) and then singly housed until the behavioral tests. Behaviors, including social avoidance of the defeat context and cortically mediated cognitive flexibility in an attentional set-shifting task (AST), were assessed during the week following stress or after 6 weeks during adulthood. We determined that social defeat induced significant and continuous social avoidance across age groups at both time points. The mice that experienced social defeat during adulthood exhibited short-term impairments in reversal learning (RL) on the AST that dissipated after 6 weeks. In contrast, social defeat during EA but not LA induced a delayed deficit in extra-dimensional set-shifting (EDS) in adulthood but not during adolescence. In Experiment 2, we further examined the effects of social condition (isolation or social housing after stress) on the alterations induced by social defeat during EA in adult mice. The adult mice that had experienced stress during EA exhibited social avoidance similar to the avoidance identified in Experiment 1 regardless of the isolation or social housing after the stress. However, social housing after the stress ameliorated the cognitive flexibility deficits induced by early adolescent social defeat in the adult mice, and the social condition had no effect on cognitive function. These findings suggest that the effects of social defeat on emotion and cognitive
Rook, Brian W.
The development of the League of United Latino American Citizens (LULAC) is often viewed as a method of cultural assimilation through adult education. However, LULAC can be viewed through a collectivist's lens wherein the members established a shared philosophy, teaching adults to mobilize and expand their cause quickly and effectively. The social…
A variety of methods in instructing adults is presented in this teacher's manual which also mentions the availability of packets of instructional materials and lists the subject areas covered. To this is added comments on the background material for the adult teacher, and on the importance of aims, motivation, and development in lesson plans for…
Fagg, James; Curtis, Sarah; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Cattell, Vicky; Tupuola, Ann-Marie; Arephin, Muna
This paper uses national survey data for young adults in England to explore empirically the relationships between social fragmentation in communities (measured for geographical areas), social support experienced by individuals from their immediate social circle, and psychosocial health of young adults. After reviewing previous research about these associations, we adopted an empirical approach to these questions, which was innovative in using data on area social fragmentation from a different source to the survey data on individuals. Also, we have examined the relevance for mental health of interactions between individual social support and area social fragmentation, as well as their independent associations with health. To test these ideas empirically, we present a statistical analysis, using survey data from the national Health Survey for England on young people aged 16-24 years, linked to a geographical indicator of social fragmentation, derived from the population census and with a measure of material poverty. The outcome variable was distress measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). In a logistic regression model that controls for grouping of individuals within areas we included data on individuals' sex, ethnic group, employment status, social class and educational level. Controlling for these indicators, we demonstrate that risk of individual distress (indicated by GHQ score of 3+) was significantly and positively associated with area social fragmentation and there was a significant association with social support received within the individual's immediate social circle, which was negative ('protective'). An index of material poverty in one's area of residence did not predict individual distress. There was no evidence that social support was more 'protective' in areas of greatest social fragmentation. We also note that while being in employment was associated with better mental health in this sample, higher educational level was associated with
Caballo, Vicente E; Salazar, Isabel C; Irurtia, María Jesús; Arias, Benito; Hofmann, Stefan G
Much has been written about the situations most often feared by persons with social phobia, and several self-report measures are frequently used to assess such feared situations. However, it is not clear whether the situations feared by persons with social phobia form unidimensional or multidimensional factors. If these situations are multidimensional, reliance on a total score of feared situations would not reflect important differences between those dimensions. This research examined the multidimensional nature and multicultural validity of a newly developed instrument (the Social Anxiety Questionnaire for Adults [SAQ-A]) in two studies with a total of 539 patients diagnosed with social phobia and 15,753 nonpatients from 20 different countries. The structure (five clear and solid factors) and psychometric properties of the final instrument (the SAQ-A30) support the multidimensional nature of social anxiety and provide a new perspective in the assessment of social phobia.
Toro, Paul A.; Tulloch, Elizabeth; Ouellette, Nicole
This study investigated the main effects of social support measures and their stress-buffering effects in two samples of homeless adults (Ns =249 and 219) obtained in the same large county (surrounding Detroit) at different points in time over an 8-year period (1992-1994 and 2000-2002). The findings suggest that the construct of social support,…
Xie, Bo; Watkins, Ivan; Golbeck, Jen; Huang, Man
An exploratory study was conducted to answer the following questions: What are older adults' perceptions of social media? What educational strategies can facilitate their learning of social media? A thematic map was developed to illustrate changing perceptions from the initial unanimous, strong negative to the more positive but cautious, and to…
DellaMattera, Julie N.
Studies show that for preschool-age children, social skills can have a profound effect on, and be a predictor of, future societal success and school achievement. Therefore, it is essential that young children develop appropriate social behaviors. To do this, preschoolers need support and guidance from the adults in their life: parents, family, and…
Kubacki, Krzysztof; Ronti, Rimante; Lahtinen, Ville; Pang, Bo; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn
Purpose: A significant proportion of the world's adult population is insufficiently active. One approach used to overcome barriers and facilitate participation in physical activity is social marketing. The purpose of this paper are twofold: first, this review seeks to provide a contemporary review of social marketing's effectiveness in changing…
Zorotovich, Jennifer; Johnson, Elizabeth I.; Linn, Rebekah
The current study extends research on social status and well-being among young people by examining whether subjective social status (SSS) is related to life satisfaction and happiness. Emerging adults (n = 383) between 18 and 29 provided data on demographic characteristics, SSS, life satisfaction, and happiness via an online survey. Regression…
Lehenbauer, Mario; Kothgassner, Oswald D.; Kryspin-Exner, Ilse; Stetina, Birgit U.
Up to 95% of teens and young adults in western societies are online, and research shows striking evidence that users suffering from social fears use the Internet more frequently. Social phobia (SP) is one of the most common anxiety disorders, characterized by early onset and more frequent histories of childhood and adolescent shyness. SP is often…
This paper concerns the declining role of the welfare state in supporting young adults. The literature on new social risks concentrates on the incapacity of institutions to respond to a new social situation, and has so far largely neglected the capacity of alternative systems or institutions to fill the vacuum created. The focus in the paper is on…
Hong, Song-Iee; Hasche, Leslie; Bowland, Sharon
Purpose: This study examines the structural relationships between social activities and trajectories of late-life depression. Design and Methods: Latent class analysis was used with a nationally representative sample of older adults (N = 5,294) from the Longitudinal Study on Aging II to classify patterns of social activities. A latent growth curve…
This book explores the social construction of age in the context of EFL in Mexico. It is the first book to address the age factor in SLA from a social perspective. Based on research carried out at a public university in Mexico, it investigates how adults of different ages experience learning a new language and how they enact their age identities…
Lee, Kyoung Hag; Woo, Hyeyoung
Through this cross-sectional study the authors explore how stressors, social support, and religious practice are associated with the general well-being of 147 Korean adult immigrants through interviews. Hierarchical regression analysis reveals that low English proficiency and financial hardship are significantly related to low general well-being. However, high social support and religious practice are significantly associated with high general well-being. Social service and health care providers need to carefully assess stressors, social support systems, and spiritual issues for providing appropriate services/programs for English, culture, or social activities as well as spiritual intervention to maximize the strengths of Korean immigrants coping with health issues.
Perry, Tam E
There has been limited research on the importance of seasons in the lives of older adults. Previous research has highlighted seasonal fluctuations in physical functioning--including limb strength, range of motion, and cardiac death--the spread of influenza in seasonal migration patterns. In addition, older adults experience isolation for various reasons, such as decline of physical and cognitive ability, lack of transportation, and lack of opportunities for social interaction. There has been much attention paid to the social isolation of older adults, yet little analysis about how the isolation changes throughout the year. Based on findings from an ethnographic study of older adults (n = 81), their family members (n = 49), and supportive professionals (n = 46) as they embark on relocation from their homes, this study analyzes the processes of moving for older adults. It examines the seasonal fluctuations of social isolation because of the effect of the environment on the social experiences of older adults. Isolation occurs because of the difficulty inclement weather causes on social interactions and mobility. The article concludes with discussion of the ways that research and practice can be designed and implemented to account for seasonal variation.
Perry, Tam E.
There has been limited research on the importance of seasons in the lives of older adults. Previous research has highlighted seasonal fluctuations in physical functioning—including limb strength, range of motion, and cardiac death—the spread of influenza in seasonal migration patterns. In addition, older adults experience isolation for various reasons, such as decline of physical and cognitive ability, lack of transportation, and lack of opportunities for social interaction. There has been much attention paid to the social isolation of older adults, yet little analysis about how the isolation changes throughout the year. Based on findings from an ethnographic study of older adults (n = 81), their family members (n = 49), and supportive professionals (n = 46) as they embark on relocation from their homes, this study analyzes the processes of moving for older adults. It examines the seasonal fluctuations of social isolation because of the effect of the environment on the social experiences of older adults. Isolation occurs because of the difficulty inclement weather causes on social interactions and mobility. The article concludes with discussion of the ways that research and practice can be designed and implemented to account for seasonal variation. PMID:24761536
Kilpi-Jakonen, Elina; Vono de Vilhena, Daniela; Blossfeld, Hans-Peter
Adult learning is an increasingly important form of education in globalised and aging societies. While current policy recommendations tend to focus on increasing participation rates, the authors of this article argue that higher participation rates do not necessarily lead to lower social/educational inequalities in participation. The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between social inequalities and adult learning by exploring cross-national patterns of participation in different adult learning activities and the consequences of participation on individual labour market trajectories. The empirical basis of the paper is an analysis of 13 country studies (as well as two cross-national analyses) brought together by the international comparative research project "Education as a lifelong process - comparing educational trajectories in modern societies" ( eduLIFE). Despite wide variations in participation rates across countries, mechanisms of social/educational inequality in engagement in job-related adult learning tend to be relatively similar across countries, in particular with regard to non-formal learning. Effects tend most frequently to be a presence of cumulative advantage, though in some countries a certain degree of equalisation is noticeable with regard to formal adult education. The authors conclude that it is relatively clear that currently almost no country is truly able to reduce social inequalities through adult learning. Their recommendation is that public policy makers should place greater emphasis on making adult learning more accessible (in terms of entry requirements, affordability as well as motivation) to underrepresented groups, in particular those who are educationally disadvantaged.
Using the General Social Survey (GSS) 2012, a national household-based probability sample of non-institutionalized U.S. adults, this study examined the association of social capital and sexual risk behaviors among older adults aged 55 years and older. Of the 547 respondents, 87% reported not using condoms during their last intercourse, and nearly 15% reported engaging in sexual risk behaviors, such as casual sex, paid sex, male to male sex, and drug use. Binary logistic regression results showed that age, gender, marital status, education, race, sexual orientation, and sexual frequencies were significant predictors of older adults' unprotected sex. Social capital was not a predictor of unprotected sex but was positively associated with other human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted disease (HIV/STD) risk behaviors such as sex with strangers, having multiple sex partners, injecting drugs, and having male to male sex. Findings of this study highlight the importance of HIV/STD prevention programs for older adults.
Heffner, Kathi L; Waring, Molly E; Roberts, Mary B; Eaton, Charles B; Gramling, Robert
Social isolation confers increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) events and mortality. In two recent studies, low levels of social integration among older adults were related to higher levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation, suggesting a possible biological link between social isolation and CHD. The current study examined relationships among social isolation, CRP, and 15-year CHD death in a community sample of US adults aged 40 years and older without a prior history of myocardial infarction. A nested case-cohort study was conducted from a parent cohort of community-dwelling adults from the southeastern New England region of the United States (N = 2321) who were interviewed in 1989 and 1990. CRP levels were measured from stored sera provided by the nested case-cohort (n = 370), which included all cases of CHD death observed through 2005 (n = 48), and a random sample of non-cases. We found that the most socially isolated individuals had two-and-a-half times the odds of elevated CRP levels compared to the most socially integrated. In separate logistic regression models, both social isolation and CRP predicted later CHD death. The most socially isolated continued to have more than twice the odds of CHD death compared to the most socially integrated in a model adjusting for CRP and more traditional CHD risk factors. The current findings support social isolation as an independent risk factor of both high levels of CRP and CHD death in middle-aged adults without a prior history of myocardial infarction. Prospective study of inflammatory pathways related to social isolation and mortality are needed to fully delineate whether and how CRP or other inflammatory markers contribute to mechanisms linking social isolation to CVD health.
Cozad, Dana Everett
The purpose of this study was to develop and content validate a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol, enabling study of the social role performance of adult daughters and sons as they fulfill the societal norms and expectations of adult children. This exploratory investigation was one of 13 contemporary adult social roles completed by…
Oeiras, Valéria Jacques; Silva, Valéria Assis Almeida E; Azevedo, Leidiana Aguiar; Lobato, Vanessa Soares; Normando, David
This split-mouth randomized clinical trial aimed to compare the survival rate of bonding and banding molar tubes in adult orthodontic patients. Eligibility criteria included adults (aged >18 years), no active caries, restorations, or fractures in the upper and lower molars. The main outcome was any type of first-time failure in molar tubes. A computer-generated randomization scheme was used in a 1:1 ratio. The survival rate was estimated for 32 adult patients, in whom a tube was bonded to a molar tooth using composite resin on one side and a band was cemented with glass ionomer onto the same tooth in the contralateral arch. A total of 59 banded and 59 bonded molars were followed up for 12 months. Blinding was not applicable. Survival analysis including Cox regression was used at p < 0.05. The survival rate of bonded molars was not statistically different from that of banded molars (log-rank test, p = 0.97). Hazard ratio (HR) was 0.72 (95%CI, 0.38-1.31). Bonded upper molars yielded a survival rate of 81.25% (26 out of 32) compared to 71.87% (23 out of 32) for banded upper molars. The survival rate was 66.66% (18 out of 27) for banded lower molars and 59.25% for bonded lower molars (16 out of 27). The HR for lower vs. upper arch was 2.16 (95%CI, 1.18-3.98). No serious problem was observed other than gingivitis associated with plaque accumulation. In contrast to previous studies in young patients, in adults, bonding orthodontic tubes to molars is similar to molar banding. However, both procedures had a high failure rate in the lower arch.
Mount, R.; Oliver, C.; Berg, K.; Horsler, K.
Background: Individuals with Angelman syndrome appear strongly motivated by social contact, but there have been few studies that have examined the relationship between sociability and familiarity. In this study we compared social behaviour in Angelman syndrome when in contact with mothers and strangers. Methods: We systematically manipulated adult…
Waycott, Jenny; Morgans, Amee; Pedell, Sonja; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Vetere, Frank; Kulik, Lars; Davis, Hilary
The purpose of this article is to consider how ethical principles can inform the effective design and implementation of technology-based interventions that aim to promote the well-being of socially isolated older adults. We evaluated a new iPad application with small groups of older adults. In this article, we reflect on the ethical issues encountered at each stage of the research process. Drawing on the ethical principles of beneficence, research merit and integrity, justice, and respect, we identify key issues to consider in the future design and implementation of social isolation interventions that use new technologies. Key issues include (a) providing sufficient support to facilitate ongoing social interactions, (b) managing older adults' expectations, (c) providing encouragement without coercion, and (d) responding to individual needs. We conclude that it is important to report on ethical challenges incurred when evaluating social isolation interventions to inform future research in this important area.
Sharif, Mienah Z.; Albert, Stephanie L.
Introduction The smoking behavior of adults can negatively impact children through exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and by modeling this unhealthy behavior. Little research has examined the role of the social environment in smoking behaviors of adults living with children. The present study specifically analyzed the relationship between social cohesion and smoking behaviors of adults living with children. Methods Data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey, a random-digit dial cross-sectional survey of California Adults, were used. Adults living with children reported their levels of social cohesion and smoking behaviors (N=13,978). Logistic regression models were used to predict odds of being a current smoker or living in a household in which smoking was allowed, from social cohesion. Results Overall, 13% of the sample was current smokers and 3.74% lived in households in which smoking was allowed. Logistic regression models showed that each one-unit increase in social cohesion is associated with reduced odds of being a current smoker (AOR= 0.92; 95% CI= 0.85–0.99) and reduced odds of living in a household in which smoking is allowed (AOR= 0.84; 95% CI= 0.75–0.93), after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusions Among adults living with children, higher social cohesion is associated with a lower likelihood of both being and smoker and living in a home where smoking is allowed. Thus, future research is needed to better understand mechanisms that explain the relationship between social cohesion and smoking-related behavior in order to prevent smoking-related health consequences and smoking initiation among children and adults. PMID:26562680
George, Isabelle; Cousillas, Hugo; Richard, Jean-Pierre; Hausberger, Martine
Social animals learn to perceive their social environment, and their social skills and preferences are thought to emerge from greater exposure to and hence familiarity with some social signals rather than others. Familiarity appears to be tightly linked to multisensory integration. The ability to differentiate and categorize familiar and unfamiliar individuals and to build a multisensory representation of known individuals emerges from successive social interactions, in particular with adult, experienced models. In different species, adults have been shown to shape the social behavior of young by promoting selective attention to multisensory cues. The question of what representation of known conspecifics adult-deprived animals may build therefore arises. Here we show that starlings raised with no experience with adults fail to develop a multisensory representation of familiar and unfamiliar starlings. Electrophysiological recordings of neuronal activity throughout the primary auditory area of these birds, while they were exposed to audio-only or audiovisual familiar and unfamiliar cues, showed that visual stimuli did, as in wild-caught starlings, modulate auditory responses but that, unlike what was observed in wild-caught birds, this modulation was not influenced by familiarity. Thus, adult-deprived starlings seem to fail to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar individuals. This suggests that adults may shape multisensory representation of known individuals in the brain, possibly by focusing the young's attention on relevant, multisensory cues. Multisensory stimulation by experienced, adult models may thus be ubiquitously important for the development of social skills (and of the neural properties underlying such skills) in a variety of species.
Baez, Sandra; Ibanez, Agustin
Social cognition-the basis of all communicative and otherwise interpersonal relationships-is embedded in specific contextual circumstances which shape intrinsic meanings. This domain is compromised in the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), including Asperger's syndrome (AS) (DSM-V). However, the few available reports of social cognition skills in adults with AS have largely neglected the effects of contextual factors. Moreover, previous studies on this population have also failed to simultaneously (a) assess multiple social cognition domains, (b) examine executive functions, (c) follow strict sample selection criteria, and (d) acknowledge the cognitive heterogeneity typical of the disorder. The study presently reviewed (Baez et al., 2012), addressed all these aspects in order to establish the basis of social cognition deficits in adult AS patients. Specifically, we assessed the performance of AS adults in multiple social cognition tasks with different context-processing requirements. The results suggest that social cognition deficits in AS imply a reduced ability to implicitly encode and integrate contextual cues needed to access social meaning. Nevertheless, the patients' performance was normal when explicit social information was presented or when the situation could be navigated with abstract rules. Here, we review the results of our study and other relevant data, and discuss their implications for the diagnosis and treatment of AS and other neuropsychiatric conditions (e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, frontotemporal dementia). Finally, we analyze previous results in the light of a current neurocognitive model of social-context processing.
Baez, Sandra; Ibanez, Agustin
Social cognition—the basis of all communicative and otherwise interpersonal relationships—is embedded in specific contextual circumstances which shape intrinsic meanings. This domain is compromised in the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), including Asperger's syndrome (AS) (DSM-V). However, the few available reports of social cognition skills in adults with AS have largely neglected the effects of contextual factors. Moreover, previous studies on this population have also failed to simultaneously (a) assess multiple social cognition domains, (b) examine executive functions, (c) follow strict sample selection criteria, and (d) acknowledge the cognitive heterogeneity typical of the disorder. The study presently reviewed (Baez et al., 2012), addressed all these aspects in order to establish the basis of social cognition deficits in adult AS patients. Specifically, we assessed the performance of AS adults in multiple social cognition tasks with different context-processing requirements. The results suggest that social cognition deficits in AS imply a reduced ability to implicitly encode and integrate contextual cues needed to access social meaning. Nevertheless, the patients' performance was normal when explicit social information was presented or when the situation could be navigated with abstract rules. Here, we review the results of our study and other relevant data, and discuss their implications for the diagnosis and treatment of AS and other neuropsychiatric conditions (e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, frontotemporal dementia). Finally, we analyze previous results in the light of a current neurocognitive model of social-context processing. PMID:25232301
Population aging in Korea is projected to be the most rapid among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries between 2000 and 2050. However, social spending in Korea remains low, reflecting Korea's relatively young population, limited health and long-term care insurance coverage, and immaturity of its pension system. As these factors evolve in coming years, social spending in Korea is likely to rise toward the OECD average. Sustaining economic growth requires policies to mitigate the impact of rapid population aging by providing social protection for the elderly population. Korea confronts difficult challenges in balancing economic growth and social protection for the elderly population, whereas also ensuring efficiency in social spending.
Buckner, Julia D; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Zvolensky, Michael J; Schmidt, Norman B
Given the high rates of co-occurring marijuana use and social anxiety, the present investigation examined the relations among marijuana use motives, marijuana use and problems, and social anxiety in 159 (54.7% female) young adults (M(age)=18.74, SD=1.20). As expected, after covarying for a number of variables related to both marijuana use and social anxiety (e.g. gender, alcohol use problems, anxiety sensitivity), social anxiety predicted greater numbers of marijuana use problems. Interestingly, social anxiety was not related to marijuana use frequency. Also consistent with prediction, social anxiety was a significant predictor of coping and conformity motives for marijuana use above and beyond relevant variables. Finally, coping motives for marijuana use mediated the relation between social anxiety and marijuana use problems. These data provide novel evidence for the unique effects of coping-motivated marijuana use in the link between marijuana-related impairment and social anxiety.
Principe, Connor P; Langlois, Judith H
Observing social interactions between children and adults is a major method in the toolkit of psychologists who examine social development and social relationships. Although this method has revealed many interesting phenomena, it cannot determine the effect of behavior independent of other traits. Research on the role of attractiveness in social development provides an example of this conundrum: Are attractive and unattractive children/adults treated differently because of their attractiveness (independent of their behavior), do they behave differently and thus elicit differential treatment, or both? Virtual world and avatar-based technologies allow researchers to control the social behaviors of targets; however, whether children and adults use the facial attractiveness of avatars as a social cue in the same way as they do with real peers is currently unknown. Using Mii avatars from the popular Nintendo Wii video game console, Study 1 found that the facial attractiveness ratings of real people strongly predicted the attractiveness ratings of avatar faces based on the former group. Study 2 revealed that adults (n=46) and children (n=42) prefer attractive avatars as social partners. The results of this set of methodological studies may help to clarify future research on the relationship between attractiveness and behavior throughout the lifespan. Furthermore, the use of avatars may allow studies to experimentally examine the effects of attractiveness in situations where such research is not ethical (e.g., peer victimization).
