Science.gov

Sample records for adult social care

  1. Social Care in Adult Education: Resisting a Marketplace Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a research study about the experiences of adult educators in which the stories of three of the participants were central in exploring the issue of social care in adult education. It proposes that the adult educators with a social care orientation in this study acknowledge the importance of, and work to provide for, human…

  2. Theme with Variations: Social Policy, Community Care and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Changes in British social policy regarding community health care has implications for local education agency (LEA) providers of adult continuing education. LEAs will either have a role in providing staff training and other learning opportunities, will be forced to provide cheaper forms of community care, or will be ignored altogether. (SK)

  3. Health and Social Care Interventions Which Promote Social Participation for Adults with Learning Disabilities: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howarth, Sharon; Morris, David; Newlin, Meredith; Webber, Martin

    2016-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are among the most socially excluded in society. There is a significant gap in research evidence showing how health and social care workers can intervene to improve the social participation of adults with learning disabilities. A systematic review and modified narrative synthesis was used to appraise the quality…

  4. Health and social care management for older adults with multimorbidity: a multiperspective approach.

    PubMed

    Meranius, Martina Summer; Josefsson, Karin

    2017-03-01

    Multimorbidity, a condition common among older adults, may be regarded as a failure of a complex system. The aim of this study was to describe the core components in health and social care management for older adults with multimorbidity. A cross-sectional design included two methods: individual interviews and group discussions. A total of 105 participants included older adults with multimorbidity and their relatives, care staff and healthcare policymakers. Data were analysed using content analysis. The results show that seven core components comprise a multiperspective view of health and social care management for older adults with multimorbidity: political steering, leadership, cooperation, competence, support for relatives, availability and continuity. Steps should be taken to ensure that every older adult with multimorbidity has a treatment plan according to a multiperspective view to prevent fragmentation of their health care. This study provides relevant evidence developing a multiperspective model of health and social care management for older adults with multimorbidity.

  5. What can local authorities do to improve the social care-related quality of life of older adults living at home? Evidence from the Adult Social Care Survey.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, K M; Malley, J; Bosmans, J E; Jansen, A P D; Ostelo, R W; van der Horst, H E; Netten, A

    2014-09-01

    Local authorities spend considerable resources on social care at home for older adults. Given the expected growth in the population of older adults and budget cuts on local government, it is important to find efficient ways of maintaining and improving the quality of life of older adults. The ageing in place literature suggests that policies in other functions of local authorities may have a significant role to play. This study aims to examine the associations between social care-related quality of life (SCRQoL) in older adults and three potential policy targets for local authorities: (i) accessibility of information and advice, (ii) design of the home and (iii) accessibility of the local area. We used cross-sectional data from the English national Adult Social Care Survey (ASCS) 2010/2011 on service users aged 65 years and older and living at home (N=29,935). To examine the association between SCRQoL, as measured by the ASCOT, and three single-item questions about accessibility of information, design of the home and accessibility of the local area, we estimate linear and quantile regression models. After adjusting for physical and mental health factors and other confounders our findings indicate that SCRQoL is significantly lower for older adults who find it more difficult to find information and advice, for those who report that their home design is inappropriate for their needs and for those who find it more difficult to get around their local area. In addition, these three variables are as strongly associated with SCRQoL as physical and mental health factors. We conclude that in seeking to find ways to maintain and improve the quality of life of social care users living at home, local authorities could look more broadly across their responsibilities. Further research is required to explore the cost-effectiveness of these options compared to standard social care services.

  6. "Quien Sabe Mas Lucha Mejor": Adult Educators' Care of the Self Practices within Social Movements in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Jennifer Lee

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at popular adult educators' care of the self practices within social movements in Buenos Aires, Argentina. It answers the following questions: How is popular adult education practiced amongst educators in social movements? What can studying popular adult educators' care of the self practices offer the field of adult education?…

  7. Carers' quality of life and experiences of adult social care support in England.

    PubMed

    Rand, Stacey; Malley, Juliette

    2014-07-01

    Informal carers make a vital contribution to the well-being of the people they care for or look after. Against the policy background in England, the purpose of this study was to explore the views of carers who are in contact with adult social care support services. A qualitative study with 31 carers, who were recruited via local authorities and carers' organisations, was conducted between April and July 2012 to collect data on carers' experiences and perceptions of their quality of life (QoL) with and without adult social care and support for themselves or the person they look after. Through framework analysis, three key themes were identified: (i) definitions of social care services 'for' the carer or 'for' care recipient and social care outcomes; (ii) carers' access to social care services; and (iii) the meaning and value of informal care. We find that carers' QoL is affected by social care support directed at carers and support directed at those they care for, as well as access to services, the experience of stigma in communities, and in how individual needs and preferences are considered when making decisions about care. While there is much to welcome in the direction of policy in England, this study has shown that there are some gaps in thinking around these areas that will need to be addressed if the lives of carers are to be improved.

  8. Transition From Pediatric to Adult Epilepsy Care: A Difficult Process Marked by Medical and Social Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Camfield, Peter; Camfield, Carol; Pohlmann-Eden, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    When epilepsy does not remit in childhood, transition and transfer to adult care is eventually required. Youth must leave the family-centered approach of pediatric care for the individual focus of adult medicine. Evidence from population-based studies indicates that many of those with childhood-onset epilepsy have major social difficulties in adulthood even if their epilepsy has resolved. Epilepsy may have major effects on normal adolescent development, and societal attitudes confound this difficult period in the lives of young people with epilepsy. Very little objective data are available to assist in the designing of models of care for youth with epilepsy; however, based on our clinical experience and the limited available literature, it appears that a transition program to prepare children for adult care is best started during childhood and adolescence. The formal transfer to adult services may be assisted by a transition clinic jointly attended by pediatric and adult epilepsy specialists. PMID:23476118

  9. Health and social care costs for young adults with epilepsy in the UK.

    PubMed

    Beecham, Jennifer; Snell, Tom; Perkins, Margaret; Knapp, Martin

    2010-09-01

    Maintaining contact with services will help improve clinical and social outcomes as children with epilepsy move into their adult lives. This study has collated evidence on the extent to which young adults with epilepsy are supported by health and social care services posttransition, and the costs of such support. UK prevalence and service use data were taken from policy and research literature, as well as national data sets and reports. Costs were attached to these data to arrive at agency and overall total costs. There are approximately 42,000 young adults (18-25 years) with epilepsy costing the UK health and social care budgets 715.3 pound million per annum, on average 17,000 found per young adult with epilepsy. A further 61 pound million falls to the social security budget. Most young adults with epilepsy will rarely use these services, but those with additional health needs have high and often long-term support needs, including supported accommodation and personal care. Current resources used by these young adults are summarised but deficits in service availability can mean long waiting times and sub-optimal treatment. Young adults also want more support to help them take advantage of education and employment opportunities and more information about managing the impacts of epilepsy on their lives. Improving services will cost money, but has the potential to lead to better outcomes for young adults.

  10. Natural variation in maternal care shapes adult social behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Starr-Phillips, Emily J; Beery, Annaliese K

    2014-07-01

    Features of the early postnatal environment profoundly shape later physical and behavioral phenotypes. The amount of licking/grooming that rat dams direct towards their offspring has durable consequences, including behavioral and physiological dimensions of stress reactivity, cognition, and reproductive behavior. We examined how natural variation in maternal care alters social behavior in adult offspring and how this relates to anxiety behavior and oxytocin receptor density. Male and female offspring of mothers who received high levels of licking spent significantly more time in social contact with unfamiliar individuals than did offspring whose dams provided less grooming. Reduced anxiety behavior was associated with greater social interaction. No differences in oxytocin receptor binding assessed by (125) I-OVTA autoradiography were detected between groups. The present investigation characterizes a novel impact of maternal care on adult social interaction behavior, replicates anxiety behavior differences, and illustrates connections between social behavior and anxiety in adulthood across maternal treatment groups.

  11. Personalisation of Adult Social Care: Self-Directed Support and the Choice and Control Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Sophie; Cameron, Ailsa

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, "self-directed support" was introduced in adult social care in England to establish choice and control--in the assessment process itself and over service provision--for "all" service users. The personalisation agenda is underpinned by a range of ideologies, particularly a civil rights empowerment approach and…

  12. Social care networks and older LGBT adults: challenges for the future.

    PubMed

    Brennan-Ing, Mark; Seidel, Liz; Larson, Britta; Karpiak, Stephen E

    2014-01-01

    Research on service needs among older adults rarely addresses the special circumstances of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals, such as their reliance on friend-centered social networks or the experience of discrimination from service providers. Limited data suggests that older LGBT adults underutilize health and social services that are important in maintaining independence and quality of life. This study explored the social care networks of this population using a mixed-methods approach. Data were obtained from 210 LGBT older adults. The average age was 60 years, and 71% were men, 24% were women, and 5% were transgender or intersex. One-third was Black, and 62% were Caucasian. Quantitative assessments found high levels of morbidity and friend-centered support networks. Need for and use of services was frequently reported. Content analysis revealed unmet needs for basic supports, including housing, economic supports, and help with entitlements. Limited opportunities for socialization were strongly expressed, particularly among older lesbians. Implications for senior programs and policies are discussed.

  13. Adult Day Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Adult Day Care Adult Day Care Centers are designed to provide care and ... adults who need assistance or supervision during the day. Programs offer relief to family members and caregivers, ...

  14. Early maternal care predicts reliance on social learning about food in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Lindeyer, Charlotte M; Meaney, Michael J; Reader, Simon M

    2013-03-01

    Many vertebrates rely extensively on social information, but the value of information produced by other individuals will vary across contexts and habitats. Social learning may thus be optimized by the use of developmental or current cues to determine its likely value. Here, we show that a developmental cue, early maternal care, correlates with social learning propensities in adult rodents. The maternal behavior of rats Rattus norvegicus with their litters was scored over the first 6 days postpartum. Rat dams show consistent individual differences in the rate they lick and groom (LG) pups, allowing them to be categorized as high, low, or mid-LG mothers. The 100-day old male offspring of high and low-LG mothers were given the opportunity to learn food preferences for novel diets from conspecifics that had previously eaten these diets ("demonstrators"). Offspring of high-LG mothers socially learned food preferences, but offspring of low-LG mothers did not. We administered oxytocin to subjects to address the hypothesis that it would increase the propensity for social learning, but there were no detectable effects. Our data raise the possibility that social learning propensities may be both relatively stable throughout life and part of a suite of traits "adaptively programmed" by early developmental experiences.

  15. Comparative Performance of Adult Social Care Research, 1996–2011: A Bibliometric Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, David; Côté, Grégoire; Grant, Jonathan; Knapp, Martin; Mehta, Anji; Morgan Jones, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Decision makers in adult social care are increasingly interested in using evidence from research to support or shape their decisions. The scope and nature of the current landscape of adult social care research (ASCR) need to be better understood. This paper provides a bibliometric assessment of ASCR outputs from 1996 to 2011. ASCR papers were retrieved using three strategies: from key journals; using keywords and noun phrases; and from additional papers preferentially citing or being cited by other ASCR papers. Overall, 195,829 ASCR papers were identified in the bibliographic database Scopus, of which 16 per cent involved at least one author from the UK. The UK output increased 2.45-fold between 1996 and 2011. Among selected countries, those with greater research intensity in ASCR generally had higher citation impact, such as the USA, UK, Canada and the Netherlands. The top five UK institutions in terms of volume of papers in the UK accounted for 26 per cent of total output. We conclude by noting the limitations to bibliometric analysis of ASCR and examine how such analysis can support the strategic development of the field. PMID:27559228

  16. The association of maternal socialization in childhood and adolescence with adult offsprings' sympathy/caring.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Nancy; VanSchyndel, Sarah K; Hofer, Claire

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine associations between mothers' socialization practices in childhood and adolescence and offsprings' (N = 32, 16 female) sympathy/concern in early adulthood. Mothers reported on their socialization practices and beliefs a total of 6 times using a Q-sort during their offsprings' childhood (between 7-8 and 11-12 years of age) and adolescence (between 13-14 and 17-18 years of age). Adult offsprings' sympathy/caring was assessed 3 times in early adulthood (at ages 19-20 to 23-24 years) and in their mid-20s to 30s (ages 25-26 to 31-32 years). In general, friends' reports of participants' sympathy/concern at ages 25-32 years related positively to mother-reported rational discipline (including inductions) and warmth and support during childhood and adolescence and negatively to mother-reported negative affect during adolescence. Self-reported sympathy/concern during early adulthood was positively related to maternal warmth and support during childhood and almost significantly negatively related to mother-reported negative affect during childhood and adolescence. Most of the relations held when the prior level of self-reported childhood empathy or adolescent sympathy was controlled.

  17. Health benefits of primary care social work for adults with complex health and social needs: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Jules; Mercer, Stewart W; Harris, Fiona M

    2016-04-05

    The prevalence of complex health and social needs in primary care patients is growing. Furthermore, recent research suggests that the impact of psychosocial distress on the significantly poorer health outcomes in this population may have been underestimated. The potential of social work in primary care settings has been extensively discussed in both health and social work literature and there is evidence that social work interventions in other settings are particularly effective in addressing psychosocial needs. However, the evidence base for specific improved health outcomes related to primary care social work is minimal. This review aimed to identify and synthesise the available evidence on the health benefits of social work interventions in primary care settings. Nine electronic databases were searched from 1990 to 2015 and seven primary research studies were retrieved. Due to the heterogeneity of studies, a narrative synthesis was conducted. Although there is no definitive evidence for effectiveness, results suggest a promising role for primary care social work interventions in improving health outcomes. These include subjective health measures and self-management of long-term conditions, reducing psychosocial morbidity and barriers to treatment and health maintenance. Although few rigorous study designs were found, the contextual detail and clinical settings of studies provide evidence of the practice applicability of social work intervention. Emerging policy on the integration of health and social care may provide an opportunity to develop this model of care.

  18. Breaking barriers and building bridges: understanding the pervasive needs of older LGBT adults and the value of social work in health care.

    PubMed

    Erdley, Shiloh D; Anklam, Donald D; Reardon, Christina C

    2014-01-01

    Given the rise in the aging population and the increased use of health care services, there is a demand for awareness and training that targets underserved populations such as older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adults. Older LGBT adults are 5 times less likely to access health care and social services (King, 2009). Ethically responsible health service delivery is needed to capitalize on the strengths and capabilities of older LGBT adults and is vital for combating existing health disparities. Social workers aim to prevent ongoing gaps in care for older LGBT adults that can lead to negative individual and social consequences.

  19. An exploration of social connectedness as perceived by older adults in a long-term care setting in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Catherine; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    Social connectedness-that is, the relationships people have with family friends and others-is an important aspect of resident's adjustment to and participation in community living. Little is known about older adult's perceptions of social connectedness in long-term care. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships older adults living in long-term care have with family, friends, the outside world, other residents, and staff. A qualitative phenomenological approach was used to collect data from a purposive sample of 10 older adults using audiotaped semi-structured interviews. Findings revealed 6 themes: superficial relationships, substitution, outside world connection, mental ability, attitudes/actions of carers, and isolation. The study supports the understanding that the more social ties people have, the more socially connected they feel. Preventing social isolation among older people is an important area for practice, and older peoples' services should be shaped around maintaining connectedness and promoting integration of residents in long-term care.

  20. “Friending” Teens: Systematic Review of Social Media in Adolescent and Young Adult Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Scirica, Christina V; Jethwani, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Background Social media has emerged as a potentially powerful medium for communication with adolescents and young adults around their health choices. Objective The goal of this systematic review is to identify research on the use of social media for interacting with adolescents and young adults in order to achieve positive health outcomes. Methods A MEDLINE/PubMed electronic database search was performed between January 1, 2002 and October 1, 2013, using terms to identify peer-reviewed research in which social media and other Web 2.0 technologies were an important feature. We used a systematic approach to retrieve papers and extract relevant data. Results We identified 288 studies involving social media, of which 87 met criteria for inclusion; 75 studies were purely observational and 12 were interventional. The ways in which social media was leveraged by these studies included (1) observing adolescent and young adult behavior (n=77), (2) providing health information (n=13), (3) engaging the adolescent and young adult community (n=17), and (4) recruiting research participants (n=23). Common health topics addressed included high-risk sexual behaviors (n=23), alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use (n=19), Internet safety (n=8), mental health issues (n=18), medical conditions (n=11), or other specified issues (n=12). Several studies used more than one social media platform and addressed more than one health-related topic. Conclusions Social media technologies offer an exciting new means for engaging and communicating with adolescents and young adults; it has been successfully used to engage this age group, identify behaviors, and provide appropriate intervention and education. Nevertheless, the majority of studies to date have been preliminary and limited in their methodologies, and mostly center around evaluating how adolescents and young adults use social media and the resulting implications on their health. Although these explorations are essential, further

  1. 25 CFR 20.331 - What is Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is Adult Care Assistance? 20.331 Section 20.331... SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.331 What is Adult Care Assistance? Adult care assistance provides non-medical care for eligible adult Indians who: (a) Have needs...

  2. 25 CFR 20.331 - What is Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is Adult Care Assistance? 20.331 Section 20.331... SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.331 What is Adult Care Assistance? Adult care assistance provides non-medical care for eligible adult Indians who: (a) Have needs...

  3. 25 CFR 20.331 - What is Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is Adult Care Assistance? 20.331 Section 20.331... SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.331 What is Adult Care Assistance? Adult care assistance provides non-medical care for eligible adult Indians who: (a) Have needs...

  4. 25 CFR 20.331 - What is Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is Adult Care Assistance? 20.331 Section 20.331... SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.331 What is Adult Care Assistance? Adult care assistance provides non-medical care for eligible adult Indians who: (a) Have needs...

  5. 25 CFR 20.331 - What is Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What is Adult Care Assistance? 20.331 Section 20.331... SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.331 What is Adult Care Assistance? Adult care assistance provides non-medical care for eligible adult Indians who: (a) Have needs...

  6. Adult male replacement and subsequent infant care by male and siblings in socially monogamous owl monkeys (Aotus azarai).

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Juárez, Cecilia Paola; Di Fiore, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Owl monkeys (Aotus azarai) are small, territorial, socially monogamous primates that show intense infant care by the adult male in the group. It has been hypothesized that male care may be adaptive because it increases offspring survival and/or reduces the metabolic costs to the female of raising the offspring. Alternatively, males may provide care even when they are not related to the infants to increase future reproductive opportunities. We describe changes in infant care patterns that took place after the eviction of the resident male by a solitary male in an owl monkey population in the Argentinean Chaco. The resident male and mother provided all infant care during the first month of life of the infant, until the male was evicted. During the three-day male replacement event, care of the infant was shared among the mother, a four-year-old sister, and a one-year-old brother. The new male began contributing to infant care soon after entering the group, carrying, and interacting socially with the infant in much the same way as any male regularly does. However, despite receiving biparental care from both the original and new resident males, the infant disappeared at the age of four months and was presumed dead. These are the first reports of care by sibling and by non-putative fathers in wild owl monkeys. Given the significant amount of time that new pairs of owl monkeys spend before reproducing, it is possible that male care in owl monkeys functions as mating effort as much as or more than parenting effort.

  7. "Are we ready for robots that care for us?" Attitudes and opinions of older adults toward socially assistive robots.

    PubMed

    Pino, Maribel; Boulay, Mélodie; Jouen, François; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Socially Assistive Robots (SAR) may help improve care delivery at home for older adults with cognitive impairment and reduce the burden of informal caregivers. Examining the views of these stakeholders on SAR is fundamental in order to conceive acceptable and useful SAR for dementia care. This study investigated SAR acceptance among three groups of older adults living in the community: persons with Mild Cognitive Impairment, informal caregivers of persons with dementia, and healthy older adults. Different technology acceptance questions related to the robot and user characteristics, potential applications, feelings about technology, ethical issues, and barriers and facilitators for SAR adoption, were addressed in a mixed-method study. Participants (n = 25) completed a survey and took part in a focus group (n = 7). A functional robot prototype, a multimedia presentation, and some use-case scenarios provided a base for the discussion. Content analysis was carried out based on recorded material from focus groups. Results indicated that an accurate insight of influential factors for SAR acceptance could be gained by combining quantitative and qualitative methods. Participants acknowledged the potential benefits of SAR for supporting care at home for individuals with cognitive impairment. In all the three groups, intention to use SAR was found to be lower for the present time than that anticipated for the future. However, caregivers and persons with MCI had a higher perceived usefulness and intention to use SAR, at the present time, than healthy older adults, confirming that current needs are strongly related to technology acceptance and should influence SAR design. A key theme that emerged in this study was the importance of customizing SAR appearance, services, and social capabilities. Mismatch between needs and solutions offered by the robot, usability factors, and lack of experience with technology, were seen as the most important barriers for SAR adoption.

  8. Beginning to explore the experience of managing a direct payment for someone with dementia: The perspectives of suitable people and adult social care practitioners.

    PubMed

    Laybourne, Anne H; Jepson, Marcus J; Williamson, Toby; Robotham, Dan; Cyhlarova, Eva; Williams, Val

    2016-01-01

    Following legal improvements made around mental capacity together with the Health and Social Care Act, it is now possible for a direct payment to be paid to a 'Suitable Person' to manage on someone's behalf to purchase directly care and support services. People with dementia are a key group affected by this change in England of adult social care. We interviewed nine social care practitioners and seven Suitable People for people with dementia across five English local authorities to begin to examine their experiences of this new method of social care provision. Findings from thematic analyses suggest positive outcomes and multiple beneficiaries, but some challenges: potentially inappropriate processes, support planning, divergence in attitudes towards care and support outcomes. Implications for practice include obfuscation of recipients' and Suitable People's best interests and supporting practitioners to explore fully clients' aspirations for care and support.

  9. Green Care Farms: An Innovative Type of Adult Day Service to Stimulate Social Participation of People With Dementia.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Simone R; Stoop, Annerieke; Molema, Claudia C M; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Hop, Peter J W M; Baan, Caroline A

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of day services at green care farms (GCFs) in terms of social participation for people with dementia. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with people with dementia who attended day services at a GCF (GCF group, n = 21), were on a waiting list (WL) for day services at a GCF (WL group, n = 12), or attended day services in a regular day care facility (RDCF group, n = 17) and with their family caregivers. Results: People with dementia in the GCF and WL group were primarily males, with an average age of 71 and 76 years, respectively, who almost all had a spousal caregiver. People with dementia in the RDCF group were mostly females with an average age of 85 years, most of whom had a non-spousal caregiver. For both the GCF and RDCF groups, it was indicated that day services made people with dementia feel part of society. The most important domains of social participation addressed by RDCFs were social interactions and recreational activities. GCFs additionally addressed the domains "paid employment" and "volunteer work." Conclusion: GCFs are valuable in terms of social participation for a particular group of people with dementia. Matching characteristics of adult day services (ADS) centers to the preferences and capacities of people with dementia is of importance. Diversity in ADS centers is therefore desirable.

  10. Making space for belonging: critical reflections on the implementation of personalised adult social care under the veil of meaningful inclusion.

    PubMed

    Power, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    This paper critically reflects on the way in which recent adult social care reform has been evolving beneath the alleged policy goal of prioritising the cultivation of meaningful inclusion and 'belonging' in the community. With this goal, there has been a focus away from 'services' for persons with intellectual disabilities, to supporting natural connections within the community. This paper draws on a grounded theory study of the perspectives of those responsible for overseeing community living arrangements for persons with disabilities, drawing on interviews and focus groups with service providers and relevant government officials. It examines the socio-spatial implications of the gradual shift towards 'belonging' as a disability policy goal, as it has evolved in two discrete settings - British Columbia, Canada and Ireland. The findings identify the complexities involved in facilitating active community connection for persons with intellectual disabilities and reveal important cautionary lessons for other jurisdictions where community living policy has arguably been moving away from communal services towards self-managed supports in 'real' communities through personal budgets in an effort to remove barriers to participation. The paper thus critically reflects on the rapid pursuit for transformation in personalised adult social care in government policy, arguing that the process of fostering meaningful community inclusion will and should take time.

  11. The Social Stratification of Older Adults' Preparations for End-of-Life Health Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    I use data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (n = 4,971) to evaluate the extent to which socioeconomic status affects three health-related (living will, durable power of attorney for health care, and discussions) and one financial (will) component of end-of-life planning. Net worth is positively associated with all four types of planning,…

  12. Effects of Social Reinforcement Contingent on Conventional or Unconventional Responses on Generalized Creativity by Older Adults in Residential Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polenick, Courtney Allyn; Flora, Stephen Ray

    2012-01-01

    The effects of social praise contingent on either usual (conventional) or unusual (unconventional) responses during an object uses task were assessed on measures of generalized creativity in two novel, unrelated tasks. Participants were 20 older adults, ages 63 to 89 years (M = 80.90), who were recruited from a joint skilled nursing and assisted…

  13. Overcoming Social Disconnection and Its Consequences for Transition into Adulthood: Case Studies of Adults Who Exited Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taglianetti, Victor J.

    2013-01-01

    Devastating life experiences continually plague many foster care youth throughout their entire lives on social, emotional, educational, psychological, and physical levels. Oftentimes, the cumulative effect of these events results in large numbers of individuals dropping out of school and becoming increasingly disconnected from people and many…

  14. 25 CFR 20.332 - Who can receive Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who can receive Adult Care Assistance? 20.332 Section 20... AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.332 Who can receive Adult Care Assistance? An adult Indian is eligible to receive adult care assistance under this part if...

  15. 25 CFR 20.332 - Who can receive Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who can receive Adult Care Assistance? 20.332 Section 20... AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.332 Who can receive Adult Care Assistance? An adult Indian is eligible to receive adult care assistance under this part if...

  16. 25 CFR 20.332 - Who can receive Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who can receive Adult Care Assistance? 20.332 Section 20... AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.332 Who can receive Adult Care Assistance? An adult Indian is eligible to receive adult care assistance under this part if...

  17. 25 CFR 20.332 - Who can receive Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Who can receive Adult Care Assistance? 20.332 Section 20... AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.332 Who can receive Adult Care Assistance? An adult Indian is eligible to receive adult care assistance under this part if...

  18. Primary care of adults with developmental disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, William F.; Berg, Joseph M.; Bradley, Elspeth; Cheetham, Tom; Denton, Richard; Heng, John; Hennen, Brian; Joyce, David; Kelly, Maureen; Korossy, Marika; Lunsky, Yona; McMillan, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To update the 2006 Canadian guidelines for primary care of adults with developmental disabilities (DD) and to make practical recommendations based on current knowledge to address the particular health issues of adults with DD. Quality of evidence Knowledgeable health care providers participating in a colloquium and a subsequent working group discussed and agreed on revisions to the 2006 guidelines based on a comprehensive review of publications, feedback gained from users of the guidelines, and personal clinical experiences. Most of the available evidence in this area of care is from expert opinion or published consensus statements (level III). Main message Adults with DD have complex health issues, many of them differing from those of the general population. Good primary care identifies the particular health issues faced by adults with DD to improve their quality of life, to improve their access to health care, and to prevent suffering, morbidity, and premature death. These guidelines synthesize general, physical, behavioural, and mental health issues of adults with DD that primary care providers should be aware of, and they present recommendations for screening and management based on current knowledge that practitioners can apply. Because of interacting biologic, psychoaffective, and social factors that contribute to the health and well-being of adults with DD, these guidelines emphasize involving caregivers, adapting procedures when appropriate, and seeking input from a range of health professionals when available. Ethical care is also emphasized. The guidelines are formulated within an ethical framework that pays attention to issues such as informed consent and the assessment of health benefits in relation to risks of harm. Conclusion Implementation of the guidelines proposed here would improve the health of adults with DD and would minimize disparities in health and health care between adults with DD and those in the general population

  19. Social Pedagogy and Pastoral Care in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyriacou, Chris

    2015-01-01

    In the context of this paper, social pedagogy concerns how a person trained in social pedagogy can take up the role of a trusted and caring adult to help, support and empower troubled and vulnerable pupils to meet the demands they face in their lives so that they are better able to lead fulfilling and satisfying lives and can, in their turn,…

  20. “Are we ready for robots that care for us?” Attitudes and opinions of older adults toward socially assistive robots

    PubMed Central

    Pino, Maribel; Boulay, Mélodie; Jouen, François; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Socially Assistive Robots (SAR) may help improve care delivery at home for older adults with cognitive impairment and reduce the burden of informal caregivers. Examining the views of these stakeholders on SAR is fundamental in order to conceive acceptable and useful SAR for dementia care. This study investigated SAR acceptance among three groups of older adults living in the community: persons with Mild Cognitive Impairment, informal caregivers of persons with dementia, and healthy older adults. Different technology acceptance questions related to the robot and user characteristics, potential applications, feelings about technology, ethical issues, and barriers and facilitators for SAR adoption, were addressed in a mixed-method study. Participants (n = 25) completed a survey and took part in a focus group (n = 7). A functional robot prototype, a multimedia presentation, and some use-case scenarios provided a base for the discussion. Content analysis was carried out based on recorded material from focus groups. Results indicated that an accurate insight of influential factors for SAR acceptance could be gained by combining quantitative and qualitative methods. Participants acknowledged the potential benefits of SAR for supporting care at home for individuals with cognitive impairment. In all the three groups, intention to use SAR was found to be lower for the present time than that anticipated for the future. However, caregivers and persons with MCI had a higher perceived usefulness and intention to use SAR, at the present time, than healthy older adults, confirming that current needs are strongly related to technology acceptance and should influence SAR design. A key theme that emerged in this study was the importance of customizing SAR appearance, services, and social capabilities. Mismatch between needs and solutions offered by the robot, usability factors, and lack of experience with technology, were seen as the most important barriers for SAR adoption. PMID

  1. 25 CFR 20.333 - How do I apply for Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How do I apply for Adult Care Assistance? 20.333 Section... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.333 How do I apply for Adult Care Assistance? To apply for adult care assistance, you or someone acting on your behalf...

  2. 25 CFR 20.335 - What is the payment standard for Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What is the payment standard for Adult Care Assistance? 20... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.335 What is the payment standard for Adult Care Assistance? The approved payment for adult care assistance...

  3. 25 CFR 20.333 - How do I apply for Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How do I apply for Adult Care Assistance? 20.333 Section... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.333 How do I apply for Adult Care Assistance? To apply for adult care assistance, you or someone acting on your behalf...

  4. 25 CFR 20.333 - How do I apply for Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How do I apply for Adult Care Assistance? 20.333 Section... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.333 How do I apply for Adult Care Assistance? To apply for adult care assistance, you or someone acting on your behalf...

  5. 25 CFR 20.333 - How do I apply for Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How do I apply for Adult Care Assistance? 20.333 Section... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.333 How do I apply for Adult Care Assistance? To apply for adult care assistance, you or someone acting on your behalf...

  6. 25 CFR 20.335 - What is the payment standard for Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is the payment standard for Adult Care Assistance... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.335 What is the payment standard for Adult Care Assistance? The approved payment for adult care assistance...

  7. 25 CFR 20.335 - What is the payment standard for Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is the payment standard for Adult Care Assistance... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.335 What is the payment standard for Adult Care Assistance? The approved payment for adult care assistance...

  8. 25 CFR 20.335 - What is the payment standard for Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is the payment standard for Adult Care Assistance... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.335 What is the payment standard for Adult Care Assistance? The approved payment for adult care assistance...

  9. [Social inequality in home care].

    PubMed

    Möller, A; Osterfeld, A; Büscher, A

    2013-06-01

    Social inequality in Germany is discussed primarily with regard to educational or social welfare issues. There is a political consensus that more action should be taken to ensure equality of chances and fulfillment of basic needs for everyone. In long-term care these considerations have not yet taken place and there are hardly any research studies in this field. However, the startling rise of the need for long-term care will definitely require a discussion of social inequality in various care arrangements. To learn more about social inequality in home care, a qualitative approach was used and 16 home care nurses were interviewed. Our study shows that many care recipients face numerous problems they cannot handle on their own, which may even worsen their situation. In addition, the results reveal that facing social inequalities place a burden on nurses and influence their work performance.

  10. Factors Affecting Burnout when Caring for Older Adults Needing Long Term Care Services in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Won, Seojin; Song, Inuk

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to address factors related to caregiver burnout as a result of caring for an older adult with a chronic disease. Characteristics of care recipients and caregivers as well as social support were included to identify the relationships with caregiver burnout. The analysis was based on a sample of 334 older adults and…

  11. Community care and social services.

    PubMed Central

    Renwick, D.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of community care is to enable people with various types of disability to live in their own homes, rather than in institutions. This involves the provision of support and services at home by various agencies. After a critical report in 1986 identified problems with coordination and flexibility of community care services, the white paper Caring for People (1989) stated the government's aim to provide a "needs led," responsive range of services, promoting maximum independence of those wishing to live at home rather than enter institutional care. New arrangements were introduced in 1993, involving a formal assessment procedure and the production of a personalized care plan for each individual, incorporating services provided by private and voluntary agencies as well as by social services departments. This article describes the components of community care services supplied by local social services authorities, including housing adaptations, equipment, telephones and alarms, home care, meals, and respite care. Images p871-a PMID:8870580

  12. In The Best Interest Of The (Adult) Child: Ideas About Kinship Care Of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Tezra; Perry, Tam E.; Valeriani, Julia

    2014-01-01

    This article uses a qualitative, ethnographic approach to examine the experiences older adults and their kin, as the older adult engages in relocation. Studies looking at caregiving by kin for older adults highlight burdens for the adult child. This study offers a life course perspective on kinship care, analyzing older adults' decisions' to move. It was found that many older adults are strongly influenced by the desire to not be cared for by their kin as well as to select housing near their existing social network, which might exclude kin. In conclusion, policy implications are discussed. PMID:25278741

  13. The Association of Maternal Socialization in Childhood and Adolescence with Adult Offsprings' Sympathy/Caring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; VanSchyndel, Sarah K.; Hofer, Claire

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine associations between mothers' socialization practices in childhood and adolescence and offsprings' (N = 32, 16 female) sympathy/concern in early adulthood. Mothers reported on their socialization practices and beliefs a total of 6 times using a Q-sort during their offsprings' childhood…

  14. Caring for older adults: the parables in Confucian texts.

    PubMed

    Koh, Eun-Kang; Koh, Chin-Kang

    2008-10-01

    Confucianism is one of the frequently mentioned social factors in the research of care for the older adults in East Asian countries such as China, Taiwan, Japan, and Korea. Although Confucian philosophy functions as a powerful source of reference for care, the context of care in Confucian texts is not yet largely studied in nursing. This column focuses on the meaning of care in two key Confucian texts, the Analects and Mencius. The context of care in Confucian texts should provide a sound foundation and substantial understanding for researchers studying care in East Asian society.

  15. Counseling Services in Adult Day Care Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaki, Gamal; Zaki, Sylvia

    Federal support for adult day care centers began in the United States approximately 10 years ago. To examine the counseling practices in the adult day care centers across the country and to explore how the services are affected by the staffing patterns at these centers, 135 centers completed a questionnaire. The questionnaire addressed…

  16. Young adult palliative care: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jennifer K; Fasciano, Karen

    2015-02-01

    Young adulthood is a time of immense growth and possibilities. As a result, it is also a time when serious illness can have profound effects. This review examines the current data pertinent to young adult palliative care and discusses the challenges and opportunities where palliative medicine can enhance the care provided to this growing and vulnerable population. From the data, 2 primary themes emerged (1) ongoing young adult development not only generates unique biologic disease burdens and clinical treatment options but also requires frequent assessment and promotion and (2) binary health care systems often leave young adults without access to developmentally appropriate health care. Given its interdisciplinary approach, palliative care is uniquely poised to address the challenges known to caring for the seriously ill young adult.

  17. 25 CFR 20.332 - Who can receive Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... own resources; and (b) Does not require intermediate or skilled nursing care. ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who can receive Adult Care Assistance? 20.332 Section 20... AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.332 Who can receive...

  18. Adult Education as Socialization: Implications for Personal and Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnis, John R.

    1990-01-01

    Argues that the process of education, including adult education, involves the adoption and possibly the transmission of values. Applies concepts of socialization theory and curriculum theory to adult education, focusing on the work of Brim, Berger and Luckmann, and Bourdieu. Discusses the relationship between adult education and social change.…

  19. Primary care for adults on the autism spectrum.

    PubMed

    Nicolaidis, Christina; Kripke, Clarissa Calliope; Raymaker, Dora

    2014-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined by differences in social communication and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. Skills and challenges can change depending on environmental stimuli, supports, and stressors. Quality of life can be improved by the use of accommodations, assistive technologies, therapies to improve adaptive function or communication, caregiver training, acceptance, access, and inclusion. This article focuses on the identification of ASD in adults, referrals for services, the recognition of associated conditions, strategies and accommodations to facilitate effective primary care services, and ethical issues related to caring for autistic adults.

  20. Religious congregations as social services providers for older adults.

    PubMed

    Cnaan, Ram A; Boddie, Stephanie C; Kang, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    A large proportion of older adults are affiliated with congregations. The literature suggests that, in general, religious participation among the older adults enhances their quality of life and provides a network of social care. In this article, we explored the relevant literature on organized religion and social support for older adults. Based on a census study of congregations in Philadelphia (N = 1,393), we documented the following: (1) the number of congregations serving older adults, (2) the types of services provided, and (3) the number of beneficiaries. The study also identified the organizational factors that predict the provision of congregation-based services for older adults. The findings suggest that serving older adults is not a top priority for most congregations. Most senior programs are small and often informal. Approximately half (48%) of the congregations do not provide a formal social service. However, those congregations that are more likely to serve older adults have larger budgets, more members over 65-years-old, and a moderate political orientation. We recommend that congregations, social service providers, and older adults explore ways to maximize this underutilized resource of congregational services to meet the needs of the increasing number of older adults.

  1. Infant Day Care Facilitates Preschool Social Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Compared play, social, and attachment behaviors of 71 preschool children who had entered infant day care at varying ages and received varying amounts of day care. Concluded that continuous infant day care in quality centers appears to facilitate preschool social behavior and does not negatively affect attachment behavior. (NH)

  2. Treatment issues for children with epilepsy transitioning to adult care.

    PubMed

    Nabbout, Rima; Camfield, Carol S; Andrade, Danielle M; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Chiron, Catherine; Cramer, Joyce A; French, Jacqueline A; Kossoff, Eric; Mula, Marco; Camfield, Peter R

    2017-02-07

    This is the third of three papers that summarize the second symposium on Transition in Epilepsies held in Paris in June 2016. This paper focuses on treatment issues that arise during the course of childhood epilepsy and make the process of transition to adult care more complicated. Some AEDs used during childhood, such as stiripentol, vigabatrin, and cannabidiol, are unfamiliar to adult epilepsy specialists. In addition, new drugs are being developed for treatment of specific childhood onset epilepsy syndromes and have no indication yet for adults. The ketogenic diet may be effective during childhood but is difficult to continue in adult care. Regional adult epilepsy diet clinics could be helpful. Polytherapy is common for patients transitioning to adult care. Although these complex AED regimes are difficult, they are often possible to simplify. AEDs used in childhood may need to be reconsidered in adulthood. Rescue medications to stop prolonged seizures and clusters of seizures are in wide home use in children and can be continued in adulthood. Adherence/compliance is notoriously difficult for adolescents, but there are simple clinical approaches that should be helpful. Mental health issues including depression and anxiety are not always diagnosed and treated in children and young adults even though effective treatments are available. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and aggressive behavior disorders may interfere with transition and successful adulthood but these can be treated. For the majority, the adult social outcome of children with epilepsy is unsatisfactory with few proven interventions. The interface between pediatric and adult care for children with epilepsy is becoming increasingly complicated with a need for more comprehensive transition programs and adult epileptologists who are knowledgeable about special treatments that benefit this group of patients.

  3. Chronic social instability in adult female rats alters social behavior, maternal aggression and offspring development.

    PubMed

    Pittet, Florent; Babb, Jessica A; Carini, Lindsay; Nephew, Benjamin C

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the consequences of chronic social instability (CSI) during adulthood on social and maternal behavior in females and social behavior of their offspring in a rat model. CSI consisted of changing the social partners of adult females every 2-3 days for 28 days, 2 weeks prior to mating. Females exposed to CSI behaved less aggressively and more pro-socially towards unfamiliar female intruders. Maternal care was not affected by CSI in a standard testing environment, but maternal behavior of CSI females was less disrupted by a male intruder. CSI females were quicker to attack prey and did not differ from control females in their saccharin consumption indicating, respectively, no stress-induced sensory-motor or reward system impairments. Offspring of CSI females exhibited slower growth and expressed more anxiety in social encounters. This study demonstrates continued adult vulnerability to social challenges with an impact specific to social situations for mothers and offspring.

  4. 25 CFR 20.335 - What is the payment standard for Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the payment standard for Adult Care Assistance? 20.335 Section 20.335 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.335 What...

  5. Social Class Differences in Social Support among Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Neal; Borawski-Clark, Elaine

    1995-01-01

    Tested for social class differences in social support among older adults. Data suggest social class differences emerge when measures of contact with friends, support provided to others, and satisfaction with support are examined. Significant differences failed to emerge with indicators of contact with family, support received from others, and…

  6. Adult Education for Social Mobilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echeverria, Luis

    1981-01-01

    Suggests some ideas that could stimulate and be incentives for defining programs of adult education in the future. These involve changing priorities, developing a framework which allows adult education programs to be established, and managing decision-making processes. (CT)

  7. "Race" and Community Care. "Race," Health and Social Care Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Waqar I. U., Ed.; Atkin, Karl, Ed.

    This collection offers a wide-ranging introduction to contemporary issues surrounding the health care needs of members of minority ethnic communities within the framework of community care in Britain. The following chapters consider state welfare, minority communities, family structures, and social change: (1) "'Race' and Community Care: An…

  8. Social participation and older adults' sleep.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jen-Hao; Lauderdale, Diane S; Waite, Linda J

    2016-01-01

    Sleep complaints are common among older adults, and poor sleep has been found to predict chronic diseases and mortality. Many studies suggest that social participation benefits healthy aging. We examined the relationships between older adults' social participation and their sleep using two waves (2005-2006, 2010-2011) of data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP). The NSHAP recorded older adults' social participation (including religious attendance, volunteer work, and attendance at meetings of organized groups) over five years, and included self-reported sleep duration in both waves and, in the second wave, measures of insomnia symptoms and measures of sleep patterns and rhythms using actigraphy for a subsample. Cross-sectional analysis of the second wave indicates that those reporting higher levels of social participation had better actigraphic sleep but not better self-reported sleep. However, longitudinal analysis suggests that change in social participation was not associated with actigraphic or self-reported sleep characteristics in the second wave data. Further analysis using fixed-effects model showed no association between change in social participation and change in self-reported sleep duration. Thus, although older adults with greater social participation slept better, we did not find that increasing social participation improved sleep. These findings imply that a self-selection process may at work; or if social participation does affect sleep, the causal effect may be over a much shorter time frame than five years.

  9. Social Value and Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Penny

    2011-01-01

    An examination of the current government policy discourse on social value and the capturing of social impact leads immediately into the centre of the fast-moving and transforming public-sector reform agenda. The thinking around social value takes an individual to the heart of contracting, localism, the relationship between the public sector and…

  10. Social Functioning in Adults with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Susan A.; Forness, Steven R.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews literature on possible causes of social functioning deficits in adults with learning disabilities including language disorders, information processing deficits, and behavioral and/or attention problems. Discusses co-occurrence of social functioning deficits with nonverbal learning disability, and effects of educational isolation,…

  11. Adult Day Care--Extended Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bert K.

    This booklet reports on a community project in Texas involving a day care center for senior citizens. It contains an analysis of successes and failures in attempting to satisfy the project's goals of: (l) keeping individuals out of institutions as long as possible; (2) providing social contact and enrichment experiences; (3) making the burden…

  12. Community care in practice: social work in primary health care.

    PubMed

    Lymbery, M; Millward, A

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the establishment of social work within primary health care settings in Great Britain, following the passage of the National Health Service and Community Care Act in 1990. Although the improvement of relationships between social workers and primary health care teams has been promoted for a number of years, the advent of formal policies for community care has made this a priority for both social services and health. This paper presents interim findings from the evaluation of three pilot projects in Nottinghamshire, Great Britain. These findings are analysed from three linked perspectives. The first is the extent to which structures and organisations have worked effectively together to promote the location of social workers within health care settings. The second is the impact of professional and cultural factors on the work of the social worker in these settings. The third is the effect of interpersonal relationships on the success of the project. The paper will conclude that there is significant learning from each of these perspectives which can be applied to the future location of social workers to primary health care.

  13. Reconciliation of work and care among lone mothers of adults with intellectual disabilities: the role and limits of care capital.

    PubMed

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Kröger, Teppo

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the concept of social capital is applied to an exploration of Guanxi (social networking to create good relationships) among working lone mothers of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) in Taiwan. Using in-depth interviews, this study explores the role of social capital, here referred to as 'care capital', in making it possible for working lone mothers to combine their roles as family carers and workers. Eleven divorced or widowed mothers combining their paid work with long-term care responsibilities were recruited from a survey or through NGOs and were interviewed at their home between October 2008 and July 2010. An interpretative phenomenological approach was adopted for data analysis. The findings revealed that the mothers' care capital was extremely limited and was lost, gained and lost again during their life-cycles of long-term care-giving. Guanxi, especially in relation to their employers, proved to be the sole source of care capital for these mothers, making reconciliation between work and care responsibilities possible. In the absence of formal or informal support, religion and the mother-child relationship seemed also to become a kind of care capital for these lone mothers, helping them to get by with their life-long care responsibilities. For formal social and healthcare services, not just in Taiwan but in every country, it is important to develop support for lone mothers of adults with ID who have long-term care responsibilities and low levels of care capital and thus face care poverty.

  14. 38 CFR 59.160 - Adult day health care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... it is co-located in a nursing home, domiciliary, or other care facility, must have its own separate... (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.160 Adult day health care... necessary to accommodate an increased quality of care for patients, an adult day health care...

  15. 38 CFR 59.160 - Adult day health care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... it is co-located in a nursing home, domiciliary, or other care facility, must have its own separate... (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.160 Adult day health care... necessary to accommodate an increased quality of care for patients, an adult day health care...

  16. The adult day care workforce in England at a time of policy change: implications for learning disability support services.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Shereen; Manthorpe, Jill

    2010-06-01

    More people will receive personal budgets to pay for social care services in England. Such people may or may not continue using services such as adult day care centres. Many day centres are under threat of closure. These trends will affect those working in adult day care. This article examines the profile of this workforce, using recent NMDS-SC data and applying multinomial statistical modelling. We identified nearly 6000 adult day care workers, over half supporting adults with learning disability. The results of the analysis show significant variations between the adult day care, residential care and domiciliary workforces. At the personal level, day care workers are significantly older and less ethnically diverse than other workers. They tend to have been working in the sector for longer, and their work patterns are more stable. The findings are discussed within the context of policy changes affecting learning disabilities and social care workforce strategies.

