Science.gov

Sample records for adult social care

  1. Social Care in Adult Education: Resisting a Marketplace Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a research study about the experiences of adult educators in which the stories of three of the participants were central in exploring the issue of social care in adult education. It proposes that the adult educators with a social care orientation in this study acknowledge the importance of, and work to provide for, human…

  2. [Social health care for older adults in Peru].

    PubMed

    Casas-Vasquez, Paola; Apaza-Pino, Rossana; Del Canto Y Dorador, Juan; Chávez-Jimeno, Helver

    2016-06-01

    Demographic and epidemiological changes have led to restructuring of the local and global health systems, changes that focus on broader coverage in which importance is given to an individual's physical well-being as well as social welfare in an effort to ensure healthy aging. In this review, the current social health care approach is analyzed from the different institutions that care for older populations and the changes that have resulted from boarding and caring for older adults. PMID:27656937

  3. Theme with Variations: Social Policy, Community Care and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Changes in British social policy regarding community health care has implications for local education agency (LEA) providers of adult continuing education. LEAs will either have a role in providing staff training and other learning opportunities, will be forced to provide cheaper forms of community care, or will be ignored altogether. (SK)

  4. Health and Social Care Interventions Which Promote Social Participation for Adults with Learning Disabilities: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howarth, Sharon; Morris, David; Newlin, Meredith; Webber, Martin

    2016-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are among the most socially excluded in society. There is a significant gap in research evidence showing how health and social care workers can intervene to improve the social participation of adults with learning disabilities. A systematic review and modified narrative synthesis was used to appraise the quality…

  5. Perceived social support among adults seeking care for acute respiratory tract infections in US EDs.

    PubMed

    Levin, Sara K; Metlay, Joshua P; Maselli, Judith H; Kersey, Ayanna S; Camargo, Carlos A; Gonzales, Ralph

    2009-06-01

    Emergency departments (EDs) provide a disproportionate amount of care to disenfranchised and vulnerable populations. We examined social support levels among a diverse population of adults seeking ED care for acute respiratory tract infections. A convenience sample of adults seeking care in 1 of 15 US EDs was telephone interviewed 1 to 6 weeks postvisit. The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (7-point Likert) assessed social support across 3 domains: friends, family, and significant others. Higher scores indicate higher support. Of 1104 subjects enrolled, 704 (64%) completed the follow-up interview. Factor analysis yielded 3 factors. Mean social support score was 5.54 (SD 1.04). Female sex, greater household income, and better health status were independently associated with higher levels of social support. Social support levels among adults seeking care in the ED for acute respiratory tract infections are similar to general population cohorts, suggesting that social support is not a strong determinant of health care seeking in EDs.

  6. What can local authorities do to improve the social care-related quality of life of older adults living at home? Evidence from the Adult Social Care Survey.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, K M; Malley, J; Bosmans, J E; Jansen, A P D; Ostelo, R W; van der Horst, H E; Netten, A

    2014-09-01

    Local authorities spend considerable resources on social care at home for older adults. Given the expected growth in the population of older adults and budget cuts on local government, it is important to find efficient ways of maintaining and improving the quality of life of older adults. The ageing in place literature suggests that policies in other functions of local authorities may have a significant role to play. This study aims to examine the associations between social care-related quality of life (SCRQoL) in older adults and three potential policy targets for local authorities: (i) accessibility of information and advice, (ii) design of the home and (iii) accessibility of the local area. We used cross-sectional data from the English national Adult Social Care Survey (ASCS) 2010/2011 on service users aged 65 years and older and living at home (N=29,935). To examine the association between SCRQoL, as measured by the ASCOT, and three single-item questions about accessibility of information, design of the home and accessibility of the local area, we estimate linear and quantile regression models. After adjusting for physical and mental health factors and other confounders our findings indicate that SCRQoL is significantly lower for older adults who find it more difficult to find information and advice, for those who report that their home design is inappropriate for their needs and for those who find it more difficult to get around their local area. In addition, these three variables are as strongly associated with SCRQoL as physical and mental health factors. We conclude that in seeking to find ways to maintain and improve the quality of life of social care users living at home, local authorities could look more broadly across their responsibilities. Further research is required to explore the cost-effectiveness of these options compared to standard social care services.

  7. Carers' quality of life and experiences of adult social care support in England

    PubMed Central

    Rand, Stacey; Malley, Juliette

    2014-01-01

    Informal carers make a vital contribution to the well-being of the people they care for or look after. Against the policy background in England, the purpose of this study was to explore the views of carers who are in contact with adult social care support services. A qualitative study with 31 carers, who were recruited via local authorities and carers' organisations, was conducted between April and July 2012 to collect data on carers' experiences and perceptions of their quality of life (QoL) with and without adult social care and support for themselves or the person they look after. Through framework analysis, three key themes were identified: (i) definitions of social care services ‘for’ the carer or ‘for’ care recipient and social care outcomes; (ii) carers' access to social care services; and (iii) the meaning and value of informal care. We find that carers' QoL is affected by social care support directed at carers and support directed at those they care for, as well as access to services, the experience of stigma in communities, and in how individual needs and preferences are considered when making decisions about care. While there is much to welcome in the direction of policy in England, this study has shown that there are some gaps in thinking around these areas that will need to be addressed if the lives of carers are to be improved. PMID:24330095

  8. Carers' quality of life and experiences of adult social care support in England.

    PubMed

    Rand, Stacey; Malley, Juliette

    2014-07-01

    Informal carers make a vital contribution to the well-being of the people they care for or look after. Against the policy background in England, the purpose of this study was to explore the views of carers who are in contact with adult social care support services. A qualitative study with 31 carers, who were recruited via local authorities and carers' organisations, was conducted between April and July 2012 to collect data on carers' experiences and perceptions of their quality of life (QoL) with and without adult social care and support for themselves or the person they look after. Through framework analysis, three key themes were identified: (i) definitions of social care services 'for' the carer or 'for' care recipient and social care outcomes; (ii) carers' access to social care services; and (iii) the meaning and value of informal care. We find that carers' QoL is affected by social care support directed at carers and support directed at those they care for, as well as access to services, the experience of stigma in communities, and in how individual needs and preferences are considered when making decisions about care. While there is much to welcome in the direction of policy in England, this study has shown that there are some gaps in thinking around these areas that will need to be addressed if the lives of carers are to be improved.

  9. Transition From Pediatric to Adult Epilepsy Care: A Difficult Process Marked by Medical and Social Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Camfield, Peter; Camfield, Carol; Pohlmann-Eden, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    When epilepsy does not remit in childhood, transition and transfer to adult care is eventually required. Youth must leave the family-centered approach of pediatric care for the individual focus of adult medicine. Evidence from population-based studies indicates that many of those with childhood-onset epilepsy have major social difficulties in adulthood even if their epilepsy has resolved. Epilepsy may have major effects on normal adolescent development, and societal attitudes confound this difficult period in the lives of young people with epilepsy. Very little objective data are available to assist in the designing of models of care for youth with epilepsy; however, based on our clinical experience and the limited available literature, it appears that a transition program to prepare children for adult care is best started during childhood and adolescence. The formal transfer to adult services may be assisted by a transition clinic jointly attended by pediatric and adult epilepsy specialists. PMID:23476118

  10. Foster Care for Children and Adults with Handicaps: Child Welfare and Adult Social Services. Project Report Number 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Bradley K.; And Others

    This report summarizes state-by-state data on the number of children and adults in foster homes administered by child welfare or social service agencies. As of December 1985, there were approximately 261,000 children in out-of-home foster care, including 54,000 handicapped children, of whom 14,000 were mentally retarded. Telephone interviews and…

  11. Personalisation of Adult Social Care: Self-Directed Support and the Choice and Control Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Sophie; Cameron, Ailsa

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, "self-directed support" was introduced in adult social care in England to establish choice and control--in the assessment process itself and over service provision--for "all" service users. The personalisation agenda is underpinned by a range of ideologies, particularly a civil rights empowerment approach and…

  12. Social care networks and older LGBT adults: challenges for the future.

    PubMed

    Brennan-Ing, Mark; Seidel, Liz; Larson, Britta; Karpiak, Stephen E

    2014-01-01

    Research on service needs among older adults rarely addresses the special circumstances of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals, such as their reliance on friend-centered social networks or the experience of discrimination from service providers. Limited data suggests that older LGBT adults underutilize health and social services that are important in maintaining independence and quality of life. This study explored the social care networks of this population using a mixed-methods approach. Data were obtained from 210 LGBT older adults. The average age was 60 years, and 71% were men, 24% were women, and 5% were transgender or intersex. One-third was Black, and 62% were Caucasian. Quantitative assessments found high levels of morbidity and friend-centered support networks. Need for and use of services was frequently reported. Content analysis revealed unmet needs for basic supports, including housing, economic supports, and help with entitlements. Limited opportunities for socialization were strongly expressed, particularly among older lesbians. Implications for senior programs and policies are discussed. PMID:24313252

  13. Social care networks and older LGBT adults: challenges for the future.

    PubMed

    Brennan-Ing, Mark; Seidel, Liz; Larson, Britta; Karpiak, Stephen E

    2014-01-01

    Research on service needs among older adults rarely addresses the special circumstances of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals, such as their reliance on friend-centered social networks or the experience of discrimination from service providers. Limited data suggests that older LGBT adults underutilize health and social services that are important in maintaining independence and quality of life. This study explored the social care networks of this population using a mixed-methods approach. Data were obtained from 210 LGBT older adults. The average age was 60 years, and 71% were men, 24% were women, and 5% were transgender or intersex. One-third was Black, and 62% were Caucasian. Quantitative assessments found high levels of morbidity and friend-centered support networks. Need for and use of services was frequently reported. Content analysis revealed unmet needs for basic supports, including housing, economic supports, and help with entitlements. Limited opportunities for socialization were strongly expressed, particularly among older lesbians. Implications for senior programs and policies are discussed.

  14. The role of the social worker in the adult critical care unit: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hartman-Shea, Katherine; Hahn, Anne P; Fritz Kraus, Joanne; Cordts, Grace; Sevransky, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Social workers provide care to patients and families in the adult critical care unit. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to more clearly identify the role of the social worker practicing in the intensive care unit. We conducted a comprehensive search of the literature using the Pubmed, Embase, ISI, Scopus, and Social Work Abstracts databases using the terms "intensive care," "critical care," and "social work." Articles were selected for review if they met the following criteria: formal studies or opinion papers whose primary focus was the role or scope of practice of the social worker in the adult critical care unit. Articles were selected and reviewed independently by two social work investigators. Our search retrieved 550 potentially relevant articles. Twelve full-text articles were deemed eligible for abstracting. Three of the articles were studies that examined different aspects of social work practice including implementation of a family assistance program, social work response to anxiety levels of families in critical care and common activities of critical care social workers. Nine articles were primarily opinion pieces. All of the opinion articles described psychosocial support and counseling as a primary role of critical care social work. Other frequently identified roles were crisis intervention, psychosocial assessment, facilitating communication, end-of-life care, and practical assistance. There is little empiric data describing the role of the critical care social worker. Consistent themes from the articles identified include the role of social workers as counseling professionals, facilitators of communication, and resource agents. Further research to identify formal assessment tools and outcome studies of specific counseling techniques will provide important information for best practice guidelines in this area.

  15. Comparative Performance of Adult Social Care Research, 1996–2011: A Bibliometric Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, David; Côté, Grégoire; Grant, Jonathan; Knapp, Martin; Mehta, Anji; Morgan Jones, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Decision makers in adult social care are increasingly interested in using evidence from research to support or shape their decisions. The scope and nature of the current landscape of adult social care research (ASCR) need to be better understood. This paper provides a bibliometric assessment of ASCR outputs from 1996 to 2011. ASCR papers were retrieved using three strategies: from key journals; using keywords and noun phrases; and from additional papers preferentially citing or being cited by other ASCR papers. Overall, 195,829 ASCR papers were identified in the bibliographic database Scopus, of which 16 per cent involved at least one author from the UK. The UK output increased 2.45-fold between 1996 and 2011. Among selected countries, those with greater research intensity in ASCR generally had higher citation impact, such as the USA, UK, Canada and the Netherlands. The top five UK institutions in terms of volume of papers in the UK accounted for 26 per cent of total output. We conclude by noting the limitations to bibliometric analysis of ASCR and examine how such analysis can support the strategic development of the field. PMID:27559228

  16. "Quien Sabe Mas Lucha Mejor": Adult Educators' Care of the Self Practices within Social Movements in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Jennifer Lee

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at popular adult educators' care of the self practices within social movements in Buenos Aires, Argentina. It answers the following questions: How is popular adult education practiced amongst educators in social movements? What can studying popular adult educators' care of the self practices offer the field of adult…

  17. The association of maternal socialization in childhood and adolescence with adult offsprings' sympathy/caring.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Nancy; VanSchyndel, Sarah K; Hofer, Claire

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine associations between mothers' socialization practices in childhood and adolescence and offsprings' (N = 32, 16 female) sympathy/concern in early adulthood. Mothers reported on their socialization practices and beliefs a total of 6 times using a Q-sort during their offsprings' childhood (between 7-8 and 11-12 years of age) and adolescence (between 13-14 and 17-18 years of age). Adult offsprings' sympathy/caring was assessed 3 times in early adulthood (at ages 19-20 to 23-24 years) and in their mid-20s to 30s (ages 25-26 to 31-32 years). In general, friends' reports of participants' sympathy/concern at ages 25-32 years related positively to mother-reported rational discipline (including inductions) and warmth and support during childhood and adolescence and negatively to mother-reported negative affect during adolescence. Self-reported sympathy/concern during early adulthood was positively related to maternal warmth and support during childhood and almost significantly negatively related to mother-reported negative affect during childhood and adolescence. Most of the relations held when the prior level of self-reported childhood empathy or adolescent sympathy was controlled.

  18. The association of maternal socialization in childhood and adolescence with adult offsprings' sympathy/caring.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Nancy; VanSchyndel, Sarah K; Hofer, Claire

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine associations between mothers' socialization practices in childhood and adolescence and offsprings' (N = 32, 16 female) sympathy/concern in early adulthood. Mothers reported on their socialization practices and beliefs a total of 6 times using a Q-sort during their offsprings' childhood (between 7-8 and 11-12 years of age) and adolescence (between 13-14 and 17-18 years of age). Adult offsprings' sympathy/caring was assessed 3 times in early adulthood (at ages 19-20 to 23-24 years) and in their mid-20s to 30s (ages 25-26 to 31-32 years). In general, friends' reports of participants' sympathy/concern at ages 25-32 years related positively to mother-reported rational discipline (including inductions) and warmth and support during childhood and adolescence and negatively to mother-reported negative affect during adolescence. Self-reported sympathy/concern during early adulthood was positively related to maternal warmth and support during childhood and almost significantly negatively related to mother-reported negative affect during childhood and adolescence. Most of the relations held when the prior level of self-reported childhood empathy or adolescent sympathy was controlled. PMID:25383690

  19. Breaking barriers and building bridges: understanding the pervasive needs of older LGBT adults and the value of social work in health care.

    PubMed

    Erdley, Shiloh D; Anklam, Donald D; Reardon, Christina C

    2014-01-01

    Given the rise in the aging population and the increased use of health care services, there is a demand for awareness and training that targets underserved populations such as older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adults. Older LGBT adults are 5 times less likely to access health care and social services (King, 2009). Ethically responsible health service delivery is needed to capitalize on the strengths and capabilities of older LGBT adults and is vital for combating existing health disparities. Social workers aim to prevent ongoing gaps in care for older LGBT adults that can lead to negative individual and social consequences.

  20. An exploration of social connectedness as perceived by older adults in a long-term care setting in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Catherine; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    Social connectedness-that is, the relationships people have with family friends and others-is an important aspect of resident's adjustment to and participation in community living. Little is known about older adult's perceptions of social connectedness in long-term care. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships older adults living in long-term care have with family, friends, the outside world, other residents, and staff. A qualitative phenomenological approach was used to collect data from a purposive sample of 10 older adults using audiotaped semi-structured interviews. Findings revealed 6 themes: superficial relationships, substitution, outside world connection, mental ability, attitudes/actions of carers, and isolation. The study supports the understanding that the more social ties people have, the more socially connected they feel. Preventing social isolation among older people is an important area for practice, and older peoples' services should be shaped around maintaining connectedness and promoting integration of residents in long-term care. PMID:19963148

  1. “Friending” Teens: Systematic Review of Social Media in Adolescent and Young Adult Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Scirica, Christina V; Jethwani, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Background Social media has emerged as a potentially powerful medium for communication with adolescents and young adults around their health choices. Objective The goal of this systematic review is to identify research on the use of social media for interacting with adolescents and young adults in order to achieve positive health outcomes. Methods A MEDLINE/PubMed electronic database search was performed between January 1, 2002 and October 1, 2013, using terms to identify peer-reviewed research in which social media and other Web 2.0 technologies were an important feature. We used a systematic approach to retrieve papers and extract relevant data. Results We identified 288 studies involving social media, of which 87 met criteria for inclusion; 75 studies were purely observational and 12 were interventional. The ways in which social media was leveraged by these studies included (1) observing adolescent and young adult behavior (n=77), (2) providing health information (n=13), (3) engaging the adolescent and young adult community (n=17), and (4) recruiting research participants (n=23). Common health topics addressed included high-risk sexual behaviors (n=23), alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use (n=19), Internet safety (n=8), mental health issues (n=18), medical conditions (n=11), or other specified issues (n=12). Several studies used more than one social media platform and addressed more than one health-related topic. Conclusions Social media technologies offer an exciting new means for engaging and communicating with adolescents and young adults; it has been successfully used to engage this age group, identify behaviors, and provide appropriate intervention and education. Nevertheless, the majority of studies to date have been preliminary and limited in their methodologies, and mostly center around evaluating how adolescents and young adults use social media and the resulting implications on their health. Although these explorations are essential, further

  2. Adult Day Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... care Physical therapy Recreation Respite care Socialization Supervision Transportation Medication management Back to top Center Operations Centers ... social activities. They may also help to arrange transportation to and from the center. Back to top ...

  3. 25 CFR 20.331 - What is Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is Adult Care Assistance? 20.331 Section 20.331... SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.331 What is Adult Care Assistance? Adult care assistance provides non-medical care for eligible adult Indians who: (a) Have needs...

  4. "Are we ready for robots that care for us?" Attitudes and opinions of older adults toward socially assistive robots.

    PubMed

    Pino, Maribel; Boulay, Mélodie; Jouen, François; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Socially Assistive Robots (SAR) may help improve care delivery at home for older adults with cognitive impairment and reduce the burden of informal caregivers. Examining the views of these stakeholders on SAR is fundamental in order to conceive acceptable and useful SAR for dementia care. This study investigated SAR acceptance among three groups of older adults living in the community: persons with Mild Cognitive Impairment, informal caregivers of persons with dementia, and healthy older adults. Different technology acceptance questions related to the robot and user characteristics, potential applications, feelings about technology, ethical issues, and barriers and facilitators for SAR adoption, were addressed in a mixed-method study. Participants (n = 25) completed a survey and took part in a focus group (n = 7). A functional robot prototype, a multimedia presentation, and some use-case scenarios provided a base for the discussion. Content analysis was carried out based on recorded material from focus groups. Results indicated that an accurate insight of influential factors for SAR acceptance could be gained by combining quantitative and qualitative methods. Participants acknowledged the potential benefits of SAR for supporting care at home for individuals with cognitive impairment. In all the three groups, intention to use SAR was found to be lower for the present time than that anticipated for the future. However, caregivers and persons with MCI had a higher perceived usefulness and intention to use SAR, at the present time, than healthy older adults, confirming that current needs are strongly related to technology acceptance and should influence SAR design. A key theme that emerged in this study was the importance of customizing SAR appearance, services, and social capabilities. Mismatch between needs and solutions offered by the robot, usability factors, and lack of experience with technology, were seen as the most important barriers for SAR adoption.

  5. "Are we ready for robots that care for us?" Attitudes and opinions of older adults toward socially assistive robots.

    PubMed

    Pino, Maribel; Boulay, Mélodie; Jouen, François; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Socially Assistive Robots (SAR) may help improve care delivery at home for older adults with cognitive impairment and reduce the burden of informal caregivers. Examining the views of these stakeholders on SAR is fundamental in order to conceive acceptable and useful SAR for dementia care. This study investigated SAR acceptance among three groups of older adults living in the community: persons with Mild Cognitive Impairment, informal caregivers of persons with dementia, and healthy older adults. Different technology acceptance questions related to the robot and user characteristics, potential applications, feelings about technology, ethical issues, and barriers and facilitators for SAR adoption, were addressed in a mixed-method study. Participants (n = 25) completed a survey and took part in a focus group (n = 7). A functional robot prototype, a multimedia presentation, and some use-case scenarios provided a base for the discussion. Content analysis was carried out based on recorded material from focus groups. Results indicated that an accurate insight of influential factors for SAR acceptance could be gained by combining quantitative and qualitative methods. Participants acknowledged the potential benefits of SAR for supporting care at home for individuals with cognitive impairment. In all the three groups, intention to use SAR was found to be lower for the present time than that anticipated for the future. However, caregivers and persons with MCI had a higher perceived usefulness and intention to use SAR, at the present time, than healthy older adults, confirming that current needs are strongly related to technology acceptance and should influence SAR design. A key theme that emerged in this study was the importance of customizing SAR appearance, services, and social capabilities. Mismatch between needs and solutions offered by the robot, usability factors, and lack of experience with technology, were seen as the most important barriers for SAR adoption. PMID

  6. Beginning to explore the experience of managing a direct payment for someone with dementia: The perspectives of suitable people and adult social care practitioners.

    PubMed

    Laybourne, Anne H; Jepson, Marcus J; Williamson, Toby; Robotham, Dan; Cyhlarova, Eva; Williams, Val

    2016-01-01

    Following legal improvements made around mental capacity together with the Health and Social Care Act, it is now possible for a direct payment to be paid to a 'Suitable Person' to manage on someone's behalf to purchase directly care and support services. People with dementia are a key group affected by this change in England of adult social care. We interviewed nine social care practitioners and seven Suitable People for people with dementia across five English local authorities to begin to examine their experiences of this new method of social care provision. Findings from thematic analyses suggest positive outcomes and multiple beneficiaries, but some challenges: potentially inappropriate processes, support planning, divergence in attitudes towards care and support outcomes. Implications for practice include obfuscation of recipients' and Suitable People's best interests and supporting practitioners to explore fully clients' aspirations for care and support.

  7. Making space for belonging: critical reflections on the implementation of personalised adult social care under the veil of meaningful inclusion.