Scirica, Christina V; Jethwani, Kamal
Background Social media has emerged as a potentially powerful medium for communication with adolescents and young adults around their health choices. Objective The goal of this systematic review is to identify research on the use of social media for interacting with adolescents and young adults in order to achieve positive health outcomes. Methods A MEDLINE/PubMed electronic database search was performed between January 1, 2002 and October 1, 2013, using terms to identify peer-reviewed research in which social media and other Web 2.0 technologies were an important feature. We used a systematic approach to retrieve papers and extract relevant data. Results We identified 288 studies involving social media, of which 87 met criteria for inclusion; 75 studies were purely observational and 12 were interventional. The ways in which social media was leveraged by these studies included (1) observing adolescent and young adult behavior (n=77), (2) providing health information (n=13), (3) engaging the adolescent and young adult community (n=17), and (4) recruiting research participants (n=23). Common health topics addressed included high-risk sexual behaviors (n=23), alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use (n=19), Internet safety (n=8), mental health issues (n=18), medical conditions (n=11), or other specified issues (n=12). Several studies used more than one social media platform and addressed more than one health-related topic. Conclusions Social media technologies offer an exciting new means for engaging and communicating with adolescents and young adults; it has been successfully used to engage this age group, identify behaviors, and provide appropriate intervention and education. Nevertheless, the majority of studies to date have been preliminary and limited in their methodologies, and mostly center around evaluating how adolescents and young adults use social media and the resulting implications on their health. Although these explorations are essential, further
de Greef, Maurice; Segers, Mien; Verte, Dominique
According to the increasing rates of unemployment and poverty a significant share of the European population can be considered at-risk-of-social exclusion. In order to combat social exclusion adult education seemed to be a possible tool, which can increase social inclusion among adult learners. This study explores factors relating to training…
Hawkley, Louise C; Gu, Yuanyuan; Luo, Yue-Jia; Cacioppo, John T
Social connections are essential for the survival of a social species like humans. People differ in the degree to which they are sensitive to perceived deficits in their social connections, but evidence suggests that they nevertheless construe the nature of their social connections similarly. This construal can be thought of as a mental representation of a multi-faceted social experience. A three-dimensional mental representation has been identified with the UCLA Loneliness Scale and consists of Intimate, Relational, and Collective Connectedness reflecting beliefs about one's individual, dyadic, and collective (group) social value, respectively. Moreover, this mental representation has been replicated with other scales and validated across age, gender, and racial/ethnic lines in U.S. samples. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the extent to which this three-dimensional representation applies to people whose social lives are experienced in a collectivistic rather than individualistic culture. To that end, we used confirmatory factor analyses to assess the fit of the three-dimensional mental structure to data collected from Chinese people living in China. Two hundred sixty-seven young adults (16-25 yrs) and 250 older adults (50-65 yrs) in Beijing completed the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale and demographic and social activity questionnaires. Results revealed adequate fit of the structure to data from young and older Chinese adults. Moreover, the structure exhibited equivalent fit in young and older Chinese adults despite changes in the Chinese culture that exposed these two generations to different cultural experiences. Social activity variables that discriminated among the three dimensions in the Chinese samples corresponded well with variables that discriminated among the three dimensions in the U.S.-based samples, indicating cultural commonalities in the factors predicting dimensions of people's representations of their social connections. Equivalence of the
Loch, Mathias Roberto; Souza, Regina Kazue Tanno de; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; Martinez-Gómez, David; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando
The present study examined the relationship between indicators of social capital and health-related behaviors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 1,062 participants representative of the population aged 40 years or older from a city in Southern Brazil. The following indicators of social capital were examined: number of friends, number of people they could borrow money from when in need; extent of trust in community members; number of times members of the community help each other; community safety; and extent of membership in community activities. Also, an overall score of social capital including all indicators was calculated. A poor social capital was associated with insufficient leisure-time physical activity (OR = 1.70; 95%CI: 1.07-2.70), low consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR = 1.53; 95%CI: 1.05-2.24), and smoking (OR = 1.97; 95%CI: 1.21-3.21). No clear association was found between capital social and binge drinking. A score of social capital showed an inverse relationship with the number of prevalent risk behaviors (p < 0.001). These results reinforce that policies to promote health should consider social capital.
Reynolds, M.H.; Breeden, J.H.; Vekasy, M.S.; Ellis, T.M.
We describe long-term pair bonds in the endangered Laysan Duck (Anas laysanensis), a dabbling duck endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago. Individually marked birds were identified on Laysan Island between 1998 and 2006 (n = 613 marked adults). We recorded pair bonds while observing marked birds, and documented within and between year mate switches and multi-year pair bonds. Twenty pairs banded before 2001 had stable pair bonds lasting ???5 years with a maximum enduring pair bond of nine breeding seasons. Understanding reproductive strategy, including mate retention, would aid conservation planning and management efforts for the Laysan Duck. Further study is needed to characterize the social system of this endangered species.
Ruploh, Tim; Henning, Miriam; Bischof, Hans-Joachim; von Engelhardt, Nikolaus
Social experience during adolescence has long-lasting consequences for adult social behavior in many species. In zebra finches, individuals reared in pairs during adolescence start to court females faster, sing more courtship motifs to females and are more aggressive compared with group-reared males. We investigated whether such differences are stable during adulthood or can be abolished by novel social experience after adolescence by giving all birds extensive experience with group life during adulthood. Courtship and aggressiveness increased in all males, but pair-reared males still had a higher motif rate and were more aggressive than group-reared males. Males no longer differed in courtship latency. In addition to the stable treatment differences, individual differences in behavior remained stable over time. Our results show that differences in behavior acquired during adolescence are preserved into adulthood, although adults still change their social behavior. Adolescence can thus be seen as a sensitive period during which social conditions have a lasting effect on adult behavior.
Sun, P; Smith, AS; Lei, K; Liu, Y; Wang, Z
Social relationships are essential for many fundamental aspects of life while bond disruption can be detrimental to mental and physical health. Male prairie voles form enduring social bonds with their female partners, allowing the evaluation of partner loss on behavior, physiology, and neurochemistry. Males were evaluated for partner preference formation induced by 24 h of mating, and half were separated from their partner for 4 wk. In Experiment 1, partner loss significantly increased anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze and light-dark box tests and marginally increased depressive-like behaviors in the forced swim test. In addition, while intruder-directed aggression is common in pair bonded prairie voles, separated males were affiliative and lacked aggression toward an unfamiliar female and an intruding male conspecific. Partner loss increased the density of oxytocin-immunoreactivity (-ir), vasopressin-ir, and corticotrophin-releasing hormone-ir cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and oxytocin-ir cells in the supraoptic nucleus. Tyrosine hydroxylase-ir was not affected. In Experiment 2, partner preference was observed after 2 wk of partner loss but eliminated after 4 wk partner loss. Body weight gain and plasma corticosterone concentrations were elevated throughout the 4 wk. No effects were observed for plasma oxytocin or vasopressin. Together, partner loss elicits anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors, disrupts bond-related behaviors, and alters neuropeptide systems that regulate such behaviors. Thus, partner loss in male prairie voles may provide a model to better understand the behavior, pathology, and neurobiology underlying partner loss and grief. PMID:24561258
Sayette, Michael A; Creswell, Kasey G; Dimoff, John D; Fairbairn, Catharine E; Cohn, Jeffrey F; Heckman, Bryan W; Kirchner, Thomas R; Levine, John M; Moreland, Richard L
We integrated research on emotion and on small groups to address a fundamental and enduring question facing alcohol researchers: What are the specific mechanisms that underlie the reinforcing effects of drinking? In one of the largest alcohol-administration studies yet conducted, we employed a novel group-formation paradigm to evaluate the socioemotional effects of alcohol. Seven hundred twenty social drinkers (360 male, 360 female) were assembled into groups of 3 unacquainted persons each and given a moderate dose of an alcoholic, placebo, or control beverage, which they consumed over 36 min. These groups' social interactions were video recorded, and the duration and sequence of interaction partners' facial and speech behaviors were systematically coded (e.g., using the facial action coding system). Alcohol consumption enhanced individual- and group-level behaviors associated with positive affect, reduced individual-level behaviors associated with negative affect, and elevated self-reported bonding. Our results indicate that alcohol facilitates bonding during group formation. Assessing nonverbal responses in social contexts offers new directions for evaluating the effects of alcohol.
Bellocchi, Alberto; Mills, Kathy A.; Ritchie, Stephen M.
The enactment of learning to become a science teacher in online mode is an emotionally charged experience. We attend to the formation, maintenance and disruption of social bonds experienced by online preservice science teachers as they shared their emotional online learning experiences through blogs, or e-motion diaries, in reaction to videos of face-to-face lessons. A multi-theoretic framework drawing on microsociological perspectives of emotion informed our hermeneutic interpretations of students' first-person accounts reported through an e-motion diary. These accounts were analyzed through our own database of emotion labels constructed from the synthesis of existing literature on emotion across a range of fields of inquiry. Preservice science teachers felt included in the face-to-face group as they watched videos of classroom transactions. The strength of these feelings of social solidarity were dependent on the quality of the video recording. E-motion diaries provided a resource for interactions focused on shared emotional experiences leading to formation of social bonds and the alleviation of feelings of fear, trepidation and anxiety about becoming science teachers. We offer implications to inform practitioners who wish to improve feelings of inclusion amongst their online learners in science education.
Starr-Phillips, Emily J; Beery, Annaliese K
Features of the early postnatal environment profoundly shape later physical and behavioral phenotypes. The amount of licking/grooming that rat dams direct towards their offspring has durable consequences, including behavioral and physiological dimensions of stress reactivity, cognition, and reproductive behavior. We examined how natural variation in maternal care alters social behavior in adult offspring and how this relates to anxiety behavior and oxytocin receptor density. Male and female offspring of mothers who received high levels of licking spent significantly more time in social contact with unfamiliar individuals than did offspring whose dams provided less grooming. Reduced anxiety behavior was associated with greater social interaction. No differences in oxytocin receptor binding assessed by (125) I-OVTA autoradiography were detected between groups. The present investigation characterizes a novel impact of maternal care on adult social interaction behavior, replicates anxiety behavior differences, and illustrates connections between social behavior and anxiety in adulthood across maternal treatment groups.
Murrock, Carolyn J; Graor, Christine Heifner
This qualitative study described the lived experience of dancing as it related to depression and social isolation in 16 disadvantaged adults who completed a 12-week dance intervention. It is the first qualitative study to explore the experience of dance as an adjunct therapy, depression, and social isolation. A descriptive phenomenological framework consisted of two focus groups using semi-structured interviews. A Giorgian approach guided thematic analysis. Four themes emerged: (1) dance for myself and health, (2) social acceptance, (3) connection with others: a group, and (4) not wanting to stop: unexpected benefits from dancing. As the participants continued to dance, they developed a sense of belonging and group identity, which may have maintained group involvement and contributed to reducing depression and social isolation. Thus, dancing is a complementary therapy that should be considered when working with adults with depression and social isolation.
Ishikawa, Mitsuhiko; Park, Yun-Hee; Kitazaki, Michiteru; Itakura, Shoji
The sense of fairness has been observed in early infancy. Because many studies of fairness in adults have used economic games such as the Ultimatum Game, it has been difficult to compare fairness between adults and infants. Further, recent studies have suggested that social information about actors who behave fairly or unfairly may influence the judgement of fairness in infants. Therefore, to compare the sense of fairness between infants and adults, the study using paradigm in infant research is required. We examined how social information about two characters, either prosocial or antisocial, affects the event-related potential response (ERP) to fair or unfair resource distributions in adults. In the habituation phase, participants were informed about characters' social information through their actions. One character then distributed resources fairly or unfairly, and ERP was measured at the end of the distribution. Data from eighteen adult participants were analysed. A significant interaction of social information and fairness was found for late positive potential (LPP), but a post-hoc t test revealed a significant difference between fair and unfair conditions only for actions of the antisocial character. We found that LPP can reflect the sense of fairness affected by social information. Comparison with infant studies suggests that the sense of fairness may change during development.
Huffman, S; Szafron, M
Research on the correlates of sedentary behaviour among adults is needed to design health interventions to modify this behaviour. This study explored the associations of social correlates with leisure-time sedentary behaviour of Canadian adults, and whether these associations differ between different types of sedentary behaviour. A sample of 12,021 Canadian adults was drawn from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey, and analyzed using binary logistic regression to model the relationships that marital status, the presence of children in the household, and social support have with overall time spent sitting, using a computer, playing video games, watching television, and reading during leisure time. Covariates included gender, age, education, income, employment status, perceived health, physical activity level, body mass index (BMI), and province or territory of residence. Extensive computer time was primarily negatively related to being in a common law relationship, and primarily positively related to being single/never married. Being single/never married was positively associated with extensive sitting time in men only. Having children under 12 in the household was protective against extensive video game and reading times. Increasing social support was negatively associated with extensive computer time in men and women, while among men increasing social support was positively associated with extensive sitting time. Computer, video game, television, and reading time have unique correlates among Canadian adults. Marital status, the presence of children in the household, and social support should be considered in future analyses of sedentary activities in adults.
Chopik, William J
Technology has the ability to enhance and enrich the lives of older adults by facilitating better interpersonal relationships. However, few studies have directly examined associations between technology use for social reasons and physical and psychological health among older adults. The current study examines the benefits of technology use in 591 older adults from the 2012 wave of the Health and Retirement Study (Mage = 68.18, SD = 10.75; 55.5% female). Social technology use was assessed through five technology-based behaviors (i.e., using e-mail, social networking sites, online video/phone calls, online chatting/instant messaging, using a smartphone). Attitudes toward the usability and benefits of technology use were also assessed. Older adults had generally positive attitudes toward technology. Higher social technology use was associated with better self-rated health, fewer chronic illnesses, higher subjective well-being, and fewer depressive symptoms. Furthermore, each of the links between social technology use and physical and psychological health was mediated by reduced loneliness. Close relationships are a large determinant of physical health and well-being, and technology has the potential to cultivate successful relationships among older adults.
Lei, Xiaoyan; Shen, Yan; Smith, James P; Zhou, Guangsu
This paper studies relationships between social networks, health and subjective well-being (SWB) using nationally representative data of the Chinese Population-the Chinese Family Panel Studies (CFPS). Our data contain SWB indicators in two widely used variants-happiness and life-satisfaction. Social network variables used include kinship relationships measured by marital status, family size, and having a genealogy; ties with friends/relatives/neighbors measured by holiday visitation, frequency of contacts, and whether and value gifts given and received; total number and time spent in social activities, and engagement in organizations including the communist party, religious groups, and other types. We find that giving and receiving gifts has a larger impact on SWB than either just giving or receiving them. Similarly the number of friends is more important than number of relatives, and marriage is associated with higher levels of SWB. Time spent in social activities and varieties of activities both matter for SWB but varieties matter more. Participation in organizations is associated with higher SWB across such diverse groups as being a member of the communist party or a religious organization. China represents an interesting test since it is simultaneously a traditional society with long-established norms about appropriate social networks and a rapidly changing society due to substantial economic and demographic changes. We find that it is better to both give and receive, to engage in more types of social activities, and that participation in groups all improve well-being of Chinese people.
Linkoping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Education and Psychology.
This yearbook contains papers that provide the reader with a general idea of the aspects and issues that interest Nordic researchers today and how they approach these problems. To provide a more uniform picture of the status of adult education in the different Nordic countries, four brief general surveys begin the book: "Adult Education…
Kirshenbaum, Greer S.; Lieberman, Sophie R.; Briner, Tamara J.; Leonardo, E. David; Dranovsky, Alex
Recent evidence implicates adult hippocampal neurogenesis in regulating behavioral and physiologic responses to stress. Hippocampal neurogenesis occurs across the lifespan, however the rate of cell birth is up to 300% higher in adolescent mice compared to adults. Adolescence is a sensitive period in development where emotional circuitry and stress reactivity undergo plasticity establishing life-long set points. Therefore neurogenesis occurring during adolescence may be particularly important for emotional behavior. However, little is known about the function of hippocampal neurons born during adolescence. In order to assess the contribution of neurons born in adolescence to the adult stress response and depression-related behavior, we transiently reduced cell proliferation either during adolescence, or during adulthood in GFAP-Tk mice. We found that the intervention in adolescence did not change adult baseline behavioral response in the forced swim test, sucrose preference test or social affiliation test, and did not change adult corticosterone responses to an acute stressor. However following chronic social defeat, adult mice with reduced adolescent neurogenesis showed a resilient phenotype. A similar transient reduction in adult neurogenesis did not affect depression-like behaviors or stress induced corticosterone. Our study demonstrates that hippocampal neurons born during adolescence, but not in adulthood are important to confer susceptibility to chronic social defeat. PMID:25221485
Emmons, Karen M.; Barbeau, Elizabeth M.; Gutheil, Caitlin; Stryker, Jo Ellen; Stoddard, Anne M.
Little research has explored the relationship between social influences (e.g., social networks, social support, social norms) and health as related to modifying factors that may contribute to health disparities. This is a cross-sectional analysis of fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity, using baseline data from two cancer prevention…
Robustelli, Briana L; Newberry, Raeana E; Whisman, Mark A; Mittal, Vijay A
Studies suggest that individuals with schizophrenia have smaller social networks and less satisfying relationships. However, much is still unknown about the typical quantity and quality of social relationships in young adults during the ultra high-risk (UHR) period. Investigating these relationships holds significant importance for improving understanding of etiological processes, mapping the social environment, and highlighting treatment targets in a critical period. A total of 85 participants (44 UHR and 41 healthy controls) completed measures examining the participants' social relationships, social support, and loneliness. Mean differences between the UHR and healthy control participants and associations between social relationships and symptoms and functioning were examined. Results indicated significant differences between groups on several indices. Specifically, the UHR youth reported fewer close friends, less diverse social networks, less perceived social support, poorer relationship quality with family and friends, and more loneliness. Notably, within the UHR group, being lonely and having fewer and worse quality relationships was associated with greater symptom severity and lower overall functioning. This study suggests that youth at high-risk of developing psychosis have fewer and poorer quality social relationships. Interventions that focus on increasing the quantity and quality of young adults' social networks may be beneficial for this population.
Glass, Anne P
Social isolation has serious negative public health impacts for older adults. Survey data were collected at three resident-managed elder intentional neighborhoods in the United States (n = 59), to determine if these neighborhoods, each based on the cohousing model, promote development of social resources for their residents. Social resources were measured on three dimensions: social networks, neighborly support, and satisfaction with the neighborhood community. Respondents were White, mean age of 73.3 (range = 63-91), primarily female (76.3%), and generally had high levels of education and self-reported health. Almost half (47%) were never married/divorced and 37% were childless. Inclusion of neighborhood ties ameliorated risk of social isolation. Satisfaction with support and a variety of neighboring behaviors were reported. These neighborhoods are meeting the needs of a potentially at-risk population as an avenue to promote social resources and reduce social isolation. The implications for gerontological social workers include a role in helping to mobilize and support these types of neighborhoods as a way to encourage mutual support among older adults. With the increase in the aging population, such models of proactive interdependence and communal coping have the potential to lessen or delay the demands that socially isolated elders place on social workers.
Fedurek, Piotr; Lehmann, Julia
In recent years there has been much interest in investigating the social structure of group living animals using social network analysis. Many studies so far have focused on the social networks of adults, often excluding younger, immature group members. This potentially may lead to a biased view of group social structure as multiple recent studies have shown that younger group members can significantly contribute to group structure. As proof of the concept, we address this issue by investigating social network structure with and without juveniles in wild olive baboons (Papio anubis) at Gashaka Gumti National Park, Nigeria. Two social networks including all independently moving individuals (i.e., excluding dependent juveniles) were created based on aggressive and grooming behaviour. We used knockout simulations based on the random removal of individuals from the network in order to investigate to what extent the exclusion of juveniles affects the resulting network structure and our interpretation of age-sex specific social roles. We found that juvenile social patterns differed from those of adults and that the exclusion of juveniles from the network significantly altered the resulting overall network structure. Moreover, the removal of juveniles from the network affected individuals in specific age-sex classes differently: for example, including juveniles in the grooming network increased network centrality of adult females while decreasing centrality of adult males. These results suggest that excluding juveniles from the analysis may not only result in a distorted picture of the overall social structure but also may mask some of the social roles of individuals belonging to different age-sex classes. PMID:28323851
Fedurek, Piotr; Lehmann, Julia
In recent years there has been much interest in investigating the social structure of group living animals using social network analysis. Many studies so far have focused on the social networks of adults, often excluding younger, immature group members. This potentially may lead to a biased view of group social structure as multiple recent studies have shown that younger group members can significantly contribute to group structure. As proof of the concept, we address this issue by investigating social network structure with and without juveniles in wild olive baboons (Papio anubis) at Gashaka Gumti National Park, Nigeria. Two social networks including all independently moving individuals (i.e., excluding dependent juveniles) were created based on aggressive and grooming behaviour. We used knockout simulations based on the random removal of individuals from the network in order to investigate to what extent the exclusion of juveniles affects the resulting network structure and our interpretation of age-sex specific social roles. We found that juvenile social patterns differed from those of adults and that the exclusion of juveniles from the network significantly altered the resulting overall network structure. Moreover, the removal of juveniles from the network affected individuals in specific age-sex classes differently: for example, including juveniles in the grooming network increased network centrality of adult females while decreasing centrality of adult males. These results suggest that excluding juveniles from the analysis may not only result in a distorted picture of the overall social structure but also may mask some of the social roles of individuals belonging to different age-sex classes.
Riessman, Frank; And Others
These essays concentrate on the challenge that adult education faces in helping the urban poor develop meaningful paraprofessional careers in the human services. In one essay, the reformist approach to improving access to credentials is compared with the radical approach, which questions the validity of the credentials process as well as its…
Numerous scholars have documented and critiqued the predominance of neoliberal policies and rationalities shaping adult and continuing education around the world. Contemporary sociologists have argued that neoliberal citizens are characterized by hyperindividuality and a strong sense of personal autonomy. Self-help reading is widely viewed as one…
Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; De Donder, Liesbeth; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Buffel, Tine; De Witte, Nico; Dury, Sarah; Verté, Dominique; Deforche, Benedicte
Ecological models state that physical activity (PA) behaviors can be explained by the interplay between individuals and their surrounding physical and social environment. However, the majority of research on PA-environment relationships has focused upon the physical environment. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between the perceived social environment and older adults' walking for transportation, while adjusting for individual and perceived physical environmental factors. Questionnaires were used to collect data on walking for transportation, individual, perceived physical and social environmental factors in 50,986 Flemish older adults (≥65 years) in the period of 2004-2010. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were applied to examine the relationships between perceived social environmental factors and the odds of daily walking for transportation. The final models showed significant positive relationships for frequency of contacts with neighbors, neighbors' social support, too many immigrants residing in the neighborhood, neighborhood involvement, participation, and volunteering. These results emphasize the need for including social environmental factors in future studies examining correlates of older adults' physical activity. Current findings suggest that projects stimulating interpersonal relationships, place attachment, and formal community engagement might promote walking for transportation among older adults. Future research should try to further disentangle the complex (inter)relationships and causal mechanisms between older individuals, their environments, and their walking for transportation behavior.
Williams, Lawrence E; Coke, C S; Weed, J L
Social housing has often been recommended as one-way to address the psychological well-being of captive non-human primates. Published reports have examined methods to socialize compatible animals by forming pairs or groups. Successful socialization rates vary depending on the species, gender, and environment. This study presents a retrospective look at pairing attempts in two species of owl monkeys, Aotus nancymaae and A. azarae, which live in monogamous pairs in the wild. The results of 477 pairing attempt conducted with captive, laboratory housed owl monkeys and 61 hr of behavioral observations are reported here. The greatest success pairing these owl monkeys occurred with opposite sex pairs, with an 82% success rate. Opposite sex pairs were more successful when females were older than males. Female-female pairs were more successful than male-male (MM) pairs (62% vs 40%). Successful pairs stayed together between 3 and 7 years before the animals were separated due to social incompatibility. Vigilance, eating, and sleeping during introductions significantly predicted success, as did the performance of the same behavior in both animals. The results of this analysis show that it is possible to give captive owl monkeys a social alternative even if species appropriate social partners (i.e., opposite sex partners) are not available. The focus of this report is a description of one potential way to enhance the welfare of a specific new world primate, the owl monkey, under laboratory conditions. More important is how the species typical social structure of owl monkeys in nature affects the captive management of this genus. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22521, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hong, Song-Iee; Hasche, Leslie; Bowland, Sharon
Purpose: This study examines the structural relationships between social activities and trajectories of late-life depression. Design and Methods: Latent class analysis was used with a nationally representative sample of older adults (N = 5,294) from the Longitudinal Study on Aging II to classify patterns of social activities. A latent growth curve model captured longitudinal changes in depression and tested the impact of social activities while controlling for residential relocation, health status, insurance, and sociodemographics. Results: We found 3 different patterns of participation across 8 social activities. Specific activities of volunteering and exercise, self-perception of social activity level as “enough,” and a higher participation level pattern were associated with lower initial status and longitudinal changes in depression. Implications: Assessing involvement in multiple social activities is important when using social activities to prevent and treat depression. Future work with improved measures can further clarify how specific activities may reduce risk for depression. PMID:19362999
Wedgeworth, Monika; LaRocca, Michael A; Chaplin, William F; Scogin, Forrest
The mental health of elderly individuals in rural areas is increasingly relevant as populations age and social structures change. While social support satisfaction is a well-established predictor of quality of life, interpersonal sensitivity symptoms may diminish this relation. The current study extends the findings of Scogin et al by investigating the relationship among interpersonal sensitivity, social support satisfaction, and quality of life among rural older adults and exploring the mediating role of social support in the relation between interpersonal sensitivity and quality of life (N = 128). Hierarchical regression revealed that interpersonal sensitivity and social support satisfaction predicted quality of life. In addition, bootstrapping resampling supported the role of social support satisfaction as a mediator between interpersonal sensitivity symptoms and quality of life. These results underscore the importance of nurses and allied health providers in assessing and attending to negative self-perceptions of clients, as well as the perceived quality of their social networks.