  17. Adult forebrain NMDA receptors gate social motivation and social memory.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Stephanie; Tsien, Joe Z

    2017-02-01

    Motivation to engage in social interaction is critical to ensure normal social behaviors, whereas dysregulation in social motivation can contribute to psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, autism, social anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While dopamine is well known to regulate motivation, its downstream targets are poorly understood. Given the fact that the dopamine 1 (D1) receptors are often physically coupled with the NMDA receptors, we hypothesize that the NMDA receptor activity in the adult forebrain principal neurons are crucial not only for learning and memory, but also for the proper gating of social motivation. Here, we tested this hypothesis by examining sociability and social memory in inducible forebrain-specific NR1 knockout mice. These mice are ideal for exploring the role of the NR1 subunit in social behavior because the NR1 subunit can be selectively knocked out after the critical developmental period, in which NR1 is required for normal development. We found that the inducible deletion of the NMDA receptors prior to behavioral assays impaired, not only object and social recognition memory tests, but also resulted in profound deficits in social motivation. Mice with ablated NR1 subunits in the forebrain demonstrated significant decreases in sociability compared to their wild type counterparts. These results suggest that in addition to its crucial role in learning and memory, the NMDA receptors in the adult forebrain principal neurons gate social motivation, independent of neuronal development.

  18. Adult Learning for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlong, Cerys

    2011-01-01

    The "Programme for Government" is the Welsh Government's plan of action for this term of the Assembly. At the forefront of the programme is growth and sustainable jobs. As a small economy, still recovering from the decline of manufacturing and the coal industry, Wales' economic and social outcomes are inextricably linked. Certainly, the…

  19. Social Literacy: A Social Skills Seminar for Young Adults with ASDs, NLDs, and Social Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Mary Riggs

    2011-01-01

    All adults need strong social skills to find and keep a job, establish relationships, and participate fully in adult life--but building these skills can be a special challenge for people with autism, Asperger syndrome, nonverbal learning disorder, social anxiety, and other disorders affecting social learning. Give them the essential support they…

  20. Access Barriers to Prenatal Care in Emerging Adult Latinas.

    PubMed

    Torres, Rosamar

    2016-03-01

    Despite efforts to improve access to prenatal care, emerging adult Latinas in the United States continue to enter care late in their pregnancies and/or underutilize these services. Since little is known about emerging adult Latinas and their prenatal care experiences, the purpose of this study was to identify actual and perceived prenatal care barriers in a sample of 54 emerging adult Latinas between 18 and 21 years of age. More than 95% of the sample experienced personal and institutional barriers when attempting to access prenatal care. Results from this study lend support for policy changes for time away from school or work to attend prenatal care and for group prenatal care.

  1. Older Parents Providing Child Care for Adult Children: Does It Pay Off?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geurts, Teun; Poortman, Anne-Rigt; van Tilburg, Theo G.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether past grandparental child care is related to present support from adult children. On the basis of social exchange theory, the authors expected that grandparental child care creates a debt that is repaid in the form of receiving support later in life. Using data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (N = 349…

  2. Registered Nurse Care Coordination: Creating a Preferred Future for Older Adults with Multimorbidity.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Jean; Minaudo, Judith

    2015-09-30

    The concept of care coordination is often touted as the preferred way to streamline care for complex patients. Care coordination is even more popular with the mention of it in the Affordable Care Act of 2010 and with new Medicare payment models. The purpose of this article is to define care coordination, briefly describe trends for older adults and care coordination, and explore roles for registered nurses. We describe elder-appropriate models of care coordination useful for older adults with multimorbidity. A brief exemplar provides an example of evidence-based care coordination services provided by a nursing and social work team, a model supported by recent literature. As a result of this discussion, readers will become informed about possibilities for the future of care delivery and the future of professional nursing practice.

  3. Virtual Visits in Home Health Care for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Husebø, Anne Marie Lunde

    2014-01-01

    Background. This review identifies the content of virtual visits in community nursing services to older adults and explores the manner in which service users and the nurses use virtual visits. Design. An integrative literature review. Method. Data collection comprised a literature search in three databases: Cinahl, Medline, and PubMed. In addition, a manual search of reference lists and expert consultation were performed. A total of 12 articles met the inclusion criteria. The articles were reviewed in terms of study characteristics, service content and utilization, and patient and health care provider experience. Results. Our review shows that in most studies the service is delivered on a daily basis and in combination with in-person visits. The findings suggest that older home-dwelling patients can benefit from virtual visits in terms of enhanced social inclusion and medication compliance. Service users and their nurses found virtual visits satisfactory and suitable for care delivery in home care to the elderly. Evidence for cost-saving benefits of virtual visits was not found. Conclusions. The findings can inform the planning of virtual visits in home health care as a complementary service to in-person visits, in order to meet the increasingly complex needs of older adults living at home. PMID:25506616

  4. 25 CFR 20.333 - How do I apply for Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20.333 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.333 How do I apply for... submit an application form to the social services worker....

  5. Medicine, morality and health care social media.

    PubMed

    Timimi, Farris K

    2012-08-02

    Social media includes many different forms of technology including online forums, blogs, microblogs (i.e. Twitter), wikipedias, video blogs, social networks and podcasting. The use of social media has grown exponentially and time spent on social media sites now represents one in five minutes spent online. Concomitant with this online growth, there has been an inverse trajectory in direct face-to-face patient-provider moments, which continue to become scarcer across the spectrum of health care. In contrast to standard forms of engagement and education, social media has advantages to include profound reach, immediate availability, an archived presence and broad accessibility. Our opportunity as health care providers to partner with our patients has never been greater, yet all too often we allow risk averse fears to limit our ability to truly leverage our good content effectively to the online community. This risk averse behavior truly limits our capacity to effectively engage our patients where they are--online.

  6. 38 CFR 59.160 - Adult day health care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adult day health care... (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.160 Adult day health care requirements. As a condition for receiving a grant and grant funds under this part for an adult day health...

  7. 38 CFR 59.160 - Adult day health care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adult day health care... (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.160 Adult day health care requirements. As a condition for receiving a grant and grant funds under this part for an adult day health...

  8. Decreasing social isolation in older adults: effects of an empowerment intervention offered through the CARELINK program.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Nicholas R; Shellman, Juliette

    2013-04-01

    Older adults reporting social isolation are at increased risk for numerous negative health outcomes, including depressive symptoms, decreased quality of life, and cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of a university student model of care intervention offered through the CARELINK program on social isolation in a sample of community-dwelling older adults (N = 56). Older adults in the comparison group, who had not yet received the CARELINK program, were nearly 12 times more likely to be socially isolated. Results indicate the empowerment intervention offered through the CARELINK program had positive effects on reducing social isolation in older adults. The CARELINK program has important implications for nursing as it provides an uncomplicated and inexpensive intervention to decrease social isolation for older adults in the community. Given the sample selection limitation in this study, a randomized controlled trial is warranted. Future research should examine specific aspects of the CARELINK program and the amount each aspect affects social isolation.

  9. Brood care and social evolution in termites.

    PubMed

    Korb, Judith; Buschmann, Michael; Schafberg, Saskia; Liebig, Jürgen; Bagnères, Anne-Geneviève

    2012-07-07

    Cooperative brood care is assumed to be the common driving factor leading to sociality. While this seems to be true for social Hymenoptera and many cooperatively breeding vertebrates, the importance of brood care for the evolution of eusociality in termites is unclear. A first step in elucidating this problem is an assessment of the ancestral condition in termites. We investigated this by determining the overall level of brood care behaviour across four termite species that cover the phylogenetic diversity of the lower termites. Brood care was low in the three species (all from different families) that had an ancestral wood-dwelling lifestyle of living in a single piece of wood that serves as food and shelter. In the fourth species, a lower termite that evolved outside foraging, brood care was more common. Together with data for higher termites, this suggests that brood care in termites only becomes important when switching from a wood-dwelling to a foraging lifestyle. These results imply that early social evolution in termites was driven by benefits of increased defence, while eusociality in Hymenoptera and cooperative breeding in birds and mammals are primarily based on brood care.

  10. Optimism and Planning for Future Care Needs among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sörensen, Silvia; Hirsch, Jameson K.; Lyness, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with an increase in need for assistance. Preparation for future care (PFC) is related to improved coping ability as well as better mental and physical health outcomes among older adults. We examined the association of optimism with components of PFC among older adults. We also explored race differences in the relationship between optimism and PFC. In Study 1, multiple regression showed that optimism was positively related to concrete planning. In Study 2, optimism was related to gathering information. An exploratory analysis combining the samples yielded a race interaction: For Whites higher optimism, but for Blacks lower optimism was associated with more planning. High optimism may be a barrier to future planning in certain social and cultural contexts. PMID:26045699

  11. Medical care and health under state socialism.

    PubMed

    Deacon, B

    1984-01-01

    This paper derives a conception of ideal socialist and communist medical care and health policy. This model is based on a review of Marxist and allied critiques of capitalist medical care policy and on theoretical work on socialist social policy. The ideal conception, operationalized in terms of 16 criteria, is then applied to a review of medical care and health policy in the Soviet Union. Hungary, and Poland. It is concluded that medical care policy in all three countries exhibits very few characteristics of socialist medical care. The possibility (for the moment repressed) provided by the Solidarity movement in Poland of a new development toward a more genuine socialist medical care and health policy is also described.

  12. Social Marketing: Planning Before Conceiving Preconception Care

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Katherine Lyon

    2006-01-01

    Social marketing approaches can help to shape the formation of and to create demand for preconception care services. This article describes four components of social marketing, often referred to as the 4 P’s, that should be carefully researched and set in place before a national effort to launch and sustain preconception care services is pursued. First, the product or package of services must be defined and adapted using the latest in scientific and health care standards and must be based on consumer needs and desires. Second, the pricing of the services in financial or opportunity costs must be acceptable to the consumer, insurers, and health care service providers. Third, the promotion of benefits must be carefully crafted to reach and appeal to both consumers and providers. Fourth, the placement and availability of services in the marketplace must be researched and planned. With the application of market research practices that incorporate health behavior theories in their exploration of each component, consumer demand for preconception care can be generated, and providers can take preconception care to the market with confidence. PMID:16755400

  13. Social marketing: planning before conceiving preconception care.

    PubMed

    Prue, Christine E; Daniel, Katherine Lyon

    2006-09-01

    Social marketing approaches can help to shape the formation of and to create demand for preconception care services. This article describes four components of social marketing, often referred to as the 4 P's, that should be carefully researched and set in place before a national effort to launch and sustain preconception care services is pursued. First, the product or package of services must be defined and adapted using the latest in scientific and health care standards and must be based on consumer needs and desires. Second, the pricing of the services in financial or opportunity costs must be acceptable to the consumer, insurers, and health care service providers. Third, the promotion of benefits must be carefully crafted to reach and appeal to both consumers and providers. Fourth, the placement and availability of services in the marketplace must be researched and planned. With the application of market research practices that incorporate health behavior theories in their exploration of each component, consumer demand for preconception care can be generated, and providers can take preconception care to the market with confidence.

  14. Integration and continuity of Care in health care network models for frail older adults

    PubMed Central

    Veras, Renato Peixoto; Caldas, Célia Pereira; da Motta, Luciana Branco; de Lima, Kenio Costa; Siqueira, Ricardo Carreño; Rodrigues, Renata Teixeira da Silva Vendas; Santos, Luciana Maria Alves Martins; Guerra, Ana Carolina Lima Cavaletti

    2014-01-01

    A detailed review was conducted of the literature on models evaluating the effectiveness of integrated and coordinated care networks for the older population. The search made use of the following bibliographic databases: Pubmed, The Cochrane Library, LILACS, Web of Science, Scopus and SciELO. Twelve articles on five different models were included for discussion. Analysis of the literature showed that the services provided were based on primary care, including services within the home. Service users relied on the integration of primary and hospital care, day centers and in-home and social services. Care plans and case management were key elements in care continuity. This approach was shown to be effective in the studies, reducing the need for hospital care, which resulted in savings for the system. There was reduced prevalence of functional loss and improved satisfaction and quality of life on the part of service users and their families. The analysis reinforced the need for change in the approach to health care for older adults and the integration and coordination of services is an efficient way of initiating this change. PMID:24897058

  15. Integration and continuity of Care in health care network models for frail older adults.

    PubMed

    Veras, Renato Peixoto; Caldas, Célia Pereira; Motta, Luciana Branco da; Lima, Kenio Costa de; Siqueira, Ricardo Carreño; Rodrigues, Renata Teixeira da Silva Vendas; Santos, Luciana Maria Alves Martins; Guerra, Ana Carolina Lima Cavaletti

    2014-04-01

    A detailed review was conducted of the literature on models evaluating the effectiveness of integrated and coordinated care networks for the older population. The search made use of the following bibliographic databases: Pubmed, The Cochrane Library, LILACS, Web of Science, Scopus and SciELO. Twelve articles on five different models were included for discussion. Analysis of the literature showed that the services provided were based on primary care, including services within the home. Service users relied on the integration of primary and hospital care, day centers and in-home and social services. Care plans and case management were key elements in care continuity. This approach was shown to be effective in the studies, reducing the need for hospital care, which resulted in savings for the system. There was reduced prevalence of functional loss and improved satisfaction and quality of life on the part of service users and their families. The analysis reinforced the need for change in the approach to health care for older adults and the integration and coordination of services is an efficient way of initiating this change.

  16. Social and Affective Concerns High-Ability Adolescents Indicate They Would Like to Discuss with a Caring Adult: Implications for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jen, Enyi; Wu, Jiaxi; Gentry, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the social and affective concerns of 280 high-ability students in Grades 5 through 12 who participated in a summer residential program. Content analysis of responses from an open-ended survey indicated that high-ability adolescents expressed concerns regarding feelings and emotions, future aspirations, and…

  17. Stressors, social support, religious practice, and general well-being among Korean adult immigrants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Hag; Woo, Hyeyoung

    2013-10-01

    Through this cross-sectional study the authors explore how stressors, social support, and religious practice are associated with the general well-being of 147 Korean adult immigrants through interviews. Hierarchical regression analysis reveals that low English proficiency and financial hardship are significantly related to low general well-being. However, high social support and religious practice are significantly associated with high general well-being. Social service and health care providers need to carefully assess stressors, social support systems, and spiritual issues for providing appropriate services/programs for English, culture, or social activities as well as spiritual intervention to maximize the strengths of Korean immigrants coping with health issues.

  18. Invisible Care: Friend and Partner Care Among Older Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shiu, Chengshi; Muraco, Anna; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Objective Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adult caregivers may encounter obstacles in obtaining health and aging services due to discrimination in service and legal systems. The caregiving relationships in LGBT communities also differ from the general population in that friends are providing a large portion of informal care. This article examines how the relational context of caregiving relates to caregiving demands and resources, which in turn, influence perceived stress and depressive symptomatology among older LGBT caregivers. Method Using data from the National Health, Aging, and Sexuality Study: Caring and Aging with Pride, this study examines 451 participants who are providing caregiving to partners and friends. Structural equation modeling was applied to estimate the associations among the caregiver–care recipient relationship and caregiving demands, resources, perceived stress, and depressive symptomatology. Results On average, as compared with those caring for partners, those who provided care to friends reported experiencing lower levels of caregiving demands and lower levels of social support. The lower caregiving demands correlated positively with both lower perceived stress and less severe depressive symptomatology; however, the lower levels of social support were related to higher perceived stress and higher depressive symptomatology. Conclusions Caregiving provided by friends, which has long been under recognized, plays an important role in the LGBT community. Because lower levels of caregiving demands are offset by less social support, LGBT friend-caregivers experience similar levels of perceived stress and depressive symptomatology to those providing care to spouses and partners. Policy and service reforms are needed to better acknowledge the continuum of informal caregiving relationships. PMID:28367277

  19. Levels of maternal care in dogs affect adult offspring temperament

    PubMed Central

    Foyer, Pernilla; Wilsson, Erik; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Dog puppies are born in a state of large neural immaturity; therefore, the nervous system is sensitive to environmental influences early in life. In primates and rodents, early experiences, such as maternal care, have been shown to have profound and lasting effects on the later behaviour and physiology of offspring. We hypothesised that this would also be the case for dogs with important implications for the breeding of working dogs. In the present study, variation in the mother-offspring interactions of German Shepherd dogs within the Swedish breeding program for military working dogs was studied by video recording 22 mothers with their litters during the first three weeks postpartum. The aim was to classify mothers with respect to their level of maternal care and to investigate the effect of this care on pup behaviour in a standardised temperament test carried out at approximately 18 months of age. The results show that females differed consistently in their level of maternal care, which significantly affected the adult behaviour of the offspring, mainly with respect to behaviours classified as Physical and Social Engagement, as well as Aggression. Taking maternal quality into account in breeding programs may therefore improve the process of selecting working dogs. PMID:26758076

  20. Levels of maternal care in dogs affect adult offspring temperament.

    PubMed

    Foyer, Pernilla; Wilsson, Erik; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-13

    Dog puppies are born in a state of large neural immaturity; therefore, the nervous system is sensitive to environmental influences early in life. In primates and rodents, early experiences, such as maternal care, have been shown to have profound and lasting effects on the later behaviour and physiology of offspring. We hypothesised that this would also be the case for dogs with important implications for the breeding of working dogs. In the present study, variation in the mother-offspring interactions of German Shepherd dogs within the Swedish breeding program for military working dogs was studied by video recording 22 mothers with their litters during the first three weeks postpartum. The aim was to classify mothers with respect to their level of maternal care and to investigate the effect of this care on pup behaviour in a standardised temperament test carried out at approximately 18 months of age. The results show that females differed consistently in their level of maternal care, which significantly affected the adult behaviour of the offspring, mainly with respect to behaviours classified as Physical and Social Engagement, as well as Aggression. Taking maternal quality into account in breeding programs may therefore improve the process of selecting working dogs.

  1. Levels of maternal care in dogs affect adult offspring temperament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foyer, Pernilla; Wilsson, Erik; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Dog puppies are born in a state of large neural immaturity; therefore, the nervous system is sensitive to environmental influences early in life. In primates and rodents, early experiences, such as maternal care, have been shown to have profound and lasting effects on the later behaviour and physiology of offspring. We hypothesised that this would also be the case for dogs with important implications for the breeding of working dogs. In the present study, variation in the mother-offspring interactions of German Shepherd dogs within the Swedish breeding program for military working dogs was studied by video recording 22 mothers with their litters during the first three weeks postpartum. The aim was to classify mothers with respect to their level of maternal care and to investigate the effect of this care on pup behaviour in a standardised temperament test carried out at approximately 18 months of age. The results show that females differed consistently in their level of maternal care, which significantly affected the adult behaviour of the offspring, mainly with respect to behaviours classified as Physical and Social Engagement, as well as Aggression. Taking maternal quality into account in breeding programs may therefore improve the process of selecting working dogs.

  2. Primate paternal care: interactions between biology and social experience

    PubMed Central

    Storey, Anne E.; Ziegler, Toni E.

    2016-01-01

    We review recent research on the roles of hormones and social experiences on the development of paternal care in humans and non-human primates. Generally, lower concentrations of testosterone and higher concentrations of oxytocin are associated with greater paternal responsiveness. Hormonal changes prior to the birth appear to be important in preparation for fatherhood and changes after the birth are related to how much time fathers spend with offspring and whether they provide effective care. Prolactin may facilitate approach and the initiation of infant care, and in some biparental non-human primates, it affects body mass regulation. Glucocorticoids are involved in coordinating reproductive and parental behavior between mates. New research involving intranasal oxytocin and neuropeptide receptor polymorphisms may help us understand individual variation in paternal responsiveness. This area of research, integrating both biological factors and the role of early and adult experience, has the potential to suggest individually designed interventions that can strengthen relationships between fathers and their offspring. PMID:26253726

  3. Across the health-social care divide: elderly people as active users of health care and social care.

    PubMed

    Roberts, K

    2001-03-01

    Several ways in which elderly people may assume an active role when using welfare services are discussed here. Selected findings are presented from a study that explored the experience and behaviour of elderly people on discharge from inpatient care with regard to criteria indicating user influence or control (namely participation, representation, access, choice, information and redress). Data were collected via semistructured interviews with service users (n = 30) soon after their return home from hospital. A number of differences were revealed between health care and social care in relation to users being provided with opportunities to assume an active role and in being willing and able to assume an active role. These differences were manifest in elderly service users accessing services, seeking information, exercising choice and acting independently of service providers. It appeared paradoxical that contact points were more easily defined with regard to health care yet users were more likely to exercise choice and act independently in securing social care. It is suggested that social care needs and appropriate service delivery are more easily recognised than making the link between perceived health care needs and appropriate services. In addition, it appeared that informal and private providers are more widely available and accessible for social care. If comprehensive continuing care is to be provided, incorporating both health and social care elements, greater uniformity appears to be required across the welfare sector. Lessons for social care provision from the delivery of health care suggest the clear definition of contact points to facilitate service use. Making health care more accessible, however, does not appear to be easily attainable due to the monopoly provision of health care and the lack of direct purchasing power by potential users.

  4. Environmental factors associated with primary care access among urban older adults.

    PubMed

    Ryvicker, Miriam; Gallo, William T; Fahs, Marianne C

    2012-09-01

    Disparities in primary care access and quality impede optimal chronic illness prevention and management for older adults. Although research has shown associations between neighborhood attributes and health, little is known about how these factors - in particular, the primary care infrastructure - inform older adults' primary care use. Using geographic data on primary care physician supply and surveys from 1260 senior center attendees in New York City, we examined factors that facilitate and hinder primary care use for individuals living in service areas with different supply levels. Supply quartiles varied in primary care use (visit within the past 12 months), racial and socio-economic composition, and perceived neighborhood safety and social cohesion. Primary care use did not differ significantly after controlling for compositional factors. Individuals who used a community clinic or hospital outpatient department for most of their care were less likely to have had a primary care visit than those who used a private doctor's office. Stratified multivariate models showed that within the lowest-supply quartile, public transit users had a higher odds of primary care use than non-transit users. Moreover, a higher score on the perceived neighborhood social cohesion scale was associated with a higher odds of primary care use. Within the second-lowest quartile, nonwhites had a lower odds of primary care use compared to whites. Different patterns of disadvantage in primary care access exist that may be associated with - but not fully explained by - local primary care supply. In lower-supply areas, racial disparities and inadequate primary care infrastructure hinder access to care. However, accessibility and elder-friendliness of public transit, as well as efforts to improve social cohesion and support, may facilitate primary care access for individuals living in low-supply areas.

  5. Low health literacy and older adults: meanings, problems, and recommendations for social work.

    PubMed

    Findley, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Many older adults struggle to manage their health care problems. Low health literacy exacerbates such struggles and contributes to a variety of adverse health behaviors and outcomes. Addressing how health literacy impinges on the lives of older adults is a neglected area of social work practice and knowledge. This article explores seven areas: defining health literacy, the problem and prevalence of low health literacy among older adults, health inequalities and health literacy, a brief literature review, neglected issues in the literature, suggestions for macro and micro social work interventions to improve health literacy for older adult populations, and conclusion.

  6. Mental health care Monitor Older adults (MEMO): monitoring patient characteristics and outcome in Dutch mental health services for older adults.

    PubMed

    Veerbeek, Marjolein; Oude Voshaar, Richard; Depla, Marja; Pot, Anne Margriet

    2013-06-01

    Information on which older adults attend mental health care and whether they profit from the care they receive is important for policy-makers. To assess this information in daily practice, the "Mental health care Monitor Older adults" (MEMO) was developed in the Netherlands. The aim of this paper is to describe MEMO and the older adults who attend outpatient mental health care regarding their predisposing and enabling characteristics and need for care. In MEMO all patients referred to the division of old age psychiatry of the participating mental health care organisations are assessed at baseline and monitored at 4, 8 and 12-month follow-up. Primary outcomes are mental and social functioning, consumer satisfaction, and type of treatment provided (MEMO Basic). Over the years, MEMO Basic is repeated. In each cycle, additional information on specific patient groups is added (e.g. mood disorders). Data collection is supported by a web-based system for clinicians, including direct feedback to monitor patients throughout treatment. First results at baseline showed that the majority of patients that entered the division of old age psychiatry was female (69%), had low education (83%), lived alone (53%), was depressed (42%) and had a comorbid condition (82%). It seemed that older immigrants were not sufficiently reached. The current study is the first in the Netherlands to evaluate patient characteristics and outcome in mental health care provided for older adults in day-to-day practice. If MEMO works out successfully, the method should be extended to other target groups.

  7. Supporting Nutrition in Early Care and Education Settings: The Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Samuel A.

    2016-01-01

    Child care centers, Head Start programs, and family child care providers serving young children--as well as after school programs and homeless shelters that reach older children, adults, and families--are supported in providing healthy meals and snacks by reimbursements through the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). Administered by the…

  8. Familism and Health Care Provision to Hispanic Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Savage, Brittany; Foli, Karen J; Edwards, Nancy E; Abrahamson, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    The Hispanic older adult population's rapid growth calls for an awareness of values that can affect the rendering and receipt of care. Familism, or familismo, a traditional Hispanic value, places importance of family over the self and can potentially affect health care perceptions and practices for Hispanic older adults. The current article discusses familism, which is upheld by some Hispanic older adults, and the potential for underuse of health care services. The traditional feminine role, marianismo, and masculine role, machismo, are considered, as well as implications for how decision making may be made by family members rather than the patient. Clinical implications for the provision of health care to Hispanic older adults are provided, along with the importance of considering acculturation and ethnic heterogeneity. Health care management strategies that reflect recognition and respect of familism, yet emphasize optimization of adherence and self-care, are described.

  9. The social adjustment scale-self-report: psychometric properties for older adults.

    PubMed

    Zweig, Richard A; Turkel, Elihu

    2007-12-01

    To assess the reliability and validity of the Social Adjustment Scale-Self-Report for older adults, 129 community dwelling elderly ranging in age from 63 to 87 years (M=72.3 yr., SD=5.0) were surveyed using a modified version of the scale. The average internal consistency of subscales was satisfactory (mean coefficient alpha=.62). Overall social functioning impairment (total score) was associated with measures of depression (Beck Depression Inventory, r =.58) and global psychiatric symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory, r = .55). Older adults scored higher on Marital role, Family Unit role, and overall social functioning impairment compared to mixed-age adults assessed in previous research, and higher on marital role impairment but similarly on overall social functioning when compared with a mixed-age sample from primary care. The modified Social Adjustment Scale-Self-Report has acceptable psychometric characteristics for research use with older adults, and select subscales may account for findings of age-related differences.

  10. Social networks in improvement of health care.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet; Sivic, Suad; Toromanovic, Selim; Borojevic, Tea; Pandza, Haris

    2012-01-01

    Social network is a social structure made of individuals or organizations associated with one or more types of interdependence (friendship, common interests, work, knowledge, prestige, etc.) which are the "nodes" of the network. Networks can be organized to exchange information, knowledge or financial assistance under the various interest groups in universities, workplaces and associations of citizens. Today the most popular and widely used networks are based on application of the Internet as the main ICT. Depending on the method of connection, their field of activity and expertise of those who participate in certain networks, the network can be classified into the following groups: a) Social Networks with personal physical connectivity (the citizens' associations, transplant networks, etc.), b) Global social internet network (Facebook, Twitter, Skype), c) specific health internet social network (forums, Health Care Forums, Healthcare Industry Forum), d) The health community internet network of non professionals (DailyStrength, CaringBridge, CarePages, MyFamilyHealth), e) Scientific social internet network (BiomedExperts, ResearchGate, iMedExchange), f) Social internet network which supported professionals (HealthBoards, Spas and Hope Association of Disabled and diabetic Enurgi), g) Scientific medical internet network databases in the system of scientific and technical information (CC, Pubmed/Medline, Excerpta Medica/EMBASE, ISI Web Knowledge, EBSCO, Index Copernicus, Social Science Index, etc.). The information in the network are exchanged in real time and in a way that has until recently been impossible in real life of people in the community. Networks allow tens of thousands of specific groups of people performing a series of social, professional and educational activities in the place of living and housing, place of work or other locations where individuals are. Network provides access to information related to education, health, nutrition, drugs, procedures

  11. The Health and Social Care Act 2012

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Although the National Health Service (NHS) is regarded as a national treasure, it is no longer immune from the colossal financial pressures brought about by global recession. Economic sustainability has largely driven the reform process leading to the Health and Social Care Act (HSCA) 2012, however; other considerations have also played a role in the journey to turn the health and social care service into an institution which is fit for the 21st-century needs. This article examines the impact of the HSCA 2012 on those made vulnerable through mental ill health. It then considers three issues: First, whether parity between mental and physical health can have life beyond political rhetoric; second, what impact driving up efficiency within the NHS will have upon mental health patients; and finally, the extent to which the personalisation agenda can be meaningfully applied within the mental health context. PMID:26273147

  12. Transitioning Adolescents and Young Adults With Sickle Cell Disease From Pediatric to Adult Health Care: Provider Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Stollon, Natalie B; Paine, Christine W; Lucas, Matthew S; Brumley, Lauren D; Poole, Erika S; Peyton, Tamara; Grant, Anne W; Jan, Sophia; Trachtenberg, Symme; Zander, Miriam; Bonafide, Christopher P; Schwartz, Lisa A

    2015-11-01

    The transition from pediatric to adult health care is often challenging for adolescents and young adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). Our study aimed to identify (1) measures of success for the transition to adult health care; and (2) barriers and facilitators to this process. We interviewed 13 SCD experts and asked them about their experiences caring for adolescents and young adults with SCD. Our interview guide was developed based on Social-Ecological Model of Adolescent and Young Adult Readiness to Transition framework, and interviews were coded using the constant comparative method. Our results showed that transition success was measured by health care utilization, quality of life, and continuation on a stable disease trajectory. We also found that barriers to transition include negative experiences in the emergency department, sociodemographic factors, and adolescent skills. Facilitators include a positive relationship with the provider, family support, and developmental maturity. Success in SCD transition is primarily determined by the patients' quality of relationships with their parents and providers and their developmental maturity and skills. Understanding these concepts will aid in the development of future evidence-based transition care models.

  13. Adult Day Care for Alzheimer's Patients and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Dan; Suzuki, Thelma

    1983-01-01

    Harbor Area Adult Day Care Center has operated for two years with a primary purpose of providing respite care to families caring for a relative with Alzheimer's disease or related disorders. The rationale, history, program, staffing, funding, and experience for the first two years of the project are provided. (Author/RC)

  14. The role of the physical therapist in the care of the older adult.

    PubMed

    Richards, Shana; Cristian, Adrian

    2006-05-01

    Physical therapists play an important role in the care of older adults who have physical disabilities. Proper patient selection, a thorough medical, social, and functional history, and a physical examination emphasizing the neuromusculoskeletal system are the cornerstones of the evaluation process. Treatment is individualized and goal driven, with appropriate precautions being followed. Gait training is an integral part of the treatment process for many older adults with disabilities, and various assistive devices may be used to ensure safe mobility.

  15. Stressful Social Interactions Experienced by Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Adults with intellectual disability are vulnerable to stressful social interactions. We determined frequency and severity of various stressful social interactions, identified the social partners in these interactions, and examined the specific interpersonal skill difficulties of 114 adults with mild intellectual disability. Participants'…

  16. Health Literacy, Social Support, and Health Status among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Arozullah, Ahsan M.; Cho, Young Ik; Crittenden, Kathleen; Vicencio, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The study examines whether social support interacts with health literacy in affecting the health status of older adults. Health literacy is assessed using the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Social support is measured with the Medical Outcome Study social support scale. Results show, unexpectedly, that rather…

  17. The Social Environment and Neurogenesis in the Adult Mammalian Brain

    PubMed Central

    Lieberwirth, Claudia; Wang, Zuoxin

    2012-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis – the formation of new neurons in adulthood – has been shown to be modulated by a variety of endogenous (e.g., trophic factors, neurotransmitters, and hormones) as well as exogenous (e.g., physical activity and environmental complexity) factors. Research on exogenous regulators of adult neurogenesis has focused primarily on the non-social environment. More recently, however, evidence has emerged suggesting that the social environment can also affect adult neurogenesis. The present review details the effects of adult–adult (e.g., mating and chemosensory interactions) and adult–offspring (e.g., gestation, parenthood, and exposure to offspring) interactions on adult neurogenesis. In addition, the effects of a stressful social environment (e.g., lack of social support and dominant–subordinate interactions) on adult neurogenesis are reviewed. The underlying hormonal mechanisms and potential functional significance of adult-generated neurons in mediating social behaviors are also discussed. PMID:22586385

  18. Linkage to and retention in care following healthcare transition from pediatric to adult HIV care.

    PubMed

    Ryscavage, Patrick; Macharia, Thomas; Patel, Devang; Palmeiro, Robyn; Tepper, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    Outcomes following healthcare transition (HCT) from pediatric to adult HIV care are not well described. We sought to describe clinical outcomes following HCT within our institution among young adults with behavioral-acquired (N = 31) and perinatally-acquired (N = 19) HIV. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among HIV-infected adults who attempted transition from pediatric to adult HIV care within our institution. The primary end point was retention in care, defined as the completion of at least two visits over 12 months following linkage to adult care. Additional end points include time to linkage to adult care, and changes in CD4 + T cell count and HIV RNA across time. Outcomes were compared between perinatal and behavioral HIV cohorts. Binary data were analyzed using the Fisher exact test and continuous data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. Forty-three (86%) of 50 patients were successfully linked to adult care. The median time to linkage was 98 days. Fifty percent of patients achieved full retention in care at 12 months post-linkage. Though those with behavioral-acquired HIV attempted transfer at an older age, the groups did not differ in rates of linkage and retention in adult care. CD4 + T cell counts and rates of viral suppression did not differ between pre- and post-HCT periods. Despite high rates of successful linkage to adult care in our study population, rates of retention in adult HIV care following HCT were low. These results imply that challenges remain in the adult HIV care setting toward improving the HCT process.

  19. A cognitive intervention to enhance institutionalized older adults' social support networks and decrease loneliness.

    PubMed

    Winningham, R G; Pike, N L

    2007-11-01

    Nearly all older adults experience social losses, which can disrupt their social support networks and impair their quality of life. Events such as retirement, an inability to drive, death of a spouse and/or close life-long friends, or moving to an elder care facility may negatively affect the quality of older adults' social support networks. Low levels of perceived social support are associated with increased depression, impaired immune functioning and reduced life expectancy. Moreover, social interactions can be cognitively stimulating and may help older adults preserve their cognitive abilities. In the present study, institutionalized older adults were exposed to either a cognitive enhancement programme designed to enhance social networks or a control group. Measures of perceived social support and loneliness were administered before and after a 3-month, group-based intervention. There was a significant interaction between group and time. Those who did not participate in the intervention experienced a decrease in perceived social support and an increase in perceived loneliness. Participants in the intervention group stayed the same on the above measures. Helping older adults increase or maintain the quality of their social networks may lead to enhanced cognitive functioning, decreased depression and improved quality of life. Recommendations to help assisted living facilities, nursing homes, retirement communities and senior centres develop social and cognitive interventions are provided.

  20. Exploring Adult Care Experiences and Barriers to Transition in Adult Patients with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bemrich-Stolz, CJ; Halanych, JH; Howard, TH; Hilliard, LM; Lebensburger, JD

    2015-01-01

    Background Young adults with sickle cell anemia are at high risk for increased hospitalization and death at the time of transition to adult care. This may be related to failure of the transition system to prepare young adults for the adult healthcare system. This qualitative study was designed to identify factors related to transition that may affect the health of adults with sickle cell anemia. Procedure Ten patients currently treated in an adult hematology clinic participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews to describe their experience transitioning from pediatric to adult care and differences in adult and pediatric healthcare systems. Results Participants were generally unprepared for the adult healthcare system. Negative issues experienced by participants included physician mistrust, difficulty with employers, keeping insurance, and stress in personal relationships. Positive issues experienced by participants included improved self efficacy with improved self care and autonomy. Conclusions In the absence of a formalized transition program, adults with sickle cell anemia experience significant barriers to adult care. In addition to medical history review and identification of an adult provider, transition programs should incorporate strategies to navigate the adult medical system, insurance and relationships as well as encouraging self efficacy. PMID:26900602

  1. Mixed care networks of community-dwelling older adults with physical health impairments in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Broese van Groenou, Marjolein; Jacobs, Marianne; Zwart-Olde, Ilse; Deeg, Dorly J H

    2016-01-01

    As part of long-term care reforms, home-care organisations in the Netherlands are required to strengthen the linkage between formal and informal caregivers of home-dwelling older adults. Information on the variety in mixed care networks may help home-care organisations to develop network type-dependent strategies to connect with informal caregivers. This study first explores how structural (size, composition) and functional features (contact and task overlap between formal and informal caregivers) contribute to different types of mixed care networks. Second, it examines to what degree these network types are associated with the care recipients' characteristics. Through home-care organisations in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, we selected 74 frail home-dwelling clients who were receiving care in 2011-2012 from both informal and formal caregivers. The care networks of these older adults were identified by listing all persons providing help with five different types of tasks. This resulted in care networks comprising an average of 9.7 caregivers, of whom 67% were formal caregivers. On average, there was contact between caregivers within 34% of the formal-informal dyads, and both caregivers carried out at least one similar type of task in 29% of these dyads. A principal component analysis of size, composition, contact and task overlap showed two distinct network dimensions from which four network types were constructed: a small mixed care network, a small formal network, a large mixed network and a large formal network. Bivariate analyses showed that the care recipients' activities of daily living level, memory problems, social network, perceived control of care and level of mastery differed significantly between these four types. The results imply that different network types require different actions from formal home-care organisations, such as mobilising the social network in small formal networks, decreasing task differentiation in large formal networks and assigning

  2. Foster Care Experiences and Educational Outcomes of Young Adults Formerly Placed in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havalchak, Anne; White, Catherine Roller; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.; Sepulveda, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This study contributes to the body of research on the educational outcomes of young adults who were formerly placed in foster care. Telephone interviews were conducted with 359 young adults (a 54.6% response rate). Participants must have been served for at least one year by one private foster care agency in one of its twenty-two offices. Results…

  3. Differential Outcomes of Adult Education on Adult Learners' Increase in Social Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Greef, Maurice; Verté, Dominique; Segers, Mien

    2015-01-01

    To date a significant share of the European population can be considered at risk of social exclusion. It has been argued that adult education programmes are a powerful tool to support vulnerable adults increasing their social inclusion. This study aims to answer the question if and which subgroups of vulnerable adults experience an increase in…

  4. Caring for juveniles with mental disorders in adult corrections facilities.

    PubMed

    Wills, Cheryl D

    2017-02-01

    Although juveniles have developmental, educational, healthcare, and rehabilitation needs that differ from adults, thousands of them have been confined in adult corrections facilities in the past 30 years. This manuscript will review how and why juveniles end up in adult corrections facilities, who they are, their rehabilitative needs, and how they differ from adults in corrections facilities and youths in the juvenile justice system. The importance of providing developmentally-informed mental health services to youths in adult corrections facilities is examined, along with barriers to traditional adolescent psychiatric practice. Recommendations for future directions in adolescent psychiatric care are presented.

  5. The Obama health care plan: what it means for mental health care of older adults.

    PubMed

    Sorrell, Jeanne M

    2009-01-01

    Health care was an important issue for both the Obama and McCain election campaigns. Now that Barack Obama is poised to serve as the 44th President of the United States, many health care providers are focused on what Obama's administration will mean for new health care initiatives. This article focuses specifically on aspects of the Obama and Biden health care plan that affects mental health care for older adults.

  6. Diabetes Self-Care and the Older Adult

    PubMed Central

    Weinger, Katie; Beverly, Elizabeth A.; Smaldone, Arlene

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is highest in older adults, a population that is increasing. Diabetes self-care is complex with important recommendations for nutrition, physical activity, checking glucose levels, and taking medication. Older adults with diabetes have unique issues which impact self-care. As people age, their health status, support systems, physical and mental abilities, and nutritional requirements change. Furthermore, comorbidities, complications, and polypharmacy complicate diabetes self-care. Depression is also more common among the elderly and may lead to deterioration in self-care behaviors. Because of concerns about cognitive deficits and multiple comorbidities, adults older than 65 years are often excluded from research trials. Thus, little clinical evidence is available and the most appropriate treatment approaches and how to best support older patients’ self-care efforts are unclear. This review summarizes the current literature, research findings, and expert and consensus recommendations with their rationales. PMID:24510969

  7. Middle-Aged and Older Adult Health Care Selection.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Scott R; Erickson, Lance D; Call, Vaughn R A; McKnight, Matthew L

    2017-04-01

    This study assesses the prevalence of primary-care physician (PCP) bypass among rural middle-aged and older adults. Bypass is a behavior where people travel beyond local providers to obtain health care. This article applies a precise Geographic Information System (GIS)-based measure of bypass and examines the role of community and non-health-care-related characteristics on bypass. Our results indicate that bypass behavior among rural middle-aged and older adults is multifaceted. In addition to the perceived quality of local primary care, dissatisfaction with local services, such as shopping, creates an effect that increases the likelihood of bypass, whereas strong community ties decrease the likelihood of bypass. The results suggest that the "outshopping theory," where respondents select services in larger regional economic centers rather than local "mom and pop" providers, now extends to older adult health care selection.

  8. Social outcome of handicapped children as adults.

    PubMed

    Kokkonen, J; Saukkonen, A L; Timonen, E; Serlo, W; Kinnunen, P

    1991-12-01

    The social status of 52 disabled young adults (29 men, 23 women) was reviewed at the age of 19 to 25 years, and compared with that of 209 age-matched controls. 40 had successfully completed elementary school and 10 had completed high-school. 28 had gone on to basic further education and 11 had progressed to more advanced levels. 35 per cent of the study group and 11 per cent of the controls had had no further education. Half of the study group were receiving disability benefit and 12 had no occupation outside the home. There was little difference in present employment status between groups, but the study group had experienced twice as much unemployment as controls. Leaving the parents' home and sexual experience were delayed among the study group. The results indicate the need for more practical support for these adolescents and their parents.

  9. Health Care Transition Experiences of Young Adults With Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Ellen McLaughlin

    2015-01-01

    Health care transition (HCT) describes the purposeful, planned movement of adolescents from child to adult-orientated care. The purpose of this qualitative study is to uncover the meaning of transition to adult-centered care as experienced by young adults with cerebral palsy (YA-CP) through the research question: What are the lived experiences of young adults with cerebral palsy transitioning from pediatric to adult healthcare? Six females and 3 males, aged 19-25 years of age, who identified as carrying the diagnosis of cerebral palsy without cognitive impairment, were interviewed. Giorgi's (1985) method for analysis of phenomenology was the framework for the study and guided the phenomenological reduction. The meaning of the lived experiences of YA-CPs transition to adult health care is expert novices with evidence and experience-based expectations, negotiating new systems interdependently and accepting less than was expected. More information and support is needed for the YA-CP during transition to ensure a well-organized move to appropriate adult-oriented health care that is considerate of the lifelong impact of the disorder. The nurses' role as advocate, mentor and guide can optimize the individual's response to the transition process.

  10. Dental Care among Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2013-01-01

    Dental care among young adults with intellectual disability (ID) is poorly documented and largely unmet. By using population-based data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Follow-Up Study, we assessed factors associated with at least one or two dental visits per year among young adults with and without ID. Significantly fewer…

  11. Optimizing Health Care for Adults with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Survival into adulthood for individuals with spina bifida has significantly improved over the last 40 years with the majority of patients now living as adults. Despite this growing population of adult patients who have increased medical needs compared to the general population, including spina bifida (SB)-specific care, age-related secondary…

  12. Economic Socialization, Saving and Assets in European Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webley, Paul; Nyhus, Ellen K.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the role economic socialization plays in the economic behavior and asset accumulation of young adults by parents using data from European young adults and teenagers. We study the role of four distinct strands of economic socialization (providing pocket money, jobs at home, work for others, and parental encouragement) using a Dutch…

  13. Sociological aspects of cleft palate adults: IV. Social integration.

    PubMed

    Peter, J P; Chinsky, R R; Fisher, M J

    1975-07-01

    The patterns of social integration of adults with primary and secondary groups were evaluated for 196 adult cleft subjects, their 190 siblings and 209 random controls. Results indicated that cleft adults tended to rely on the extended family for mutual aid and social activities. They also participated less frequently in voluntary associations and relied on a few one-to-one friendships. Social activities tended to be that of informal visiting patterns. While it would be inaccurate to characterize the cleft adult family as grossly different from other American families, they are a definable population experiencing some degree of limitation associated with having a cleft.

  14. Youth with special health care needs: transition to adult health care services.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Donald P; Gilles, Donna L; Cannady, Mariel S; Wenzel, Donna B; Willis, Janet H; Bodurtha, Joann N

    2013-12-01

    Transition to adult services for children and youth with special health care needs (CYSHCN) has emerged as an important event in the life course of individuals with disabilities. Issues that interfere with efficient transition to adult health care include the perspectives of stakeholders, age limits on pediatric service, complexity of health conditions, a lack of experienced healthcare professionals in the adult arena, and health care financing for chronic and complex conditions. The purposes of this study were to develop a definition of successful transition and to identify determinants that were associated with a successful transition. The 2007 Survey of Adult Transition and Health dataset was used to select variables to be considered for defining success and for identifying predictors of success. The results showed that a small percentage of young adults who participated in the 2007 survey had experienced a successful transition from their pediatric care.

  15. Residential Characteristics, Social Factors, and Mortality among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Transitions out of Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Kelly; Heller, Tamar; Freels, Sally

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the degree to which residential characteristics and social factors are associated with mortality, after controlling for personal characteristics, among adults with intellectual disabilities who have resided in nursing homes (facilities providing skilled care and related services) at baseline in the Chicago area. Initial…

  16. Motivational Strategies with Alcohol-Involved Older Adults: Implications for Social Work Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Meredith; Gutheil, Irene A.

    2004-01-01

    Social workers and other health care professionals address problem drinking by older adults inconsistently. Reasons include client-related variables (for example, denial and poor information), practitioner-related factors (for example, inadequate knowledge about addictive behaviors, underdeveloped assessment tools, and limited empirically…

  17. Intensive care of the adult patient with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Allan, Catherine K

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence of congenital heart disease in the adult population has increased out of proportion to that of the pediatric population as survival has improved, and adult congenital heart disease patients make up a growing percentage of pediatric and adult cardiac intensive care unit admissions. These patients often develop complex multiorgan system disease as a result of long-standing altered cardiac physiology, and many require reoperation during adulthood. Practitioners who care for these patients in the cardiac intensive care unit must have a strong working knowledge of the pathophysiology of complex congenital heart disease, and a full team of specialists must be available to assist in the care of these patients. This chapter will review some of the common multiorgan system effects of long-standing congenital heart disease (eg, renal and hepatic dysfunction, coagulation abnormalities, arrhythmias) as well as some of the unique cardiopulmonary physiology of this patient population.

  18. Homophily and health behavior in social networks of older adults.

    PubMed

    Flatt, Jason D; Agimi, Yll; Albert, Steve M

    2012-01-01

    A common network phenomenon, homophily, involves developing relationships with others who are similar to you. The intent of this study was to determine if older adults' health behaviors were shared within social networks. We interviewed older adults from low-income senior housing (egos) on egocentric social network characteristics and key health behaviors for themselves and for named social ties (alters). Findings suggest strong effects for homophily, especially for those who smoked and were physically inactive. Public health interventions for older adults should consider the influence that social relationships have on personal health behaviors. Network-based interventions may be required.