    PubMed

    Power, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    This paper critically reflects on the way in which recent adult social care reform has been evolving beneath the alleged policy goal of prioritising the cultivation of meaningful inclusion and 'belonging' in the community. With this goal, there has been a focus away from 'services' for persons with intellectual disabilities, to supporting natural connections within the community. This paper draws on a grounded theory study of the perspectives of those responsible for overseeing community living arrangements for persons with disabilities, drawing on interviews and focus groups with service providers and relevant government officials. It examines the socio-spatial implications of the gradual shift towards 'belonging' as a disability policy goal, as it has evolved in two discrete settings - British Columbia, Canada and Ireland. The findings identify the complexities involved in facilitating active community connection for persons with intellectual disabilities and reveal important cautionary lessons for other jurisdictions where community living policy has arguably been moving away from communal services towards self-managed supports in 'real' communities through personal budgets in an effort to remove barriers to participation. The paper thus critically reflects on the rapid pursuit for transformation in personalised adult social care in government policy, arguing that the process of fostering meaningful community inclusion will and should take time.

  8. The Social Stratification of Older Adults' Preparations for End-of-Life Health Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    I use data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (n = 4,971) to evaluate the extent to which socioeconomic status affects three health-related (living will, durable power of attorney for health care, and discussions) and one financial (will) component of end-of-life planning. Net worth is positively associated with all four types of planning,…

  9. 25 CFR 20.331 - What is Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What is Adult Care Assistance? 20.331 Section 20.331 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.331 What is Adult Care...

  10. 25 CFR 20.331 - What is Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is Adult Care Assistance? 20.331 Section 20.331 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.331 What is Adult Care...

  11. 25 CFR 20.331 - What is Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is Adult Care Assistance? 20.331 Section 20.331 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.331 What is Adult Care...

  12. 25 CFR 20.331 - What is Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is Adult Care Assistance? 20.331 Section 20.331 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.331 What is Adult Care...

  13. Effects of Social Reinforcement Contingent on Conventional or Unconventional Responses on Generalized Creativity by Older Adults in Residential Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polenick, Courtney Allyn; Flora, Stephen Ray

    2012-01-01

    The effects of social praise contingent on either usual (conventional) or unusual (unconventional) responses during an object uses task were assessed on measures of generalized creativity in two novel, unrelated tasks. Participants were 20 older adults, ages 63 to 89 years (M = 80.90), who were recruited from a joint skilled nursing and assisted…

  14. Overcoming Social Disconnection and Its Consequences for Transition into Adulthood: Case Studies of Adults Who Exited Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taglianetti, Victor J.

    2013-01-01

    Devastating life experiences continually plague many foster care youth throughout their entire lives on social, emotional, educational, psychological, and physical levels. Oftentimes, the cumulative effect of these events results in large numbers of individuals dropping out of school and becoming increasingly disconnected from people and many…

  15. 25 CFR 20.332 - Who can receive Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who can receive Adult Care Assistance? 20.332 Section 20... AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.332 Who can receive Adult Care Assistance? An adult Indian is eligible to receive adult care assistance under this part if...

  16. Primary care of adults with developmental disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, William F.; Berg, Joseph M.; Bradley, Elspeth; Cheetham, Tom; Denton, Richard; Heng, John; Hennen, Brian; Joyce, David; Kelly, Maureen; Korossy, Marika; Lunsky, Yona; McMillan, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To update the 2006 Canadian guidelines for primary care of adults with developmental disabilities (DD) and to make practical recommendations based on current knowledge to address the particular health issues of adults with DD. Quality of evidence Knowledgeable health care providers participating in a colloquium and a subsequent working group discussed and agreed on revisions to the 2006 guidelines based on a comprehensive review of publications, feedback gained from users of the guidelines, and personal clinical experiences. Most of the available evidence in this area of care is from expert opinion or published consensus statements (level III). Main message Adults with DD have complex health issues, many of them differing from those of the general population. Good primary care identifies the particular health issues faced by adults with DD to improve their quality of life, to improve their access to health care, and to prevent suffering, morbidity, and premature death. These guidelines synthesize general, physical, behavioural, and mental health issues of adults with DD that primary care providers should be aware of, and they present recommendations for screening and management based on current knowledge that practitioners can apply. Because of interacting biologic, psychoaffective, and social factors that contribute to the health and well-being of adults with DD, these guidelines emphasize involving caregivers, adapting procedures when appropriate, and seeking input from a range of health professionals when available. Ethical care is also emphasized. The guidelines are formulated within an ethical framework that pays attention to issues such as informed consent and the assessment of health benefits in relation to risks of harm. Conclusion Implementation of the guidelines proposed here would improve the health of adults with DD and would minimize disparities in health and health care between adults with DD and those in the general population

  17. Social Pedagogy and Pastoral Care in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyriacou, Chris

    2015-01-01

    In the context of this paper, social pedagogy concerns how a person trained in social pedagogy can take up the role of a trusted and caring adult to help, support and empower troubled and vulnerable pupils to meet the demands they face in their lives so that they are better able to lead fulfilling and satisfying lives and can, in their turn,…

  18. “Are we ready for robots that care for us?” Attitudes and opinions of older adults toward socially assistive robots

    PubMed Central

    Pino, Maribel; Boulay, Mélodie; Jouen, François; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Socially Assistive Robots (SAR) may help improve care delivery at home for older adults with cognitive impairment and reduce the burden of informal caregivers. Examining the views of these stakeholders on SAR is fundamental in order to conceive acceptable and useful SAR for dementia care. This study investigated SAR acceptance among three groups of older adults living in the community: persons with Mild Cognitive Impairment, informal caregivers of persons with dementia, and healthy older adults. Different technology acceptance questions related to the robot and user characteristics, potential applications, feelings about technology, ethical issues, and barriers and facilitators for SAR adoption, were addressed in a mixed-method study. Participants (n = 25) completed a survey and took part in a focus group (n = 7). A functional robot prototype, a multimedia presentation, and some use-case scenarios provided a base for the discussion. Content analysis was carried out based on recorded material from focus groups. Results indicated that an accurate insight of influential factors for SAR acceptance could be gained by combining quantitative and qualitative methods. Participants acknowledged the potential benefits of SAR for supporting care at home for individuals with cognitive impairment. In all the three groups, intention to use SAR was found to be lower for the present time than that anticipated for the future. However, caregivers and persons with MCI had a higher perceived usefulness and intention to use SAR, at the present time, than healthy older adults, confirming that current needs are strongly related to technology acceptance and should influence SAR design. A key theme that emerged in this study was the importance of customizing SAR appearance, services, and social capabilities. Mismatch between needs and solutions offered by the robot, usability factors, and lack of experience with technology, were seen as the most important barriers for SAR adoption. PMID

  19. 25 CFR 20.335 - What is the payment standard for Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is the payment standard for Adult Care Assistance... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.335 What is the payment standard for Adult Care Assistance? The approved payment for adult care assistance...

  20. 25 CFR 20.333 - How do I apply for Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do I apply for Adult Care Assistance? 20.333 Section... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.333 How do I apply for Adult Care Assistance? To apply for adult care assistance, you or someone acting on your behalf...

  1. 25 CFR 20.335 - What is the payment standard for Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the payment standard for Adult Care Assistance... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.335 What is the payment standard for Adult Care Assistance? The approved payment for adult care assistance...

  2. [Social inequality in home care].

    PubMed

    Möller, A; Osterfeld, A; Büscher, A

    2013-06-01

    Social inequality in Germany is discussed primarily with regard to educational or social welfare issues. There is a political consensus that more action should be taken to ensure equality of chances and fulfillment of basic needs for everyone. In long-term care these considerations have not yet taken place and there are hardly any research studies in this field. However, the startling rise of the need for long-term care will definitely require a discussion of social inequality in various care arrangements. To learn more about social inequality in home care, a qualitative approach was used and 16 home care nurses were interviewed. Our study shows that many care recipients face numerous problems they cannot handle on their own, which may even worsen their situation. In addition, the results reveal that facing social inequalities place a burden on nurses and influence their work performance.

  3. Factors Affecting Burnout when Caring for Older Adults Needing Long Term Care Services in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Won, Seojin; Song, Inuk

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to address factors related to caregiver burnout as a result of caring for an older adult with a chronic disease. Characteristics of care recipients and caregivers as well as social support were included to identify the relationships with caregiver burnout. The analysis was based on a sample of 334 older adults and…

  4. Community care and social services.

    PubMed Central

    Renwick, D.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of community care is to enable people with various types of disability to live in their own homes, rather than in institutions. This involves the provision of support and services at home by various agencies. After a critical report in 1986 identified problems with coordination and flexibility of community care services, the white paper Caring for People (1989) stated the government's aim to provide a "needs led," responsive range of services, promoting maximum independence of those wishing to live at home rather than enter institutional care. New arrangements were introduced in 1993, involving a formal assessment procedure and the production of a personalized care plan for each individual, incorporating services provided by private and voluntary agencies as well as by social services departments. This article describes the components of community care services supplied by local social services authorities, including housing adaptations, equipment, telephones and alarms, home care, meals, and respite care. Images p871-a PMID:8870580

  5. The Association of Maternal Socialization in Childhood and Adolescence with Adult Offsprings' Sympathy/Caring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; VanSchyndel, Sarah K.; Hofer, Claire

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine associations between mothers' socialization practices in childhood and adolescence and offsprings' (N = 32, 16 female) sympathy/concern in early adulthood. Mothers reported on their socialization practices and beliefs a total of 6 times using a Q-sort during their offsprings' childhood…

  6. Factors affecting burnout when caring for older adults needing long-term care services in Korea.

    PubMed

    Won, Seojin; Song, Inuk

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to address factors related to caregiver burnout as a result of caring for an older adult with a chronic disease. Characteristics of care recipients and caregivers as well as social support were included to identify the relationships with caregiver burnout. The analysis was based on a sample of 334 older adults and their caregivers in Korea. The logistic regression results indicated that the period of being in need of another's help among care-recipients, co-residence, caregivers' health condition, previous care experience, and caregivers' free time were correlated with the caregivers' future caregiving. Interestingly, the more experience caregivers had in caring for older adults, the more willing they were to provide care in the future. Thus, the discussion focuses on services for those who are new to providing care for older adults because they tend to have less coping skills.

  7. Adult Day Care: Its Impact on the Utilization of Other Health Care Services and on Quality of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Neena L.; Blandford, Audrey

    The Adult Day Care Program (ADC) in the Province of Manitoba is a health and social service program providing socialization and recreation in a supportive environment to those who, without this intervention, might deteriorate in physical or mental health function. To examine the impact of adult day care on the utilization of other health care…

  8. Social Environment and Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellenz, Robert A., Ed.; Conti, Gary J., Ed.

    This monograph contains papers from an institute on the theme of adult learning in the social environment. "Bill Moyers' Journal: An Interview with Myles Horton" provides excerpts from a televised interview that discusses Myles Horton's life, work, and association with the Highlander Folk School. "Myles Horton's Views on Learning in the Social…

  9. Problems with measuring satisfaction with social care.

    PubMed

    Willis, Rosalind; Evandrou, Maria; Pathak, Pathik; Khambhaita, Priya

    2016-09-01

    The measurement of customer satisfaction has become widespread in both healthcare and social care services, and is informative for performance monitoring and service development. Satisfaction with social care services is routinely measured with a single question on overall satisfaction with care, comprising part of the Adult Social Care Survey. The measurement of satisfaction has been problematised, and existing satisfaction measures are known to be under-theorised. In this article, the process of making an evaluation of satisfaction with social care services is first informed by a literature review of the theoretical background, and second examined through qualitative interviews conducted in 2012-2013 with 82 service users and family carers in Hampshire, Portsmouth and Southampton. Participants in this study were from white British and South Asian backgrounds, and the influence of ethnicity in the process of satisfaction evaluation is discussed. The findings show that the majority of participants selected a positive satisfaction rating even though both positive and negative experiences with services were described in their narratives. It is recommended that surveys provide opportunity for service users and family carers to elaborate on their satisfaction ratings. This addition will provide more scope for services to review their strengths and weaknesses.

  10. Problems with measuring satisfaction with social care.

    PubMed

    Willis, Rosalind; Evandrou, Maria; Pathak, Pathik; Khambhaita, Priya

    2016-09-01

    The measurement of customer satisfaction has become widespread in both healthcare and social care services, and is informative for performance monitoring and service development. Satisfaction with social care services is routinely measured with a single question on overall satisfaction with care, comprising part of the Adult Social Care Survey. The measurement of satisfaction has been problematised, and existing satisfaction measures are known to be under-theorised. In this article, the process of making an evaluation of satisfaction with social care services is first informed by a literature review of the theoretical background, and second examined through qualitative interviews conducted in 2012-2013 with 82 service users and family carers in Hampshire, Portsmouth and Southampton. Participants in this study were from white British and South Asian backgrounds, and the influence of ethnicity in the process of satisfaction evaluation is discussed. The findings show that the majority of participants selected a positive satisfaction rating even though both positive and negative experiences with services were described in their narratives. It is recommended that surveys provide opportunity for service users and family carers to elaborate on their satisfaction ratings. This addition will provide more scope for services to review their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:25809928

  11. Care of adults with developmental disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Balogh, Robert; Wood, Jessica; Lunsky, Yona; Isaacs, Barry; Ouellette-Kuntz, Hélène; Sullivan, William

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the effects of an interdisciplinary, guideline-based continuing education course on measures related to the care of adults with developmental disabilities (DD). Design Before-and-after study with a control group. Setting Ontario. Participants Forty-seven primary care providers (physicians, registered nurses, and nurse practitioners). Intervention Participants either only received reference material about primary care of people with DD (control group) or participated in a continuing education course on primary care of people with DD in addition to receiving the reference material (intervention group). Main outcome measures Participants reported on 5 key measures related to care of adults with DD: frequency of using guidelines, frequency of performing periodic health examinations, frequency of assessing patients who present with behaviour changes, level of comfort while caring for adults with DD, and knowledge of primary care related to adults with DD. Results Over time, the intervention group showed significant increases in 4 of the 5 key measures of care compared with the control group: the frequency of guideline use (P < .001), frequency of assessment of patients’ behaviour change (P = .03), comfort level in caring for people with DD (P = .01), and knowledge of primary care related to adults with DD (P = .01). Conclusion A continuing education course on primary care of adults with DD is a useful interdisciplinary model to train health professionals who provide primary care services to these patients. PMID:26380855

  12. Counseling Services in Adult Day Care Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaki, Gamal; Zaki, Sylvia

    Federal support for adult day care centers began in the United States approximately 10 years ago. To examine the counseling practices in the adult day care centers across the country and to explore how the services are affected by the staffing patterns at these centers, 135 centers completed a questionnaire. The questionnaire addressed…

  13. Kansas Adult Care Home Aide Curriculum. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornelli, Linda K.; Bartel, Myrna J.

    This curriculum guide is designed for use by instructors whose responsibility it is to prepare persons to provide basic direct care for residents living in adult care homes. Addressed in the individual units of part I (which contains information to be covered in the first 40 hours of training) are the following topics: working in an adult care…

  14. Young adult palliative care: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jennifer K; Fasciano, Karen

    2015-02-01

    Young adulthood is a time of immense growth and possibilities. As a result, it is also a time when serious illness can have profound effects. This review examines the current data pertinent to young adult palliative care and discusses the challenges and opportunities where palliative medicine can enhance the care provided to this growing and vulnerable population. From the data, 2 primary themes emerged (1) ongoing young adult development not only generates unique biologic disease burdens and clinical treatment options but also requires frequent assessment and promotion and (2) binary health care systems often leave young adults without access to developmentally appropriate health care. Given its interdisciplinary approach, palliative care is uniquely poised to address the challenges known to caring for the seriously ill young adult. PMID:24198063

  15. Improving Students' Social Interaction with Adults and Peers by Creating a Caring Community: Strategies for Resolving Conflict in the Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Lena Allegro

    This practicum was designed to provide 237 elementary school students with strategies to improve their social interactions with adults and peers. The professional staff included 12 full-time teachers and 8 itinerant teachers who traveled to schools within the district. Workshops in conflict resolution strategies were presented for teachers to…

  16. Medicare, health care reform, and older adults.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Ann L

    2010-12-01

    Nurses will play a key role in health care reform, educating and engaging consumers, providing input into and monitoring implementation, and assisting organizations with transition to new policies. As the largest group of professional health care providers, nurses must be key players in the actualization of health care reform. This article addresses how The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 will affect the solvency of Medicare, what older adults will gain, effects on quality and effectiveness of care, cost reduction, changes in taxes, and the key provisions of special interest to nurses.

  17. Adult Education as Socialization: Implications for Personal and Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnis, John R.

    1990-01-01

    Argues that the process of education, including adult education, involves the adoption and possibly the transmission of values. Applies concepts of socialization theory and curriculum theory to adult education, focusing on the work of Brim, Berger and Luckmann, and Bourdieu. Discusses the relationship between adult education and social change.…

  18. Transition from Pediatric to Adult OI Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... what OI is and the medical and life style issues involved. • Being comfortable speaking directly to doctors ... the adult years especially if there is good communication between the center and the hometown primary care ...

  19. Self-care in adults with asthma: how they cope.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, S; Suominen, T; Lauri, S

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out how well adult asthma patients in Finland cope with self-care in three areas of asthma treatment. The areas of physical, psychological and social asthma treatment were examined. Associations between demographic background data and self-care were also studied. Data (n = 130) for the study were collected using a questionnaire specially developed for this study. A deductive perspective was employed in data analysis. Respondents showed fairly good competence in self-care in all three areas of asthma treatment. However, up to 30% of the asthma patients had pets and 16% were smokers. Extra stress was reduced by exercise and positive thinking. Humour was also important in helping most of the respondents cope mentally. Social support played a significant part in fighting the sense of powerlessness which is caused by asthma. According to the results, women coped better than men in the social area of self-care. PMID:11261136

  20. Primary care for adults on the autism spectrum.

    PubMed

    Nicolaidis, Christina; Kripke, Clarissa Calliope; Raymaker, Dora

    2014-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined by differences in social communication and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. Skills and challenges can change depending on environmental stimuli, supports, and stressors. Quality of life can be improved by the use of accommodations, assistive technologies, therapies to improve adaptive function or communication, caregiver training, acceptance, access, and inclusion. This article focuses on the identification of ASD in adults, referrals for services, the recognition of associated conditions, strategies and accommodations to facilitate effective primary care services, and ethical issues related to caring for autistic adults.

  1. The use of socially assistive robots for dementia care.

    PubMed

    Huschilt, Julie; Clune, Laurie

    2012-10-01

    Innovative solutions for dementia care are required to address the steady rise in adults living with dementia, lack of adequate staffing to provide high-quality dementia care, and the need for family caregivers to provide care for their loved ones in the home. This article provides an overview of the use of socially assistive robots (SARs) to offer support as therapists, companions, and educators for people living with dementia. Social, ethical, and legal challenges associated with the use of robotic technology in patient care and implications for the use of SARs by nurses are discussed. These items considered, the authors conclude that SARs should be considered as a viable way to assist people living with dementia to maintain their highest possible level of independence, enhance their quality of life, and provide support to overburdened family caregivers. Further research is needed to evaluate the merits of this technological approach in the care of adults with dementia.

  2. Older Adult Inmates: The Challenge for Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Cindy; van Wormer, Katherine; Chadha, Janice; Jaggers, Jeremiah W.

    2009-01-01

    Older adult inmates have grown both in proportion and in number due to the confluence of a number of factors. This aging of the prison population has created a host of policy and practice issues that encompass justice considerations, cost containment issues, and biopsychosocial care needs. The older prisoner's physical, social, and psychological…

  3. Caring for independent lives: geographies of caring for young adults with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Power, Andrew

    2008-09-01

    This paper engages with the emerging disciplinary clash between 'care' and 'independence' within disability studies by examining the geography of home care for young adults with intellectual disabilities. The care system as a whole is viewed as central to disablist structures within disability studies (see Thomas, C. (2007). Sociologies of disability and illness: Contested ideas in disability studies and medical sociology. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.). However, despite the theorisation of dependency as being in antipathy to the goals of the disability movement, caregiving at home still continues to dominate community care. The paper attempts to address how family carers are 'caught-in-the-middle' between their 'duty' to care and at the same time, perpetuating dependency; the reality being that parents have to deal with issues of being overprotective and confronting various social assumptions about disability. It examines the narratives from 25 family caregivers in Ireland who provide personal assistance to young adults with intellectual disabilities. PMID:18573581

  4. 25 CFR 20.332 - Who can receive Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who can receive Adult Care Assistance? 20.332 Section 20.332 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.332 Who can receive...

  5. 25 CFR 20.332 - Who can receive Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who can receive Adult Care Assistance? 20.332 Section 20.332 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.332 Who can receive...

  6. 25 CFR 20.335 - What is the payment standard for Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What is the payment standard for Adult Care Assistance? 20.335 Section 20.335 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.335 What...

  7. 25 CFR 20.332 - Who can receive Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Who can receive Adult Care Assistance? 20.332 Section 20.332 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.332 Who can receive...

  8. 25 CFR 20.335 - What is the payment standard for Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is the payment standard for Adult Care Assistance? 20.335 Section 20.335 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.335 What...

  9. 25 CFR 20.332 - Who can receive Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who can receive Adult Care Assistance? 20.332 Section 20.332 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.332 Who can receive...

  10. 25 CFR 20.335 - What is the payment standard for Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is the payment standard for Adult Care Assistance? 20.335 Section 20.335 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.335 What...

  11. Moving Toward Implementation of Person-Centered Care for Older Adults in Community-Based Medical and Social Service Settings: "You Only Get Things Done When Working in Concert with Clients".

    PubMed

    Coulourides Kogan, Alexis; Wilber, Kathleen; Mosqueda, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Specialized, fragmented acute care is not aligned optimally to serve older adults. Person-centered care (PCC) has emerged as an evidence-based solution that involves enlisting patients as partners in treatment planning. Although several efforts have captured person-centered voices in outpatient care, more information is needed at the organizational and provider level to better understand the feasibility, challenges, and effect of PCC in community-based and social services settings. To assess themes and emerging trends, researchers conducted telephone interviews with leaders at nine organizations providing PCC for older adults. Questions were focused on the legacy of PCC services, whether and how PCC was connected to better quality care, and what tools were used for measuring PCC. Three themes on PCC for older adults emerged. (1) Each organization ascribed to a unique definition and operational structure for PCC. (2) Despite these differences, all organizations specified a strong commitment to PCC. Most noted financial resources and staffing as challenges and opportunities affecting feasibility. (3) Terms such as "patient-centered" care and other PCC synonyms may warrant greater clarification, because ideological differences set these classifications apart. Results from this analysis indicate the lack of a single, established definition for PCC. As interest in and support for PCC mounts, organizations in outpatient medical and community-based settings clearly have undertaken individual efforts to interpret what PCC is and how to provide it. Interview responses reflect this inconsistency, highlighting how staff and financing in particular can bolster or burden the PCC paradigm and what a consensus definition could do for the field.

  12. Moving Toward Implementation of Person-Centered Care for Older Adults in Community-Based Medical and Social Service Settings: "You Only Get Things Done When Working in Concert with Clients".