Juang, Linda; Syed, Moin
We examined how family cultural socialization related to the ethnic identity of Asian American, Latino, White, and Mixed-Ethnic emerging adults (N=225). Greater family cultural socialization was related to greater ethnic identity exploration and commitment. Ethnic minority students reported higher levels of family cultural socialization and ethnic identity compared to White students. The family cultural socialization-ethnic identity link was more pronounced for females compared to males, and for White compared to ethnic minority students. The findings highlight the importance of the family for identity development beyond adolescence.
Moadab, Gilda; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Amaral, David G.
The social behavior in a cohort of adult animals who received ibotenic acid lesions of the amygdala (4 female, 3 male) or hippocampus (5 female, 3 male) as neonates, and sham-operated controls (4 female, 4 male) was evaluated in their home environments with the familiar opposite-sex monkey (pair-mate) with whom they were housed. Amygdala-lesioned animals spent less time with their familiar partners and engaged in higher frequencies of stress-related behaviors than control animals. Hippocampus-lesioned animals spent significantly more time socially engaging their pair-mates than both control and amygdala-lesioned animals. These results suggest that early damage to the amygdala or hippocampus subtly alter patterns of adult social behavior in a familiar context and stand in sharp contrast to extant studies of early damage to the amygdala or hippocampus and to the more dramatically altered patterns of behavior observed after damage to the adult amygdala. PMID:26030432
Moadab, Gilda; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Amaral, David G
The social behavior in a cohort of adult animals who received ibotenic acid lesions of the amygdala (4 female, 3 male) or hippocampus (5 female, 3 male) as neonates, and sham-operated controls (4 female, 4 male) was evaluated in their home environments with the familiar opposite sex monkey (pair-mate) with whom they were housed. Amygdala-lesioned animals spent less time with their familiar partners and engaged in higher frequencies of stress-related behaviors than control animals. Hippocampus-lesioned animals spent significantly more time socially engaging their pair-mates than both control and amygdala-lesioned animals. These results suggest that early damage to the amygdala or hippocampus subtly alter patterns of adult social behavior in a familiar context and stand in sharp contrast to extant studies of early damage to the amygdala or hippocampus and to the more dramatically altered patterns of behavior observed after damage to the adult amygdala.
Kuo, Janice R; Goldin, Philippe R; Werner, Kelly; Heimberg, Richard G; Gross, James J
Etiological models of social anxiety disorder (SAD) suggest that early childhood trauma contributes to the development of this disorder. However, surprisingly little is known about the link between different forms of childhood trauma and adult clinical symptoms in SAD. This study (1) compared levels of childhood trauma in adults with generalized SAD versus healthy controls (HCs), and (2) examined the relationship between specific types of childhood trauma and adult clinical symptoms in SAD. Participants were 102 individuals with generalized SAD and 30 HCs who completed measures of childhood trauma, social anxiety, trait anxiety, depression, and self-esteem. Compared to HCs, individuals with SAD reported greater childhood emotional abuse and emotional neglect. Within the SAD group, childhood emotional abuse and neglect, but not sexual abuse, physical abuse, or physical neglect, were associated with the severity of social anxiety, trait anxiety, depression, and self-esteem.
Choi, Namkee G.; Marti, C. Nathan; Bruce, Martha L.; Hegel, Mark T.
The goal of problem-solving therapy is to teach patients systematic coping skills. For many homebound older adults, coping skills must also include both personal and social (help-seeking) resourcefulness. This study aimed to examine the relationship between perceived resourcefulness and depressive symptoms at postintervention and potential mediating effect of the resourcefulness among 121 low-income homebound older adults who participated in a pilot randomized controlled trial testing feasibility and preliminary efficacy of telehealth-PST. Resourcefulness Scale for Older Adults was used to measure personal and social resourcefulness. Only personal resourcefulness scores were significantly associated with depression outcomes at postintervention, and neither resourcefulness scores were significantly associated with group assignment. Analysis found no mediation effect of resourcefulness. The findings call for further research on potential mediators for the potentially effective depression treatment that could be sustained in the real world for low-income homebound older adults who have limited access to psychotherapy as a treatment modality. PMID:23768675
Choi, Namkee G; Marti, C Nathan; Bruce, Martha L; Hegel, Mark T
The goal of problem-solving therapy is to teach patients systematic coping skills. For many homebound older adults, coping skills must also include both personal and social (help-seeking) resourcefulness. This study aimed to examine the relationship between perceived resourcefulness and depressive symptoms at postintervention and potential mediating effect of the resourcefulness among 121 low-income homebound older adults who participated in a pilot randomized controlled trial testing feasibility and preliminary efficacy of telehealth-PST. Resourcefulness Scale for Older Adults was used to measure personal and social resourcefulness. Only personal resourcefulness scores were significantly associated with depression outcomes at postintervention, and neither resourcefulness scores were significantly associated with group assignment. Analysis found no mediation effect of resourcefulness. The findings call for further research on potential mediators for the potentially effective depression treatment that could be sustained in the real world for low-income homebound older adults who have limited access to psychotherapy as a treatment modality.
Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Chui, Wing Hong
Background: Little is known about the level of social bond elements and their effects on delinquency among nonadjudicated (traditional low and at-risk school-aged) and adjudicated Chinese male adolescents. Objective: Using a large adolescent sample (N = 1,177) from Hong Kong and Macau, this study aims to distinguish the level of social bond…
Yuan, Si-Yang; Freeman, Ruth
Objective: To examine if social support in the guise of a culturally sensitive, community-based oral health intervention could promote mother-infant bonding in socially-isolated immigrant mothers. Design: A quasi-experimental design. Participants: A convenience sample of 36 Chinese immigrant mothers with 8-week-old infants was divided into…
Chalise, Hom Nath; Kai, Ichiro; Saito, Tami
The aim of this study was to analyze the situation of social support exchange among elderly men and women and to study the cross-cultural validity of predictors of loneliness in two Nepalese castes/ethnicities of older adults. Data for this study were taken from a cross-sectional study of the elderly at least 60 years old living in one ward of Kathmandu City, conducted in 2005. Loneliness was measured using a three-item loneliness scale based on the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale. Sources of social support were classified as spouse, children living with their elders, children living apart, and friends/neighbors. Study findings indicate that the main social support exchange for the elderly was with adult children living together, spouse, and friends/neighbors. Results also show gender difference in social support. Significant variables of loneliness were social support received from spouse, social support provided to spouse, and children living together with both elderly parents. This finding shows there is a high degree of cross-cultural invariance in the predictor sources of social support on loneliness among two Nepalese castes/ethnicities older adults.
Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Moadab, Gilda; Santistevan, Anthony; Amaral, David G
The present report details the final phase of a longitudinal evaluation of the social behavior in a cohort of adult rhesus monkeys that received bilateral neurotoxic lesions of the amygdala or hippocampus, or sham operations at 2 weeks of age. Results were compared to previous studies in which adult animals received amygdala lesions and were tested in a similar fashion. Social testing with four novel interaction partners occurred when the animals were between 7 and 8 years of age. Experimental animals interacted with two male and two female partners in two conditions - one in which physical access was restricted (the constrained social access condition) and a second in which physical access was unrestricted (the unconstrained social access condition). Across conditions and interaction partners, there were no significant effects of lesion condition on the frequency or duration of social interactions. As a group, the hippocampus-lesioned animals generated the greatest number of communicative signals during the constrained social access condition. Amygdala-lesioned animals generated more frequent stress-related behaviors and were less exploratory. Amygdala and hippocampus-lesioned animals demonstrated greater numbers of stereotypies than control animals. Subtle, lesion-based differences in the sequencing of behaviors were observed. These findings suggest that alterations of adult social behavior are much less prominent when damage to the amygdala occurs early in life rather than in adulthood.
Phongsavan, Philayrath; Chey, Tien; Bauman, Adrian; Brooks, Robert; Silove, Derrick
High levels of social capital may be associated with positive mental health in adults. However, quantifying the various dimensions of social capital has presented a challenge due in part to the diverse definitions and measures used. Data from a representative, population-wide survey of Australian adults aged 16 years and older were used to investigate the links between dimensions of social capital and mental health morbidity. Social capital comprised three constructs and was measured at the individual level: feelings of trust and safety, community participation and neighbourhood connections and reciprocity. Mental health was measured by the 10-item Kessler (K10) instrument and assessed symptoms of psychological distress (i.e., depression and anxiety) over the previous month. Community participation showed a weak, and neighbourhood connections and reciprocity a moderate association with distress. Having higher levels of trust and feeling safe were consistently associated with low levels of psychological distress, after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics and health conditions. The results clearly demonstrate that having trust in people, feeling safe in the community and having social reciprocity are associated with lower risk of mental health distress. The implications for conceptualising and measuring the individual and collective (contextual) dimensions of social capital are discussed. The findings also suggest the importance of examining the interrelationships between socio-economic status, social capital and mental health for community-dwelling adults.
Howard, Siobhán; Creaven, Ann-Marie; Hughes, Brian M; O'Leary, Éanna D; James, Jack E
The benefits of perceived social support for physical and psychological health are well-established. However, little research has explored associations between perceived social support and cardiovascular reactivity in older adults. This exploratory study recruited a sample of older adults (Mage=69years, SD=5.62) and examined quality and quantity of perceived social support as predictors of cardiovascular reactivity to laboratory-based stress (N=39 participants) and ambulatory cardiovascular activity in everyday life (n=28). The results suggest that quality, but not quantity, of perceived social support predicts reduced blood pressure reactivity to stress in the laboratory. Although quality of support was not associated with ambulatory blood pressure, results suggest that quantity of daily social support may be associated with higher ambulatory heart rate, but not with social contact during measurement. This preliminary study extends prior work on social support and cardiovascular function to a group of older adults in both laboratory and field settings. Challenges for much-needed future research in this area are discussed.
Dettmer, Amanda M; Wooddell, Lauren J; Rosenberg, Kendra L; Kaburu, Stefano S K; Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S; Suomi, Stephen J
Early life experience and socioeconomic status (SES) are well-established predictors of health outcomes in people. Both factors likely influence health outcomes via hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. However, it is unclear how early experience and HPA axis activity influence adult social status. We studied differentially reared female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, N = 90) as models to test the hypothesis that chronic HPA axis activity assessed via hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs) mediated the relationship between early life experience and adult social rank. We found that mother-peer-reared (MPR) monkeys acquired higher social ranks than either of the two nursery-reared (NR) groups (peer-reared, PR, or surrogate-peer-reared, SPR monkeys) (β = -0.07, t(89) = -2.16, p = 0.034). We also found that MPR HCCs were lower during the juvenile period at 18 months (F(2,25) = 3.49, p = 0.047). Furthermore, for MPR but not NR monkeys, changes in HCCs from 18 to 24 months (r(s) = -0.627, p = 0.039) and adult HCCs (r(s) = -0.321, p = 0.03) were negatively correlated with adult social rank. These findings suggest that chronic HPA axis regulation in juvenility, and perhaps in adulthood, may influence adult social status for primates that experience typical early rearing. However, early life adversity may result in dissociation between neuroendocrine stress regulation and adult social competence, which may be risk factors for adverse health outcomes.
Population aging in Korea is projected to be the most rapid among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries between 2000 and 2050. However, social spending in Korea remains low, reflecting Korea's relatively young population, limited health and long-term care insurance coverage, and immaturity of its pension system.…
... selecting models both at work and in their personal lives to help them grow in this area. ... or coaching and, above all, build and maintain social ... Number NU38DD005376 funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent ...
In the context of math education, students should achieve transferable understanding and skills that allow students to use math flexibly (such as understanding a percentage in a newspaper article), functional performance (such as being able to take medicine or use public transportation), and social knowledge (concepts necessary to interpret and…
Levinson, Cheri A; Langer, Julia K; Rodebaugh, Thomas L
Peer victimization leads to negative outcomes such as increased anxiety and depression. The prospective relationship between peer victimization and social anxiety in children and adolescents is well established, and adults with social anxiety disorder (SAD) are more likely than individuals with other anxiety disorders to report a history of teasing. However, a crucial bridge between these findings (peer victimization in young adults) is missing. We manipulated perceptions of peer exclusion in a young adult sample (N=108) using the Cyberball Ostracism Task. Reactivity to exclusion prospectively predicted social anxiety symptoms at a 2-month follow-up, whereas self-reported teasing during high school and current relational victimization did not. This research suggests that reactions to peer victimization may be a worthwhile target for clinical interventions in young adults. Targeting how young adults react to stressful social interactions such as exclusion may help prevent the development of SAD. Future research should test if reactivity to exclusion plays a role in the relationship between other disorders (e.g., depression) and peer victimization.
Dunbar, Angel S; Perry, Nicole B; Cavanaugh, Alyson M; Leerkes, Esther M
The current study aimed to identify parents' profiles of racial and emotion socialization practices, to determine if these profiles vary as a function of family income and young adult child gender, and to examine their links with young adults' emotional adaptation. Participants included 192 African American young adults (70% women) who ranged in age from 18 to 24 years (M = 19.44 years). Four maternal profiles emerged: cultural-supportive (high cultural socialization and supportive responses to children's negative emotions), moderate bias preparation (moderate preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses to negative emotions), high bias preparation (high preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses), and low engaged (low across racial and socialization constructs). Three paternal profiles emerged: multifaceted (moderate across racial and emotion socialization constructs), high bias preparation, and low engaged. Men were more likely to have mothers in the high bias preparation and to have fathers in the multifaceted or high bias preparation profiles. Individuals with higher income were more likely to have mothers in the cultural-supportive profile and to have fathers in the multifaceted profile. Young adults whose mothers fit the cultural-supportive profile or the moderate bias preparation profile had lower levels of depressive symptoms than young adults whose mothers fit the high bias preparation profile.
Sport has long been considered by policy makers to contribute to a wide range of ideals associated with Putnam's notion of social capital, such as voluntarism, citizenship, democracy, community well-being, trust, inter-cultural knowledge and social networks. However, sport research that confirms such assumptions is scarce. This article focuses on…
Bruner, Mark W; Balish, Shea M; Forrest, Christopher; Brown, Sarah; Webber, Kristine; Gray, Emily; McGuckin, Matthew; Keats, Melanie R; Rehman, Laurene; Shields, Christopher A
An emerging area of research has focused on understanding how the group dynamics of a sport team influence positive youth development (PYD). The identities that youth form through their membership in sport teams (i.e., social identities) have been found to influence teammate behavior and team performance. Yet, minimal work exists on social identity and PYD in youth sport.
Abbott, Katherine M; Bettger, Janet Prvu; Hampton, Keith; Kohler, Hans-Peter
Social integration is measured by a variety of social network indicators each with limitations in its ability to produce a complete picture of the variety and scope of interactions of older adults receiving long-term services and supports. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the feasibility of collecting sociocentric (whole network) data among older adults in one assisted living neighborhood. The sociocentric approach is required to conduct social network analysis. Applying social network analysis is an innovative way to measure different facets of social integration among residents. Sociocentric data are presented for 12 residents. Network visualization or sociograms are used to illustrate the level of social integration among residents and between residents and staff. Measures of network centrality are reported to illustrate the number of personal connections and cohesion. The use of resident photographs helped residents with cognitive impairment to nominate individuals with whom they interacted. The sociocentric approach to data collection is feasible and allows researchers to measure levels and different aspects of social integration in assisted living environments. Residents with mild to moderate cognitive impairment were able to participate with the aid of resident and staff photographs. This approach is sensitive to capturing routine day-to-day interactions between residents and assisted living staff members that are often not reported in person-centered networks. This study contributes to the foundation for larger more representative studies of entire assisted living organizations that could in the future inform interventions aimed at improving social integration and cohesion among recipients of long-term services and supports.
MacLeod, Ann; Skinner, Mark W; Wilkinson, Fay; Reid, Heather
Employing a participatory arts-based research approach, we examined an innovative program from rural Ontario, Canada, designed to address social isolation among older people. Older socially isolated adults were matched to trained volunteers, where in dyads, the eight pairs created expressive art in their home setting over the course of 10 home visits. With thematic and narrative inquiry, we analysed the experiences and perceptions of the program leader, older participants, and older volunteers via their artistic creations, weekly logs, evaluations, and field notes. The findings reveal a successful intervention that positively influenced the well-being of older adult participants and older volunteers, especially in regards to relationships, personal development, and creating meaning as well as extending the intervention's impact beyond the program's duration. We also discuss opportunities for similar programs to inform policy and enable positive community-based health and social service responses to rural social isolation.
Camfield, Peter; Camfield, Carol; Pohlmann-Eden, Bernd
When epilepsy does not remit in childhood, transition and transfer to adult care is eventually required. Youth must leave the family-centered approach of pediatric care for the individual focus of adult medicine. Evidence from population-based studies indicates that many of those with childhood-onset epilepsy have major social difficulties in adulthood even if their epilepsy has resolved. Epilepsy may have major effects on normal adolescent development, and societal attitudes confound this difficult period in the lives of young people with epilepsy. Very little objective data are available to assist in the designing of models of care for youth with epilepsy; however, based on our clinical experience and the limited available literature, it appears that a transition program to prepare children for adult care is best started during childhood and adolescence. The formal transfer to adult services may be assisted by a transition clinic jointly attended by pediatric and adult epilepsy specialists. PMID:23476118
Extensive research documents powerful relationships between humans and companion animals, and 62 percent of U.S. households report having a companion animal. Social workers are likely to work with individuals and families with companion animals; thus, the inclusion of such animals in both practice and research as a natural extension of social work with humans, and their challenges, coping mechanisms, and resiliency factors, seems called for. Yet there is little in the social work literature that identifies what social workers are doing in this area. Thus, this descriptive study sought to explore nationally what social work practitioners know and are doing in the area of the human and companion animal relationships. Findings include that social work practitioners appear to have basic knowledge of the negative and positive relationships between humans and companion animals. About one-third are including questions about companion and other animals in their intake assessments, and a little less than 25 percent are including companion and other animals in their intervention practice. The vast majority have had no special training or coursework to do so. Implications for these and other findings are discussed, and recommendations for social work research, education, and practice are offered.
DeWitt, Thomas G
Perhaps the greatest challenge we face today in medical education is how to establish a conceptual framework for conveying the context of community pediatrics and issues related to child health equity and social justice to practicing pediatricians and pediatricians in training. This will require a new infrastructure and approach to training to allow pediatricians to think and practice differently. The application of social and adult learning theory to the development and implementation of community pediatrics curricula will be necessary to succeed in these endeavors. In particular, we also will need to understand the educational processes required to motivate adult learners to acquire knowledge, attitudes, and skills outside the context and framework of their previous experiences and perceived professional needs.
Spain, Debbie; Blainey, Sarah H
Autism spectrum disorders are characterised by impairments in communication and social interaction. Social skills interventions have been found to ameliorate socio-communication deficits in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Little is known about the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (hf-ASD) - a clinical population who can present with more subtle core deficits, but comparable levels of impairment and secondary difficulties. A systematic review was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Five studies met the pre-specified review inclusion criteria: two quasi-experimental comparative trials and three single-arm interventions. There was a degree of variation in the structure, duration and content of the social skills interventions delivered, as well as several methodological limitations associated with included studies. Nevertheless, narrative analysis tentatively indicates that group social skills interventions may be effective for enhancing social knowledge and understanding, improving social functioning, reducing loneliness and potentially alleviating co-morbid psychiatric symptoms.
Key, Alexandra P; Dykens, Elisabeth M
The present study examined possible neural mechanisms underlying increased social interest in persons with Williams syndrome (WS). Visual event-related potentials (ERPs) during passive viewing were used to compare incidental memory traces for repeated vs. single presentations of previously unfamiliar social (faces) and nonsocial (houses) images in 26 adults with WS and 26 typical adults. Results indicated that participants with WS developed familiarity with the repeated faces and houses (frontal N400 response), but only typical adults evidenced the parietal old/new effect (previously associated with stimulus recollection) for the repeated faces. There was also no evidence of exceptional salience of social information in WS, as ERP markers of memory for repeated faces vs. houses were not significantly different. Thus, while persons with WS exhibit behavioral evidence of increased social interest, their processing of social information in the absence of specific instructions may be relatively superficial. The ERP evidence of face repetition detection in WS was independent of IQ and the earlier perceptual differentiation of social vs. nonsocial stimuli. Large individual differences in ERPs of participants with WS may provide valuable information for understanding the WS phenotype and have relevance for educational and treatment purposes.
Tran, Alisia G T T; Mintert, Jeffrey S; Jew, Gilbert B
This article utilizes moderated mediation analyses to explore whether the relations between parental ethnic-racial socialization (PERS) dimensions and social attitudes differ across ethnic-racial minority (n = 128) and White (n = 131) college-going emerging adults. We examined social dominance orientation (SDO) as an index of antiegalitarian intergroup attitudes and attitudes toward interpersonal harmony as an index of interpersonal attitudes. We tested whether there were ethnic-racial variations in mediation models in which each type of PERS dimension was expected to be linked to greater antiegalitarian attitudes (greater SDO), which, in turn, was predicted to be associated with less prosocial attitudes (lower harmony enhancement). Results indicated that more frequent cultural socialization and preparation for bias were linked to greater SDO for the White sample, but not for the ethnic-minority sample. Moderation results were nonsignificant for promotion of mistrust, with results indicating a positive link to SDO, regardless of racial-ethnic status. Moderated mediation analyses further revealed indirect effects of cultural socialization and preparation for bias on interpersonal attitudes through SDO for the White sample, but not for the ethnic-minority sample. Specifically, greater cultural socialization and preparation for bias each were linked to greater SDO, which, in turn, was associated with less positive perceptions of the value of maintaining interpersonal harmony for White respondents. Practical applications, including social justice implications, of the results and possibilities for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
Background Health behaviors are a key determinant of health and well-being that are influenced by the nature of the social environment. This study examined associations between social relationships and health-related behaviors among a nationally representative sample of older people. Methods We analyzed data from three waves (1999–2004) of the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Participants were 4,014 older Americans aged 60 and over. Log-binomial regression models estimated prevalence ratios (PR) for the associations between social relationships and each of the following health behaviors: alcohol use, smoking, physical activity and dental attendance. Results Health-compromising behaviors (smoking, heavy drinking and less frequent dental visits) were related to marital status, while physical activity, a health-promoting behavior, was associated with the size of friendship networks. Smoking was more common among divorced/separated (PR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.6, 2.7) and widowed (PR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3, 2.3) respondents than among those married or cohabiting, after adjusting for socio-demographic background. Heavy drinking was 2.6 times more common among divorced/separated and 1.7 times more common among widowed men compared to married/cohabiting men, while there was no such association among women. For women, heavy drinking was associated with being single (PR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.9). Being widowed was related to a lower prevalence of having visited a dentist compared to being married or living with a partner (PR = 0.92; 95% CI 0.86, 0.99). Those with a larger circle of friends were more likely to be physically active (PR = 1.17; 95% CI:1.06, 1.28 for 5–8 versus less than 5 friends). Conclusions Social relationships of older Americans were independently associated with different health-related behaviors, even after adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic determinants. Availability of emotional support did not however
Echeverría, Sandra E.; Gundersen, Daniel A.; Manderski, Michelle T.B.; Delnevo, Cristine D.