  19. Out of Place: Mediating Health and Social Care in Ontario's Long-Term Care Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses two reforms in Ontario's long-term care. The first is the commercialization of home care as a result of the implementation of a "managed competition" delivery model. The second is the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care's privileging of "health care" over "social care" through changes to which…

  20. The role of chiropractic care in older adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    There are a rising number of older adults; in the US alone nearly 20% of the population will be 65 or older by 2030. Chiropractic is one of the most frequently utilized types of complementary and alternative care by older adults, used by an estimated 5% of older adults in the U.S. annually. Chiropractic care involves many different types of interventions, including preventive strategies. This commentary by experts in the field of geriatrics, discusses the evidence for the use of spinal manipulative therapy, acupuncture, nutritional counseling and fall prevention strategies as delivered by doctors of chiropractic. Given the utilization of chiropractic services by the older adult, it is imperative that providers be familiar with the evidence for and the prudent use of different management strategies for older adults. PMID:22348431

  1. 38 CFR 52.61 - General requirements for adult day health care program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adult day health care program. 52.61 Section 52.61 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.61 General requirements for adult day health care program. Adult day health care must be...

  2. 7 CFR 226.19a - Adult day care center provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adult day care center provisions. 226.19a Section 226... § 226.19a Adult day care center provisions. (a) Adult day care centers may participate in the Program... auspices of a for-profit sponsoring organization. Adult day care centers participating as...

  3. 38 CFR 52.61 - General requirements for adult day health care program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adult day health care program. 52.61 Section 52.61 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.61 General requirements for adult day health care program. Adult day health care must be...

  4. 7 CFR 226.19a - Adult day care center provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adult day care center provisions. 226.19a Section 226... § 226.19a Adult day care center provisions. (a) Adult day care centers may participate in the Program... auspices of a for-profit sponsoring organization. Adult day care centers participating as...

  5. 7 CFR 226.19a - Adult day care center provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adult day care center provisions. 226.19a Section 226... § 226.19a Adult day care center provisions. (a) Adult day care centers may participate in the Program... auspices of a for-profit sponsoring organization. Adult day care centers participating as...

  6. 38 CFR 52.61 - General requirements for adult day health care program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adult day health care program. 52.61 Section 52.61 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.61 General requirements for adult day health care program. Adult day health care must be...

  7. 7 CFR 226.19a - Adult day care center provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adult day care center provisions. 226.19a Section 226... § 226.19a Adult day care center provisions. (a) Adult day care centers may participate in the Program... auspices of a for-profit sponsoring organization. Adult day care centers participating as...

  8. 38 CFR 52.61 - General requirements for adult day health care program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adult day health care program. 52.61 Section 52.61 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.61 General requirements for adult day health care program. Adult day health care must be...

  9. Preventive Care Recommendations for Adults with MS

    MedlinePlus

    Preventive Care Recommendations THE BASIC FACTS MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS The Three Most Common Eye Disorders Carlos Healey, diagnosed in 2001 in Multiple Sclerosis Medical checklist: Recommendations: Dates of last & next test ...

  10. Both young and older adults discount suggestions from older adults on a social memory test.

    PubMed

    Davis, Sara D; Meade, Michelle L

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, we examined the impacts of participant age and confederate age on social memory processes. During a collaborative recall phase, young and older adult participants were exposed to the erroneous memory reports of a young or an older adult confederate. On a subsequent individual recall test, young and older adult participants were equally likely to incorporate the confederates' erroneous suggestions into their memory reports, suggesting that participant age had a minimal effect on social memory processes. However, confederate age did have a marked effect: Young adult participants were less likely to incorporate misleading suggestions from older adult confederates and less likely to report "remembering" items suggested by older adult confederates. Critically, older adult participants were also less likely to incorporate misleading information from fellow older adult confederates. Both young and older adult participants discounted older adult confederates' contributions to a memory test.

  11. 76 FR 43254 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care... Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2011 Through June 30, 2012 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service...-risk afterschool care centers, and adult day care centers; the food service payment rates for meals...

  12. 78 FR 45176 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care... Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2013 Through June 30, 2014 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service...-risk afterschool care centers, and adult day care centers; the food service payment rates for meals...

  13. 75 FR 41793 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care... Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2010 Through June 30, 2011 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service...-risk afterschool care centers, and adult day care centers; the food service payment rates for meals...

  14. Effect of social media in health care and orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Jenine; Robinson, Brooke S; Kugler, Nathan W; Illingworth, Kenneth D; Patel, Pranay; Saleh, Khaled J

    2012-04-01

    With the growth of social media platforms, their potential to affect health care, and orthopedics specifically, continues to expand. We reviewed the literature to obtain all pertinent information on social media in health care and examined its strengths and weaknesses from patient and physician perspectives. Health care professionals have slowly begun to use social media to stay connected with patients. The recent use of networking sites aims to improve education, provide a forum to discuss relevant medical topics, and allow for improved patient care. The use of social media, with the understanding of its limitations, may help promote patient happiness and safety and serve as an educational platform.

  15. Teaching Social Skills to Enhance Work Performance in a Child Care Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gear, Sabra; Bobzien, Jonna; Judge, Sharon; Raver, Sharon A.

    2011-01-01

    Adults with intellectual disabilities face difficulty seeking employment in the community workforce. Using a single-subject design, this study examined the utility of role playing and self-management strategies to enhance work performance by promoting the social skills of a young woman with Down syndrome working in a community child care setting.…

  16. Mental Health and Social Care Needs of Older People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strydom, Andre; Hassiotis, Angela; Livingston, Gill

    2005-01-01

    Background: Older people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are a growing population but their age-related needs are rarely considered and community services are still geared towards the younger age group. We aimed to examine the mental health and social care needs of this new service user group. Methods: We identified all adults with ID without…

  17. Effects of Living Alone on Social Capital and Health Among Older Adults in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingwen; Norstrand, Julie A; Du, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Social capital has been connected with positive health outcomes across countries, including China. Given the rise in the number of seniors living alone, there is a need to examine the health benefits of social capital, accounting for living arrangements. Data from the 2005 Chinese General Social Survey were used to test research hypotheses. Controlling for demographics, elders living alone possessed similar level of social capital compared with elders living with others. While bonding and linking social capital were significant factors in urban areas and linking social capital was a significant factor in rural areas, the relationship between living alone and health did not differ based on the level of social capital possession. When the traditional intergenerational living arrangement has not been a valid option for many older adults in China, seeking new way of family caring, and developing appropriate social and institutional structures to assist elders living alone, becomes critical.

  18. Primary Care Providers' HIV Prevention Practices Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Tracy; Teaster, Pamela B.; Thornton, Alice; Watkins, John F.; Alexander, Linda; Zanjani, Faika

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore primary care providers' HIV prevention practices for older adults. Primary care providers' perceptions and awareness were explored to understand factors that affect their provision of HIV prevention materials and HIV screening for older adults. Design and Method Data were collected through 24 semistructured interviews with primary care providers (i.e., physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners) who see patients older than 50 years. Results Results reveal facilitators and barriers of HIV prevention for older adults among primary care providers and understanding of providers' HIV prevention practices and behaviors. Individual, patient, institutional, and societal factors influenced HIV prevention practices among participants, for example, provider training and work experience, lack of time, discomfort in discussing HIV/AIDS with older adults, stigma, and ageism were contributing factors. Furthermore, factors specific to primary and secondary HIV prevention were identified, for instance, the presence of sexually transmitted infections influenced providers' secondary prevention practices. Implications HIV disease, while preventable, is increasing among older adults. These findings inform future research and interventions aimed at increasing HIV prevention practices in primary care settings for patients older than 50. PMID:25736425

  19. 38 CFR 52.61 - General requirements for adult day health care program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52... knowledge and skills necessary to manage care requirements in the home. Adult day health care is...

  20. Creating social work competencies for practice in hospice palliative care.

    PubMed

    Bosma, Harvey; Johnston, Meaghen; Cadell, Susan; Wainwright, Wendy; Abernethy, Ngaire; Feron, Andrew; Kelley, Mary Lou; Nelson, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Social workers play an important role in the delivery of Hospice Palliative Care in many diverse settings. The profession brings a unique perspective to end-of-life care that reflects and supports the holistic philosophy of Hospice Palliative Care. Despite the prominent and longstanding position of social work in this area, the role and functions of social workers had not been clearly defined. A Canadian task group of social work practitioners and educators utilized a modified Delphi process to consult front line clinicians nationally, and thereby achieved consensus regarding the identification and description of eleven core competencies in Hospice Palliative Care. These competencies are relevant for social workers at different experience levels across care settings. They can be used to inform social work practice, as well as professional development and educational curricula in this area.

  1. Social Anxiety and Loneliness in Adults Who Solicit Minors Online.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Anja; Bergen, Emilia; Schuhmann, Petya; Hoyer, Jürgen

    2015-10-21

    This study examined the association of social anxiety, loneliness, and problematic Internet use (PIU) with the online solicitation of minors. Within a convenience sample of adult Internet users from Germany, Finland, and Sweden (N = 2,828), we compared the responses of participants who had not interacted sexually with strangers online (n = 2,049) with participants who sexually interacted with unknown adults online (n = 642), and both groups with adults who sexually solicited unknown minors online (n = 137). Online sexual interaction with adults was associated with higher levels of social anxiety, loneliness, and PIU compared with not sexually interacting with strangers online. Sexually soliciting minors online was associated with higher levels of social anxiety, loneliness, and PIU compared with sexually interacting with adults and not sexually interacting with strangers at all. Interestingly, compared with those with adult contacts, loneliness was specifically pronounced for participants who solicited children, whereas social anxiety and PIU were pronounced for participants soliciting adolescents. These findings suggest that social anxiety, loneliness, and PIU may be among the motivators for using the Internet to solicit individuals of different age groups for sexual purposes. These factors emerged as specifically relevant for adults who sexually solicited minors and who reported greater impairments compared with adults who sexually interacted with adults. These characteristics may thus be important to consider for assessment and treatment procedures for individuals soliciting minors online.

  2. Integrating Adolescents and Young Adults into Adult-Centered Care for IBD.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Itishree; Holl, Jane L; Hanauer, Stephen; Keefer, Laurie

    2016-05-01

    Planned healthcare transition, initiated in pediatric care, is a gradual process aimed at fostering the adolescent patient's disease knowledge and skills with the ultimate objective of preparing patients and families for adult-centered care. The process is critical in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) where there is an increased risk of non-adherence, hospitalizations, and emergency department use as young adult patients graduate from pediatric to adult-centered care. While evidence for healthcare transition in IBD is mounting, important gaps remain in the understanding of this process from the perspective of the adult gastroenterologist. This paper summarizes what is known about healthcare transition in IBD and explores the unanswered questions-a conceptual and methodological framework for transition interventions, relevant outcomes that define successful transition, and key stakeholder perspectives. For the adult gastroenterologist managing the young adult patient population, this paper presents the paradigm of "care integration"-a process of ongoing, multi-modality support for the patient, initiated in the adult care setting, with the goal of improving self-management skills and active participation in medical decision-making.

  3. Adult Day Care--Extended Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bert Kruger

    This pamphlet describes a multi-purpose day-care center for the elderly in Abilene, Texas which is intended to fill the "extended family" role of offering companionship, medical attention, and other aspects of concern to older persons in the community. The goals of the program are as follows: (1) to keep individuals out of institutions…

  4. Transition to Adult-Oriented Health Care: Perspectives of Youth and Adults with Complex Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorter, Jan Willem

    2009-01-01

    In their qualitative study, Young and colleagues (2009) found that youth and adults with cerebral palsy (CP), spina bifida, and acquired brain injuries of childhood in the province of Ontario, Canada, perceive or have perceived their transfer from pediatric to adult-oriented health care services as a struggle. Although publications on transition…

  5. Transition to Adult-Oriented Health Care: Perspectives of Youth and Adults with Complex Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Nancy L.; Barden, Wendy S.; Mills, Wendy A.; Burke, Tricia A.; Law, Mary; Boydell, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The transition to adulthood is extremely difficult for individuals with disabilities. We sought to explore the specific issue of transition to adult-oriented health care in a Canadian context. Methods: We conducted semi-structured individual interviews with 15 youth and 15 adults with cerebral palsy, spina bifida, and acquired brain…

  6. Associations Between Social Support, Social Networks, and Financial Exploitation in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Beach, Scott R; Schulz, Richard; Sneed, Rodlescia

    2016-04-01

    Social support and social networks are important correlates of elder mistreatment. This study tests hypothesized associations between perceived social support, social network size, and financial exploitation (FE). A population-based survey of 903 older adults (60+) in Allegheny County (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) found that lower perceived social support and larger social networks were simultaneously associated with higher risk for FE since age 60, controlling for known risk factors. The same associations were found for FE in the last 6 months. Older adults with larger social networks combined with lower perceived social support were most likely to report FE. When it comes to the role of social relationships and risk for FE, "more may not always be better." Encouragement to widen the social network by "making new friends" should be stressed less than making sure these new network members will truly be supportive of the older adult.

  7. Correlates of social support in older American Indians: the Native Elder Care Study

    PubMed Central

    Conte, Kathleen P.; Schure, Marc B.; Goins, R. Turner

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study examined social support and identified demographic and health correlates among American Indians aged 55 years and older. Methods Data were derived from the Native Elder Care Study, a cross-sectional study of 505 community-dwelling American Indians aged ≥55 years. Social support was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey measure (MOS-SSS) of which psychometric properties were examined through factor analyses. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify associations between age, sex, educational attainment, marital status, depressive symptomatology, lower body physical functioning, and chronic pain and social support. Results Study participants reported higher levels of affectionate and positive interaction social support (88.2% and 81.8%, respectively) than overall (75.9%) and emotional (69.0%) domains. Increased age, being married/partnered, and female sex were associated with high social support in the final model. Decreased depressive symptomatology was associated with high overall, affectionate, and positive interaction support, and decreased chronic pain with affectionate support. The count of chronic conditions and functional disability were not associated with social support. Conclusions Overall, we found high levels of social support for both men and women in this population, with the oldest adults in our study exhibiting the highest levels of social support. Strong cultural values of caring for older adults and a historical tradition of community cooperation may explain this finding. Future public health efforts may be able to leverage social support to reduce health disparities and improve mental and physical functioning. PMID:25322933

  8. Perceived control in health care: a conceptual model based on experiences of frail older adults.

    PubMed

    Claassens, L; Widdershoven, G A; Van Rhijn, S C; Van Nes, F; Broese van Groenou, M I; Deeg, D J H; Huisman, M

    2014-12-01

    Frail older adults are increasingly encouraged to be in control of their health care, in Western societies. However, little is known about how they themselves perceive control in health care. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the concept of health care-related perceived control from the viewpoint of frail older adults. A qualitative interview study was conducted following a Grounded Theory approach. Thirty-two Dutch frail older adults, aged 65 and over, participated in 20 in-depth interviews (n=20) and three focus group discussions (n=12). Data were analysed according to techniques of coding and constant comparison. From this analysis constituting factors of perceived control emerged, providing elements of a conceptual model. Perceived control reflects the feeling or belief that health care is under control, which is constituted by five, either internal or external, factors: (I) self-confidence in organising professional and/or informal care, (II) self-confidence in health management in the home setting, (III) perceived support from people in the social network, (IV) perceived support from health care professionals and organisations, and (V) perceived support from (health care) infrastructure and services. Therefore, the concept does not only consist of people's own perceived efforts, but also includes the influence of external sources. Our conceptual model points out what external factors should be taken into consideration by health care professionals and policy makers when enhancing older people's perceived control. Moreover, it can serve as the basis for the development of a measurement instrument, to enable future quantitative research on health care-related perceived control among older adults.

  9. Social Change and Adult Education Research. Adult Education Research in Nordic Countries 1992/93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tampere Univ., Hameelinna (Finland). Dept. of Education.

    This yearbook contains 18 papers reflecting the major trends in adult education research in the Nordic countries in 1992-93. The following papers are included: "Popular Adult Education and Social Mobilization: Reflections in Connection with the Swedish Committee on Power" (Rubenson); "Direction of Finnish Adult Education Policies…

  10. Nursing care time and quality indicators for adult intensive care: correlation analysis.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Paulo Carlos; Fugulin, Fernanda Maria Togeiro

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this quantitative, correlational and descriptive study was to analyze the time the nursing staff spends to assist patients in Adult Intensive Care Units, as well as to verify its correlation with quality care indicators. The average length of time spent on care and the quality care indicators were identified by consulting management instruments the nursing head of the Unit employs. The average hours of nursing care delivered to patients remained stable, but lower than official Brazilian agencies' indications. The correlation between time of nursing care and the incidence of accidental extubation indicator indicated that it decreases with increasing nursing care delivered by nurses. The results of this investigation showed the influence of nursing care time, provided by nurses, in the outcome of care delivery.

  11. Assisting the Adult with a Respiratory Condition. Care of the Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anoka-Hennepin Area Vocational Technical Inst., MN.

    These three units for students in a practical nursing program provide supplemental instruction in caring for adult patients with respiratory conditions. Unit titles are Introduction to Care of the Patient with a Respiratory Condition, Infectious Respiratory Conditions, and Chronic Lung Conditions. Each unit contains the following: objectives, an…

  12. Adolescent and young adult cancer: principles of care

    PubMed Central

    Ramphal, R.; Aubin, S.; Czaykowski, P.; De Pauw, S.; Johnson, A.; McKillop, S.; Szwajcer, D.; Wilkins, K.; Rogers, P.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (ayas) with cancer in active treatment face a number of barriers to optimal care. In the present article, we focus on the 3 critical domains of care for ayas—medical, psychosocial, and research—and how changes to the system could overcome barriers. We summarize the current literature, outline recommended principles of care, raise awareness of barriers to optimal care, and suggest specific changes to the system to overcome those barriers in the Canadian context. Many of the recommendations can nevertheless be applied universally. These recommendations are endorsed by the Canadian Task Force on Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer and build on outcomes from two international workshops held by that group. PMID:27330350

  13. Critical care issues in adult liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Palepu B.; Kapoor, Dharmesh; Raya, Ravichandra; Subrahmanyam, M.; Juneja, Deven; Sukanya, B.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decade, liver transplantation has become an operational reality in our part of the world. As a result, clinicians working in an intensive care unit are more likely to be exposed to these patients in the immediate postoperative period, and thus, it is important that they have a working knowledge of the common complications, when they are likely to occur, and how to deal with them. The main focus of this review is to address the variety of critical care issues in liver transplant recipients and to impress upon the need to provide favorable circumstances for the new liver to start functioning and maintain the function of other organs to aid in this process. PMID:20040807

  14. Mapping the literature: palliative care within adult and child neurology.

    PubMed

    Dallara, Alexis; Meret, Anca; Saroyan, John

    2014-12-01

    Objectives of this review were to examine definitions and background of palliative care, as well as address whether there is an increased need for palliative care education among neurologists. The review also explores what literature exists regarding palliative care within general neurology and child neurology. A literature review was conducted examining use of palliative care within child neurology. More than 100 articles and textbooks were retrieved and reviewed. Expert guidelines stress the importance of expertise in palliative care among neurologists. Subspecialties written about in child neurology include that of peripheral nervous system disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and metabolic disorders. Adult and child neurology patients have a great need for improved palliative care services, as they frequently develop cumulative physical and cognitive disabilities over time and cope with decreasing quality of life before reaching the terminal stage of their illness.

  15. At-home oral care for adults with developmental disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Minihan, Paula M.; Morgan, John P.; Park, Angel; Yantsides, Konstantina E.; Nobles, Carrie J.; Finkelman, Matthew D.; Stark, Paul C.; Must, Aviva

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about effective at-home oral care methods for people with developmental disabilities (DDs) who are unable to perform personal preventive practices themselves and rely on caregivers for assistance. Methods A convenience sample of 808 caregivers (84.5 percent paid, 15.5 percent family members) who accompanied adults with DDs (20 years or older) to appointments at a specialized statewide dental care system completed computer-assisted personal interview surveys. The authors used these data to investigate caregivers’ at-home oral care experiences and to explore differences between caregivers who were paid and those who were family members. Results Caregivers reported that a high proportion (85 percent) of dentate adults with DDs received assistance with tooth cleaning. They also reported a high prevalence of dental problems, and low adherence to brushing (79 percent) and flossing (22 percent) recommendations. More caregivers reported that they felt confident assisting with brushing than with flossing (85 percent versus 54 percent). Family members and paid caregivers differed with respect to confidence and training. Conclusions At-home oral care, particularly flossing, presents substantial challenges for adults with DDs. Solutions must be tailored to address the different experiences and distinct needs of the family members and paid caregivers who assist these adults. Practical Implications Caregivers play an important role in providing at-home oral care, and they must be included in efforts to improve oral health outcomes for people with DDs. PMID:25270700

  16. The role of social pedagogy in the training of residential child care workers.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Robin

    2006-03-01

    A requirement for most people working in residential child care in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands is a qualification in social pedagogy. Social pedagogy is not narrowly concerned with a child's schooling but relates to the whole child - body, mind and spirit. This article describes the first social pedagogy course to be introduced and professionally recognized in the UK: the BA in Curative Education Programme. This 4-year programme blurs the line between 'classroom learning' and 'learning in practice'. A unique feature of the programme is that most students 'live the course' in residential care communities for children or adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The life-sharing aspect of the programme ensures that the principles of dignity, value and mutual respect can be meaningfully translated into practice. The social pedagogic model presents a timely challenge to current care philosophy and practice.

  17. Bad Mothers and Monstrous Sons: Autistic Adults, Lifelong Dependency, and Sensationalized Narratives of Care.

    PubMed

    Allen, Holly

    2017-03-01

    Sensationalized representations of autistic families in film and other media frequently feature violent encounters between mothers and sons. This essay analyzes two media stories and three films that suggest how limited-and therefore misleading-popular representations of the autism family are. Except for one of the films, these representations blame the problem of adult autistic dependency on either monstrous autism or bad mothering. Doing so elides collective social responsibility for autism care and denies the reality that autistic adults continue to have complex dependency needs that families cannot always meet. Narratives that sensationalize youth and adults with autism or scapegoat their maternal caregivers also diminish opportunities for social inclusion and for autistic people to live fully and dependently.

  18. Transfer to Adult Care--Experiences of Young Adults with Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Asp, Ann; Bratt, Ewa-Lena; Bramhagen, Ann-Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    More than 90% of children born with congenital heart disease survive into adulthood due to successes of cardiac surgery and medical management. Interviews with 16 young adults with congenital heart disease to explore their experiences of transfer from pediatric to adult care were performed. The analysis identified five themes; Feeling secure during the transfer process, Experiencing trust in the care, Expecting to be involved, Assuming responsibility for one's health is a process and Lack of knowledge leads to uncertainty. In conclusion; a structured and gradual transfer process was necessary to enable the informants to shoulder the responsibility for self-care.

  19. [Social representations of teenagers with their first-born child on maternal care to newborns].

    PubMed

    Folle, Emanuele; Geib, Lorena Teresinha Consalter

    2004-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to analyze the social representation of teenagers who had their first child and about maternal care to newborns in the home environment. Participants were eight teenagers with their newborns. Data were collected at their homes by means of projective techniques and semi-structured interviews. Analysis was based on social representation theory, demonstrating that the teenagers represent maternal care in figurative centers of affection, family integration and maternal fulfillment. The maternal care is symbolically anchored in the appearance of a family, in the continuum of feelings and in the commitment to the psychomotor progress of the child. The teenagers who had their first child gave more value to belonging to a family than to the losses resulting from early motherhood. Maternal care is a conflictive exercise. On the one hand, it represents the status of being an adult and responsible but, on the other, it marks insecurity, lack of preparation and immaturity, which affect care to the newborn.

  20. Day Care: Scientific and Social Policy Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Edward F., Ed.; Gordon, Edmund W., Ed.

    In this book of articles on day care, policy analyses of day care delivery are combined with recent research on the effects of day care. The authors include experimental psychologists, psychiatrists, economists, public health workers, pediatricians, and early childhood educators. Among the issues investigated are the influence of day care on…

  1. Frailty and Organization of Health and Social Care.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Andrew; Young, John

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we consider how health and social care can best be organized for older people with frailty. We will consider the merits of routine frailty identification, including risk stratification methods, to inform the provision of evidence-based treatment and holistic, goal-oriented care. We will also consider how best to place older people with frailty at the heart of health and social care systems so that the complex challenges associated with this vulnerable group are addressed.

  2. Integrating mental health parity for homebound older adults under the medicare home health care benefit.

    PubMed

    Davitt, Joan K; Gellis, Zvi D

    2011-04-01

    Despite high rates of mental illness, very few homebound older adults receive treatment. Comorbid mental illness exacerbates physical health conditions, reduces treatment adherence, and increases dependency and medical costs. Although effective treatments exist, many home health agencies lack capacity to effectively detect and treat mental illness. This article critically analyzes barriers within the Medicare home health benefit that impede access to mental health treatment. Policy, practice, and research recommendations are made to integrate mental health parity in home health care. In particular, creative use of medical social work can improve detection and treatment of mental illness for homebound older adults.

  3. Diversity in midwifery care: working toward social justice.

    PubMed

    Burton, Nadya; Ariss, Rachel

    2014-08-01

    As midwifery moved from lay practice to a regulated health-care profession in Ontario toward the end of the twentieth century, it brought with it many of its social movement goals and aspirations. Among these was the desire to attend to diversity and equity in the provision of birthing care. Drawing on interviews with currently practicing Ontario midwives, this paper focuses on midwives' conceptualizations of diversity and explores their everyday work to support and strengthen diversity among those using and those providing midwifery care. We argue that midwifery's recent relocation within state structured health care means neither that the social change projects of midwifery are complete nor that midwifery has abandoned its movement-based commitment to social change. Responses to social diversity in health care range from efforts to simply improve access to care to analyses of the role of social justice in recognizing the needs of diverse populations. The social justice aspiration to "create a better world" continues to animate the work of midwives postregulation. This paper explores the legacy of midwifery as a social movement, addressing the connections between diversity, social justice and midwifery care.

  4. 7 CFR 250.61 - Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). 250.61... National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and Other Child Nutrition Programs § 250.61 Child and Adult Care Food... CACFP to distributing agencies, which provide them to child care and adult care...

  5. 7 CFR 250.61 - Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). 250.61... National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and Other Child Nutrition Programs § 250.61 Child and Adult Care Food... CACFP to distributing agencies, which provide them to child care and adult care...

  6. 7 CFR 250.61 - Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). 250.61... National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and Other Child Nutrition Programs § 250.61 Child and Adult Care Food... CACFP to distributing agencies, which provide them to child care and adult care...

  7. 7 CFR 250.61 - Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). 250.61... National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and Other Child Nutrition Programs § 250.61 Child and Adult Care Food... CACFP to distributing agencies, which provide them to child care and adult care...

  8. Social rights and employment rights related to family care: family care regimes in Europe.

    PubMed

    Frericks, Patricia; Jensen, Per H; Pfau-Effinger, Birgit

    2014-04-01

    In early welfare states, social rights predominantly derived from formal employment relations. Within the past two decades, however, some European countries have opened these social institutions to care work also. Cash-for-care and social entitlements for periods of at-home family caregiving have changed the characteristics of informal care work that family members traditionally provide to older relatives. Formerly based on unpaid kinship relations, it has changed towards new paid and more formalized forms of care work by family members. But it can be assumed that long-term care work by family members is constructed differently across welfare states. The paper is guided by the following research question: How do welfare-state policies differ in the degree to which their policies towards family care for senior citizens create social risks for the caring family members? We use the conceptual framework of "family care regimes" as our analytical framework for the comparative research. To do this, we compare care policies towards older care-needy people in the welfare states of the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark. The findings show that a common feature in all three countries is that the situation of family carers is to some degree being formalized: in all three countries a frail senior citizen can chose a family member as the care provider, and the welfare states support the family care providers. Still, the legal situation as well as the quality and level of social rights for family caregivers differ considerably among the three countries. It is shown that the institutional framework for senior care by family members in Germany and the Netherlands represents a family care regime that supports semi-formal family care, and that in Denmark it can be classified as a family care regime that supports formal family care. We show that these different types of family care regimes differ considerably in the social risks they pose to family carers.

  9. A Comparative Analysis of the Functional Disability Levels of Adult Day Care, Adult Day Health and ICF-Level Nursing Home Elderly in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashida, Cullen T.

    This study compared the functional disability levels of participants in adult day centers with patients in intermediate care facilities (ICFs). A three-page questionnaire measuring demographics, social resources, physical health, mental health, and activities of daily living as assessed by the Activities of Daily Living scale and the Instrumental…

  10. Young Adults' Health Care Utilization and Expenditures Prior to the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Josephine S.; Adams, Sally H.; Boscardin, W. John; Irwin, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Examine young adults' health care utilization and expenditures prior to the ACA. Methods We used 2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) to 1) compare young adults' health care utilization and expenditures of a full-spectrum of health services to children and adolescents and 2) identify disparities in young adults' utilization and expenditures, based on access (insurance and usual source of care) and other socio-demographic factors, including race/ethnicity and income. Results Young adults had: 1) significantly lower rates of overall utilization (72%) than other age groups (83-88%, P<.001) and 2), the lowest rate of office-based utilization (55% vs. 67-77%, P<.001) and higher rate of ER visits compared to adolescents (15% v. 12%, P<.01). Uninsured young adults had high out-of-pocket expenses. Compared to the young adults with private insurance, the uninsured spent less than half on health care ($1,040 vs. $2,150/ person, P<.001), but essentially the same out-of-pocket expenses ($403 vs. $380/person, p =.57). Among young adults, we identified significant disparities in utilization and expenditures based on the presence/absence of a usual source of care, race/ethnicity, home language and sex. Conclusions Young adults may not be utilizing the health care system optimally by having low rates of office-based visits and high rates of ER visits. The ACA provision of insurance for those previously uninsured or under-insured will likely increase their utilization and expenditures and lower their out-of-pocket expenses. Further effort is needed to address non-insurance barriers and ensure equal access to health services. PMID:24702839

  11. Social Cognitive Correlates of Young Adult Sport Competitors' Sunscreen Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, Nadine C.; O'Riordan, David L.; Winkler, Elisabeth; McDermott, Liane; Spathonis, Kym; Owen, Neville

    2011-01-01

    Young adults participating in outdoor sports represent a high-risk group for excessive sun exposure. The purpose of this study was to identify modifiable social cognitive correlates of sunscreen use among young adult competitors. Participants aged 18 to 30 years who competed in soccer (n = 65), surf-lifesaving (n = 63), hockey (n = 61), and tennis…

  12. Adult Education, Social Inclusion and Cultural Diversity in Regional Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Rob

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the outcomes of recent research into adult education programs and experiences in the Shire of Campaspe, a region in northern Victoria. Research data of people from diverse cultural backgrounds reveal how individuals can utilize adult education as a space to explore their own social and cultural isolation in a regional…

  13. Adult Learning, Critical Intelligence and Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Marjorie, Ed.; Thompson, Jane, Ed.

    This collection of 21 essays reviews the context of developments in adult education in the last 15 years. "Adult Education for Change in the Nineties and Beyond" (Marjorie Mayo) is a critical review of the context for these changes and of the theoretical debates that attempt to analyze and explain them. "Challenging the Postmodern…

  14. Identifying the Unique Aspects of Adolescent and Young Adult Palliative Care: A Case Study to Propel Programmatic Changes in Pediatric Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Lisa; Dell, Mary Lynn

    2015-09-01

    Using a case study, in this article we seek to highlight how the distinct developmental needs of adolescent and young adult patients facing a life-threatening condition require a different approach to patient care by pediatric health care workers. The case underscores pitfalls in using a pediatric construct of care in areas of pain management, social stressors, and advanced care planning, and suggests programs to implement for improvement, including partnership with psychiatry, substance abuse, and palliative care specialists.

  15. Professional’s Perspectives on Care Management of Young People with Perinatally Acquired HIV during Transition: A Qualitative Study in Adult Care Setting

    PubMed Central

    Le Roux, Enora; Gottot, Serge; Aupiais, Camille; Girard, Thomas; Teixeira, Maria; Alberti, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    Background Increasing numbers of young people with perinatally acquired HIV are surviving to adulthood. When they come of age, they leave pediatric services in which they were followed and have to be transferred to the adult health care system. Difficulties in adaptation to adult care and the numbers of young people lost to follow up after transfer to adult care have been reported. This transition phase and their retention in adult care are crucial in maintaining the clinical status of these young with HIV in adulthood. Our study aimed to explore how HIV professionals working in adult care perceive and adapt their practices to young people in transition. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with 18 health and social services professionals in hospitals or patient associations in France. A thematic analysis was conducted. Results Adult care professionals were found to be making a distinction between these young people and their patients who were infected during adulthood. On the basis of the healthcare teams’ experience, a simplified categorization of these young people into four levels can be used: those “who have everything good”; those who have some deficiencies that must be addressed; those “who have everything bad”; and those lost to follow up. Professionals interviewed highlighted the difficulties they encountered with young people in transition. Three types of problematic situations were identified: problems of acceptance of the disease; communication problems; and problems of disorientation in the new care environment. Conclusions Despite the lack of specific training or national policy recommendations for the integration of young people with perinatally acquired HIV into adult services, all the adult healthcare teams interviewed tried to adapt their practice to this population. The results suggested that professional involvement during transition should depend on the characteristics of the patient, not be limited to a single transition

  16. Social Participation among Young Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsmond, Gael I.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Sterzing, Paul R.; Anderson, Kristy A.

    2013-01-01

    Investigating social participation of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important given the increasing number of youth aging into young adulthood. Social participation is an indicator of life quality and overall functioning. Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2, we examined rates of participation in…

  17. Developing the Social Skills of Young Adult Special Olympics Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Melissa G. F.; Dummer, Gail M.; Smeltzer, Ashley; Denton, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if young adult Special Olympics participants could develop, generalize, and maintain target social skills (eye contact, contributing relevant information, and turn taking) as a result of a 14-week Social Skills and Sports (S[superscript 3]) Program that combined classroom instruction with soccer…

  18. Gender Differences in Social Support among Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Neal; Keith, Verna

    1989-01-01

    Studies exposure to life stress as an explanation for gender differences in older adults' utilization of social support. Results suggest that, as stressful events increase, elderly men and women are equally likely to become more involved in their social network, while gender differences emerge in response to chronic financial strain. (JS)

  19. Computer-Mediated Social Support, Older Adults, and Coping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Kevin

    2000-01-01

    Investigates social support for older adults in the computer-mediated environment. Finds that: satisfaction with Internet providers of social support was significantly higher for high Internet users than for low Internet users, whereas low Internet users were more satisfied with their non-Internet support networks than high Internet users; and…

  20. Comorbid Social Anxiety Disorder in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, Brenna B.; White, Susan W.

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety symptoms are common among cognitively unimpaired youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Few studies have investigated the co-occurrence of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adults with ASD, although identification may aid access to effective treatments and inform our scientific efforts to parse heterogeneity. In this preliminary…

  1. [Social intelligence deficits in autistic children and adolescents--subjective theories of psychosocial health care professionals].

    PubMed

    Krech, M; Probst, P

    1998-10-01

    The paper is concerned with personal theories of health care professionals about deficiencies in social intelligence of autistic persons. In the component-model of social intelligence means the ability of individuals or groups, to interact with each other in social situations. This contains social perception, social behavior as well as social conceptions and refers to emotional, cognitive and normative aspects. 33 interviewees, working as psychologists or teachers in kindergartens, schools or therapy institutions, are questioned by a half-standardized single interview concerning their beliefs about nonverbal social abilities, social perspective taking, and construction of a theory of mind in autistic persons. The major finding is: The impairments can be found in all aspects of social intelligence. Especially emotional handicaps, which are quoted by more than 80% of the interviewees, and low cognitive preconditions of mastering social stimuli, which are quoted by nearly all interviewees, are relevant. The subjective theories of the interviewees are in accordance to the models of parents as well as the models of the leading experts. The professional relationship to autistic persons and the practical experiences of the health care professionals lead to their specific personal theories of deficiencies in social intelligence of autistic people with wide consequences in respect to the professional contact with the autistic children and young adults.

  2. Social Networks of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Erosheva, Elena A.; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Emlet, Charles; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examines global social networks—including friendship, support, and acquaintance networks—of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. Design and Methods Utilizing data from a large community-based study, we employ multiple regression analyses to examine correlates of social network size and diversity. Results Controlling for background characteristics, network size was positively associated with being female, transgender identity, employment, higher income, having a partner or a child, identity disclosure to a neighbor, engagement in religious activities, and service use. Controlling in addition for network size, network diversity was positively associated with younger age, being female, transgender identity, identity disclosure to a friend, religious activity, and service use. Implications According to social capital theory, social networks provide a vehicle for social resources that can be beneficial for successful aging and well-being. This study is a first step at understanding the correlates of social network size and diversity among LGBT older adults. PMID:25882129

  3. Hospitalization of older adults due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Aline Pinto; Montilla, Dalia Elena Romero; de Almeida, Wanessa da Silva; de Andrade, Carla Lourenço Tavares

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the temporal evolution of the hospitalization of older adults due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions according to their structure, magnitude and causes. METHODS Cross-sectional study based on data from the Hospital Information System of the Brazilian Unified Health System and from the Primary Care Information System, referring to people aged 60 to 74 years living in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Souhteastern Brazil. The proportion and rate of hospitalizations due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions were calculated, both the global rate and, according to diagnoses, the most prevalent ones. The coverage of the Family Health Strategy and the number of medical consultations attended by older adults in primary care were estimated. To analyze the indicators’ impact on hospitalizations, a linear correlation test was used. RESULTS We found an intense reduction in hospitalizations due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions for all causes and age groups. Heart failure, cerebrovascular diseases and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases concentrated 50.0% of the hospitalizations. Adults older than 69 years had a higher risk of hospitalization due to one of these causes. We observed a higher risk of hospitalization among men. A negative correlation was found between the hospitalizations and the indicators of access to primary care. CONCLUSIONS Primary healthcare in the state of Rio de Janeiro has been significantly impacting the hospital morbidity of the older population. Studies of hospitalizations due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions can aid the identification of the main causes that are sensitive to the intervention of the health services, in order to indicate which actions are more effective to reduce hospitalizations and to increase the population’s quality of life. PMID:25372173

  4. Social media in paediatric heart disease: professional use and opportunities to improve cardiac care.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Kurt R; Lee, Joyce M; Pasquali, Sara K

    2015-12-01

    Social media is any type of communication utilising electronic technology that follows two guiding principles: free publishing or sharing of content and ideas and group collaboration and inter-connectedness. Over the last 10 years, social media technology has made tremendous inroads into all facets of communication. Modalities such as Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter are no longer viewed as new communication technologies. Owing to their tremendous usage, they are now common ways to conduct a dialogue with individuals and groups. Greater than 91% of teenagers and 89% of young adults routinely use social media. Further, 24% of teenagers reported being online "almost constantly". These forms of communication are readily used by individuals cared for in the field of paediatric cardiology; thus, they should carry significant interest for cardiology care providers; however, social media's influence on medicine extends beyond use by patients. It directly affects all medical providers, both users and non-users. Further, social media has the ability to improve care for patients with paediatric heart disease. This article details social media's current influence on paediatric cardiology, including considerations for professional use of social media and potential opportunities to improve cardiac care.

  5. The shape of digital engagement: health care and social media.

    PubMed

    Timimi, Farris K

    2013-01-01

    Health care lags behind other industries in engaging with customers via social networking. In part, this reflects concerns regarding health information privacy concerns, organizational fears regarding employee time mismanagement, and the real challenge that health care providers face with multiple and competing demands on time. Despite these fears and concerns, our patients are spending more and more of their time online seeking health care information, more often in social networks. Our greatest capacity for health care change management at present may well center on our strategic capacity to meet our patients where they spend the majority of their time online.

  6. Social Justice and Dispositions for Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holst, John D.

    2010-01-01

    The article identifies dispositions from a thematic investigation of the pedagogical practice of Ernesto Che Guevara and various social movements in the United States. The article outlines and places these dispositions within the context of debates over social justice and dispositions for education program accreditation in the United States that…

  7. Epilepsy: addressing the transition from pediatric to adult care

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Seetha; Iyer, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of rapid change, both physical and psychosocial for any young person. It can be challenging when they have ongoing health problems and when their care needs to be transitioned to the adult health care system. Transition should be a planned process of addressing the medical and associated comorbid conditions from pediatric to adult care in a coordinated manner. In most cases, the young person and their family are well known to the pediatrics services and have built a relationship based on trust and often friendship over many years. Understandably, there is significant apprehension about moving from this familiar setting to the unknown adult services. Apart from having a sound knowledge of specific childhood epileptic conditions and associated comorbid disorders, it is important that both the pediatric and adult epilepsy teams are motivated to provide a successful and safe transition for these patients. It is essential that transition is seen as a continual process and not as a single event, and good preparation is the key to its success. It is also important that general practitioners are closely engaged to ensure successful transition. An overview of how to effectively address transition in epilepsy, different models of transition, transition of relevant epilepsies, and their management is discussed. PMID:27390536

  8. Prevention Activities for Older Adults: Social Structures and Personal Competencies That Maintain Useful Social Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Kenneth

    1993-01-01

    Presents conceptual reorientation for providing responsive psychological services to older adults, focusing on need to develop prevention programs that encourage maintenance of social roles. Discusses changes in social structures that encourage more active social engagement, with examples from housing options, part-time employment, and ways to…

  9. Delivery of epilepsy care to adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Devinsky, Orrin; Asato, Miya; Camfield, Peter; Geller, Eric; Kanner, Andres M; Keller, Seth; Kerr, Michael; Kossoff, Eric H; Lau, Heather; Kothare, Sanjeev; Singh, Baldev K; Wirrell, Elaine

    2015-10-27

    Epilepsy is common in people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). In adulthood, patients with IDD and epilepsy (IDD-E) have neurologic, psychiatric, medical, and social challenges compounded by fragmented and limited care. With increasing neurologic disability, there is a higher frequency of epilepsy, especially symptomatic generalized and treatment-resistant epilepsies. The causes of IDD-E are increasingly recognized to be genetic based on chromosomal microarray analysis to identify copy number variants, gene panels (epilepsy, autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability), and whole-exome sequencing. A specific genetic diagnosis may guide care by pointing to comorbid disorders and best therapy. Therapy to control seizures should be individualized, with drug selection based on seizure types, epilepsy syndrome, concomitant medications, and comorbid disorders. There are limited comparative antiepileptic drug data in the IDD-E population. Vagus nerve and responsive neural stimulation therapies and resective surgery should be considered. Among the many comorbid disorders that affect patients with IDD-E, psychiatric and sleep disorders are common but often unrecognized and typically not treated. Transition from holistic and coordinated pediatric to adult care is often a vulnerable period. Communication among adult health care providers is complex but essential to ensure best care when these patients are seen in outpatient, emergency room, and inpatient settings. We propose specific recommendations for minimum care standards for people with IDD-E.

  10. Evaluation of a social interaction coaching program in an integrated day-care setting.

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickson, J M; Gardner, N; Kaiser, A; Riley, A

    1993-01-01

    We used a multiple baseline design across teachers (with a reversal phase for 1 teacher) to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of a structured coaching procedure on the teaching behaviors of 3 day-care teachers. Structured coaching preceding daily caregiver routines resulted in (a) substantial increases in adult delivery of behavioral support of social interaction during group activities with 2- and 4-year-old children and (b) marked collateral increases in positive interactions of socially withdrawn children. Long-term maintenance effects were demonstrated by both the teachers and target children, and social validity measures indicated that the teachers rated coaching very positively on several dimensions. The results are discussed in relation to in-service training of day-care staff, the concept of coaching as a setting event, and the dissemination of teaching technology related to social interaction of young children. PMID:8331018

  11. Adult care transitioning for adolescents with special health care needs: a pivotal role for family centered care.

    PubMed

    Duke, Naomi N; Scal, Peter B

    2011-01-01

    To examine the relationship between having a usual source of care, family centered care, and transition counseling for adolescents with special health care needs. Data are from 18,198 parents/guardians, of youth aged 12-17 years, who participated in the 2005-2006 National Survey of Children With Special Health Care Needs. Linear and logistic regression models were used to define relationships between parent report of identification of a usual place and provider of medical care for their child and counseling on four transition issues: transfer to adult providers, review of future health needs, maintaining health insurance in adulthood, and youth taking responsibility for care. The direct mediating effect of family centered care was evaluated. Youth having a usual source of care (vs. not) were more likely to receive counseling on future health needs (47.4 vs. 33.6%, P < 0.001) and taking responsibility for their own care (79.3 vs. 64.4%, P < 0.001). Having a high level of family centered care (vs. low) was also associated with high rates of discussing future health needs (56.3 vs. 39.6%, P < 0.001) and encouragement to take responsibility for care (91.2 vs. 70.3%, P < 0.001). Family centered care mediated 39.1% of the effect of a usual source of care on discussion of future health needs and 94.9% of the effect of a usual source of care on encouragement to take responsibility for care. Study findings support the development of health care delivery models focusing on family centered care to the same degree as other health care access issues.

  12. Social care informatics - the missing partner in ehealth.

    PubMed

    Rigby, Michael; Hill, Penny; Koch, Sabine; Kärki, Jarmo

    2009-01-01

    To the individual, social care can be an essential part of maintaining health, as is reflected by the WHO definition of health as being one of wellbeing. However, health informatics currently narrowly restricts itself to health organizations' activities. Digital records in social care are increasing, raising the need to recognize the area of social care informatics. This new domain needs support and nurture, whilst the delivery of social and related care needs to be harmonized with healthcare delivery. In turn, this raises important new issues as to how to best support the citizen, especially when they are dependent, including issues of information sharing, service co-ordination, sharing of meaning and objectives, and of respect for autonomy.

  13. Social monogamy, male-female relationships, and biparental care in wild titi monkeys (Callicebus discolor).

    PubMed

    Spence-Aizenberg, Andrea; Di Fiore, Anthony; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Titi monkeys (Callicebus spp.) are one of two primate genera that live almost exclusively in groups with one adult-size individual of each sex and exhibit extensive biparental care of offspring. We provide a quantitative description of infant care and pairmate behavior in natural groups of Callicebus discolor that contributes to a limited literature on the behavioral ecology of wild titi monkeys. We collected data during a 3-year period from two social groups living in primary tropical rainforest at the Tiputini Biodiversity Station in Amazonian Ecuador before and after the birth of five infants. In order to evaluate the potential social and energetic costs associated with biparental care of offspring, we examined the relationships between infant care, pairmate behavior, and adult activity budgets. We found that males were almost exclusively responsible for transporting, grooming, sharing food, and playing with infants. As predicted, we found that, following the birth of an infant, adults groomed their partners less, spent less time in contact, and that huddling between pairmates decreased. Contrary to our predictions, after the birth of an infant, females did not increase the time spent feeding, and males did not decrease the time spent moving nor increase their resting time. Overall, our data suggest that the pair may experience social costs during times of intense infant care but that any putative energetic costs associated with infant care are not mitigated by adjusting physical activity. Future studies should investigate energy intake and expenditure, and consider how the variation observed in pairmate social relationships may affect reproductive success.

  14. Social justice: a framework for culturally competent care.

    PubMed

    Clingerman, Evelyn

    2011-10-01

    Nurse scholars with expertise in global health and culturally competent care recently proposed standards of practice for culturally competent nursing care that are founded on social justice as a broad framework. The purpose of this article is to respond to invited dialogue about the standards and to offer commentary on social justice and its relationship with context, advocacy, leadership, and culturally competent care. A model of culturally competent care for vulnerable groups informs this discussion. The context and culture that surround migrant and seasonal farmworkers illustrate how social justice illuminates their health inequities and necessitates their need for culturally competent care. The article concludes with recommendations for culturally competent education, practice, and research and offers suggestions for developing culturally competent interventions for migrant and seasonal farmworkers.