    PubMed

    Coulourides Kogan, Alexis; Wilber, Kathleen; Mosqueda, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Specialized, fragmented acute care is not aligned optimally to serve older adults. Person-centered care (PCC) has emerged as an evidence-based solution that involves enlisting patients as partners in treatment planning. Although several efforts have captured person-centered voices in outpatient care, more information is needed at the organizational and provider level to better understand the feasibility, challenges, and effect of PCC in community-based and social services settings. To assess themes and emerging trends, researchers conducted telephone interviews with leaders at nine organizations providing PCC for older adults. Questions were focused on the legacy of PCC services, whether and how PCC was connected to better quality care, and what tools were used for measuring PCC. Three themes on PCC for older adults emerged. (1) Each organization ascribed to a unique definition and operational structure for PCC. (2) Despite these differences, all organizations specified a strong commitment to PCC. Most noted financial resources and staffing as challenges and opportunities affecting feasibility. (3) Terms such as "patient-centered" care and other PCC synonyms may warrant greater clarification, because ideological differences set these classifications apart. Results from this analysis indicate the lack of a single, established definition for PCC. As interest in and support for PCC mounts, organizations in outpatient medical and community-based settings clearly have undertaken individual efforts to interpret what PCC is and how to provide it. Interview responses reflect this inconsistency, highlighting how staff and financing in particular can bolster or burden the PCC paradigm and what a consensus definition could do for the field. PMID:26626544

  13. "Race" and Community Care. "Race," Health and Social Care Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Waqar I. U., Ed.; Atkin, Karl, Ed.

    This collection offers a wide-ranging introduction to contemporary issues surrounding the health care needs of members of minority ethnic communities within the framework of community care in Britain. The following chapters consider state welfare, minority communities, family structures, and social change: (1) "'Race' and Community Care: An…

  14. Social Value and Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Penny

    2011-01-01

    An examination of the current government policy discourse on social value and the capturing of social impact leads immediately into the centre of the fast-moving and transforming public-sector reform agenda. The thinking around social value takes an individual to the heart of contracting, localism, the relationship between the public sector and…

  15. Compassion fatigue and the adult protective services social worker.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, Dara Bergel

    2009-04-01

    Compassion fatigue is a relatively new term that describes the symptoms that are experienced by social workers and other helping professionals who work with clients experiencing trauma. This article defines the concept of compassion fatigue and relates compassion fatigue to Adult Protective Services (APS) social workers. It is proposed that APS social workers may be susceptible to the deleterious effects of compassion fatigue due to the nature of their work and environment. Suggestions for avoidance of compassion fatigue are also discussed, including self-care strategies and the need for continuing education regarding this phenomenon.

  16. The impact of social support networks on adult health.

    PubMed

    Asher, C C

    1984-04-01

    Knowledge of the determinants of adult health offers important implications for planning policy that may affect the overall level of health and thus the costs of health care. One potentially important factor that has not been incorporated in previous research is the amount of information individuals have concerning health care or methods of preventive care. This study uses the number of social support networks and the degree of contact individuals have with them as an alternative measure of information. This measure of information is incorporated into an economic model based partly on Becker's Human Capital framework. Social support networks are found to have virtually no impact in explaining health outcomes for illnesses over which the individual has little control. However, when a broader range of illnesses is considered, social support networks do play a role in producing better health.

  17. Older adults experiences of rehabilitation in acute health care.

    PubMed

    Atwal, Anita; Tattersall, Kirsty; Murphy, Susana; Davenport, Neil; Craik, Christine; Caldwell, Kay; McIntyre, Anne

    2007-09-01

    Rehabilitation is a key component of nursing and allied healthcare professionals' roles in most health and social care settings. This paper reports on stage 2 of an action research project to ascertain older adult's experience of rehabilitation. Twenty postdischarge interviews were conducted and the interview transcripts were analysed using thematic content analysis. All older adults discharged from an acute older acute rehabilitation ward to their own homes in the community were eligible to participate. The only exclusion criterion was older adults who were thought to be unable to give consent to participate by the nurse in charge and the researcher. Whilst 92 older adults were eligible to participate in this research study, only 20 were interviewed. The findings from this study suggest that older adults valued communication with health professionals but were aware of their time constraints that hindered communication. This study suggests that both nurses and allied health professionals are not actively providing rehabilitative services to promote health and well-being, which contradicts the focus of active ageing. Furthermore, there was evidence of unmet needs on discharge, and older adults unable to recall the professions that were involved in their interventions and the rationale for therapy input. It is suggested that further research is needed to explore the effectiveness of allied health rehabilitation in the acute setting. This study highlights the need for further research into older adults' perceptions of the rehabilitation process in the acute setting.

  18. Reconciliation of work and care among lone mothers of adults with intellectual disabilities: the role and limits of care capital.

    PubMed

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Kröger, Teppo

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the concept of social capital is applied to an exploration of Guanxi (social networking to create good relationships) among working lone mothers of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) in Taiwan. Using in-depth interviews, this study explores the role of social capital, here referred to as 'care capital', in making it possible for working lone mothers to combine their roles as family carers and workers. Eleven divorced or widowed mothers combining their paid work with long-term care responsibilities were recruited from a survey or through NGOs and were interviewed at their home between October 2008 and July 2010. An interpretative phenomenological approach was adopted for data analysis. The findings revealed that the mothers' care capital was extremely limited and was lost, gained and lost again during their life-cycles of long-term care-giving. Guanxi, especially in relation to their employers, proved to be the sole source of care capital for these mothers, making reconciliation between work and care responsibilities possible. In the absence of formal or informal support, religion and the mother-child relationship seemed also to become a kind of care capital for these lone mothers, helping them to get by with their life-long care responsibilities. For formal social and healthcare services, not just in Taiwan but in every country, it is important to develop support for lone mothers of adults with ID who have long-term care responsibilities and low levels of care capital and thus face care poverty.

  19. Social Networks and Loneliness in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden-Kreutz, Deanna M.; And Others

    The long-term care of dementia sufferers has been conceptualized as a chronic stressor because of the growing evidence that the stress of caring for such an individual has adverse effects on caregivers, including significant decrements in social/recreational activities, emotional and physical fatigue, and depressive symptomatology. Because of…

  20. House Calls: The Impact of Home-Based Care for Older Adults With Alzheimer's and Dementia.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kasey; Bachman, Sara S

    2015-01-01

    Older adults with Alzheimer's/dementia have high health care costs; they may benefit from home-based care, but few have home visits. This article describes a home-based care program for frail elders, including those with Alzheimer's/dementia. Descriptive statistics are provided for Medicare-enrolled program participants and matched controls with Alzheimer's/dementia on expenditures along six services: skilled nursing facility, inpatient acute, physician, home health, hospice, and social services. Cases with dementia were significantly more likely to have home health and hospice expenditures than controls, suggesting potential for the program to improve end-of-life care. Very few cases or controls had any social service expenditures. Social workers should advocate for the expanded role of home-based care for older adults with dementia and for increased Medicare reimbursement of social work services. PMID:26186425

  1. House Calls: The Impact of Home-Based Care for Older Adults With Alzheimer's and Dementia.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kasey; Bachman, Sara S

    2015-01-01

    Older adults with Alzheimer's/dementia have high health care costs; they may benefit from home-based care, but few have home visits. This article describes a home-based care program for frail elders, including those with Alzheimer's/dementia. Descriptive statistics are provided for Medicare-enrolled program participants and matched controls with Alzheimer's/dementia on expenditures along six services: skilled nursing facility, inpatient acute, physician, home health, hospice, and social services. Cases with dementia were significantly more likely to have home health and hospice expenditures than controls, suggesting potential for the program to improve end-of-life care. Very few cases or controls had any social service expenditures. Social workers should advocate for the expanded role of home-based care for older adults with dementia and for increased Medicare reimbursement of social work services.

  2. Incorporating Geriatric Medicine Providers into the Care of the Older Adult with Cancer.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, Allison; Canin, Beverly; van Londen, G J; Edwards, Beatrice; Bakalarski, Pamela; Parker, Ira

    2016-11-01

    A significant proportion of cancer patients and survivors are age 65 and over. Older adults with cancer often have more complex medical and social needs than their younger counterparts. Geriatric medicine providers (GMPs) such as geriatricians, geriatric-trained advanced practice providers, and geriatric certified registered nurses have expertise in caring for older adults, managing complex medical situations, and optimizing function and independence for this population. GMPs are not routinely incorporated into cancer care for older adults; however, their particular skill set may add benefit at many points along the cancer care continuum. In this article, we review the role of geriatric assessment in the care of older cancer patients, highlight specific case scenarios in which GMPs may offer additional understanding and insight in the care of older adults with cancer, and discuss specific mechanisms for incorporating GMPs into oncology care. PMID:27613166

  3. Adult Learning for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlong, Cerys

    2011-01-01

    The "Programme for Government" is the Welsh Government's plan of action for this term of the Assembly. At the forefront of the programme is growth and sustainable jobs. As a small economy, still recovering from the decline of manufacturing and the coal industry, Wales' economic and social outcomes are inextricably linked. Certainly, the link…

  4. Fundamental reform of payment for adult primary care: comprehensive payment for comprehensive care.

    PubMed

    Goroll, Allan H; Berenson, Robert A; Schoenbaum, Stephen C; Gardner, Laurence B

    2007-03-01

    Primary care is essential to the effective and efficient functioning of health care delivery systems, yet there is an impending crisis in the field due in part to a dysfunctional payment system. We present a fundamentally new model of payment for primary care, replacing encounter-based imbursement with comprehensive payment for comprehensive care. Unlike former iterations of primary care capitation (which simply bundled inadequate fee-for-service payments), our comprehensive payment model represents new investment in adult primary care, with substantial increases in payment over current levels. The comprehensive payment is directed to practices to include support for the modern systems and teams essential to the delivery of comprehensive, coordinated care. Income to primary physicians is increased commensurate with the high level of responsibility expected. To ensure optimal allocation of resources and the rewarding of desired outcomes, the comprehensive payment is needs/risk-adjusted and performance-based. Our model establishes a new social contract with the primary care community, substantially increasing payment in return for achieving important societal health system goals, including improved accessibility, quality, safety, and efficiency. Attainment of these goals should help offset and justify the costs of the investment. Field tests of this and other new models of payment for primary care are urgently needed. PMID:17356977

  5. Access Barriers to Prenatal Care in Emerging Adult Latinas.

    PubMed

    Torres, Rosamar

    2016-03-01

    Despite efforts to improve access to prenatal care, emerging adult Latinas in the United States continue to enter care late in their pregnancies and/or underutilize these services. Since little is known about emerging adult Latinas and their prenatal care experiences, the purpose of this study was to identify actual and perceived prenatal care barriers in a sample of 54 emerging adult Latinas between 18 and 21 years of age. More than 95% of the sample experienced personal and institutional barriers when attempting to access prenatal care. Results from this study lend support for policy changes for time away from school or work to attend prenatal care and for group prenatal care.

  6. Older Parents Providing Child Care for Adult Children: Does It Pay Off?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geurts, Teun; Poortman, Anne-Rigt; van Tilburg, Theo G.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether past grandparental child care is related to present support from adult children. On the basis of social exchange theory, the authors expected that grandparental child care creates a debt that is repaid in the form of receiving support later in life. Using data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (N = 349…

  7. Clinical care of adult Turner syndrome--new aspects.

    PubMed

    Trolle, Christian; Mortensen, Kristian Havmand; Hjerrild, Britta E; Cleemann, Line; Gravholt, Claus H

    2012-05-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is characterized by numerous medical challenges during adolescence and adulthood. Puberty has to be induced in most cases, and female sex hormone replacement therapy (HRT) should continue during adult years. These issues are normally dealt with by the paediatrician, but once a TS female enters adulthood it is less clear who should be the primary care giver. Morbidity and mortality is increased, especially due to the risk of dissection of the aorta and other cardiovascular diseases, as well as the risk of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, osteoporosis, thyroid disease and other diseases. The proper dose of HRT with female sex steroids has not been established, and, likewise, benefits and/or drawbacks from HRT have not been thoroughly evaluated. The transition period from paediatric to adult care seems to be especially vulnerable and the proper framework for transition has not yet been established. Likewise, no framework is in place for continuous follow-up during adult years in many countries. Today, most treatment recommendations are based on expert opinion and are unfortunately not evidence based, although more areas, such as growth hormone and oxandrolone treatment for increasing height, are becoming well founded. Osteoporosis, diabetes, both type 1 and 2, hypothyroidism, obesity and a host of other endocrine diseases and conditions are seen more frequently in TS. Prevention, intervention and proper treatment is only just being recognized. Hypertension is frequent and can be a forerunner of cardiovascular disease. The description of adult life with TS has been broadened and medical, social and psychological aspects are being added at a compelling pace. Proper care during adulthood should be studied and a framework for care should be in place, since most morbidity potentially is amenable to intervention. In summary, TS is a condition associated with a number of diseases and conditions which need the attention of a multi-disciplinary team during

  8. Virtual Visits in Home Health Care for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Husebø, Anne Marie Lunde

    2014-01-01

    Background. This review identifies the content of virtual visits in community nursing services to older adults and explores the manner in which service users and the nurses use virtual visits. Design. An integrative literature review. Method. Data collection comprised a literature search in three databases: Cinahl, Medline, and PubMed. In addition, a manual search of reference lists and expert consultation were performed. A total of 12 articles met the inclusion criteria. The articles were reviewed in terms of study characteristics, service content and utilization, and patient and health care provider experience. Results. Our review shows that in most studies the service is delivered on a daily basis and in combination with in-person visits. The findings suggest that older home-dwelling patients can benefit from virtual visits in terms of enhanced social inclusion and medication compliance. Service users and their nurses found virtual visits satisfactory and suitable for care delivery in home care to the elderly. Evidence for cost-saving benefits of virtual visits was not found. Conclusions. The findings can inform the planning of virtual visits in home health care as a complementary service to in-person visits, in order to meet the increasingly complex needs of older adults living at home. PMID:25506616

  9. Registered Nurse Care Coordination: Creating a Preferred Future for Older Adults with Multimorbidity.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Jean; Minaudo, Judith

    2015-09-30

    The concept of care coordination is often touted as the preferred way to streamline care for complex patients. Care coordination is even more popular with the mention of it in the Affordable Care Act of 2010 and with new Medicare payment models. The purpose of this article is to define care coordination, briefly describe trends for older adults and care coordination, and explore roles for registered nurses. We describe elder-appropriate models of care coordination useful for older adults with multimorbidity. A brief exemplar provides an example of evidence-based care coordination services provided by a nursing and social work team, a model supported by recent literature. As a result of this discussion, readers will become informed about possibilities for the future of care delivery and the future of professional nursing practice.

  10. Social Literacy: A Social Skills Seminar for Young Adults with ASDs, NLDs, and Social Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Mary Riggs

    2011-01-01

    All adults need strong social skills to find and keep a job, establish relationships, and participate fully in adult life--but building these skills can be a special challenge for people with autism, Asperger syndrome, nonverbal learning disorder, social anxiety, and other disorders affecting social learning. Give them the essential support they…

  11. 25 CFR 20.333 - How do I apply for Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20.333 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.333 How do I apply for... submit an application form to the social services worker....

  12. 25 CFR 20.333 - How do I apply for Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20.333 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.333 How do I apply for... submit an application form to the social services worker....

  13. 25 CFR 20.333 - How do I apply for Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20.333 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.333 How do I apply for... submit an application form to the social services worker....

  14. 25 CFR 20.333 - How do I apply for Adult Care Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20.333 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Adult Care Assistance § 20.333 How do I apply for... submit an application form to the social services worker....

  15. Adult Education and the Social Media Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeNoue, Marvin; Hall, Tom; Eighmy, Myron A.

    2011-01-01

    The advent of Web 2.0 and the spread of social software tools have created new and exciting opportunities for designers of digitally-mediated education programs for adults. Whether working in fully online, blended, or face-to-face learning contexts, instructors may now access technologies that allow students and faculty to engage in cooperative…

  16. Optimism and Planning for Future Care Needs among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sörensen, Silvia; Hirsch, Jameson K.; Lyness, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with an increase in need for assistance. Preparation for future care (PFC) is related to improved coping ability as well as better mental and physical health outcomes among older adults. We examined the association of optimism with components of PFC among older adults. We also explored race differences in the relationship between optimism and PFC. In Study 1, multiple regression showed that optimism was positively related to concrete planning. In Study 2, optimism was related to gathering information. An exploratory analysis combining the samples yielded a race interaction: For Whites higher optimism, but for Blacks lower optimism was associated with more planning. High optimism may be a barrier to future planning in certain social and cultural contexts. PMID:26045699

  17. Importance of social support in diabetes care

    PubMed Central

    Rad, Ghalmreza Sharfi; Bakht, Leila Azad; Feizi, Avat; Mohebi, Siamak

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Diabetes is one of the major concerns in the third millennium, affecting more people every day. The prevalence of this disease in Iran is reported to be high (about 7.7%). The most important method to control this disease and prevent its complications is self-care. According to various studies, this method has not found its proper place among patients with diabetes due to several reasons. The present study was aimed at determining the relationship between social support, especially family support, and self-care behavior of diabetes patients. Materials and Methods: This study was a narrative review in which the relevant papers of cross-sectional, cohort, clinical trial, and systematic review designs were selected using databases and scientific search engines such as PubMed, ProQuest, SCOPUS, and Elsevier, with the keywords diabetes, social support, and self-care. Moreover, Persian papers were selected from MEDLAB and IRANMEDEX databases and through searching the websites of original research papers published in Iran. All the papers published from 1990 to 2011 were reviewed. Results: The results of the study indicated that the status of self-care and social support in patients with diabetes was not favorable. All the studied papers showed that there was a positive relationship between social support and self-care behavior. Also, some studies pointed to the positive effect of social support, especially family support and more specifically support from the spouse, on controlling blood sugar level and HbA1c. Conclusion: As social support can predict the health promoting behavior, this concept is also capable of predicting self-care behavior of patients with diabetes. Therefore, getting the family members, especially the spouse, involved in self-care behavior can be of significant importance in providing health care to patients with diabetes. PMID:24520558

  18. Do Social Bonds Matter for Emerging Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Christopher; Taniguchi, Travis A.

    2013-01-01

    The extent to which social bonds and turning points influence criminal activity has been the focus of much empirical research. However, there have been few empirical studies exploring social bonds and turning points and offending for those who have experienced emerging adulthood, a recently identified stage of the life course. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health we examined if indicators of social bonds and turning points were predictors of criminal offending. Several of the turning points and social bonds included in these analyses were found to influence decreases in criminal offending for a cohort of emerging adults. We extend previous research by examining the influence of social bonds and turning points on patterns of criminal offending during emerging adulthood. PMID:23487587

  19. Integration and continuity of Care in health care network models for frail older adults.

    PubMed

    Veras, Renato Peixoto; Caldas, Célia Pereira; Motta, Luciana Branco da; Lima, Kenio Costa de; Siqueira, Ricardo Carreño; Rodrigues, Renata Teixeira da Silva Vendas; Santos, Luciana Maria Alves Martins; Guerra, Ana Carolina Lima Cavaletti

    2014-04-01

    A detailed review was conducted of the literature on models evaluating the effectiveness of integrated and coordinated care networks for the older population. The search made use of the following bibliographic databases: Pubmed, The Cochrane Library, LILACS, Web of Science, Scopus and SciELO. Twelve articles on five different models were included for discussion. Analysis of the literature showed that the services provided were based on primary care, including services within the home. Service users relied on the integration of primary and hospital care, day centers and in-home and social services. Care plans and case management were key elements in care continuity. This approach was shown to be effective in the studies, reducing the need for hospital care, which resulted in savings for the system. There was reduced prevalence of functional loss and improved satisfaction and quality of life on the part of service users and their families. The analysis reinforced the need for change in the approach to health care for older adults and the integration and coordination of services is an efficient way of initiating this change.

  20. Integration and continuity of Care in health care network models for frail older adults

    PubMed Central

    Veras, Renato Peixoto; Caldas, Célia Pereira; da Motta, Luciana Branco; de Lima, Kenio Costa; Siqueira, Ricardo Carreño; Rodrigues, Renata Teixeira da Silva Vendas; Santos, Luciana Maria Alves Martins; Guerra, Ana Carolina Lima Cavaletti

    2014-01-01

    A detailed review was conducted of the literature on models evaluating the effectiveness of integrated and coordinated care networks for the older population. The search made use of the following bibliographic databases: Pubmed, The Cochrane Library, LILACS, Web of Science, Scopus and SciELO. Twelve articles on five different models were included for discussion. Analysis of the literature showed that the services provided were based on primary care, including services within the home. Service users relied on the integration of primary and hospital care, day centers and in-home and social services. Care plans and case management were key elements in care continuity. This approach was shown to be effective in the studies, reducing the need for hospital care, which resulted in savings for the system. There was reduced prevalence of functional loss and improved satisfaction and quality of life on the part of service users and their families. The analysis reinforced the need for change in the approach to health care for older adults and the integration and coordination of services is an efficient way of initiating this change. PMID:24897058

  1. Brood care and social evolution in termites.

    PubMed

    Korb, Judith; Buschmann, Michael; Schafberg, Saskia; Liebig, Jürgen; Bagnères, Anne-Geneviève

    2012-07-01

    Cooperative brood care is assumed to be the common driving factor leading to sociality. While this seems to be true for social Hymenoptera and many cooperatively breeding vertebrates, the importance of brood care for the evolution of eusociality in termites is unclear. A first step in elucidating this problem is an assessment of the ancestral condition in termites. We investigated this by determining the overall level of brood care behaviour across four termite species that cover the phylogenetic diversity of the lower termites. Brood care was low in the three species (all from different families) that had an ancestral wood-dwelling lifestyle of living in a single piece of wood that serves as food and shelter. In the fourth species, a lower termite that evolved outside foraging, brood care was more common. Together with data for higher termites, this suggests that brood care in termites only becomes important when switching from a wood-dwelling to a foraging lifestyle. These results imply that early social evolution in termites was driven by benefits of increased defence, while eusociality in Hymenoptera and cooperative breeding in birds and mammals are primarily based on brood care.

  2. Medical care and health under state socialism.

    PubMed

    Deacon, B

    1984-01-01

    This paper derives a conception of ideal socialist and communist medical care and health policy. This model is based on a review of Marxist and allied critiques of capitalist medical care policy and on theoretical work on socialist social policy. The ideal conception, operationalized in terms of 16 criteria, is then applied to a review of medical care and health policy in the Soviet Union. Hungary, and Poland. It is concluded that medical care policy in all three countries exhibits very few characteristics of socialist medical care. The possibility (for the moment repressed) provided by the Solidarity movement in Poland of a new development toward a more genuine socialist medical care and health policy is also described.

  3. Social and Affective Concerns High-Ability Adolescents Indicate They Would Like to Discuss with a Caring Adult: Implications for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jen, Enyi; Wu, Jiaxi; Gentry, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the social and affective concerns of 280 high-ability students in Grades 5 through 12 who participated in a summer residential program. Content analysis of responses from an open-ended survey indicated that high-ability adolescents expressed concerns regarding feelings and emotions, future aspirations, and…

  4. Social marketing: planning before conceiving preconception care.

    PubMed

    Prue, Christine E; Daniel, Katherine Lyon

    2006-09-01

    Social marketing approaches can help to shape the formation of and to create demand for preconception care services. This article describes four components of social marketing, often referred to as the 4 P's, that should be carefully researched and set in place before a national effort to launch and sustain preconception care services is pursued. First, the product or package of services must be defined and adapted using the latest in scientific and health care standards and must be based on consumer needs and desires. Second, the pricing of the services in financial or opportunity costs must be acceptable to the consumer, insurers, and health care service providers. Third, the promotion of benefits must be carefully crafted to reach and appeal to both consumers and providers. Fourth, the placement and availability of services in the marketplace must be researched and planned. With the application of market research practices that incorporate health behavior theories in their exploration of each component, consumer demand for preconception care can be generated, and providers can take preconception care to the market with confidence.