Socially and culturally embedded norms regarding smoking may be one pathway by which individuals adopt smoking behaviors. However, few studies have examined if social norms operate in young adults, a population at high risk of becoming regular smokers. There is also little research examining correlates of social norms in populations with a large immigrant segment, where social norms are likely to differ from the receiving country and could contribute to a better understanding of previously reported acculturation-health associations. Using data from a nationally representative sample of young adults in the United States reached via a novel cell-phone sampling design, we explored the relationships between acculturation proxies (nativity, language spoken and generational status), socioeconomic position (SEP), smoking social norms and current smoking status among Latinos 18–34 years of age (n=873). Specifically, we examined if a measure of injunctive norms assessed by asking participants about the acceptability of smoking among Latino co-ethnic peers was associated with acculturation proxies and SEP. Results showed a strong gradient in smoking social norms by acculturation proxies, with significantly less acceptance of smoking reported among the foreign-born and increasing acceptance among those speaking only/ mostly English at home and third-generation individuals. No consistent and significant pattern in smoking social norms was observed by education, income or employment status, possibly due to the age of the study population. Lastly, those who reported that their Latino peers do not find smoking acceptable were significantly less likely to be current smokers compared to those who said their Latino peers were ambivalent about smoking (do not care either way) in crude models, and in models that adjusted for age, sex, generational status, language spoken, and SEP. This study provides new evidence regarding the role of social norms in shaping smoking behaviors among
Echeverría, Sandra E; Gundersen, Daniel A; Manderski, Michelle T B; Delnevo, Cristine D
Socially and culturally embedded norms regarding smoking may be one pathway by which individuals adopt smoking behaviors. However, few studies have examined if social norms operate in young adults, a population at high risk of becoming regular smokers. There is also little research examining correlates of social norms in populations with a large immigrant segment, where social norms are likely to differ from the receiving country and could contribute to a better understanding of previously reported acculturation-health associations. Using data from a nationally representative sample of young adults in the United States reached via a novel cell-phone sampling design, we explored the relationships between acculturation proxies (nativity, language spoken and generational status), socioeconomic position (SEP), smoking social norms and current smoking status among Latinos 18-34 years of age (n = 873). Specifically, we examined if a measure of injunctive norms assessed by asking participants about the acceptability of smoking among Latino co-ethnic peers was associated with acculturation proxies and SEP. Results showed a strong gradient in smoking social norms by acculturation proxies, with significantly less acceptance of smoking reported among the foreign-born and increasing acceptance among those speaking only/mostly English at home and third-generation individuals. No consistent and significant pattern in smoking social norms was observed by education, income or employment status, possibly due to the age of the study population. Lastly, those who reported that their Latino peers do not find smoking acceptable were significantly less likely to be current smokers compared to those who said their Latino peers were ambivalent about smoking (do not care either way) in crude models, and in models that adjusted for age, sex, generational status, language spoken, and SEP. This study provides new evidence regarding the role of social norms in shaping smoking behaviors among
Stapleton, Peta; Luiz, Gabriella; Chatwin, Hannah
Social networking sites (SNSs) provide emerging adults with extreme and unprecedented transparency, exposing them to a plethora of opportunities for social comparison. In light of the growing use of the popular SNS, Instagram, among emerging adults, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of exposure to social media-based social comparison information on self-esteem. The study recruited 237 participants through social media. The sample was narrowed to young adults aged 18-29 years. The study used a correlational nonexperimental approach to investigate two mediation models proposed in the literature. First, the study investigated the mediating role of social comparison on Instagram in the relationship between intensity of Instagram use and self-esteem. Second, the study examined the mediating role of social comparison in the relationship between self-worth contingent on approval from others and self-esteem. Although the first model was found to be nonsignificant, results observed a significant indirect pathway that confirmed the second model. Thus, social comparison on Instagram mediated the relationship between contingent self-worth and self-esteem. Furthermore, moderation analyses found that self-worth contingent on approval from others moderated the relationship between intensity of Instagram use and social comparison on Instagram. Thus, although Instagram did not directly affect self-esteem, the significant moderation suggested that intensity of Instagram use is influential when the young person's self-worth is contingent on approval from others. Overall, the findings are consistent with previous research and enhance our understanding of the mechanisms that link SNS use to low self-esteem.
Rugumayo, Edward B., Comp.; Ibikunle-Johnson, Victor O., Comp.
The purpose of this manual is to make available to adult educators and field extension workers in Kenya resource material that may be used in formal and nonformal training programs for the environmental education of a wide range of target groups. The document begins with a 26-item glossary, an introduction, a section on the document's use,…
Remes, Pirkko, Ed.; And Others
The 13 papers in this yearbook discuss 4 broad subject areas: questions of competence, evaluating quality, professional cultures, and learning and trends in adult education. The following papers are included: "Human Resource Development (HRD) Practitioners Analyzing Their Work"(Tuija Valkeavaara); "Life Competence in a World of…
Kim, Pilyoung; Ho, S. Shaun; Evans, Gary W.; Liberzon, Israel; Swain, James E.
Childhood poverty is associated with harsh parenting with a risk of transmission to the next generation. This prospective study examined the relations between childhood poverty and non-parent adults’ neural responses to infant cry sounds. While no main effects of poverty were revealed in contrasts of infant cry vs. acoustically matched white noise, a gender by childhood poverty interaction emerged. In females, childhood poverty was associated with increased neural activations in the posterior insula, striatum, calcarine sulcus, hippocampus and fusiform gyrus, while, in males, childhood poverty was associated with reduced levels of neural responses to infant cry in the same regions. Irrespective of gender, neural activation in these regions was associated with higher levels of annoyance with the cry sound and reduced desire to approach the crying infant. The findings suggest gender differences in neural and emotional responses to infant cry sounds among young adults growing up in poverty. PMID:25981334
Xie, Bo; Watkins, Ivan; Golbeck, Jen; Huang, Man
An exploratory study was conducted to answer the following questions: What are older adults' perceptions of social media? What educational strategies can facilitate their learning of social media? A thematic map was developed to illustrate changing perceptions from the initial unanimous, strong negative to the more positive but cautious and to the eventual willingness to actually contribute content. Privacy was the primary concern and key perceptual barrier to adoption. Effective educational strategies were developed to overcome privacy concerns, including: 1) introducing the concepts before introducing the functions; 2) responding to privacy concerns; and 3) making social media personally relevant.
Floyd, Kory; Veksler, Alice E; McEwan, Bree; Hesse, Colin; Boren, Justin P; Dinsmore, Dana R; Pavlich, Corey A
Loneliness has been shown to have direct effects on one's personal well-being. Specifically, a greater feeling of loneliness is associated with negative mental health outcomes, negative health behaviors, and an increased likelihood of premature mortality. Using the neuroendocrine hypothesis, we expected social inclusion to predict decreases in both blood glucose levels and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and increases in high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Fifty-two healthy adults provided self-report data for social inclusion and blood samples for hematological tests. Results indicated that higher social inclusion predicted lower levels of blood glucose and LDL, but had no effect on HDL. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Little research has focused on the risk factors, effects, and experiences of compassion fatigue among gerontological social workers. This qualitative study explores the experiences and perspectives of nine Adult Protective Services (APS) social workers in relation to compassion fatigue. Results show that the APS social workers combined personal characteristics and professional factors to develop boundary-setting mechanisms that protected them from experiencing the deleterious symptoms and effects of compassion fatigue. Implications center around the elements needed to implement boundaries in order to maintain a separation between the work and home environment. Suggestions for future research are provided.
Ubeda, Francisco; Gardner, Andy
Genomic imprinting refers to genes that are silenced when inherited via sperm or via egg. The silencing of genes conditional upon their parental origin requires an evolutionary explanation. The most widely accepted theory for the evolution of genomic imprinting-the kinship theory-argues that conflict between maternally inherited and paternally inherited genes over phenotypes with asymmetric effects on matrilineal and patrilineal kin results in self-imposed silencing of one of the copies. This theory has been applied to imprinting of genes expressed in the placenta, and infant brain determining the allocation of parental resources being the source of conflict parental promiscuity. However, there is growing evidence that imprinted genes are expressed in the postinfant brain where parental promiscuity per se is no longer a source of conflict. Here, we advance the kinship theory by developing an evolutionary model of genomic imprinting in adults, driven by intragenomic conflict over allocation to parental versus communal care. We consider the role of sex differences in dispersal and variance in reproductive success as sources of conflict. We predict that, in hominids and birds, parental care will be expressed by maternally inherited genes. In nonhominid mammals, we predict more diversity, with some mammals showing the same pattern and other showing the reverse. We use the model to interpret experimental data on imprinted genes in the house mouse: specifically, paternally expressed Peg1 and Peg3 genes, underlying maternal care, and maternally expressed Gnas and paternally expressed Gnasxl genes, underlying communal care. We also use the model to relate ancestral demography to contemporary imprinting disorders of adults, in humans and other taxa.
Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Koori, Miyuki; Kikusui, Takefumi; Mori, Yuji
Pairing and physical confrontation In adult sows causes social stress reactions and aggressive behaviors. Recently, maternal pig skin secretions were Isolated and a mixture containing several fatty acids, now called pig appeasing pheromone (PAP), was synthesized. In this study, we Investigated the effects of PAP on social and Immune stress response In adult female miniature pigs. PAP or vehicle solvents were sprayed Into the pens of Individually housed adult sows. A two-week exposure to the pheromone did not alter basal salivary Cortisol levels or clrcadlan rhythms. Following this treatment, the animals were paired and placed In a new pen that was divided with a wire-mesh fence. Although salivary cortisol Increased markedly In the vehicle-treated group, the PAP-treated group exhibited a drastic Inhibition of cortisol secretion. This effect was sustained even after they were allowed to physically Interact following fence removal. Moreover, the latency time of agonistic behaviors, such as escaping or biting, was significantly extended after PAP exposure. When lipopolysaccharide was Injected Intramuscularly, Cortisol levels, rectal temperatures, and lying time lengths Increased substantially. No differences were observed between the pheromone-treated and untreated groups. These results suggest that this synthetic pheromone alleviates social stress In adult pigs, although It does not affect Immune stress responses. Our findings demonstrate the potential benefit of this pheromone In field applications and clinical disciplines relating to adult female pigs.
Evans, Sarah E.; Steel, Anne; DiLillo, David
Objectives The current study investigates the moderating effect of perceived social support on associations between child maltreatment severity and adult trauma symptoms. We extend the existing literature by examining the roles of severity of multiple maltreatment types (i.e., sexual, physical, and emotional abuse; physical and emotional neglect) and gender in this process. Methods The sample included 372 newlywed individuals recruited from marriage license records. Participants completed a number of self-report questionnaires measuring the nature and severity of child maltreatment history, perceived social support from friends and family, and trauma-related symptoms. These questionnaires were part of a larger study, investigating marital and intrapersonal functioning. We conducted separate, two-step hierarchical multiple regression models for perceived social support from family and perceived social support from friends. In each of these models, total trauma symptomatology was predicted from each child maltreatment severity variable, perceived social support, and the product of the two variables. In order to examine the role of gender, we conducted separate analyses for women and men. Results As hypothesized, increased severity of several maltreatment types (sexual abuse, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect) predicted greater trauma symptoms for both women and men, and increased physical abuse severity predicted greater trauma symptoms for women. Perceived social support from both family and friends predicted lower trauma symptoms across all levels of maltreatment for men. For women, greater perceived social support from friends, but not from family, predicted decreased trauma symptoms. Finally, among women, perceived social support from family interacted with child maltreatment such that, as the severity of maltreatment (physical and emotional abuse, emotional neglect) increased, the buffering effect of perceived social support from family on
Hinnen, Chris; Schreuder, Imke; Jong, Eefje; van Duijn, Miranda; Dahmen, Rutger; van Gorp, Eric C M
The present study investigated the relationship between adult attachment style and depressive symptomatology in patients with HIV. Moreover, perceived social support was investigated as a potential mediator between adult attachment and depressive symptoms. A sample of 233 HIV-infected patients (90% male) completed questionnaires assessing adult attachment style (Relationship Questionnaire), depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory), and perceived social support (Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey). After controlling for demographic and medical variables, an insecure adult attachment style was found to be strongly related with depressive symptoms. Half of the insecurely attached patients reported clinically elevated levels of distress, while one in nine securely attached patients reported elevated levels of distress (χ(2)=32.25, p=0.001). Moreover, the association between attachment style and depressive symptomatology was found to be partly mediated through perceived social support. This study strongly supports the notion that an insecure attachment style is a vulnerability factor for developing depressive symptoms that would warrant clinical attention when confronted with a chronic illness such as HIV. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.
Alea, Nicole; Arneaud, Mary Jane; Ali, Sideeka
The quality of functional autobiographical memories was examined in young, middle-aged, and older adult Trinidadians ("N" = 245). Participants wrote about an event that served a self, social, and directive function, and reported on the memory's quality (e.g., significance, vividness, valence, etc.). Across age groups, directive memories…
Malti, Tina; Buchmann, Marlis
Socialization and individual differences were examined as antecedents of moral motivation in representative samples of 15-year-old adolescents (N = 1,258; 54% female) and 21-year-old young adults (N = 584; 53% female). The adolescents' primary caregivers (N = 1,056) also participated. The strength of moral motivation was rated by participants'…
Hogeboom, David L.; McDermott, Robert J.; Perrin, Karen M.; Osman, Hana; Bell-Ellison, Bethany A.
In this study, the associations between Internet use and the social networks of adults over 50 years of age were examined. A sample (n = 2284) from the 2004 wave of the "Health and Retirement Survey" was used. In regression models considering a number of control variables, frequency of contact with friends, frequency of contact with family, and…
Paterson, Lucy; McKenzie, Karen; Lindsay, Bill
Background: The paper examines the perception of stigma in 43 adults with an intellectual disability, the relationship this has with their psychological well-being and whether the process of social comparison has a moderating effect on this relationship. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based, within-participant design was used. Participants…
Ferreira, Vanessa M.; Sherman, Aurora M.
Control beliefs and social relationships have been individually assessed in relation to adaptation to chronic illness, although only rarely together. Further, some control scales show psychometric limitations in older adult samples. To address these concerns, a scale assessing external control was created by factor analyzing the items from…
Szwedo, David E.; Mikami, Amori Yee; Allen, Joseph P.
This study examined youths' friendships and posted pictures on social networking sites as predictors of changes in their adjustment over time. Observational, self-report, and peer-report data were obtained from a community sample of 89 young adults interviewed at age 21 and again at age 22. Findings were consistent with a leveling effect for…
Canu, Will H.; Carlson, Caryn L.
Objective: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been consistently linked to social maladjustment. This study investigated whether elevated rejection sensitivity (RS) could contribute to the relational problems that adults with ADHD encounter. Method: Undergraduate men in ADHD-Combined Type (ADHD-C; n = 31), ADHD-Primarily…
Reviews three books that critique and compare the ideas of Gramsci and Freire: "Revolutionary Social Transformation: Democratic Hopes, Political Possibilities and Critical Education" (Paula Allman); "Radical Heroes: Gramsci, Freire and the Politics of Adult Education" (Diana Coben); and "Gramsci, Freire and Adult…
Rowe, Steven E.
This essay examines the formation, operation, and social effects of adult education classes in France during the nineteenth century. These classes were created and operated prior to the formation of France's national education system and were part of the expansion of primary schooling for the working class, or more generally for "the…
Henness, Steven A.; Ball, Anna L.; Moncheski, MaryJo
Using 4-H and FFA case study findings, this article explores how community service-learning supports the building of social capital between rural youth and adults and the positive effects on community viability. Key elements of practice form a community development approach to service-learning, which opens up doorways for youth to partner with…
Kilpi-Jakonen, Elina; de Vilhena, Daniela Vono; Blossfeld, Hans-Peter
Adult learning is an increasingly important form of education in globalised and aging societies. While current policy recommendations tend to focus on increasing participation rates, the authors of this article argue that higher participation rates do not necessarily lead to lower social/educational inequalities in participation. The aim of this…
Rook, Karen S.; Sorkin, Dara H.
This study examined the effects on older adults' psychological health of participation in a volunteer role that afforded opportunities to form friendships with age peers and to express nurturance toward another person. Access to these important social provisions was expected, in turn, to contribute to greater self-esteem, less loneliness, and less…
Koegel, Lynn Kern; Navab, Anahita; Ashbaugh, Kristen; Koegel, Robert L.
This study examined the effects of teaching the reframing of negative statements through self-management and video-feedback on social conversation in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A multiple baseline design across five participants showed that, following intervention, all were able to increase their positive and neutral statements…
Zhang, Li-fang; Higgins, Paul
The present study examines the predictive power of socialization variables for thinking styles among adults in the workplace. One hundred and seventeen managerial personnel (aged between 18 and 55 years) in England responded to the Thinking Styles Inventory-Revised based on Sternberg's theory of mental self-government and to questions concerning…
Eriks-Brophy, Alice; Durieux-Smith, Andree; Olds, Janet; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M.; Duquette, Cheryll; Whittingham, JoAnne
This manuscript reports on data collected as part of a larger research study designed to investigate factors that facilitate the integration of children with hearing loss into mainstream environments. Aspects of communicative, academic, and social functioning for 43 adolescents and young adults were examined using questionnaires. In addition,…
Kendall, Sophie; Cameron, Ailsa
In 2007, "self-directed support" was introduced in adult social care in England to establish choice and control--in the assessment process itself and over service provision--for "all" service users. The personalisation agenda is underpinned by a range of ideologies, particularly a civil rights empowerment approach and…
Belli, Stefano R.; Rogers, Robert D.; Lau, Jennifer Y. F.
Twenty-four adults (aged 19-35) and 27 adolescents (aged 13-14) played as "Trustee" in an iterated Trust Game against a pre-programmed set of "Investor" moves, said to belong to an unknown co-player. Trustee behaviour was examined first in response to normative Investor cooperation, and then in response to a period of social rupture caused by…
Hsieh, Kelly; Heller, Tamar; Freels, Sally
The present study examined the degree to which residential characteristics and social factors are associated with mortality, after controlling for personal characteristics, among adults with intellectual disabilities who have resided in nursing homes (facilities providing skilled care and related services) at baseline in the Chicago area. Initial…
Cincinnato, Sebastiano; De Wever, Bram; Van Keer, Hilde; Valcke, Martin
In this article, we address the issue of participation in adult education building on the cultural capital framework. This theoretical framework suggests that (educational) practices are affected by one's social background and, more precisely, by the cultural resources handed down in the family context. To examine the validity of this theoretical…
Dworkin, Robert H.; Widom, Cathy S.
Adult follow-up information on social outcome variables was obtained for males who had taken the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) during their junior year. Individuals with undergraduate profiles indicative of psychopathology differed significantly in marital and educational status when compared to the no-high-point group 10…
Hartley, Robyn; Horne, Jackie
This document was produced by the authors based on their research for the report, "Social and Economic Benefits of Improved Adult Literacy: Towards a Better Understanding," and is an added resource for further information. The original document is a feasibility study which explores the frameworks and methodologies available for…
Hassiotis, A.; Strydom, A.; Hall, I.; Ali, A.; Lawrence-Smith, G.; Meltzer, H.; Head, J; Bebbington, P.
Background: Approximately one-eighth of the population will have DSM-IV borderline intelligence. Various mental disorders and social disability are associated with it. Method: The paper uses data (secondary analysis) from a UK-wide cross-sectional survey of 8450 adults living in private households. Data were collected on psychiatric disorders,…
Torquati, Julia C.; Raffaelli, Marcela
This study examined daily emotions and social contexts of young adults who differed in global attachment style (secure vs. insecure). Sixty-nine college students (41% male, 59% female) completed self-report measures of attachment and provided time-sampling data on moods, companionship, and activities using the experience sampling method. Secure (n…
This literature review provides an overview of the main lines of discussion and enquiry around social capital and adult learning and literacy. It was written as a background paper for "The Centre for Literacy's 2010 Summer Institute" on workplace literacy and essential skills (LES). The Institute focus was "what…
The study evaluated the association of modernization (at the macro/societal-level) and modernity (at the micro/individual-level) with feelings towards older vs. younger adults. Analysis was based on the fourth wave of the European Social Survey, which includes a rotated module on ageism. The sample consisted of 28 countries and a total of 54,988…
Hanson, Meredith; Gutheil, Irene A.
Social workers and other health care professionals address problem drinking by older adults inconsistently. Reasons include client-related variables (for example, denial and poor information), practitioner-related factors (for example, inadequate knowledge about addictive behaviors, underdeveloped assessment tools, and limited empirically…
Lou, Vivian W. Q.
This study explores the relationship between the life satisfaction of older adults and the social support from grandchildren in Hong Kong. Two hundred and fifteen older people (from the ages of 64 to 101, mean age 79.3), whose youngest grandchild was aged 12 or older, were recruited from elderly service agencies to participate in the study.…
Angelaki, Christina; Mavroidis, Ilias
The aim of this work is to examine the role of communication and social presence in distance learning environments and their impact on the emotions of adult learners. A study was conducted at the Hellenic Open University (HOU), using a questionnaire that was completed by 94 undergraduate and postgraduate students. More than 94% of the students…
Sappok, Tanja; Brooks, Whitney; Heinrich, Manuel; McCarthy, Jane; Underwood, Lisa
Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is important throughout the lifespan. The objective was to investigate the transcultural diagnostic validity of the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) in a clinical sample of 451 adults with Intellectual Developmental Disorder (IDD) with and without ASD in Germany, the U.S.A. and Great Britain.…
Shooshtari, Shahin; Naghipur, Saba; Zhang, Jin
The authors sought to create a demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related profile of older (40+) Canadian adults with developmental disabilities (DD) residing in their communities, and to enhance current knowledge of their unmet health and social support services needs. They provide a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the 2001…
Rodríguez-Ábrego, Gabriela; Ramírez-Sánchez, Teresita Jesús; Torres-Cosme, José Luis
INTRODUCCIÓN: El envejecimiento poblacional incrementa la prevalencia de enfermedades crónicas. Esta morbilidad incide en los niveles de mortalidad relativamente altos y tiene efectos discapacitantes. Los indicadores clásicos de salud —esperanza de vida al nacer y tasa bruta de mortalidad— se complementan con la esperanza de vida libre de discapacidad (EVLD), cuya ventaja es la estandarización de los conceptos, las fuentes de información y los métodos de cálculo. En esta investigación se estima la esperanza de vida saludable en población adulta mayor con seguridad social en México. MÉTODOS: la esperanza de vida se estimó a partir del análisis de la mortalidad y construcción de tablas de vida de la población derechohabiente del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. Se utilizó el método de Chiang y se modificó la tabla de vida ajustada por la prevalencia de discapacidad mediante el método de Sullivan. Se resaltó el análisis de la esperanza de vida saludable, esperanza de vida libre de discapacidad y esperanza de vida con discapacidad en el adulto mayor.
Smeekens, I.; Didden, R.; Verhoeven, E. W. M.
Several studies indicate that autonomic and endocrine activity may be related to social functioning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), although the number of studies in adults is limited. The present study explored the relationship of autonomic and endocrine activity with social functioning in young adult males with ASD compared…
Hoff, Lutz; Hickling-Hudson, Anne
This paper explores the role of International Non-Governmental Organisations (INGOs) in adult education as one instrument of global civil society to effect social change. Postcolonial theory is utilized to explore the complex relationships between the concepts of "globalisation", "global civil, society", and "adult education for social change". In…
Oostveen, T; Knibbe, R; de Vries, H
This study aims to assess which types of social influence are correlated with young people's (15-24 years) heavy drinking (six or more glasses) in public drinking places during the weekend. Drinking in public drinking places can be defined as a "timeout" situation. Therefore we assumed that situational factors (e.g., importance of socializing and direct pressures on drinking) would contribute more to the explained variance than variables indicating cognitive social influences (e.g., social norms and modeling). Stepwise regression analyses showed that in total 25% of the variance was explained by social norms of family and peers (15%), importance of socializing in drinking situations (7%), modeling (2%) and group size (1%). The results show that both a cognitive factor and a situational factor appear to be most strongly correlated with young people's frequency of heavy drinking in public drinking places. Within the category of situational influences those variables indicating direct social pressures were only weakly related or not significant. Studies focusing on measuring the impact of social influences may profit from including the concept of the importance of socializing and conformity as an additional factor.
To better understand the human mind from an evolutionary perspective, a great deal of research has focused on the closest living relative of humans, the chimpanzee, using various approaches, including studies of social intelligence. Here, I review recent research related to several aspects of social intelligence, including deception, understanding of perception and intention, social learning, trading, cooperation, and regard for others. Many studies have demonstrated that chimpanzees are proficient in using their social intelligence for selfish motives to benefit from their interactions with others. In contrast, it is not yet clear whether chimpanzees engage in prosocial behaviors that benefit others; however, chimpanzee mother-infant interactions indicate the possibility of such behaviors. Therefore, I propose that chimpanzees possess rudimentary traits of human mental competence not only in terms of theory of mind in a broader sense but also in terms of prosociality involving regard for others. Mother-infant interactions appear to be particularly important to understanding the manifestation of social intelligence from an evolutionary perspective.
Eack, Shaun M; Bahorik, Amber L; McKnight, Summer A F; Hogarty, Susan S; Greenwald, Deborah P; Newhill, Christina E; Phillips, Mary L; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Minshew, Nancy J
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia are both conditions that are characterized by impairments in social and non-social cognition, yet commonalities in the magnitude and domains of cognitive deficits across these two conditions remain unclear. This study examined neurocognitive and social-cognitive functioning in 47 outpatients with schizophrenia, 43 verbal adults with ASD, and 24 healthy volunteers. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery assessing processing speed, attention, memory, and problem-solving domains was administered along with a social-cognitive battery of emotion processing. Results demonstrated large and significant impairments in emotion processing and neurocognition relative to healthy individuals in participants with autism (d=-.97 and -1.71, respectively) and schizophrenia (d=-.65 and -1.48, respectively). No significant differences were observed between those with ASD and schizophrenia on any cognitive domain assessed, and the areas of greatest impairment were identical across both disorders and included slowness in speed of processing and an inability to understand emotions. These findings indicate a high degree of similarity in the cognitive challenges experienced by verbal adults with autism and schizophrenia, and the potential need for trans-diagnostic remediation approaches to enhance cognition in these conditions.