  15. Transition of care from paediatric to adult rheumatology

    PubMed Central

    McDonagh, Janet E

    2007-01-01

    The origin of paediatric rheumatology in the UK mainly lies in adult rheumatology and this has proved invaluable in terms of transition provision, education and training, and collaborative research. The last 5 years have seen adolescent rheumatology gather momentum with the creation of an objective evidence base, a sound foundation for future work addressing the many unanswered questions and hypotheses in the area of transitional care. The aim of this paper is to review the evidence supporting the recent developments in transitional care within rheumatology. Acknowledging the non‐categorical nature of transition, the author will also refer to evidence from other chronic illnesses which has informed these developments. PMID:17715444

  16. Transition of care from paediatric to adult rheumatology.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, Janet E

    2007-09-01

    The origin of paediatric rheumatology in the UK mainly lies in adult rheumatology and this has proved invaluable in terms of transition provision, education and training, and collaborative research. The last 5 years have seen adolescent rheumatology gather momentum with the creation of an objective evidence base, a sound foundation for future work addressing the many unanswered questions and hypotheses in the area of transitional care. The aim of this paper is to review the evidence supporting the recent developments in transitional care within rheumatology. Acknowledging the non-categorical nature of transition, the author will also refer to evidence from other chronic illnesses which has informed these developments.

  17. Care Management's Challenges and Opportunities to Reduce the Rapid Rehospitalization of Frail Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Adam G.; Tewary, Sweta; Dang, Stuti; Roos, Bernard A.

    2010-01-01

    Community-based frail older adults, burdened with complex medical and social needs, are at great risk for preventable rapid rehospitalizations. Although federal and state regulations are in place to address the care transitions between the hospital and nursing home, no such guidelines exist for the much larger population of community-dwelling…

  18. Social models of HIV risk among young adults in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Bulled, Nicola L

    2015-01-01

    Extensive research over the past 30 years has revealed that individual and social determinants impact HIV risk. Even so, prevention efforts focus primarily on individual behaviour change, with little recognition of the dynamic interplay of individual and social environment factors that further exacerbate risk engagement. Drawing on long-term research with young adults in Lesotho, I examine how social environment factors contribute to HIV risk. During preliminary ethnographic analysis, I developed novel scales to measure social control, adoption of modernity, and HIV knowledge. In survey research, I examined the effects of individual characteristics (i.e., socioeconomic status, HIV knowledge, adoption of modernity) and social environment (i.e., social control) on HIV risk behaviours. In addition, I measured the impact of altered environments by taking advantage of an existing situation whereby young adults attending a national college are assigned to either a main campus in a metropolitan setting or a satellite campus in a remote setting, irrespective of the environment in which they were socialised as youth. This arbitrary assignment process generates four distinct groups of young adults with altered or constant environments. Regression models show that lower levels of perceived social control and greater adoption of modernity are associated with HIV risk, controlling for other factors. The impact of social control and modernity varies with environment dynamics.

  19. Socially biased learning among adult cottontop tamarins (Saguinus oedipus).

    PubMed

    Dillis, Christopher; Humle, Tatyana; Snowdon, Charles T

    2010-04-01

    We presented adult cottontop tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) with a novel foraging task that had been used previously to examine socially biased learning of juvenile observers [Humle & Snowdon, Animal Behaviour 75:267-277, 2008]. The task could be solved in one of two ways, and thus allowed for an analysis of behavioral matching between an observer and a skilled demonstrator (trained to use one of the two methods exclusively). Because the demonstrator was an adult in both this study and the juvenile study, the influence of the observer's age could be isolated and examined, as well as the behavior of demonstrators toward observers of different ages. Our main goals were to (1) compare adults and juveniles acquiring the same task to identify how the age of the observer affects socially biased learning and (2) examine the relationship between socially biased learning and behavioral matching in adults. Although adults spent less time observing the trained demonstrators than did juveniles, the adults were more proficient at solving the task. Furthermore, even though observers did not overtly match the behavior of the demonstrator, observation remained an important factor in the success of these individuals. The findings suggested that adult observers could extract information needed to solve a novel foraging task without explicitly matching the behavior of the demonstrator. Adult observers begged much less than juveniles and demonstrators did not respond to begging from adult. Skill acquisition and the process of socially biased learning are, therefore, age-dependent and are influenced by the behavioral interactions between observer and demonstrator. To what extent this holds true for other primates or animal species still needs to be more fully investigated and considered when designing experiments and interpreting results.

  20. Review of the Literature: A Rural-Urban Comparison of Social Networks of Older Adults Living With HIV.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Brittany N; Stacciarini, Jeanne-Marie R

    2016-01-01

    Globally, aging populations and older persons living with HIV (OPLWH) are emerging socioeconomic and health care concerns. Aging adults living in rural communities have less access to and lower utilization of health care services; they rely heavily on available peer and family networks. Although social networks have been linked to positive mental and physical health outcomes, there is a lack of understanding about social networks in rural-dwelling OPLWH. The purpose of this integrative literature review was to compare emerging themes in the social network components of rural versus urban-dwelling OPLWH and network benefits and barriers. Overarching themes include: limited and/or fragile networks, social inclusion versus social isolation, social capital, and health outcomes. Results demonstrate an overall lack of rural-focused research on OPLWH and a universal lack of informal and formal networks due to isolation, lack of health care services, and omnipresent HIV stigma.

  1. How to integrate social care services into primary health care? An experience from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Montazeri, Ali; Riazi-Isfahani, Sahand; Damari, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Social issues have prominent effects on the peoples' physical and mental health and on the health risk factors. In Iran, many organizations provide social care services to their target population. This study aimed to explore the roles and functions of Primary Health Care (PHC) system in providing social care services in Iran. Methods: This was a qualitative study, for which data were collected via three sources: A review of the literature, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with experts and stakeholders. The main objective was to find a way to integrate social care into the Iranian PHC system. A conventional content analysis was performed to explore the data. Results: Overall, 20 experts were interviewed and the acquired data were classified into four major categories including priorities, implementation, requirements and stewardship. The main challenges were the existing controversies in the definition of social care, social service unit disintegration, multiple stewards for social care services, weaknesses of rules and regulations and low financing of the public budget. Social care services can be divided into two categories: Basic and advanced. Urban and rural health centers, as the first level of PHC, could potentially provide basic social care services for their defined population and catchment areas such as detecting social harms in high risk individuals and families and providing counseling for people in need. They can also refer the individuals to receive advanced services. Conclusion: Iran has a successful history of establishing the PHC System especially in rural areas. This network has an invaluable capacity to provide social health services. Establishing these services needs some prerequisites such as a reform PHC structure, macro support and technical intersectoral collaboration. They should also be piloted and evaluated before they could be implemented in the whole country. PMID:27683649

  2. Fetal programming of adult disease: implications for prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Lau, Christopher; Rogers, John M; Desai, Mina; Ross, Michael G

    2011-04-01

    The obesity epidemic, including a marked increase in the prevalence of obesity among pregnant women, represents a critical public health problem in the United States and throughout the world. Over the past two decades, it has been increasingly recognized that the risk of adult health disorders, particularly metabolic syndrome, can be markedly influenced by prenatal and infant environmental exposures (ie, developmental programming). Low birth weight, together with infant catch-up growth, is associated with a significant risk of adult obesity and cardiovascular disease, as well as adverse effects on pulmonary, renal, and cerebral function. Conversely, exposure to maternal obesity or high birth weight also represents an increased risk for childhood and adult obesity. In addition, fetal exposure to select chemicals (eg, phytoestrogens) or environmental pollutants (eg, tobacco smoke) may affect the predisposition to adult disease. Animal models have confirmed human epidemiologic findings and provided insight into putative programming mechanisms, including altered organ development, cellular signaling responses, and epigenetic modifications (ie, control of gene expression without modification of DNA sequence). Prenatal care is transitioning to incorporate goals of optimizing maternal, fetal, and neonatal health to prevent or reduce adult-onset diseases. Guidelines regarding optimal pregnancy nutrition and weight gain, management of low- and high-fetal-weight pregnancies, use of maternal glucocorticoids, and newborn feeding strategies, among others, have yet to fully integrate long-term consequences on adult health.

  3. Social Workers in Home Care: The Israeli Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayalon, Liat; Baum, Nehami

    2010-01-01

    In Israel, the government partially supports personal home care services (grooming, feeding, assistance with transfers) as a means to maintain frail individuals in their home environment for as long as possible. Social workers capture a prominent position in these arrangements as initiators and supervisors of personal home care services. This…

  4. The Ethic of Care: Recapturing Social Work's First Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dybicz, Phillip

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the dynamic between expressions of care--that is, simple acts of kindness and consideration that make up friendly relations--and professional expertise. During the 20th century, social work based its expertise on a solid scientific foundation. Within the embrace of scientific expertise, expressions of care are assigned the…

  5. Social Development of Infants and Toddlers in Japanese Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shigaki, Irene S.

    To examine children's patterns of social interaction in group care, the activities and verbal behavior of 50 preschool children attending 5 Japanese day care centers in metropolitan Tokyo were observed and recorded during a total of 20 minutes of free play for each child. Participants were equally dispersed across five age categories each…

  6. Cost-Benefit Analysis in Social Care for Elderly People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutrenit, Jean-Marc

    2005-01-01

    Social care at home for elderly people is now growing rapidly in France. A new question is, What are better forms of care for the different partners concerned? The research presented here, and made for the Comity of Lille Employment Area with cooperation of the Caisse Primaire d'Assurance Maladiede Lille (the local board of the national social…

  7. Child Care Teachers' Strategies in Children's Socialization of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Hey Jun

    2005-01-01

    An observational study was conducted to examine teachers' emotional socialization strategies in three child care centers. Qualitative analysis of the data suggests that teachers in child care centers respond to children's emotional expressions with various strategies. Teachers clearly expressed a preference for positive emotion through verbal…

  8. Social network types and functional dependency in older adults in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Social networks play a key role in caring for older adults. A better understanding of the characteristics of different social networks types (TSNs) in a given community provides useful information for designing policies to care for this age group. Therefore this study has three objectives: 1) To derive the TSNs among older adults affiliated with the Mexican Institute of Social Security; 2) To describe the main characteristics of the older adults in each TSN, including the instrumental and economic support they receive and their satisfaction with the network; 3) To determine the association between functional dependency and the type of social network. Methods Secondary data analysis of the 2006 Survey of Autonomy and Dependency (N = 3,348). The TSNs were identified using the structural approach and cluster analysis. The association between functional dependency and the TSNs was evaluated with Poisson regression with robust variance analysis in which socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and medical history covariates were included. Results We identified five TSNs: diverse with community participation (12.1%), diverse without community participation (44.3%); widowed (32.0%); nonfriends-restricted (7.6%); nonfamily-restricted (4.0%). Older adults belonging to widowed and restricted networks showed a higher proportion of dependency, negative self-rated health and depression. Older adults with functional dependency more likely belonged to a widowed network (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.5; 95%CI: 1.1-2.1). Conclusion The derived TSNs were similar to those described in developed countries. However, we identified the existence of a diverse network without community participation and a widowed network that have not been previously described. These TSNs and restricted networks represent a potential unmet need of social security affiliates. PMID:20187973

  9. Older adult drivers living in residential care facilities

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Hillary D.; Ginde, Adit A.; Betz, Marian E.

    2015-01-01

    Residential care facilities (RCF) provide assistance to older adults who cannot live independently, but it is unclear whether these residents have retired from driving. Here, we characterize older adults living in RCFs who still drive from a national cross-sectional survey of residents (2010 National Survey of Residential Care Facilities), representing ~733,000 adults living in RCFs such as assisted living facilities and personal care homes. Key resident characteristics were health, function, mobility and community activity indicators, which could be associated with increased driving risk. Of 8,087 residents, 4.5% (95%CI=3.9-5.1) were current drivers. Many drivers were older than 80 years (74%, 95%CI=67-79), in very good health (31%, 95%CI=25-38) or good health (35%, 95%CI=29-42), and had a median of two medical conditions. Most were independent with activities of daily living, though some needed assistance with walking and used gait devices. Given these results, RCF staff and healthcare providers need a heightened awareness of factors associated with driving risk to promote safety of older drivers and provide resources for likely transition to other transportation. PMID:26366125

  10. Sleep characteristics of Veterans Affairs Adult Day Health Care participants.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jaime M; Martin, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Addressing sleep disturbance can help to slow functional decline, delay nursing home admission, and improve overall health among older adults; however, sleep is not widely studied in high-risk older adults such as Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) participants. Sixty-eight ADHC participants were interviewed for sleep disturbance using a 28-item screening questionnaire. More than two thirds (n = 48, 70.6%) reported one or more characteristics of poor sleep, and 38% of participants met basic criteria for insomnia. Individuals with insomnia attended ADHC less frequently, reported worse sleep quality and shorter sleep duration, and were more likely to endorse trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, and waking up too early (ps < 0.001). Research is needed to better understand perceptions, predictors, and outcomes of sleep disturbance within ADHC participants.

  11. Child to adult: transitional care for young adults with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Al-Yateem, Nabeel

    Managing the transitional care needs of young adults with a complex chronic illness such as cystic fibrosis (CF) as they move from a child-orientated to adult setting has been reported in the literature as challenging and stressful, and may impart additional risks to the young person's health. However, in the Republic of Ireland, which has the highest incidence of CF in the world, the current services provided for children during this transitional period are still reported as underdeveloped. The aim of the author's research was to explore and understand the experience of young people before and after their transitional care, and the factors that both contribute to and hinder that experience. A qualitative approach guided by phenomenological tradition, and using in-depth interviews. The findings suggest that there are a range of needs required for patients during this transitional period, including the need for information, interventions that decrease the negative feelings associated with transition (e.g. distress, anxiety, uncertainty), structured service, and an approach to care that focuses on young adults. The author concludes that health professionals in the clinical setting who have responsibility for young adults in transitional care should focus on these needs to provide a more relevant and effective transition service.

  12. Assisting the Adult with a Respiratory Condition: Pharmacology. Care of the Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anoka-Hennepin Area Vocational Technical Inst., MN.

    These two units for students in a practical nursing program provide supplemental instruction, with a focus on pharmacology, in caring for adult patients with a respiratory condition. Unit titles are Antibiotics, and Drugs that Affect the Respiratory System. Each unit contains the following: objectives, an introduction, and five to nine learning…

  13. Stepped care for depression and anxiety in visually impaired older adults: multicentre randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    van Rens, Ger H M B; Comijs, Hannie C; Margrain, Tom H; Gallindo-Garre, Francisca; Twisk, Jos W R; van Nispen, Ruth M A

    2015-01-01

    Study question Is stepped care compared with usual care effective in preventing the onset of major depressive, dysthymic, and anxiety disorders in older people with visual impairment (caused mainly by age related eye disease) and subthreshold depression and/or anxiety? Methods 265 people aged ≥50 were randomly assigned to a stepped care programme plus usual care (n=131) or usual care only (n=134). Supervised occupational therapists, social workers, and psychologists from low vision rehabilitation organisations delivered the stepped care programme, which comprised watchful waiting, guided self help based on cognitive behavioural therapy, problem solving treatment, and referral to a general practitioner. The primary outcome was the 24 month cumulative incidence (seven measurements) of major depressive dysthymic and/or anxiety disorders (panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, and generalised anxiety disorder). Secondary outcomes were change in symptoms of depression and anxiety, vision related quality of life, health related quality of life, and adaptation to vision loss over time up to 24 months’ follow-up. Study answer and limitations 62 participants (46%) in the usual care group and 38 participants (29%) from the stepped care group developed a disorder. The intervention was associated with a significantly reduced incidence (relative risk 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.45 to 0.87; P=0.01), even if time to the event was taken into account (adjusted hazard ratio 0.57, 0.35 to 0.93; P=0.02). The number needed to treat was 5.8 (3.5 to 17.3). The dropout rate was fairly high (34.3%), but rates were not significantly different for the two groups, indicating that the intervention was as acceptable as usual care. Participants who volunteered and were selected for this study might not be representative of visually impaired older adults in general (responders were significantly younger than non-responders), thereby reducing the generalisability of the outcomes. What

  14. Quality of Care: Expanding the Social Work Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megivern, Deborah M.; McMillen, J. Curtis; Proctor, Enola K.; Striley, Catherine L. W.; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Munson, Michelle R.

    2007-01-01

    For social work practitioners to engage fully in efforts designed to improve the quality of social services, they need to understand what is meant by quality of care, grapple with its complexity, and know how to identify and leverage the key factors most likely to influence it. This article introduces a conceptual model that articulates numerous…

  15. Social Workers' Role in the Canadian Mental Health Care System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towns, Ashley M.; Schwartz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Using Canadian survey data this research provides social workers in Canada with a better understanding of their role in the Canadian mental health care system. Methods: By analyzing data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 Mental Health and Well-being, the role of social workers in the Canadian mental health system was…

  16. Transitioning from pediatric care to adult care for adolescents with special health care needs: dentist perspectives (part 2)

    PubMed Central

    Bayarsaikhan, Zoljargal; Cruz, Stephanie; Neff, John; Chi, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To understand dental care transitions for adolescents with special health care needs (ASHCN) from the dentist perspective. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with 13 dentists (seven pediatric dentists and six general dentists) to learn about the dental transition process for ASHCN. Results Most dentists believed transitions from child-centered to adult-centered dental care were important for ASHCN. Dentists reported two main barriers to transitions: low dental reimbursements by Medicaid and a shortage of general dentists qualified or willing to treat ASHCN. Pediatric and general dentists reported playing complimentary roles in facilitating transitions for ASHCN and their families. Conclusions Dentists acknowledged the challenges that ASHCN and their families face in transitioning to adult-centered care and believed in the importance of ASHCN maintaining a dental home. Pediatric dentists and general dentists play a key role in working together to implement dental transition plans for the ASHCN and to ensure successful dental transitions. PMID:26531088

  17. Evaluation of quality in social care: aplus program.

    PubMed

    Dutrénit, Jean-Marc

    2005-10-01

    France is not advanced regarding evaluation in social work, despite a law established in January 2002 making evaluation a legal obligation every 5 years. This article presents a software program to help social services evaluate on both individual and group levels. Automatic dashboard results of the program with special emphasis on the main qualities social work would usually present reciprocity and social competence, client ability development, and social care treatment components. The last point is an automatic selection of most efficient treatment components of ability development.

  18. The social worker. A member of the primary care team?

    PubMed

    Falloon, D

    1998-12-01

    The primary health care team at present does not include social workers as routine members. If however, we, accept the World Health Organization definition of health, which includes social well being, then it follows that the social worker should be considered as a member of the health team to attend to this aspect of health in the service delivery mix. This paper presents the experience of a social worker assigned to the August Town/Hermitage Type III health centre during the period March 1995 to February 1996 and her contribution to patient welfare. The expected roles of the social worker and his or her contribution to the health team are outlined.

  19. Social security income and the utilization of home care: Evidence from the social security notch.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yuping

    2015-09-01

    This paper exploits Social Security law changes to identify the effect of Social Security income on the use of formal and informal home care by the elderly. Results from an instrumental variables estimation strategy show that as retirement income increases, elderly individuals increase their use of formal home care and become less likely to rely on informal home care provided to them by their children. This negative effect on informal home care is most likely driven by male children withdrawing from their caregiving roles. The empirical results also suggest that higher Social Security benefits would encourage the use of formal home care by those who would not have otherwise used any type of home care and would also encourage the use of both types of home care services among elderly individuals.

  20. The Social Connectedness of Older Adults: A National Profile*

    PubMed

    Cornwell, Benjamin; Laumann, Edward O; Schumm, L Philip

    2008-01-01

    For decades, scholars have wrestled with the notion that old age is characterized by social isolation. However, there has been no systematic, nationally representative evaluation of this possibility in terms of social network connectedness. In this paper, the authors develop a profile of older adults' social integration with respect to nine dimensions of connectedness to interpersonal networks and voluntary associations. The authors use new data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), a population-based study of non-institutionalized older Americans aged 57-85 conducted in 2005-2006. Findings suggest that among older adults, age is negatively related to network size, closeness to network members, and number of non-primary-group ties. On the other hand, age is positively related to frequency of socializing with neighbors, religious participation, and volunteering. In addition, it has a U-shaped relationship with volume of contact with network members. These findings are inconsistent with the notion that old age has a universal negative influence on social connectedness. Instead, life course factors have divergent consequences for different forms of social connectedness. Some later life transitions, like retirement and bereavement, may prompt greater connectedness. The authors close by urging increased dialogue between social gerontological and social network research.

  1. Collaborative Care for Older Adults (COCOA), Palmer College of Chiropractic.

    PubMed

    Goertz, Christine; Lyons, Stacie Salsbury; Andresen, Andrew; Hondras, Maria; Jones, Mark; Killinger, Lisa Zaynab; Long, Cynthia; Lyons, Kevin; Mulhausen, Paul; Vining, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Integrative medicine (IM) is a subset of interprofessional health care that seeks to join the knowledge and practices of various allopathic and complementary and alternative medicine disciplines in an attempt to offer cost-effective and clinically significant healthcare options for persons with acute or chronic illnesses. Although touted as a means for improving health outcomes and patient satisfaction while possibly lowering costs, further scientific evidence regarding the utility of IM approaches to health services delivery is needed. Collaborative Care for Older Adults (COCOA) is a chiropractic demonstration project that brings together an interdisciplinary team of researchers and clinicians from the Palmer Center for Chiropractic Research, Genesis Quad Cities Family Practice Residency, The University of Iowa, and Thomas Jefferson University to study the impact of a model of interprofessional education on geriatric health care. The Health Resources and Services Administration funded COCOA in 2009 to further develop and assess a patient-centered care model for the treatment of low back pain in older adults that uses a team-based approach between medical doctors and doctors of chiropractic.

  2. Social disconnectedness, perceived isolation, and health among older adults.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, Erin York; Waite, Linda J

    2009-03-01

    Previous research has identified a wide range of indicators of social isolation that pose health risks, including living alone, having a small social network, infrequent participation in social activities, and feelings of loneliness. However multiple forms of isolation are rarely studied together making it difficult to determine which aspects of isolation are most deleterious for health. Using population-based data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, we combine multiple indicators of social isolation into scales assessing social disconnectedness (e.g., small social network, infrequent participation in social activities) and perceived isolation (e.g., loneliness, perceived lack of social support). We examine the extent to which social disconnectedness and perceived isolation have distinct associations with physical and mental health among older adults. Results indicate that social disconnectedness and perceived isolation are independently associated with lower levels of self-rated physical health. However, the association between disconnectedness and mental health may operate through the strong relationship between perceived isolation and mental health. We conclude that health researchers need to consider social disconnectedness and perceived isolation simultaneously.

  3. Social Disconnectedness, Perceived Isolation, and Health among Older Adults*

    PubMed Central

    CORNWELL, ERIN YORK; WAITE, LINDA J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has identified a wide range of indicators of social isolation that pose health risks, including living alone, having a small social network, infrequent participation in social activities, and feelings of loneliness. However, multiple forms of isolation are rarely studied together, making it difficult to determine which aspects of isolation are most deleterious for health. Using population-based data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, we combine multiple indicators of social isolation into scales assessing social disconnectedness (e.g., small social network, infrequent participation in social activities) and perceived isolation (e.g., loneliness, perceived lack of social support). We examine the extent to which social disconnectedness and perceived isolation have distinct associations with physical and mental health among older adults. Results indicate that social disconnectedness and perceived isolation are independently associated with lower levels of self-rated physical health. However, the association between disconnectedness and mental health may operate through the strong relationship between perceived isolation and mental health. We conclude that health researchers need to consider social disconnectedness and perceived isolation simultaneously. PMID:19413133

  4. Predicting Homelessness among Emerging Adults Aging Out of Foster Care.

    PubMed

    Shah, Melissa Ford; Liu, Qinghua; Mark Eddy, J; Barkan, Susan; Marshall, David; Mancuso, David; Lucenko, Barbara; Huber, Alice

    2016-11-10

    This study examines risk and protective factors associated with experiencing homelessness in the year after "aging out" of foster care. Using a state-level integrated administrative database, we identified 1,202 emerging adults in Washington State who exited foster care between July 2010 and June 2012. Initial bivariate analyses were conducted to assess the association between candidate predictive factors and an indicator of homelessness in a 12-month follow-up period. After deploying a stepwise regression process, the final logistic regression model included 15 predictive factors. Youth who were parents, who had recently experienced housing instability, or who were African American had approximately twice the odds of experiencing homelessness in the year after exiting foster care. In addition, youth who had experienced disrupted adoptions, had multiple foster care placements (especially in congregate care settings), or had been involved with the juvenile justice system were more likely to become homeless. In contrast, youth were less likely to experience homelessness if they had ever been placed with a relative while in foster care or had a high cumulative grade point average relative to their peers.

  5. Social Inclusion of Adults with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord, Vicki, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This feature issue presents articles on the social inclusion of people with developmental disabilities into the community and also some related news items. This issue provides profiles of organizations, workplaces, and schools that are successfully integrating people with developmental disabilities into community activities. The articles are:…

  6. Use of Adult Day Care Centers: Do They Offset Utilization of Health Care Services?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iecovich, Esther; Biderman, Aya

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Based on the medical offset effect, the goal of the study was to examine the extent to which users and nonusers of adult day care centers (ADCC) differ in frequency of use of out-patient health services (visits to specialists) and in-patient health services (number of hospital admissions, length of hospitalizations, and visits to…

  7. Health care social media: engagement and health care in the digital era.

    PubMed

    Aase, Lee; Timimi, Farris K

    2013-09-01

    Health care as an industry continues in reluctant participation with consumers through social networks. Factors behind health care's laggard position range from providers' concerns about patient privacy and lack of personal psychic bandwidth to organizational anxiety about employee time management and liability for online behavior. Despite these concerns, our patients are spending increasing amounts of their time online, often looking for information regarding their diagnosis, treatment, care providers, and hospitals, with much of that time spent in social networks. Our real opportunity for meaningful engagement in the future may depend on our capacity to meet our patients where they are, online, utilizing the tools that they use, that is, social media.

  8. Gaps in the evidence on improving social care outcomes: findings from a meta-review of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Kelly; Sutcliffe, Katy; Rees, Rebecca; Thomas, James

    2015-10-26

    Adult social care continues to be a central policy concern in the UK. The Adult Social Care Outcomes Framework (ASCOF) is a range of measures nationally available to drive forward improvement on outcomes and quality in local councils. While there is an emphasis on improving transparency, quality and outcomes, drawing on research evidence to achieve these aims is often difficult because the evidence is not easily identifiable, is disparate or of variable quality. We conducted a meta-review to analyse and summarise systematic review-level evidence on the impact of interventions on the four outcomes set out in the ASCOF: quality of life, delaying and reducing the need for services, satisfaction with services and safeguarding of vulnerable adults. This paper focuses on the availability of review-level evidence and the presence of significant gaps in this evidence base. A range of health and social care databases were searched, including MEDLINE, ASSIA and The Cochrane Library in January and February 2012. All systematic reviews evaluating the efficacy of social care interventions for improving ASCOF outcomes for older people, people with long-term conditions, mental health problems or physical and/or learning disabilities were eligible. Two reviewers independently screened systematic reviews for quality and relevance and extracted data; 43 systematic reviews were included, the majority of which examined the impact of interventions on quality of life (n = 34) and delaying and reducing the need for support (n = 25). Limited systematic review-level evidence was found regarding satisfaction with services and safeguarding. There were also significant gaps in relation to key social care interventions and population groups. Research priorities include addressing these gaps and the collation of data on interventions, outcomes and populations more closely related to social care. Overall, a more relevant, comprehensive and robust evidence base is required to support

  9. Social relevance enhances memory for impressions in older adults.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Brittany S; Gutchess, Angela H

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that older adults have difficulty retrieving contextual material over items alone. Recent research suggests this deficit can be reduced by adding emotional context, allowing for the possibility that memory for social impressions may show less age-related decline than memory for other types of contextual information. Two studies investigated how orienting to social or self-relevant aspects of information contributed to the learning and retrieval of impressions in young and older adults. Participants encoded impressions of others in conditions varying in the use of self-reference (Experiment 1) and interpersonal meaningfulness (Experiment 2), and completed memory tasks requiring the retrieval of specific traits. For both experiments, age groups remembered similar numbers of impressions. In Experiment 1 using more self-relevant encoding contexts increased memory for impressions over orienting to stimuli in a non-social way, regardless of age. In Experiment 2 older adults had enhanced memory for impressions presented in an interpersonally meaningful relative to a personally irrelevant way, whereas young adults were unaffected by this manipulation. The results provide evidence that increasing social relevance ameliorates age differences in memory for impressions, and enhances older adults' ability to successfully retrieve contextual information.

  10. [The development of organization of medical social care of adolescents].

    PubMed

    Chicherin, L P; Nagaev, R Ia

    2014-01-01

    The model of the subject of the Russian Federation is used to consider means of development of health protection and health promotion in adolescents including implementation of the National strategy of activities in interest of children for 2012-2017 approved by decree No761 of the President of Russia in June 1 2012. The analysis is carried out concerning organization of medical social care to this group of population in medical institutions and organizations of different type in the Republic of Bashkortostan. Nowadays, in 29 territories medical social departments and rooms, 5 specialized health centers for children, 6 clinics friendly to youth are organized. The analysis of manpower support demonstrates that in spite of increasing of number of rooms and departments of medical social care for children and adolescents decreasing of staff jobs both of medical personnel and psychologists and social workers occurs. The differences in priorities of functioning of departments and rooms of medical social care under children polyclinics, health centers for children and clinics friendly to youth are established. The questionnaire survey of pediatricians and adolescents concerning perspectives of development of adolescent service established significant need in development of specialized complex center. At the basis of such center problems of medical, pedagogical, social, psychological, legal profile related to specific characteristics of development and medical social needs of adolescents can be resolved. The article demonstrates organizational form of unification on the functional basis of the department of medical social care of children polyclinic and clinic friendly to youth. During three years, number of visits of adolescents to specialists of the center increases and this testifies awareness of adolescents and youth about activities of department of medical social care. The most percentage of visits of adolescents to specialists was made with prevention purpose. Among

  11. Rehospitalization of Older Adults Discharged to Home Hospice Care

    PubMed Central

    Goldenheim, Anna; Oates, Daniel; Parker, Victoria; Russell, Matthew; Winter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Acute hospital readmission of older adults receiving hospice care is not aligned with hospice goals. Objective: To identify factors associated with 30-day readmission among older adults newly discharged to hospice. Design/Subjects: Medical record review of 59 patients, 19 readmitted within 30 days and 40 randomly selected controls not readmitted, from 206 patients newly discharged to home hospice care between February 1, 2005 and January 31, 2010. Measures/Analysis: Information was collected about hospital course, end-of-life planning, and posthospitalization follow-up. We calculated bivariate associations and developed a Cox Proportional Hazards model examining the relation between index admission characteristics and readmission. Results: Patients' mean age was 79.7±8.4; 74.6% were female; 52.5% were black. Among those readmitted, 25% had received a palliative care consultation, compared to 47.1% of those not readmitted (p=0.06). Patients without a participating decision-maker involved in their hospice decision had 3.5 times the risk of readmission within 30 days, compared to those with (hazard ratio [HR] 3.53, confidence interval [CI] 0.97, 12.82). Patients who had one or more telephone contacts with their primary care physician (PCP) during week 1 after discharge had 2.4 times the readmission risk within 30 days, compared to patients with no such contacts during this period (HR 2.35, CI 0.9, 6.1). Conclusions: Readmission within 30 days of initial discharge to hospice is associated with several measures of care and care planning. Further study of these measures may identify opportunities for interventions to improve the hospital-to-hospice transition and to decrease hospital readmissions. PMID:24708490

  12. Caring for nanotechnology? Being an integrated social scientist.

    PubMed

    Viseu, Ana

    2015-10-01

    One of the most significant shifts in science policy of the past three decades is a concern with extending scientific practice to include a role for 'society'. Recently, this has led to legislative calls for the integration of the social sciences and humanities in publicly funded research and development initiatives. In nanotechnology--integration's primary field site--this policy has institutionalized the practice of hiring social scientists in technical facilities. Increasingly mainstream, the workings and results of this integration mechanism remain understudied. In this article, I build upon my three-year experience as the in-house social scientist at the Cornell NanoScale Facility and the United States' National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network to engage empirically and conceptually with this mode of governance in nanotechnology. From the vantage point of the integrated social scientist, I argue that in its current enactment, integration emerges as a particular kind of care work, with social scientists being fashioned as the main caretakers. Examining integration as a type of care practice and as a 'matter of care' allows me to highlight the often invisible, existential, epistemic, and affective costs of care as governance. Illuminating a framework where social scientists are called upon to observe but not disturb, to reify boundaries rather than blur them, this article serves as a word of caution against integration as a novel mode of governance that seemingly privileges situatedness, care, and entanglement, moving us toward an analytically skeptical (but not dismissive) perspective on integration.

  13. New constitutionalism and the social reproduction of caring institutions.

    PubMed

    Gill, Stephen; Bakker, Isabella

    2006-01-01

    This essay analyzes neo-liberal economic agreements and legal and political frameworks or what has been called the "new constitutionalism," a governance framework that empowers market forces to reshape economic and social development worldwide. The article highlights some consequences of new constitutionalism for caring institutions specifically, and for what feminists call social reproduction more generally: the biological reproduction of the species; the reproduction of labor power; and the reproduction of social institutions and processes associated with the creation and maintenance of communities. New constitutional governance frameworks fundamentally reshape conditions under which the care of human beings takes place. Caring institutions once governed by enabling professions geared to universal care are now determined increasingly by market values and private forces, and driven directly by the profit motive. This is one of the reasons why neo-liberalism is increasingly contested in both the North and the global South.

  14. Innovations to support hydration care across health and social care.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the primary cause of dehydration in elderly care is caused by a person not regularly drinking enough. Dehydration is a much-publicised national concern, associated with poor outcomes of care and acute hospital admissions. However, in November last year, NHS England stated that the scale of dehydration is not known; in comparison, it confirmed at least three million people are at risk of malnutrition. The stark comparison in information occurs because there is no nationally recognised screening tool to identify who is at risk of dehydration. An innovative nursing role, focused on finding solutions to reduce the risk of dehydration in the care of older and vulnerable persons, has led to the development of a simple dehydration screening tool called 'ROC to drink' (ROC stands for 'reliance on a carer'), which focuses on the level of support needed to drink. An innovative tea cup has been designed to help raise standards for monitoring drinks and raise awareness about intake.

  15. Threading the cloak: palliative care education for care providers of adolescents and young adults with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, Lori; Weaver, Meaghann Shaw; Bell, Cynthia J; Sansom-Daly, Ursula M

    2015-01-01

    Medical providers are trained to investigate, diagnose, and treat cancer. Their primary goal is to maximize the chances of curing the patient, with less training provided on palliative care concepts and the unique developmental needs inherent in this population. Early, systematic integration of palliative care into standard oncology practice represents a valuable, imperative approach to improving the overall cancer experience for adolescents and young adults (AYAs). The importance of competent, confident, and compassionate providers for AYAs warrants the development of effective educational strategies for teaching AYA palliative care. Just as palliative care should be integrated early in the disease trajectory of AYA patients, palliative care training should be integrated early in professional development of trainees. As the AYA age spectrum represents sequential transitions through developmental stages, trainees experience changes in their learning needs during their progression through sequential phases of training. This article reviews unique epidemiologic, developmental, and psychosocial factors that make the provision of palliative care especially challenging in AYAs. A conceptual framework is provided for AYA palliative care education. Critical instructional strategies including experiential learning, group didactic opportunity, shared learning among care disciplines, bereaved family members as educators, and online learning are reviewed. Educational issues for provider training are addressed from the perspective of the trainer, trainee, and AYA. Goals and objectives for an AYA palliative care cancer rotation are presented. Guidance is also provided on ways to support an AYA's quality of life as end of life nears. PMID:25750863

  16. Preparing social work students to work with grandparents in kinship care: an approach to infusion of content materials into selected core social work courses.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Dalzine, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Grandparents in kinship care represent an expanding population of older adults assuming primary parenting responsibilities for their grandchildren at a time when many grandparents may also be experiencing developmental changes accompanying their own aging process. Research documents a lack of social workers prepared to respond to the needs of an aging population in general, and grandparents in kinship care in particular, as curricular content on this population has been limited in undergraduate and graduate social work programs. This article describes an infusion model proposed for an undergraduate social work program's GeroRich Project designed to introduce content on an aging population in four foundation courses to expand students' knowledge of older adults and grandparents as kinship care providers.

  17. Addressing Structural Barriers to HIV Care among Triply Diagnosed Adults: Project Bridge Oakland.

    PubMed

    Powers, Christina; Comfort, Megan; Lopez, Andrea M; Kral, Alex H; Murdoch, Owen; Lorvick, Jennifer

    2017-03-14

    People who are "triply diagnosed" with HIV, mental health issues, and substance-related disorders face tremendous barriers connecting to and remaining in HIV care. Authors of this article implemented Project Bridge Oakland (PBO), an intervention based on harm reduction and trauma-informed care, to help maintain continuity of care for triply diagnosed adults through cycles of criminal justice involvement. From August 2011 to December 2014, a clinical social worker and an HIV physician provided intensive case management for 19 clients living in Oakland, California. By working with clients across a multitude of community, clinic, and correctional spaces while maintaining a low threshold for services, the social worker was able to engage a severely marginalized population in HIV care. This article details the PBO strategies for assisting with a wide range of services needed for community stabilization, navigating criminal justice involvement, and establishing a therapeutic relationship through mundane practices such as eating and waiting for appointments. This article illustrates how programs aimed at stabilizing triply diagnosed clients in the community and connecting them to HIV care require coordination among providers, outreach to engage clients, ample time to work with them, and flexibility to account for the complexities of their day-to-day lives and experiences.

  18. Associations between social network characteristics, cognitive function, and quality of life among residents in a dementia special care unit: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Katherine M; Pachucki, Mark C

    2016-02-09

    Social integration has a significant influence on physical and mental health. Older adults experience an increased risk of social isolation as their social networks contract. The purpose of this study is to examine associations between dementia special care unit residents' overall well-being and cognition with structural aspects of their coresident relationships.

  19. Social support and depression of adults with visual impairments.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Papakonstantinou, Doxa; Montgomery, Anthony; Solomou, Argyro

    2014-07-01

    Relatively little research exists with regard to the relationship between social support and depression among adults with visual impairments. Such a gap is noteworthy when one considers that individuals become more dependent on others as they enter middle and late adulthood. The present research will examine the association between social networks, social support and depression among adults with visual impairments. Seventy-seven adults with visual impairments participated in the study. Depression, social network and emotional/practical social support were measured with self-report measures. Additionally, the degree to which emotional/practical social support received were positive or negative and the ability of respondents to self-manage their daily living were assessed. Less than a third of respondents scored above the threshold for depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were not related to gender or vision status. Depression was correlated with age, educational level, less positive practical support, more negative practical support and more negative emotional support, with lower perceptions of self-management representing the most robust predictor of depression. Age moderated the relationship between depression and self-management, and between depression and negative emotional support. Lower perceptions of self-management and negative emotional support were significantly associated with depressive symptoms.

  20. Social capital and health among older adults in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about social capital and health among older adults in South Africa. This study investigates the association between social capital and several health variables, namely: self-rated health, depressive symptoms, cognitive functioning and physical inactivity, among older South Africans. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a national probability sample of 3840 individuals aged 50 years or older who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE wave 1) in 2008 in South Africa. Measures included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, cognitive functioning and physical activity. Social capital was assessed with six components, namely: marital status, social action, sociability, trust and solidarity, safety, and civic engagement. Results The social capital assessment revealed that 56% of the respondents were married or cohabiting, 45% reported low (0) social action, 42% reported medium (2–3) sociability, 43% reported high (2) trust and solidarity, 50% reported high (2–4) civic engagement and 42% reported medium (6) psychological resources. In multivariate analysis, self-reported good health was associated with younger age, having secondary education and higher social capital (being married or cohabiting, high trust and solidarity and greater psychological resources). Depressive symptoms were associated with lower social capital (not being married or cohabiting, lack of high trust and solidarity and low psychological resources). Better cognitive functioning was associated with younger age, higher educational level, greater wealth and higher social capital (being married or cohabiting, high trust and solidarity, lack of safety, higher civic engagement and greater psychological resources). Physical inactivity was associated with older age and lower social capital (lower social action, lack of safety, lower civic engagement and poorer psychological resources). Conclusions

  1. Social influence in child care centers: a test of the theory of normative social behavior.

    PubMed

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Anderson, Jenn; Shugart, Alicia; Todd, Ewen

    2014-01-01

    Child care centers are a unique context for studying communication about the social and personal expectations about health behaviors. The theory of normative social behavior (TNSB; Rimal & Real, 2005 ) provides a framework for testing the role of social and psychological influences on handwashing behaviors among child care workers. A cross-sectional survey of child care workers in 21 centers indicates that outcome expectations and group identity increase the strength of the relationship between descriptive norms and handwashing behavior. Injunctive norms also moderate the effect of descriptive norms on handwashing behavior such that when strong injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are positively related to handwashing, but when weak injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are negatively related to handwashing. The findings suggest that communication interventions in child care centers can focus on strengthening injunctive norms in order to increase handwashing behaviors in child care centers. The findings also suggest that the theory of normative social behavior can be useful in organizational contexts.

  2. Pharmacogenetics, race, and ethnicity: social identities and individualized medical care.

    PubMed

    Foster, M W; Sharp, R R; Mulvihill, J J

    2001-06-01

    Social categories such as race and ethnicity have long been used in interpreting patient symptoms, diagnosing disease, and predicting therapeutic response. DNA-based diagnostic tests and pharmacogenetic screens could make these uses of social categories largely irrelevant by allowing clinicians to base diagnosis and treatment decisions on the unique genetic features of individual patients. Despite this attractive vision of individualized care, however, social categories are likely to continue playing a significant role in the coming era of genetic medicine. Current uses of social categories in pharmacogenetic research, for example, illustrate how drug development and marketing will perpetuate the use of social categories such as race and ethnicity. Those uses may unintentionally blunt the precision of genetic technologies and pose new threats to socially identifiable populations. These implications suggest the need for greater caution in using social categories as indicators for specific tests or therapies and for federal legislation to protect against discriminatory uses of individuals' genetic information. In addition, more precise social classifications than those presently in use may allow us to realize the full potential of DNA-based technologies, thus minimizing social disparities in health care. Those more precise social classifications should reflect extended patient pedigrees and not the self-reported claims of racial and/or ethnic affiliation.

  3. Social norms and its correlates as a pathway to smoking among young Latino adults

    PubMed Central

    Echeverría, Sandra E.; Gundersen, Daniel A.; Manderski, Michelle T.B.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2014-01-01

    Socially and culturally embedded norms regarding smoking may be one pathway by which individuals adopt smoking behaviors. However, few studies have examined if social norms operate in young adults, a population at high risk of becoming regular smokers. There is also little research examining correlates of social norms in populations with a large immigrant segment, where social norms are likely to differ from the receiving country and could contribute to a better understanding of previously reported acculturation-health associations. Using data from a nationally representative sample of young adults in the United States reached via a novel cell-phone sampling design, we explored the relationships between acculturation proxies (nativity, language spoken and generational status), socioeconomic position (SEP), smoking social norms and current smoking status among Latinos 18–34 years of age (n=873). Specifically, we examined if a measure of injunctive norms assessed by asking participants about the acceptability of smoking among Latino co-ethnic peers was associated with acculturation proxies and SEP. Results showed a strong gradient in smoking social norms by acculturation proxies, with significantly less acceptance of smoking reported among the foreign-born and increasing acceptance among those speaking only/ mostly English at home and third-generation individuals. No consistent and significant pattern in smoking social norms was observed by education, income or employment status, possibly due to the age of the study population. Lastly, those who reported that their Latino peers do not find smoking acceptable were significantly less likely to be current smokers compared to those who said their Latino peers were ambivalent about smoking (do not care either way) in crude models, and in models that adjusted for age, sex, generational status, language spoken, and SEP. This study provides new evidence regarding the role of social norms in shaping smoking behaviors among

  4. Social norms and its correlates as a pathway to smoking among young Latino adults.

    PubMed

    Echeverría, Sandra E; Gundersen, Daniel A; Manderski, Michelle T B; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2015-01-01

    Socially and culturally embedded norms regarding smoking may be one pathway by which individuals adopt smoking behaviors. However, few studies have examined if social norms operate in young adults, a population at high risk of becoming regular smokers. There is also little research examining correlates of social norms in populations with a large immigrant segment, where social norms are likely to differ from the receiving country and could contribute to a better understanding of previously reported acculturation-health associations. Using data from a nationally representative sample of young adults in the United States reached via a novel cell-phone sampling design, we explored the relationships between acculturation proxies (nativity, language spoken and generational status), socioeconomic position (SEP), smoking social norms and current smoking status among Latinos 18-34 years of age (n = 873). Specifically, we examined if a measure of injunctive norms assessed by asking participants about the acceptability of smoking among Latino co-ethnic peers was associated with acculturation proxies and SEP. Results showed a strong gradient in smoking social norms by acculturation proxies, with significantly less acceptance of smoking reported among the foreign-born and increasing acceptance among those speaking only/mostly English at home and third-generation individuals. No consistent and significant pattern in smoking social norms was observed by education, income or employment status, possibly due to the age of the study population. Lastly, those who reported that their Latino peers do not find smoking acceptable were significantly less likely to be current smokers compared to those who said their Latino peers were ambivalent about smoking (do not care either way) in crude models, and in models that adjusted for age, sex, generational status, language spoken, and SEP. This study provides new evidence regarding the role of social norms in shaping smoking behaviors among

  5. Disabled adults in adult care facilities facing disasters in New York City: an aggregate assessment.

    PubMed

    Maja-Schultz, Theresa; Swain, Bara

    2012-01-01

    Disabled adults who reside in adult care facilities (ACFs) are an at-risk population in the event of an emergency or disaster. This aggregate requires housing in congregate residential settings due to frailty, function, and/or cognitive impairments. All senior residents need long-term assistance to maintain maximum independence, including 24-hr on-site monitoring, case management, and personal care services such as eating, toileting, transferring, bathing, and dressing. Twenty-five percent of this special population of older adults has psychiatric disabilities and nonmental health comorbidities (Caron et al, 2008). Through a literature search, the challenges and risks of this aggregate in the event of a naturally occurring or manmade emergency, including epidemiological and environmental risks, are identified. Evidence-based literature reveals that the foundation of an effective emergency response and recovery is planning and preparation. Lessons learned from past disasters in the United States have brought attention to the needs of disabled and chronically ill older adults. Developing partnerships, improving communication systems, identifying emergency shelters for disabled adults, and empowering ACF residents and staff through education are recommended with the universal goal of reducing injury, preventing or controlling illness, and saving lives. An innovative educational program utilizing Hybrid Modality is outlined in this article including planning, coalition building, and the use of mapping systems as tools and strategies to improve outcomes. Resources such as local, state, and federal agencies; consumer groups; and trade associations are referenced for accessibility.