  5. Stressors, social support, religious practice, and general well-being among Korean adult immigrants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Hag; Woo, Hyeyoung

    2013-10-01

    Through this cross-sectional study the authors explore how stressors, social support, and religious practice are associated with the general well-being of 147 Korean adult immigrants through interviews. Hierarchical regression analysis reveals that low English proficiency and financial hardship are significantly related to low general well-being. However, high social support and religious practice are significantly associated with high general well-being. Social service and health care providers need to carefully assess stressors, social support systems, and spiritual issues for providing appropriate services/programs for English, culture, or social activities as well as spiritual intervention to maximize the strengths of Korean immigrants coping with health issues.

  6. Levels of maternal care in dogs affect adult offspring temperament

    PubMed Central

    Foyer, Pernilla; Wilsson, Erik; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Dog puppies are born in a state of large neural immaturity; therefore, the nervous system is sensitive to environmental influences early in life. In primates and rodents, early experiences, such as maternal care, have been shown to have profound and lasting effects on the later behaviour and physiology of offspring. We hypothesised that this would also be the case for dogs with important implications for the breeding of working dogs. In the present study, variation in the mother-offspring interactions of German Shepherd dogs within the Swedish breeding program for military working dogs was studied by video recording 22 mothers with their litters during the first three weeks postpartum. The aim was to classify mothers with respect to their level of maternal care and to investigate the effect of this care on pup behaviour in a standardised temperament test carried out at approximately 18 months of age. The results show that females differed consistently in their level of maternal care, which significantly affected the adult behaviour of the offspring, mainly with respect to behaviours classified as Physical and Social Engagement, as well as Aggression. Taking maternal quality into account in breeding programs may therefore improve the process of selecting working dogs. PMID:26758076

  7. Levels of maternal care in dogs affect adult offspring temperament.

    PubMed

    Foyer, Pernilla; Wilsson, Erik; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Dog puppies are born in a state of large neural immaturity; therefore, the nervous system is sensitive to environmental influences early in life. In primates and rodents, early experiences, such as maternal care, have been shown to have profound and lasting effects on the later behaviour and physiology of offspring. We hypothesised that this would also be the case for dogs with important implications for the breeding of working dogs. In the present study, variation in the mother-offspring interactions of German Shepherd dogs within the Swedish breeding program for military working dogs was studied by video recording 22 mothers with their litters during the first three weeks postpartum. The aim was to classify mothers with respect to their level of maternal care and to investigate the effect of this care on pup behaviour in a standardised temperament test carried out at approximately 18 months of age. The results show that females differed consistently in their level of maternal care, which significantly affected the adult behaviour of the offspring, mainly with respect to behaviours classified as Physical and Social Engagement, as well as Aggression. Taking maternal quality into account in breeding programs may therefore improve the process of selecting working dogs. PMID:26758076

  8. Paraprofessional Social Workers in Day Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterman, Phylis Johnson

    1977-01-01

    Describes an 8-week, inservice, college-level course for paraprofessional social workers employed in day care centers. Bi-weekly classes, supplemented by on-site observation and consultation, covered child development, attitudes, systems, resources, roles and practice skills. Opportunities were also provided to test roles and techniques on the…

  9. Low health literacy and older adults: meanings, problems, and recommendations for social work.

    PubMed

    Findley, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Many older adults struggle to manage their health care problems. Low health literacy exacerbates such struggles and contributes to a variety of adverse health behaviors and outcomes. Addressing how health literacy impinges on the lives of older adults is a neglected area of social work practice and knowledge. This article explores seven areas: defining health literacy, the problem and prevalence of low health literacy among older adults, health inequalities and health literacy, a brief literature review, neglected issues in the literature, suggestions for macro and micro social work interventions to improve health literacy for older adult populations, and conclusion.

  10. Supporting Nutrition in Early Care and Education Settings: The Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Samuel A.

    2016-01-01

    Child care centers, Head Start programs, and family child care providers serving young children--as well as after school programs and homeless shelters that reach older children, adults, and families--are supported in providing healthy meals and snacks by reimbursements through the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). Administered by the…

  11. [Quality of care in adult resuscitation unit].

    PubMed

    Romero Cabrera, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Nowadays the quality of care has become a key piece in medical assistance. Apart from doing things correctly we should have an objective knowledge of the opinion of the user That opinion could be known thanks to the analysis of the perceived quality care from the patient. From October to December of 2008 a descriptive, transversal and retrospective research has been developed in a resuscitation unit at a third level hospital of the Community of Madrid. This research has been for all the registrations to the service, through the Servqhos questionnaire. The aims of the research were to evaluate the quality perceived at the resuscitation unit; to know the profile of the patient treated and to identify the possible improvements and problems as well. The patients were anonymous and they presented themselves voluntary 19 of 42 registrations in total answered the questionnaire with a rate of reply of 45%. The average age registered were 57 years old with an average of stay of 11 days. The most prevalent pathologies were neoplasias and polytraumatisms. According to the quality perceived by the unity there has not been any relationship among gender study level, labor activity marital status and previous hospital stay. At the area of information to the patient there have been some deficiencies as well as some discrimination from the attending staff. Noise is valuated negatively by the patients. Further to the professionalism, is valuated positively at all the social classes. The global quality perceived of the unity were very good from the patient. PMID:25551917

  12. Up Close and Personal: Theorising Care Work in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Vaughn M.

    2016-01-01

    How do we account for the close personal bonds and deeply caring relationships forged by educators with learners in many adult educational encounters? The literature is relatively silent on the emotional and relational basis to adult educator work. This is a serious silence, given the stressful nature of adult education in developing contexts such…

  13. Familism and Health Care Provision to Hispanic Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Savage, Brittany; Foli, Karen J; Edwards, Nancy E; Abrahamson, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    The Hispanic older adult population's rapid growth calls for an awareness of values that can affect the rendering and receipt of care. Familism, or familismo, a traditional Hispanic value, places importance of family over the self and can potentially affect health care perceptions and practices for Hispanic older adults. The current article discusses familism, which is upheld by some Hispanic older adults, and the potential for underuse of health care services. The traditional feminine role, marianismo, and masculine role, machismo, are considered, as well as implications for how decision making may be made by family members rather than the patient. Clinical implications for the provision of health care to Hispanic older adults are provided, along with the importance of considering acculturation and ethnic heterogeneity. Health care management strategies that reflect recognition and respect of familism, yet emphasize optimization of adherence and self-care, are described.

  14. Pre-social benefits of extended parental care.

    PubMed

    Field, Jeremy; Brace, Selina

    2004-04-01

    The evolution of helping, in which some individuals forfeit their own reproduction and help others to reproduce, is a central problem in evolutionary biology. Recently proposed insurance-based mechanisms rely on a pre-existing life history with a long period of offspring dependency relative to the short life expectancies of adult carers: a lone mother's offspring are doomed if she dies young, whereas after a helper dies, other group members can finish rearing the offspring. A critical question, however, is how this life history could evolve in ancestral non-social populations, as offspring survival would then depend on a single, short-lived carer. Here, we resolve this paradox by focusing on the extended parental care inherent in prolonged dependency. We show experimentally that in non-social wasps, extended care can significantly reduce the impact of interspecific parasites. Under extended care, offspring are less vulnerable by the time they are exposed to parasites, and costs of parasitism are reduced because mothers have the option to terminate investment in failing offspring. By experimentally simulating aspects of extended care in a species where it is lacking, we demonstrate that neither benefit requires specialized behaviour. Such benefits could therefore offset the disadvantage of prolonged dependency in non-social species, thereby facilitating the evolution of helping.

  15. Pre-social benefits of extended parental care.

    PubMed

    Field, Jeremy; Brace, Selina

    2004-04-01

    The evolution of helping, in which some individuals forfeit their own reproduction and help others to reproduce, is a central problem in evolutionary biology. Recently proposed insurance-based mechanisms rely on a pre-existing life history with a long period of offspring dependency relative to the short life expectancies of adult carers: a lone mother's offspring are doomed if she dies young, whereas after a helper dies, other group members can finish rearing the offspring. A critical question, however, is how this life history could evolve in ancestral non-social populations, as offspring survival would then depend on a single, short-lived carer. Here, we resolve this paradox by focusing on the extended parental care inherent in prolonged dependency. We show experimentally that in non-social wasps, extended care can significantly reduce the impact of interspecific parasites. Under extended care, offspring are less vulnerable by the time they are exposed to parasites, and costs of parasitism are reduced because mothers have the option to terminate investment in failing offspring. By experimentally simulating aspects of extended care in a species where it is lacking, we demonstrate that neither benefit requires specialized behaviour. Such benefits could therefore offset the disadvantage of prolonged dependency in non-social species, thereby facilitating the evolution of helping. PMID:15071594

  16. Primate paternal care: interactions between biology and social experience

    PubMed Central

    Storey, Anne E.; Ziegler, Toni E.

    2016-01-01

    We review recent research on the roles of hormones and social experiences on the development of paternal care in humans and non-human primates. Generally, lower concentrations of testosterone and higher concentrations of oxytocin are associated with greater paternal responsiveness. Hormonal changes prior to the birth appear to be important in preparation for fatherhood and changes after the birth are related to how much time fathers spend with offspring and whether they provide effective care. Prolactin may facilitate approach and the initiation of infant care, and in some biparental non-human primates, it affects body mass regulation. Glucocorticoids are involved in coordinating reproductive and parental behavior between mates. New research involving intranasal oxytocin and neuropeptide receptor polymorphisms may help us understand individual variation in paternal responsiveness. This area of research, integrating both biological factors and the role of early and adult experience, has the potential to suggest individually designed interventions that can strengthen relationships between fathers and their offspring. PMID:26253726

  17. Transitioning Adolescents and Young Adults With Sickle Cell Disease From Pediatric to Adult Health Care: Provider Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Stollon, Natalie B; Paine, Christine W; Lucas, Matthew S; Brumley, Lauren D; Poole, Erika S; Peyton, Tamara; Grant, Anne W; Jan, Sophia; Trachtenberg, Symme; Zander, Miriam; Bonafide, Christopher P; Schwartz, Lisa A

    2015-11-01

    The transition from pediatric to adult health care is often challenging for adolescents and young adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). Our study aimed to identify (1) measures of success for the transition to adult health care; and (2) barriers and facilitators to this process. We interviewed 13 SCD experts and asked them about their experiences caring for adolescents and young adults with SCD. Our interview guide was developed based on Social-Ecological Model of Adolescent and Young Adult Readiness to Transition framework, and interviews were coded using the constant comparative method. Our results showed that transition success was measured by health care utilization, quality of life, and continuation on a stable disease trajectory. We also found that barriers to transition include negative experiences in the emergency department, sociodemographic factors, and adolescent skills. Facilitators include a positive relationship with the provider, family support, and developmental maturity. Success in SCD transition is primarily determined by the patients' quality of relationships with their parents and providers and their developmental maturity and skills. Understanding these concepts will aid in the development of future evidence-based transition care models.

  18. Transitioning Adolescents and Young Adults With Sickle Cell Disease From Pediatric to Adult Health Care: Provider Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Stollon, Natalie B; Paine, Christine W; Lucas, Matthew S; Brumley, Lauren D; Poole, Erika S; Peyton, Tamara; Grant, Anne W; Jan, Sophia; Trachtenberg, Symme; Zander, Miriam; Bonafide, Christopher P; Schwartz, Lisa A

    2015-11-01

    The transition from pediatric to adult health care is often challenging for adolescents and young adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). Our study aimed to identify (1) measures of success for the transition to adult health care; and (2) barriers and facilitators to this process. We interviewed 13 SCD experts and asked them about their experiences caring for adolescents and young adults with SCD. Our interview guide was developed based on Social-Ecological Model of Adolescent and Young Adult Readiness to Transition framework, and interviews were coded using the constant comparative method. Our results showed that transition success was measured by health care utilization, quality of life, and continuation on a stable disease trajectory. We also found that barriers to transition include negative experiences in the emergency department, sociodemographic factors, and adolescent skills. Facilitators include a positive relationship with the provider, family support, and developmental maturity. Success in SCD transition is primarily determined by the patients' quality of relationships with their parents and providers and their developmental maturity and skills. Understanding these concepts will aid in the development of future evidence-based transition care models. PMID:26492583

  19. Social support, self-care, and quality of life in cancer patients receiving radiotherapy in Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Hanucharurnkul, S.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the study was two-fold: (1) to examine the relationships among self-care, social support, and quality of life in adult cancer patients receiving radiotherapy while the selected basic conditioning factors of age, marital and socio-economic status, living arrangement, stage and site of cancer were statistically controlled; and (2) to test a theoretical model which postulated that (a) quality of life was predicted jointly by the selected basic conditioning factors, social support and self-care, and (b) self-care was predicted jointly by the selected basic conditioning factors and social support. A convenience sample of 112 adult cervical and head/neck cancer patients receiving radiotherapy was obtained from radiotherapy outpatient clinic in three hospitals located in Bangkok, Thailand. Results of the study indicated positive relationships among self-care, social support, and quality of life. Socio-economic status, site of cancer, and self-care were significant predictors for reported quality of life. Social support appeared to be a significant predictor of quality of life indirectly through self-care. Socio-economic status and social support were also significant predictors of self-care, whereas, stage and site of cancer seemed to predict self-care indirectly through social support.

  20. Older Adults' Reports of Formal Care Hours and Administrative Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Steven M.; Brassard, Andrea B.; Simone, Bridget; Stern, Yaakov

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Personal assistance care is a Medicaid benefit in New York, but few data are available on its prevalence and contribution to home care. We examined these issues in a New York City sample by assessing older adults' reports of weekly home care hours and Medicaid billing records. Design and Methods: With help from New York City's Human…

  1. Socialisation, Social Change and Ideology in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Denis

    1991-01-01

    Argues that the process of education, including adult education, involves the adoption and possibly the transmission of values. Applies concepts of socialization theory and curriculum theory to adult education, focusing on the work of Brim, Berger and Luckmann, and Bourdieu. Discusses the relationship between adult education and social change.…

  2. Social networking: applications for health care recruitment.

    PubMed

    Russell, Judith

    2007-01-01

    In today's competitive landscape for health care talent, nursing executives and human resource professionals need to assess and evaluate new avenues for recruitment. The strategy of filling positions by means of print advertising is becoming outmoded quickly. As an industry, health care typically lags behind other industries when it relates to technology. This is especially true in implementing any interactive strategies to target hard-to-fill positions. Social networking sites have appeared on the Internet landscape quickly and continue to flourish. Nurse leaders need to capitalize on this phenomenon. PMID:18080628

  3. Bi-parental care contributes to sexually dimorphic neural cell genesis in the adult mammalian brain.

    PubMed

    Mak, Gloria K; Antle, Michael C; Dyck, Richard H; Weiss, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Early life events can modulate brain development to produce persistent physiological and behavioural phenotypes that are transmissible across generations. However, whether neural precursor cells are altered by early life events, to produce persistent and transmissible behavioural changes, is unknown. Here, we show that bi-parental care, in early life, increases neural cell genesis in the adult rodent brain in a sexually dimorphic manner. Bi-parentally raised male mice display enhanced adult dentate gyrus neurogenesis, which improves hippocampal neurogenesis-dependent learning and memory. Female mice display enhanced adult white matter oligodendrocyte production, which increases proficiency in bilateral motor coordination and preference for social investigation. Surprisingly, single parent-raised male and female offspring, whose fathers and mothers received bi-parental care, respectively, display a similar enhancement in adult neural cell genesis and phenotypic behaviour. Therefore, neural plasticity and behavioural effects due to bi-parental care persist throughout life and are transmitted to the next generation.

  4. Does social support impact depression in caregivers of adults ageing with spinal cord injuries?

    PubMed Central

    Rodakowski, Juleen; Skidmore, Elizabeth R.; Rogers, Joan C.; Schulz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the role of social support in predicting depression in caregivers of adults aging with spinal cord injuries (SCI). Design Cross-sectional secondary data analyses were conducted for this study. Setting Participants were recruited from multiple community locations in Pittsburgh, PA and Miami, FL. Subjects Community-dwelling caregivers of aging adults with SCI (N=173) were interviewed as part of a multisite randomized clinical trial. Main measures The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale measured caregiver depression symptom levels. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis examined the effect of social support (social integration, received social support, and negative social interactions) on depressive symptoms levels for the caregivers of adults aging with SCI, controlling for demographic characteristics and caregiving characteristics. Results Caregivers were, on average, 53 years old (SD=15) and care-recipients were 55 years old (SD=13). Average Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores indicated that sixty-nine (40%) caregivers had significant depressive symptoms (mean 8.69, SD=5.5). Negative social interactions (β̂ =.27, P<.01) and social integration (β̂ =−.25, P<.01) were significant independent predictors of depressive symptom levels in caregivers of adults aging with SCI. Conclusions Findings demonstrate that negative social interactions and social integration are associated with burden in caregivers of adults aging with SCI. Negative social interactions and social integration should be investigated in assessments and interventions intended to target caregiver depressive symptom levels. PMID:23117350

  5. Unequal social engagement for older adults: constraints on choice.

    PubMed

    Rozanova, Julia; Keating, Norah; Eales, Jacquie

    2012-03-01

    Although some studies have confirmed positive associations between social engagement and well-being in later life, this study aimed to understand why some seniors cannot be engaged. The authors analyzed the lived experiences of 89 seniors in three rural communities in Canada, from semi-structured interviews and using the constant comparison method. Five factors make choices for social engagement in later life unequal among older adults who differ by gender, class, age, and health status. Profound engagement in care work, compulsory altruism, personal resources, objectively perceived and subjectively available engagement opportunities, and ageist barriers around paid work constrain choices for seniors who lack privilege in the context of a market economy, particularly for low-income older women. To avoid stigmatizing vulnerable older persons, societal barriers to meaningful activities must be addressed - for example, through provision of income security or by reversing inter- and intragenerational ageism in access to the labor market.

  6. Factors affecting social integration of noninstitutionalized mentally retarded adults.

    PubMed

    Reiter, S; Levi, A M

    1980-07-01

    The social integration of noninstitutionalized moderately and mildly mentally retarded young adults was investigated. A group of moderately and mildly retarded adults (study group) was compared with a group of borderline retarded (control group) adults on employability, behavior at work, social integration and social skills, personality, and self-concept. Findings indicated that the study group was less well integrated at work and in society than was the control group and showed lack of social skills. The retarded adults who had nonretarded friends showed better social-educational skills than did the other subjects. Findings suggest that even retarded individuals who grow up in the community need help in order to become socially independent. The existence of a special social club for retarded adults was found to fulfill the functions of a sheltered framework. Participants in the club showed more positive self-concepts; however, the club did not seem to prepare them for social integration in the general community.

  7. The Health and Social Care Act 2012

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Although the National Health Service (NHS) is regarded as a national treasure, it is no longer immune from the colossal financial pressures brought about by global recession. Economic sustainability has largely driven the reform process leading to the Health and Social Care Act (HSCA) 2012, however; other considerations have also played a role in the journey to turn the health and social care service into an institution which is fit for the 21st-century needs. This article examines the impact of the HSCA 2012 on those made vulnerable through mental ill health. It then considers three issues: First, whether parity between mental and physical health can have life beyond political rhetoric; second, what impact driving up efficiency within the NHS will have upon mental health patients; and finally, the extent to which the personalisation agenda can be meaningfully applied within the mental health context. PMID:26273147

  8. Social networks in improvement of health care.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet; Sivic, Suad; Toromanovic, Selim; Borojevic, Tea; Pandza, Haris

    2012-01-01

    Social network is a social structure made of individuals or organizations associated with one or more types of interdependence (friendship, common interests, work, knowledge, prestige, etc.) which are the "nodes" of the network. Networks can be organized to exchange information, knowledge or financial assistance under the various interest groups in universities, workplaces and associations of citizens. Today the most popular and widely used networks are based on application of the Internet as the main ICT. Depending on the method of connection, their field of activity and expertise of those who participate in certain networks, the network can be classified into the following groups: a) Social Networks with personal physical connectivity (the citizens' associations, transplant networks, etc.), b) Global social internet network (Facebook, Twitter, Skype), c) specific health internet social network (forums, Health Care Forums, Healthcare Industry Forum), d) The health community internet network of non professionals (DailyStrength, CaringBridge, CarePages, MyFamilyHealth), e) Scientific social internet network (BiomedExperts, ResearchGate, iMedExchange), f) Social internet network which supported professionals (HealthBoards, Spas and Hope Association of Disabled and diabetic Enurgi), g) Scientific medical internet network databases in the system of scientific and technical information (CC, Pubmed/Medline, Excerpta Medica/EMBASE, ISI Web Knowledge, EBSCO, Index Copernicus, Social Science Index, etc.). The information in the network are exchanged in real time and in a way that has until recently been impossible in real life of people in the community. Networks allow tens of thousands of specific groups of people performing a series of social, professional and educational activities in the place of living and housing, place of work or other locations where individuals are. Network provides access to information related to education, health, nutrition, drugs, procedures

  9. Social Networks in Improvement of Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Sivic, Suad; Toromanovic, Selim; Borojevic, Tea; Pandza, Haris

    2012-01-01

    Social network is a social structure made of individuals or organizations associated with one or more types of interdependence (friendship, common interests, work, knowledge, prestige, etc.) which are the “nodes” of the network. Networks can be organized to exchange information, knowledge or financial assistance under the various interest groups in universities, workplaces and associations of citizens. Today the most popular and widely used networks are based on application of the Internet as the main ICT. Depending on the method of connection, their field of activity and expertise of those who participate in certain networks, the network can be classified into the following groups: a) Social Networks with personal physical connectivity (the citizens’ associations, transplant networks, etc.), b) Global social internet network (Facebook, Twitter, Skype), c) specific health internet social network (forums, Health Care Forums, Healthcare Industry Forum), d) The health community internet network of non professionals (DailyStrength, CaringBridge, CarePages, MyFamilyHealth), e) Scientific social internet network (BiomedExperts, ResearchGate, iMedExchange), f) Social internet network which supported professionals (HealthBoards, Spas and Hope Association of Disabled and diabetic Enurgi), g) Scientific medical internet network databases in the system of scientific and technical information (CC, Pubmed/Medline, Excerpta Medica/EMBASE, ISI Web Knowledge, EBSCO, Index Copernicus, Social Science Index, etc.). The information in the network are exchanged in real time and in a way that has until recently been impossible in real life of people in the community. Networks allow tens of thousands of specific groups of people performing a series of social, professional and educational activities in the place of living and housing, place of work or other locations where individuals are. Network provides access to information related to education, health, nutrition, drugs

  10. Stressful Social Interactions Experienced by Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Adults with intellectual disability are vulnerable to stressful social interactions. We determined frequency and severity of various stressful social interactions, identified the social partners in these interactions, and examined the specific interpersonal skill difficulties of 114 adults with mild intellectual disability. Participants'…

  11. Health Literacy, Social Support, and Health Status among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Arozullah, Ahsan M.; Cho, Young Ik; Crittenden, Kathleen; Vicencio, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The study examines whether social support interacts with health literacy in affecting the health status of older adults. Health literacy is assessed using the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Social support is measured with the Medical Outcome Study social support scale. Results show, unexpectedly, that rather…

  12. Impact of Choice on Social Outcomes of Adults with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehling, Margaret H.; Tassé, Marc J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores social outcomes for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in comparison to adults with developmental disabilities other than ASD by investigating the relationships between the constructs Social Participation and Relationships, Social Determination, and Personal Control. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test a…

  13. The Social Environment and Neurogenesis in the Adult Mammalian Brain

    PubMed Central

    Lieberwirth, Claudia; Wang, Zuoxin

    2012-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis – the formation of new neurons in adulthood – has been shown to be modulated by a variety of endogenous (e.g., trophic factors, neurotransmitters, and hormones) as well as exogenous (e.g., physical activity and environmental complexity) factors. Research on exogenous regulators of adult neurogenesis has focused primarily on the non-social environment. More recently, however, evidence has emerged suggesting that the social environment can also affect adult neurogenesis. The present review details the effects of adult–adult (e.g., mating and chemosensory interactions) and adult–offspring (e.g., gestation, parenthood, and exposure to offspring) interactions on adult neurogenesis. In addition, the effects of a stressful social environment (e.g., lack of social support and dominant–subordinate interactions) on adult neurogenesis are reviewed. The underlying hormonal mechanisms and potential functional significance of adult-generated neurons in mediating social behaviors are also discussed. PMID:22586385

  14. A cognitive intervention to enhance institutionalized older adults' social support networks and decrease loneliness.

    PubMed

    Winningham, R G; Pike, N L

    2007-11-01

    Nearly all older adults experience social losses, which can disrupt their social support networks and impair their quality of life. Events such as retirement, an inability to drive, death of a spouse and/or close life-long friends, or moving to an elder care facility may negatively affect the quality of older adults' social support networks. Low levels of perceived social support are associated with increased depression, impaired immune functioning and reduced life expectancy. Moreover, social interactions can be cognitively stimulating and may help older adults preserve their cognitive abilities. In the present study, institutionalized older adults were exposed to either a cognitive enhancement programme designed to enhance social networks or a control group. Measures of perceived social support and loneliness were administered before and after a 3-month, group-based intervention. There was a significant interaction between group and time. Those who did not participate in the intervention experienced a decrease in perceived social support and an increase in perceived loneliness. Participants in the intervention group stayed the same on the above measures. Helping older adults increase or maintain the quality of their social networks may lead to enhanced cognitive functioning, decreased depression and improved quality of life. Recommendations to help assisted living facilities, nursing homes, retirement communities and senior centres develop social and cognitive interventions are provided.