In this article I examine how young adults used social comparisons in research interviews about their experiences of chronic illness. The interviews were originally conducted not only to provide data for academic analysis but also to generate experiential accounts for publication online as part of an Internet-based health information resource for patients, professionals, and the public wanting to learn about people's real-life experiences of illness in the United Kingdom. Through secondary analysis of these data, I show how the young adults used various social comparisons to represent themselves and their experiences to the target audience. Two new concepts-analogues and foils-are introduced to describe how the young adults likened themselves to, and contrasted themselves with, different reference groups in their accounts. Through these and related strategies, they created positive renditions of their experiences for the audience, helping to inform and support others in the process.
Kramer, D; Stronks, K; Maas, J; Wingen, M; Kunst, A E
Studies on the relation between the social neighborhood environment and sports participation have produced inconsistent results. Use of generic sports outcomes may have obscured associations only apparent for sports at certain locations. This study aims to assess the association between the social neighborhood environment and three location-specific sports outcomes. Repeated cross-sectional data on sports participation (any type of sports, sports at indoor sports clubs, sports at outdoor sports clubs, sports on streets) were obtained from 20 600 adults using the Dutch national health survey 2006-2009. Data on neighborhood social safety and social capital were obtained using the Dutch Housing Research 2006. Over 40% of Dutch adults participated in any type of sports. Indoor sports clubs were most popular. Multilevel logistic regression analyses revealed that neighborhood social safety was positively associated with sports at indoor sports clubs [odds ratio (OR) = 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.48), but not with the other sports outcomes. Contrary, neighborhood social capital was positively associated with sports on streets only (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.17-2.44). The results suggest that a positive social neighborhood environment enhances sports participation, but that this impact depends on the location of the sports activity. This study highlights the importance of using location-specific sports outcomes when assessing environmental determinants.
Lavrencic, Louise M; Kurylowicz, Lisa; Valenzuela, Michael J; Churches, Owen F; Keage, Hannah A D
Social and general cognitive abilities decline in late life. Those with high cognitive reserve display better general cognitive performance in old age; however, it is unknown whether this is also the case for social cognition. A total of 115 healthy older adults, aged 60-85 years (m = 44, f = 71) were assessed using The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT-R; social cognition), the Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire (LEQ; cognitive reserve), and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI-II; general cognitive ability). The LEQ did not predict performance on any TASIT-R subtest: Emotion Evaluation Test (β = -.097, p = .325), Social Inference - Minimal (β = -.004, p = .972), or Social Inference - Enriched (β = -.016, p = .878). Sensitivity analyses using two alternative cognitive reserve measures, years of education and the National Adult Reading Test, supported these effects. Cognitive reserve was strongly related to WASI-II performance. Unlike general cognitive ability, social cognition appears unaffected by cognitive reserve. Findings contribute to the emerging understanding that cognitive reserve differentially affects individual cognitive domains, which has implications for the theoretical understanding of cognitive reserve and its brain correlates. Cognitive measures unbiased by cognitive reserve may serve as best indicators of brain health, free of compensatory mechanisms.
Roberts, Nicole A.; Burleson, Mary H.
Cultural and ethnic identities influence the relationships individuals seek out and how they feel and behave in these relationships, which can strongly affect mental and physical health through their impacts on emotions, physiology, and behavior. We proposed and tested a model in which ethnocultural identifications and ingroup affiliations were hypothesized explicitly to enhance social connectedness, which would in turn promote expectancy for effective regulation of negative emotions and reduce self-reported symptoms of depression and anxiety. Our sample comprised women aged 18–30 currently attending college in the Southwestern US, who self-identified as Hispanic of Mexican descent (MAs; n = 82) or as non-Hispanic White/European American (EAs; n = 234) and who completed an online survey. In the full sample and in each subgroup, stronger ethnocultural group identity and greater comfort with mainstream American culture were associated with higher social connectedness, which in turn was associated with expectancy for more effective regulation of negative emotions, fewer depressive symptoms, and less anxiety. Unexpectedly, preference for ingroup affiliation predicted lower social connectedness in both groups. In addition to indirect effects through social connection, direct paths from mainstream comfort and preference for ingroup affiliation to emotion regulation expectancy were found for EAs. Models of our data underscore that social connection is a central mechanism through which ethnocultural identities—including with one's own group and the mainstream cultural group—relate to mental health, and that emotion regulation may be a key aspect of this linkage. We use the term ethnocultural social connection to make explicit a process that, we believe, has been implied in the ethnic identity literature for many years, and that may have consequential implications for mental health and conceptualizations of processes underlying mental disorders. PMID:23450647
Yeom, Hye A; Fleury, Julie; Keller, Colleen
Although a variety of risk factors for mobility limitation in older adults have been examined, a collective review of relevant literature has not been reported. The purposes of this review are to report the intrapersonal, interpersonal, environmental, and organizational risk factors related to mobility limitation using a social ecological perspective and to discuss the direction of future clinical practice consistent with current literature on mobility limitation of community-dwelling older adults. Intrapersonal risk factors related to mobility limitation include advanced age, female gender, low socioeconomic status, comorbidity, lack of motivation (i.e., dependent personality, decreased self-efficacy), lifestyle factors (i.e., sedentary lifestyle, smoking, obesity), and physiological factors (i.e., vitamin D deficiency, inflammation, poor nutritional status). Interpersonal risk factors related to mobility limitation include weak social networks and limited social activities. Geriatric clients may also experience a decline in mobility when they encounter environmental challenges such as an inconvenient home environment and lack of availability of services in their community, as well as lack of organizational resources stemming from social policy. Potential intervention strategies focused on modifiable risk factors may include lifestyle modifications, social networking programs, and enhancing awareness of environmental and organizational resources in the community for older adults at risk for mobility limitation.
Hamilton, Derek A; Magcalas, Christy M; Barto, Daniel; Bird, Clark W; Rodriguez, Carlos I; Fink, Brandi C; Pellis, Sergio M; Davies, Suzy; Savage, Daniel D
Alterations in social behavior are among the major negative consequences observed in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs). Several independent laboratories have demonstrated robust alterations in the social behavior of rodents exposed to alcohol during brain development across a wide range of exposure durations, timing, doses, and ages at the time of behavioral quantification. Prior work from this laboratory has identified reliable alterations in specific forms of social interaction following moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat that persist well into adulthood, including increased wrestling and decreased investigation. These behavioral alterations have been useful in identifying neural circuits altered by moderate PAE(1), and may hold importance for progressing toward a more complete understanding of the neural bases of PAE-related alterations in social behavior. This paper describes procedures for performing moderate PAE in which rat dams voluntarily consume ethanol or saccharin (control) throughout gestation, and measurement of social behaviors in adult offspring.
Background Social networks play a key role in caring for older adults. A better understanding of the characteristics of different social networks types (TSNs) in a given community provides useful information for designing policies to care for this age group. Therefore this study has three objectives: 1) To derive the TSNs among older adults affiliated with the Mexican Institute of Social Security; 2) To describe the main characteristics of the older adults in each TSN, including the instrumental and economic support they receive and their satisfaction with the network; 3) To determine the association between functional dependency and the type of social network. Methods Secondary data analysis of the 2006 Survey of Autonomy and Dependency (N = 3,348). The TSNs were identified using the structural approach and cluster analysis. The association between functional dependency and the TSNs was evaluated with Poisson regression with robust variance analysis in which socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and medical history covariates were included. Results We identified five TSNs: diverse with community participation (12.1%), diverse without community participation (44.3%); widowed (32.0%); nonfriends-restricted (7.6%); nonfamily-restricted (4.0%). Older adults belonging to widowed and restricted networks showed a higher proportion of dependency, negative self-rated health and depression. Older adults with functional dependency more likely belonged to a widowed network (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.5; 95%CI: 1.1-2.1). Conclusion The derived TSNs were similar to those described in developed countries. However, we identified the existence of a diverse network without community participation and a widowed network that have not been previously described. These TSNs and restricted networks represent a potential unmet need of social security affiliates. PMID:20187973
de Greef, Maurice; Segers, Mien; Verte, Dominique
To date, hardly any evidence is available on the quality of adult education programs for vulnerable adults. Evaluation instruments or models mostly focussed on regular education and less on programs of adult education aiming to enhance social inclusion. This study presents a first exploration of the construct validity of a newly developed…
Endeshaw, Yohannes W.; Yoo, Wonsuk
Objective To examine the association between organized social activity, walking exercise, and insomnia symptoms. Material and Method Data for analysis are derived from the National Health Aging Trends Study (NHATS). At baseline, demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, health-related behaviors, sleep-related problems, and health status were assessed using questionnaires. Results Data for 7,162 community-dwelling older adults were available for analysis. Difficulty falling asleep, trouble staying asleep, and both insomnia symptoms were reported by 12%, 5%, and 11% of the participants, respectively. The proportion of participants who reported engaging in organized social activity, walking exercise, and both activities were 11%, 35%, and 26%, respectively. Participants who reported engaging in organized social activity and/or walking exercise were significantly less likely to report insomnia symptoms. Conclusion These results have important implications for future studies that plan to implement nonpharmacological interventions for management of insomnia among older adults. PMID:26690253
Durisko, Zachary; Anderson, Blake; Dukas, Reuven
We investigated whether adult fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) use cues of larvae as social information in their food patch choice decisions. Adult male and female fruit flies showed attraction to odours emanating from foraging larvae, and females preferred to lay eggs on food patches occupied by larvae over similar unoccupied patches. Females learned and subsequently preferred to lay eggs at patches with novel flavours previously associated with feeding larvae over patches with novel flavours previously associated with no larvae. However, when we controlled for the duration of exposure to each flavoured patch, females no longer preferred the flavour previously associated with feeding larvae. This suggests that social learning in this context is indirect, as a result of strong social attraction biasing experience.
Fattori, Francesco; Curly, Simone; Jörchel, Amrei C.; Pozzi, Maura; Mihalits, Dominik; Alfieri, Sara
Obedience and disobedience have always been salient issues for both civil society and social psychologists. Since Milgram’s first studies on destructive obedience there has not been a bottom-up definition of what obedience and disobedience mean. The current study aimed at investigating the social representations young adults use to define and to co-construct knowledge about obedience and disobedience in Austria. One hundred fifty four (106 females, 68.8%) Austrian young adults (Mean age = 22.9; SD = 3.5) completed a mixed-method questionnaire comprising open-ended questions and free word associations. Overall obedience and disobedience are respectively defined as conformity and non-conformity to regulations, ranging from implicit social norms to explicit formal laws. Authority is multi-faceted and has a central role in orienting obedience and disobedience. Further fundamental determinants of the authority relationship and relevant application of the results are discussed in this paper. PMID:27247652
Samara, Anna; Smith, Kenny; Brown, Helen; Wonnacott, Elizabeth
Languages exhibit sociolinguistic variation, such that adult native speakers condition the usage of linguistic variants on social context, gender, and ethnicity, among other cues. While the existence of this kind of socially conditioned variation is well-established, less is known about how it is acquired. Studies of naturalistic language use by children provide various examples where children's production of sociolinguistic variants appears to be conditioned on similar factors to adults' production, but it is difficult to determine whether this reflects knowledge of sociolinguistic conditioning or systematic differences in the input to children from different social groups. Furthermore, artificial language learning experiments have shown that children have a tendency to eliminate variation, a process which could potentially work against their acquisition of sociolinguistic variation. The current study used a semi-artificial language learning paradigm to investigate learning of the sociolinguistic cue of speaker identity in 6-year-olds and adults. Participants were trained and tested on an artificial language where nouns were obligatorily followed by one of two meaningless particles and were produced by one of two speakers (one male, one female). Particle usage was conditioned deterministically on speaker identity (Experiment 1), probabilistically (Experiment 2), or not at all (Experiment 3). Participants were given tests of production and comprehension. In Experiments 1 and 2, both children and adults successfully acquired the speaker identity cue, although the effect was stronger for adults and in Experiment 1. In addition, in all three experiments, there was evidence of regularization in participants' productions, although the type of regularization differed with age: children showed regularization by boosting the frequency of one particle at the expense of the other, while adults regularized by conditioning particle usage on lexical items. Overall, results
Extensive research documents powerful relationships between humans and companion animals, and 62 percent of U. S. households report having a companion animal. Social workers are likely to work with individuals and families with companion animals; thus, the inclusion of such animals in both practice and research as a natural extension of social…
Kontos, Emily Z.; Emmons, Karen M.; Puleo, Elaine; Viswanath, K.
Background Social media, and specifically social networking sites (SNS), are emerging as an important platform for communication and health information exchange. Yet, despite the increase in popularity and use, only a limited number of empirical studies document which segments of the adult population are and are not using social networking sites and with what, if any, affect on health. Methods The purpose of this study is to identify potential communication inequalities in social networking site use among a representative sample of US adults and to examine the association between SNS-use and psychological well-being. We analyzed data from the National Cancer Institute’s 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Results Thirty-five percent of online adults reported SNS-use within the past 12 months, and; there were no significant differences in SNS-use by race/ethnicity or socio-economic position. Younger age (p=.00) was the most significant predictor of SNS-use while being married (p=.02) and having a history of cancer (p=.02) were associated with a decreased odds of SNS-use. Social networking site use was significantly associated with a 0.80 (p=.00) increment in psychological distress score after controlling for other factors. Conclusion The absence of inequalities in adult SNS-use across race/ethnicity and class offers some support for the continued use of social media to promote public health efforts; however, issues such as the persisting Digital Divide and potential deleterious effects of SNS-use on psychological well-being need to be addressed. PMID:21154095
Burgio, Maria R.; Tryanski, Mandy
Some research suggests that sources of social support change through the lifespan. Given that the support network changes because of both the individual's needs and the particular life stage of the individual, peer relationships may emerge as crucial sources of emotional support at different times in the lifespan. This study examined friend and…
Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Lim, Lynette; Sleigh, Adrian
Social capital includes collective features such as social trust, norms, and networks. This paper examines social capital-related variables against demographic, socioeconomic and geographic characteristics of 87,134 adult distance-learning students from Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University. We have found economic stress to be higher in non-married groups, lower income groups, and those residing in rural areas. Social trust was higher among married, especially with higher income and those in rural areas. Those who were separated, divorced or widowed and those with lower socioeconomic status had the highest economic stress and the least social trust. These groups also reported high importance of religious belief, karma and spiritual belief, along with lower income groups. Despite having high economic stress, social interaction with and support from families were found to be high among those not-married, with lower income, and in rural areas. As Thailand urbanises and progresses economically, diverse patterns of social capital have emerged and some changes might have offset others. For example, we have shown that economic stress associated with low income tends to co-occur with high social interaction and family support. This observation should be reassuring to policymakers aiming to preserve and promote social capital as Thailand continues to urbanise and modernise. PMID:22003268
Intravia, Jonathan; Jones, Shayne; Piquero, Alex R
Hirschi's reconceptualized control theory suggests that social bonds serve as the primary inhibitors to delinquency and that personality-based self-control (PBSC) is not relevant. He also indicates that the number of inhibitors, multiplied by their salience, influences the perceived costs of delinquency. These claims have not been widely tested. Using a large, school-based sample of adolescents, the authors test Hirschi's reconceptualization and find that certain inhibitors (e.g., parental monitoring) are more important than others (e.g., maternal attachment). There are also unique types of costs (e.g., parental costs, peer costs) with differential impacts. Salience exerts a main effect, but there was little evidence to suggest it interacts with costs. Finally, PBSC has the strongest effect. These findings not only offer support for some of Hirschi's claims but also provide directions to better formulate a more comprehensive and empirically supported control theory.
Ahn, SangNam; Kim, Seonghoon; Zhang, Hongmei
Depression severely affects older adults in the United States. As part of the social environment, significant social support was suggested to ameliorate depression among older adults. We investigate how varying forms of social support moderate depressive symptomatology among older adults with multiple chronic conditions (MCC). Data were analyzed using a sample of 11,400 adults, aged 65 years or older, from the 2006-2012 Health and Retirement Study. The current study investigated the moderating effects of positive or negative social support from spouse, children, other family, and friends on the association between MCC and depression. A linear mixed model with repeated measures was used to estimate the effect of MCC on depression and its interactions with positive and negative social support in explaining depression among older adults. Varying forms of social support played different moderating roles in depressive symptomatology among older adults with MCC. Positive spousal support significantly weakened the deleterious effect of MCC on depression. Conversely, all negative social support from spouse, children, other family, and friends significantly strengthened the deleterious effect of MCC on depression. Minimizing negative social support and maximizing positive spousal support can reduce depression caused by MCC and lead to successful aging among older adults.
Ahn, SangNam; Kim, Seonghoon; Zhang, Hongmei
Depression severely affects older adults in the United States. As part of the social environment, significant social support was suggested to ameliorate depression among older adults. We investigate how varying forms of social support moderate depressive symptomatology among older adults with multiple chronic conditions (MCC). Data were analyzed using a sample of 11,400 adults, aged 65 years or older, from the 2006–2012 Health and Retirement Study. The current study investigated the moderating effects of positive or negative social support from spouse, children, other family, and friends on the association between MCC and depression. A linear mixed model with repeated measures was used to estimate the effect of MCC on depression and its interactions with positive and negative social support in explaining depression among older adults. Varying forms of social support played different moderating roles in depressive symptomatology among older adults with MCC. Positive spousal support significantly weakened the deleterious effect of MCC on depression. Conversely, all negative social support from spouse, children, other family, and friends significantly strengthened the deleterious effect of MCC on depression. Minimizing negative social support and maximizing positive spousal support can reduce depression caused by MCC and lead to successful aging among older adults. PMID:28035968
Rand, Stacey; Malley, Juliette
Informal carers make a vital contribution to the well-being of the people they care for or look after. Against the policy background in England, the purpose of this study was to explore the views of carers who are in contact with adult social care support services. A qualitative study with 31 carers, who were recruited via local authorities and carers' organisations, was conducted between April and July 2012 to collect data on carers' experiences and perceptions of their quality of life (QoL) with and without adult social care and support for themselves or the person they look after. Through framework analysis, three key themes were identified: (i) definitions of social care services 'for' the carer or 'for' care recipient and social care outcomes; (ii) carers' access to social care services; and (iii) the meaning and value of informal care. We find that carers' QoL is affected by social care support directed at carers and support directed at those they care for, as well as access to services, the experience of stigma in communities, and in how individual needs and preferences are considered when making decisions about care. While there is much to welcome in the direction of policy in England, this study has shown that there are some gaps in thinking around these areas that will need to be addressed if the lives of carers are to be improved.
Pu, Shenghong; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Yamada, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Katsutoshi; Matsumura, Hiroshi; Mitani, Hideaki; Adachi, Akiko; Kaneko, Koichi
Social functioning has received widespread attention as one of the most important outcomes in psychiatric disorders and has been related to cognitive functioning and the underlying brain activity. Cognitive decline, however, appears not only in the psychiatric population but also in aged individuals. In our previous study, we demonstrated a significant relationship between social functioning and prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity in patients with depression. However, it has not been shown whether the above relationship could be extended to healthy populations. The purpose of the present study was to investigate a possible association between social functioning and prefrontal hemodynamic responses in healthy elderly adults by using a non-invasive and low-constraint functional neuroimaging technique, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Study subjects included 55 healthy, elderly volunteers. We measured hemodynamic responses over prefrontal cortical (PFC) areas during the verbal fluency task by using multi-channel NIRS and analyzed the relationship between task-associated hemodynamic responses and social functioning as measured by the social adaptation self-evaluation scale (SASS). A significant positive relationship was observed between the SASS total score and PFC activation. Our findings suggest that PFC activation is associated with social functioning in healthy elderly adults. Furthermore, hemodynamic responses assessed using non-invasive NIRS could be a useful biological marker of these characteristics.
This paper discusses the impact of life history and everyday life in the context of training unskilled adults for social work in Denmark. It describes origins of these two texts used as empirical material: a discussion by a group of long-term unemployed skilled adult male workers who went through a 2-year training program to obtain permanent…
In two experiments we examined the influence of contingent versus non-contingent responding on infant social referencing behavior. EXPERIMENT 1: Forty 12-month-old infants were exposed to an ambiguous toy in a social referencing situation. In one condition an unfamiliar adult who in a previous play situation had responded contingently to the infant's looks gave the infant positive information about the toy. In the other condition an unfamiliar adult who previously had not responded contingently delivered the positive information. EXPERIMENT 2: Forty-eight 12-month-old infants participated in Experiment 2. In this experiment it was examined whether the familiarity of the adult influences infants' reactions to contingency in responding. In one condition a parent who previously had responded contingently to the infant's looks provided positive information about the ambiguous toy, and in the other condition a parent who previously had not responded contingently provided the positive information. The infants looked more at the contingent experimenter in Experimenter 1, and also played more with the toy after receiving positive information from the contingent experimenter. No differences in looking at the parent and in playing with the toy were found in Experiment 2. The results indicate that contingency in responding, as well as the familiarity of the adult, influence infants' social referencing behavior.
Belli, Stefano R; Rogers, Robert D; Lau, Jennifer Y F
Twenty-four adults (aged 19-35) and 27 adolescents (aged 13-14) played as 'Trustee' in an iterated Trust Game against a pre-programmed set of 'Investor' moves, said to belong to an unknown co-player. Trustee behaviour was examined first in response to normative Investor cooperation, and then in response to a period of social rupture caused by reduced investments. Adolescents were motivated by inequity aversion during normative Investor cooperation, whereas adults over-compensated the Investor. Participants were also identified as coaxers or non-coaxers based on how they responded to social rupture: 'coaxers' were individuals who made at least one relatively generous return to the Investor during this phase. A single coaxing move predicted consistently higher returns to Investors across both normative and reduced investments. Adults showed greater polarisation between coaxing and non-coaxing strategies than did adolescents. These data suggest that adults and adolescents may respond differently to periods of possible social rupture.
Weintraub, Ari; Singaravelu, Janani; Bhatnagar, Seema
In adolescence, gender differences in rates of affective disorders emerge. For both adolescent boys and girls, peer relationships are the primary source of life stressors though adolescent girls are more sensitive to such stressors. Social stressors are also powerful stressors for non-human social species like rodents. In a rat model, we examined how social isolation during adolescence impacts stress reactivity and specific neural substrates in adult male and female rats. Rats were isolated during adolescence by single housing from day 30 to 50 of age and control rats were group housed. On day 50, isolated rats and control rats were re-housed in same-treatment same-sex groups. Adult female rats isolated as adolescents exhibited increased adrenal responses to acute and to repeated stress and exhibited increased hypothalamic vasopressin mRNA and BDNF mRNA in the CA3 hippocampal subfield. In contrast, adult male rats isolated as adolescents exhibited a lower corticosterone response to acute stress, exhibited a reduced state of anxiety as assessed in the elevated plus maze and reduced Orexin mRNA compared to adult males group-housed as adolescents. These data point to a markedly different impact of isolation experienced in adolescence on endocrine and behavioral endpoints in males compared to females and identify specific neural substrates that may mediate the long-lasting effects of stress in adolescence.