  6. Negative Social Interactions and Incident Hypertension Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sneed, Rodlescia S.; Cohen, Sheldon

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if negative social interactions are prospectively associated with hypertension among older adults. Methods This is a secondary analysis of data from the 2006 and 2010 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, a survey of community-dwelling older adults (age >50). Total average negative social interactions were assessed at baseline by averaging the frequency of negative interactions across four domains (partner, children, other family, friends). Blood pressure was measured at both waves. Individuals were considered to have hypertension if they reported use of antihypertensive medications, had measured average resting systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, or measured average resting diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg. Analyses excluded those hypertensive at baseline and controlled for demographics, personality, positive social interactions, and baseline health. Results Twenty-nine percent of participants developed hypertension over the four-year follow-up. Each one-unit increase in the total average negative social interaction score was associated with a 38% increased odds of developing hypertension. Sex moderated the association between total average negative social interactions and hypertension, with effects observed among women but not men. The association of total average negative interactions and hypertension in women was attributable primarily to interactions with friends, but also to negative interactions with family and partners. Age also moderated the association between total average negative social interactions and hypertension, with effects observed among those ages 51–64, but not those ages ≥65. Conclusion In this sample of older adults, negative social interactions were associated with increased hypertension risk in women and the youngest older adults. PMID:24884909

  7. Access to Technology in Transnational Social Fields: Simultaneity and Digital Literacy Socialization of Adult Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nogueron-Liu, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Some studies of technology use by immigrants have explored the role of digital media in their maintenance of affiliations with their nations of origin. However, the potential for transnational social networks to serve as "resources" that facilitate digital literacy socialization for adult immigrant learners remains unexplored. In this…

  8. "'I Am Canada': Exploring Social Responsibility in Social Studies Using Young Adult Historical Fiction"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Todd A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores educating for democratic citizenship with a focus on the intersection between reading and values, specifically the nurturing of social responsibility. Using a pre-designed framework for teaching for social responsibility, excerpts from a young adult historical fiction series are used to consider learning possibilities in the…

  9. Care of the Older Adult in the Emergency Department: Nurses Views of the Pressing Issues

    PubMed Central

    Boltz, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to describe nurses’ views of the issues to be addressed to improve care of the older adult in the emergency department (ED). Design and Methods: An exploratory content analysis examined the qualitative responses of 527 registered nurses from 49U.S. hospitals who completed the Geriatric Institutional Profile. Results: 5 central themes emerged from the analysis, representing a lack of older personhospital environment fit in the ED: (a) respect for the older adult and carers, (b) correct and best procedures and treatment, (c) time and staff to do things right, (d) transitions, and (e) a safe and enabling environment. The nurses offered solutions to address lack of fit, including modifications to the social climate, policies and procedures, care systems and processes, and physical design. Implications: The nurses’ descriptions of the pressing issues surrounding care of older adults in the ED provide useful information to consider when developing a senior-friendly ED. Results also illuminate solutions that can be taken to address issues. These solutions give direction for future intervention research. PMID:23442380

  10. Personality, negative social exchanges, and physical health among bereaved adults

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Nicole M; Henrie, James A; Patrick, Julie Hicks

    2016-01-01

    While much research has investigated the association between personality and health, little research has done so using a bereaved sample. Additionally, little research has investigated how personality influences the frequency of negative social exchanges bereaved individuals receive. This study utilized a structural equation model to investigate the associations among age, gender, personality, negative social exchanges, length of bereavement, and self-reported physical health in a sample of bereaved adults. Results indicated that personality was associated with negative social exchanges and physical health. Therefore, these variables are important and should be studied further in this context. PMID:28070398

  11. Examining Online Teaching, Cognitive, and Social Presence for Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ke, Fengfeng

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on the Community of Inquiry model (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000), this mixed-method case study examined the nature and interactions of teaching, cognitive, and social presence created by online instructors and adult students in diverse course contexts. The study results indicated online instructional design and teaching elements that…

  12. Legitimacy and Social Class in Catalan Language Education for Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frekko, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Adult students of Catalan are worthy of study because they reveal complexities underlying taken-for-granted assumptions about Catalan speakers and Castilian speakers. Far from fitting into neat bundles aligning language of origin, social class, and national orientation, the students in this study exemplify the breakdown of boundaries traditionally…

  13. Improving Completion Rates in Adult Education through Social Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Mariager-Anderson, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Dropout is a serious problem within education. This article reports on an intervention project, titled "New Roles for the Teacher--Increased Completion Rates Through Social Responsibility," which sought to reduce nonattendance and drop-out rates in the Danish adult educational system by improving teachers' competences. This goal was…

  14. Screening for ADHD in an Adult Social Phobia Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortberg, Ewa; Tilfors, Kerstin; Bejerot, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Recent studies have suggested a link between a primary anxiety disorder and ADHD. Method: A total of 39 participants with a primary diagnosis of social phobia were compared with 178 patients with ADHD and 88 patients with other psychiatric disorders on measures for childhood and adult ADHD (the Wender Utah Rating Scale and the Adult…

  15. Social Work, Pastoral Care and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Considine, Tom; Hollingdale, Paul; Neville, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    This paper briefly examines the growing interest in developing resilience in the social work curricula as it is seen as a crucial quality necessary to cope with the increasing demands of the profession. The recent research into developing resilience is dominated by a psychological model which emphasises personal qualities. It runs the risk of…

  16. Nurses' and care workers' attitudes toward death and caring for dying older adults in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Miho; Braun, Kathryn

    2010-12-01

    Registered nurses (RNs) and care workers (CWs) have important roles in providing end-of-life care to older adults, but little is known about the attitudes of RNs and CWs in Japan. In this study, 464 RNs and CWs working in facilities in Japan were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire that included the Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying Scale, Form B, Japanese version (FATCOD-Form B-J) and the Death Attitude Profile (DAP), Japanese version. A total of 388 (83.6%) questionnaires were returned, and 367 (79.1%) were fully completed. The final sample included 190 RNs and 177 CWs. Multiple regression analysis showed that better attitudes toward caring for the dying were positively associated with seminar attendance and negatively associated with fear of death.

  17. Sex differences in parental care: Gametic investment, sexual selection, and social environment.

    PubMed

    Liker, András; Freckleton, Robert P; Remeš, Vladimir; Székely, Tamás

    2015-11-01

    Male and female parents often provide different type and amount of care to their offspring. Three major drivers have been proposed to explain parental sex roles: (1) differential gametic investment by males and females that precipitates into sex difference in care, (2) different intensity of sexual selection acting on males and females, and (3) biased social environment that facilitates the more common sex to provide more care. Here, we provide the most comprehensive assessment of these hypotheses using detailed parental care data from 792 bird species covering 126 families. We found no evidence for the gametic investment hypothesis: neither gamete sizes nor gamete production by males relative to females was related to sex difference in parental care. However, sexual selection correlated with parental sex roles, because the male share in care relative to female decreased with both extra-pair paternity and frequency of male polygamy. Parental sex roles were also related to social environment, because male parental care increased with male-biased adult sex ratios (ASRs). Taken together, our results are consistent with recent theories suggesting that gametic investment is not tied to parental sex roles, and highlight the importance of both sexual selection and ASR in influencing parental sex roles.

  18. Social networks of older adults living with HIV in Finland.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Nuno Ribeiro; Kylmä, Jari; Kirsi, Tapio; Pereira, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the social networks of older adults living with HIV. Interviews were conducted with nine individuals aged 50 or older living with HIV in Helsinki, Finland. Analysis of transcripts was analysed by inductive qualitative content analysis. Results indicated that these participants' networks tended to be large, including those both aware and unaware of the participants' health status. Analysis identified three main themes: large multifaceted social networks, importance of a support group, and downsizing of social networks. Support received appeared to be of great importance in coping with their health condition, especially since the time of diagnosis. Friends and family were the primary source of informal support. The majority of participants relied mostly on friends, some of whom were HIV-positive. Formal support came primarily from the HIV organisation's support group. In this study group, non-disclosure did not impact participants' well-being. In years to come, social networks of older adults living with HIV may shrink due to personal reasons other than HIV-disclosure. What is of primary importance is that healthcare professionals become knowledgeable about psychosocial issues of older adults living with HIV, identifying latent problems and developing adequate interventions in the early stages of the disease; this would help prevent social isolation and foster successful ageing with HIV.

  19. Social capital, social participation and life satisfaction among Chilean older adults

    PubMed Central

    Ponce, María Soledad Herrera; Rosas, Raúl Pedro Elgueta; Lorca, María Beatriz Fernández

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine factors associated with social participation and their relationship with self-perceived well-being in older adults. METHODS This study was based on data obtained from the National Socioeconomic Characterization (CASEN) Survey conducted in Chile, in 2011, on a probability sample of households. We examined information of 31,428 older adults living in these households. Descriptive and explanatory analyses were performed using linear and multivariate logistic regression models. We assessed the respondents’ participation in different types of associations: egotropic, sociotropic, and religious. RESULTS Social participation increased with advancing age and then declined after the age of 80. The main finding of this study was that family social capital is a major determinant of social participation of older adults. Their involvement was associated with high levels of self-perceived subjective well-being. We identified four settings as sources of social participation: home-based; rural community-based; social policy programs; and religious. Older adults were significantly more likely to participate when other members of the household were also involved in social activities evidencing an intergenerational transmission of social participation. Rural communities, especially territorial associations, were the most favorable setting for participation. There has been a steady increase in the rates of involvement of older adults in social groups in Chile, especially after retirement. Religiosity remains a major determinant of associativism. The proportion of participation was higher among older women than men but these proportions equaled after the age of 80. CONCLUSIONS Self-perceived subjective well-being is not only dependent upon objective factors such as health and income, but is also dependent upon active participation in social life, measured as participation in associations, though its effects are moderate. PMID:25372164

  20. Public mental health care utilization by older adults.

    PubMed

    Karlin, Bradley E; Norris, Margaret P

    2006-11-01

    The present study examined the extent to which older adults began public mental health treatment throughout Texas in 1999, the types of services they used, and how they compared on demographic and clinical variables to younger consumers. Notwithstanding recent policy and related developments, older adults were found to use public mental health services at substantially low rates, as in past decades. Significantly, older consumers tended to be relatively healthy and independent. Among younger and, even more so, older consumers, there were relatively high proportions of rural residents and minorities, groups previously found to be unlikely to utilize private mental health services. Overall, the findings urge that greater attention be devoted to public mental health outreach and service delivery with the elderly, and raise the question of what role the public mental health system should have in nursing homes and other long-term care settings.

  1. Do pharmacists use social media for patient care?

    PubMed

    Benetoli, Arcelio; Chen, Timothy F; Schaefer, Marion; Chaar, Betty; Aslani, Parisa

    2017-04-01

    Background Social media are frequently used by consumers and healthcare professionals. However, it is not clear how pharmacists use social media as part of their daily professional practice. Objective This study investigated the role social media play in pharmacy practice, particularly in patient care and how pharmacists interact online with patients and laypeople. Setting Face-to-face, telephone, or Skype interviews with practising pharmacists (n = 31) from nine countries. Method In-depth semi-structured interviews; audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analysed. Main outcome measure Two themes related to the use of social media for patient care: social media and pharmacy practice, and pharmacists' online interactions with customers and the public. Results Most participants were community pharmacists. They did not provide individualized services to consumers via social media, despite most of them working in a pharmacy with a Facebook page. No participant "friended" consumers on Facebook as it was perceived to blur the boundary between professional and personal relationships. However, they occasionally provided advice and general health information on social media to friends and followers, and more commonly corrected misleading health information spread on Facebook. Short YouTube videos were used to support patient counselling in community pharmacy. Conclusions Participants recognized the potential social media has for health. However, its use to support patient care and deliver pharmacy services was very incipient. Pharmacists as medicine experts are well equipped to contribute to improvements in social media medicines-related information, learn from consumers' online activities, and design new ways of delivering care to communities and individuals.

  2. Barriers and facilitators to successful transition from pediatric to adult inflammatory bowel disease care from the perspectives of providers

    PubMed Central

    Paine, Christine Weirich; Stollon, Natalie B.; Lucas, Matthew S.; Brumley, Lauren D.; Poole, Erika S.; Peyton, Tamara; Grant, Anne W.; Jan, Sophia; Trachtenberg, Symme; Zander, Miriam; Mamula, Petar; Bonafide, Christopher P.; Schwartz, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Background For adolescents and young adults (AYA) with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the transition from pediatric to adult care is often challenging and associated with gaps in care. Our study objectives were to (1) identify outcomes for evaluating transition success and (2) elicit the major barriers and facilitators of successful transition. Methods We interviewed pediatric and adult IBD providers from across the United States with experience caring for AYAs with IBD until thematic saturation was reached after 12 interviews. We elicited the participants' backgrounds, examples of successful and unsuccessful transition of AYAs for whom they cared, and recommendations for improving transition using the Social-ecological Model of Adolescent and Young Adult Readiness to Transition framework. We coded interview transcripts using the constant comparative method and identified major themes. Results Participants reported evaluating transition success and failure using healthcare utilization outcomes (e.g. maintaining continuity with adult providers), health outcomes (e.g. stable symptoms), and quality of life outcomes (e.g. attending school). The patients' level of developmental maturity (i.e. ownership of care) was the most prominent determinant of transition outcomes. The style of parental involvement (i.e. helicopter parent vs. optimally-involved parent) also influenced outcomes as well as the degree of support by providers (e.g. care coordination). Conclusion IBD transition success is influenced by a complex interplay of patient developmental maturity, parenting style, and provider support. Multidisciplinary IBD care teams should aim to optimize these factors for each patient to increase the likelihood of a smooth transfer to adult care. PMID:25137417

  3. The Social Connectedness of Older Adults: A National Profile*

    PubMed Central

    Cornwell, Benjamin; Laumann, Edward O.; Schumm, L. Philip

    2008-01-01

    For decades, scholars have wrestled with the notion that old age is characterized by social isolation. However, there has been no systematic, nationally representative evaluation of this possibility in terms of social network connectedness. In this paper, the authors develop a profile of older adults’ social integration with respect to nine dimensions of connectedness to interpersonal networks and voluntary associations. The authors use new data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), a population-based study of non-institutionalized older Americans aged 57–85 conducted in 2005–2006. Findings suggest that among older adults, age is negatively related to network size, closeness to network members, and number of non-primary-group ties. On the other hand, age is positively related to frequency of socializing with neighbors, religious participation, and volunteering. In addition, it has a U-shaped relationship with volume of contact with network members. These findings are inconsistent with the notion that old age has a universal negative influence on social connectedness. Instead, life course factors have divergent consequences for different forms of social connectedness. Some later life transitions, like retirement and bereavement, may prompt greater connectedness. The authors close by urging increased dialogue between social gerontological and social network research. PMID:19018292

  4. Health care reform and social movements in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Beatrix

    2008-09-01

    Because of the importance of grassroots social movements, or "change from below," in the history of US reform, the relationship between social movements and demands for universal health care is a critical one. National health reform campaigns in the 20th century were initiated and run by elites more concerned with defending against attacks from interest groups than with popular mobilization, and grassroots reformers in the labor, civil rights, feminist, and AIDS activist movements have concentrated more on immediate and incremental changes than on transforming the health care system itself. However, grassroots health care demands have also contained the seeds of a wider critique of the American health care system, leading some movements to adopt calls for universal coverage.

  5. Health care reform and social movements in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Beatrix

    2003-01-01

    Because of the importance of grassroots social movements, or "change from below," in the history of US reform, the relationship between social movements and demands for universal health care is a critical one. National health reform campaigns in the 20th century were initiated and run by elites more concerned with defending against attacks from interest groups than with popular mobilization, and grassroots reformers in the labor, civil rights, feminist, and AIDS activist movements have concentrated more on immediate and incremental changes than on transforming the health care system itself. However, grassroots health care demands have also contained the seeds of a wider critique of the American health care system, leading some movements to adopt calls for universal coverage.

  6. Health Care Reform and Social Movements in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Beatrix

    2003-01-01

    Because of the importance of grassroots social movements, or “change from below,” in the history of US reform, the relationship between social movements and demands for universal health care is a critical one. National health reform campaigns in the 20th century were initiated and run by elites more concerned with defending against attacks from interest groups than with popular mobilization, and grassroots reformers in the labor, civil rights, feminist, and AIDS activist movements have concentrated more on immediate and incremental changes than on transforming the health care system itself. However, grassroots health care demands have also contained the seeds of a wider critique of the American health care system, leading some movements to adopt calls for universal coverage. PMID:12511390

  7. Health Care Reform and Social Movements in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Beatrix

    2008-01-01

    Because of the importance of grassroots social movements, or “change from below,” in the history of US reform, the relationship between social movements and demands for universal health care is a critical one. National health reform campaigns in the 20th century were initiated and run by elites more concerned with defending against attacks from interest groups than with popular mobilization, and grassroots reformers in the labor, civil rights, feminist, and AIDS activist movements have concentrated more on immediate and incremental changes than on transforming the health care system itself. However, grassroots health care demands have also contained the seeds of a wider critique of the American health care system, leading some movements to adopt calls for universal coverage. PMID:18687625

  8. Corporate social responsibility and the future health care manager.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sandra K

    2010-01-01

    The decisions and actions of health care managers are oftentimes heavily scrutinized by the public. Given the current economic climate, managers may feel intense pressure to produce higher results with fewer resources. This could inadvertently test their moral fortitude and their social consciousness. A study was conducted to determine what corporate social responsibility orientation and viewpoint future health care managers may hold. The results of the study indicate that future health care managers may hold patient care in high regard as opposed to profit maximization. However, the results of the study also show that future managers within the industry may continue to need rules, laws, regulations, and legal sanctions to guide their actions and behavior.

  9. Philosophizing social justice in rural palliative care: Hayek's moral stone?

    PubMed

    Pesut, Barbara; Beswick, Frances; Robinson, Carole A; Bottorff, Joan L

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, palliative care is being referred to as an essential programme and in some cases as a human right. Once it is recognized as such, it becomes part of the lexicon of social justice in that it can be argued that all members of society should have access to such care. However, this begs the question of how that care should be enacted, particularly in rural and remote areas. This question illustrates some of Friedrich Hayek's critiques of social justice. Hayek has likened social justice to a 'moral stone' arguing that social justice is meaningless to the extent that society is impersonal and as such cannot be just, only those individuals who make up that society can be just. When responsibility for justice is assigned to an impersonal society, ideas of social justice can become a clarion call for whom no one is directly accountable. This opens the door for questionable macro-level political agendas that have no capacity to enact the ideal, and worse, may suppress individual moral acts towards the desired end. Further, acts of interference at the macro level with the ideal of equal opportunity run the risk of disadvantaging other members of society. Instead, he has argued that a better approach lies in finding ways to induce and support individual moral acts that promote the human good. Hayek's arguments are particularly compelling for rural palliative care. In this paper we draw upon data from an ethnographic study in rural palliative care to illustrate the potential misfit between the ethical ideal of palliative care as expressed by rural participants and the narratives of social justice.

  10. [Screening for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adult patients in primary care].

    PubMed

    Aragonès, Enric; Cañisá, Anna; Caballero, Antònia; Piñol-Moreso, Josep Lluís

    2013-05-01

    AIMS. To estimate the proportion of adult patients in primary care with a positive screening test for attention deficit hyper-activity disorder (ADHD) and to analyse their characteristics. PATIENTS AND METHODS. A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed in nine primary care clinics in the province of Tarragona. The sample consisted of 432 consecutive patients in primary care who visited for any reason, with ages ranging from 18 to 55 years. Screening for ADHD was carried out by means of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Data about functional impact (Sheehan Disability Inventory) were obtained and a review of the patient records provided data concerning psychiatric comorbidity and the consumption of psychopharmaceuticals. RESULTS. The percentage of positive results in the screening tests was 19.9% (95% CI = 16.4-23.9%). Taking into account the sensitivity and specificity of the ASRS, the 'real' prevalence was estimated to be 12.5% (95% CI = 8.2-16.8%). None of these patients were diagnosed or treated for ADHD. Positive screening tests are associated with occupational, social and familial dysfunction, and greater perceived stress. There is also a higher level of comorbidity with affective disorders and substance abuse, as well as greater use of psychopharmaceuticals. CONCLUSIONS. Screening for ADHD in adult patients in primary care gives rise to a notably high proportion of positive screening test results, which suggests that there could be a significant prevalence of patients with ADHD. These data contrast with the absence of this diagnosis in the patient records. Further research is needed to determine the usefulness of the diagnosis of ADHD and the possible role that must be played by primary care.

  11. Physical restraints practice in adult intensive care units in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kandeel, Nahed Attia; Attia, Amal Kadry

    2013-03-01

    Physical restraints are commonly used in intensive care units to reduce the risk of injury and ensure patient safety. However, there is still controversy regarding the practice of physical restraints in such units. The purpose of this study was to investigate the practices of physical restraints among critical care nurses in El-Mansoura City, Egypt. The study involved a convenience sample of 275 critically ill adult patients, and 153 nurses. Data were collected from 11 intensive care units using a "physical restraint observation form" and a "structured questionnaire." The results revealed that physical restraint was commonly used to ensure patient safety. Assessment of physical restraint was mainly restricted to peripheral circulation. The most commonly reported physically restrained site complications included: redness, bruising, swelling, and edema. The results illustrated a lack of documentation on physical restraint and a lack of education of patients and their families about the rationale of physical restraint usage. The study shed light on the need for standard guidelines and policies for physical restraint practices in Egyptian intensive care units.

  12. Widespread pain and depression are key modifiable risk factors associated with reduced social participation in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, Ross; Blagojevic-Bucknall, Milisa; Belcher, John; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Lacey, Rosie J.; McBeth, John

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In older adults, reduced social participation increases the risk of poor health-related quality of life, increased levels of inflammatory markers and cardiovascular disease, and increased mortality. Older adults frequently present to primary care, which offers the potential to deliver interventions at the point of care to increase social participation. The aim of this prospective study was to identify the key modifiable exposures that were associated with reduced social participation in a primary care population of older adults. The study was a population-based prospective cohort study. Participants (n = 1991) were those aged ≥65 years who had completed questionnaires at baseline, and 3 and 6-year follow-ups. Generalized linear mixed modeling framework was used to test for associations between exposures and decreasing social participation over 6 years. At baseline, 44% of participants reported reduced social participation, increasing to 49% and 55% at 3 and 6-year follow-up. Widespread pain and depression had the strongest independent association with reduced social participation over the 6-year follow-up period. The prevalence of reduced social participation for those with widespread pain was 106% (adjusted incidence rate ratio 2.06, 95% confidence interval 1.72, 2.46), higher than for those with no pain. Those with depression had an increased prevalence of 82% (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.82, 95% confidence interval 1.62, 2.06). These associations persisted in multivariate analysis. Population ageing will be accompanied by increasing numbers of older adults with pain and depression. Future trials should assess whether screening for widespread pain and depression, and targeting appropriate treatment in primary care, increase social participation in older people. PMID:27495019

  13. Health literacy: critical opportunities for social work leadership in health care and research.

    PubMed

    Liechty, Janet M

    2011-05-01

    One-third of U.S. adults do not have adequate health literacy to manage their health care needs; and low health literacy is a major concern due to its association with poor health outcomes, high health care costs, and health communication problems. Low health literacy is a potential driver of health disparities, and its alleviation is central to the values and concerns of the social work profession. Despite the extensive knowledge and skills that social workers can bring to bear to assist patients with low health literacy, the concept of health literacy is underused in social work scholarship.This gap reflects missed opportunities for social workers to contribute their expertise to the evolving field of health literacy and to strategically align their work with organizational and national priorities.To address this gap, this article provides an overview of health literacy, its relevance to social work, and its representation in disciplinary literature; and it outlines opportunities for health social workers to systematically incorporate health literacy concepts and tools into their practices with patients and families. Implications for a social work research and practice agenda in health literacy are discussed.

  14. Integrated care for asthma: a clinical, social, and economic evaluation. Grampian Asthma Study of Integrated Care (GRASSIC)

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To evaluate integrated care for asthma in clinical, social, and economic terms. DESIGN--Pragmatic randomised trial. SETTING--Hospital outpatient clinics and general practices throughout the north east of Scotland. PATIENTS--712 adults attending hospital outpatient clinics with a diagnosis of asthma confirmed by a chest physician and pulmonary function reversibility of at least 20%. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Use of bronchodilators and inhaled and oral steroids; number of general practice consultations and hospital admissions for asthma; sleep disturbance and other restrictions on normal activity; psychological aspects of health including perceived asthma control; patient satisfaction; and financial costs. RESULTS--After one year there were no significant overall differences between those patients receiving integrated asthma care and those receiving conventional outpatient care for any clinical or psychosocial outcome. For pulmonary function, forced expiratory volume was 76% of predicted for integrated care patients and 75% for conventional outpatients (95% confidence interval for difference -3.6% to 5.0%). Patients who had experienced integrated care were more likely to select it as their preferred course of future management (75% (251/333) v 62% (207/333) (6% to 20%)); they saved 39.52 pounds a year. This was largely because patients in conventional outpatient care consulted their general practitioner as many times as those in integrated care, who were not also visiting hospital. CONCLUSION--Integrated care for moderately severe asthma patients is clinically as effective as conventional outpatient care, cost effective, and an attractive management option for patients, general practitioners, and hospital consultants. PMID:8148678

  15. Korea: Balancing Economic Growth and Social Protection for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Population aging in Korea is projected to be the most rapid among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries between 2000 and 2050. However, social spending in Korea remains low, reflecting Korea's relatively young population, limited health and long-term care insurance coverage, and immaturity of its pension system.…

  16. Korea: balancing economic growth and social protection for older adults.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyun-Sook

    2013-06-01

    Population aging in Korea is projected to be the most rapid among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries between 2000 and 2050. However, social spending in Korea remains low, reflecting Korea's relatively young population, limited health and long-term care insurance coverage, and immaturity of its pension system. As these factors evolve in coming years, social spending in Korea is likely to rise toward the OECD average. Sustaining economic growth requires policies to mitigate the impact of rapid population aging by providing social protection for the elderly population. Korea confronts difficult challenges in balancing economic growth and social protection for the elderly population, whereas also ensuring efficiency in social spending.

  17. Cost-benefit analysis in social care for elderly people.

    PubMed

    Dutrénit, Jean-Marc

    2005-10-01

    Social care at home for elderly people is now growing rapidly in France. A new question is, What are better forms of care for the different partners concerned? The research presented here, and made for the Comity of Lille Employment Area with cooperation of the Caisse Primaire d'Assurance Maladiede Lille (the local board of the national social security system), offers some answers to that question. Ceteris paribus, cultural activities-in a group or at home-versus others appear to produce more interest for elderly, professional caregivers, and the rest of society.

  18. [Citizen constitution and social representations: reflecting about health care models].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Sílvio Eder Dias; Ramos, Flávia Regina Souza; Martins, Cleusa Rios; Padilha, Maria Itayra; Vasconcelos, Esleane Vilela

    2010-12-01

    This article presents a reflection on the meaning of the terms citizenship and health, addressing the Theory of Social Representations as a strategy for implementing and evaluating health care models in Brazil. First, a brief history about the concept of citizenship is presented; then the article addresses the principles of freedom and equality according to Kant; the third section of the article shows that health is as a right of the citizen and a duty of the state. Finally, the Theory of Social Representations is emphasized as a strategy to evaluate and implement the health services provided to citizens by the current health care models in Brazil.

  19. 7 CFR 240.4 - Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult care institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and adult care institutions. 240.4 Section 240.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... LIEU OF DONATED FOODS § 240.4 Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult care... or adult care institutions participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. FNS shall pay...

  20. 7 CFR 240.4 - Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult care institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and adult care institutions. 240.4 Section 240.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... LIEU OF DONATED FOODS § 240.4 Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult care... or adult care institutions participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. FNS shall pay...

  1. 7 CFR 240.4 - Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult care institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and adult care institutions. 240.4 Section 240.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... LIEU OF DONATED FOODS § 240.4 Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult care... or adult care institutions participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. FNS shall pay...

  2. Conceptualising body work in health and social care.

    PubMed

    Twigg, Julia; Wolkowitz, Carol; Cohen, Rachel Lara; Nettleton, Sarah

    2011-02-01

    Body work is a central activity in the practice of many workers in the field of health and social care. This article provides an introduction to the concept of body work--paid work on the bodies of others--and demonstrates its importance for understanding the activities of health and social care workers. Providing an overview of existing research on body work, it shows the manifold ways in which this can inform the sociology of health and illness--whether through a micro-social focus on the inter-corporeal aspects of work in health and social care, or through elucidating our understanding of the times and spaces of work, or through highlighting the relationship between mundane body work and the increasingly global movements of bodies, workers and those worked-upon. The article shows how understanding work undertaken on the bodies of others as 'body work' provides a mechanism for relating work in the sphere of health and social care to that in other sectors, opening up new avenues for research.

  3. The effects of psychotherapy for adult depression on social support: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Mijung; Cuijpers, Pim; van Straten, Annemieke; Reynolds, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    Social support is an important extra-therapeutic context of depression treatment, yet no overall estimate is available on how depression treatment affects social support or the size of such an effect. We conducted a meta-analysis of clinical trials of psychotherapy for depression that reported results for social support at post-treatment. A total of 1,579 adults with depression from 11 trials comparing psychotherapy to care-as-usual or waiting list were included. The majority of these studies assessed the participants’ perceptions of social support. Specifically, three studies targeted women with postpartum depression, and four studies targeted individuals with chronic disease. In all these studies, psychotherapy had a small to moderate, yet consistent effect on social support compared to care-as-usual or waiting list at post-treatment (g = 0.38; 95% CI: 0.29~0.48) and at 3–6 month follow-up (g= 0.38; 95% CI: 0.14~0.63). Little evidence of heterogeneity was found across studies, and the results were consistent in several sensitivity analyses. No significant publication bias was detected (Egger’s test p > 0.1). The result of meta-regression showed that improvement in depression symptoms was associated with improvement in social support, but this was not statistically significant. PMID:26085699

  4. Who Are the Clients?: Goal Displacement in an Adult Care Center for Elders with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Corey M.

    2009-01-01

    This ethnographic study of "goal displacement" in an adult day care center explains how and why certain goals come to surpass others in the organizational practices of elder day care settings. Adult day care is often oriented towards providing family caregivers with respite rather than attempting to directly improve the lives of the elders…

  5. Mothers' and Fathers' Roles in Caring for an Adult Child with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, Michelle; Carroll, Annemaree; Cuskelly, Monica

    2011-01-01

    To date, there have been few studies of mothers' and fathers' roles in caring for their adult children with intellectual disabilities. The present study investigated the care-giving roles of mother and father couples caring for their adult offspring with an intellectual disability, their psychological health, and the demands and satisfaction of…

  6. Depression, isolation, social support, and cardiovascular disease in older adults.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Heather M

    2006-01-01

    Research evidence related specifically to psychosocial issues in older adults with cardiovascular disease remains sparse; however, widespread recognition of the impact of the changing population demographic is spurring new research in this important area. National guidelines for cardiac rehabilitation and secondary prevention in several countries include recommendations related to psychosocial issues; authors are beginning to address the older cardiac patient in their recommendations. The purpose of this article is to highlight some key psychosocial factors that have been independently associated with coronary heart disease but to do so with a focus on the older adult in the secondary prevention setting. The selected psychosocial factors are social support, social isolation, and depression. Although evidence supports a relationship between psychosocial factors and coronary heart disease, the issue addressed in this article is whether such relationships hold true in the older adult and whether rehabilitation and secondary prevention interventions are targeted to address these factors. As much as possible, current recommendations (related to psychosocial issues) from worldwide Clinical Practice Guidelines are highlighted. Finally, any examination of psychosocial factors and coronary heart disease must consider the possibility of sex and/or gender differences. Therefore, a commentary on reported differences between men and women with respect to social support, social isolation, and depression is included.

  7. Paternal signature in kin recognition cues of a social insect: concealed in juveniles, revealed in adults.

    PubMed

    Wong, Janine W Y; Meunier, Joël; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-10-22

    Kin recognition is a key mechanism to direct social behaviours towards related individuals or avoid inbreeding depression. In insects, recognition is generally mediated by cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) compounds, which are partly inherited from parents. However, in social insects, potential nepotistic conflicts between group members from different patrilines are predicted to select against the expression of patriline-specific signatures in CHC profiles. Whereas this key prediction in the evolution of insect signalling received empirical support in eusocial insects, it remains unclear whether it can be generalized beyond eusociality to less-derived forms of social life. Here, we addressed this issue by manipulating the number of fathers siring clutches tended by females of the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, analysing the CHC profiles of the resulting juvenile and adult offspring, and using discriminant analysis to estimate the information content of CHC with respect to the maternal and paternal origin of individuals. As predicted, if paternally inherited cues are concealed during family life, increases in mating number had no effect on information content of CHC profiles among earwig juveniles, but significantly decreased the one among adult offspring. We suggest that age-dependent expression of patriline-specific cues evolved to limit the risks of nepotism as family-living juveniles and favour sibling-mating avoidance as group-living adults. These results highlight the role of parental care and social life in the evolution of chemical communication and recognition cues.

  8. The heterogeneity of socially isolated older adults: a social isolation typology.

    PubMed

    Machielse, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Recent statistics show a growing number of older adults who are living alone and are socially isolated. It is against this background that, in recent years, many interventions have been developed to address social isolation among the elderly. Evaluative studies show that most interventions are hardly effective, though. An important reason for this is the heterogeneity of the socially isolated. This article offers insight into this heterogeneity by presenting a typology with different profiles of socially isolated older adults and the intervention implications of this typology. The typology is derived from an extensive qualitative study on socially isolated elderly individuals in the Netherlands. The typology imposes some degree of order to a diversity of circumstances, ambitions, and possibilities of the socially isolated elderly, thereby deepening the understanding of the heterogeneity of this population. The definition of social isolation used in this study starts from a societal angle of incidence, namely the current policy context of Western European welfare states, in which governments emphasize the importance of independence and self-reliance of their citizens. Developed from that perspective, the typology provides a theoretical basis for applying interventions aimed at increasing self-reliance of social isolated elderly. This perspective on social isolation also has consequences for the way in which the effectiveness of interventions to alleviate social isolation is assessed.

  9. Early Nonparental Care and Social Behavior in Elementary School: Support for a Social Group Adaptation Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Tremblay, Richard E.; Vitaro, Frank; Japel, Christa; Boivin, Michel; Côté, Sylvana M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of nonparental child-care services received during the preschool years to the development of social behavior between kindergarten and the end of elementary school with a birth cohort from Québec, Canada (N = 1,544). Mothers reported on the use of child-care services, while elementary school teachers rated…

  10. The Affordable Care Act, Accountable Care Organizations, and Mental Health Care for Older Adults: Implications and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Stephen J; Gill, Lydia; Naslund, John A

    2015-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) represents the most significant legislative change in the United States health care system in nearly half a century. Key elements of the ACA include reforms aimed at addressing high-cost, complex, vulnerable patient populations. Older adults with mental health disorders are a rapidly growing segment of the population and are among the most challenging subgroups within health care, and they account for a disproportionate amount of costs. What does the ACA mean for geriatric mental health? We address this question by highlighting opportunities for reaching older adults with mental health disorders by leveraging the diverse elements of the ACA. We describe nine relevant initiatives: (1) accountable care organizations, (2) patient-centered medical homes, (3) Medicaid-financed specialty health homes, (4) hospital readmission and health care transitions initiatives, (5) Medicare annual wellness visit, (6) quality standards and associated incentives, (7) support for health information technology and telehealth, (8) Independence at Home and 1915(i) State Plan Home and Community-Based Services program, and (9) Medicare-Medicaid Coordination Office, Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation, and the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute. We also consider potential challenges to full implementation of the ACA and discuss novel solutions for advancing geriatric mental health in the context of projected workforce shortages and the opportunities afforded by the ACA.

  11. 76 FR 44573 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care... Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2011 Through June 30, 2012 Correction In notice document 2011... page 43255, the table labeled ``Administrative Reimbursement Rates for Sponsoring Organizations of...

  12. Social Workers' Attitudes toward Older Adults: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Donna; Chonody, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Ageist attitudes toward older adults have been recognized as barriers to recruiting and training competent social workers. This article provides a systematic review of the literature that focused on social workers' and social work students' attitudes toward older adults and working with older adults. The authors sought empirical studies…

  13. Out of place: mediating health and social care in Ontario's long-term care sector.

    PubMed

    Daly, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses two reforms in Ontario's long-term care. The first is the commercialization of home care as a result of the implementation of a "managed competition" delivery model. The second is the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care's privileging of "health care" over "social care" through changes to which types of home care and home support services receive public funding. It addresses the effects of these reforms on the state–non-profit relationship, and the shifting balance between public funding of health and social care. At a program level, and with few exceptions, homemaking services have been cut from home care, and home support services are more medicalized. With these changes, growing numbers of people no longer eligible to receive publicly funded home care services look for other alternatives: they draw available resources from home support, they draw on family and friend networks, they hire privately and pay out of pocket, they leave home and enter an institution, or they do without.

  14. [Social inequalities in health and primary care. SESPAS Report 2012].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Aguado, Ildefonso; Santaolaya Cesteros, María; Campos Esteban, Pilar

    2012-03-01

    The health system is a social determinant of health. Although not the most important determinant of health, the health system's potential contribution to reducing social inequalities in health should not be underestimated. Due to its characteristics, primary health care is well placed to attain equity in health. To make progress in achieving this goal, the main measures to be considered are the removal of barriers to access to services, the provision of care proportionate to need, and engagement in intersectoral work. This article reviews the background and framework for action to tackle social inequalities in health and provides a summary of the primary health care actions that could help to reduce social inequalities in health and are mentioned in the most important national and international documents on health policy. We hope to stimulate debate, promote research in the field and encourage implementation. The proposals are grouped in the following five intervention lines: information systems; participation; training; intersectoral work; and reorientation of health care. Each intervention is ordered according to its targets (population and civil society; primary health team; health center and health area management; and health policy decision-makers).

  15. Oncology Social Workers' Attitudes toward Hospice Care and Referral Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Janet E.

    2004-01-01

    Members of the Association of Oncology Social Workers completed a survey, which included the Hospice Philosophy Scale (HPS) assessing the likelihood of the worker referring a terminally ill patient to hospice, background and experience, and demographics. The respondents held overwhelmingly favorable attitudes toward hospice philosophy and care,…

  16. Facilitating Online Reflective Learning for Health and Social Care Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Jane; Rawlinson, Mark; Weaver, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Health and social care education has a long established association with reflective learning as a way of developing post-qualifying professional practice. Reflective learning is also a key feature of self-regulatory learning, which is an essential aspect of life-long learning for today's National Health Service workforce. Using a small-scale case…

  17. Burns ITU admissions: length of stay in specific levels of care for adult and paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Maan, Zeshaan N; Frew, Quentin; Din, Asmat H; Unluer, Zeynep; Smailes, Sarah; Philp, Bruce; El-Muttardi, Naguib; Dziewulski, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Prediction of total length of stay (LOS) for burns patients based on the total burn surface area (TBSA) is well accepted. Total LOS is a poor measure of resource consumption. Our aim was to determine the LOS in specific levels of care to better inform resource allocation. We performed a retrospective review of LOS in intensive treatment unit (ITU), burns high dependency unit (HDU) and burns low dependency unit (LDU) for all patients requiring ITU admission in a regional burns service from 2003 to 2011. During this period, our unit has admitted 1312 paediatric and 1445 adult patients to our Burns ITU. In both groups, ITU comprised 20% of the total LOS (mean 0.23±0.02 [adult] and 0.22±0.02 [paediatric] days per %burn). In adults, 33% of LOS was in HDU (0.52±0.06 days per %burn) and 48% (0.68±0.06 days per %burn) in LDU, while in children, 15% of LOS was in HDU (0.19±0.03 days per %burn) and 65% in LDU (0.70±0.06 days per %burn). When considering Burns ITU admissions, resource allocation ought to be planned according to expected LOS in specific levels of care rather than total LOS. The largest proportion of stay is in low dependency, likely due to social issues.

  18. On the significance of adult play: what does social play tell us about adult horse welfare?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausberger, Martine; Fureix, Carole; Bourjade, Marie; Wessel-Robert, Sabine; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick

    2012-04-01

    Play remains a mystery and adult play even more so. More typical of young stages in healthy individuals, it occurs rarely at adult stages but then more often in captive/domestic animals, which can imply spatial, social and/or feeding deprivations or restrictions that are challenging to welfare, than in animals living in natural conditions. Here, we tested the hypothesis that adult play may reflect altered welfare states and chronic stress in horses, in which, as in several species, play rarely occurs at adult stages in natural conditions. We observed the behaviour (in particular, social play) of riding school horses during occasional outings in a paddock and measured several stress indicators when these horses were in their individual home boxes. Our results revealed that (1) the number of horses and rates of adult play appeared very high compared to field report data and (2) most stress indicators measured differed between `players' and `non-players', revealing that most `playful' animals were suffering from more chronic stress than `non-playful' horses. Frequency of play behaviour correlated with a score of chronic stress. This first discovery of a relationship between adult play and altered welfare opens new lines of research that certainly deserves comparative studies in a variety of species.

  19. Sexual health and older adults: suggestions for social science research.

    PubMed

    Hinchliff, Sharron

    2016-11-01

    The body of evidence on older adults' sexual health is beginning to grow. However, it remains an under-researched area particularly within the social sciences. This viewpoint outlines four considerations for those who carry out social science research in this area: 1. defining the age category "older adults"; 2. being clear about the types of sex under research; 3. capturing a range of diverse voices; and 4. considering the use of qualitative research methods to explore the topic in depth. These suggestions are aimed at helping researchers to avoid some of the pitfalls of research in this area, as well as improving the evidence base in order to advance recognition of the issues and drive change in service provision.

  20. Best-worst scaling vs. discrete choice experiments: an empirical comparison using social care data.

    PubMed

    Potoglou, Dimitris; Burge, Peter; Flynn, Terry; Netten, Ann; Malley, Juliette; Forder, Julien; Brazier, John E

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents empirical findings from the comparison between two principal preference elicitation techniques: discrete choice experiments and profile-based best-worst scaling. Best-worst scaling involves less cognitive burden for respondents and provides more information than traditional "pick-one" tasks asked in discrete choice experiments. However, there is lack of empirical evidence on how best-worst scaling compares to discrete choice experiments. This empirical comparison between discrete choice experiments and best-worst scaling was undertaken as part of the Outcomes of Social Care for Adults project, England, which aims to develop a weighted measure of social care outcomes. The findings show that preference weights from best-worst scaling and discrete choice experiments do reveal similar patterns in preferences and in the majority of cases preference weights--when normalised/rescaled--are not significantly different.

  1. Incentivizing health care behaviors in emerging adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Catherine H; Guarna, Giuliana; Tsao, Pamela; Jesuthasan, Jude R; Lau, Adrian NC; Siddiqi, Ferhan S; Gilmour, Julie Anne; Ladha, Danyal; Halapy, Henry; Advani, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Purpose For emerging adults with chronic medical diseases, the transition from pediatric to adult health care is often a time of great upheaval, commonly associated with unhealthy self-management choices, loss to follow-up, and adverse outcomes. We conducted a systematic review to examine the use of incentive strategies to promote positive health-related behaviors in young adults with chronic medical diseases. Methods The Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsycInfo, and Cochrane databases were searched through June 2014. Studies of any design where an incentive was used to achieve a target behavior or outcome in a pediatric or emerging adult population (age <30 years) with chronic medical conditions including addictions, were included. Results A total of 26 studies comprising 10,880 patients met our inclusion criteria after screening 10,305 abstracts and 301 full-text articles. Of these studies, 20 examined the effects of behavioral incentives on cigarette smoking or substance abuse, including alcohol; four studies explored behavioral incentives in the setting of HIV or sexual health; and two articles studied individuals with other chronic medical conditions. Seventeen articles reported a statistically significant benefit of the behavioral incentive on one or more outcomes, although only half reported follow-up after the incentive period was terminated. Conclusion While the majority of studies reported positive outcomes, these studies focused on promoting the cessation of adverse behaviors rather than promoting positive behaviors. In addition, conclusions were limited by the high risk of bias present in the majority of studies, as well as lack of follow-up after the incentive period. Whether behavioral incentives facilitate the adoption of positive health choices in this population remains to be determined. PMID:27069356

  2. Social and non-social anxiety in adolescent and adult rats after repeated restraint.

    PubMed

    Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2009-06-22

    Adolescence is associated with potentially stressful challenges, and adolescents may differ from adults in their stress responsivity. To investigate possible age-related differences in stress responsiveness, the consequences of repeated restraint stress (90 min/day for 5 days) on anxiety, as indexed using the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and modified social interaction (SI) tests, were assessed in adolescent and adult Sprague-Dawley male and female rats. Control groups at each age included non-stressed and socially deprived animals, with plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels also measured in another group of rats on days 1 and 5 of stress (sampled 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min following restraint onset). While repeatedly restrained animals exhibited similar anxiety levels compared to non-stressed controls in the EPM, restraint stress increased anxiety at both ages in the SI test (as indexed by reduced social investigation and social preference). Daily weight gain measurements, however, revealed more marked stress-related suppression of body weight in adolescents versus adults. Analysis of stress-induced increases in CORT likewise showed that adolescents demonstrated less habituation than adults, embedded within typical sex differences in CORT magnitude (females greater than males) and age differences in CORT recovery (adolescents slower than adults). Despite no observable age-related differences in the behavioral response to restraint, adolescents were more sensitive to the repeated stressor in terms of physiological indices of attenuated weight gain and habituation of stress-induced CORT.

  3. Mentalising and social problem solving in adults with Asperger's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Channon, Shelley; Crawford, Sarah; Orlowska, Danuta; Parikh, Nimmi; Thoma, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction It is well established that autistic spectrum disorder is linked to difficulties with mentalising, but the ways in which this affects everyday behaviour is less well understood. This study explored the nature and extent of difficulties in everyday social functioning in adults with Asperger's syndrome (AS), since increased understanding can enhance the development of more effective intervention strategies. Methods Individuals with AS (n = 21) were compared with healthy control participants (n = 21) on three tests of social cognition: the Mentalistic Interpretation task, which assesses interpretation of sarcasm and actions; the Social Problem Fluency task, which assesses ability to generate problem solutions; and the Social Problem Resolution task, which assesses judgement in selecting problem solutions. Results Comprehension of both sarcastic remarks and actions was impaired in those with AS on the mentalistic interpretation task. Participants with AS showed difficulties in identifying the awkward elements of everyday social scenarios, and they were also impaired in generating problem solutions but not in judging alternative solutions on the social problem fluency and resolution tasks. Conclusions These tasks potentially provide a means of profiling strengths and weaknesses in social processing, which in turn has implications for informing clinical evaluation and training. PMID:23875885

  4. Overcoming social segregation in health care in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Cotlear, Daniel; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Knaul, Felicia; Atun, Rifat; Barreto, Ivana C H C; Cetrángolo, Oscar; Cueto, Marcos; Francke, Pedro; Frenz, Patricia; Guerrero, Ramiro; Lozano, Rafael; Marten, Robert; Sáenz, Rocío

    2015-03-28

    Latin America continues to segregate different social groups into separate health-system segments, including two separate public sector blocks: a well resourced social security for salaried workers and their families and a Ministry of Health serving poor and vulnerable people with low standards of quality and needing a frequently impoverishing payment at point of service. This segregation shows Latin America's longstanding economic and social inequality, cemented by an economic framework that predicted that economic growth would lead to rapid formalisation of the economy. Today, the institutional setup that organises the social segregation in health care is perceived, despite improved life expectancy and other advances, as a barrier to fulfilling the right to health, embodied in the legislation of many Latin American countries. This Series paper outlines four phases in the history of Latin American countries that explain the roots of segmentation in health care and describe three paths taken by countries seeking to overcome it: unification of the funds used to finance both social security and Ministry of Health services (one public payer); free choice of provider or insurer; and expansion of services to poor people and the non-salaried population by making explicit the health-care benefits to which all citizens are entitled.