  15. Foster Care Experiences and Educational Outcomes of Young Adults Formerly Placed in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havalchak, Anne; White, Catherine Roller; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.; Sepulveda, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This study contributes to the body of research on the educational outcomes of young adults who were formerly placed in foster care. Telephone interviews were conducted with 359 young adults (a 54.6% response rate). Participants must have been served for at least one year by one private foster care agency in one of its twenty-two offices. Results…

  16. Linguistic Stereotyping in Older Adults' Perceptions of Health Care Aides.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Donald; Coles, Valerie Berenice; Barnett, Joshua Trey

    2016-07-01

    The cultural and linguistic diversity of the U.S. health care provider workforce is expanding. Diversity among health care personnel such as paraprofessional health care assistants (HCAs)-many of whom are immigrants-means that intimate, high-stakes cross-cultural and cross-linguistic contact characterizes many health interactions. In particular, nonmainstream HCAs may face negative patient expectations because of patients' language stereotypes. In other contexts, reverse linguistic stereotyping has been shown to result in negative speaker evaluations and even reduced listening comprehension quite independently of the actual language performance of the speaker. The present study extends the language and attitude paradigm to older adults' perceptions of HCAs. Listeners heard the identical speaker of Standard American English as they watched interactions between an HCA and an older patient. Ethnolinguistic identities-either an Anglo native speaker of English or a Mexican nonnative speaker-were ascribed to HCAs by means of fabricated personnel files. Dependent variables included measures of perceived HCA language proficiency, personal characteristics, and professional competence, as well as listeners' comprehension of a health message delivered by the putative HCA. For most of these outcomes, moderate effect sizes were found such that the HCA with an ascribed Anglo identity-relative to the Mexican guise-was judged more proficient in English, socially superior, interpersonally more attractive, more dynamic, and a more satisfactory home health aide. No difference in listening comprehension emerged, but the Anglo guise tended to engender a more compliant listening mind set. Results of this study can inform both provider-directed and patient-directed efforts to improve health care services for members of all linguistic and cultural groups. PMID:26606170

  17. Linguistic Stereotyping in Older Adults' Perceptions of Health Care Aides.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Donald; Coles, Valerie Berenice; Barnett, Joshua Trey

    2016-07-01

    The cultural and linguistic diversity of the U.S. health care provider workforce is expanding. Diversity among health care personnel such as paraprofessional health care assistants (HCAs)-many of whom are immigrants-means that intimate, high-stakes cross-cultural and cross-linguistic contact characterizes many health interactions. In particular, nonmainstream HCAs may face negative patient expectations because of patients' language stereotypes. In other contexts, reverse linguistic stereotyping has been shown to result in negative speaker evaluations and even reduced listening comprehension quite independently of the actual language performance of the speaker. The present study extends the language and attitude paradigm to older adults' perceptions of HCAs. Listeners heard the identical speaker of Standard American English as they watched interactions between an HCA and an older patient. Ethnolinguistic identities-either an Anglo native speaker of English or a Mexican nonnative speaker-were ascribed to HCAs by means of fabricated personnel files. Dependent variables included measures of perceived HCA language proficiency, personal characteristics, and professional competence, as well as listeners' comprehension of a health message delivered by the putative HCA. For most of these outcomes, moderate effect sizes were found such that the HCA with an ascribed Anglo identity-relative to the Mexican guise-was judged more proficient in English, socially superior, interpersonally more attractive, more dynamic, and a more satisfactory home health aide. No difference in listening comprehension emerged, but the Anglo guise tended to engender a more compliant listening mind set. Results of this study can inform both provider-directed and patient-directed efforts to improve health care services for members of all linguistic and cultural groups.

  18. Dental care among young adults with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2013-05-01

    Dental care among young adults with intellectual disability (ID) is poorly documented and largely unmet. By using population-based data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Follow-Up Study, we assessed factors associated with at least one or two dental visits per year among young adults with and without ID. Significantly fewer young adults with ID (45%) visited a dentist at least once per year, compared with those without ID (58%). ID severity and the presence of co-occurring developmental disabilities predicted dental care use. Sociodemographics, daily functioning, societal participation, dental services, and dental health factors were examined as predictors of dental care frequency. Our findings can help focus efforts toward improving the frequency of dental care visits among young adults with ID.

  19. Keep Your Mouth Healthy: Oral Care for Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Keep Your Mouth Healthy Oral Care for Older Adults Oral health ... decay. You can take steps to keep your mouth healthy throughout your lifetime. And if you’re ...

  20. Diarrhea - what to ask your health care provider - adult

    MedlinePlus

    What to ask your health care provider about diarrhea - adult; Loose stools - what to ask your health ... medicines, vitamins, herbs, or supplements I take cause diarrhea? Should I stop taking any of them? What ...

  1. Mixed care networks of community-dwelling older adults with physical health impairments in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Broese van Groenou, Marjolein; Jacobs, Marianne; Zwart-Olde, Ilse; Deeg, Dorly J H

    2016-01-01

    As part of long-term care reforms, home-care organisations in the Netherlands are required to strengthen the linkage between formal and informal caregivers of home-dwelling older adults. Information on the variety in mixed care networks may help home-care organisations to develop network type-dependent strategies to connect with informal caregivers. This study first explores how structural (size, composition) and functional features (contact and task overlap between formal and informal caregivers) contribute to different types of mixed care networks. Second, it examines to what degree these network types are associated with the care recipients' characteristics. Through home-care organisations in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, we selected 74 frail home-dwelling clients who were receiving care in 2011-2012 from both informal and formal caregivers. The care networks of these older adults were identified by listing all persons providing help with five different types of tasks. This resulted in care networks comprising an average of 9.7 caregivers, of whom 67% were formal caregivers. On average, there was contact between caregivers within 34% of the formal-informal dyads, and both caregivers carried out at least one similar type of task in 29% of these dyads. A principal component analysis of size, composition, contact and task overlap showed two distinct network dimensions from which four network types were constructed: a small mixed care network, a small formal network, a large mixed network and a large formal network. Bivariate analyses showed that the care recipients' activities of daily living level, memory problems, social network, perceived control of care and level of mastery differed significantly between these four types. The results imply that different network types require different actions from formal home-care organisations, such as mobilising the social network in small formal networks, decreasing task differentiation in large formal networks and assigning

  2. Differential Outcomes of Adult Education on Adult Learners' Increase in Social Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Greef, Maurice; Verté, Dominique; Segers, Mien

    2015-01-01

    To date a significant share of the European population can be considered at risk of social exclusion. It has been argued that adult education programmes are a powerful tool to support vulnerable adults increasing their social inclusion. This study aims to answer the question if and which subgroups of vulnerable adults experience an increase in…

  3. Dental Care among Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2013-01-01

    Dental care among young adults with intellectual disability (ID) is poorly documented and largely unmet. By using population-based data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Follow-Up Study, we assessed factors associated with at least one or two dental visits per year among young adults with and without ID. Significantly fewer…

  4. Optimizing Health Care for Adults with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Survival into adulthood for individuals with spina bifida has significantly improved over the last 40 years with the majority of patients now living as adults. Despite this growing population of adult patients who have increased medical needs compared to the general population, including spina bifida (SB)-specific care, age-related secondary…

  5. Caring for adults with a learning disability in the community.

    PubMed

    Powrie, E

    A recurring theme within the literature is gaps in the delivery of services for people with a learning disability living in the community. These gaps occur between health professionals, primary and secondary care and specialisms within nursing. Gaps also exist between social service policy and implementation, health and social care. Recent national and local reports have sought to address these issues by promoting ways for health and social services to work in partnership. The theme of health promotion is highlighted in all these documents, but implementation of health promotion has been firmly placed within the boundaries of primary care. This poses a dilemma for primary care: does the primary care team or a more specialist community learning disability team provide better care for people with a learning disability? This article summarizes strategies and policies within the literature and difficulties that need to be considered when offering a service to people with a learning disability. PMID:11927898

  6. Adult Day Care and Medical and Hospital Claims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Neena L.; Blandford, Audrey A.

    1987-01-01

    Examined effect of adult day care (ADC) on utilization of health care practitioner and inpatient hospital services. Data from three separate ADC studies revealed that, when operative for some time, ADC may result in dramatic decreases in hospital inpatient stays. Findings warrant further research. (Author/NB)

  7. Evaluation of the Child Care Class for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallegos, Sandra

    In 1986, the Ability Based on Older Dependable Experience (ABODE) Program was developed at De Anza College to train older adults to serve as a temporary source of child care on an emergency basis. The program was sponsored by Tandem Computers, Incorporated, out of a desire to provide better employee benefits with respect to child care. The program…

  8. Health care: a social contract in transition.

    PubMed

    Hill, T P

    1996-09-01

    Health care reform around the world is born in considerable measure of the need to reconcile our growing capacity to provide effective health care with diminishing economic means to sustain this capacity indefinitely. It is precisely under these circumstances that the conflict between individual rights to health care and the state's responsibilities to provide it becomes unavoidable. Although it cannot be eliminated, the conflict can be managed. But the task requires us to go beyond formulating economic policies or designing new structural systems for delivering health care. It requires an understanding of the purpose of health care for individuals and society. It includes stipulating limitations for individual rights and state responsibilities. Because of these limitations, the task must be guided by the requirements of justice. Health care as both a private and common good is at the center of a distributive struggle. At one level the focus of this struggle is economic and political. At another level it is moral and revolves around the concept of health itself, considered in its biological, psychological and social dimensions. Here the issue becomes health as a right, together with the implications such a right has for our efforts to balance the freedom of individual health-related behavior with the interests of the public's health. What, in that balance, are the rights of the individual and the responsibilities of the state? Can the individual citizen hold the state accountable for securing the conditions necessary for health? Can the state hold its citizens accountable for irresponsible health-related behavior? A discussion of providing liver transplantation sheds considerable light on these questions, while suggesting a paradigm for use with general health care services. Central to this paradigm is the welfare concept of right, balanced by the understanding that a citizen's claim on health care services is limited. In the final analysis, justice in health care

  9. Health-related social control within older adults' relationships.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joan S

    2002-09-01

    This study examined the size and composition of older adults' social control networks and investigated behavioral and affective responses to the experience of social control. Social control in the health domain refers to regulatory attempts by others (direct), and feelings of obligation and responsibility to others (indirect), that encourage engagement in a healthy lifestyle. Participants were 181 adults aged 65-80 years who completed a mail survey. On average, older adults reported having 3-5 people in their social network who exerted a positive influence on their health behaviors, with the size and composition of this network varying somewhat by marital and parental statuses. Social control was associated with both positive and negative behavioral and affective responses, depending on both the type of social control (direct vs indirect) and level of relationship satisfaction. Results indicate the importance of better understanding the conditions under which social relationships have beneficial versus detrimental effects on the well-being of older adults.

  10. Health-related social control within older adults' relationships.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joan S

    2002-09-01

    This study examined the size and composition of older adults' social control networks and investigated behavioral and affective responses to the experience of social control. Social control in the health domain refers to regulatory attempts by others (direct), and feelings of obligation and responsibility to others (indirect), that encourage engagement in a healthy lifestyle. Participants were 181 adults aged 65-80 years who completed a mail survey. On average, older adults reported having 3-5 people in their social network who exerted a positive influence on their health behaviors, with the size and composition of this network varying somewhat by marital and parental statuses. Social control was associated with both positive and negative behavioral and affective responses, depending on both the type of social control (direct vs indirect) and level of relationship satisfaction. Results indicate the importance of better understanding the conditions under which social relationships have beneficial versus detrimental effects on the well-being of older adults. PMID:12198097

  11. Perspectives From Before and After the Pediatric to Adult Care Transition: A Mixed-Methods Study in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hilliard, Marisa E.; Perlus, Jessamyn G.; Clark, Loretta M.; Haynie, Denise L.; Plotnick, Leslie P.; Guttmann-Bauman, Ines; Iannotti, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Among the many milestones of adolescence and young adulthood, transferring from pediatric to adult care is a significant transition for those with type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to understand the concerns, expectations, preferences, and experiences of pretransition adolescents and parents and posttransition young adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants completed questionnaires and responded to open-ended qualitative questions regarding self-management, self-efficacy, and their expectations and experiences with pediatric and adult care providers across the transition process. RESULTS At a mean age of 16.1 years, most pretransition adolescents had not yet discussed transferring care with their parents or doctors. Although many posttransition young adults reported positive, supportive interactions, several described challenges locating or establishing a relationship with an adult diabetes care provider. Qualitative themes emerged related to the anticipated timing of transfer, early preparation for transition, the desire for developmentally appropriate interactions with providers, the maintenance of family and social support, and strategies for coordinating care between pediatric and adult care providers. CONCLUSIONS Standardizing transition preparation programs in pediatric care and introducing transition-oriented clinics for late adolescents and young adults prior to adult care may help address patients’ preferences and common transfer-related challenges. PMID:24089544

  12. Economic Socialization, Saving and Assets in European Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webley, Paul; Nyhus, Ellen K.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the role economic socialization plays in the economic behavior and asset accumulation of young adults by parents using data from European young adults and teenagers. We study the role of four distinct strands of economic socialization (providing pocket money, jobs at home, work for others, and parental encouragement) using a Dutch…

  13. The role of chiropractic care in older adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    There are a rising number of older adults; in the US alone nearly 20% of the population will be 65 or older by 2030. Chiropractic is one of the most frequently utilized types of complementary and alternative care by older adults, used by an estimated 5% of older adults in the U.S. annually. Chiropractic care involves many different types of interventions, including preventive strategies. This commentary by experts in the field of geriatrics, discusses the evidence for the use of spinal manipulative therapy, acupuncture, nutritional counseling and fall prevention strategies as delivered by doctors of chiropractic. Given the utilization of chiropractic services by the older adult, it is imperative that providers be familiar with the evidence for and the prudent use of different management strategies for older adults. PMID:22348431

  14. Care of Adult Refugees with Chronic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Terasaki, Genji; Ahrenholz, Nicole Chow; Haider, Mahri Z

    2015-09-01

    Refugees share a common experience of displacement from their country of origin, migration, and resettlement in an unfamiliar country. More than 17 million people have fled their home countries due to war, generalized violence, and persecution. US primary care physicians must care for their immediate and long-term medical needs. Challenges include (1) language and cultural barriers, (2) high rates of mental health disorders, (3) higher prevalence of latent infections, and (4) different explanatory models for chronic diseases. This article discusses management strategies for common challenges that arise in the primary care of refugees. PMID:26320045

  15. Care of Adult Refugees with Chronic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Terasaki, Genji; Ahrenholz, Nicole Chow; Haider, Mahri Z

    2015-09-01

    Refugees share a common experience of displacement from their country of origin, migration, and resettlement in an unfamiliar country. More than 17 million people have fled their home countries due to war, generalized violence, and persecution. US primary care physicians must care for their immediate and long-term medical needs. Challenges include (1) language and cultural barriers, (2) high rates of mental health disorders, (3) higher prevalence of latent infections, and (4) different explanatory models for chronic diseases. This article discusses management strategies for common challenges that arise in the primary care of refugees.

  16. 38 CFR 52.61 - General requirements for adult day health care program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adult day health care program. 52.61 Section 52.61 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.61 General requirements for adult day health care program. Adult day health care must be...

  17. Residential Characteristics, Social Factors, and Mortality among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Transitions out of Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Kelly; Heller, Tamar; Freels, Sally

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the degree to which residential characteristics and social factors are associated with mortality, after controlling for personal characteristics, among adults with intellectual disabilities who have resided in nursing homes (facilities providing skilled care and related services) at baseline in the Chicago area. Initial…

  18. Preventive Care Recommendations for Adults with MS

    MedlinePlus

    Preventive Care Recommendations THE BASIC FACTS MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS The Three Most Common Eye Disorders Carlos Healey, diagnosed in 2001 in Multiple Sclerosis Medical checklist: Recommendations: Dates of last & next test ...

  19. 75 FR 41793 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care... Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2010 Through June 30, 2011 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service...-risk afterschool care centers, and adult day care centers; the food service payment rates for meals...

  20. Primary care as intersecting social worlds.

    PubMed

    Tovey, P; Adams, J

    2001-03-01

    An enhanced role for primary health care (PHC) is currently a matter of political priority in the UK. This higher profile is drawing attention to a range of unresolved challenges and issues, relating to both the structure and content of provision, which currently permeate the system. Running in parallel with this is a recognition that: to date, PHC has been under-researched; that, as a result, our understanding of it is frequently poor; and that, as a consequence, fresh perspectives are needed in order to effectively research this uncertain, evolving and increasingly important healthcare sector. In this paper we argue that social worlds theory (SWT) provides, albeit in a suitably modified form, an ideal conceptual framework for the analysis of contemporary primary care. SWT is an approach which assumes complexity and constant evolution, and its core concepts are directed towards unravelling the consequences of encounters between different interest groups--something which is of particular utility at this time given the increasing attention to user participation, and an ongoing questioning of established patterns of professional authority. It is an approach which has rarely been employed empirically, even beyond medicine. In order to illustrate the wide relevance of the approach, we discuss how it can facilitate research at all levels of PHC: i.e., in relation to aspects of medical practice (the case of medically unexplained symptoms); shifts in service organisation (changing professional roles and the introduction of policy reforms); and issues which straddle both organisation and content (the increasing use of complementary medicine in primary care). In each case the approach is able to embrace the complexity of situations characterised by the intersection of professional and lay social worlds and is able to provide the conceptual tools through which resultant processes can be tracked and investigated. PMID:11218174

  1. Primary care as intersecting social worlds.

    PubMed

    Tovey, P; Adams, J

    2001-03-01

    An enhanced role for primary health care (PHC) is currently a matter of political priority in the UK. This higher profile is drawing attention to a range of unresolved challenges and issues, relating to both the structure and content of provision, which currently permeate the system. Running in parallel with this is a recognition that: to date, PHC has been under-researched; that, as a result, our understanding of it is frequently poor; and that, as a consequence, fresh perspectives are needed in order to effectively research this uncertain, evolving and increasingly important healthcare sector. In this paper we argue that social worlds theory (SWT) provides, albeit in a suitably modified form, an ideal conceptual framework for the analysis of contemporary primary care. SWT is an approach which assumes complexity and constant evolution, and its core concepts are directed towards unravelling the consequences of encounters between different interest groups--something which is of particular utility at this time given the increasing attention to user participation, and an ongoing questioning of established patterns of professional authority. It is an approach which has rarely been employed empirically, even beyond medicine. In order to illustrate the wide relevance of the approach, we discuss how it can facilitate research at all levels of PHC: i.e., in relation to aspects of medical practice (the case of medically unexplained symptoms); shifts in service organisation (changing professional roles and the introduction of policy reforms); and issues which straddle both organisation and content (the increasing use of complementary medicine in primary care). In each case the approach is able to embrace the complexity of situations characterised by the intersection of professional and lay social worlds and is able to provide the conceptual tools through which resultant processes can be tracked and investigated.

  2. Advances in the Care of Adults With Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Viviane G; Kussman, Barry D

    2015-09-01

    The significant decline in mortality among children and adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with an increasing prevalence of CHD in adults, particularly those with moderate to severe defects. As a significant percentage of adolescents and young adults are lost to follow-up in the transition from pediatric to adult care, they may present for elective procedures with substantial CHD-associated morbidity. In addition to the specific cardiac defect, the procedures performed, and the current pathophysiological status, several factors should be considered when managing the adult with CHD. These include the type of setting (adult vs pediatric institution); surgeon (pediatric vs adult cardiac surgeon); coexisting diseases associated with CHD, such as coronary artery disease, hepatic dysfunction, renal dysfunction, cerebrovascular accidents, myopathy, and coagulation disorders; acquired diseases of aging; pregnancy; and psychosocial functioning. The current status of the management of common and important congenital cardiac defects is also described. PMID:25542866

  3. Integrating Adolescents and Young Adults into Adult-Centered Care for IBD.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Itishree; Holl, Jane L; Hanauer, Stephen; Keefer, Laurie

    2016-05-01

    Planned healthcare transition, initiated in pediatric care, is a gradual process aimed at fostering the adolescent patient's disease knowledge and skills with the ultimate objective of preparing patients and families for adult-centered care. The process is critical in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) where there is an increased risk of non-adherence, hospitalizations, and emergency department use as young adult patients graduate from pediatric to adult-centered care. While evidence for healthcare transition in IBD is mounting, important gaps remain in the understanding of this process from the perspective of the adult gastroenterologist. This paper summarizes what is known about healthcare transition in IBD and explores the unanswered questions-a conceptual and methodological framework for transition interventions, relevant outcomes that define successful transition, and key stakeholder perspectives. For the adult gastroenterologist managing the young adult patient population, this paper presents the paradigm of "care integration"-a process of ongoing, multi-modality support for the patient, initiated in the adult care setting, with the goal of improving self-management skills and active participation in medical decision-making.