Murayama, Hiroshi; Nishi, Mariko; Matsuo, Eri; Nofuji, Yu; Shimizu, Yumiko; Taniguchi, Yu; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Shinkai, Shoji
Little is known regarding the longitudinal effects of bonding and bridging social capital on health. This study examined the longitudinal associations of bonding and bridging social capital with self-rated health, depressive mood, and cognitive decline in community-dwelling older Japanese. Data analyzed in this study were from the 2010 (baseline) and 2012 (follow-up) Hatoyama Cohort Study. Bonding social capital was assessed by individual perception of homogeneity of the neighborhood (the level of homogeneity among neighbors) and of networks (the amount of homogeneous personal networks) in relation to age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Bridging social capital was assessed by individual perception of heterogeneity of networks (the amount of heterogeneous personal networks) in relation to age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the effects of baseline social capital on poor health outcome at follow-up by logistic regression analysis. In total, 681 people completed baseline and follow-up surveys. The mean age of participants was 71.8 ± 5.1 years, and 57.9% were male. After adjusting for sociodemographics, lifestyle factors, comorbidity, functional capacity, baseline score of each outcome, and other bonding/bridging social capital, stronger perceived neighborhood homogeneity was inversely associated with poor self-rated health (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.30-1.00) and depressive mood assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.34-0.99). When participants who reported a depressive mood at baseline were excluded, stronger perceived heterogeneous network was inversely associated with depressive mood (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.19-0.87). Neither bonding nor bridging social capital was significantly associated with cognitive decline assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination. In conclusion, bonding and bridging social capital affect health in different ways, but they both have
Bershad, Anya K; Seiden, Jacob A; de Wit, Harriet
In addition to its classical role in mediating responses to pain, the opioid system is strongly implicated in the regulation of social behavior. In young laboratory animals, low doses of opioid analgesic drugs reduce responses to isolation distress and increase play behavior. However, little is known about how opioid drugs affect responses to social stimuli in humans. Here we examined the effects of buprenorphine, a mu-opioid partial agonist and kappa-antagonist, on three dimensions of social processing: (i) responses to simulated social rejection, (ii) attention to emotional facial expressions, and (iii) emotional responses to images with and without social content. Healthy adults (N=36) attended two sessions during which they received either placebo or 0.2mg sublingual buprenorphine in randomized order, under double-blind conditions. Ninety minutes after drug administration, they completed three behavioral tasks: (i) a virtual ball-toss game in which they were first included and then excluded by the other players; (ii) an attention task in which they were shown pairs of faces (one emotional and one neutral), while the direction of their gazes was recorded using electrooculography, and (iii) a picture-viewing task, in which they rated standardized images with and without social content. During the ball-toss game, buprenorphine decreased perceived social rejection. During the attention task, the drug reduced initial attention to fearful facial expressions, without influencing attention to angry, happy, or sad faces. Finally, during the picture-viewing task, buprenorphine increased ratings of positivity of images with social content without affecting ratings of nonsocial images. These results suggest that even at low doses, opioid analgesic drugs reduce responses to some types of negative social stimuli while enhancing positive responses to social stimuli. This provides further support for the role of the opioid system in mediating responses to social rejection and
Bershad, Anya K.; Seiden, Jacob A.; de Wit, Harriet
In addition to its classical role in mediating responses to pain, the opioid system is strongly implicated in the regulation of social behavior. In young laboratory animals, low doses of opioid analgesic drugs reduce responses to isolation distress and increase play behavior. However, little is known about how opioid drugs affect responses to social stimuli in humans. Here we examined the effects of buprenorphine, a mu-opioid partial agonist and kappa-antagonist, on three dimensions of social processing; i) responses to simulated social rejection, ii) attention to emotional facial expressions, and iii) emotional responses to images with and without social content. Healthy adults (N = 36) attended two sessions during which they received either placebo or 0.2mg sublingual buprenorphine in randomized order, under double-blind conditions. Ninety minutes after drug administration, they completed three behavioral tasks: i) a virtual ball-toss game in which they were first included and then excluded by the other players; ii) an attention task in which they were shown pairs of faces (one emotional and one neutral), while the direction of their gazes was recorded using electrooculography, and iii) a picture-viewing task, in which they rated standardized images with and without social content. During the ball-toss game, buprenorphine decreased perceived social rejection. During the attention task, the drug reduced initial attention to fearful facial expressions, without influencing attention to angry, happy, and sad faces. Finally, during the picture-viewing task, buprenorphine increased ratings of positivity of images with social content, without affecting ratings of nonsocial images. These results suggest that even at low doses, opioid analgesic drugs reduce responses to some types of negative social stimuli, while enhancing positive responses to social stimuli. This provides further support for the role of the opioid system in mediating responses to social rejection and
Mathis, Arlesia; Rooks, Ronica; Kruger, Daniel
Objective: By 2030, older adults will account for 20% of the U.S. population. Over 80% of older adults live in urban areas. This study examines associations between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) among urban older adults. Methods: We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ living in a deindustrialized Midwestern city who answered questions on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. The relationship between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) was analyzed using regression and GIS models. Neighborhood variables included social support and participation, perceived racism and crime. Additional models included actual crime indices to compare differences between perceived and actual crime. Results: Seniors who have poor SRH are 21% more likely to report fear of crime than seniors with excellent SRH (p = 0.01). Additional analyses revealed Black seniors are 7% less likely to participate in social activities (p = 0.005) and 4% more likely to report experiencing racism (p < 0.001). Discussion: Given the increasing numbers of older adults living in urban neighborhoods, studies such as this one are important for well-being among seniors. Mitigating environmental influences in the neighborhood which are associated with poor SRH may allow urban older adults to maintain health and reduce disability. PMID:26703659
Brennan-Ing, Mark; Seidel, Liz; Larson, Britta; Karpiak, Stephen E
Research on service needs among older adults rarely addresses the special circumstances of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals, such as their reliance on friend-centered social networks or the experience of discrimination from service providers. Limited data suggests that older LGBT adults underutilize health and social services that are important in maintaining independence and quality of life. This study explored the social care networks of this population using a mixed-methods approach. Data were obtained from 210 LGBT older adults. The average age was 60 years, and 71% were men, 24% were women, and 5% were transgender or intersex. One-third was Black, and 62% were Caucasian. Quantitative assessments found high levels of morbidity and friend-centered support networks. Need for and use of services was frequently reported. Content analysis revealed unmet needs for basic supports, including housing, economic supports, and help with entitlements. Limited opportunities for socialization were strongly expressed, particularly among older lesbians. Implications for senior programs and policies are discussed.
Wong, Janine W Y; Meunier, Joël; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias
Kin recognition is a key mechanism to direct social behaviours towards related individuals or avoid inbreeding depression. In insects, recognition is generally mediated by cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) compounds, which are partly inherited from parents. However, in social insects, potential nepotistic conflicts between group members from different patrilines are predicted to select against the expression of patriline-specific signatures in CHC profiles. Whereas this key prediction in the evolution of insect signalling received empirical support in eusocial insects, it remains unclear whether it can be generalized beyond eusociality to less-derived forms of social life. Here, we addressed this issue by manipulating the number of fathers siring clutches tended by females of the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, analysing the CHC profiles of the resulting juvenile and adult offspring, and using discriminant analysis to estimate the information content of CHC with respect to the maternal and paternal origin of individuals. As predicted, if paternally inherited cues are concealed during family life, increases in mating number had no effect on information content of CHC profiles among earwig juveniles, but significantly decreased the one among adult offspring. We suggest that age-dependent expression of patriline-specific cues evolved to limit the risks of nepotism as family-living juveniles and favour sibling-mating avoidance as group-living adults. These results highlight the role of parental care and social life in the evolution of chemical communication and recognition cues.
Ayotte, Brian J; Allaire, Jason C; Whitfield, Keith E
Social support and functional ability are related to a number of outcomes in later life among African Americans, including cognitive performance. This study examined how providing and receiving social support was related to fluid and crystallized cognitive abilities among aging African American adults after accounting for functional limitations, age, education, sex, income, and self-reported health. Data from 602 African American adults (M = 69.08, SD = 9.74; 25% male) were analyzed using latent variable modeling. Fluid ability was a second-order factor indicated by measures that assessed verbal memory, working memory, perceptual speed, and inductive reasoning. Crystallized ability was a first-order factor indicated by three measures that assessed vocabulary (Shipley Verbal Meaning Test and parts A and B of the ETS Vocabulary Test). Results indicated that the receipt of social support was negatively related to both fluid and crystallized abilities, while the provision of support was positively related to fluid and crystallized ability. Follow-up tests found that the receipt of support was more strongly related to fluid ability than crystallized ability. There was no significant difference regarding the relationship of provision of support with fluid ability compared to crystallized ability. Results discuss the importance of considering the social context of older adults when examining cognitive ability.
Kontos, Emily Z; Emmons, Karen M; Puleo, Elaine; Viswanath, K
Social media, and specifically social networking sites (SNSs), are emerging as an important platform for communication and health information exchange. Yet, despite the increase in popularity and use, only a limited number of empirical studies document which segments of the adult population are and are not using social networking sites and with what, if any, affect on health. The purpose of this study is to identify potential communication inequalities in social networking site use among a representative sample of U.S. adults and to examine the association between SNS use and psychological well-being. We analyzed data from the National Cancer Institute's 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Thirty-five percent of online adults reported SNS use within the past 12 months, and there were no significant differences in SNS use by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic position. Younger age (p = .00) was the most significant predictor of SNS use, while being married (p = .02) and having a history of cancer (p = .02) were associated with a decreased odds of SNS use. SNS use was significantly associated with a 0.80 (p = .00) increment in psychological distress score after controlling for other factors. The absence of inequalities in adult SNS use across race/ethnicity and class offers some support for the continued use of social media to promote public health efforts; however, issues such as the persisting digital divide and potential deleterious effects of SNS use on psychological well-being need to be addressed.
Kashdan, Todd B; Farmer, Antonina S
The ability to recognize and label emotional experiences has been associated with well-being and adaptive functioning. This skill is particularly important in social situations, as emotions provide information about the state of relationships and help guide interpersonal decisions, such as whether to disclose personal information. Given the interpersonal difficulties linked to social anxiety disorder (SAD), deficient negative emotion differentiation may contribute to impairment in this population. We hypothesized that people with SAD would exhibit less negative emotion differentiation in daily life, and these differences would translate to impairment in social functioning. We recruited 43 people diagnosed with generalized SAD and 43 healthy adults to describe the emotions they experienced over 14 days. Participants received palmtop computers for responding to random prompts and describing naturalistic social interactions; to complete end-of-day diary entries, they used a secure online website. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients to capture the degree of differentiation of negative and positive emotions for each context (random moments, face-to-face social interactions, and end-of-day reflections). Compared to healthy controls, the SAD group exhibited less negative (but not positive) emotion differentiation during random prompts, social interactions, and (at trend level) end-of-day assessments. These differences could not be explained by emotion intensity or variability over the 14 days, or to comorbid depression or anxiety disorders. Our findings suggest that people with generalized SAD have deficits in clarifying specific negative emotions felt at a given point of time. These deficits may contribute to difficulties with effective emotion regulation and healthy social relationship functioning.
Kashdan, Todd B.; Farmer, Antonina S.
The ability to recognize and label emotional experiences has been associated with well-being and adaptive functioning. This skill is particularly important in social situations, as emotions provide information about the state of relationships and help guide interpersonal decisions, such as whether to disclose personal information. Given the interpersonal difficulties linked to social anxiety disorder (SAD), deficient negative emotion differentiation may contribute to impairment in this population. We hypothesized that people with SAD would exhibit less negative emotion differentiation in daily life, and these differences would translate to impairment in social functioning. We recruited 43 people diagnosed with generalized SAD and 43 healthy adults to describe the emotions they experienced over 14 days. Participants received palmtop computers for responding to random prompts and describing naturalistic social interactions; to complete end-of-day diary entries, they used a secure online website. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients to capture the degree of differentiation of negative and positive emotions for each context (random moments, face-to-face social interactions, and end-of-day reflections). Compared to healthy controls, the SAD group exhibited less negative (but not positive) emotion differentiation during random prompts, social interactions, and (at trend level) end-of-day assessments. These differences could not be explained by emotion intensity or variability over the 14 days, or to comorbid depression or anxiety disorders. Our findings suggest that people with generalized SAD have deficits in clarifying specific negative emotions felt at a given point of time. These deficits may contribute to difficulties with effective emotion regulation and healthy social relationship functioning. PMID:24512246
Ashby, Julie S.; Schoon, Ingrid
Links between family social background, teenage career aspirations, educational performance and adult social status attainment are well documented. Using a contextual developmental framework, this article extends previous research by examining the role of gender and teenage ambition value in shaping social status attainment and earnings in…
Rivera, William M.
Re-socialization as renewed social assimilation and accomodation, with emphasis on the possibility of such renewed stress to bring out self-redefinition, is discussed. The discussion is centered around (1) a tenative typology of forces for re-socialization, (2) a view of adults as having three basic attitudinal strategies toward life, and (3) a…
Laugeson, Elizabeth A.; Gantman, Alexander; Kapp, Steven K.; Orenski, Kaely; Ellingsen, Ruth
Research suggests that impaired social skills are often the most significant challenge for those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet few evidence-based social skills interventions exist for adults on the spectrum. This replication trial tested the effectiveness of PEERS, a caregiver-assisted social skills program for high-functioning young…
Wolke, Dieter; Copeland, William E.; Angold, Adrian; Costello, E. Jane
Bullying is a serious problem for schools, parents and public policy makers alike. While bullying creates risks of health and social problems in childhood, it is unclear if this risk extends into adulthood. A large cohort of children was assessed for bullying involvement in childhood and then followed up in young adulthood to assess health, risky/illegal behavior, wealth and social relationships. Victims of childhood bullying including those that bullied others (bully-victim) were at increased risk of poor health, wealth and social relationship outcomes in adulthood even after controlling for family hardship and childhood psychiatric disorders. In contrast, pure bullies were not at increased risk of poor adult outcome once other family and childhood risk factors were taken into account. Being bullied is not a harmless rite of passage but throws a long shadow over affected people’s lives. Interventions in childhood are likely to reduce long term health and social costs. PMID:23959952
Kawaguchi, Maiko; Morohoshi, Kaori; Imai, Hideki; Morita, Masatoshi; Kato, Nobumasa; Himi, Toshiyuki
Isobutyl-paraben (IBP), a widely used preservative, exhibits estrogenic activity. We analyzed the effects of exposure to IBP during gestation and lactation via dam on social recognition behavior in ovariectomized offspring of Sprague-Dawley rats. Offspring were ovariectomized at 7 weeks of age, and were used in a social recognition test at 16 weeks of age. Each offspring was exposed to a novel ovariectomized rat four times and to a second novel rat in a fifth exposure. We counted the investigations by offspring of intruder rats. The IBP-exposed rats showed impaired social behavior compared with controls. These data imply that early exposure to IBP may have an effect on adult social behavior, which is reported to be an autism spectrum disorders in humans.
Caballo, Vicente E.; Arias, Benito; Salazar, Isabel C.; Irurtia, María Jesús; Hofmann, Stefan G.
This paper presents the psychometric properties of a new measure of social anxiety, the Social Anxiety Questionnaire for adults (SAQ), composed of 30 items that were developed based on participants from 16 Latin American countries, Spain, and Portugal. Two groups of participants were included in the study: a non-clinical group involving 18,133 persons and a clinical group comprising 334 patients with a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder (social phobia). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 5-factor structure of the questionnaire. The factors were labeled: 1) Interactions with strangers, 2) Speaking in public/talking with people in authority, 3) Interactions with the opposite sex, 4) Criticism and embarrassment, and 5) Assertive expression of annoyance, disgust or displeasure. Psychometric evidence supported the internal consistency, convergent validity, and measurement invariance of the SAQ. To facilitate clinical applications, a ROC analysis identified cut scores for men and women for each factor and for the global score. PMID:25774643
Cole, Claire; Zapp, Daniel J; Katherine Nelson, S; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly
Socially withdrawn individuals display solitary behavior across wide contexts with both unfamiliar and familiar peers. This tendency to withdraw may be driven by either past or anticipated negative social encounters. In addition, socially withdrawn individuals often exhibit right frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry at baseline and when under stress. In the current study we examined shifts in frontal EEG activity in young adults (N=41) at baseline, as they viewed either an anxiety-provoking or a benign speech video, and as they subsequently prepared for their own speech. Results indicated that right frontal EEG activity increased, relative to the left, only for socially withdrawn participants exposed to the anxious video. These results suggest that contextual affective cues may prime an individual's response to stress, particularly if they illustrate or substantiate an anticipated negative event.
Caballo, Vicente E; Arias, Benito; Salazar, Isabel C; Irurtia, María Jesús; Hofmann, Stefan G
This article presents the psychometric properties of a new measure of social anxiety, the Social Anxiety Questionnaire for adults (SAQ), composed of 30 items that were developed based on participants from 16 Latin American countries, Spain, and Portugal. Two groups of participants were included in the study: a nonclinical group involving 18,133 persons and a clinical group comprising 334 patients with a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder (social phobia). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 5-factor structure of the questionnaire. The factors were labeled as follows: (1) Interactions with strangers, (2) Speaking in public/talking with people in authority, (3) Interactions with the opposite sex, (4) Criticism and embarrassment, and (5) Assertive expression of annoyance, disgust, or displeasure. Psychometric evidence supported the internal consistency, convergent validity, and measurement invariance of the SAQ. To facilitate clinical applications, a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis identified cut scores for men and women for each factor and for the global score.
Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Christine; Oh, In-Hwan; Kwon, Young Dae
This study aims to investigate the relationship between social activities and overweight among middle-aged and older adults. This study used data from the 2008 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging which included a total of 8157 adults. We divided body mass index into 2 groups: normal weight and overweight. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the association between social activities and overweight. For males, frequency of meetings with neighbors (1-3 times a week) was associated with being less overweight. Middle-aged adults who met with neighbors 1 to 3 times a week were less likely being overweight than those with once a year meeting frequency. On the contrary, social activity participation is related with high risk of overweight especially in the female and older adults. Our results suggest that social activity participation and social support needs to be taken into consideration when dealing with being overweight.
St-Pierre, Angèle; Larose, Karine; Dubois, Frédérique
Reciprocal altruism, one of the most probable explanations for cooperation among non-kin, has been modelled as a Prisoner's Dilemma. According to this game, cooperation could evolve when individuals, who expect to play again, use conditional strategies like tit-for-tat or Pavlov. There is evidence that humans use such strategies to achieve mutual cooperation, but most controlled experiments with non-human animals have failed to find cooperation. One reason for this could be that subjects fail to cooperate because they behave as if they were to play only once. To assess this hypothesis, we conducted an experiment with monogamous zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) that were tested in a two-choice apparatus, with either their social partner or an experimental opponent of the opposite sex. We found that zebra finches maintained high levels of cooperation in an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game only when interacting with their social partner. Although other mechanisms may have contributed to the observed difference between the two treatments, our results support the hypothesis that animals do not systematically give in to the short-term temptation of cheating when long-term benefits exist. Thus, our findings contradict the commonly accepted idea that reciprocal altruism will be rare in non-human animals.
Tindale, J; Denton, M; Ploeg, J; Lillie, J; Hutchison, B; Brazil, K; Akhtar-Danesh, N; Plenderleith, J
Community support services (CSSs) have been developed in Canada and other Western nations to enable persons coping with health or social issues to continue to live in the community. This study addresses the extent to which awareness of CSSs is structured by the social determinants of health. In a telephone interview conducted in February-March 2006, 1152 community-dwelling older adults (response rate 12.4%) from Hamilton, Ontario, Canada were made to read a series of four vignettes and were asked whether they were able to identify a CSS they may turn to in that situation. Across the four vignettes, 40% of participants did name a CSS as a possible source of assistance. Logistic regression was used to determine factors related to awareness of CSSs. Respondents most likely to have awareness of CSS include the middle-aged and higher-income groups. Being knowledgeable about where to look for information about CSSs, having social support and being a member of a club or voluntary organisations are also significant predictors of awareness of CSSs. Study results suggest that efforts be made to improve the level of awareness and access to CSSs among older adults by targeting their social networks as well as their health and social care providers.
Norman, Greg J; Hawkley, Louise; Ball, Aaron; Berntson, Gary G; Cacioppo, John T
Over a million children are subjected to some form of trauma in the United States every year. Early trauma has been shown to have deleterious effects on cardiovascular health in adulthood. However, the presence of strong social relationships as an adult can buffer an individual against many of the harmful effects of early trauma. Furthermore, the perception of social isolation has been shown to be a significant risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease and is a strong predictor of all cause mortality. One likely mechanism thought to underlie the influence of perceived isolation on health is changes in arterial stiffness. One of the more widely used measures of arterial stiffness in older individuals is pulse pressure. The goal of the present study was to determine whether early childhood trauma is associated with elevations on pulse pressure. Furthermore, this study sought to determine whether perceived social isolation moderates the relationship between early trauma and pulse pressure. Results revealed that individuals with low perceived social isolation displayed no significant relationship between early trauma and pulse pressure. However, individuals who reported higher levels of perceived isolation showed a significant positive association between early trauma and pulse pressure. Therefore, the detrimental effects of early trauma may be partially dependent upon the quality of social relationships as an adult.
Altintas, Ebru; Yerdelen, V Deniz; Taskintuna, Nilgün
Epilepsy affects not only the patient but also the patient's cohabiting relatives, to various degrees. This study investigated state and trait anxiety, depression, and social fear and avoidance levels in 48 adult patients with epilepsy and 48 family members, compared with 43 healthy control subjects, using the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. The results suggested that the patients and their first-degree relatives had higher levels of depression, state and trait anxiety, and avoidance compared with healthy subjects. The mothers of patients with epilepsy had the highest level of depression and anxiety.
Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Snyder, Amanda L; Nimon, Joseph P; Arciero, Paul J
This study examined the effect of virtual social facilitation and competitiveness on exercise effort in exergaming older adults. Fourteen exergaming older adults participated. Competitiveness was assessed prior to the start of exercise. Participants were trained to ride a “cybercycle;” a virtual reality-enhanced stationary bike with interactive competition. After establishing a cybercycling baseline, competitive avatars were introduced. Pedaling effort (watts) was assessed. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant group (high vs low competitiveness) × time (pre- to post-avatar) interaction (F[1,12] = 13.1, P = 0.003). Virtual social facilitation increased exercise effort among more competitive exercisers. Exercise programs that match competitiveness may maximize exercise effort. PMID:22087067
Lense, Miriam D.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.
Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with hypersociability and anxiety. However, little is known about how these salient aspects of the phenotype are related or their underlying physiology. We examined cortisol reactivity in WS because cortisol is responsive to psychosocial stress. Compared to typically developing adults, adults with WS had a significant cortisol decrease in response to a challenging cognitive battery. In contrast, cortisol levels in WS stayed stable in response to a solo musical performance, and baseline cortisol levels were significantly associated with musical skill. Results indicate that people with WS respond differentially to different socially-loaded situations. Implications for salience and arousal in cognitive and social situations are discussed. PMID:24245731
McNeal, Neal; Appleton, Katherine M; Johnson, Alan Kim; Scotti, Melissa-Ann L; Wardwell, Joshua; Murphy, Rachel; Bishop, Christina; Knecht, Alison; Grippo, Angela J
Positive social interactions may protect against stress. This study investigated the beneficial effects of pairing with a social partner on behaviors and neuroendocrine function in response to chronic mild stress (CMS) in 13 prairie vole pairs. Following 5 days of social bonding, male and female prairie voles were exposed to 10 days of CMS (mild, unpredictable stressors of varying durations, for instance, strobe light, white noise, and damp bedding), housed with either the social partner (paired group) or individually (isolated group). Active and passive behavioral responses to the forced swim test (FST) and tail-suspension test (TST), and plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone, were measured in all prairie voles following the CMS period. Both female and male prairie voles housed with a social partner displayed lower durations of passive behavioral responses (immobility, a maladaptive behavioral response) in the FST (mean ± SEM; females: 17.3 ± 5.4 s; males: 9.3 ± 4.6 s) and TST (females: 56.8 ± 16.4 s; males: 40.2 ± 11.3 s), versus both sexes housed individually (females, FST: 98.6 ± 12.9 s; females, TST: 155.1 ± 19.3 s; males, FST: 92.4 ± 14.1 s; males, TST: 158.9 ± 22.0 s). Female (but not male) prairie voles displayed attenuated plasma stress hormones when housed with a male partner (ACTH: 945 ± 24.7 pg/ml; corticosterone: 624 ± 139.5 ng/ml), versus females housed individually (ACTH: 1100 ± 23.2 pg/ml; corticosterone: 1064 ± 121.7 ng/ml). These results may inform understanding of the benefits of social interactions on stress resilience. Lay Summary: Social stress can lead to depression. The study of social bonding and stress using an animal model will inform understanding of the protective effects of social bonds. This study showed that social bonding in a rodent model can protect against behavioral responses to stress, and may
Tsai, Hsin-Yi Sandy; Shillair, Ruth; Cotten, Shelia R
This study examines how older adults learn to use tablet computers. Learning to use new technologies can help older adults to be included in today's digital society. However, learning to use new technologies is not always easy, especially for older adults. This study focuses on how older adults learn to use a specific technology, tablet computers, and the role that social support plays in this process. Data for this project are from 21 in-depth interviews with individuals who own tablet computers. We examine how older adults engage with tablet devices and increase their digital literacy. The findings suggest that, for older adults to start to use tablets, social support plays an important role. In addition, a key way that many participants report gaining expertise with the technology is through "playing around" with the tablets. Suggestions for how to help older adults learn to use new technologies are detailed.