  5. Social determinants of older adults' awareness of community support services in Hamilton, Ontario.

    PubMed

    Tindale, J; Denton, M; Ploeg, J; Lillie, J; Hutchison, B; Brazil, K; Akhtar-Danesh, N; Plenderleith, J

    2011-11-01

    Community support services (CSSs) have been developed in Canada and other Western nations to enable persons coping with health or social issues to continue to live in the community. This study addresses the extent to which awareness of CSSs is structured by the social determinants of health. In a telephone interview conducted in February-March 2006, 1152 community-dwelling older adults (response rate 12.4%) from Hamilton, Ontario, Canada were made to read a series of four vignettes and were asked whether they were able to identify a CSS they may turn to in that situation. Across the four vignettes, 40% of participants did name a CSS as a possible source of assistance. Logistic regression was used to determine factors related to awareness of CSSs. Respondents most likely to have awareness of CSS include the middle-aged and higher-income groups. Being knowledgeable about where to look for information about CSSs, having social support and being a member of a club or voluntary organisations are also significant predictors of awareness of CSSs. Study results suggest that efforts be made to improve the level of awareness and access to CSSs among older adults by targeting their social networks as well as their health and social care providers.

  6. Health care technology adoption and diffusion in a social context.

    PubMed

    Coyte, Peter C; Holmes, Dave

    2007-02-01

    This article highlights mechanisms that may further sustainable technological development for the 21st century. The distributional effects associated with the adoption and diffusion of health care technologies are addressed wherein the capacity to capitalize on the health gains from the adoption of technology varies in society. These effects are caused by the actions of individuals as they segment themselves into distinct social groups. The circumstances under which social institutions are further segmented are explored and may motivate public sector limits on the funding for and diffusion of health care technologies. Safety and efficacy benchmarks are necessary but insufficient conditions for sustainability as product advantage on grounds of cost-effectiveness must also be demonstrated. Furthermore, given the substantial role played by public sector decision makers in purchasing health care technologies, the distributional consequences associated with the uptake and diffusion of technology need to be gauged by product designers and those responsible for marketing.

  7. An Examination of the Social Networks and Social Isolation in Older and Younger Adults Living with HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emlet, Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined social networks and social isolation in older (50 years or more) and younger (ages 20 to 39) adults with HIV/AIDS. The author conducted interviews with 88 individuals living with HIV/AIDS in the Pacific Northwest. Both groups' social networks had similar patterns; however, older adults were more likely to live alone. More than…

  8. Food choice patterns among frail older adults: The associations between social network, food choice values, and diet quality.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-O

    2016-01-01

    Social network type might affect an individual's food choice because these decisions are often made as a group rather than individually. In this study, the associations between social network type, food choice value, and diet quality in frail older adults with low socioeconomic status were investigated. For this cross-sectional study, 87 frail older adults were recruited from the National Home Healthcare Services in Seoul, South Korea. Social network types, food choice values, and diet quality were assessed using The Practitioner Assessment of Network Type Instrument, The Food Choice Questionnaire, and mean adequacy ratio, respectively. Results showed that frail older adults with close relationships with local family and/or friends and neighbors were less likely to follow their own preferences, such as taste, price, and beliefs regarding food health values. In contrast, frail older adults with a small social network and few community contacts were more likely to be influenced by their food choice values, such as price or healthiness of food. Frail older adults who tend to choose familiar foods were associated with low-quality dietary intake, while older adults who valued healthiness or use of natural ingredients were associated with a high-quality diet. The strength and direction of these associations were dependent on social network type of frail older adults. This study explored the hypothesis that food choice values are associated with a certain type of social network and consequently affect diet quality. While additional research needs to be conducted, community-based intervention intended to improve diet quality of frail older adults must carefully consider individual food choice values as well as social network types.

  9. Person-Centered Care for Older Adults With Serious Mental Illness and Substance Misuse Within a Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Cacchione, Pamela Z; Eible, Lisa; Gill, Le'Roi L; Huege, Steven F

    2016-05-01

    Providing person-centered care (PCC) to older adults with dual diagnosis, co-occurring serious mental illness (SMI), and substance misuse is complex and requires an interprofessional team. Older adults, who qualify for both Medicaid and Medicare (i.e., dual-eligibles) are overrepresented in the population of older adults with SMI and substance misuse. Programs of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE) exist to support community living needs of nursing home-eligible older adults and are increasingly in a position to serve older adults with SMI and substance misuse issues. PACE programs provide integrated person-centered mental health care to address the serious medical, social, and emotional complications posed by having SMI and substance misuse disorders. The case study presented illustrates PCC provided to a dual-diagnosis PACE participant, illustrating the impact of recent and past trauma on current psychopathology and substance misuse. Finally, recommendations for addressing PCC of dual diagnosis within the PACE model are provided. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(5), 11-17.].

  10. Adult social roles and alcohol use among American Indians.

    PubMed

    Greene, Kaylin M; Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David

    2014-09-01

    American Indians are disproportionately burdened by alcohol-related problems. Yet, research exploring predictors of alcohol use among American Indians has been limited by cross-sectional designs and reservation-based samples. Guided by a life course developmental perspective, the current study used a subsample of American Indians (n=927) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to explore alcohol use (current drinking, usual number of drinks, and binge drinking) among this population. We examined whether adult social roles (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, parenthood, college enrollment, and full-time work) were linked to the rise and fall of alcohol use. Multi-level models demonstrated that adult social roles were linked to alcohol use at the within- and between-person levels. Becoming a parent was linked to a lower likelihood of being a current drinker, fewer alcoholic drinks, and less frequent binge drinking. Transitioning to full-time work was associated with a higher likelihood of being a current drinker and more frequent binge drinking. Results point to the importance of exploring within-group trajectories of alcohol use and highlight the protective and risky nature of adult social roles among American Indians.

  11. Taking Care of Business: The Opportunities and Dilemmas for Adult Education in a Changing Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scully-Russ, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The new emphasis on vocational skills provides adult education a new raison d'être and presents new developmental dilemmas to the field of adult education. This chapter examines these tensions in light of significant social change that places underqualified adults at great risk to a vicious cycle of marginalization and how adult education will be…

  12. Lasting Adaptations in Social Behavior Produced by Social Disruption and Inhibition of Adult Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Opendak, Maya; Offit, Lily; Monari, Patrick; Schoenfeld, Timothy J.; Sonti, Anup N.; Cameron, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Research on social instability has focused on its detrimental consequences, but most people are resilient and respond by invoking various coping strategies. To investigate cellular processes underlying such strategies, a dominance hierarchy of rats was formed and then destabilized. Regardless of social position, rats from disrupted hierarchies had fewer new neurons in the hippocampus compared with rats from control cages and those from stable hierarchies. Social disruption produced a preference for familiar over novel conspecifics, a change that did not involve global memory impairments or increased anxiety. Using the neuropeptide oxytocin as a tool to increase neurogenesis in the hippocampus of disrupted rats restored preference for novel conspecifics to predisruption levels. Conversely, reducing the number of new neurons by limited inhibition of adult neurogenesis in naive transgenic GFAP–thymidine kinase rats resulted in social behavior similar to disrupted rats. Together, these results provide novel mechanistic evidence that social disruption shapes behavior in a potentially adaptive way, possibly by reducing adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To investigate cellular processes underlying adaptation to social instability, a dominance hierarchy of rats was formed and then destabilized. Regardless of social position, rats from disrupted hierarchies had fewer new neurons in the hippocampus compared with rats from control cages and those from stable hierarchies. Unexpectedly, these changes were accompanied by changes in social strategies without evidence of impairments in cognition or anxiety regulation. Restoring adult neurogenesis in disrupted rats using oxytocin and conditionally suppressing the production of new neurons in socially naive GFAP–thymidine kinase rats showed that loss of 6-week-old neurons may be responsible for adaptive changes in social behavior. PMID:27358459

  13. Barriers to Social Participation among Lonely Older Adults: The Influence of Social Fears and Identity

    PubMed Central

    Goll, Johanna C.; Charlesworth, Georgina; Scior, Katrina; Stott, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Loneliness among older adults is a major public health problem that may be associated with processes of social participation and identity. This study therefore sought to examine the relationship between social participation and identity in a sample of lonely older adults living independently in London, England. Method An inductive qualitative approach, based on semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis, was employed. Results Participants commonly spoke of barriers to social participation that have been reported elsewhere, including illness/disability, loss of contact with friends/relatives, lack of a supportive community, and lack of acceptable social opportunities. However, novel findings were also derived. In particular, participants commonly minimised the difficulties they faced alone, and described attempts to avoid social opportunities. These behaviours were linked to fears about engaging in social participation opportunities, including fears of social rejection and/or exploitation, and fears of losing valued aspects of identity. Discussion It is concluded that social participation amongst lonely older people will not improve through the removal of previously reported barriers alone; instead, older peoples’ beliefs, fears and identities must be addressed. Suggestions for implementing these findings within community organisations are provided. PMID:25706933

  14. Social Support Systems and Social Network Characteristics of Older Adults with HIV.

    PubMed

    Brennan-Ing, Mark; Seidel, Liz; Karpiak, Stephen E

    2017-01-01

    Social networks of older adults with HIV have been characterized as fragile, with a greater reliance on friends as compared to family. However, we know little about the subgroup differences in the social network constellations of this population, how such characteristics are related to social support resources, and their relationship with psychosocial well-being. We developed a typology of social networks of older HIV-positive adults and examined if they would be related to receipt of informal assistance, perceptions of support sufficiency, and psychosocial well-being. Data were obtained from Research on Older Adults with HIV (n = 914). Participants were 50 years and older, HIV positive, and diverse in terms of race/ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation. Cluster analysis identified Isolated, Friend-centered, and Integrated social network types. The Isolated reported significantly lower levels of assistance, lower perceptions of support availability and adequacy, greater stigma and psychological distress, and lower well-being compared to their peers. While friends dominate many social networks in this population, a more nuanced interpretation is needed; many have no friends and a substantial proportion receive significant family support. Those with Isolated network types will likely need to access a high volume of community-based services as they age as they lack informal support resources.

  15. Network social capital, social participation, and physical inactivity in an urban adult population.

    PubMed

    Legh-Jones, Hannah; Moore, Spencer

    2012-05-01

    Research on individual social capital and physical activity has tended to focus on the association among physical activity, generalized trust, and social participation. Less is known about the association between network social capital, i.e., the resources accessed through one's social connections, and physical inactivity. Using formal network measures of social capital, this study examined which specific dimension of network capital (i.e. diversity, reach and range) was associated with physical inactivity, and whether network social capital mediated the association between physical inactivity and social participation. Data came from the 2008 Montreal (Canada) Neighbourhood Networks and Healthy Aging survey, in which 2707 adults 25 years and older in 300 Montreal neighbourhoods were surveyed. Physical activity was self-reported using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). IPAQ guidelines provided the basis for the physical inactivity cutoff. Network social capital was measured with a position generator instrument. Multilevel logistic methods were used to examine the association between physical inactivity and individual social capital dimensions, while adjusting for socio-demographic and -economic factors. Higher network diversity was associated with a decreased likelihood of physical inactivity. Consistent with previous findings, individuals who did not participate in any formal associations were more likely to be physically inactive compared to those with high levels of participation. Network diversity mediated the association between physical inactivity and participation. Generalized trust and the network components of reach and range were not shown associated with physical inactivity. Findings highlight the importance of social participation and network social capital and the added value of network measures in the study of social capital and physical inactivity. Population-based programs targeting physical inactivity among adults might

  16. Adolescent social defeat alters markers of adult dopaminergic function.

    PubMed

    Novick, Andrew M; Forster, Gina L; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz M; Watt, Michael J

    2011-08-10

    Stressful experiences during adolescence can alter the trajectory of neural development and contribute to psychiatric disorders in adulthood. We previously demonstrated that adolescent male rats exposed to repeated social defeat stress show changes in mesocorticolimbic dopamine content both at baseline and in response to amphetamine when tested in adulthood. In the present study we examined whether markers of adult dopamine function are also compromised by adolescent experience of social defeat. Given that the dopamine transporter as well as dopamine D1 receptors act as regulators of psychostimulant action, are stress sensitive and undergo changes during adolescence, quantitative autoradiography was used to measure [(3)H]-GBR12935 binding to the dopamine transporter and [(3)H]-SCH23390 binding to dopamine D1 receptors, respectively. Our results indicate that social defeat during adolescence led to higher dopamine transporter binding in the infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex and higher dopamine D1 receptor binding in the caudate putamen, while other brain regions analyzed were comparable to controls. Thus it appears that social defeat during adolescence causes specific changes to the adult dopamine system, which may contribute to behavioral alterations and increased drug seeking.

  17. Adolescent social defeat alters markers of adult dopaminergic function

    PubMed Central

    Novick, Andrew M.; Forster, Gina L.; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz M.; Watt, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Stressful experiences during adolescence can alter the trajectory of neural development and contribute to psychiatric disorders in adulthood. We previously demonstrated that adolescent male rats exposed to repeated social defeat stress show changes in mesocorticolimbic dopamine content both at baseline and in response to amphetamine when tested in adulthood. In the present study we examined whether markers of adult dopamine function are also compromised by adolescent experience of social defeat. Given that the dopamine transporter as well as dopamine D1 receptors act as regulators of psychostimulant action, are stress sensitive and undergo changes during adolescence, quantitative autoradiography was used to measure [3H]-GBR12935 binding to the dopamine transporter and [3H]-SCH23390 binding to dopamine D1 receptors, respectively. Our results indicate that social defeat during adolescence led to higher dopamine transporter binding in the infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex and higher dopamine D1 receptor binding in the caudate putamen, while other brain regions analyzed were comparable to controls. Thus it appears that social defeat during adolescence causes specific changes to the adult DA system, which may contribute to behavioral alterations and increased drug seeking. PMID:21741457

  18. Social genetic and social environment effects on parental and helper care in a cooperatively breeding bird.

    PubMed

    Adams, Mark James; Robinson, Matthew R; Mannarelli, Maria-Elena; Hatchwell, Ben J

    2015-07-07

    Phenotypes expressed in a social context are not only a function of the individual, but can also be shaped by the phenotypes of social partners. These social effects may play a major role in the evolution of cooperative breeding if social partners differ in the quality of care they provide and if individual carers adjust their effort in relation to that of other carers. When applying social effects models to wild study systems, it is also important to explore sources of individual plasticity that could masquerade as social effects. We studied offspring provisioning rates of parents and helpers in a wild population of long-tailed tits Aegithalos caudatus using a quantitative genetic framework to identify these social effects and partition them into genetic, permanent environment and current environment components. Controlling for other effects, individuals were consistent in their provisioning effort at a given nest, but adjusted their effort based on who was in their social group, indicating the presence of social effects. However, these social effects differed between years and social contexts, indicating a current environment effect, rather than indicating a genetic or permanent environment effect. While this study reveals the importance of examining environmental and genetic sources of social effects, the framework we present is entirely general, enabling a greater understanding of potentially important social effects within any ecological population.

  19. [Factors associated with nursing workload in adult intensive care units].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Leilane Andrade; Padilha, Kátia Grillo

    2007-12-01

    This study was aimed both at analyzing the nursing workload on the first day of admission of patients in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) and the factors associated with it. This is a qualitative, retrospective, cross-section study that was carried out in April of 2002 and October of 2004. The data were taken from a database that gathered information from 5 ICUs from two private hospitals and the sample was comprised of 214 adult patients that remained in the ICU for at least 24 hours. The total Nursing Activities Score (NAS) average was 69.9%, and the median 68.0%. According to the median, it was verified that 109 (50.9%) individuals required heavy nursing attention and the remaining 105 (49.1%) required less attention. The severity of the illness, the patient's age and the kind of treatment were not factors associated with nursing workload in the first 24 hours at the ICU.

  20. To Shape the Future: Towards a Framework for Adult Education Social Policy Research and Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, B. Allan

    1993-01-01

    Compares three social policy models (market, progressive-liberal-welfare, social redistribution); links them to adult education models (vocational-behaviorist, liberal-humanist-progressive, liberatory/social reconstruction) and to sociological theories (structural functionalism and conflict theory). (SK)

  1. Adolescent and adult risk-taking in virtual social contexts

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Anneke D. M.; Norman, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of experimental data addressing how peers influence adolescent risk-taking. Here, we examined peer effects on risky decision-making in adults and adolescents using a virtual social context that enabled experimental control over the peer “interactions.” 40 adolescents (age 11–18) and 28 adults (age 20–38) completed a risk-taking (Wheel of Fortune) task under four conditions: in private; while being observed by (fictitious) peers; and after receiving ‘risky’ or ‘safe’ advice from the peers. For high-risk gambles (but not medium-risk or even gambles), adolescents made more risky decisions under peer observation than adults. Adolescents, but not adults, tended to resist ‘safe’ advice for high-risk gambles. Although both groups tended to follow ‘risky’ advice for high-risk gambles, adults did so more than adolescents. These findings highlight the importance of distinguishing between the effects of peer observation and peer advice on risky decision-making. PMID:25566150

  2. Work stress, burnout, and social and personal resources among direct care workers.

    PubMed

    Gray-Stanley, Jennifer A; Muramatsu, Naoko

    2011-01-01

    Work stress is endemic among direct care workers (DCWs) who serve people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Social resources, such as work social support, and personal resources, such as an internal locus of control, may help DCWs perceive work overload and other work-related stressors as less threatening and galvanize them to cope more effectively to prevent burnout. However, little is known about what resources are effective for coping with what types of work stress. Thus, we examined how work stress and social and personal resources are associated with burnout for DCWs. We conducted a survey of DCWs (n = 323) from five community-based organizations that provide residential, vocational, and personal care services for adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Participants completed a self-administered survey about their perceptions of work stress, work social support, locus of control, and burnout relative to their daily work routine. We conducted multiple regression analysis to test both the main and interaction effects of work stress and resources with respect to burnout. Work stress, specifically work overload, limited participation decision-making, and client disability care, was positively associated with burnout (p < .001). The association between work social support and burnout depended on the levels of work overload (p < .05), and the association between locus of control and burnout depended on the levels of work overload (p < .05) and participation in decision-making (p < .05). Whether work social support and locus of control make a difference depends on the kinds and the levels of work stressors. The findings underscore the importance of strong work-based social support networks and stress management resources for DCWs.

  3. Social anxiety disorder. A guide for primary care physicians.

    PubMed

    Elliott, H W; Reifler, B

    2000-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder is prevalent, potentially disabling, but quite treatable. A thorough and directed history can distinguish social phobia from depression, panic disorder, and OCD. It can also screen for and identify possible substance abuse. Once the diagnosis is made, a combination of pharmacologic and psychotherapy is indicated. The SSRIs, MAOIs, benzodiazepines, and beta-blockers--as well as CBT--can effectively treat social anxiety symptoms. Primary care physicians may well want to begin by prescribing an SSRI like paroxetine, along with a high potency benzodiazepine to be taken on a regular or an as-needed basis, and a beta-blocker to take as needed in anticipation of stressful social situations. A referral for CBT should be considered. If the patient has marked side effects from drug treatment or a lack of adequate response to medication, psychiatric referral is definitely indicated.

  4. Online and Offline Social Networks: Use of Social Networking Sites by Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Reich, Stephanie M.; Waechter, Natalia; Espinoza, Guadalupe

    2008-01-01

    Social networking sites (e.g., MySpace and Facebook) are popular online communication forms among adolescents and emerging adults. Yet little is known about young people's activities on these sites and how their networks of "friends" relate to their other online (e.g., instant messaging) and offline networks. In this study, college students…

  5. Complex cooperative breeders: Using infant care costs to explain variability in callitrichine social and reproductive behavior.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Muñoz, Samuel L

    2016-03-01

    The influence of ecology on social behavior and mating strategies is one of the central questions in behavioral ecology and primatology. Callitrichines are New World primates that exhibit high behavioral variability, which is widely acknowledged, but not always systematically researched. Here, I examine the hypothesis that differences in the cost of infant care among genera help explain variation in reproductive traits. I present an integrative approach to generate and evaluate predictions from this hypothesis. I first identify callitrichine traits that vary minimally and traits that are more flexible (e.g., have greater variance or norm of reaction), including the number of males that mate with a breeding female, mechanisms of male reproductive competition, number of natal young retained, and the extent of female reproductive suppression. I outline how these more labile traits should vary along a continuum of infant care costs according to individual reproductive strategies. At one end of the spectrum, I predict that groups with higher infant care costs will show multiple adult males mating and providing infant care, high subordinate female reproductive suppression, few natal individuals delaying dispersal, and increased reproductive output by the dominant female -with opposite predictions under low infant costs. I derive an estimate of the differences in ecological and physiological infant care costs that suggest an order of ascending costs in the wild: Cebuella, Callithrix, Mico, Callimico, Saguinus, and Leontopithecus. I examine the literature on each genus for the most variable traits and evaluate a) where they fall along the continuum of infant care costs according to their reproductive strategies, and b) whether these costs correspond to the ecophysiological estimates of infant care costs. I conclude that infant care costs can provide a unifying explanation for the most variable reproductive traits among callitrichine genera. The approach presented can be

  6. Adolescents and young adults with life-threatening illness: special considerations, transitions in care, and the role of pediatric palliative care.

    PubMed

    Linebarger, Jennifer S; Ajayi, Toluwalase A; Jones, Barbara L

    2014-08-01

    This article will cover the special considerations, challenges, and opportunities presented by caring for adolescents and young adults with life-threatening illnesses when the possibility of transition to an adult care setting arises.

  7. Direct Social Support and Long-term Health Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined whether or not direct social support is associated with long-term health among middle-aged and older adults with diabetes mellitus. Method. Direct social support was assessed at baseline (2003) for 1,099 adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus from the Health and Retirement Study. Self-reported health status was examined at baseline and in 4 biennial survey waves (2003–2010). A series of ordinal logistic regression models examined whether or not the 7-item Diabetes Care Profile scale was associated with a subsequent change in health status over time. Additional analyses examined whether or not individual components of direct social support were associated with health status change. Results. After adjusting for baseline covariates, greater direct social support as measured by the Diabetes Care Profile was associated with improved health outcomes over time; however, this trend was not significant (p = .06). The direct social support measures that were associated with improved health over follow-up were support for taking medicines (odds ratio [OR] = 1.22), physical activity (OR = 1.26), and going to health care providers (OR = 1.22; all p < .05). Discussion. Interventions that specifically target improving specific aspects of diabetes social support may be more effective in improving long-term health than less targeted efforts. PMID:24150176

  8. Understanding HIV care delays in the US South and the role of the social-level in HIV care engagement/retention: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In a significant geographical shift in the distribution of HIV infection, the US South - comprising 17 states - now has the greatest number of adults and adolescents with HIV (PLHIV) in the nation. More than 60% of PLHIV are not in HIV care in Alabama and Mississippi, contrasted with a national figure of 25%. Poorer HIV outcomes raise concerns about HIV-related inequities for southern PLHIV, which warrant further study. This qualitative study sought to understand experiences of low-income PLHIV on the AIDS Drug Assistance Program in engagement and retention in continuous HIV care in two sites in Alabama. Methods The study was designed using grounded theory. Semi-structured interviews with 25 PLHIV explored experiences with care linkage, reported factors and behaviors affecting engagement/retention in continuous HIV care, including socio-economic factors. To triangulate sources, 25 additional interviews were conducted with health and social service providers from the same clinics and AIDS Service Organizations where clients obtained services. Across the narratives, we used the HIV care continuum to map where care delays and drop out occurred. Using open coding, constant comparison and iterative data collection and analysis, we constructed a conceptual model illustrating how participants described their path to HIV care engagement and retention. Results Most respondents reported delayed HIV care, describing concentric factors: psychological distress, fear, lack of information, substance use, incarceration, lack of food, transport and housing. Stark health system drop out occurred immediately after receipt of HIV test results, with ART initiation generally occurring when individuals became ill. Findings highlight these enablers to care: Alabama's 'social infrastructure'; 'twinning' medical with social services, 'social enablers' who actively link PLHIV to care; and 'enabling spaces' that break down PLHIV isolation, facilitating HIV care linkage

  9. Social Branding to Decrease Smoking Among Young Adults in Bars

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youn Ok; Hong, Juliette; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated a Social Branding antitobacco intervention for “hipster” young adults that was implemented between 2008 and 2011 in San Diego, California. Methods. We conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys of random samples of young adults going to bars at baseline and over a 3-year follow-up. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate changes in daily smoking, nondaily smoking, and binge drinking, controlling for demographic characteristics, alcohol use, advertising receptivity, trend sensitivity, and tobacco-related attitudes. Results. During the intervention, current (past 30 day) smoking decreased from 57% (baseline) to 48% (at follow-up 3; P = .002), and daily smoking decreased from 22% to 15% (P < .001). There were significant interactions between hipster affiliation and alcohol use on smoking. Among hipster binge drinkers, the odds of daily smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30, 0.63) and nondaily smoking (OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.42, 0.77) decreased significantly at follow-up 3. Binge drinking also decreased significantly at follow-up 3 (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.53, 0.78). Conclusions. Social Branding campaigns are a promising strategy to decrease smoking in young adult bar patrons. PMID:24524502

  10. Social adjustment in adult males affected with progressive muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Eggers, S; Zatz, M

    1998-02-07

    Adult male patients affected with Becker (BMD, N = 22), limb girdle (LGMD, N = 22) and facioscapulohumeral (FSHMD, N = 18) muscular dystrophy were interviewed to assess for the first time how the disease's severity and recurrence risk (RR) magnitude alter their social adjustment. BMD (X-linked recessive) is the severest form and confers an intermediate RR because all daughters will be carriers, LGMD (autosomal-recessive) is moderately severe with a low RR in the absence of consanguineous marriage, and FSHMD (autosomal-dominant) is clinically the mildest of these three forms of MD but with the highest RR, of 50%. Results of the semistructured questionnaire [WHO (1988): Psychiatric Disability Assessment Schedule] showed no significant difference between the three clinical groups, but more severely handicapped patients as well as patients belonging to lower socioeconomic levels from all clinical groups showed poorer social adjustment. Taken together, myopathic patients displayed intermediate social dysfunction compared to controls and schizophrenics studied by Jablensky [1988: WHO Psychiatric Disability Assessment Schedule]. Since the items of major dysfunction proportion among myopathic patients concern intimate relationships (70%), interest in working among those unemployed (67%), and social isolation (53%), emotional support and social and legal assistance should concentrate on these aspects. Interestingly, the results of this study also suggest that high RRs do not affect relationships to the opposite sex.

  11. Socio-Economic Determinants of the Need for Dental Care in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Trohel, Gilda; Bertaud-Gounot, Valérie; Soler, Marion; Chauvin, Pierre; Grimaud, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral health has improved in France. However, there are still inequalities related to the socio-economic status. Objectives The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of dental care needs in an adult population and to identify the demographic, socio-economic and behavioral variables that may explain variations in this parameter. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of the French SIRS cohort (n = 2,997 adults from the Paris region; 2010 data) was carried out to determine the prevalence of self-reported dental care needs relative to demographic, socio-economic and behavioral variables. A logistic regression model was used to identify the variables that were most strongly associated with the level of need. Results In 2010, the prevalence of the need for dental care in the SIRS cohort was 35.0% (95% CI [32.3–37.8]). It was lower in people with higher education levels (31.3% [27.9–34.6]), without immigrant background (31.3% [28.0–34.6]) and with comprehensive health insurance (social security + complementary health cover; 32.8% [30.2–35.4]). It decreased as the socio-economic status increased, but without following a strict linear change. It was also lower among individuals who had a dental check-up visit in the previous two years. In multivariate analyses, the socioeconomic variables most strongly associated with the need for dental care were: educational attainment (OR = 1.21 [1.02–1.44]), income level (OR = 1.66 [1.92–2.12]) and national origin (OR = 1.53 [1.26–1.86]). Conclusion These results confirm that the prevalence of dental care needs is higher among adults with low socio-economic status. Education level, income level and also national origin were more strongly associated with the need for dental care than insurance cover level. PMID:27441841

  12. Social justice considerations in neonatal care for nurse managers and executives.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Linda; Walden, Marlene; Verklan, M Terese

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the struggle between social justice and market justice within the current health care system, specifically issues affecting neonatal care. Community benefit is described and discussed as an aspect of social justice demonstrated by hospitals. The federal and state Children's Health Insurance Program also is discussed in relation to social justice and health care costs. Implications for managers and executives overseeing neonatal care are presented in relation to the economic and social issues.

  13. Separate and Cumulative Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Predicting Adult Health and Health Care Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chartier, Mariette J.; Walker, John R.; Naimark, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Objectives of this population-based study were: (1) to examine the relative contribution of childhood abuse and other adverse childhood experiences to poor adult health and increased health care utilization and (2) to examine the cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences on adult health and health care utilization. Methods:…

  14. Young Adult Outcomes of the Abecedarian and CARE Early Childhood Educational Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Frances A.; Wasik, Barbara H.; Pungello, Elizabeth; Burchinal, Margaret; Barbarin, Oscar; Kainz, Kirsten; Sparling, Joseph J.; Ramey, Craig T.

    2008-01-01

    Adult benefits for participants in Project CARE were compared with those of the Abecedarian Project, a closely related randomized study of early childhood educational intervention for children from low-income families who were at risk of developmental delays and school failure. CARE replicated Abecedarian's young adult treatment-related…

  15. Transforming pedagogy in nursing education: a caring learning environment for adult students.

    PubMed

    Bankert, Esther G; Kozel, Victoria V

    2005-01-01

    This article is an account of a project involving nursing faculty and adult learners. Their purpose was to generate interactive and collaborative pedagogies. Reflection and dialogue were used to explore how the educational experience can be transformed into an engaging and caring learning environment for adult students. Principles derived from humanistic nursing and caring, reflection, and teaching and learning guided this project.

  16. An examination of the social networks and social isolation in older and younger adults living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Emlet, Charles A

    2006-11-01

    This study examined social networks and social isolation in older (50 years or more) and younger (ages 20 to 39) adults with HIV/AIDS. The author conducted interviews with 88 individuals living with HIV/AIDS in the Pacific Northwest. Both groups' social networks had similar patterns; however, older adults were more likely to live alone. More than 38 percent of older adults and 54 percent of older adults of color were at risk of social isolation compared with 25 percent of those 20 to 39 years of age. Older men and older adults of color had significantly lower scores on the social network scale than others. Having a confidant and receiving instrumental support were significantly correlated with reduced HIV stigma. Implications for social work practitioners are discussed.

  17. Social Network Characteristics, Social Support, and Cigarette Smoking among Asian/Pacific Islander Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Cassel, Kevin; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe‘aimoku; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking may be one of the factors contributing to the high levels of cancer-related mortality experienced by certain Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) subgroups (e.g., Native Hawaiian). Given the collectivist cultural orientation attributed to A/PI groups, social strategies are recommended for substance abuse or smoking cessation treatment among A/PI. However, research examining how social network characteristics and social support relate to smoking across A/PI subgroups has been lacking. This study investigated the associations between social network characteristics (e.g., size, composition), perceived social support, and recent cigarette use across Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and East Asian (e.g., Japanese, Chinese) young adults (18–35 year old). Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from N = 435 participants (M age = 25.6, SD = 8.3; 61% women). Ethnic differences were found in a number of pathways linking social network characteristics, perceived social support, and cigarette smoking. Larger network size was strongly associated with higher perceived social support and lower recent cigarette smoking among Native Hawaiians but not Filipinos or East Asians. Higher perceived social support was associated with lower recent smoking among East Asians and Filipinos but not Native Hawaiians. Implications are discussed with regard to smoking prevention and cessation among A/PI. PMID:27297612

  18. Social justice considerations for lesbian and bisexual women's health care.

    PubMed

    Weisz, Virginia K

    2009-01-01

    Lesbian and bisexual women share much with heterosexual women such as the desire to parent and the risk for partner violence. However, these women have unique risks associated with heavy alcohol use, smoking, obesity, and nulliparity. As nurses become increasingly aware of the need for social justice advocacy for marginalized groups, they are in a good position to advocate for lesbian and bisexual women and to bring visibility to their poor treatment in the health care setting.

  19. A model for genomic imprinting in the social brain: adults.

    PubMed

    Ubeda, Francisco; Gardner, Andy

    2011-02-01

    Genomic imprinting refers to genes that are silenced when inherited via sperm or via egg. The silencing of genes conditional upon their parental origin requires an evolutionary explanation. The most widely accepted theory for the evolution of genomic imprinting-the kinship theory-argues that conflict between maternally inherited and paternally inherited genes over phenotypes with asymmetric effects on matrilineal and patrilineal kin results in self-imposed silencing of one of the copies. This theory has been applied to imprinting of genes expressed in the placenta, and infant brain determining the allocation of parental resources being the source of conflict parental promiscuity. However, there is growing evidence that imprinted genes are expressed in the postinfant brain where parental promiscuity per se is no longer a source of conflict. Here, we advance the kinship theory by developing an evolutionary model of genomic imprinting in adults, driven by intragenomic conflict over allocation to parental versus communal care. We consider the role of sex differences in dispersal and variance in reproductive success as sources of conflict. We predict that, in hominids and birds, parental care will be expressed by maternally inherited genes. In nonhominid mammals, we predict more diversity, with some mammals showing the same pattern and other showing the reverse. We use the model to interpret experimental data on imprinted genes in the house mouse: specifically, paternally expressed Peg1 and Peg3 genes, underlying maternal care, and maternally expressed Gnas and paternally expressed Gnasxl genes, underlying communal care. We also use the model to relate ancestral demography to contemporary imprinting disorders of adults, in humans and other taxa.

  20. 77 FR 58755 - Small Business Size Standards: Health Care and Social Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG30 Small Business Size Standards: Health Care and Social Assistance... Classification System (NAICS) Sector 62, Health Care and Social Assistance, and retaining the current standards..., Health Care and Social Assistance, to determine whether the existing size standards should be retained...

  1. Who cares in Nicaragua? A care regime in an exclusionary social policy context.

    PubMed

    Franzoni, Juliana Martínez; Voorend, Koen

    2011-01-01

    In Latin American countries with historically strong social policy regimes (such as those in the Southern Cone), neoliberal policies are usually blamed for the increased burden of female unpaid work. However, studying the Nicaraguan care regime in two clearly defined periods — the Sandinista and the neoliberal eras — suggests that this argument may not hold in the case of countries with highly familialist social policy regimes. Despite major economic, political and policy shifts, the role of female unpaid work, both within the family and in the community, remains persistent and pivotal, and was significant long before the onset of neoliberal policies. Nicaragua's care regime has been highly dependent on the ‘community’ or ‘voluntary’ work of mostly women. This has also been, and continues to be, vital for the viability of many public social programmes.

  2. Congenital causes of neurogenic bladder and the transition to adult care

    PubMed Central

    Loftus, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The population of patients with congenital genitourinary disorders has unique healthcare demands that require an additional interpersonal and medical skillset. Adults with congenital neurogenic bladder may have complex urinary anatomy, abnormal bladder function and atypical voiding mechanisms. While initial surgery and care of these patients is typically managed by a pediatric urologist, growth and development into adulthood necessitates transition of care to an adult care team. Failure of transition to adult care has been demonstrated to result in lower quality healthcare and increased risk of developing preventable complications. PMID:26904411

  3. First and Fourth-Year Student's Perceptions about Importance of Nursing Care Behaviors: Socialization toward Caring

    PubMed Central

    Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Valizadeh, Leila; Azimzadeh, Roghaieh; Aminaie, Nasim; Yousefzadeh, Sedigeh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The essence of professional nursing is caring and so, nursing education must make caring as a significant part of their curricula. In this regard, little research exists about how nursing students perceive caring. The aim of this study is to investigate the nursing students' perception toward caring and thus, the impact of socialization process on their perception of caring will be determined. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done among all first and fourth-year nursing students (n=230) in Tabriz and Urmia faculties of nursing, 2012. Data were collected using Larson's Caring Questionnaire that assessed the importance of nursing care behaviors (n=50) in six dimensions: "being accessible", "explains and facilitates", "comforts", "anticipates", "trusting relationship" and "monitors and follows through". Results: The importance of caring behaviors was evaluated by the first and fourth-year nursing students in moderate to high level and also, the both groups considered higher ranks for "monitors and follows through" and "being accessible" and lower ranks for "anticipates" and "trusting relationships". The fourth-year students only ranked "explains and facilitates" higher than the first-year students, but the "comforts" dimension is not differed significantly between groups. Conclusion: The findings demonstrated that nursing education in this study has not likely succeeded in producing intended changes in the nursing students' perceptions. It is recommended to exactly find the perceptual changes or in principle the professional socialization process of nursing students, more research using longitudinal designs be conducted to examine the differences in students' perceptions of caring upon entering and completing the nursing program. PMID:25276752

  4. Social burden and lifestyle in adults with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Zomer, A Carla; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P; van der Velde, Enno T; Sieswerda, Gert-Jan T; Wajon, Elly M C; Plomp, Koos; van Bergen, Paul F M; Verheugt, Carianne L; Krivka, Eva; de Vries, Cees J; Lok, Dirk J A; Grobbee, Diederick E; Mulder, Barbara J M

    2012-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate how the presence and severity of congenital heart disease (CHD) influence social life and lifestyle in adult patients. A random sample (n = 1,496) from the CONgenital CORvitia (n = 11,047), the Dutch national registry of adult patients with CHD, completed a questionnaire on educational attainment, employment and marital statuses, and lifestyle (response 76%). The Utrecht Health Project provided a large reference group (n = 6,810) of unaffected subjects. Logistic regression models were used for subgroup analyses and to adjust for age, gender, and socioeconomic status where appropriate. Of all patients 51.5% were men (median age 39 years, interquartile range 29 to 51) with mild (46%), moderate (44%), and severe (10%) CHD. Young (<40-year-old) patients with CHD were more likely to have achieved a lower education (adjusted odds ratios [ORs] 1.6 for men and 1.9 for women, p <0.05 for the 2 comparisons), significantly more often unemployed (adjusted ORs 5.9 and 2.0 for men and women, respectively), and less likely to be in a relationship compared to the reference group (adjusted ORs 8.5 for men and 4.5 for women). These poorer outcomes were seen in all severity groups. Overall, the CHD population smoked less (adjusted OR 0.5, p <0.05), had more sports participation (adjusted OR 1.2, p <0.05), and had less obesity (adjusted OR 0.7, p <0.05) than the reference group. In conclusion, there was a substantial social disadvantage in adult patients with CHD, which was seen in all severity groups and primarily in young men. In contrast, adults with CHD had healthier lifestyles compared to the reference group.

  5. Stalking, and Social and Romantic Functioning among Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Mark; Newton, Naomi; Kaur, Archana

    2007-01-01

    We examine the nature and predictors of social and romantic functioning in adolescents and adults with ASD. Parental reports were obtained for 25 ASD adolescents and adults (13-36 years), and 38 typical adolescents and adults (13-30 years). The ASD group relied less upon peers and friends for social (OR = 52.16, p less than 0.01) and romantic…

  6. Young Adult Cancer Survivors’ Experience with Cancer Treatment and Follow-Up Care and Perceptions of Barriers to Engaging in Recommended Care

    PubMed Central

    Stratton, Erin; Esiashvili, Natia; Mertens, Ann

    2016-01-01

    We examined correlates of low engagement in the healthcare system, experiences with survivorship care, barriers to follow-up care, and potential resources for promoting follow-up care among young adult survivors of childhood cancers. We conducted a mixed-method study involving surveys of 106 survivors of childhood cancer aged 18–34 recruited from a university-affiliated children’s hospital and an NCI-designated cancer center in the Southeastern USA. Phone-based semistructured interviews were then conducted in a subset of 26. Assessments included health factors, psychosocial factors, healthcare system interaction, and interest in resources to promote engagement in healthcare. Survey participants were on average 22.14(SD=3.16) years old, 50.0 % female, and 77.4 % White. Overall, 46.0 % had attended survivorship clinic, 47.2 % reported receiving a treatment summary, 68.9 % had a primary care provider, and 17.0 % reported no interaction with healthcare in the past 2 years. Correlates of less than annual healthcare provider visits included being older (p=0.003), being male (p<0.001), lack of insurance (p=0.002), and having had chemotherapy (p=0.05). Participants reported varied experiences in terms of how health and treatment information was presented, from none or too little to overwhelming or anxiety-provoking amounts. Barriers to engaging in survivorship care included no/limited insurance, time, or transportation; major life changes; anxiety; and difficulty transitioning from pediatrics to adult care. Participants highlighted the need for educational and psychosocial resources, particularly technology-based resources. Multilevel interventions are needed to increase engagement in survivor-ship care among young adult cancer survivors. Technology-based resources addressing social support and mental well-being are intervention possibilities. PMID:25948413

  7. Enriched environment increases neurogenesis and improves social memory persistence in socially isolated adult mice.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Brisa M M; Moreira, Fabrício A; Massensini, André R; Moraes, Márcio F D; Pereira, Grace S

    2014-02-01

    Social memory consists of the information necessary to identify and recognize cospecifics and is essential to many forms of social interaction. Social memory persistence is strongly modulated by the animal's experiences. We have shown in previous studies that social isolation (SI) in adulthood impairs social memory persistence and that an enriched environment (EE) prevents this impairment. However, the mechanisms involved in the effects of SI and EE on social memory persistence remain unknown. We hypothesized that the mechanism by which SI and EE affect social memory persistence is through their modulation of neurogenesis. To investigate this hypothesis, adult mice were submitted to 7 days of one of the following conditions: group-housing in a standard (GH) or enriched environment (GH+EE); social isolation in standard (SI) or enriched environment (SI+EE). We observed an increase in the number of newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG) and glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb (OB) in both GH+EE and SI+EE mice. However, this increase of newborn neurons in the granule cell layer of the OB was restricted to the GH+EE group. Furthermore, both SI and SI+EE groups showed less neurogenesis in the mitral layer of the OB. Interestingly, the performance of the SI mice in the buried food-finding task was inferior to that of the GH mice. To further analyze whether increased neurogenesis is in fact the mechanism by which the EE improves social memory persistence in SI mice, we administered the mitotic inhibitor AraC or saline directly into the lateral ventricles of the SI+EE mice. We found that the AraC treatment decreased cell proliferation in both the DG and OB, and impaired social memory persistence in the SI+EE mice. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that neurogenesis is what supports social memory persistence in socially isolated mice.

  8. Contributors to Adult Sibling Relationships and Intention to Care of Siblings of Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuskelly, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of childhood sibling relationships to adult sibling relationships and intention to provide care was investigated in a sample in which one member of each dyad had Down syndrome. Thirty-nine adult siblings of an adult with Down syndrome who had participated in a study of sibling relationships in childhood/adolescence provided data…

  9. The complexity of older adults' social support networks.

    PubMed

    Chaichanawirote, Uraiwan; Higgins, Patricia A

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed snapshot of the diversity of social support networks of 95 independent-living older adults (mean age = 76). Participants in the convenience sample were recruited from senior centers and a retirement community. Using the Arizona Social Support Interview Schedule and egocentric network analysis, participants' networks are described in terms of patterns, density, size of positive networks (available and utilized), size of negative networks (available and utilized), support need, and support satisfaction. Each participant and the identified members of his or her network were considered a complex adaptive system. Network boundary was 7 members; average network size was 6.22 members (SD = 1.50); network density was moderate (mean = 0.53, SD = 0.33); positive interaction networks were larger than negative networks; and overall, participants reported moderate support need (mean = 2.5, SD = 0.7) and high support satisfaction (mean = 5.9, SD = 1.0).

  10. Creating and Maintaining a Wellness Environment in Child Care Centers Participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofton, Kristi L.; Carr, Deborah H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study identifies issues associated with creating and maintaining a wellness environment in child care centers (CCCs) participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). Methods: Structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with CCC professionals and state agency personnel to develop a survey to assess…

  11. Integrating funds for health and social care: an evidence review

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, Maria; Weatherly, Helen; Chalkley, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Integrated funds for health and social care are one possible way of improving care for people with complex care requirements. If integrated funds facilitate coordinated care, this could support improvements in patient experience, and health and social care outcomes, reduce avoidable hospital admissions and delayed discharges, and so reduce costs. In this article, we examine whether this potential has been realized in practice. Methods We propose a framework based on agency theory for understanding the role that integrated funding can play in promoting coordinated care, and review the evidence to see whether the expected effects are realized in practice. We searched eight electronic databases and relevant websites, and checked reference lists of reviews and empirical studies. We extracted data on the types of funding integration used by schemes, their benefits and costs (including unintended effects), and the barriers to implementation. We interpreted our findings with reference to our framework. Results The review included 38 schemes from eight countries. Most of the randomized evidence came from Australia, with nonrandomized comparative evidence available from Australia, Canada, England, Sweden and the US. None of the comparative evidence isolated the effect of integrated funding; instead, studies assessed the effects of ‘integrated financing plus integrated care’ (i.e. ‘integration’) relative to usual care. Most schemes (24/38) assessed health outcomes, of which over half found no significant impact on health. The impact of integration on secondary care costs or use was assessed in 34 schemes. In 11 schemes, integration had no significant effect on secondary care costs or utilisation. Only three schemes reported significantly lower secondary care use compared with usual care. In the remaining 19 schemes, the evidence was mixed or unclear. Some schemes achieved short-term reductions in delayed discharges, but there was anecdotal evidence of

  12. Early interactions with mother and peers independently build adult social skills and shape BDNF and oxytocin receptor brain levels

    PubMed Central

    Branchi, Igor; Curley, James P.; D’Andrea, Ivana; Cirulli, Francesca; Champagne, Frances A.; Alleva, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    The early social environment has a profound impact on developmental trajectories. Although an impoverished early environment can undermine the acquisition of appropriate social skills, the specific role played by the different components of an individual’s early environment in building social competencies has not been fully elucidated. Here we setup an asynchronous communal nesting paradigm in mice to disentangle the influence of maternal care and early peer interactions on adult social behavior and neural systems reportedly involved in the regulation of social interactions. The asynchronous communal nesting consists of three mothers giving birth three days apart, generating three groups of pups -- the Old, the Middle and the Young – all raised in a single nest from birth to weaning. We scored the amount of maternal and peer interactions received by these mice and by a fourth group reared under standard conditions. At adulthood, the four experimental groups have been investigated for social behavior in a social interaction test, i.e. facing an unfamiliar conspecific during five 20-min daily encounters, and for oxytocin receptor and BDNF levels. Results show that only individuals exposed to high levels of both maternal and peer interactions demonstrated elaborate adult agonistic competencies, i.e. the ability to promptly display a social status, and high BDNF levels in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and hypothalamus. By contrast, only individuals exposed to high levels of peer interactions showed enhanced adult affiliative behavior and enhanced oxytocin receptor levels in selected nuclei of the amygdala. Overall these findings indicate that early interactions with mother and peers independently shape specific facets of adult social behavior and neural systems involved in social interaction. PMID:22910688

  13. Early interactions with mother and peers independently build adult social skills and shape BDNF and oxytocin receptor brain levels.