  4. Up against the System: A Case Study of Young Adult Perspectives Transitioning from Pediatric Palliative Care

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Karen; Jack, Susan; Thabane, Lehana; Browne, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Advances in pediatric care have not provided the interdisciplinary support services required by those young adults with pediatric life-threatening conditions (pedLTCs) who live beyond childhood but have limited expectations to live past early adulthood. These young adults, the first generation to live into adulthood, face multiple challenges transitioning from a plethora of pediatric palliative services to scant adult health services. In a case study, using an innovative bulletin board focus group, we describe the complex interplay of the health, education, and social service sectors in this transition. Our descriptions include system deficits and strengths and the young adults' resilience and coping strategies to overcome those deficits and move forward with their lives. Young adults with pedLTC need knowledgeable providers, coordinated and accessible services, being respected and valued, and services and supports that promote independence. We recommend implementation of multidisciplinary solutions that are focused on young adult priorities to ensure seamless access to resources to support these young adults' health, educational, vocational, and social goals. The input and voice of young adults in the development of these services are imperative to ensure that multisystem services support their needs and life goals. PMID:23997951

  5. Effects of Living Alone on Social Capital and Health Among Older Adults in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingwen; Norstrand, Julie A; Du, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Social capital has been connected with positive health outcomes across countries, including China. Given the rise in the number of seniors living alone, there is a need to examine the health benefits of social capital, accounting for living arrangements. Data from the 2005 Chinese General Social Survey were used to test research hypotheses. Controlling for demographics, elders living alone possessed similar level of social capital compared with elders living with others. While bonding and linking social capital were significant factors in urban areas and linking social capital was a significant factor in rural areas, the relationship between living alone and health did not differ based on the level of social capital possession. When the traditional intergenerational living arrangement has not been a valid option for many older adults in China, seeking new way of family caring, and developing appropriate social and institutional structures to assist elders living alone, becomes critical.

  6. Transition to Adult-Oriented Health Care: Perspectives of Youth and Adults with Complex Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Nancy L.; Barden, Wendy S.; Mills, Wendy A.; Burke, Tricia A.; Law, Mary; Boydell, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The transition to adulthood is extremely difficult for individuals with disabilities. We sought to explore the specific issue of transition to adult-oriented health care in a Canadian context. Methods: We conducted semi-structured individual interviews with 15 youth and 15 adults with cerebral palsy, spina bifida, and acquired brain…

  7. Transition to Adult-Oriented Health Care: Perspectives of Youth and Adults with Complex Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorter, Jan Willem

    2009-01-01

    In their qualitative study, Young and colleagues (2009) found that youth and adults with cerebral palsy (CP), spina bifida, and acquired brain injuries of childhood in the province of Ontario, Canada, perceive or have perceived their transfer from pediatric to adult-oriented health care services as a struggle. Although publications on transition…

  8. Are Healthier Older Adults Choosing Managed Care?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Gail A.; Morrisey, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: We attempt to determine whether older workers and early retirees avoid managed care plans and to explore whether health plan choices are linked to the health status of workers or their spouses. Design and Methods: We use the responses of those born between 1931 and 1941 to the 1994 and 1998 waves of the Health and Retirement Survey. We…

  9. Adult Day Care--Extended Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bert Kruger

    This pamphlet describes a multi-purpose day-care center for the elderly in Abilene, Texas which is intended to fill the "extended family" role of offering companionship, medical attention, and other aspects of concern to older persons in the community. The goals of the program are as follows: (1) to keep individuals out of institutions as long as…

  10. Later life care planning conversations for older adults and families.

    PubMed

    Stolee, Paul; Zaza, Christine; Sharratt, Michael T

    2014-09-01

    While most older adults have thought about their future care needs, few have discussed their preferences with family members. We interviewed older persons (24), adult children (24), health professionals (23), and representatives of stakeholder associations (3) to understand their views and experiences on later life care (LLC) planning conversations, in terms of (a) their respective roles, and (b) barriers and facilitators that should be taken into account when having these conversations. Roles described included that of information user (older persons), information seeker (family members), and information provider (health care providers). The study identified practical and emotional considerations relevant to LLC planning conversations. This study found strong support for planning for LLC before the need arises, as well as important potential benefits for older adults, family members, and health professionals. There is interest in, and need for, resources to guide families in LLC planning. PMID:24652903

  11. Teaching Social Skills to Enhance Work Performance in a Child Care Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gear, Sabra; Bobzien, Jonna; Judge, Sharon; Raver, Sharon A.

    2011-01-01

    Adults with intellectual disabilities face difficulty seeking employment in the community workforce. Using a single-subject design, this study examined the utility of role playing and self-management strategies to enhance work performance by promoting the social skills of a young woman with Down syndrome working in a community child care setting.…

  12. Perceived control in health care: a conceptual model based on experiences of frail older adults.

    PubMed

    Claassens, L; Widdershoven, G A; Van Rhijn, S C; Van Nes, F; Broese van Groenou, M I; Deeg, D J H; Huisman, M

    2014-12-01

    Frail older adults are increasingly encouraged to be in control of their health care, in Western societies. However, little is known about how they themselves perceive control in health care. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the concept of health care-related perceived control from the viewpoint of frail older adults. A qualitative interview study was conducted following a Grounded Theory approach. Thirty-two Dutch frail older adults, aged 65 and over, participated in 20 in-depth interviews (n=20) and three focus group discussions (n=12). Data were analysed according to techniques of coding and constant comparison. From this analysis constituting factors of perceived control emerged, providing elements of a conceptual model. Perceived control reflects the feeling or belief that health care is under control, which is constituted by five, either internal or external, factors: (I) self-confidence in organising professional and/or informal care, (II) self-confidence in health management in the home setting, (III) perceived support from people in the social network, (IV) perceived support from health care professionals and organisations, and (V) perceived support from (health care) infrastructure and services. Therefore, the concept does not only consist of people's own perceived efforts, but also includes the influence of external sources. Our conceptual model points out what external factors should be taken into consideration by health care professionals and policy makers when enhancing older people's perceived control. Moreover, it can serve as the basis for the development of a measurement instrument, to enable future quantitative research on health care-related perceived control among older adults.

  13. Social Change and Adult Education Research. Adult Education Research in Nordic Countries 1992/93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tampere Univ., Hameelinna (Finland). Dept. of Education.

    This yearbook contains 18 papers reflecting the major trends in adult education research in the Nordic countries in 1992-93. The following papers are included: "Popular Adult Education and Social Mobilization: Reflections in Connection with the Swedish Committee on Power" (Rubenson); "Direction of Finnish Adult Education Policies within the…

  14. Adolescent and young adult cancer: principles of care

    PubMed Central

    Ramphal, R.; Aubin, S.; Czaykowski, P.; De Pauw, S.; Johnson, A.; McKillop, S.; Szwajcer, D.; Wilkins, K.; Rogers, P.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (ayas) with cancer in active treatment face a number of barriers to optimal care. In the present article, we focus on the 3 critical domains of care for ayas—medical, psychosocial, and research—and how changes to the system could overcome barriers. We summarize the current literature, outline recommended principles of care, raise awareness of barriers to optimal care, and suggest specific changes to the system to overcome those barriers in the Canadian context. Many of the recommendations can nevertheless be applied universally. These recommendations are endorsed by the Canadian Task Force on Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer and build on outcomes from two international workshops held by that group. PMID:27330350

  15. Social networks of professionals in health care organizations: a review.

    PubMed

    Tasselli, Stefano

    2014-12-01

    In this article, we provide an overview of social network research in health care, with a focus on social interactions between professionals in organizations. We begin by introducing key concepts defining the social network approach, including network density, centrality, and brokerage. We then review past and current research on the antecedents of health care professionals' social networks-including demographic attributes, professional groups, and organizational arrangements-and their consequences-including satisfaction at work, leadership, behaviors, knowledge transfer, diffusion of innovation, and performance. Finally, we examine future directions for social network research in health care, focusing on micro-macro linkages and network dynamics.

  16. The Longitudinal Elder Initiative: helping students learn to care for older adults.

    PubMed

    Davis, Rebecca L; Beel-Bates, Cindy; Jensen, Susan

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes an educational innovation called the Longitudinal Elder Initiative (LEI), which was developed by a BSN program to improve students' knowledge about the health needs and nursing care of older adults. In the LEI, new nursing students are paired with older adults in the community and develop a relationship with them over the duration of the nursing program. Students complete a variety of assignments designed to facilitate learning gerontological nursing concepts. They also complete specific assessments designed to target common problems in aging. Students develop nursing care plans and interventions during the course of the project and monitor progress toward goals over time. Through the LEI, students develop relationships with older adults in the community and view their health changes longitudinally. In addition, students can observe how social, financial, and health-related factors affect health and well-being over time.

  17. Transfer to Adult Care--Experiences of Young Adults with Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Asp, Ann; Bratt, Ewa-Lena; Bramhagen, Ann-Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    More than 90% of children born with congenital heart disease survive into adulthood due to successes of cardiac surgery and medical management. Interviews with 16 young adults with congenital heart disease to explore their experiences of transfer from pediatric to adult care were performed. The analysis identified five themes; Feeling secure during the transfer process, Experiencing trust in the care, Expecting to be involved, Assuming responsibility for one's health is a process and Lack of knowledge leads to uncertainty. In conclusion; a structured and gradual transfer process was necessary to enable the informants to shoulder the responsibility for self-care.

  18. Psychological care of adults with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rogers, M P; Liang, M H; Partridge, A J

    1982-03-01

    Physicians treating patients with chronic rheumatoid arthritis spend a considerable amount of time dealing with the psychological and social aspects of the disease. The patients' reaction to the disease can be related to age, experience, personality, and environment at work and at home. Common problems include loss of independence and self esteem, relations with family and friends, employment, and management of pain. Physicians should be attentive to the psychosocial aspects of rheumatoid arthritis and recognize their dynamic interactions to minimize their impact. PMID:7059100

  19. Describing the sublanguage of wound care in an adult ICU.

    PubMed

    Danielsson-Ojala, Riitta; Lundgren-Laine, Heljä; Salanterä, Sanna

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive wound documentation is an important tool in evaluating and planning patient care. The sublanguage used in ICUs may affect negatively to the wound care and thus to the healing process. We made a quantitative content analysis of nursing documentation of cardiac surgery adult patients (n=60) who had stayed over four days in the ICU. The sublanguage used in nursing documentation of wounds and ulcers in the ICU was unstructured with many words of colloquial language, misspellings and abbreviations. The documentation did not cover all aspects of proper wound care. The information technology could be helpful for nurses to document right things with plain language. PMID:22874364

  20. Social Skills in Adults with AD/HD

    MedlinePlus

    ... often struggle in social situations. Interacting successfully with peers and significant adults is one of the most ... percent of children with ADHD have difficulty with peer relationships. Over 25 percent of Americans experience chronic ...

  1. An Ideological Framework in Adult Education: Poverty and Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jo-Anne

    1981-01-01

    Posits that the basic system of values and beliefs held by adult educators influences their stance on social problems. Examples of responses to the problem of poverty illustrate four basic ideological positions: liberalism, conservatism, liberal radicalism, and Marxism. (JOW)

  2. A Comparative Analysis of the Functional Disability Levels of Adult Day Care, Adult Day Health and ICF-Level Nursing Home Elderly in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashida, Cullen T.

    This study compared the functional disability levels of participants in adult day centers with patients in intermediate care facilities (ICFs). A three-page questionnaire measuring demographics, social resources, physical health, mental health, and activities of daily living as assessed by the Activities of Daily Living scale and the Instrumental…

  3. Social skills training with mildly retarded young adults.

    PubMed

    Meredith, R L; Saxon, S; Doleys, D M; Kyzer, B

    1980-10-01

    Described a social skills assessment and training model for use with mildly retarded young adults (N = 20). The assessment procedure examined social behavior in three types of social situations (e.g., conversational situation, cooperative task and assertive situation) with both male and female respondents. Group behavioral social skills training was compared with a no treatment control condition using various dependent measures collected in the in-vivo social situations. Group behavioral social skills training was more effective than the control condition in increasing positive social behavior, attention to the transaction, and degree of empathy. It was also more effective than a control condition in decreasing negative social skill behavior. A situation effect also was observed, which suggests a need for more focus on particular social skills and a need to address issues of generalization. A comprehensive social skills assessment and training model is discussed. PMID:7440726

  4. Social Movements, Class, and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Shirley

    2005-01-01

    Social movements in South Africa, often organized around class-related issues, provide rich material to illustrate how class, intertwined with other social categories, shapes organizational and educational practices.

  5. Adult Education, Social Inclusion and Cultural Diversity in Regional Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Rob

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the outcomes of recent research into adult education programs and experiences in the Shire of Campaspe, a region in northern Victoria. Research data of people from diverse cultural backgrounds reveal how individuals can utilize adult education as a space to explore their own social and cultural isolation in a regional…

  6. Social Cognitive Correlates of Young Adult Sport Competitors' Sunscreen Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, Nadine C.; O'Riordan, David L.; Winkler, Elisabeth; McDermott, Liane; Spathonis, Kym; Owen, Neville

    2011-01-01

    Young adults participating in outdoor sports represent a high-risk group for excessive sun exposure. The purpose of this study was to identify modifiable social cognitive correlates of sunscreen use among young adult competitors. Participants aged 18 to 30 years who competed in soccer (n = 65), surf-lifesaving (n = 63), hockey (n = 61), and tennis…

  7. Perceptions of social challenges of adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Sperry, Laurie A; Mesibov, Gary B

    2005-10-01

    This study examines perceptions of social challenges by adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The investigators analyzed three separate, regularly scheduled social group meetings attended by a total of 18 adults with ASD where the activity was a discussion of social issues. Participants generated social questions and challenges they had encountered as a result of having autism. The questions were presented to the group for a discussion of potential solutions. Written and audio data were collected and a member check was completed. The data were plumbed for key words and emergent themes to identify major social challenges as viewed by adults with ASD. The emergent themes included relationships at work, developing and maintaining personal relationships, appropriate behaviors around members of the opposite sex, and personal perspectives on having ASD.

  8. Adult Learning, Critical Intelligence and Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Marjorie, Ed.; Thompson, Jane, Ed.

    This collection of 21 essays reviews the context of developments in adult education in the last 15 years. "Adult Education for Change in the Nineties and Beyond" (Marjorie Mayo) is a critical review of the context for these changes and of the theoretical debates that attempt to analyze and explain them. "Challenging the Postmodern Condition"…

  9. A stress and coping model of adjustment to caring for an adult with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Christina; Pakenham, Kenneth I

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the utility of a stress and coping framework for identifying factors associated with adjustment to informal caregiving to adults with mental illness. Relations between stress and coping predictors and negative (distress) and positive (positive affect, life satisfaction, benefit finding, health) carer adjustment outcomes were examined. A total of 114 caregivers completed questionnaires. Predictors included relevant background variables (carer and care recipient characteristics and caregiving context), coping resources (optimism, social support, carer-care recipient relationship quality), appraisal (threat, control, challenge) and coping strategies (problem-focused, avoidance, acceptance, meaning-focused). Results indicated that after controlling for relevant background variables (burden, caregiving frequency, care recipient symptom unpredictability), better caregiver adjustment was related to higher social support and optimism, better quality of carer-care recipient relationship, lower threat and higher challenge appraisals, and less reliance on avoidance coping, as hypothesised. Coping resources emerged as the most consistent predictor of adjustment. Findings support the utility of stress and coping theory in identifying risk and protective factors associated with adaptation to caring for an adult with mental illness.

  10. Frailty and Organization of Health and Social Care.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Andrew; Young, John

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we consider how health and social care can best be organized for older people with frailty. We will consider the merits of routine frailty identification, including risk stratification methods, to inform the provision of evidence-based treatment and holistic, goal-oriented care. We will also consider how best to place older people with frailty at the heart of health and social care systems so that the complex challenges associated with this vulnerable group are addressed. PMID:26301988

  11. Primary Care Endocrinology in the Adult Woman.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Celeste C; Zeytinoglu, Meltem

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus, thyroid disorders, and osteoporosis are endocrine conditions affecting a significant proportion of women presenting to the obstetrician-gynecologist. Obstetrician-gynecologists are often the first health-care providers that young women see in adulthood, and thus, have a critical opportunity to identify women at risk for gestational and overt diabetes and manage the condition in those who have developed it. The obstetrician-gynecologist should be aware of the appropriate therapeutic options and treatment goals (eg, hemoglobin A1c) for women with diabetes. Thyroid disorders often present with menstrual irregularities or infertility, can affect pregnancy outcomes, and contribute to cardiovascular and bone disorders as women age. Finally, osteoporosis and low bone mineral density affect a substantial proportion of older women and some younger women with risk factors for secondary osteoporosis. The morbidity and mortality of osteoporotic fractures is substantial. There are many lifestyle interventions and therapeutic options available for these conditions, and the gynecologist plays a key role in optimizing risk factor assessment, screening, and providing treatment when appropriate.

  12. Social-Emotional Effects of Day Care. Final Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippman, Marcia Z.; Grote, Barbara H.

    This study compared the effects of group day care, family day care, and full parental care on such aspects of children's social-emotional adjustment as curiosity, attachment, self-concept, sex role, achievement motivation, impulse control, cooperation, and sharing. Initial differences between groups were controlled by matching on race, sex, number…

  13. Identifying the Unique Aspects of Adolescent and Young Adult Palliative Care: A Case Study to Propel Programmatic Changes in Pediatric Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Lisa; Dell, Mary Lynn

    2015-09-01

    Using a case study, in this article we seek to highlight how the distinct developmental needs of adolescent and young adult patients facing a life-threatening condition require a different approach to patient care by pediatric health care workers. The case underscores pitfalls in using a pediatric construct of care in areas of pain management, social stressors, and advanced care planning, and suggests programs to implement for improvement, including partnership with psychiatry, substance abuse, and palliative care specialists.

  14. Social rights and employment rights related to family care: family care regimes in Europe.

    PubMed

    Frericks, Patricia; Jensen, Per H; Pfau-Effinger, Birgit

    2014-04-01

    In early welfare states, social rights predominantly derived from formal employment relations. Within the past two decades, however, some European countries have opened these social institutions to care work also. Cash-for-care and social entitlements for periods of at-home family caregiving have changed the characteristics of informal care work that family members traditionally provide to older relatives. Formerly based on unpaid kinship relations, it has changed towards new paid and more formalized forms of care work by family members. But it can be assumed that long-term care work by family members is constructed differently across welfare states. The paper is guided by the following research question: How do welfare-state policies differ in the degree to which their policies towards family care for senior citizens create social risks for the caring family members? We use the conceptual framework of "family care regimes" as our analytical framework for the comparative research. To do this, we compare care policies towards older care-needy people in the welfare states of the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark. The findings show that a common feature in all three countries is that the situation of family carers is to some degree being formalized: in all three countries a frail senior citizen can chose a family member as the care provider, and the welfare states support the family care providers. Still, the legal situation as well as the quality and level of social rights for family caregivers differ considerably among the three countries. It is shown that the institutional framework for senior care by family members in Germany and the Netherlands represents a family care regime that supports semi-formal family care, and that in Denmark it can be classified as a family care regime that supports formal family care. We show that these different types of family care regimes differ considerably in the social risks they pose to family carers.

  15. Diversity in midwifery care: working toward social justice.

    PubMed

    Burton, Nadya; Ariss, Rachel

    2014-08-01

    As midwifery moved from lay practice to a regulated health-care profession in Ontario toward the end of the twentieth century, it brought with it many of its social movement goals and aspirations. Among these was the desire to attend to diversity and equity in the provision of birthing care. Drawing on interviews with currently practicing Ontario midwives, this paper focuses on midwives' conceptualizations of diversity and explores their everyday work to support and strengthen diversity among those using and those providing midwifery care. We argue that midwifery's recent relocation within state structured health care means neither that the social change projects of midwifery are complete nor that midwifery has abandoned its movement-based commitment to social change. Responses to social diversity in health care range from efforts to simply improve access to care to analyses of the role of social justice in recognizing the needs of diverse populations. The social justice aspiration to "create a better world" continues to animate the work of midwives postregulation. This paper explores the legacy of midwifery as a social movement, addressing the connections between diversity, social justice and midwifery care.

  16. Hospitalization of older adults due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Aline Pinto; Montilla, Dalia Elena Romero; de Almeida, Wanessa da Silva; de Andrade, Carla Lourenço Tavares

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the temporal evolution of the hospitalization of older adults due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions according to their structure, magnitude and causes. METHODS Cross-sectional study based on data from the Hospital Information System of the Brazilian Unified Health System and from the Primary Care Information System, referring to people aged 60 to 74 years living in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Souhteastern Brazil. The proportion and rate of hospitalizations due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions were calculated, both the global rate and, according to diagnoses, the most prevalent ones. The coverage of the Family Health Strategy and the number of medical consultations attended by older adults in primary care were estimated. To analyze the indicators’ impact on hospitalizations, a linear correlation test was used. RESULTS We found an intense reduction in hospitalizations due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions for all causes and age groups. Heart failure, cerebrovascular diseases and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases concentrated 50.0% of the hospitalizations. Adults older than 69 years had a higher risk of hospitalization due to one of these causes. We observed a higher risk of hospitalization among men. A negative correlation was found between the hospitalizations and the indicators of access to primary care. CONCLUSIONS Primary healthcare in the state of Rio de Janeiro has been significantly impacting the hospital morbidity of the older population. Studies of hospitalizations due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions can aid the identification of the main causes that are sensitive to the intervention of the health services, in order to indicate which actions are more effective to reduce hospitalizations and to increase the population’s quality of life. PMID:25372173

  17. Developing the Social Skills of Young Adult Special Olympics Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Melissa G. F.; Dummer, Gail M.; Smeltzer, Ashley; Denton, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if young adult Special Olympics participants could develop, generalize, and maintain target social skills (eye contact, contributing relevant information, and turn taking) as a result of a 14-week Social Skills and Sports (S[superscript 3]) Program that combined classroom instruction with soccer…

  18. Social Participation among Young Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsmond, Gael I.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Sterzing, Paul R.; Anderson, Kristy A.