This paper explores the potential role of gratitude on the reduction of loneliness feelings, even controlling for several variables related to social desirability, well-being (subjective happiness and life satisfaction) and socio-demographic characteristics. Through a web-based survey a convenience sample of 197 participants completed an online questionnaire including these measures. Correlation analyses and four-step hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. The results show a negative correlation between gratitude and loneliness; specifically, gratitude succeeds in accounting for up to almost one-fifth of the total variability of loneliness even controlling for further variables. Being female, not having a stable and consolidated relationship and not participating in the labor force represent some risk factors affecting loneliness which should be taken into account in further research. PMID:27247660
Darabos, Katie; Hoyt, Michael A
Beliefs that men should restrict their display of emotions, or restrictive emotionality, might contribute to adjustment to cancer and this might be sensitive to social receptivity to disclosure. The present research examined relationships of restrictive emotionality, social constraints, and psychological distress in young adults with testicular cancer (N = 171; Study 1) and older men with prostate cancer (N = 66; Study 2). Study 1: positive associations were observed for social constraints and restrictive emotionality with depressive symptoms. Social constraints moderated the relationship, such that high restrictive emotionality was associated with higher depressive symptoms in those with high constraints. Study 2: only social constraints (and not restrictive emotionality) was positively associated with depressive symptoms and cancer-related intrusive thoughts. The social constraints × restrictive emotionality interaction approached significance with depressive symptoms, such with high social constraints low restrictive emotionality was associated with higher depressive symptoms compared to those with less constraints. No significant associations were found for intrusive thoughts in either study. Findings demonstrate unique relationships with psychological distress across the lifespan of men with cancer given perception of constraints and adherence to masculine norms about emotionality.
Chalise, Hom Nath; Kai, Ichiro; Saito, Tami
The aim of this study was to analyze the situation of social support exchange among elderly men and women and to study the cross-cultural validity of predictors of loneliness in two Nepalese castes/ethnicities of older adults. Data for this study were taken from a cross-sectional study of the elderly at least 60 years old living in one ward of…
Background Adults spend the majority of their time being sedentary, and evidence suggests that those who spend more of their day engaged in sedentary activities (TV viewing, sitting, screen-based activities) are at increased risk for morbidity and mortality, regardless of whether they exercise regularly. In order to develop effective interventions to reduce sedentary time, it is necessary to identify and understand the strongest modifiable factors of these behaviours. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review is to examine the available evidence in order to identify individual, social, environmental and policy correlates and determinants of sedentary behaviours (TV time, sitting time, screen time) and total sedentary time among adults. Methods/design Six electronic databases will be searched to identify all studies that report on individual, social and/or environmental correlates and determinants of sedentary behaviours and total sedentary time in adults. Grey literature sources including theses, published conference abstracts and websites from relevant organizations will also be included. Articles that report on modifiable individual (e.g. health behaviours and status, self-efficacy, socio-economic status), social (e.g. crime, safety, social support, climate and capital), environmental (e.g. weather, workplace, home, neighbourhood, recreation environment, transportation environment) and policy correlates and determinants (based on study design) of sedentary behaviours in an adult population (mean age ≥18 years) will be included. Study quality and risk of bias will be assessed within and across all included studies. Harvest plots will be used to synthesize results across all correlates, and meta-analyses will be conducted where possible among studies with sufficient homogeneity. Discussion This review will provide a comprehensive examination of evidence in the field and will serve to highlight gaps for future research on the determinants of sedentary
Nour, Monica; Yeung, Sin Hang; Partridge, Stephanie; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret
The increased popularity of social media and mobile gaming among young adults provides an opportunity for innovative nutrition programs. This review evaluated the efficacy of these strategies in interventions targeted at 18- to 35-year-olds. The protocol was guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Ten scientific databases, information technology conference proceedings, and gray literature were searched. Two reviewers conducted screening, data extraction, and quality assessments. Interventions were included if they used social media or electronic games. Comparisons were made pre- to post-intervention, or between intervention and control arms. Outcomes of interest included change in nutrition knowledge, attitudes, behavior, or weight and/or body composition. Eleven social media-based (randomized controlled trials [RCT] n=7) and six game-based [RCT n=1]) interventions were included. Overall quality of studies was low. Social media-based strategies included forum/blogs (n=5), Facebook (n=5), Twitter (n=1), YouTube (n=1), and chat rooms (n=1). Eight (RCT n=6) of 11 social media-based studies demonstrated improvements in outcomes. Findings suggested that social media may be more effective when combined with other strategies. Virtual reality games (n=3), web-based games (n=2), and a mobile application (n=1) were used in the gaming interventions. While a significant increase in knowledge was reported by three gaming studies (RCT=1), two used nonvalidated tools and longer-term measures of weight and behavioral outcomes were limited. The use of social media and gaming for nutrition promotion is in its infancy. Preliminary evidence suggests that these strategies have some utility for intervening with young adults. Further research using high-quality study designs is required, with measurement of outcomes over longer time periods. The systematic review protocol is registered with PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42015025427).
Chambon, Valerian; Farrer, Chlöé; Pacherie, Elisabeth; Jacquet, Pierre O; Leboyer, Marion; Zalla, Tiziana
An extensive amount of evidence has documented a diminished ability to predict and understand other people's action in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Recently, two theoretical accounts, the "Hypo-priors" and the "Aberrant precision" hypotheses, have suggested that attenuated Bayesian priors or an imbalance of the precision ascribed to sensory evidence relative to prior expectations may be responsible for the atypical perceptual experience and difficulties with action understanding in ASD. In the present study, we aimed to directly investigate whether difficulties in the appreciation of others' intentions can be accounted for by abnormal interaction between these two types of information: (i) the sensory evidence conveyed by movement kinematics, and (ii) the observer's expectations, acquired from past experience or derived from prior knowledge. To test this hypothesis, we contrasted the ability to infer Non-Social and Social intentions in adults with and without ASD, using a series of tasks in which both sensory evidence and prior expectations were manipulated. The results showed that attenuated effect of prior expectations in ASD individuals does not result from a generalized impairment in mentalizing, but one confined to social intentions. Attenuated priors in the social domain predicted the severity of clinical symptoms in the area of social interaction. Importantly, however, we found that reduced priors in the social domain could be compensated by ASD through observational learning, i.e. through deriving statistical regularities from observed behaviours. This capacity to balance reduced social expectations by learning inversely correlated with the severity of repetitive and stereotyped behaviours. Collectively, these findings suggest that adults with ASD exhibit a disturbance in the inferential mechanism that integrates sensory evidence into prior beliefs to produce accurate inferences about other people's intentions.
LeClair, Amy; Kelly, Brian C.; Pawson, Mark; Wells, Brooke E.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.
Aims As part of a larger study on prescription drug misuse among young adults active in urban nightlife scenes, we examined participants’ motivations for misuse. Prescription painkillers, stimulants and sedatives were the primary substances of interest. Methods Participants were recruited from nightlife venues in New York using time-space sampling. Subjects completed a mixed-methods assessment at project research offices. The data presented here are from a subsample of 70 qualitative interviews conducted during the baseline assessment. Findings We identified experimentation and a “work hard, play hard” ethos as key motivations for misusing prescription drugs and argue that these motivations are specific, though not necessarily unique, to the participants’ social location as young adults. These findings highlight the role of life stage and social context in the misuse of prescription drugs. Conclusion Future studies of prescription drug misuse should pay attention to the larger social contexts in which users are embedded and, therefore, make decisions about how and why to misuse. Moving beyond the very broad concepts of “recreation” and “self-medication” presently established in the research, policies targeting young adults may want to tailor intervention efforts based on motivations. PMID:26709337
Gilman, Jodi M.; Curran, Max T.; Calderon, Vanessa; Stoeckel, Luke E.; Evins, A. Eden
Adolescents and young adults who affiliate with friends who engage in impulsive behavior are more likely to engage in impulsive behaviors themselves, and those who associate with prosocial (i.e. more prudent, future oriented) peers are more likely to engage in prosocial behavior. However, it is difficult to disentangle the contribution of peer influence vs. peer selection (i.e., whether individuals choose friends with similar traits) when interpreting social behaviors. In this study, we combined a novel social manipulation with a well-validated delay discounting task assessing impulsive behavior to create a social influence delay discounting task, in which participants were exposed to both impulsive (smaller, sooner or SS payment) and non-impulsive (larger, later or LL payment) choices from their peers. Young adults in this sample, n = 51, aged 18–25 had a higher rate of SS choices after exposure to impulsive peer influence than after exposure to non-impulsive peer influence. Interestingly, in highly susceptible individuals, the rate of non-impulsive choices did not increase after exposure to non-impulsive influence. There was a positive correlation between self-reported suggestibility and degree of peer influence on SS choices. These results suggest that, in young adults, SS choices appear to be influenced by the choices of same-aged peers, especially for individuals who are highly susceptible to influence. PMID:24988440
Karayazi, Seda; Kohler Evans, Patty; Filer, Janet
The use of social stories™ with a young adult with autism spectrum disorder was examined. The young woman in the study was completing her high school education in a clinical room on a university campus in the South. The primary goal of her program was to develop and expand her functional independence. The social stories™ were effective in…
Erdem, Özcan; Van Lenthe, Frank J.; Prins, Rick G.; Voorham, Toon A. J. J.; Burdorf, Alex
Background Various studies have reported socioeconomic inequalities in mental health among urban residents. This study aimed at investigating whether neighborhood social cohesion influences the associations between socio-economic factors and psychological distress. Methods Cross-sectional questionnaire study on a random sample of 18,173 residents aged 16 years and older from 211 neighborhoods in the four largest cities in the Netherlands. Psychological distress was the dependent variable (scale range 10–50). Neighborhood social cohesion was measured by five statements and aggregated to the neighborhood level using ecometrics methodology. Multilevel linear regression analyses were used to investigate cross-level interactions, adjusted for neighborhood deprivation, between individual characteristics and social cohesion with psychological distress. Results The mean level of psychological distress among urban residents was 17.2. Recipients of disability, social assistance or unemployment benefits reported higher psychological distress (β = 5.6, 95%CI 5.2 to 5.9) than those in paid employment. Persons with some or great financial difficulties reported higher psychological distress (β = 3.4, 95%CI 3.2 to 3.6) than those with little or no financial problems. Socio-demographic factors were also associated with psychological distress, albeit with much lower influence. Living in a neighborhood with high social cohesion instead of low social cohesion was associated with a lower psychological distress of 22% among recipients of disability, social assistance or unemployment benefits and of 13% among citizens with financial difficulties. Conclusions Residing in socially cohesive neighborhoods may reduce the influence of lack of paid employment and financial difficulties on psychological distress among urban adults. Urban policies aimed at improving neighborhood social cohesion may contribute to decreasing socio-economic inequalities in mental health. PMID:27280601
Müller, Martina S.; Brennecke, Julius F.; Porter, Elaine T.; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Anderson, David J.
Background Exposure to androgens early in development, while activating adaptive aggressive behavior, may also exert long-lasting effects on non-target components of phenotype. Here we compare these organizational effects of perinatal androgens in closely related Nazca (Sula granti) and blue-footed (S. nebouxii) boobies that differ in neonatal social system. The older of two Nazca booby hatchlings unconditionally attacks and ejects the younger from the nest within days of hatching, while blue-footed booby neonates lack lethal aggression. Both Nazca booby chicks facultatively upregulate testosterone (T) during fights, motivating the prediction that baseline androgen levels differ between obligately siblicidal and other species. Methodology/Principal Findings We show that obligately siblicidal Nazca boobies hatch with higher circulating androgen levels than do facultatively siblicidal blue-footed boobies, providing comparative evidence of the role of androgens in sociality. Although androgens confer a short-term benefit of increased aggression to Nazca booby neonates, exposure to elevated androgen levels during this sensitive period in development can also induce long-term organizational effects on behavior or morphology. Adult Nazca boobies show evidence of organizational effects of early androgen exposure in aberrant adult behavior: they visit unattended non-familial chicks in the colony and direct mixtures of aggression, affiliative, and sexual behavior toward them. In a longitudinal analysis, we found that the most active Non-parental Adult Visitors (NAVs) were those with a history of siblicidal behavior as a neonate, suggesting that the tendency to show social interest in chicks is programmed, in part, by the high perinatal androgens associated with obligate siblicide. Data from closely related blue-footed boobies provide comparative support for this interpretation. Lacking obligate siblicide, they hatch with a corresponding low androgen level, and blue
Faw, Meara H
Obesity and being overweight often result in serious health problems. Despite growing awareness of the dangers associated with being overweight, many individuals struggle to lose weight. Investigators have identified social support as a key element in weight-loss attempts. Unfortunately, little has been done to investigate how people solicit social support from members of their pre-existing social network without a structured intervention. To address this limitation, I conducted in-depth interviews with 25 participants. Through grounded theory analysis of these interviews, I developed a typology of support management strategies used by overweight young adults when attempting to lose weight. I outline these strategies, their perceived success, and implications for future research in this article.
Gomes, Alexandra; Nunes, Cristina
This study aimed to observe the effect of sexual experience on the social representation of sex in Portuguese young adults. According to social representation theory, the central core of the social representation should be the same in all individuals that share a common social ground, however differences should be found in the peripheral system. It was used a free evocation task to assess the social representation of sex in Portuguese individuals aging between 18 and 25 years old. Nine hundred and sixty individuals were grouped by their sexual experience and condom use habits. A prototypical analysis was conducted to assess the structure of the social representation and statistical differences were analyzed using the qui-square independency test to search for an association between the structure and the group evoking it. The results supported the hypothesis of a common central core for all groups that shows a romanticized vision of sex. The differences found in the peripheral system suggest that sexual experience affects the representation of sex in a way that seems clearer to these individuals the necessity of protection when it comes to sex. PMID:26973936
Gomes, Alexandra; Nunes, Cristina
This study aimed to observe the effect of sexual experience on the social representation of sex in Portuguese young adults. According to social representation theory, the central core of the social representation should be the same in all individuals that share a common social ground, however differences should be found in the peripheral system. It was used a free evocation task to assess the social representation of sex in Portuguese individuals aging between 18 and 25 years old. Nine hundred and sixty individuals were grouped by their sexual experience and condom use habits. A prototypical analysis was conducted to assess the structure of the social representation and statistical differences were analyzed using the qui-square independency test to search for an association between the structure and the group evoking it. The results supported the hypothesis of a common central core for all groups that shows a romanticized vision of sex. The differences found in the peripheral system suggest that sexual experience affects the representation of sex in a way that seems clearer to these individuals the necessity of protection when it comes to sex.
Park, Mijung; Cuijpers, Pim; van Straten, Annemieke; Reynolds, Charles F.
Social support is an important extra-therapeutic context of depression treatment, yet no overall estimate is available on how depression treatment affects social support or the size of such an effect. We conducted a meta-analysis of clinical trials of psychotherapy for depression that reported results for social support at post-treatment. A total of 1,579 adults with depression from 11 trials comparing psychotherapy to care-as-usual or waiting list were included. The majority of these studies assessed the participants’ perceptions of social support. Specifically, three studies targeted women with postpartum depression, and four studies targeted individuals with chronic disease. In all these studies, psychotherapy had a small to moderate, yet consistent effect on social support compared to care-as-usual or waiting list at post-treatment (g = 0.38; 95% CI: 0.29~0.48) and at 3–6 month follow-up (g= 0.38; 95% CI: 0.14~0.63). Little evidence of heterogeneity was found across studies, and the results were consistent in several sensitivity analyses. No significant publication bias was detected (Egger’s test p > 0.1). The result of meta-regression showed that improvement in depression symptoms was associated with improvement in social support, but this was not statistically significant. PMID:26085699
Moreno, Megan A.; Whitehill, Jennifer M.
Participation in online social media Web sites (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) has skyrocketed in recent years and created a new environment in which adolescents and young adults may be exposed to and influenced by alcohol-related content. Thus, young people are exposed to and display pro-alcohol messages and images through online portrayals of drinking on personal pages as well as unregulated alcohol marketing on social media sites that may reach underage people. Such online displays of alcohol behavior have been correlated with offline alcohol behavior and risky drinking. Health behavior theories have been used to describe the influence of social media sites, including Social Learning Theory, the Media Practice Model, and a more recent conceptual approach called the Facebook Influence Model. Researchers are beginning to assess the potential of social media sites in identifying high-risk drinkers through online display patterns as well as delivering prevention messages and interventions. Future studies need to further expand existing observational work to better understand the role of social media in shaping alcohol-related behaviors and fully exploit the potential of these media for alcohol-related interventions. PMID:26259003
Moreno, Megan A; Whitehill, Jennifer M
Participation in online social media Web sites (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) has skyrocketed in recent years and created a new environment in which adolescents and young adults may be exposed to and influenced by alcohol-related content. Thus, young people are exposed to and display pro-alcohol messages and images through online portrayals of drinking on personal pages as well as unregulated alcohol marketing on social media sites that may reach underage people. Such online displays of alcohol behavior have been correlated with offline alcohol behavior and risky drinking. Health behavior theories have been used to describe the influence of social media sites, including Social Learning Theory, the Media Practice Model, and a more recent conceptual approach called the Facebook Influence Model. Researchers are beginning to assess the potential of social media sites in identifying high-risk drinkers through online display patterns as well as delivering prevention messages and interventions. Future studies need to further expand existing observational work to better understand the role of social media in shaping alcohol-related behaviors and fully exploit the potential of these media for alcohol-related interventions.
Lindeyer, Charlotte M; Meaney, Michael J; Reader, Simon M
Many vertebrates rely extensively on social information, but the value of information produced by other individuals will vary across contexts and habitats. Social learning may thus be optimized by the use of developmental or current cues to determine its likely value. Here, we show that a developmental cue, early maternal care, correlates with social learning propensities in adult rodents. The maternal behavior of rats Rattus norvegicus with their litters was scored over the first 6 days postpartum. Rat dams show consistent individual differences in the rate they lick and groom (LG) pups, allowing them to be categorized as high, low, or mid-LG mothers. The 100-day old male offspring of high and low-LG mothers were given the opportunity to learn food preferences for novel diets from conspecifics that had previously eaten these diets ("demonstrators"). Offspring of high-LG mothers socially learned food preferences, but offspring of low-LG mothers did not. We administered oxytocin to subjects to address the hypothesis that it would increase the propensity for social learning, but there were no detectable effects. Our data raise the possibility that social learning propensities may be both relatively stable throughout life and part of a suite of traits "adaptively programmed" by early developmental experiences.
Maske, Ulrike E.; Zeeb, Hajo; Lampert, Thomas
Background There is substantial evidence that lower objective socioeconomic status (SES)—as measured by education, occupation, and income—is associated with a higher risk of depression. Less is known, however, about associations between perceptions of social status and the prevalence of depression. This study investigated associations of both objective SES and subjective social status (SSS) with depressive symptoms among adults in Germany. Methods Data were obtained from the 2013 special wave of the German Health Update study, a national health survey of the adult population in Germany. Objective SES was determined using a composite index based on education, occupation, and income. The three single dimensions of the index were also used individually. SSS was measured using the MacArthur Scale, which asks respondents to place themselves on a 10-rung ‘social ladder’. Regression models were employed to examine associations of objective SES and SSS with current depressive symptoms, as assessed with the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-8 sum score ≥10). Results After mutual adjustment, lower objective SES and lower SSS were independently associated with current depressive symptoms. The associations were found in both sexes and persisted after further adjustment for sociodemographic factors, long-term chronic conditions, and functional limitations. Mediation analyses revealed a significant indirect relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms through SSS. When the three individual dimensions of objective SES were mutually adjusted, occupation and income were independently associated with depressive symptoms. After additional adjustment for SSS, these associations attenuated but remained significant. Conclusions The findings suggest that perceptions of low social status in adults may be involved in the pathogenesis of depression and play a mediating role in the relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms
Sterrett, Emma M.; Birkett, Michelle; Kuhns, Lisa; Mustanski, Brian
The presence of non-parental adults (NPAs), or adults outside of caregivers (e.g., extended family, natural mentors), in the lives of adolescents and emerging adults has received a rapidly expanding amount of empirical attention in the last decade. Sexual minority male youth (SMMY) face disproportionate risks of abuse and victimization in relationships with parents and peers. Yet, despite the fact that this group, therefore, may be both potentially vulnerable to negative interpersonal influences but also poised to benefit from additional relationships, NPA involvement in the lives of SMMY is currently not well understood in the extant literature. This study sought to examine and characterize the involvement of NPAs in the social and risk networks of SMMY (n = 175; 54% African American, 21% Hispanic/Latino, 14% Caucasian; ages 17–23). Most SMMY identified at least one NPA, such as friends and grandparents, in their networks. Three categories of relationships were identified, Strictly Social, which only involved social interactions; Complex, which were both social and involved substance use and/or sexual activity; and Risky, which purely consisted of substance use or sexual activity. Relationships were rated as emotionally “closer” among ethnic minority SMMY, although, racial/ethnic similarity between SMMY and NPAs was not associated with relationship closeness. In addition, relationships involving female and heterosexual NPAs were also rated as stronger. These findings suggest the potential usefulness of considering multiple types of relationships between SMMY and NPAs when designing intervention and prevention efforts. Moreover, African American and Latino SMMY, who represent the most vulnerable sub-groups of SMMY in terms of HIV-risk, may be particularly poised to benefit from positive NPA relationships. PMID:26074655
Nahm, Eun-Shim; Resnick, Barbara; Gaines, Jean
With the increasing number of older adult online users, the Internet and e-mail are becoming a new source of social support for older adults. To assess this computer-mediated social support, two traditional social support measures were modified: (1) the Lubben Social Network Scale and (2) the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey. The purpose of this pilot study was to test the reliability and validity of these modified measures. This study was a single group descriptive study with two data collection points. Data were collected using Web surveys. A total of 38 older adult participants completed the first survey; 35, the second survey. The findings of this preliminary study provided evidence for the reliability, content validity, and, to a limited extent, construct validity, of the modified measures. Additional studies with a larger representative sample are needed to further examine the psychometric aspects of these measures.
Herrenkohl, Todd I; Jung, Hyunzee; Klika, J Bart; Mason, W Alex; Brown, Eric C; Leeb, Rebecca T; Herrenkohl, Roy C
A number of cross-sectional and a few longitudinal studies have shown a developmental relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Published findings also suggest that social support can lessen the risk of adverse outcomes for some abused children. However, few studies have investigated whether social support mediates or moderates the relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Structural equation modeling was used to examine data on these topics from a longitudinal study of more than 30 years. While a latent construct of physical and emotional child abuse did not predict adult health outcomes directly, child abuse did predict outcomes indirectly through social support. A test of variable moderation for child abuse and social support was nonsignificant. Results suggest that social support may help explain the association between child abuse and health outcomes at midlife. Implications of the findings for prevention and treatment are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Jung, Hyunzee; Klika, J. Bart; Mason, W. Alex; Brown, Eric C.; Leeb, Rebecca T.; Herrenkohl, Roy. C.
A number of cross-sectional and a few longitudinal studies have shown a developmental relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Published findings also suggest that social support can lessen the risk of adverse outcomes for some abused children. However, few studies have investigated whether social support mediates or moderates the relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Structural equation modeling was used to examine data on these topics from a longitudinal study of more than 30 years. While a latent construct of physical and emotional child abuse did not predict adult health outcomes directly, child abuse did predict outcomes indirectly through social support. A test of variable moderation for child abuse and social support was nonsignificant. Results suggest that social support may help explain the association between child abuse and health outcomes at midlife. Implications of the findings for prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:26845043
Perkins, Jessica M.; Multhaup, Kristi S.; Perkins, H. Wesley; Barton, Cole
Purpose: We explored Bandura's self-efficacy theory as applied to older adult (aged 63-92) participation in physical and social activity in a cross-cultural study. Design and Methods: Older adults in Spain (n = 53) and the United States (n = 55) completed questions regarding self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and participation in physical and…
Shensa, Ariel; Sidani, Jaime E; Lin, Liu Yi; Bowman, Nicholas D; Primack, Brian A
Low emotional support is associated with poor health outcomes. Engagement with face-to-face social networks is one way of increasing emotional support. However, it is not yet known whether engagement with proliferating electronic social networks is similarly associated with increased emotional support. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess associations between social media use and perceived emotional support in a large, nationally-representative sample. In October 2014, we collected data from 1796 U.S. adults ages 19-32. We assessed social media use using both total time spent and frequency of visits to each of the 11 most popular social media platforms. Our dependent variable was perceived emotional support as measured by the brief Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) emotional support scale. A multivariable model including all sociodemographic covariates and accounting for survey weights demonstrated that, compared with the lowest quartile of time on social media, being in the highest quartile (spending two or more hours per day) was significantly associated with decreased odds of having higher perceived emotional support (AOR 0.62, 95 % CI 0.40, 0.94). However, compared with those in the lowest quartile, being in the highest quartile regarding frequency of social media use was not significantly associated with perceived emotional support (AOR 0.70, 95 % CI 0.45, 1.09). In conclusion, while the cross-sectional nature of these data hinder inference regarding directionality, it seems that heavy users of social media may actually feel less and not more emotional support.