    PubMed

    Branchi, Igor; Curley, James P; D'Andrea, Ivana; Cirulli, Francesca; Champagne, Frances A; Alleva, Enrico

    2013-04-01

    The early social environment has a profound impact on developmental trajectories. Although an impoverished early environment can undermine the acquisition of appropriate social skills, the specific role played by the different components of an individual's early environment in building social competencies has not been fully elucidated. Here we setup an asynchronous communal nesting paradigm in mice to disentangle the influence of maternal care and early peer interactions on adult social behavior and neural systems reportedly involved in the regulation of social interactions. The asynchronous communal nesting consists of three mothers giving birth three days apart, generating three groups of pups - the Old, the Middle and the Young - all raised in a single nest from birth to weaning. We scored the amount of maternal and peer interactions received by these mice and by a fourth group reared under standard conditions. At adulthood, the four experimental groups have been investigated for social behavior in a social interaction test, i.e. facing an unfamiliar conspecific during five 20-min daily encounters, and for oxytocin receptor and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels. Results show that only individuals exposed to high levels of both maternal and peer interactions demonstrated elaborate adult agonistic competencies, i.e. the ability to promptly display a social status, and high BDNF levels in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and hypothalamus. By contrast, only individuals exposed to high levels of peer interactions showed enhanced adult affiliative behavior and enhanced oxytocin receptor levels in selected nuclei of the amygdala. Overall these findings indicate that early interactions with mother and peers independently shape specific facets of adult social behavior and neural systems involved in social interaction.

  14. Health reform in Massachusetts increased adult dental care use, particularly among the poor.

    PubMed

    Nasseh, Kamyar; Vujicic, Marko

    2013-09-01

    States frequently expand or limit dental benefits for adults covered by Medicaid. As part of statewide health reform in 2006, Massachusetts expanded dental benefits to all adults ages 19-64 whose annual income was at or below 100 percent of the federal poverty level. We examined the impact of this reform and found that it led to an increase in dental care use among the Massachusetts adult population, driven by gains among poor adults. Compared to the prereform period, dental care use increased by 2.9 percentage points among all nonelderly adults in Massachusetts, relative to all nonelderly adults in eight control states. For poor Massachusetts adults, the effect was larger-an eleven-percentage-point increase in dental care use above the increase among the state's nonpoor residents. The Massachusetts experience provides evidence that providing dental benefits to poor adults through Medicaid can improve dental care access and use. Our results imply that the lack of expanded dental coverage for low-income adults under the Affordable Care Act is a missed opportunity to improve access to oral care.

  15. Social determinants of eyeblinks in adult male macaques

    PubMed Central

    Ballesta, Sébastien; Mosher, Clayton P.; Szep, Jeno; Fischl, Kate D.; Gothard, Katalin M.

    2016-01-01

    Videos with rich social and emotional content elicit natural social behaviors in primates. Indeed, while watching videos of conspecifics, monkeys engage in eye contact, gaze follow, and reciprocate facial expressions. We hypothesized that the frequency and timing of eyeblinks also depends on the social signals contained in videos. We monitored the eyeblinks of four male adult macaques while they watched videos of conspecifics displaying facial expressions with direct or averted gaze. The instantaneous blink rate of all four animals decreased during videos. The temporal synchrony of blinking, however, increased in response to segments depicting appeasing or aggressive facial expressions directed at the viewer. Two of the four monkeys, who systematically reciprocated the direct gaze of the stimulus monkeys, also showed eyeblink entrainment, a temporal coordination of blinking between social partners engaged in dyadic interactions. Together, our results suggest that in macaques, as in humans, blinking depends not only on the physiological imperative to protect the eyes and spread a film of tears over the cornea, but also on several socio-emotional factors. PMID:27922101

  16. How Many Social Workers Are Needed in Primary Care? A Patient-Based Needs Assessment Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, James; Bikson, Karra; Blue-Howells, Jessica

    2005-01-01

    This study measured levels of self-reported social need in a sample of 684 veterans seen in four primary care clinics of a large Veterans Affairs health care system, using the Social Needs Checklist, and calculated levels of social work staffing to meet these needs. Data were obtained on the presence and severity of 15 areas of social needs,…

  17. A Decade in Dental Care Utilization among Adults and Children (2001–2010)

    PubMed Central

    Vujicic, Marko; Nasseh, Kamyar

    2014-01-01

    Objective To decompose the change in pediatric and adult dental care utilization over the last decade. Data 2001 through 2010 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Study Design The Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition was used to explain the change in dental care utilization among adults and children. Changes in dental care utilization were attributed to changes in explained covariates and changes due to movements in estimated coefficients. Controlling for demographics, overall health status, and dental benefits variables, we estimated year-specific logistic regression models. Outputs from these models were used to compute the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition. Principal Findings Dental care utilization decreased from 40.5 percent in 2001 to 37.0 percent in 2010 for adults and increased from 43.2 percent in 2001 to 46.3 percent in 2010 for children (p < .05). Among adults, changes in insurance status, race, and income contributed to a decline in adult dental care utilization (−0.018, p < .01). Among children, changes in controlled factors did not substantially change dental care utilization, which instead may be explained by changes in policy, oral health status, or preferences. Conclusions Dental care utilization for adults has declined, especially among the poor and uninsured. Without further policy intervention, disadvantaged adults face increasing barriers to dental care. PMID:24299620

  18. Social Interaction with Adults with Severe Intellectual Disability: Having Fun and Hanging Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Hilary; Douglas, Jacinta; Bigby, Christine; Iacono, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social interaction is integral to social inclusion. Little is known about the nature of social interaction between adults with severe intellectual disability and those with whom they engage. Method: Participants were six adults with intellectual disability and people identified as those with whom they shared demonstrable pleasurable…

  19. Exploration of Older and Younger British Adults' Performance on the Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdon, Paul; Dipper, Lucy; Cocks, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Social perception is an important skill. One assessment that is commonly used to assess social perception abilities is The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT). The only normative data available for this test are for Australian younger adults. Despite no normative data being available for British adults, the test is widely used…

  20. The Social Prioritization Index and Tobacco Use among Young Adult Bar Patrons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisha, Nadra E.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.; Holmes, Louisa M.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2016-01-01

    Social benefits likely play a role in young adult tobacco use. The Social Prioritization Index (SPI) was developed to measure the degree to which young adults place a great importance on their social lives. We examined the usefulness of this measure as a potential predictor of tobacco use controlling for demographics and tobacco-related attitudes.…

  1. The Social Inclusion of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Phenomenology of Their Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sarah A.

    2010-01-01

    Social inclusion enhances the quality of life of young adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Young adults with ID continue to face prejudice and discrimination that limit their social inclusion. They experience limited social inclusion because there are not enough appropriate activities available and they have limited opportunities to…

  2. Reading for a Better World: Teaching for Social Responsibility with Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolk, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Teaching for social responsibility should be one of the vital aims of our schools. Young adult literature offers an authentic, meaningful, and critical way to teach for social responsibility. This article offers an overview of the different elements of social responsibility and some young adult novels and graphic novels that could be used to teach…

  3. The Social Ecology of Maternal Infant Care in Socially and Economically Marginalized Community in Southern Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daoud, Nihaya; O'Campo, Patricia; Anderson, Kim; Agbaria, Ayman K.; Shoham-Vardi, Ilana

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to better understand the social ecology of infant care (IC) as experienced and perceived by mothers living in a deprived Arab Bedouin community in Israel, where children's health indicators are poor. We used the integrative model of Garcia Coll et al. (Garcia Coll C, Lamberty G, Jenkins R "et al." An integrative model for…

  4. Using a social entrepreneurial approach to enhance the financial and social value of health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sandra S; Lu, Jui-Fen Rachel; Guo, Kristina L

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a conceptual framework was developed to show that social entrepreneurial practices can be effectively translated to meet the social needs in health care. We used a theory-in-use case study approach that encompasses postulation of a working taxonomy from literature scanning and a deliberation of the taxonomy through triangulation of multilevel data of a case study conducted in a Taiwan-based hospital system. Specifically, we demonstrated that a nonprofit organization can adopt business principles that emphasize both financial and social value. We tested our model and found comprehensive accountability across departments throughout the case hospital system, and this led to sustainable and continual growth of the organization. Through social entrepreneurial practices, we established that both financial value creation and fulfilling the social mission for the case hospital system can be achieved.

  5. Staff Morale in Day Care Centres for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascha, Katerina

    2007-01-01

    Background: Levels of burnout, job satisfaction and intended turnover of staff working in day care centres for adults with intellectual disabilities are investigated in relation to role clarity, staff support and supervision, and coping strategies used by staff. Materials and methods: Thirty six direct-care staff of four day care centres in the UK…

  6. Nurse Practitioner Primary Care Competencies in Specialty Areas: Adult, Family, Gerontological, Pediatric, and Women's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crabtree, M. Katherine; Stanley, Joan; Werner, Kathryn E.; Schmid, Emily

    This document presents the nurse practitioner primary care competencies that a national panel of representatives of nine national organizations of the five primary care nurse practitioner specialties--adult, family, gerontological, pediatric, and women's health--identified as necessary for entry-level primary care nurse practitioners. Section 1…

  7. Physician Perspectives on Providing Primary Medical Care to Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warfield, Marji Erickson; Crossman, Morgan K.; Delahaye, Jennifer; Der Weerd, Emma; Kuhlthau, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted in-depth case studies of 10 health care professionals who actively provide primary medical care to adults with autism spectrum disorders. The study sought to understand their experiences in providing this care, the training they had received, the training they lack and their suggestions for encouraging more physicians to provide this…

  8. Primary Care for Adults with Down Syndrome: Adherence to Preventive Healthcare Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, K. M.; Taylor, L. C.; Davis, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Due to significant medical improvements, persons with Down syndrome now live well into adulthood. Consequently, primary care for adults with Down syndrome needs to incorporate routine care with screening for condition-specific comorbidities. This study seeks to evaluate the adherence of primary care physicians to age- and…

  9. Labeling and the effect of adolescent legal system involvement on adult outcomes for foster youth aging out of care.

    PubMed

    Lee, JoAnn S; Courtney, Mark E; Harachi, Tracy W; Tajima, Emiko A

    2015-09-01

    This study uses labeling theory to examine the role that adolescent legal system involvement may play in initiating a process of social exclusion, leading to higher levels of adult criminal activities among foster youth who have aged out of care. We used data from the Midwest Evaluation of the Adult Functioning of Former Foster Youth (Midwest Study), a prospective study that sampled 732 youth from Illinois, Iowa, and Wisconsin as they were preparing to leave the foster care system at ages 17 or 18. The youth were interviewed again at ages 19, 21, and 23 or 24. We used structural equation modeling to examine pathways to self-reported adult criminal behaviors from juvenile legal system involvement. The path model indicated that legal system involvement as a juvenile was associated with a lower likelihood of having a high school diploma at age 19, which was associated with a reduced likelihood of employment and increased criminal activities at age 21. Legal system involvement is more common among foster youth aging out of care, and this legal system involvement appears to contribute to a process of social exclusion by excluding former foster youth from conventional opportunities.

  10. The attitudes of graduate healthcare students toward older adults, personal aging, health care reform, and interprofessional collaboration.

    PubMed

    Golden, Adam G; Gammonley, Denise; Hunt, Debra; Olsen, Edwin; Issenberg, S Barry

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare reform has led to an increased emphasis on interprofessional healthcare models for older adults. Unfortunately, best practice education that focuses on the interprofessional healthcare of the elderly does not yet exist. As a prelude to implementing interprofessional geriatric educational initiatives, we developed a survey to identify potential attitudinal differences among graduate healthcare students regarding personal aging, caring for older adults, healthcare reform and the role of the physician on the interprofessional team. We surveyed third-year medical students, nurse practitioner students and graduate social work students. Attitudes regarding personal aging were similar among the professions. Nurse practitioner and social work students had higher positive attitudes toward the care of older adults. Concerns about the impact of healthcare reform on quality and healthcare costs differed significantly. There was also a significant difference in attitudes concerning the role of the physician as the leader of the interprofessional team. These results provide insights into gerontologic-focused attitudes of graduate healthcare professional students. In an era of dramatic healthcare change, these findings will assist educators in the development and implementation of educational programs to prepare graduate students for the interprofessional care of elderly patients.

  11. Mental Illness, Behavior Problems, and Social Behavior in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straccia, Claudio; Baggio, Stéphanie; Barisnikov, Koviljka

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the behavioral characteristics of adults with Down syndrome (DS) without dementia. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the psychopathology and social behavior among adults with DS compared to adults with nonspecific intellectual disability (NSID). Thirty-four adults with DS were individually matched with 34…

  12. Committee Opinion No. 653: Concerns Regarding Social Media and Health Issues in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    Although there are many positive aspects of social media for adolescents and young adults, there are also risks. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental changes, during which adolescents exhibit a limited capacity for self-regulation and an increased risk of susceptibility to peer pressure and experimentation. Social media can be harmful, and obstetrician-gynecologists may screen their adolescent and young adult patients for high-risk sexual behaviors, especially if sexualized text communication (sexting), exposure to pornography, online dating, or other risk-taking behaviors are present. Victims of cyberbullying and those who engage in sexting are at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy. The effect of social media may be considered in the differential diagnosis of myriad health problems during adolescence. Referrals to mental health care providers or providing outside resources may be indicated. A multidisciplinary approach to address these issues can include the obstetrician-gynecologist, guardians, and school officials and personnel. Knowledge of resources, including those within the schools and community, allows the obstetrician-gynecologist to provide support to adolescents facing these issues.

  13. Impact of oral health care needs on health-related quality of life in adult HIV+ patients.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Gabriel A; D'Eramo, Luciana R; Lecumberri, Rodolfo; Squassi, Aldo F

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the social impact of oral conditions on health-related quality of life in adult HIV+ patients and create a predictive model. The oral health impact profile questionnaire OHIP-49 was randomly administered to 200 HIV+ adults patients of any age and either sex at the High Risk Patients Dental Care Unit (CLAPAR I), School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires. Argentina. For each of the 49 items, participants indicated their responses on a five point Likert-type frequency scale ranging from "never" to "very often". Oral health needs were assessed through the CCITN (Community Caries Index of Treatment Need) and CPITN (Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Need). The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the OHIP-49 score between male and female respondents. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to assess score differences among the OHIP-49 domains. Altogether, 50% of the respondents were male and 50% were female, aged 36.45 +/- 0.70 years and 38.03 +/- 0.78 years respectively. The assessment of oral health care needs revealed a great need for treatment. Mean CCITN was 11.15 +/- 0.35 and CPITN was 2.41 +/- 0.12. The average total OHIP-49 score (83) revealed a high level of social impact, which was higher for female compared to male respondents (Z(T) = 2.08, p = 0.037). The domains concerning functional limitation (domain 1), physical pain (domain 2) and psychological discomfort (domain 3) showed higher levels of social impact (H = 395.06, p < 0.0001). The social impact observed in these domains was higher for female compared to male patients. In the correlation analysis, oral conditions, age, gender and social impact were significantly associated. These results demonstrate that unmet oral health care need impairs the quality of life of HIV+ patients and suggest the need of comprehensive oral health care interventions.

  14. Ethnic Variation in Oral Health and Social Integration among Older Rural Adults

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Chen, Haiying; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2011-01-01

    This analysis examines the associations of oral health with social integration among ethnically diverse (African American, American Indian, white) rural older adults. Data are from a cross-sectional survey of 635 randomly selected community-dwelling adults aged 60+. Measures include self-rated oral health, number of teeth, number of oral health problems, social engagement, and social network size. Minority elders have poorer oral health than do white older adults. Most rural elders have substantial social engagement and social networks. Better oral health (greater number of teeth) is directly associated with social engagement, while the relationship of oral health to social network size is complex. The association of oral health with social engagement does not differ by ethnicity. Poorer oral health is associated with less social integration among African American, American Indian and white elders. More research on the ways oral health affects the lives of older adults is warranted. PMID:23788829

  15. Ethnic variation in oral health and social integration among older rural adults.

    PubMed

    Arcury, Thomas A; Chen, Haiying; Savoca, Margaret R; Anderson, Andrea M; Leng, Xiaoyan; Bell, Ronny A; Quandt, Sara A

    2013-04-01

    This analysis examines the associations of oral health with social integration among ethnically diverse (African American, American Indian, White) rural older adults. Data are from a cross-sectional survey of 635 randomly selected community-dwelling adults aged 60+. Measures include self-rated oral health, number of teeth, number of oral health problems, social engagement, and social network size. Minority elders have poorer oral health than do White older adults. Most rural elders have substantial social engagement and social networks. Better oral health (greater number of teeth) is directly associated with social engagement, whereas the relationship of oral health to social network size is complex. The association of oral health with social engagement does not differ by ethnicity. Poorer oral health is associated with less social integration among African American, American Indian, and White elders. More research on the ways oral health affects the lives of older adults is warranted.

  16. Implementing the chronic care model for frail older adults in the Netherlands: study protocol of ACT (frail older adults: care in transition)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Care for older adults is facing a number of challenges: health problems are not consistently identified at a timely stage, older adults report a lack of autonomy in their care process, and care systems are often confronted with the need for better coordination between health care professionals. We aim to address these challenges by introducing the geriatric care model, based on the chronic care model, and to evaluate its effects on the quality of life of community-dwelling frail older adults. Methods/design In a 2-year stepped-wedge cluster randomised clinical trial with 6-monthly measurements, the chronic care model will be compared with usual care. The trial will be carried out among 35 primary care practices in two regions in the Netherlands. Per region, practices will be randomly allocated to four allocation arms designating the starting point of the intervention. Participants: 1200 community-dwelling older adults aged 65 or over and their primary informal caregivers. Primary care physicians will identify frail individuals based on a composite definition of frailty and a polypharmacy criterion. Final inclusion criterion: scoring 3 or more on a disability case-finding tool. Intervention: Every 6 months patients will receive a geriatric in-home assessment by a practice nurse, followed by a tailored care plan. Expert teams will manage and train practice nurses. Patients with complex care needs will be reviewed in interdisciplinary consultations. Evaluation: We will perform an effect evaluation, an economic evaluation, and a process evaluation. Primary outcome is quality of life as measured with the Short Form-12 questionnaire. Effect analyses will be based on the “intention-to-treat” principle, using multilevel regression analysis. Cost measurements will be administered continually during the study period. A cost-effectiveness analysis and cost-utility analysis will be conducted comparing mean total costs to functional status, care needs and QALYs

  17. Early and adult social environments have independent effects on individual fitness in a social vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Berger, Vérane; Lemaître, Jean-François; Allainé, Dominique; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Cohas, Aurélie

    2015-08-22

    Evidence that the social environment at critical stages of life-history shapes individual trajectories is accumulating. Previous studies have identified either current or delayed effects of social environments on fitness components, but no study has yet analysed fitness consequences of social environments at different life stages simultaneously. To fill the gap, we use an extensive dataset collected during a 24-year intensive monitoring of a population of Alpine marmots (Marmota marmota), a long-lived social rodent. We test whether the number of helpers in early life and over the dominance tenure length has an impact on litter size at weaning, juvenile survival, longevity and lifetime reproductive success (LRS) of dominant females. Dominant females, who were born into a group containing many helpers and experiencing a high number of accumulated helpers over dominance tenure length showed an increased LRS through an increased longevity. We provide evidence that in a wild vertebrate, both early and adult social environments influence individual fitness, acting additionally and independently. These findings demonstrate that helpers have both short- and long-term effects on dominant female Alpine marmots and that the social environment at the time of birth can play a key role in shaping individual fitness in social vertebrates.

  18. Early and adult social environments have independent effects on individual fitness in a social vertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Vérane; Lemaître, Jean-François; Allainé, Dominique; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Cohas, Aurélie

    2015-01-01

    Evidence that the social environment at critical stages of life-history shapes individual trajectories is accumulating. Previous studies have identified either current or delayed effects of social environments on fitness components, but no study has yet analysed fitness consequences of social environments at different life stages simultaneously. To fill the gap, we use an extensive dataset collected during a 24-year intensive monitoring of a population of Alpine marmots (Marmota marmota), a long-lived social rodent. We test whether the number of helpers in early life and over the dominance tenure length has an impact on litter size at weaning, juvenile survival, longevity and lifetime reproductive success (LRS) of dominant females. Dominant females, who were born into a group containing many helpers and experiencing a high number of accumulated helpers over dominance tenure length showed an increased LRS through an increased longevity. We provide evidence that in a wild vertebrate, both early and adult social environments influence individual fitness, acting additionally and independently. These findings demonstrate that helpers have both short- and long-term effects on dominant female Alpine marmots and that the social environment at the time of birth can play a key role in shaping individual fitness in social vertebrates. PMID:26246552

  19. Nursing care for adolescents and young adults with cancer: literature review.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Juliet; Schwartz-Attias, Irit

    2014-01-01

    Cancer patients belonging to the adolescent and young adult (AYA) age group have unique and very specific needs, which require special attention from the caring staff. The difficulty in maintaining the personal and professional development at this age is both natural and normal. Adding to this, coping with a life-threatening disease turns this stage in life into a period with many dilemmas and challenges of quite a complex nature. AYA patients have to deal with issues above and beyond the disease itself, which create a very complex coping picture. On top of that, prognosis for this age group has not improved in recent years, unlike the situation in other age groups like children and adults. The literature on this subject is extensive and comprehensive. However, most of the papers on this subject are very specific and narrow in their approach, each dealing with a specific topic. In this article, we bring together many different papers which make a wide and comprehensive picture of the subject of AYAs coping with cancer, coupled with recommendations for the caring staff. In this review we focus on the various aspects of the disease and treatments in AYAs, based on the conceptual model of quality of life proposed by Ferrell and colleagues [Cancer Nurs 1992;15:153-160; Cancer Nurs 1992;15:247-253], including physical, social, emotional and spiritual aspects. From the psychological standpoint, most of the papers discuss the negative aspects; however, in this article we try to include some articles from the positive psychology school of thought. From our findings it is apparent that there is an opportunity and need to further explore research in this regard. It is apparent that taking a unique approach to AYA cancer patients is needed in order to deal with the unique needs of this age group. This article aims at putting a framework around this issue, with actionable recommendations for the caring staff.

  20. Conceptual Challenges and Practical Approaches to Screening Capacity for Self-care and Protection in Vulnerable Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Aanand D.; Teal, Cayla R.; Pavlik, Valory N.; Dyer, Carmel B.; McCullough, Laurence B.

    2008-01-01

    Identifying impairments in the capacity to make and execute decisions is critical to the assessment and remediation of elder self-neglect. Few capacity assessment tools are available for use outside of health care settings and none have been validated in the context of elder self-neglect. Health and social services professionals are in need of validated tools to assess capacity for self-care and self protection during initial evaluations of older adults with suspected self-neglect syndrome. Currently, legal and medical declarations of incapacity and guardianship rely on clinical evaluations and instruments developed to assess only decision-making capacity. This paper first describes the conceptual and methodological challenges to assessing the capacity to make and execute decisions regarding safe and independent living. Second, the paper describes the pragmatic obstacles to developing a screening tool for the capacity for self-care and self protection (SC&P). Finally, the paper outlines the process for validation and field testing of the screening tool. A valid and feasible screening tool can then be used during field assessments by social services professionals to screen for potential impairments in the capacity for self-care and protection in vulnerable older adults. PMID:19016970

  1. Priorities for young adults when accessing UK primary care: literature review.

    PubMed

    Davey, Antoinette; Carter, Mary; Campbell, John L

    2013-10-01

    This literature review focuses on what matters to young adults when they access primary care services in the United Kingdom. Patients' access to and experience of primary care services differs across age groups. Existing research has largely focused on the needs and experiences of children, adolescents, and adults. There is some evidence to suggest the views of young adults (aged 18-25 years) that may differ from the views of other age groups, and research has not previously reported specifically on the views of this group of the population. The literature was reviewed to identify the views and priorities of young UK adults regarding primary healthcare provision, and furthermore, to identify those related topics that would benefit from further research. Relevant academic publications and grey literature published from 2000 onwards was reviewed and synthesised. We identified and reported emerging themes that were of importance to young adults in respect of the UK primary care provision. A total of 19 papers met our inclusion criteria. Young adults access primary care services less frequently than other age groups; this may be because of their experience of primary care throughout childhood and adolescence. Five aspects of primary care provision emerged as being of importance to young adults--the accessibility and availability of services, the confidentiality of health-related information, issues relating to communication with healthcare professionals, continuity of care, and behaviours and attitudes expressed towards young adults by healthcare professionals. There is a lack of focus of current research on the expectations, needs, and primary healthcare experiences of young adults. Young adults may hold views that are distinct from other age groups. Further research is needed to better understand the needs of a young adult population as their needs may impact the future use of services.

  2. Rethinking Social Justice and Adult Education for Welcoming, Inclusive Communities: Synthesis of Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Elizabeth; Baillie Abidi, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the key themes across the articles on transnational migration, social inclusion, and adult education, using Nancy Fraser's framework of redistributive, recognitive, and representational justice.

  3. Confidentiality Protections for Adolescents and Young Adults in the Health Care Billing and Insurance Claims Process.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    The importance of protecting confidential health care for adolescents and young adults is well documented. State and federal confidentiality protections exist for both minors and young adults, although the laws vary among states, particularly for minors. However, such confidentiality is potentially violated by billing practices and in the processing of health insurance claims. To address this problem, policies and procedures should be established so that health care billing and insurance claims processes do not impede the ability of providers to deliver essential health care services on a confidential basis to adolescents and young adults covered as dependents on a family's health insurance plan.

  4. Using social media in supportive and palliative care research.

    PubMed

    Casañas i Comabella, Carolina; Wanat, Marta

    2015-06-01

    Difficulties relating to supportive and palliative care research are often reported. However, studies have highlighted that people near the end of life are happy to participate in research and want their voices heard. Thus, one may raise a twofold question: are we limiting the free will of people who are seriously ill? And are we missing important data, which probably cannot be obtained from other sources? In light of this landscape, a new opportunity has emerged: the use of social media (SM). This paper provides a comprehensive summary of SM, including its theoretical underpinnings, and recent examples of successful uses of SM in healthcare research. It also outlines the opportunities (wider reach, direct access, the potential of Big Data, readiness of research data, empowered participants) and challenges (anonymity of participants, digital divide, sample bias, screening and 'saying no' to participants, data analysis) of using SM in end-of-life care research. Finally, it describes the practical steps that a researcher could follow to recruit patients using SM. Implications for palliative care clinicians, researchers and policymakers are also discussed, with a focus on the need to facilitate patient-centred care through the use of SM. The need for relevant and updated guidelines in this new, emerging field is highlighted.

  5. [Social psychiatric service as a cornerstone of psychiatric community care].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, P; Tiggemann, H G

    1991-12-01

    Psychiatric care has gradually been shifting in Germany from its original inpatient basis to outpatient and complementary treatment. This shift of emphasis resulted in a transfer of psychiatry-political responsibility to communal bodies and hence also to communal public health services. Sociopsychiatric service ranks high in communal psychiatric care setups, since it promotes cooperation and helps to coordinate efforts in individual cases in respect of focal points on which such care is centered. For the future, an expert commission has suggested that the various institutions actively engaged in community psychiatric care should team up in each region. This applies in particular to mobile services visiting the patients in their homes, and to the offices providing contracts to sociopsychiatric services of public health offices. Despite positive outlooks there are also quite a few negative aspects of present-day practice. One of them is poor definition of tasks and functions of communal sociopsychiatric services, whereas another one are the unsatisfactory quantitative and qualitative means at their disposal. It is also too often overlooked that psychiatric patients and disabled persons are entitled to compensation insurance payments to promote their rehabilitation, as provided for by individual legislation in the various German laender. To tap these sources sufficiently well, sociopsychiatric services must be better equipped in every respect. The professional competence of social workers and physicians, as well as of the relevant staff, must be safeguarded by continuing education and specialist training measures.

  6. Indicators of Youth Social Capital: The Case for Not Using Adult Indicators in the Measurement of Youth Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billett, Paulina

    2012-01-01

    Social capital is a difficult concept to define, and the task of defining the social capital of youth is even more complicated. The concept has not only been poorly researched but is also imperfectly understood. This article examines the problems faced in the use of adult indicators in youth social capital research and explores current…

  7. Beyond bureaucracy: emerging trends in social care informatics.

    PubMed

    Wastell, David; White, Sue

    2014-09-01

    Existing information technology systems in much of UK social care have been designed to serve the interests of the bureaucracy rather than supporting professional practice or improving services to the public. The ill-starred Integrated Children's System in statutory children's services is typical. The Integrated Children's System is a system for form-filling, micro-managing professional practice through an enforced regime of standard processes and time scales. In this article, we argue against this dominant design. We provide several examples where technology has enabled alternative modes of support for professional work, based on socio-technical principles. One such system is Patchwork, which describes itself as a 'Facebook for Social Work'; its aim is to support multi-professional teams working with vulnerable families.

  8. Mental health in young adults and adolescents - supporting general physicians to provide holistic care.

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Izabela

    2015-04-01

    In the era of an ageing population, young adults on medical wards are quite rare, as only 12% of young adults report a long-term illness or disability. However, mental health problems remain prevalent in the younger population. In a recent report, mental health and obesity were listed as the most common problems in young adults. Teams set up specifically for the needs of younger adults, such as early intervention in psychosis services are shown to work better than traditional care and have also proven to be cost effective. On the medical wards, younger patients may elicit strong emotions in staff, who often feel protective and may identify strongly with the young patient's suffering. In order to provide holistic care for young adults, general physicians need to recognise common presentations of mental illness in young adults such as depression, deliberate self-harm, eating disorders and substance misuse. Apart from treating illness, health promotion is particularly important for young adults.

  9. [Participation as Target of Social Medicine and Nursing Care: - Legal Definition of Long-Term Care Dependency - Strategies to Prevent Long-Term Care Dependency].

    PubMed

    Nüchtern, Elisabeth; Gansweid, Barbara; Gerber, Hans; von Mittelstaedt, Gert

    2017-01-01

    Objective: By the "Second Bill to Strengthen Long-Term Care", a new concept of long-term care dependency will be introduced, valid from 2017. Long-term care dependency according to Social Code XI will be defined covering more aspects than today. Therefore, the working group "Nursing Care" of the division "Social Medicine in Practice and Rehabilitation" in the German Society for Social Medicine and Prevention presents their results after working on the social medicine perspective of the definition and prevention of long-term care dependency. Methods: Both the definition and strategies to prevent long-term care dependency are systematically taken into consideration from the point of view of social medicine on the basis of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), as long-term care dependency means a defined condition of disability. Results: Both the current and the new concept of long-term care dependency focus activity limitations. The perspective of social medicine considers the interactions of health condition, its effects on daily activities and personal as well as environmental factors. From this point of view approaches for social benefits concerning prevention and rehabilitation can be identified systematically so as to work against the development and progression of long-term care dependency. The reference to the ICF can facilitate the communication between different professions. The new "graduation" of long-term care dependency would allow an international "translation" referring to the ICF. Conclusion: Experts from the field of social medicine as well as those of nursing care, care-givers and nursing researchers have in common the objective that persons in need of nursing care can participate in as many aspects of life of importance to them in an autonomous and self-determined way. The point of view of social medicine on long-term care dependency is fundamental for all occupational groups that are involved and for their

  10. Disposable adult breathing circuits for use with critical care ventilators.

    PubMed

    1994-04-01

    In this issue, we evaluate seven models of disposable breathing circuits from seven manufacturers; the evaluated circuits are intended to be used for adult patients on critical care ventilators. This study is a follow-up to our earlier Evaluation of disposable breathing circuits for use with portable ventilators, published in Health Devices 22(7), July 1993. We based our ratings on the breathing circuits' ability to function properly with minimal intervention from the healthcare provider. We rated only one of the evaluated units Acceptable; this circuit was not likely to interrupt ventilation during normal use (provided that its operation was verified before use). Three of the evaluated breathing circuits were rated Unacceptable because they had disadvantages that were likely to interrupt ventilation during normal use (e.g., a component could accidentally disconnect, the tubing could become kinked or crushed). When such a disadvantage could be compensated for by the healthcare provider, we rated the circuit Conditionally Acceptable: one circuit was rated Conditionally Acceptable; two circuits that had other significant disadvantages were rated Conditionally Acceptable--Not Recommended. We caution readers not to base purchasing decisions on our ratings alone, but on a thorough understanding of the issues surrounding our conclusions, which can be gained by reading this study in its entirety. We offer additional guidance and discuss important selection factors and usage issues in the Selection and Use Guide for Disposable Breathing Circuits included at the end of the Evaluation. Also see "Pre-use Verification of Breathing Circuits" in this issue for step-by-step guidelines to help healthcare providers and caregivers verify proper performance and identify the defective circuits that inevitably reach the clinical setting.

  11. Good-quality social care for people with Parkinson’s disease: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Fiona; Stocks, Amanda-Jayne; McDonnell, Ann; Ramaswamy, Bhanu; Wood, Brendan; Whitfield, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The study examines the meaning of good-quality social care for people with Parkinson's disease and their carers. It identifies, from their perspective, the impact of good-quality social care on health and well-being. Design Qualitative case study methodology, interview and framework analysis techniques were used. Setting: community locations in the north and midlands of England. Participants Data were collected from 43 participants including individual interviews with people with Parkinson's disease (n=4), formal and informal social care providers (n=13), 2 focus groups, 1 with people with Parkinson's disease and their carers (n=17), and 1 with professionals (n=8), plus a telephone interview with a former commissioner. Findings Good-quality social care, delivered in a timely fashion, was reported to have a positive impact on health. Furthermore, there is an indication that good-quality social care can prevent untoward events, such as infections, symptom deterioration and deterioration in mental health. The concept of the ‘Impact Gap’ developed from the findings, illustrates how the costs of care may be reduced by delivering good-quality social care. Control, choice and maintaining independence emerged as indicators of good-quality social care, irrespective of clinical condition. Participants identified characteristics indicative of good-quality social care specific to Parkinson's disease, including understanding Parkinson's disease, appropriate administration of medication, timing of care and reassessment. ‘Parkinson's aware’ social care was seen to generate psychological, physical and social benefits that were inter-related. Conclusions The findings indicate how maximising quality in social care delivery for people with Parkinson's disease can impact on health and well-being. Long-term or short-term benefits may result in prevented events and reductions in health and social care resource. Health professionals can be instrumental in early

  12. Understanding social support's role in the relationship between maltreatment and depression in youth with foster care experience.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Amy M; Keller, Thomas E; Courtney, Mark E

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated whether more complex maltreatment experiences predicted higher levels of depressive symptomatology for young adults and examined the role of social support during late adolescence in that association. Specifically, the study tested whether social support had a direct effect on depression and whether it mediated and/or moderated the relationship between self-reported maltreatment and depression in a sample of 513 youth exiting the child welfare system. Indices of maltreatment types (neglect and physical, sexual, psychological abuse) experienced during two periods (precare and during-care) were used in conjunction with a measure of perceived social support (reflecting support availability and social network sufficiency) in negative binomial regression models predicting depressive symptoms. Both precare and during-care maltreatment were associated with depressive symptoms as a young adult. Social support had a direct effect on depressive symptoms as well as moderation and partial mediation effects on the relationship between maltreatment and depression. Social support's buffering effect was stronger for those experiencing fewer types of maltreatment. This buffering effect appears to diminish as maltreatment histories become more complex.

  13. Redesigning Systems of Care for Older Adults with Alzheimer' Disease

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Christopher M.; Sachs, Greg A.; LaMantia, Michael A.; Unroe, Kathleen T.; Arling, Greg A.; Boustani, Malaz A.

    2017-01-01

    The basic principle of care for patients with Alzheimer's disease is support for a patient-caregiver dyad. Any model of care seeking to improve the quality, efficiency, or cost of care for persons with Alzheimer's disease must attend to this principle. Models of care seeking to support this dyad began with strategies focusing mainly on the family caregiver. These models have grown in complexity to encompass team-based care that seeks to coordinate care across settings and providers of care for a defined population of patients. Most Americans in most communities, however, do not have access to these best practices models. While the effectiveness of new models of care is evidence-based, there are multiple barriers to widespread adoption including workforce limitations and the cost of practice redesign. We review the origins and content of current models and describe early efforts to improve their implementation on a broader scale. PMID:24711324

  14. Social Norms and Dietary Behaviors Among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Jennifer E.; Graham, Dan J.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between young adults’ dietary behaviors and perceived social norms for healthy eating. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 1000 diverse college students. Associations between perceived behaviors of family, friends, and significant other and participants’ dietary behaviors were examined using t-tests and linear regressions. Results Young adults consumed more fast food if they perceived that their family, friends, or significant other did so (p < .003). Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was associated with perceived consumption by family and friends (p < .034). Fruit and vegetable consumption and dinner preparation were associated with perceived behavior of friends only (p < .001). Conclusions Young adults’ dietary behaviors appear to reflect their perceptions of normative behavior, particularly among friends. PMID:24034689

  15. Lack of access and continuity of adult health care: a national population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Dilélio, Alitéia Santiago; Tomasi, Elaine; Thumé, Elaine; da Silveira, Denise Silva; Siqueira, Fernando Carlos Vinholes; Piccini, Roberto Xavier; Silva, Suele Manjourany; Nunes, Bruno Pereira; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the lack of access and continuity of health care in adults. METHODS A cross-sectional population-based study was performed on a sample of 12,402 adults aged 20 to 59 years in urban areas of 100 municipalities of 23 states in the five Brazilian geopolitical regions. Barriers to the access and continuity of health care and were investigated based on receiving, needing and seeking health care (hospitalization and accident/emergency care in the last 12 months; care provided by a doctor, by other health professional or home care in the last three months). Based on the results obtained by the description of the sample, a projection is provided for adults living in Brazilian urban areas. RESULTS The highest prevalence of lack of access to health services and to provision of care by health professionals was for hospitalization (3.0%), whilst the lowest prevalence was for care provided by a doctor (1.1%). The lack of access to care provided by other health professionals was 2.0%; to accident and emergency services, 2.1%; and to home care, 2.9%. As for prevalences, the greatest absolute lack of access occurred in emergency care (more than 360,000 adults). The main reasons were structural and organizational problems, such as unavailability of hospital beds, of health professionals, of appointments for the type of care needed and charges made for care. CONCLUSIONS The universal right to health care in Brazil has not yet been achieved. These projections can help health care management in scaling the efforts needed to overcome this problem, such as expanding the infrastructure of health services and the workforce. PMID:26061454

  16. Social Competence of Adult Chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") with Severe Deprivation History: I. An Individual Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalcher-Sommersguter, Elfriede; Preuschoft, Signe; Crailsheim, Karl; Franz, Cornelia

    2011-01-01

    Early social deprivation in highly social mammals interferes with their varying needs for security and stimulation. Toleration of social stimulation was studied in 18 adult ex-laboratory chimpanzees, who had been deprived for 16 to 27 years, during their 1st year after resocialization into 1 of 3 social groups. For this, a model of social…

  17. Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training for Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandalaft, Michelle R.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Allen, Tandra T.; Chapman, Sandra B.

    2013-01-01

    Few evidence-based social interventions exist for young adults with high-functioning autism, many of whom encounter significant challenges during the transition into adulthood. The current study investigated the feasibility of an engaging Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training intervention focused on enhancing social skills, social cognition,…

  18. Socioeconomic Contributions of Adult Learning to Community: A Social Capital Perspective. CRLRA Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balatti, Jo; Falk, Ian

    The socioeconomic contributions of adult learning to community were examined from a social capital perspective. The concepts of human capital and social capital were differentiated, and the relationship between learning, human capital, and social capital was explored. The relevance of social capital in describing the wider benefits of adult…

  19. Improving nutritional support for adults in primary and secondary care.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Andrea

    There has been serious concern about the nutritional care provided in some secondary and primary care settings. As a result, best practice, benchmarking initiatives and nutritional guidance have been issued by government and non-government agencies. This article helps nurses to synthesise these initiatives and improve their knowledge of nutritional care.

  20. Improving supportive and palliative care for adults with cancer.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Alison

    Although many patients with cancer report positively on their experience of care, others claim they are not receiving the information and support they need at different stages of their care pathway. The national cancer patient survey (Department of Health, 2002), for example, showed wide variations in the quality of care delivered across the country.

  1. 77 FR 11001 - Small Business Size Standards: Health Care and Social Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG30 Small Business Size Standards: Health Care and Social Assistance... Industry Classification System (NAICS) Sector 62, Health Care and Social Assistance. As part of its ongoing... Subsector 621(Ambulatory Health Care Services), NAICS Subsector 622 (Hospitals), and NAICS Subsector...

  2. The effect of social health insurance on prenatal care: the case of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Abrokwah, Stephen O; Moser, Christine M; Norton, Edward C

    2014-12-01

    Many developing countries have introduced social health insurance programs to help address two of the United Nations' millennium development goals-reducing infant mortality and improving maternal health outcomes. By making modern health care more accessible and affordable, policymakers hope that more women will seek prenatal care and thereby improve health outcomes. This paper studies how Ghana's social health insurance program affects prenatal care use and out-of-pocket expenditures, using the two-part model to model prenatal care expenditures. We test whether Ghana's social health insurance improved prenatal care use, reduced out-of-pocket expenditures, and increased the number of prenatal care visits. District-level differences in the timing of implementation provide exogenous variation in access to health insurance, and therefore strong identification. Those with access to social health insurance have a higher probability of receiving care, a higher number of prenatal care visits, and lower out-of-pocket expenditures conditional on spending on care.

  3. Notation of Depression in Case Records of Older Adults in Community Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Enola K.

    2008-01-01

    Although significant numbers of social service clients experience mental health problems, virtually no research has examined the responsiveness of social service agencies to mental disorder. This article examines the extent to which client depression is reflected in records of a public social service agency, community long-term care (CLTC).…

  4. Contributors to Adult Sibling Relationships and Intention to Care of Siblings of Individuals With Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cuskelly, Monica

    2016-05-01

    The contribution of childhood sibling relationships to adult sibling relationships and intention to provide care was investigated in a sample in which one member of each dyad had Down syndrome. Thirty-nine adult siblings of an adult with Down syndrome who had participated in a study of sibling relationships in childhood/adolescence provided data about the quality of current relationships and of their intention to provide care for their brother/sister with Down syndrome in the future. Only behavior problems in the child with Down syndrome predicted warmth of the current adult relationship. Although adult sibling relationships were reported to be warm, the quality of neither the current nor the past relationship was associated with the reported intention to provide care.

  5. Emotion Dysregulation and Anxiety in Adults with ASD: Does Social Motivation Play a Role?

    PubMed

    Swain, Deanna; Scarpa, Angela; White, Susan; Laugeson, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    Young adults with ASD and no intellectual impairment are more likely to exhibit clinical levels of anxiety than typically developing peers (DSM-5, American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study tests a mechanistic model in which anxiety culminates via emotion dysregulation and social motivation. Adults with ASD (49 males, 20 females) completed self-report measures on emotion regulation, caregivers completed measures on ASD severity and both on social anxiety. Results indicated that emotion dysregulation (p < .001; p < .05) and social motivation (p < .05, p < .001) significantly predicted social anxiety as reported by caregivers and young adults respectively. However, social motivation did not appear to play a moderating role in the relationship between emotion regulation and anxiety, even when controlling for social awareness. Significant predictor variables of social anxiety varied based on reporter (i.e. caregiver versus young adult), with difficulty engaging in goal-directed behaviors during negative emotions serving as the only shared predictor.

  6. A review of social isolation: an important but underassessed condition in older adults.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Nicholas R

    2012-06-01

    Social isolation is a major and prevalent health problem among community-dwelling older adults, leading to numerous detrimental health conditions. With a high prevalence, and an increasing number of older persons, social isolation will impact the health, well-being, and quality of life of numerous older adults now and in the foreseeable future. For this review, a series of literature searches of the CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Medline databases were conducted, using the key words "social isolation," "social networks," "older adults," "elderly," "belonging," "perceived isolation," "social engagement," "social contacts," and "social integration," for the period of 1995-2010. The results show that there is an overabundance of evidence demonstrating numerous negative health outcomes and potential risk factors related to social isolation. However, there is scarce evidence that public health professionals are assessing social isolation in older persons, despite their unique access to very socially isolated, homebound older adults. Additionally, few viable interventions were found; therefore, it is advisable to focus on the prevention of social isolation in older adults. Public health professionals can take steps toward increasing the early assessment of social isolation and referring at-risk individuals to available community resources in order to prevent social isolation or further isolation, which would serve to reduce the numerous negative health outcomes associated with this condition.

  7. Is older adult care mediated by caregivers’ cultural stereotypes? The role of competence and warmth attribution

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío; Bustillos, Antonio; Santacreu, Marta; Schettini, Rocio; Díaz-Veiga, Pura; Huici, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine, from the stereotype content model (SCM) perspective, the role of the competence and warmth stereotypes of older adults held by professional caregivers. Methods A quasi-experimental design, ex post facto with observational analyses, was used in this study. The cultural view on competence and warmth was assessed in 100 caregivers working in a set of six residential geriatric care units (three of them organized following a person-centered care approach and the other three providing standard geriatric care). In order to assess caregivers’ cultural stereotypical views, the SCM questionnaire was administered. To evaluate the role of caregivers’ cultural stereotypes in their professional performance as well as in older adult functioning, two observational scales from the Sistema de Evaluación de Residencias de Ancianos (assessment system for older adults residences)-RS (staff functioning and residents’ functioning) were applied. Results Caregivers’ cultural views of older adults (compared to young people) are characterized by low competence and high warmth, replicating the data obtained elsewhere from the SCM. Most importantly, the person-centered units predict better staff performance and better resident functioning than standard units. Moreover, cultural stereotyping of older adult competence moderates the effects of staff performance on resident functioning, in line with the findings of previous research. Conclusion Our results underline the influence of caregivers’ cultural stereotypes on the type of care, as well as on their professional behaviors and on older adult functioning. Caregivers’ cultural stereotypes could be considered as a central issue in older adult care since they mediate the triangle of care: caregivers/older adults/type of care; therefore, much more attention should be paid to this psychosocial care component. PMID:27217736

  8. Supportive Non-Parental Adults and Adolescent Psychosocial Functioning: Using Social Support as a Theoretical Framework

    PubMed Central

    Sterrett, E. M.; Jones, D. J.; McKee, L. G.; Kincaid, C.