    2013-01-01

    Investigating social participation of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important given the increasing number of youth aging into young adulthood. Social participation is an indicator of life quality and overall functioning. Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2, we examined rates of participation in…

  19. Comorbid Social Anxiety Disorder in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, Brenna B.; White, Susan W.

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety symptoms are common among cognitively unimpaired youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Few studies have investigated the co-occurrence of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adults with ASD, although identification may aid access to effective treatments and inform our scientific efforts to parse heterogeneity. In this preliminary…

  20. Social Vulnerability Scale for Older Adults: Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinsker, Donna M.; Stone, Valerie; Pachana, Nancy; Greenspan, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    The Social Vulnerability Scale (SVS), an informant-report of social vulnerability for older adults, was piloted in a sample of 167 undergraduate students (63 male, 104 female) from the University of Queensland. Participants aged 18 - 53 (M = 25.53 years, SD = 7.83 years) completed the SVS by rating a relative or friend aged [greater than or equal…

  1. Perceptions of Social Networks by Adults Who Are Deafblind.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Katrina; Parker, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Findings are presented from a descriptive qualitative study of 10 adults who were deafblind who were interviewed about their social lives. Additional data were collected from a discussion board and e-mails from the study participants. Three findings emerged from the data: (a) Navigating adaptations was a significant part of socialization. (b) Gaps existed in work, family, and formal support networks. PMID:27477042

  2. Social Workers Training Primary Care Physicians: Essential Psychosocial Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zayas, Luis H.; Dyche, Larry A.

    1992-01-01

    Notes that growth of primary care medicine is opening new roles for social worker in medical education. Describes family-oriented, community-based medical residency program in which social work faculty plays prominent role in education of young physicians. Discusses relevance of core social work principles to medicine and how they are introduced…

  3. Epilepsy: addressing the transition from pediatric to adult care

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Seetha; Iyer, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of rapid change, both physical and psychosocial for any young person. It can be challenging when they have ongoing health problems and when their care needs to be transitioned to the adult health care system. Transition should be a planned process of addressing the medical and associated comorbid conditions from pediatric to adult care in a coordinated manner. In most cases, the young person and their family are well known to the pediatrics services and have built a relationship based on trust and often friendship over many years. Understandably, there is significant apprehension about moving from this familiar setting to the unknown adult services. Apart from having a sound knowledge of specific childhood epileptic conditions and associated comorbid disorders, it is important that both the pediatric and adult epilepsy teams are motivated to provide a successful and safe transition for these patients. It is essential that transition is seen as a continual process and not as a single event, and good preparation is the key to its success. It is also important that general practitioners are closely engaged to ensure successful transition. An overview of how to effectively address transition in epilepsy, different models of transition, transition of relevant epilepsies, and their management is discussed. PMID:27390536

  4. Epilepsy: addressing the transition from pediatric to adult care.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Seetha; Iyer, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of rapid change, both physical and psychosocial for any young person. It can be challenging when they have ongoing health problems and when their care needs to be transitioned to the adult health care system. Transition should be a planned process of addressing the medical and associated comorbid conditions from pediatric to adult care in a coordinated manner. In most cases, the young person and their family are well known to the pediatrics services and have built a relationship based on trust and often friendship over many years. Understandably, there is significant apprehension about moving from this familiar setting to the unknown adult services. Apart from having a sound knowledge of specific childhood epileptic conditions and associated comorbid disorders, it is important that both the pediatric and adult epilepsy teams are motivated to provide a successful and safe transition for these patients. It is essential that transition is seen as a continual process and not as a single event, and good preparation is the key to its success. It is also important that general practitioners are closely engaged to ensure successful transition. An overview of how to effectively address transition in epilepsy, different models of transition, transition of relevant epilepsies, and their management is discussed. PMID:27390536

  5. Social networks--the future for health care delivery.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Frances; Cave, Jonathan; Boardman, Felicity; Ren, Justin; Pawlikowska, Teresa; Ball, Robin; Clarke, Aileen; Cohen, Alan

    2012-12-01

    With the rapid growth of online social networking for health, health care systems are experiencing an inescapable increase in complexity. This is not necessarily a drawback; self-organising, adaptive networks could become central to future health care delivery. This paper considers whether social networks composed of patients and their social circles can compete with, or complement, professional networks in assembling health-related information of value for improving health and health care. Using the framework of analysis of a two-sided network--patients and providers--with multiple platforms for interaction, we argue that the structure and dynamics of such a network has implications for future health care. Patients are using social networking to access and contribute health information. Among those living with chronic illness and disability and engaging with social networks, there is considerable expertise in assessing, combining and exploiting information. Social networking is providing a new landscape for patients to assemble health information, relatively free from the constraints of traditional health care. However, health information from social networks currently complements traditional sources rather than substituting for them. Networking among health care provider organisations is enabling greater exploitation of health information for health care planning. The platforms of interaction are also changing. Patient-doctor encounters are now more permeable to influence from social networks and professional networks. Diffuse and temporary platforms of interaction enable discourse between patients and professionals, and include platforms controlled by patients. We argue that social networking has the potential to change patterns of health inequalities and access to health care, alter the stability of health care provision and lead to a reformulation of the role of health professionals. Further research is needed to understand how network structure combined with

  6. Social Networks of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Erosheva, Elena A.; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Emlet, Charles; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examines global social networks—including friendship, support, and acquaintance networks—of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. Design and Methods Utilizing data from a large community-based study, we employ multiple regression analyses to examine correlates of social network size and diversity. Results Controlling for background characteristics, network size was positively associated with being female, transgender identity, employment, higher income, having a partner or a child, identity disclosure to a neighbor, engagement in religious activities, and service use. Controlling in addition for network size, network diversity was positively associated with younger age, being female, transgender identity, identity disclosure to a friend, religious activity, and service use. Implications According to social capital theory, social networks provide a vehicle for social resources that can be beneficial for successful aging and well-being. This study is a first step at understanding the correlates of social network size and diversity among LGBT older adults. PMID:25882129

  7. Analysis of a Social Work-Based Model of Transitional Care to Reduce Hospital Readmissions: Preliminary Data.

    PubMed

    Boutwell, Amy E; Johnson, Marian B; Watkins, Ralph

    2016-05-01

    Efforts to reduce readmissions after hospital discharge are increasingly being made to better identify and address social and logistical needs in addition to attending to posthospital clinical challenges. A transitional care model based in the social work professional skill set may be well matched to assess and address social and logistical needs during the posthospital transitional care period. The effect of a social work-based transitional care intervention on all-cause 30-day readmission rates for Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) beneficiaries discharged from an urban medical center was analyzed. Analyses revealed a 20% relative reduction in readmissions for 1,546 Medicare FFS discharges to home, with or without home care (a 4.5% absolute rate reduction). This model may be of interest to entities that are accountable for the care of individuals with complex social needs, such as dually eligible individuals (those eligible for Medicare and Medicaid) and adults who are newly eligible for Medicaid coverage.

  8. Functional Impairment, Illness Burden, and Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults: Does Type of Social Relationship Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Hatfield, Joshua P.; Hirsch, Jameson K.; Lyness, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The nature of interpersonal relationships, whether supportive or critical, may affect the association between health status and mental health outcomes. We examined the potential moderating effects of social support, as a buffer, and family criticism, as an exacerbating factor, on the association between illness burden, functional impairment and depressive symptoms. Methods Our sample of 735 older adults, aged 65 and older, was recruited from internal and family medicine primary care offices. Trained interviewers administered the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Duke Social Support Inventory, and Family Emotional Involvement and Criticism Scale. Physician-rated assessments of health, including the Karnofsky Performance Status Scale and Cumulative Illness Rating Scale were also completed. Results Linear multivariable hierarchical regression results indicate that social interaction was a significant buffer, weakening the association between illness burden and depressive symptoms, whereas perceived social support buffered the relationship between functional impairment and depressive symptoms. Family criticism and instrumental social support were not significant moderators. Conclusions Type of medical dysfunction, whether illness or impairment, may require different therapeutic and supportive approaches. Enhancement of perceived social support, for those who are impaired, and encouragement of social interactions, for those who are ill, may be important intervention targets for treatment of depressive symptoms in older adult primary care patients. PMID:22495689

  9. Advance care planning in South Korea: Social work perspective.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sung Ae; Kolomer, Stacey

    2016-08-01

    As ethical issues arise concerning the continuation of futile medical treatment for dying patients in Korean society, advance directive planning initiatives have been put into place to guide practice. This article describes the awareness and attitudes of social workers in Korea regarding advance care planning and related factors. A total of 246 gerontological/geriatric social workers completed a mailed or in-person survey regarding awareness and attitudes toward advance care planning. Seventy-three percent (n = 180) of the participants reported no knowledge of advance directives. Social workers who emphasized self-determination as a professional value, professed a preference for hospice care, and who were comfortable discussing death were more likely to have a positive attitudes toward advance care planning. This study reinforces the need for the infusion of advance care planning and end-of-life training in social work education in Korea. PMID:27428654

  10. Transitions from Pediatric to Adult Care: Programs and Resources.

    PubMed

    Schlucter, Juliette; Dokken, Deborah; Ahmann, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This third article in a series on the critical issue of the transition from pediatric to adult care for young adults with complex chronic conditions offers resources, including information about exemplary programs, to pediatric nurses. Three hospital-based programs are highlighted, four key Internet resources are identified, and five relevant articles are annotated. This information can support pediatric nurses in considering transition support options for individual teens and their families as well as in developing resources and designing programs in their own settings.

  11. Social Justice and Dispositions for Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holst, John D.

    2010-01-01

    The article identifies dispositions from a thematic investigation of the pedagogical practice of Ernesto Che Guevara and various social movements in the United States. The article outlines and places these dispositions within the context of debates over social justice and dispositions for education program accreditation in the United States that…

  12. Delivery of epilepsy care to adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Asato, Miya; Camfield, Peter; Geller, Eric; Kanner, Andres M.; Keller, Seth; Kerr, Michael; Kossoff, Eric H.; Lau, Heather; Kothare, Sanjeev; Singh, Baldev K.; Wirrell, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is common in people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). In adulthood, patients with IDD and epilepsy (IDD-E) have neurologic, psychiatric, medical, and social challenges compounded by fragmented and limited care. With increasing neurologic disability, there is a higher frequency of epilepsy, especially symptomatic generalized and treatment-resistant epilepsies. The causes of IDD-E are increasingly recognized to be genetic based on chromosomal microarray analysis to identify copy number variants, gene panels (epilepsy, autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability), and whole-exome sequencing. A specific genetic diagnosis may guide care by pointing to comorbid disorders and best therapy. Therapy to control seizures should be individualized, with drug selection based on seizure types, epilepsy syndrome, concomitant medications, and comorbid disorders. There are limited comparative antiepileptic drug data in the IDD-E population. Vagus nerve and responsive neural stimulation therapies and resective surgery should be considered. Among the many comorbid disorders that affect patients with IDD-E, psychiatric and sleep disorders are common but often unrecognized and typically not treated. Transition from holistic and coordinated pediatric to adult care is often a vulnerable period. Communication among adult health care providers is complex but essential to ensure best care when these patients are seen in outpatient, emergency room, and inpatient settings. We propose specific recommendations for minimum care standards for people with IDD-E. PMID:26423430

  13. [Social intelligence deficits in autistic children and adolescents--subjective theories of psychosocial health care professionals].

    PubMed

    Krech, M; Probst, P

    1998-10-01

    The paper is concerned with personal theories of health care professionals about deficiencies in social intelligence of autistic persons. In the component-model of social intelligence means the ability of individuals or groups, to interact with each other in social situations. This contains social perception, social behavior as well as social conceptions and refers to emotional, cognitive and normative aspects. 33 interviewees, working as psychologists or teachers in kindergartens, schools or therapy institutions, are questioned by a half-standardized single interview concerning their beliefs about nonverbal social abilities, social perspective taking, and construction of a theory of mind in autistic persons. The major finding is: The impairments can be found in all aspects of social intelligence. Especially emotional handicaps, which are quoted by more than 80% of the interviewees, and low cognitive preconditions of mastering social stimuli, which are quoted by nearly all interviewees, are relevant. The subjective theories of the interviewees are in accordance to the models of parents as well as the models of the leading experts. The professional relationship to autistic persons and the practical experiences of the health care professionals lead to their specific personal theories of deficiencies in social intelligence of autistic people with wide consequences in respect to the professional contact with the autistic children and young adults. PMID:9847638

  14. Critical care management of severe traumatic brain injury in adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major medical and socio-economic problem, and is the leading cause of death in children and young adults. The critical care management of severe TBI is largely derived from the "Guidelines for the Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury" that have been published by the Brain Trauma Foundation. The main objectives are prevention and treatment of intracranial hypertension and secondary brain insults, preservation of cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and optimization of cerebral oxygenation. In this review, the critical care management of severe TBI will be discussed with focus on monitoring, avoidance and minimization of secondary brain insults, and optimization of cerebral oxygenation and CPP. PMID:22304785

  15. Social media in paediatric heart disease: professional use and opportunities to improve cardiac care.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Kurt R; Lee, Joyce M; Pasquali, Sara K

    2015-12-01

    Social media is any type of communication utilising electronic technology that follows two guiding principles: free publishing or sharing of content and ideas and group collaboration and inter-connectedness. Over the last 10 years, social media technology has made tremendous inroads into all facets of communication. Modalities such as Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter are no longer viewed as new communication technologies. Owing to their tremendous usage, they are now common ways to conduct a dialogue with individuals and groups. Greater than 91% of teenagers and 89% of young adults routinely use social media. Further, 24% of teenagers reported being online "almost constantly". These forms of communication are readily used by individuals cared for in the field of paediatric cardiology; thus, they should carry significant interest for cardiology care providers; however, social media's influence on medicine extends beyond use by patients. It directly affects all medical providers, both users and non-users. Further, social media has the ability to improve care for patients with paediatric heart disease. This article details social media's current influence on paediatric cardiology, including considerations for professional use of social media and potential opportunities to improve cardiac care.

  16. Social media in paediatric heart disease: professional use and opportunities to improve cardiac care.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Kurt R; Lee, Joyce M; Pasquali, Sara K

    2015-12-01

    Social media is any type of communication utilising electronic technology that follows two guiding principles: free publishing or sharing of content and ideas and group collaboration and inter-connectedness. Over the last 10 years, social media technology has made tremendous inroads into all facets of communication. Modalities such as Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter are no longer viewed as new communication technologies. Owing to their tremendous usage, they are now common ways to conduct a dialogue with individuals and groups. Greater than 91% of teenagers and 89% of young adults routinely use social media. Further, 24% of teenagers reported being online "almost constantly". These forms of communication are readily used by individuals cared for in the field of paediatric cardiology; thus, they should carry significant interest for cardiology care providers; however, social media's influence on medicine extends beyond use by patients. It directly affects all medical providers, both users and non-users. Further, social media has the ability to improve care for patients with paediatric heart disease. This article details social media's current influence on paediatric cardiology, including considerations for professional use of social media and potential opportunities to improve cardiac care. PMID:26675608

  17. Caregivers of Demented Elders: The Impact of Adult Day Care Service on Reducing Perceived Degree of Burden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddowes, Jeannette Rickner

    The New Jersey State Department of Health, Gerontology Program, awarded grants to 32 adult day care centers statewide for the provision of specialized service for victims of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders and their caregivers. The primary goals of the programs were to reduce caregiver burden through providing social supports and to…

  18. Care Management's Challenges and Opportunities to Reduce the Rapid Rehospitalization of Frail Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Adam G.; Tewary, Sweta; Dang, Stuti; Roos, Bernard A.

    2010-01-01

    Community-based frail older adults, burdened with complex medical and social needs, are at great risk for preventable rapid rehospitalizations. Although federal and state regulations are in place to address the care transitions between the hospital and nursing home, no such guidelines exist for the much larger population of community-dwelling…

  19. The Impact of Caring for Adults with Intellectual Disability on the Quality of Life of Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoong, A.; Koritsas, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Because of an increase in life expectancy and de-institutionalisation, many adults with intellectual disability (ID) live with and are cared for by their parents throughout their adult lives. Because of caring demands, the quality of life (QOL) of parents may be affected. The study explored the impact of caring for an adult with ID on…

  20. The experience of caring for an adult child with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Tuck, I; du Mont, P; Evans, G; Shupe, J

    1997-06-01

    The experience of caring for an adult child with schizophrenia was explored using phenomenological methodology. Nine parents who were the primary caretakers of an adult child with schizophrenia participated in qualitative interviews. The resulting transcripts were analyzed to discover the structure of the lived experience. The study revealed that the diagnosis of schizophrenia in a child is experienced by the parent as a destructive force that interrupts and radically transforms the normative family life trajectory. This grief-filled experience involves both the loss of an imagined, idealized child and a transformation of the physically present child into a needy stranger. Implications are discussed and applied to community-based, family-centered mental health care. Importantly, the revealed dissatisfaction with initial mental health evaluations suggests that modification of current practices could produce significant benefits.

  1. Fetal programming of adult disease: implications for prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Lau, Christopher; Rogers, John M; Desai, Mina; Ross, Michael G

    2011-04-01

    The obesity epidemic, including a marked increase in the prevalence of obesity among pregnant women, represents a critical public health problem in the United States and throughout the world. Over the past two decades, it has been increasingly recognized that the risk of adult health disorders, particularly metabolic syndrome, can be markedly influenced by prenatal and infant environmental exposures (ie, developmental programming). Low birth weight, together with infant catch-up growth, is associated with a significant risk of adult obesity and cardiovascular disease, as well as adverse effects on pulmonary, renal, and cerebral function. Conversely, exposure to maternal obesity or high birth weight also represents an increased risk for childhood and adult obesity. In addition, fetal exposure to select chemicals (eg, phytoestrogens) or environmental pollutants (eg, tobacco smoke) may affect the predisposition to adult disease. Animal models have confirmed human epidemiologic findings and provided insight into putative programming mechanisms, including altered organ development, cellular signaling responses, and epigenetic modifications (ie, control of gene expression without modification of DNA sequence). Prenatal care is transitioning to incorporate goals of optimizing maternal, fetal, and neonatal health to prevent or reduce adult-onset diseases. Guidelines regarding optimal pregnancy nutrition and weight gain, management of low- and high-fetal-weight pregnancies, use of maternal glucocorticoids, and newborn feeding strategies, among others, have yet to fully integrate long-term consequences on adult health.

  2. QuickStats: Percentages* of Residential Care Communities and Adult Day Services Centers That Provided(†) Selected Services - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, a greater percentage of residential care communities than adult day service centers provided five of seven selected services. The majority of residential care communities provided pharmacy services (82%); followed by transportation for social activities (79%); physical, occupational, or speech therapy (69%); hospice (62%); skilled nursing (59%); and mental health services (52%). Fewer than half provided social work services (48%). The majority of adult day services centers provided transportation for social activities (69%); skilled nursing (66%); and social work (52%). %). Fewer than half provided physical, occupational, or speech therapy (49%). One third or less provided mental health (33%), pharmacy (27%), and hospice services (12%). PMID:27607333

  3. Changes in Young Adult Primary Care Under the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Carol A.; French, Benjamin; Rubin, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to describe changes in young adults’ routine care and usual sources of care (USCs), according to provider specialty, after implementation of extended dependent coverage under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2010. Methods. We used Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data from 2006 to 2012 to examine young adults’ receipt of routine care in the preceding year, identification of a USC, and USC provider specialties (pediatrics, family medicine, internal medicine, and obstetrics and gynecology). Results. The percentage of young adults who sought routine care increased from 42.4% in 2006 to 49.5% in 2012 (P < .001). The percentage identifying a USC remained stable at approximately 60%. Among young adults with a USC, there was a trend between 2006 and 2012 toward increasing percentages with pediatric (7.6% vs 9.1%) and family medicine (75.9% vs 80.9%) providers and declining percentages with internal medicine (11.5% vs 7.6%) and obstetrics and gynecology (5.0% vs 2.5%) providers. Conclusions. Efforts under the ACA to increase health insurance coverage had favorable effects on young adults’ use of routine care. Monitoring routine care use and USC choices in this group can inform primary care workforce needs and graduate medical education priorities across specialties. PMID:26447914

  4. Social models of HIV risk among young adults in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Bulled, Nicola L

    2015-01-01

    Extensive research over the past 30 years has revealed that individual and social determinants impact HIV risk. Even so, prevention efforts focus primarily on individual behaviour change, with little recognition of the dynamic interplay of individual and social environment factors that further exacerbate risk engagement. Drawing on long-term research with young adults in Lesotho, I examine how social environment factors contribute to HIV risk. During preliminary ethnographic analysis, I developed novel scales to measure social control, adoption of modernity, and HIV knowledge. In survey research, I examined the effects of individual characteristics (i.e., socioeconomic status, HIV knowledge, adoption of modernity) and social environment (i.e., social control) on HIV risk behaviours. In addition, I measured the impact of altered environments by taking advantage of an existing situation whereby young adults attending a national college are assigned to either a main campus in a metropolitan setting or a satellite campus in a remote setting, irrespective of the environment in which they were socialised as youth. This arbitrary assignment process generates four distinct groups of young adults with altered or constant environments. Regression models show that lower levels of perceived social control and greater adoption of modernity are associated with HIV risk, controlling for other factors. The impact of social control and modernity varies with environment dynamics. PMID:26284999

  5. Social models of HIV risk among young adults in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Bulled, Nicola L

    2015-01-01

    Extensive research over the past 30 years has revealed that individual and social determinants impact HIV risk. Even so, prevention efforts focus primarily on individual behaviour change, with little recognition of the dynamic interplay of individual and social environment factors that further exacerbate risk engagement. Drawing on long-term research with young adults in Lesotho, I examine how social environment factors contribute to HIV risk. During preliminary ethnographic analysis, I developed novel scales to measure social control, adoption of modernity, and HIV knowledge. In survey research, I examined the effects of individual characteristics (i.e., socioeconomic status, HIV knowledge, adoption of modernity) and social environment (i.e., social control) on HIV risk behaviours. In addition, I measured the impact of altered environments by taking advantage of an existing situation whereby young adults attending a national college are assigned to either a main campus in a metropolitan setting or a satellite campus in a remote setting, irrespective of the environment in which they were socialised as youth. This arbitrary assignment process generates four distinct groups of young adults with altered or constant environments. Regression models show that lower levels of perceived social control and greater adoption of modernity are associated with HIV risk, controlling for other factors. The impact of social control and modernity varies with environment dynamics.

  6. Assisting the Adult Receiving Inhalation and Intravenous Therapy. Care of the Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anoka-Hennepin Area Vocational Technical Inst., MN.