Social support has multiple dimensions, the context of which can be explored by qualitative methods. In this study, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 local senior center members (9 men and 12 women aged 65 and older) in Seoul, South Korea, in order to explore how they perceive and desire social support in an aging society. The qualitative methods in this study also included thematic analysis and constant comparison to identify three main themes: "no or denied support," "not to be greedy and shameless," and "justification and hopelessness." In the interviews, perceived and desired support did not emerge immediately as the participants were reluctant to share personal concerns with or to seek support from others. Nevertheless, they would turn to spouses and children for both emotional and instrumental support when in dire need. A shared norm among the participants was that seeking support would be an embarrassing and shameless act for themselves and a burden to others. They justified the discrepancy between the perceived and desired support as part of aging and felt hopelessness about it. The findings of this study have implications that implicit, individual social support may be effective than explicit, group support activities for those who are passive in recognizing the need for and seeking social support. In assessing and interpreting social support in old age, both perceived and desired support should be included and contextual approaches can be useful in so doing. The senior centers should be a more active advocate of successful aging that would offset hopelessness, negative attitude toward life, and social disconnection. Future research should focus on identifying effective strategies to bridge the gap between perceived and desired social support in older adults in this society of changing values and social norms.
Dodd, Zane; Warren, Ann Marie; Riggs, Shelley; Clark, Mike
Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) can cause psychological consequences that negatively affect quality of life. It is increasingly recognized that factors such as resilience and social support may produce a buffering effect and are associated with improved health outcomes. However the influence of adult attachment style on an individual’s ability to utilize social support after SCI has not been examined. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between adult romantic attachment perceived social support depression and resilience in individuals with SCI. In addition we evaluated potential mediating effects of social support and adult attachment on resilience and depression. Methods: Participants included 106 adults with SCI undergoing inpatient rehabilitation. Individuals completed measures of adult attachment (avoidance and anxiety) social support resilience and depression. Path analysis was performed to assess for presence of mediation effects. Results: When accounting for the smaller sample size support was found for the model (comparative fit index = .927 chi square = 7.86 P = .01 β = -0.25 standard error [SE] = -2.93 P < .05). The mediating effect of social support on the association between attachment avoidance and resilience was the only hypothesized mediating effect found to be significant (β = -0.25 SE = -2.93 P < .05). Conclusion: Results suggest that individuals with SCI with higher levels of attachment avoidance have lower perceived social support which relates to lower perceived resilience. Assessing attachment patterns during inpatient rehabilitation may allow therapists to intervene to provide greater support. PMID:26364285
Tanner, Elizabeth K.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Xue, Qian-Li; Rebok, George W.; Frick, Kevin D.; Carlson, Michelle C.; Wang, Tao; Piferi, Rachel L.; McGill, Sylvia; Whitfield, Keith E.; Fried, Linda P.
Objectives. We present a social marketing conceptual framework for Experience Corps Baltimore City (EC) in which the desired health outcome is not the promoted product or behavior. We also demonstrate the feasibility of a social marketing–based recruitment campaign for the first year of the Baltimore Experience Corps Trial (BECT), a randomized, controlled trial of the health benefits of EC participation for older adults. Methods. We recruited older adults from the Baltimore, MD, area. Participants randomized to the intervention were placed in public schools in volunteer roles designed to increase healthy behaviors. We examined the effectiveness of a recruitment message that appealed to generativity (i.e., to make a difference for the next generation), rather than potential health benefits. Results. Among the 155 participants recruited in the first year of the BECT, the average age was 69 years; 87% were women and 85% were African American. Participants reported primarily generative motives as their reason for interest in the BECT. Conclusions. Public health interventions embedded in civic engagement have the potential to engage older adults who might not respond to a direct appeal to improve their health. PMID:20167888
Feierstein, Claudia E.; Lazarini, Françoise; Wagner, Sebastien; Gabellec, Marie-Madeleine; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Boussin, François D.; Lledo, Pierre-Marie; Gheusi, Gilles
Adult-born neurons arrive to the olfactory bulb (OB) and integrate into the existing circuit throughout life. Despite the prevalence of this phenomenon, its functional impact is still poorly understood. Recent studies point to the importance of newly generated neurons to olfactory learning and memory. Adult neurogenesis is regulated by a variety of factors, notably by instances related to reproductive behavior, such as exposure to mating partners, pregnancy and lactation, and exposure to offspring. To study the contribution of olfactory neurogenesis to maternal behavior and social recognition, here we selectively disrupted OB neurogenesis using focal irradiation of the subventricular zone in adult female mice. We show that reduction of olfactory neurogenesis results in an abnormal social interaction pattern with male, but not female, conspecifics; we suggest that this effect could result from the inability to detect or discriminate male odors and could therefore have implications for the recognition of potential mating partners. Disruption of OB neurogenesis, however, neither impaired maternal-related behaviors, nor did it affect the ability of mothers to discriminate their own progeny from others. PMID:21160552
Lukas, Michael; Toth, Iulia; Veenema, Alexa H; Neumann, Inga D
Brain oxytocin (OXT) plays an important role in short-term social memory in laboratory rodents. Here we monitored local release of OXT and its functional involvement in the maintenance and retrieval of social memory during the social discrimination test. We further assessed, if the local effects of OXT within the medial amygdala (MeA) and lateral septum (LS) on social discrimination abilities were dependent on the biological relevance of the social stimulus, thus comparing male juvenile versus adult female conspecifics. OXT release was increased in the LS of male rats during the retrieval, but not during the acquisition or maintenance, of social memory for male juvenile stimuli. Blockade of OXT activity by intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of a specific OXT receptor antagonist (OXTR-A, rats: 0.75 μg/5 μl, mice: 2 μg/2 μl) immediately after acquisition of social memory impaired the maintenance of social memory, and consequently discrimination abilities during retrieval of social memory. In contrast, ICV OXTR-A was without effect when administered 20 min prior to retrieval of social memory in both species. Non-social memory measured in the object discrimination test was not affected by ICV OXTR-A in male mice, indicating that brain OXT is mainly required for memory formation in a social context. The biological relevance of the social stimulus seems to importantly determine social memory abilities, as male rats recognized a previously encountered female adult stimulus for at least 2h (versus 60 min for male juveniles), with a region-dependent contribution of endogenous OXT; while bilateral administration of OXTR-A into the MeA (0.1 μg/1 μl) impaired social memory for adult females only, administration of OXTR-A into the LS via retrodialysis (10 μg/ml, 1.0 μl/min) impaired social memory for both male juveniles and female adults. Overall, these results indicate that brain OXT is a critical mediator of social memory in male rodents and that, depending
Yusa, Noriaki; Kim, Jungho; Koizumi, Masatoshi; Sugiura, Motoaki; Kawashima, Ryuta
Children naturally acquire a language in social contexts where they interact with their caregivers. Indeed, research shows that social interaction facilitates lexical and phonological development at the early stages of child language acquisition. It is not clear, however, whether the relationship between social interaction and learning applies to adult second language acquisition of syntactic rules. Does learning second language syntactic rules through social interactions with a native speaker or without such interactions impact behavior and the brain? The current study aims to answer this question. Adult Japanese participants learned a new foreign language, Japanese sign language (JSL), either through a native deaf signer or via DVDs. Neural correlates of acquiring new linguistic knowledge were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The participants in each group were indistinguishable in terms of their behavioral data after the instruction. The fMRI data, however, revealed significant differences in the neural activities between two groups. Significant activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) were found for the participants who learned JSL through interactions with the native signer. In contrast, no cortical activation change in the left IFG was found for the group who experienced the same visual input for the same duration via the DVD presentation. Given that the left IFG is involved in the syntactic processing of language, spoken or signed, learning through social interactions resulted in an fMRI signature typical of native speakers: activation of the left IFG. Thus, broadly speaking, availability of communicative interaction is necessary for second language acquisition and this results in observed changes in the brain.
Social network type might affect an individual's food choice because these decisions are often made as a group rather than individually. In this study, the associations between social network type, food choice value, and diet quality in frail older adults with low socioeconomic status were investigated. For this cross-sectional study, 87 frail older adults were recruited from the National Home Healthcare Services in Seoul, South Korea. Social network types, food choice values, and diet quality were assessed using The Practitioner Assessment of Network Type Instrument, The Food Choice Questionnaire, and mean adequacy ratio, respectively. Results showed that frail older adults with close relationships with local family and/or friends and neighbors were less likely to follow their own preferences, such as taste, price, and beliefs regarding food health values. In contrast, frail older adults with a small social network and few community contacts were more likely to be influenced by their food choice values, such as price or healthiness of food. Frail older adults who tend to choose familiar foods were associated with low-quality dietary intake, while older adults who valued healthiness or use of natural ingredients were associated with a high-quality diet. The strength and direction of these associations were dependent on social network type of frail older adults. This study explored the hypothesis that food choice values are associated with a certain type of social network and consequently affect diet quality. While additional research needs to be conducted, community-based intervention intended to improve diet quality of frail older adults must carefully consider individual food choice values as well as social network types.
Gilman, Jodi M.; Curran, Max T.; Calderon, Vanessa; Schuster, Randi M.; Evins, A. Eden
Previous studies have reported that peer groups are one of the most important predictors of adolescent and young adult marijuana use, and yet the neural correlates of social processing in marijuana users have not yet been studied. In the current study, marijuana-using young adults (n = 20) and non-using controls (n = 22) participated in a neuroimaging social exclusion task called Cyberball, a computerized ball-tossing game in which the participant is excluded from the game after a pre-determined number of ball tosses. Controls, but not marijuana users, demonstrated significant activation in the insula, a region associated with negative emotion, when being excluded from the game. Both groups demonstrated activation of the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC), a region associated with affective monitoring, during peer exclusion. Only the marijuana group showed a correlation between vACC activation and scores on a self-report measure of peer conformity. This study indicates that marijuana users show atypical neural processing of social exclusion, which may be either caused by, or the result of, regular marijuana use. PMID:26977454
Although there are many positive aspects of social media for adolescents and young adults, there are also risks. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental changes, during which adolescents exhibit a limited capacity for self-regulation and an increased risk of susceptibility to peer pressure and experimentation. Social media can be harmful, and obstetrician-gynecologists may screen their adolescent and young adult patients for high-risk sexual behaviors, especially if sexualized text communication (sexting), exposure to pornography, online dating, or other risk-taking behaviors are present. Victims of cyberbullying and those who engage in sexting are at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy. The effect of social media may be considered in the differential diagnosis of myriad health problems during adolescence. Referrals to mental health care providers or providing outside resources may be indicated. A multidisciplinary approach to address these issues can include the obstetrician-gynecologist, guardians, and school officials and personnel. Knowledge of resources, including those within the schools and community, allows the obstetrician-gynecologist to provide support to adolescents facing these issues.
Roesler, Caroline; Pautre, Isabelle; Thirry, Dominique; Flores, Soccoro; Chabbert, Catherine; Savre, Nikita; Pibarot, Michèle; Seveau, Marie-Aude; Dugas, Karyn; Rollin, Zoé; Dumont, Sarah; Gaspar, Nathalie
Socialisation, education, first jobs and autonomy are key steps to teenagers and young adults (TYA) integration into the society. The occurrence of a cancer in this population increases the difficulties. Although, suffering of cancer do affect TYA life journey at social, scholar and professional levels, from diagnosis to the after-cancer live and sometime forever, few studies exist in France. A national study on TYA with cancer (TYAC) social, scholar and professional pathways is on-going (ESPOIR-AJA). A national survey of the existing TYAC insertion support in 2013 by the "Insertion group" of groupe onco-hématologie adolescents et jeunes adultes (GO-AJA) revealed structured and ancient support at scholar level based on national governmental or associative structures, but insufficient and non-specific scholar help in secondary school and professional help. Specific initiatives have emerged since 2012 with the "Plan cancer 2". All these helps remain unequal across the country. A referential on TYAC social, scholar and professional insertion has been prepared by GO-AJA in collaboration with the association francophone des soins oncologiques de support (AFSOS). The impact of the action 9 of the nation "plan cancer 3" is awaited.
Danforth, Alicia L; Struble, Christopher M; Yazar-Klosinski, Berra; Grob, Charles S
The first study of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted therapy for the treatment of social anxiety in autistic adults commenced in the spring of 2014. The search for psychotherapeutic options for autistic individuals is imperative considering the lack of effective conventional treatments for mental health diagnoses that are common in this population. Serious Adverse Events (SAEs) involving the administration of MDMA in clinical trials have been rare and non-life threatening. To date, MDMA has been administered to over 1133 individuals for research purposes without the occurrence of unexpected drug-related SAEs that require expedited reporting per FDA regulations. Now that safety parameters for limited use of MDMA in clinical settings have been established, a case can be made to further develop MDMA-assisted therapeutic interventions that could support autistic adults in increasing social adaptability among the typically developing population. As in the case with classic hallucinogens and other psychedelic drugs, MDMA catalyzes shifts toward openness and introspection that do not require ongoing administration to achieve lasting benefits. This infrequent dosing mitigates adverse event frequency and improves the risk/benefit ratio of MDMA, which may provide a significant advantage over medications that require daily dosing. Consequently, clinicians could employ new treatment models for social anxiety or similar types of distress administering MDMA on one to several occasions within the context of a supportive and integrative psychotherapy protocol.
Fuller-Iglesias, Heather R; Antonucci, Toni C
Familism, is a cultural value considered to be central to Mexican culture. Older generations are thought to more strongly adhere to familistic values; however, little is known about the implications of familism in late-life. The goal of the current study was to examine links between familism, social network characteristics, and well-being among Mexican older adults. A sample of 556 older adults (50-99 years old) was drawn from the Study of Social Relations and Well-being in Mexico. Various aspects of social network characteristics and familism varied by age, gender, and education status. Familism was correlated with contact frequency and geographic proximity, but not proportion of family in network. Regression analyses indicated higher familism was associated with better psychological and physical well-being, yet familism interacted with proportion of family to predict both self-rated health and chronic conditions indicating that a discrepancy between familistic values and actual family support may be detrimental for older Mexicans' physical health. The discussion highlights the complex interrelationships and potential protective effects of familism. Future research should continue to examine the implications of familism and family relationships in the Mexican context; in particular, how generational shifts in familism influence intergenerational relations and well-being.
Pillemer, Sarah; Holtzer, Roee; Blumen, Helena M
Poor social networks and decreased levels of social support are associated with worse mood, health, and cognition in younger and older adults. Yet, we know very little about the brain substrates associated with social networks and social support, particularly in older adults. This study examined functional brain substrates associated with social networks using the Social Network Index (SNI) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Resting-state fMRI data from 28 non-demented older adults were analyzed with independent components analyses. As expected, four established resting-state networks-previously linked to motor, vision, speech, and other language functions-correlated with the quality (SNI-1: total number of high-contact roles of a respondent) and quantity (SNI-2: total number of individuals in a respondent's social network) of social networks: a sensorimotor, a visual, a vestibular/insular, and a left frontoparietal network. Moreover, SNI-1 was associated with greater functional connectivity in the lateral prefrontal regions of the left frontoparietal network, while SNI-2 was associated with greater functional connectivity in the medial prefrontal regions of this network. Thus, lateral prefrontal regions may be particularly linked to the quality of social networks while medial prefrontal regions may be particularly linked to the quantity of social networks.
Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick
The present study investigated the impact of social support on the psychological well-being of mothers of adolescents and adults with ASD (n = 269). Quantity of support (number of social network members) as well as valence of support (positive support and negative support) were assessed using a modified version of the "convoy model" developed by…
This study looks at how language ideologies affect and are revealed in language socialization practices in a majority-L1 adult ESL classroom, particularly looking at language use and policy. It draws on recent theories and critiques of language socialization (Bayley & Langman, 2011; Bronson & Watson-Gegeo, 2008; Garrett &…
Tyler, Kimberly A.
The current study uses longitudinal data from the 1993 U.S. Midwest floods to examine the influence of support received and support provision on changes in perceived social support among older adults exposed to an acute stressor. Results indicated that flood exposure and higher levels of social support at Time 1 were positively associated with…
Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Halkitis, Perry N.; Bimbi, David S.
A convenience sample of young adults (ages 18-25) in New York City was recruited to complete anonymous surveys in social venues (either dance clubs or other social settings, such as coffee shops and university "hangouts") regarding their use of "club drugs" (e.g., MDMA/Ecstasy, GHB, ketamine, crystal methamphetamine, cocaine,…
Irvin, Dwight W.; Boyd, Brian A.; Odom, Samuel L.
Difficulty with social competence is a core deficit of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of this study was to examine the link between adult talk and the socially competent behavior displayed by preschoolers with ASD concurrently and over time. A modified version of Kontos's Teacher Talk classification was used to code videos of 73 children…
Gantman, Alexander; Kapp, Steven K.; Orenski, Kaely; Laugeson, Elizabeth A.
Despite the psychosocial difficulties common among young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), little to no evidence-based social skills interventions exist for this population. Using a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, the current study tested the effectiveness of an evidence-based, caregiver-assisted social skills intervention…
Kwag, Kyung Hwa; Martin, Peter; Russell, Daniel; Franke, Warren; Kohut, Marian
This study investigated how perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity affected older adults' fatigue, loneliness, and depression. We also explored whether social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health problems. The data of 163 older participants were analyzed in this…
Prins, Esther; Toso, Blaire Willson; Schafft, Kai A.
Supportive social relationships are an important dimension of marginalized women's participation in community-based adult education programs. However, policy makers and researchers often consider these social dimensions to be tangential or secondary to instrumental outcomes such as obtaining employment or increasing standardized test scores.…
Dandeneau, Stephane D.; Baldwin, Mark W.
Concerns about social rejection can be disruptive in an academic context. We set out to train a positive cognitive habit that would buffer against social and performance threat thereby making students less vulnerable and more resilient to rejection. Participants from adult education centers (n=150) were first trained to inhibit rejection using a…
Locher, Julie L.; Ritchie, Christine S.; Robinson, Caroline O.; Roth, David L.; West, Delia Smith; Burgio, Kathryn L.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify relationships between medical, functional, economic, oral health, social, religious, and psychological factors and under-eating in homebound older adults. The focus of the study was on identifying potentially modifiable factors amenable to social and behavioral interventions. Design and Methods: A…
Irvin, Dwight W.
Difficulty with social competence is a core deficit of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Research on typically developing children suggests the amount of adult talk they are exposed to can positively affect their social competence. With growth in the number of children with ASD entering the inclusive preschool classroom, there is a need to…
Gabrielian, Sonya; Young, Alexander S; Greenberg, Jared M; Bromley, Elizabeth
Objective: Research suggests that social supports are associated with housing retention among adults who have experienced homelessness. Yet, we know very little about the social support context in consumers find and retain housing. We examined the ways and identified the junctures in which consumers' skills and deficits in accessing and mobilizing social supports influenced their longitudinal housing status. Method: We performed semi-structured qualitative interviews with VA Greater Los Angeles consumers (n = 19) with serious mental illness, substance use disorders, and a history of homelessness; interviews explored associations between longitudinal housing status (categorized as: stable, independent housing; sheltered housing, continually engaged in structured housing programs; and unstable housing) and social supports. We compared data from consumers in these 3 mutually exclusive categories. Results: All participants described social support as important for finding and maintaining housing. However, participants used formal (provider/case managers) and informal (family/friends) supports in different ways. Participants in stable housing relied on formal and informal supports to obtain/maintain housing. Participants in sheltered housing primarily used formal supports, for example, case management staff. Unstably housed participants used formal and informal supports, but some of these relationships were superficial or of negative valence. Interpersonal problems were prevalent across longitudinal housing status categories. Conclusions and Implications for Practice: Social context, including patterns of formal and informal support, was associated with participants' longitudinal housing status. Within interventions to end homelessness, these findings suggest the value of future research to identify, tailor, and implement practices that can help consumers improve their social resources. (PsycINFO Database Record
Black, Kathy; Dobbs, Debra; Young, Tiffany L
Dignity and independence are widely considered as core concepts to aging well, yet little research has explored how older adults perceive these issues in the context of community life. Moreover, little is known regarding the ways in which the broader public views and enhances aging with dignity and independence with their older residents. Using participatory action research, multiple methods of qualitative inquiry, and tenets of appreciative inquiry, this article reports on a community-based initiative aimed to better understand the positive aspects of aging with dignity and independence. Synthesized findings yielded 6 "actionable themes": (1) meaningful involvement, (2) aging in place, (3) respect and inclusion, (4) communication and information, (5) transportation and mobility, and (6) health and well-being. The findings invoke a new paradigm for community aging that highlights the unique contributions of older adults as a core social resource. Implications for mobilizing community action to promote aging with dignity and independence are discussed.
Minzenberg, Michael J; Poole, John H; Vinogradov, Sophia
We characterized borderline personality disorder (BPD) along two fundamental dimensions of adult social attachment and evaluated attachment associations with childhood maltreatment and current symptoms using self-report measures in 40 outpatients with DSM-IV BPD. The BPD group had significantly greater dimensional attachment impairment and rate of fearful attachment type compared with a healthy control group. Among BPD subjects, dimensional attachment-anxiety was specifically associated with sexual abuse, whereas attachment-avoidance was associated with all five maltreatment types. The two attachment dimensions showed divergent associations with current interpersonal problems, impulsivity subtypes and mood symptoms. We conclude that (1) BPD is characterized by adult attachment disturbance; (2) these attachment problems are strongly related to childhood maltreatment, and to current interpersonal problems and clinical symptoms that are considered core features of BPD; and (3) the diverse problems of BPD patients may arise from two basic mechanisms, each tied to a different type of attachment disturbance, developmental history, and clinical outcome.
Gurung, Regan A R; Taylor, Shelley E; Seeman, Teresa E
Using longitudinal, community-based data from the MacArthur Studies of Successful Aging, the authors examined determinants of changes in social support receipt among 439 married older adults. In general, social support increased over time, especially for those with many preexisting social ties, but those experiencing more psychological distress and cognitive dysfunction reported more negative encounters with others. Gender affected social support receipt: Men received emotional support primarily from their spouses, whereas women drew more heavily on their friends and relatives and children for emotional support. Discussion centers on the importance of social support provision to those with the greatest needs.
Two distinct approaches to smart home design, namely Distributed Direct Sensing (DDS) and Infrastructure Mediated Sensing (IMS), have distinguishing features and implications resulting from their implementation. These two distinct smart home approaches have not been directly compared pertaining to their technical performance or their acceptance by the end users. It is also unclear what the perceived privacy and obtrusiveness concerns are when it comes to the implementation of these two different approaches in homes. The study presented here aimed to evaluate acceptance of these two sensing approaches by older adults and assess the perceived privacy and obtrusiveness concerns and ultimately define their social implications.
Nitzburg, George C; Farber, Barry A
Social networking sites (SNS) like Facebook can increase interpersonal connections but also intensify jealousy, envy, and surveillance behaviors. Attachment styles may help explain differences in experiencing SNS. This study investigated the role of attachment in influencing emerging adults' perceptions and feelings about SNS and their disclosures on SNS. Disorganized and anxious attachment predicted subjects' use of SNS to avoid more personal face-to-face communication, suggesting individuals with these tendencies use SNS to hold relationships at a psychological arm's distance. Anxious attachment also predicted feelings of intimacy when using SNS, perhaps reflecting online needs for comfort from others. A case narrative is presented to show how those with insecure attachment patterns may struggle to avoid interpersonal conflict when being continuously presented with ambiguous social information.