    2014-01-01

    Supportive Non-Parental Adults (SNPAs), or non-parental adults who provide social support to youth, are present in the lives of many adolescents; yet to date, a guiding framework for organizing the existing literature on the provision of support provided by multiple types of SNPAS, such as teachers, natural mentors, and extended family members, as well as to inform future research efforts, is lacking. The aim of the current paper is to utilize the well-established lens of social support to integrate, across this broad range of literatures, recent findings regarding associations between SNPAs and four indices of adolescent psychosocial adjustment: academic functioning, self-esteem, and behavioral and emotional problems. Beyond offering an integrative framework for understanding the link between SNPAs and adolescent functioning, the issues reviewed here have potentially far-reaching consequences for adolescents and their families, as well as the professionals working with adolescents and their families in the health care, school, and community settings. PMID:21384233

  9. Prevalence and associated factors of polypharmacy among adult Saudi medical outpatients at a tertiary care center

    PubMed Central

    Salih, Salih Bin; Yousuf, Muhammad; Durihim, Huda; Almodaimegh, Hind; Tamim, Hani

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of polypharmacy (PP) and the associated factors in medical outpatients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, observational, descriptive study was carried out in adult medical outpatients attending internal medicine clinics at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from 1 March 2009 to 31 December 2009. PP was defined as the concomitant use of ≥5 medications daily. The number of medications being currently taken by patient was recorded. Effect of patients’ age, gender, educational level, number of prescribers, disease load and disease type on PP was assessed by multivariate analysis using Statistical Package for Social Sciences Incorporated (SPSS Inc) Version 18. Results: Out of 766 patients included in the study, 683 (89%) had PP. The mean number of prescribed medications, oral pills and doses was 8.8, 9.6 and 12.1, respectively. Factors significantly associated with PP included age (≥61 years), disease load and the number of prescribers. Gender had no impact on PP while education beyond primary education significantly decreased PP. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia alone and as a cluster increased PP. Conclusion: We found an extremely high level of PP in medical outpatients at our tertiary care center. The impact of PP on medication compliance and control of underlying diseases in Saudi Arabia is unknown and needs to be studied at different levels of care. PMID:24672273

  10. Social interactions in adolescent and adult Sprague-Dawley rats: impact of social deprivation and test context familiarity.

    PubMed

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2008-04-09

    Interactions with peers become particularly important during adolescence, and age differences in social interactions have been successfully modeled in rats. To determine the impact of social deprivation on social interactions under anxiogenic (unfamiliar) or non-anxiogenic (familiar) test circumstances during ontogeny, the present study used a modified social interaction test to assess the effects of 5 days of social isolation or group housing on different components of social behavior in early [postnatal day (P) 28], mid (P35), or late (P42) adolescent and adult (P70) male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. As expected, testing in an unfamiliar environment suppressed social interactions regardless of age, housing, and sex. Social deprivation drastically enhanced all forms of social behavior in P28 animals regardless of test situation, whereas depriving older animals of social interactions had more modest effects and was restricted predominantly to play fighting -- an adolescent-characteristic form of social interactions. Social investigation -- more adult-typical form of social behavior was relatively resistant to isolation-induced enhancement and was elevated in early adolescent isolates only. These findings confirm that different forms of social behavior are differentially sensitive to social deprivation across ontogeny.

  11. 25 CFR 20.509 - What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care or residential care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... placed in foster care or residential care facility? 20.509 Section 20.509 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... Assistance Foster Care § 20.509 What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care or residential care facility? When a child is placed in foster care or a residential care...

  12. 25 CFR 20.509 - What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care or residential care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... placed in foster care or residential care facility? 20.509 Section 20.509 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... Assistance Foster Care § 20.509 What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care or residential care facility? When a child is placed in foster care or a residential care...

  13. 25 CFR 20.509 - What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care or residential care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... placed in foster care or residential care facility? 20.509 Section 20.509 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... Assistance Foster Care § 20.509 What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care or residential care facility? When a child is placed in foster care or a residential care...

  14. 25 CFR 20.509 - What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care or residential care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... placed in foster care or residential care facility? 20.509 Section 20.509 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... Assistance Foster Care § 20.509 What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care or residential care facility? When a child is placed in foster care or a residential care...

  15. 25 CFR 20.509 - What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care or residential care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... placed in foster care or residential care facility? 20.509 Section 20.509 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... Assistance Foster Care § 20.509 What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care or residential care facility? When a child is placed in foster care or a residential care...

  16. Management issues of congenital adrenal hyperplasia during the transition from pediatric to adult care

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Han-Wook

    2017-01-01

    Steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the most prevalent form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), accounting for approximately 95% of cases. With the advent of newborn screening and hormone replacement therapy, most children with CAH survive into adulthood. Adolescents and adults with CAH experience a number of complications, including short stature, obesity, infertility, tumor, osteoporosis, and reduced quality of life. Transition from pediatric to adult care and management of long-term complications are challenging for both patients and health-care providers. Psychosocial issues frequently affect adherence to glucocorticoid treatment. Therefore, the safe transition of adolescents to adult care requires regular follow-up of patients by a multidisciplinary team including pediatric and adult endocrinologists. The major goals for management of adults with 21-hydroxylase deficiency are to minimize the long-term complications of glucocorticoid therapy, reduce hyperandrogenism, prevent adrenal or testicular adrenal rest tumors, maintain fertility, and improve quality of life. Optimized medical or surgical treatment strategies should be developed through coordinated care, both during transition periods and throughout patients' lifetimes. This review will summarize current knowledge on the management of adults with CAH, and suggested appropriate approaches to the transition from pediatric to adult care. PMID:28289431

  17. Social Capital Theory: Another Lens for School Social Workers to Use to Support Students Living in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fram, Maryah Stella; Altshuler, Sandra J.

    2009-01-01

    Schools have a wide range of connections with the child welfare system, with common interests in the care, well-being, and future life opportunities of children living in foster care. Children in foster care are often the most vulnerable students in the school system, and school social workers often serve as important resources for these children.…

  18. Markets, information asymmetry and health care: towards new social contracts.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Gerald; Standing, Hilary; Lloyd, Robert

    2008-05-01

    This paper explores the implications of the increasing role of informal as well as formal markets in the health systems of many low and middle-income countries. It focuses on institutional arrangements for making the benefits of expert medical knowledge widely available in the face of the information asymmetries that characterise health care. It argues that social arrangements can be understood as a social contract between actors, underpinned by shared behavioural norms, and embedded in a broader political economy. This contract is expressed through a variety of actors and institutions, not just through the formal personnel and arrangements of a health sector. Such an understanding implies that new institutional arrangements, such as the spread of reputation-based trust mechanisms can emerge or be adapted from other parts of the society and economy. The paper examines three relational aspects of health systems: the encounter between patient and provider; mechanisms for generating trust in goods and services in the context of highly marketised systems; and the establishment of socially legitimated regulatory regimes. This analysis is used to review experiences of health system innovation and change from a number of low income and transition countries.

  19. Social Well-Being Among Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Echo L.; Kent, Erin E.; Trevino, Kelly M.; Parsons, Helen M.; Zebrack, Brad J.; Kirchhoff, Anne C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND A cancer diagnosis during adolescence or young adulthood may negatively influence social well-being. The existing literature concerning the social well-being of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer was reviewed to identify gaps in current research and highlight priority areas for future research. METHODS A systematic review of the scientific literature published in English from 2000 through 2014 was performed. Eligible studies included patients and survivors diagnosed between the ages of 15 to 39 years that reported on social well-being domains in the City of Hope Cancer Survivor Quality of Life Model. Each article was reviewed for relevance using a standardized template. A total of 253 potential articles were identified. After exclusions, a final sample of 26 articles identified domains of social well-being that are believed to be understudied among AYAs with cancer: 1) educational attainment, employment, and financial burden; 2) social relationships; and 3) supportive care. Articles were read in their entirety, single coded, and summarized according to domain. RESULTS AYAs with cancer report difficulties related to employment, educational attainment, and financial stability. They also report problems with the maintenance and development of peer and family relationships, intimate and marital relationships, and peer support. Supportive services are desired among AYAs. Few studies have reported results in reference to comparison samples or by cancer subtypes. CONCLUSIONS Future research studies on AYAs with cancer should prioritize the inclusion of underserved AYA populations, more heterogeneous cancer samples, and comparison groups to inform the development of supportive services. Priority areas for potential intervention include education and employment reintegration, and social support networks. PMID:26848713

  20. The Social Outcomes of Older Adult Learning in Taiwan: Evaluation Framework and Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li-Hui

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the social outcomes of older adult learning in Taiwan. In light of our society's aging population structure, the task of establishing evaluation framework and indicators for the social outcomes of learning (SOL) as applied to older adults is urgent. In order to construct evaluation indicators for older adult…

  1. Conceptualizing Social Integration among Formerly Homeless Adults with Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    The multiple dimensions of social integration among formerly homeless adults with severe mental illness have not been well-studied. Previous studies have focused on clinical measures or narrow components of social integration. We used a multisite study of chronically homeless adults who were provided housing to (a) identify the main factors…

  2. An Investigation of the Relationship between Health Literacy and Social Communication Skills in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hester, Eva Jackson

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine connections between health literacy and social communication skills in older adults, a population that experiences chronic health conditions but is reported to have low health literacy and declines in communication skills. Sixty-three older adults were administered the "Social Communication"…

  3. The Influence of Social Media on Adult Learners' Knowledge Construction and Democratic Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a resource on the impact of social media on adult learners' construction of knowledge, particularly as it pertains to adult education's role in fostering a robust democratic society. There has been an increase in the literature in recent years that explores the various aspects of social media use, such as the incivility of…

  4. The Effects of Place Attachment on Social Well-Being in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afshar, Pouya Farokhnezhad; Foroughan, Mahshid; Vedadhir, AbouAli; Tabatabaei, Mahmoud Ghazi

    2017-01-01

    Social well-being and place attachment are two important concepts in health and quality of life of older adults. There are few studies on the relationship between these concepts at the individual level. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of place attachment dimensions on social well-being dimensions in older adults. This study was…

  5. Educator Perceptions of Visual Support Systems and Social Skills for Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, David James

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) face unique social skills challenges as they transition into independent living environments and seek fulfilling relationships within their communities. Research has focused on social education and interventions for children with autism, while transitioning young adults with ASD have received…

  6. 25 CFR 20.508 - What must the social services agency do when a child is placed in foster care, residential care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... placed in foster care, residential care or guardianship home? 20.508 Section 20.508 Indians BUREAU OF... PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.508 What must the social services agency do when a child is placed in foster care, residential care or guardianship home? The social services agency must...

  7. 25 CFR 20.508 - What must the social services agency do when a child is placed in foster care, residential care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... placed in foster care, residential care or guardianship home? 20.508 Section 20.508 Indians BUREAU OF... PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.508 What must the social services agency do when a child is placed in foster care, residential care or guardianship home? The social services agency must...

  8. 25 CFR 20.508 - What must the social services agency do when a child is placed in foster care, residential care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... placed in foster care, residential care or guardianship home? 20.508 Section 20.508 Indians BUREAU OF... PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.508 What must the social services agency do when a child is placed in foster care, residential care or guardianship home? The social services agency must...

  9. 25 CFR 20.508 - What must the social services agency do when a child is placed in foster care, residential care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... placed in foster care, residential care or guardianship home? 20.508 Section 20.508 Indians BUREAU OF... PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.508 What must the social services agency do when a child is placed in foster care, residential care or guardianship home? The social services agency must...

  10. 25 CFR 20.508 - What must the social services agency do when a child is placed in foster care, residential care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... placed in foster care, residential care or guardianship home? 20.508 Section 20.508 Indians BUREAU OF... PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.508 What must the social services agency do when a child is placed in foster care, residential care or guardianship home? The social services agency must...

  11. Pathways of Adult Children Providing Care to Older Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Amanda E.

    2013-01-01

    Guided by life course and stress process theory, this study investigated pathways of adult child caregivers' family (caregiving, marital, parenting) and nonfamily (employment) roles. Eight waves of data from the Health and Retirement Study were analyzed for 1,300 adult child caregivers. Latent class analysis provided strong evidence for a 4-class…

  12. Making Work Fit Care: Reconciliation Strategies Used by Working Mothers of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Fu, Li-yeh; Chang, Heng-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study explored the experiences of working mothers with an adult child with intellectual disabilities to understand how they reconcile paid work and care responsibilities. Methods: Fifteen working mothers in Taiwan with an adult child with intellectual disabilities were interviewed, and an interpretative phenomenological approach…

  13. The Productive Employment of Older Adults in Child Care. Practitioner's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Sally M.; Vander Ven, Karen; Ward, Christopher R.

    As the American population ages, society has grown more concerned about using older adults' skills and experience so they remain active, contributing members. Noting that work in child care for appropriate older adults is both natural and timely, this manual provides practical, concrete steps for implementing the guidelines of the Productive…

  14. Literacy Conversations between Adults and Children at Child Care: Descriptive Observations and Hypotheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosemary, Catherine A.; Roskos, Kathleen A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the nature of literacy-related, teacher-child talk in the daily routines of three child care centers. Found that adults talked about reading and writing to a modest degree, compared to total talk with children. Incidence of adults' literacy talk, aside from book talk, was primarily intermittent and spontaneous. Discourse features of…

  15. Quality Outcomes in Group Home Dementia Care for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janicki, M. P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dementia, as a public health challenge, is a phenomenon vexing many care organisations providing specialised residential and family supports for older adults with intellectual disabilities. With increasing survivorship to ages when risk is greatest, expectations are that many more adults in service will present with cognitive decline…

  16. The quasi-market for adult residential care in the UK: Do for-profit, not-for-profit or public sector residential care and nursing homes provide better quality care?

    PubMed

    Barron, David N; West, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    There has been a radical transformation in the provision of adult residential and nursing home care in England over the past four decades. Up to the 1980s, over 80% of adult residential care was provided by the public sector, but today public sector facilities account for only 8% of the available places, with the rest being provided by a mixture of for-profit firms (74%) and non-profit charities (18%). The public sector's role is often now that of purchaser (paying the fees of people unable to afford them) and regulator. While the idea that private companies may play a bigger role in the future provision of health care is highly contentious in the UK, the transformation of the residential and nursing home care has attracted little comment. Concerns about the quality of care do emerge from time to time, often stimulated by high profile media investigations, scandals or criminal prosecutions, but there is little or no evidence about whether or not the transformation of the sector from largely public to private provision has had a beneficial effect on those who need the service. This study asks whether there are differences in the quality of care provided by public, non-profit or for-profit facilities in England. We use data on care quality for over 15,000 homes that are provided by the industry regulator in England: the Care Quality Commission (CQC). These data are the results of inspections carried out between April 2011 and October 2015. Controlling for a range of facility characteristics such as age and size, proportional odds logistic regression showed that for-profit facilities have lower CQC quality ratings than public and non-profit providers over a range of measures, including safety, effectiveness, respect, meeting needs and leadership. We discuss the implications of these results for the ongoing debates about the role of for-profit providers of health and social care.

  17. Integrating intention and context: assessing social cognition in adults with Asperger syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Baez, Sandra; Rattazzi, Alexia; Gonzalez-Gadea, María L.; Torralva, Teresa; Vigliecca, Nora Silvana; Decety, Jean; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2012-01-01

    Deficits in social cognition are an evident clinical feature of the Asperger syndrome (AS). Although many daily life problems of adults with AS are related to social cognition impairments, few studies have conducted comprehensive research in this area. The current study examined multiple domains of social cognition in adults with AS assessing the executive functions (EF) and exploring the intra and inter-individual variability. Fifteen adult's diagnosed with AS and 15 matched healthy controls completed a battery of social cognition tasks. This battery included measures of emotion recognition, theory of mind (ToM), empathy, moral judgment, social norms knowledge, and self-monitoring behavior in social settings. We controlled for the effect of EF and explored the individual variability. The results indicated that adults with AS had a fundamental deficit in several domains of social cognition. We also found high variability in the social cognition tasks. In these tasks, AS participants obtained mostly subnormal performance. EF did not seem to play a major role in the social cognition impairments. Our results suggest that adults with AS present a pattern of social cognition deficits characterized by the decreased ability to implicitly encode and integrate contextual information in order to access to the social meaning. Nevertheless, when social information is explicitly presented or the situation can be navigated with abstract rules, performance is improved. Our findings have implications for the diagnosis and treatment of individuals with AS as well as for the neurocognitive models of this syndrome. PMID:23162450

  18. Social Movements, Civil Society, and Radical Adult Education. Critical Studies in Education and Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holst, John D.

    This book explores the relationship between adult education and social change and argues that it is vital for all adult educators to continuously engage radical theory in their teaching, reassess radical adult education's doubting and abandonment of the Marxist tradition in favor of postmodernism and radical pluralism, and seek to reinject the…

  19. Nonverbal Social Skills of Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability Diagnosed with Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Birgenheir, Denis G.

    2009-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in adults with intellectual disability (ID), yet little is known about depressive behaviors in an ID population. This study examined the nonverbal social skills of 18 adults with mild ID diagnosed with depression and a matched sample of adults with mild ID without depression. Nonverbal…

  20. Volunteering is Prospectively Associated with Health Care Use Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eric S.; Konrath, Sara H.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Although observational and experimental studies have shown that volunteering is linked with better mental health, physical health, and health behaviors, no studies have examined whether volunteering is associated with patterns of health care use. Objective The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine whether volunteering was associated with a greater use of preventive health care services, but fewer doctor visits and nights spent in the hospital. Methods Participants (n=7,168) were drawn from the 2006 wave of the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative panel study of American adults over the age of 51, and tracked for one wave (2 years). Logistic regression and generalized linear models were used for analyses. Results. In analyses that adjusted for sociodemographic factors and baseline health, volunteers were 30% more likely to receive flu shots (OR=1.30, 95% CI=1.16–1.47), 47% more likely to receive cholesterol tests (OR=1.47, 95% CI=1.24–1.74); female volunteers were 53% more likely to receive mammograms/x-rays (OR=1.53, 95% CI=1.28–1.83) and 21% more likely to receive Pap smears (OR=1.21, 95% CI=1.03–1.41); male volunteers were 59% more likely to receive prostate exams (OR=1.59, 95% CI=1.29–1.95). In a model that adjusted for sociodemographic factors, volunteers spent 38% fewer nights in the hospital (RR=0.62, 95% CI=0.52–0.76), however volunteering was not associated with frequency of doctor visits (RR=0.94, 95% CI=0.87–1.02). The association between volunteering and number of nights spent in the hospital was minimally affected after adjusting for potential confounding (baseline health) and explanatory variables (health behaviors, social integration, stress, positive psychological factors, personality). Conclusion This is the first known study to examine the association between volunteering and health care use. If future studies replicate these findings, the results may be used to inform the development of new

  1. Teaching social play skills to adults and children with autism as an approach to building rapport.

    PubMed

    Shireman, Molly L; Lerman, Dorothea C; Hillman, Conrad B

    2016-09-01

    Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and no intellectual disabilities were taught to increase the social play skills of children with ASD as part of a vocational training program. Participants included 3 adults, aged 21 to 27 years, and 6 children with ASD. Probes conducted throughout the study evaluated whether play skills training affected a measure of rapport between the adult and child. Results demonstrated the effectiveness of behavioral skills training for teaching the adult participants the appropriate play skills. In addition, the children's social engagement increased. Finally, rapport probes showed that play skills training increased levels of proximity, our measure of rapport, between the adults and children.

  2. Avoidance of the Attachment Figure and Social-Emotional Adjustment in Day-Care Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Marie; Main, Mary

    1979-01-01

    Examined toddlers' avoidance of their parents on reunion in day care settings and in laboratory situations. Also investigated the relation of avoidance to social-emotional adjustment and to the length of time in day care. (JMB)

  3. "Couch Surfing" of Latino Foster Care Alumni: Reliance on Peers as Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Beatrix F.; Romo, Harriett D.

    2011-01-01

    Youth exiting foster care often experience difficulties transitioning into adulthood. This paper focuses on Latino foster care youth in a major southwestern U.S. city and addresses the importance of peer networks as a crucial form of social capital as youth leave foster care. Case studies illustrate experiences of foster care alumni ranging in age…

  4. Adult Education and Palliative Care: The Last Journey of Life and Two Main Kinds of Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsey, Barry

    1996-01-01

    As a voluntary learning movement, adult education finds expression through a search for values. Continuing and community education provide support for both hospice and palliative care workers as well as families and friends of terminally ill persons in dealing with death and dying. (SK)

  5. A Reason, a Season, or a Lifetime: "Relational Permanence among Young Adults with Foster Care Backgrounds"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Gina Miranda

    2008-01-01

    The phenomenon called "aging out" includes approximately 20,000 young people who enter adulthood directly from foster care each year (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2005). The number of youth and young adults who aged out of care in the U.S. in 2005, the year for which the most current statistics are available, increased 48 percent…

  6. Pilot Investigation of the Effectiveness of Respite Care for Carers of an Adult with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jardim, Claudia; Pakenham, Kenneth I.

    2009-01-01

    Informal carers of an adult with mental illness have asked that respite care be an integral component of mental health service provision. The present study involved a pilot investigation of the effectiveness of accessing respite care for carers of individuals with a mental illness. It was hypothesised that compared to carers who have not accessed…

  7. The Child and Adult Care Food Program and the Nutrition of Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korenman, Sanders; Abner, Kristin S.; Kaestner, Robert; Gordon, Rachel A.

    2013-01-01

    Children spend a considerable amount of time in preschools and child care centers. As a result, these settings may have an influence on their diet, weight, and food security, and are potentially important contexts for interventions to address nutritional health. The Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) is one such intervention. No national…

  8. Differences in Health Care Costs and Utilization among Adults with Selected Lifestyle-Related Risk Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Larry A.; Clegg, Alan G.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship between lifestyle-related health risks and health care costs and utilization among young adults. Data collected at a primarily white collar worksite in over 2 years indicated that health risks, particularly obesity, stress, and general lifestyle, were significant predictors of health care costs and utilization among these…

  9. The Preventable Admissions Care Team (PACT): A Social Work-Led Model of Transitional Care.

    PubMed

    Basso Lipani, Maria; Holster, Kathleen; Bussey, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    In 2010, the Preventable Admissions Care Team (PACT), a social work-led transitional care model, was developed at Mount Sinai to reduce 30-day readmissions among high-risk patients. PACT begins with a comprehensive bedside assessment to identify the psychosocial drivers of readmission. In partnership with the patient and family, a patient-centered action plan is developed and carried out through phone calls, accompaniments, navigations and home visits, as needed, in the first 30 days following discharge. 620 patients were enrolled during the pilot from September 2010-August 2012. Outcomes demonstrated a 43% reduction in inpatient utilization and a 54% reduction in emergency department visits among enrollees. In addition, 93% of patients had a follow-up appointment within 7-10 days of discharge and 90% of patients attended the appointment. The success of PACT has led to additional funding from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services under the Community-based Care Transitions Program and several managed care companies seeking population health management interventions for high risk members.

  10. Enhancing Primary Health Care Services for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, C. A.; Finlayson, J.; Cooper, S.-A.; Allan, L.; Robinson, N.; Burns, E.; Martin, G.; Morrison, J.

    2005-01-01

    Primary health care teams have an important part to play in addressing the health inequalities and high levels of unmet health needs experienced by people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Practice nurses have an expanding role within primary health care teams. However, no previous studies have measured their attitudes, knowledge, training…

  11. Living on the Edge: Social Exclusion and the Receipt of Informal Care in Older People

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Older people have been identified as being at risk of social exclusion. However, despite the fact that care is commonly required in later life and the majority of that care is provided by informal carers, a connection between social exclusion and informal care-receipt has rarely been considered. The aim of this study was to examine how informal care-receipt is related to social exclusion. A face-to-face questionnaire survey on social exclusion and informal care-receipt was carried out among older people (n = 1255) living in Barnsley, United Kingdom. Multivariable analyses examined the association between social exclusion and categories of informal care-receipt: care-receiver; assurance-receiver; nonreceiver with no need; and nonreceiver with need. Compared to being a nonreceiver with no need, participants were more likely to be care-receivers or assurance-receivers if they had higher levels of social exclusion. The highest level of social exclusion, however, was found in nonreceivers with need. Despite a lack of informal care and support, formal practical support and personal care were also low in this latter group. Findings are discussed in relation to the conceptualisation of care-receipt and how contact with medical services could be an opportunity for identification and appropriate referral of nonreceivers with need. PMID:27882247

  12. Well-Being With Objects: Evaluating a Museum Object-Handling Intervention for Older Adults in Health Care Settings.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Linda J M; Chatterjee, Helen J

    2016-03-01

    The extent to which a museum object-handling intervention enhanced older adult well-being across three health care settings was examined. The program aimed to determine whether therapeutic benefits could be measured objectively using clinical scales. Facilitator-led, 30 to 40 min sessions handling and discussing museum objects were conducted in acute and elderly care (11 one-to-ones), residential (4 one-to-ones and 1 group of five), and psychiatric (4 groups of five) settings. Pre-post measures of psychological well-being (Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule) and subjective wellness and happiness (Visual Analogue Scales) were compared. Positive affect and wellness increased significantly in acute and elderly and residential care though not psychiatric care whereas negative affect decreased and happiness increased in all settings. Examination of audio recordings revealed enhanced confidence, social interaction, and learning. The program allowed adults access to a museum activity who by virtue of age and ill health would not otherwise have engaged with museum objects.

  13. Guideline for primary care management of headache in adults

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Werner J.; Findlay, Ted; Moga, Carmen; Scott, N. Ann; Harstall, Christa; Taenzer, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To increase the use of evidence-informed approaches to diagnosis, investigation, and treatment of headache for patients in primary care. Quality of evidence A comprehensive search was conducted for relevant guidelines and systematic reviews published between January 2000 and May 2011. The guidelines were critically appraised using the AGREE (Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation) tool, and the 6 highest-quality guidelines were used as seed guidelines for the guideline adaptation process. Main message A multidisciplinary guideline development group of primary care providers and other specialists crafted 91 specific recommendations using a consensus process. The recommendations cover diagnosis, investigation, and management of migraine, tension-type, medication-overuse, and cluster headache. Conclusion A clinical practice guideline for the Canadian health care context was created using a guideline adaptation process to assist multidisciplinary primary care practitioners in providing evidence-informed care for patients with headache. PMID:26273080

  14. The evolving paradigm of adult cancer survivor care.

    PubMed

    Grant, Marcia; Economou, Denice

    2008-04-01

    As a result of earlier diagnosis and improved treatment, the number of cancer survivors is steadily increasing, with over 11 million in the US today. These survivors face a multitude of long-term and late effects as a result of their cancer and its treatment. It is increasingly recognized that this group has complex and ongoing needs for medical care education, surveillance, screening, and support. Many organizations have helped to advance survivorship care; key among them are the National Coalition for Cancer Survivorship, the Institute of Medicine, the Lance Armstrong Foundation, and the Office of Cancer Survivorship of the National Cancer Institute. Important reports have defined goals of care; identified interventions to improve outcomes among survivors; and recognized the need for posttreatment surveillance, healthy lifestyle behaviors, and continued research in all of these areas. With these advances, survivorship care is emerging as a distinct component of the continuum of care in oncology.

  15. Senses of care: Embodying inequality and sustaining personhood in the home care of older adults in Chicago

    PubMed Central

    Buch, Elana D.

    2015-01-01

    In paid home care—one of the fastest-growing occupations in the United States—low-wage workers help elderly clients living in their own homes remain independent by embodying and then reproducing the elders’ lifetimes of experience. Exploring the bodily and moral consequences of everyday home care practices in Chicago, I show that in this context, sustaining independent personhood depended on and intensified unequal social relations. To sustain clients’ personhood, workers developed a deeply embodied empathy that enabled them to imagine and re-create the elders’ social and sensory worlds. Home care practices involved unreciprocated circulations of bodily experience that led some workers to feel that the needs and preferences of their clients took priority over their own comfort and well-being. Care workers’ bodily practices thus became one way in which social hierarchies shaped individual subjectivities and came to seem morally legitimate. PMID:26401062

  16. [Care in situation of severe renal insufficiency: social representations elaborated by adolescents].

    PubMed

    Ramos, Islane Costa; Queiroz, Maria Veraci Oliveira; Jorge, Maria Salete Bessa

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to apprehend the social representations of teenagers in relation to care in situation of Severe Renal Insufficiency. It was applied the test of free association of words to 70 teenagers and interview semi-structured with eight teenagers. It was evoked 1630 words from the stimulus disease, health, dialysis, care of oneself, professional care and familiar care. From the interviews it was constructed two thematic cores that bring meanings about the familiar care and professional care that influence in ways of notice and act in relation to care to health. It concluded that social representation of teenager focuses the meanings of sickening and care, marked by linking among the practices of care and psycho-affective and social relations impregnated in their living.

  17. Oncology social workers' attitudes toward hospice care and referral behavior.

    PubMed

    Becker, Janet E

    2004-02-01

    Members of the Association of Oncology Social Workers completed a survey, which included the Hospice Philosophy Scale (HPS) assessing the likelihood of the worker referring a terminally ill patient to hospice, background and experience, and demographics. The respondents held overwhelmingly favorable attitudes toward hospice philosophy and care, yet the average proportion of terminally ill patients whom they referred to hospice was only 49.5 percent. The worker's HPS score was related significantly, although weakly, to the likelihood of referral. A follow-up study was undertaken to determine the reasons for the discrepancy between the workers' self-reported favorable attitudes toward hospice and their relatively low rate of patient referral. The factor identified most frequently was resistance from families because of the requirement that hospice patients discontinue active treatment.

  18. Geriatric simulation: practicing management and leadership in care of the older adult.

    PubMed

    Miller, Sally; Overstreet, Maria

    2015-06-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, patients age 65 and older account for 43% of hospital days. The complexity of caring for older adults affords nursing students opportunities to assess, prioritize, intervene, advocate, and experience being a member of an interdisciplinary health care team. However, these multifaceted hospital experiences are not consistently available for all students. Nursing clinical simulation (NCS) can augment or replace specific clinical hours and provide clinically relevant experiences to practice management and leadership skills while caring for older adults. This article describes a geriatric management and leadership NCS.

  19. Social determinants and health-related dimensions of quality of life in adult patients with haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Dolatkhah, R; Fakhari, A; Pezeshki, M Z; Shabanlouei, R; Tavassoli, N; Gholchin, M

    2014-05-01

    The availability of safe and effective factor replacement therapies, in persons with haemophilia (PWH), has in some countries answered the basic need for treatment of these patients. The findings suggest that adult patients who have always been on prophylaxis reported significantly better physical functioning, and thus better quality of life. This study is designed to evaluate the QoL in adult PWH, by focusing on social determinants of QoL and their relationship with health-related dimensions, in Tabriz, Iran. The survey instrument was a self-report 36 items questionnaire, 'A36 Hemofilia - QoL', which is a disease-specific questionnaire for the assessment of the health-related QoL in adults living with haemophilia. A total of 100 haemophilia A and B patients, aged over 17 years participated in this study within 1 year. QoL total score was 71.88 (±26.89 SD). Patients who treat in our Hemophilia Treatment Center, had better QoL score (P = 0.000), and education has a significant impact on the social aspects of QoL (P = 0.18). The QoL was very poor in urban area in contrast to patients who lived in the city (54.45 vs. 74.21 respectively). Single patients have a better QoL than married patients (76.56 vs. 68.50 respectively). Our results showed that low education and lack of awareness of the diseases among PWH lead to reduce of QoL and more disease complications. More and wider treatment and psychological care for improving quality of life of these patients are seriously recommended.

  20. Transitioning the Adolescent with IBD from Pediatric to Adult Care: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Geoffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), comprising Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), has increased in pediatric populations over the last decade. Patients diagnosed during childhood often survive well into adulthood, and therefore their healthcare requires transfer to an adult gastroenterologist, usually at age 18 years. Transition has been defined in the literature as the “purposeful planned movement of adolescents and young adults with chronic conditions from child-centered to adult-oriented health care systems” (Blum et al., 1993). The purpose of this review is to establish the current state of knowledge regarding the transition from pediatric to adult care in IBD. This review highlights that developmentally appropriate transitional care is now recognized as a healthcare priority and thoughtful targeted intervention is needed. PMID:26064100

  1. Model of Care for Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: The Youth Project in Milan

    PubMed Central

    Magni, Chiara; Veneroni, Laura; Silva, Matteo; Casanova, Michela; Chiaravalli, Stefano; Massimino, Maura; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Ferrari, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer form a particular group of patients with unique characteristics, who inhabit a so-called “no man’s land” between pediatric and adult services. In the last 10 years, the scientific oncology community has started to pay attention to these patients, implementing dedicated programs. A standardized model of care directed toward patients in this age range has yet to be developed and neither the pediatric nor the adult oncologic systems perfectly fit these patients’ needs. The Youth Project of the Istituto Nazionale Tumori in Milan, dedicated to AYA with pediatric-type solid tumors, can be seen as a model of care for AYA patients, with its heterogeneous multidisciplinary staff and close cooperation with adult medical oncologists and surgeons. Further progress in the care of AYA cancer patients is still needed to improve their outcomes. PMID:27606308

  2. Best interests decisions: professional practices in health and social care.

    PubMed

    Williams, Val; Boyle, Geraldine; Jepson, Marcus; Swift, Paul; Williamson, Toby; Heslop, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on data collected in 2011 from a national study about the operation of the best interests principle, a key feature of the Mental Capacity Act (MCA) 2005 for England and Wales. The objective was to provide a picture of current professional practices in best interests decision-making. Four contrasting sample sites were selected, in which National Health Service trusts, social care and other organisations were recruited to participate. A multimethod design was followed, including an online survey with 385 participants, followed by qualitative research through a telephone survey of 68 participants, and face-to-face semi-structured interviews following up 25 best interests cases, with different perspectives on the process in 12 of those cases. The current paper reports only on the qualitative findings. The findings indicate that the MCA was successful in providing a structure for these practitioners, and that the five principles of the MCA were in general adhered to. A variety of perceived risks led to best interests processes being undertaken, and a typical scenario was for a period of hospitalisation or ill health to trigger a best interests decision process about a social care and or a life decision. The study supported previous research in finding the notion of capacity the most difficult aspect of the MCA, and it provides evidence of some specific capacity assessment practices, including problematic ones relating to 'insight'. Best interests decisions were often made by consensus, with practitioners taking on different roles within the process. Meetings played a key part, but other ways of involving people lacking capacity and significant others were also important. It was recommended that the issues highlighted in this research could be clarified further in the Code of Practice, or within risk guidance.

  3. Allocation of Rehabilitation Services for Older Adults in the Ontario Home Care System

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Joshua J.; Sims-Gould, Joanie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physiotherapy and occupational therapy services can play a critical role in maintaining or improving the physical functioning, quality of life, and overall independence of older home care clients. Despite their importance, however, there is limited understanding of the factors that influence how rehabilitation services are allocated to older home care clients. The aim of this pilot study was to develop a preliminary understanding of the factors that influence decisions to allocate rehabilitation therapy services to older clients in the Ontario home care system, as perceived by three stakeholder groups. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 key informants from three stakeholder groups: case managers, service providers, and health system policymakers. Results: Drivers of the allocation of occupational therapy and physiotherapy for older adults included functional needs and postoperative care. Participants identified challenges in providing home care rehabilitation to older adults, including impaired cognition and limited capacity in the home care system. Conclusions: Considering the changing demands for home care services, knowledge of current practices across the home care system can inform efforts to optimize rehabilitation services for the growing number of older adults. Further research is needed to advance the understanding of, and optimize rehabilitation service allocation to, older frail clients with multiple morbidities. Developing novel decision-support mechanisms and standardized clinical care pathways for older client populations may be beneficial. PMID:27904234

  4. Allocation of Rehabilitation Services for Older Adults in the Ontario Home Care System.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Joshua J; Sims-Gould, Joanie; Stolee, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physiotherapy and occupational therapy services can play a critical role in maintaining or improving the physical functioning, quality of life, and overall independence of older home care clients. Despite their importance, however, there is limited understanding of the factors that influence how rehabilitation services are allocated to older home care clients. The aim of this pilot study was to develop a preliminary understanding of the factors that influence decisions to allocate rehabilitation therapy services to older clients in the Ontario home care system, as perceived by three stakeholder groups. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 key informants from three stakeholder groups: case managers, service providers, and health system policymakers. Results: Drivers of the allocation of occupational therapy and physiotherapy for older adults included functional needs and postoperative care. Participants identified challenges in providing home care rehabilitation to older adults, including impaired cognition and limited capacity in the home care system. Conclusions: Considering the changing demands for home care services, knowledge of current practices across the home care system can inform efforts to optimize rehabilitation services for the growing number of older adults. Further research is needed to advance the understanding of, and optimize rehabilitation service allocation to, older frail clients with multiple morbidities. Developing novel decision-support mechanisms and standardized clinical care pathways for older client populations may be beneficial.

  5. Larval Exposure to the Juvenile Hormone Analog Pyriproxyfen Disrupts Acceptance of and Social Behavior Performance in Adult Honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Fourrier, Julie; Deschamps, Matthieu; Droin, Léa; Alaux, Cédric; Fortini, Dominique; Beslay, Dominique; Le Conte, Yves; Devillers, James; Aupinel, Pierrick; Decourtye, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Background Juvenile hormone (JH) plays an important role in honeybee development and the regulation of age-related division of labor. However, honeybees can be exposed to insect growth regulators (IGRs), such as JH analogs developed for insect pest and vector control. Although their side effects as endocrine disruptors on honeybee larval or adult stages have been studied, little is known about the subsequent effects on adults of a sublethal larval exposure. We therefore studied the impact of the JH analog pyriproxyfen on larvae and resulting adults within a colony under semi-field conditions by combining recent laboratory larval tests with chemical analysis and behavioral observations. Oral and chronic larval exposure at cumulative doses of 23 or 57 ng per larva were tested. Results Pyriproxyfen-treated bees emerged earlier than control bees and the highest dose led to a significant rate of malformed adults (atrophied wings). Young pyriproxyfen-treated bees were more frequently rejected by nestmates from the colony, inducing a shorter life span. This could be linked to differences in cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles between control and pyriproxyfen-treated bees. Finally, pyriproxyfen-treated bees exhibited fewer social behaviors (ventilation, brood care, contacts with nestmates or food stocks) than control bees. Conclusion Larval exposure to sublethal doses of pyriproxyfen affected several life history traits of the honeybees. Our results especially showed changes in social integration (acceptance by nestmates and social behaviors performance) that could potentially affect population growth and balance of the colony. PMID:26171610

  6. Early Olfactory Environment Influences Social Behaviour in Adult Octodon degus

    PubMed Central

    Márquez, Natalia; Martínez-Harms, Jaime; Vásquez, Rodrigo A.; Mpodozis, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the extent to which manipulation of early olfactory environment can influence social behaviours in the South American Hystricognath rodent Octodon degus. The early olfactory environment of newborn degus was manipulated by scenting all litter members with eucalyptol during the first month of life. The social behaviour of sexually mature animals (5–7 months old) towards conspecifics was then assessed using a y-maze to compare the response of control (naïve) and treated animals to two different olfactory configurations (experiment 1): (i) a non-familiarized conspecific impregnated with eucalyptol (eucalyptol arm) presented against (ii) a non-familiarized unscented conspecific (control arm). In addition, in dyadic encounters, we assessed the behaviour of control and eucalyptol treated animals towards a non-familiarized conspecific scented with eucalyptol (experiment 2). We found that control subjects explored and spent significantly less time in the eucalyptol arm, indicating neophobic behaviours towards the artificially scented conspecific. Treated subjects explored and spent similar time in both arms of the maze, showing the same interest for both olfactory stimuli presented. During dyadic encounters in experiment 2, an interaction effect between early experience and sex was observed. Control males escaped and avoided their scented partner more frequently than eucalyptol treated male subjects and than females. Both groups did not differ in the exploration of their scented partners, suggesting that avoidance within agonistic context does not relate to neophobic behaviours. Our results suggest that the exposure to eucalyptol during early ontogeny decreases evasive behaviours within an agonistic context as a result of olfactory learning. Altogether, these results indicate that olfactory cues learned in early ontogeny can influence olfactory-guided behaviours in adult degus. PMID:25671542

  7. An Update on Geriatric Medication Safety and Challenges Specific to the Care of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Koronkowski, Michael; Eisenhower, Christine; Marcum, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    The prescribing of drug therapies in older adults presents a number of safety challenges. The increased complexity of chronic care for older adults has led to polypharmacy and potentially inappropriate medication use, which can contribute to drug-induced diseases, adverse drug reactions, drug interactions, cognitive impairment, falls, hospitalization, and mortality. In this review, the authors discuss recent medication safety literature pertaining to the classes of medications commonly prescribed to older adults: anticholinergics, psychiatric medications, and antibiotics. Safety concerns associated with the use of these medications and the implications for long-term care practitioners are reviewed. The information provided can be used to inform and improve geriatric care delivered by practitioners across health care environments. PMID:27340375

  8. Experiences of opioid-dependent women in their prenatal and postpartum care: Implications for social workers in health care.

    PubMed

    Howard, Heather

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of prescription opioid abuse has increased nationally in the last decade with increased incidence rates reported among pregnant women. This was a qualitative study designed to understand the role of pregnant women with an opioid use disorder participating in medical decision making regarding their prenatal care while addressing their addiction. Group interviews were conducted with postpartum women who self-identified as opioid dependent during their pregnancy, and the data were analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Social workers in the health care setting are an integral part of the interdisciplinary team in caring for pregnant and postpartum opioid-dependent women. Social workers are ideal in creating stigma reduction strategies, peer and professional supports, and comprehensive coordinated care. A social justice-based practice may be a framework to utilize when caring for this unique population.

  9. Optimizing undergraduate nursing education: demystifying care of older adults in the home setting.

    PubMed

    Neal-Boylan, Leslie

    2006-01-01

    It is a challenge to provide experiences for nursing students that allow them to experience a professional relationship with older adults in the home setting. Home health agencies are under pressure related to productivity demands and may not provide preceptored experiences for students. Nursing students may not know any older adults outside of the institutional setting and consequently may have many misconceptions about what is and is not normal aging. This article describes an undergraduate nursing class and the out-of-classroom assignments that increased student understanding of nursing practice in the home, the effects of the home environment on the care of older adults, and the experiences of older adults living in the community. This article has relevance to nurses because it is important that we participate in creative methods of teaching students to value older adults and how to care for them in the community.

  10. Using social media to engage adolescents and young adults with their health

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Charlene A.; Merchant, Raina M.; Moreno, Megan A.

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the potential of social media related to the health of adolescent and young adults, who are nearly ubiquitous social media users but difficult to engage with their health and relatively low healthcare utilizers. Opportunities to better engage adolescents and young adults through social media exist in healthcare delivery, health education and health policy. However, challenges remain for harnessing social media, including making a clear value proposition and developing evidence-based frameworks for measuring the impact of social media on health. PMID:25984444

  11. What adult worker model? A critical look at recent social policy reform in Europe from a gender and family perspective.

    PubMed

    Daly, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Analyses regularly feature claims that European welfare states are in the process of creating an adult worker model. The theoretical and empirical basis of this argument is examined here by looking first at the conceptual foundations of the adult worker model formulation and then at the extent to which social policy reform in western Europe fits with the argument. It is suggested that the adult worker formulation is under-specified. A framework incorporating four dimensions—the treatment of individuals vis-à-vis their family role and status for the purposes of social rights, the treatment of care, the treatment of the family as a social institution, and the extent to which gender inequality is problematized—is developed and then applied. The empirical analysis reveals a strong move towards individualization as social policy promotes and valorizes individual agency and self-sufficiency and shifts some childcare from the family. Yet evidence is also found of continued (albeit changed) familism. Rather than an unequivocal move to an individualized worker model then, a dual earner, gender-specialized, family arrangement is being promoted. The latter is the middle way between the old dependencies and the new “independence.” This makes for complexity and even ambiguity in policy, a manifestation of which is that reform within countries involves concurrent moves in several directions.

  12. The Importance of Neighborhood Social Cohesion and Social Capital for the Well Being of Older Adults in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramm, Jane M.; van Dijk, Hanna M.; Nieboer, Anna P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: We aimed to investigate whether social capital (obtaining support through indirect ties such as from neighbors) and social cohesion (interdependencies among neighbors) within neighborhoods positively affect the well being of older adults. Design and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 945 of 1,440 (66% response rate)…

  13. Making Sense of Varying Standards of Care: The Experiences of Staff Working in Residential Care Environments for Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Andrew; Kroese, Biza Stenfert

    2016-01-01

    Research evidence reveals that adults with learning disabilities who live in residential care facilities are being exposed to considerable variation in the standards of care they receive. High profile cases of substandard care have also raised concerns regarding the appropriateness of existing care provisions and practices. While attempts have…

  14. Future trends in health and health care: implications for social work practice in an aging society.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, William J; Davidson, Kay W

    2013-01-01

    Major economic, political, demographic, social, and operational system factors are prompting evolutionary changes in health care delivery. Of particular significance, the "graying of America" promises new challenges and opportunities for health care social work. At the same time, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, evolution of Accountable Care Organizations, and an emphasis on integrated, transdisciplinary, person-centered care represent fundamental shifts in service delivery with implications for social work practice and education. This article identifies the aging shift in American demography, its impact on health policy legislation, factors influencing fundamentally new service delivery paradigms, and opportunities of the profession to address the health disparities and care needs of an aging population. It underscores the importance of social work inclusion in integrated health care delivery and offers recommendations for practice education.

  15. [The economic-industrial health care complex and the social and economic dimension of development].

    PubMed

    Gadelha, Carlos Augusto Grabois; Costa, Laís Silveira; Maldonado, José

    2012-12-01

    The strategic role of health care in the national development agenda has been increasingly recognized and institutionalized. In addition to its importance as a structuring element of the Social Welfare State, health care plays a leading role in the generation of innovation - an essential element for competitiveness in knowledge society. However, health care's productive basis is still fragile, and this negatively affects both the universal provision of health care services and Brazil's competitive inclusion in the globalized environment. This situation suggests the need of a more systematic analysis of the complex relationships among productive, technological and social interests in the scope of health care. Consequently, it is necessary to produce further knowledge about the Economic-Industrial Health Care Complex due to its potential for contributing to a socially inclusive development model. This means reversing the hierarchy between economic and social interests in the sanitary field, thus minimizing the vulnerability of the Brazilian health care policy.

  16. Perceived Social Support from Friends and Family and Psychosocial Functioning in Bisexual Young Adult College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheets, Raymond L., Jr.; Mohr, Jonathan J.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the degree to which perceived social support was associated with depression, life satisfaction, and internalized binegativity in a sample of 210 bisexual young adult college students. Two types of social support (general and sexuality specific) and 2 sources of social support (family and friends) were…

  17. The Relationship of Perceived Social Support with Well-Being in Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerette, Amy R.; Smedema, Susan Miller

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between perceived social support and multiple indicators of well-being in adults with visual impairments was investigated. The results included significant correlation of social support and depressive symptoms, satisfaction with life, as well as with physical, psychological, economic, family, and social well-being. Implications…

  18. Intergenerational Transfers to Adult Children in Europe: Do Social Policies Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Martina; Deindl, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the role of social policies in intergenerational transfers from old to young people is especially important in times of population aging. This paper focuses on the influences of social expenditures and social services on financial support and on practical help from older parents to their adult children based on the first two waves…

  19. Group Social Skills Interventions for Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spain, Debbie; Blainey, Sarah H.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterised by impairments in communication and social interaction. Social skills interventions have been found to ameliorate socio-communication deficits in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Little is known about the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with…

  20. Good Practice Guide: Bringing a Social Capital Approach into the Teaching of Adult Literacy and Numeracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2010

    2010-01-01

    This good practice guide is based on research that looked at how to teach adult literacy and numeracy using a social capital approach. The guide suggests ways vocational education and training (VET) practitioners can adopt a social capital approach to their teaching practice. A social capital approach refers to the process in which networks are…