    These two units for students in a practical nursing program provide supplemental instruction in caring for adult patients receiving inhalation and intravenous therapy. Unit titles are The Administration of Intermittent Positive Pressure Breathing (IPPB RX) and Intravenous Therapy of Fluids and Blood. Each unit contains the following: objectives,…

  7. Sleep characteristics of Veterans Affairs Adult Day Health Care participants.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jaime M; Martin, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Addressing sleep disturbance can help to slow functional decline, delay nursing home admission, and improve overall health among older adults; however, sleep is not widely studied in high-risk older adults such as Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) participants. Sixty-eight ADHC participants were interviewed for sleep disturbance using a 28-item screening questionnaire. More than two thirds (n = 48, 70.6%) reported one or more characteristics of poor sleep, and 38% of participants met basic criteria for insomnia. Individuals with insomnia attended ADHC less frequently, reported worse sleep quality and shorter sleep duration, and were more likely to endorse trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, and waking up too early (ps < 0.001). Research is needed to better understand perceptions, predictors, and outcomes of sleep disturbance within ADHC participants. PMID:24654988

  8. Sleep characteristics of Veterans Affairs Adult Day Health Care participants.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jaime M; Martin, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Addressing sleep disturbance can help to slow functional decline, delay nursing home admission, and improve overall health among older adults; however, sleep is not widely studied in high-risk older adults such as Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) participants. Sixty-eight ADHC participants were interviewed for sleep disturbance using a 28-item screening questionnaire. More than two thirds (n = 48, 70.6%) reported one or more characteristics of poor sleep, and 38% of participants met basic criteria for insomnia. Individuals with insomnia attended ADHC less frequently, reported worse sleep quality and shorter sleep duration, and were more likely to endorse trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, and waking up too early (ps < 0.001). Research is needed to better understand perceptions, predictors, and outcomes of sleep disturbance within ADHC participants.

  9. Evaluation of a social interaction coaching program in an integrated day-care setting.

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickson, J M; Gardner, N; Kaiser, A; Riley, A

    1993-01-01

    We used a multiple baseline design across teachers (with a reversal phase for 1 teacher) to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of a structured coaching procedure on the teaching behaviors of 3 day-care teachers. Structured coaching preceding daily caregiver routines resulted in (a) substantial increases in adult delivery of behavioral support of social interaction during group activities with 2- and 4-year-old children and (b) marked collateral increases in positive interactions of socially withdrawn children. Long-term maintenance effects were demonstrated by both the teachers and target children, and social validity measures indicated that the teachers rated coaching very positively on several dimensions. The results are discussed in relation to in-service training of day-care staff, the concept of coaching as a setting event, and the dissemination of teaching technology related to social interaction of young children. PMID:8331018

  10. Activating Older Adults With Serious Mental Illness for Collaborative Primary Care Visits

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Stephen J.; Aschbrenner, Kelly A.; Rolin, Stephanie A.; Hendrick, Delia Cimpean; Naslund, John A.; Faber, Marjan J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Persons with serious mental illness frequently receive inadequate medical care and are more likely to experience difficulty navigating the health care system compared with the general population. To address this gap in quality, we developed a program of peer co-led collaborative activation training for primary care (CAT-PC) designed to improve “patient activation” and person-centered care in primary care visits for middle-aged and older adults with serious mental illness and cardiovascular risk. This report presents pilot study feasibility and participant outcomes for CAT-PC. Method A pre-post pilot evaluation of CAT-PC included N = 17 adults (age ≥ 50) with serious mental illness and cardiovascular health risk conditions, and N = 6 primary care providers. CAT-PC consists of 9 weekly peer co-led patient education and skills training sessions and a 45-min video-based training for primary care providers. Pre-post measures included the Patient Activation Measure (PAM), Perceived Efficacy in Patient-Physician Interactions (PEPPI), Autonomy Preference Index (API) for preferred role in primary care encounters, and Social Skills Performance Assessment (SSPA) role-play test for medical visits. Results All 17 participants attended 5 or more sessions. Post-intervention improvement was found for patient activation and simulated performance of medical visit communication skills. Trends were observed for improved self-efficacy in provider interactions and greater preference for a more collaborative role in decision-making. Conclusions and Implications CAT-PC is a brief, peer co-led education and skills training intervention potentially improving patient activation in primary care encounters and providing an important missing component in emerging models of “patient-centered behavioral health homes” for this high-risk group. PMID:24219769

  11. Correlates of Health-Related Social Media Use Among Adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sixty percent of Internet users report using the Internet to look for health information. Social media sites are emerging as a potential source for online health information. However, little is known about how people use social media for such purposes. Objectives The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to establish the frequency of various types of online health-seeking behaviors, and (2) to identify correlates of 2 health-related online activities, social networking sites (SNS) for health-related activities and consulting online user-generated content for answers about health care providers, health facilities, or medical treatment. Methods The study consisted of a telephone survey of 1745 adults who reported going online to look for health-related information. Four subscales were created to measure use of online resources for (1) using SNS for health-related activities; (2) consulting online rankings and reviews of doctors, hospitals or medical facilities, and drugs or medical treatments; (3) posting a review online of doctors, hospitals or medical facilities, and drugs or medical treatments, and (4) posting a comment or question about health or medical issues on various social media. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Results Respondents consulted online rankings or reviews (41.15%), used SNS for health (31.58%), posted reviews (9.91%), and posted a comment, question, or information (15.19%). Respondents with a chronic disease were nearly twice as likely to consult online rankings (odds ratio [OR] 2.09, 95% CI 1.66-2.63, P<.001). Lower odds of consulting online reviews were associated with less formal education (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.37-0.65, P<.001) and being male (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.57-0.87, P<.001). Respondents with higher incomes were 1.5 times as likely to consult online rankings or reviews (OR 1.49, 95% CI 0.10-2.24, P=.05), than respondents with a regular provider (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.52-2.78, P<.001), or

  12. Stepped care for depression and anxiety in visually impaired older adults: multicentre randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    van Rens, Ger H M B; Comijs, Hannie C; Margrain, Tom H; Gallindo-Garre, Francisca; Twisk, Jos W R; van Nispen, Ruth M A

    2015-01-01

    Study question Is stepped care compared with usual care effective in preventing the onset of major depressive, dysthymic, and anxiety disorders in older people with visual impairment (caused mainly by age related eye disease) and subthreshold depression and/or anxiety? Methods 265 people aged ≥50 were randomly assigned to a stepped care programme plus usual care (n=131) or usual care only (n=134). Supervised occupational therapists, social workers, and psychologists from low vision rehabilitation organisations delivered the stepped care programme, which comprised watchful waiting, guided self help based on cognitive behavioural therapy, problem solving treatment, and referral to a general practitioner. The primary outcome was the 24 month cumulative incidence (seven measurements) of major depressive dysthymic and/or anxiety disorders (panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, and generalised anxiety disorder). Secondary outcomes were change in symptoms of depression and anxiety, vision related quality of life, health related quality of life, and adaptation to vision loss over time up to 24 months’ follow-up. Study answer and limitations 62 participants (46%) in the usual care group and 38 participants (29%) from the stepped care group developed a disorder. The intervention was associated with a significantly reduced incidence (relative risk 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.45 to 0.87; P=0.01), even if time to the event was taken into account (adjusted hazard ratio 0.57, 0.35 to 0.93; P=0.02). The number needed to treat was 5.8 (3.5 to 17.3). The dropout rate was fairly high (34.3%), but rates were not significantly different for the two groups, indicating that the intervention was as acceptable as usual care. Participants who volunteered and were selected for this study might not be representative of visually impaired older adults in general (responders were significantly younger than non-responders), thereby reducing the generalisability of the outcomes. What

  13. Review of the Literature: A Rural-Urban Comparison of Social Networks of Older Adults Living With HIV.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Brittany N; Stacciarini, Jeanne-Marie R

    2016-01-01

    Globally, aging populations and older persons living with HIV (OPLWH) are emerging socioeconomic and health care concerns. Aging adults living in rural communities have less access to and lower utilization of health care services; they rely heavily on available peer and family networks. Although social networks have been linked to positive mental and physical health outcomes, there is a lack of understanding about social networks in rural-dwelling OPLWH. The purpose of this integrative literature review was to compare emerging themes in the social network components of rural versus urban-dwelling OPLWH and network benefits and barriers. Overarching themes include: limited and/or fragile networks, social inclusion versus social isolation, social capital, and health outcomes. Results demonstrate an overall lack of rural-focused research on OPLWH and a universal lack of informal and formal networks due to isolation, lack of health care services, and omnipresent HIV stigma. PMID:26995502

  14. Socioeconomic Considerations and Shared-Care Models of Cancer Care for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Dale, William; Chow, Selina; Sajid, Saleha

    2016-02-01

    Older adults with cancer require a geriatrics approach to treatment. Such an approach targets appropriate treatments based on physiologic, not chronologic, age. Patients older than 65 years of age constitute the largest group of patients with cancer, making them the most expensive group of patients with cancer, especially with the advent of expensive new treatments with minimal impact on overall survival. Geriatric assessment, combined with targeted inventions, can optimize the value propositions in caring for older patients with cancer. Over the past 20 years, geriatric oncology care models have emerged applying these care principles in clinical practice.

  15. Socioeconomic Considerations and Shared-Care Models of Cancer Care for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Dale, William; Chow, Selina; Sajid, Saleha

    2016-02-01

    Older adults with cancer require a geriatrics approach to treatment. Such an approach targets appropriate treatments based on physiologic, not chronologic, age. Patients older than 65 years of age constitute the largest group of patients with cancer, making them the most expensive group of patients with cancer, especially with the advent of expensive new treatments with minimal impact on overall survival. Geriatric assessment, combined with targeted inventions, can optimize the value propositions in caring for older patients with cancer. Over the past 20 years, geriatric oncology care models have emerged applying these care principles in clinical practice. PMID:26614859

  16. Social care informatics - the missing partner in ehealth.

    PubMed

    Rigby, Michael; Hill, Penny; Koch, Sabine; Kärki, Jarmo

    2009-01-01

    To the individual, social care can be an essential part of maintaining health, as is reflected by the WHO definition of health as being one of wellbeing. However, health informatics currently narrowly restricts itself to health organizations' activities. Digital records in social care are increasing, raising the need to recognize the area of social care informatics. This new domain needs support and nurture, whilst the delivery of social and related care needs to be harmonized with healthcare delivery. In turn, this raises important new issues as to how to best support the citizen, especially when they are dependent, including issues of information sharing, service co-ordination, sharing of meaning and objectives, and of respect for autonomy. PMID:19745313

  17. Social network types and functional dependency in older adults in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Social networks play a key role in caring for older adults. A better understanding of the characteristics of different social networks types (TSNs) in a given community provides useful information for designing policies to care for this age group. Therefore this study has three objectives: 1) To derive the TSNs among older adults affiliated with the Mexican Institute of Social Security; 2) To describe the main characteristics of the older adults in each TSN, including the instrumental and economic support they receive and their satisfaction with the network; 3) To determine the association between functional dependency and the type of social network. Methods Secondary data analysis of the 2006 Survey of Autonomy and Dependency (N = 3,348). The TSNs were identified using the structural approach and cluster analysis. The association between functional dependency and the TSNs was evaluated with Poisson regression with robust variance analysis in which socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and medical history covariates were included. Results We identified five TSNs: diverse with community participation (12.1%), diverse without community participation (44.3%); widowed (32.0%); nonfriends-restricted (7.6%); nonfamily-restricted (4.0%). Older adults belonging to widowed and restricted networks showed a higher proportion of dependency, negative self-rated health and depression. Older adults with functional dependency more likely belonged to a widowed network (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.5; 95%CI: 1.1-2.1). Conclusion The derived TSNs were similar to those described in developed countries. However, we identified the existence of a diverse network without community participation and a widowed network that have not been previously described. These TSNs and restricted networks represent a potential unmet need of social security affiliates. PMID:20187973

  18. Social justice: a framework for culturally competent care.

    PubMed

    Clingerman, Evelyn

    2011-10-01

    Nurse scholars with expertise in global health and culturally competent care recently proposed standards of practice for culturally competent nursing care that are founded on social justice as a broad framework. The purpose of this article is to respond to invited dialogue about the standards and to offer commentary on social justice and its relationship with context, advocacy, leadership, and culturally competent care. A model of culturally competent care for vulnerable groups informs this discussion. The context and culture that surround migrant and seasonal farmworkers illustrate how social justice illuminates their health inequities and necessitates their need for culturally competent care. The article concludes with recommendations for culturally competent education, practice, and research and offers suggestions for developing culturally competent interventions for migrant and seasonal farmworkers.

  19. Use of Adult Day Care Centers: Do They Offset Utilization of Health Care Services?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iecovich, Esther; Biderman, Aya

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Based on the medical offset effect, the goal of the study was to examine the extent to which users and nonusers of adult day care centers (ADCC) differ in frequency of use of out-patient health services (visits to specialists) and in-patient health services (number of hospital admissions, length of hospitalizations, and visits to…

  20. Catholic social justice and health care entitlement packages.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the implications of Roman Catholic teachings on social justice and rights to health care. It argues that contemporary societies, such as those in North America and Western Europe, have an obligation to provide health care to their citizens as a matter of right. Moral considerations provide a basis for evaluating concerns about the role of equality when determining health care entitlements and giving some precision to the widespread belief that the right to health care requires equal entitlement to health care benefits. PMID:11654655

  1. How to integrate social care services into primary health care? An experience from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Montazeri, Ali; Riazi-Isfahani, Sahand; Damari, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Social issues have prominent effects on the peoples' physical and mental health and on the health risk factors. In Iran, many organizations provide social care services to their target population. This study aimed to explore the roles and functions of Primary Health Care (PHC) system in providing social care services in Iran. Methods: This was a qualitative study, for which data were collected via three sources: A review of the literature, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with experts and stakeholders. The main objective was to find a way to integrate social care into the Iranian PHC system. A conventional content analysis was performed to explore the data. Results: Overall, 20 experts were interviewed and the acquired data were classified into four major categories including priorities, implementation, requirements and stewardship. The main challenges were the existing controversies in the definition of social care, social service unit disintegration, multiple stewards for social care services, weaknesses of rules and regulations and low financing of the public budget. Social care services can be divided into two categories: Basic and advanced. Urban and rural health centers, as the first level of PHC, could potentially provide basic social care services for their defined population and catchment areas such as detecting social harms in high risk individuals and families and providing counseling for people in need. They can also refer the individuals to receive advanced services. Conclusion: Iran has a successful history of establishing the PHC System especially in rural areas. This network has an invaluable capacity to provide social health services. Establishing these services needs some prerequisites such as a reform PHC structure, macro support and technical intersectoral collaboration. They should also be piloted and evaluated before they could be implemented in the whole country. PMID:27683649

  2. How to integrate social care services into primary health care? An experience from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Montazeri, Ali; Riazi-Isfahani, Sahand; Damari, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Social issues have prominent effects on the peoples' physical and mental health and on the health risk factors. In Iran, many organizations provide social care services to their target population. This study aimed to explore the roles and functions of Primary Health Care (PHC) system in providing social care services in Iran. Methods: This was a qualitative study, for which data were collected via three sources: A review of the literature, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with experts and stakeholders. The main objective was to find a way to integrate social care into the Iranian PHC system. A conventional content analysis was performed to explore the data. Results: Overall, 20 experts were interviewed and the acquired data were classified into four major categories including priorities, implementation, requirements and stewardship. The main challenges were the existing controversies in the definition of social care, social service unit disintegration, multiple stewards for social care services, weaknesses of rules and regulations and low financing of the public budget. Social care services can be divided into two categories: Basic and advanced. Urban and rural health centers, as the first level of PHC, could potentially provide basic social care services for their defined population and catchment areas such as detecting social harms in high risk individuals and families and providing counseling for people in need. They can also refer the individuals to receive advanced services. Conclusion: Iran has a successful history of establishing the PHC System especially in rural areas. This network has an invaluable capacity to provide social health services. Establishing these services needs some prerequisites such as a reform PHC structure, macro support and technical intersectoral collaboration. They should also be piloted and evaluated before they could be implemented in the whole country.

  3. Social relevance enhances memory for impressions in older adults.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Brittany S; Gutchess, Angela H

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that older adults have difficulty retrieving contextual material over items alone. Recent research suggests this deficit can be reduced by adding emotional context, allowing for the possibility that memory for social impressions may show less age-related decline than memory for other types of contextual information. Two studies investigated how orienting to social or self-relevant aspects of information contributed to the learning and retrieval of impressions in young and older adults. Participants encoded impressions of others in conditions varying in the use of self-reference (Experiment 1) and interpersonal meaningfulness (Experiment 2), and completed memory tasks requiring the retrieval of specific traits. For both experiments, age groups remembered similar numbers of impressions. In Experiment 1 using more self-relevant encoding contexts increased memory for impressions over orienting to stimuli in a non-social way, regardless of age. In Experiment 2 older adults had enhanced memory for impressions presented in an interpersonally meaningful relative to a personally irrelevant way, whereas young adults were unaffected by this manipulation. The results provide evidence that increasing social relevance ameliorates age differences in memory for impressions, and enhances older adults' ability to successfully retrieve contextual information.

  4. Social Inclusion of Adults with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord, Vicki, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This feature issue presents articles on the social inclusion of people with developmental disabilities into the community and also some related news items. This issue provides profiles of organizations, workplaces, and schools that are successfully integrating people with developmental disabilities into community activities. The articles are: "'I…

  5. Achieving care and social justice for people with dementia.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Marian; Brannelly, Tula

    2008-05-01

    This article draws on two studies that have used an ethic of care analysis to explore lay, nursing and social work care for people with dementia. It discusses the political as well as the practice application of ethic of care principles and highlights the necessity to understand both what people do and the meanings with which such practices are imbued in order to identify ;good care' and the relationship between this and social justice. Examples of care for people with dementia are discussed by reference to core principles of an ethic of care: attentiveness, responsibility, competence, responsiveness and trust. These illustrate the potential for the development of a shared language within which different disciplines, lay carers and people with dementia can communicate about how needs could best be met in complex and difficult circumstances.

  6. Social Development of Infants and Toddlers in Japanese Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shigaki, Irene S.

    To examine children's patterns of social interaction in group care, the activities and verbal behavior of 50 preschool children attending 5 Japanese day care centers in metropolitan Tokyo were observed and recorded during a total of 20 minutes of free play for each child. Participants were equally dispersed across five age categories each…

  7. Child Care Teachers' Strategies in Children's Socialization of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Hey Jun

    2005-01-01

    An observational study was conducted to examine teachers' emotional socialization strategies in three child care centers. Qualitative analysis of the data suggests that teachers in child care centers respond to children's emotional expressions with various strategies. Teachers clearly expressed a preference for positive emotion through verbal…

  8. Cost-Benefit Analysis in Social Care for Elderly People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutrenit, Jean-Marc

    2005-01-01

    Social care at home for elderly people is now growing rapidly in France. A new question is, What are better forms of care for the different partners concerned? The research presented here, and made for the Comity of Lille Employment Area with cooperation of the Caisse Primaire d'Assurance Maladiede Lille (the local board of the national social…

  9. The Ethic of Care: Recapturing Social Work's First Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dybicz, Phillip

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the dynamic between expressions of care--that is, simple acts of kindness and consideration that make up friendly relations--and professional expertise. During the 20th century, social work based its expertise on a solid scientific foundation. Within the embrace of scientific expertise, expressions of care are assigned the…

  10. Social Workers in Home Care: The Israeli Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayalon, Liat; Baum, Nehami

    2010-01-01

    In Israel, the government partially supports personal home care services (grooming, feeding, assistance with transfers) as a means to maintain frail individuals in their home environment for as long as possible. Social workers capture a prominent position in these arrangements as initiators and supervisors of personal home care services. This…

  11. Threading the cloak: palliative care education for care providers of adolescents and young adults with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, Lori; Weaver, Meaghann Shaw; Bell, Cynthia J; Sansom-Daly, Ursula M

    2015-01-01

    Medical providers are trained to investigate, diagnose, and treat cancer. Their primary goal is to maximize the chances of curing the patient, with less training provided on palliative care concepts and the unique developmental needs inherent in this population. Early, systematic integration of palliative care into standard oncology practice represents a valuable, imperative approach to improving the overall cancer experience for adolescents and young adults (AYAs). The importance of competent, confident, and compassionate providers for AYAs warrants the development of effective educational strategies for teaching AYA palliative care. Just as palliative care should be integrated early in the disease trajectory of AYA patients, palliative care training should be integrated early in professional development of trainees. As the AYA age spectrum represents sequential transitions through developmental stages, trainees experience changes in their learning needs during their progression through sequential phases of training. This article reviews unique epidemiologic, developmental, and psychosocial factors that make the provision of palliative care especially challenging in AYAs. A conceptual framework is provided for AYA palliative care education. Critical instructional strategies including experiential learning, group didactic opportunity, shared learning among care disciplines, bereaved family members as educators, and online learning are reviewed. Educational issues for provider training are addressed from the perspective of the trainer, trainee, and AYA. Goals and objectives for an AYA palliative care cancer rotation are presented. Guidance is also provided on ways to support an AYA's quality of life as end of life nears. PMID:25750863

  12. Ethnic aged discrimination and disparities in health and social care: a question of social justice.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Kanitsaki, Olga

    2008-09-01

    Older overseas-born Australians of diverse cultural and language backgrounds experience significant disparities in their health and social care needs and support systems. Despite being identified as a 'special needs' group, the ethnic aged in Australia are generally underserved by local health and social care services, experience unequal burdens of disease and encounter cultural and language barriers to accessing appropriate health and social care compared to the average Australian-born population. While a range of causes have been suggested to explain these disparities, rarely has the possibility of cultural racism been considered. In this article, it is suggested that cultural racism be named as a possible cause of ethnic aged disparities and disadvantage in health and social care. It is further suggested that unless cultural racism is named as a structural mechanism by which ethnic aged disparities in health and social care have been created and maintained, redressing them will remain difficult.

  13. Quality of Care: Expanding the Social Work Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megivern, Deborah M.; McMillen, J. Curtis; Proctor, Enola K.; Striley, Catherine L. W.; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Munson, Michelle R.

    2007-01-01

    For social work practitioners to engage fully in efforts designed to improve the quality of social services, they need to understand what is meant by quality of care, grapple with its complexity, and know how to identify and leverage the key factors most likely to influence it. This article introduces a conceptual model that articulates numerous…

  14. Child Care as Shared Socialization--Center and Societal Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Renatta M.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses child care as a system of shared socialization, considering how this role shapes the provision of children's developmental needs, parental expectations of socialization, the child's needs, and the importance of collaboration between parents and caregivers. Examines the effects of cultural differences on expectations for children's…

  15. Social Workers' Role in the Canadian Mental Health Care System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towns, Ashley M.; Schwartz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Using Canadian survey data this research provides social workers in Canada with a better understanding of their role in the Canadian mental health care system. Methods: By analyzing data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 Mental Health and Well-being, the role of social workers in the Canadian mental health system was…

  16. Disabled adults in adult care facilities facing disasters in New York City: an aggregate assessment.

    PubMed

    Maja-Schultz, Theresa; Swain, Bara

    2012-01-01

    Disabled adults who reside in adult care facilities (ACFs) are an at-risk population in the event of an emergency or disaster. This aggregate requires housing in congregate residential settings due to frailty, function, and/or cognitive impairments. All senior residents need long-term assistance to maintain maximum independence, including 24-hr on-site monitoring, case management, and personal care services such as eating, toileting, transferring, bathing, and dressing. Twenty-five percent of this special population of older adults has psychiatric disabilities and nonmental health comorbidities (Caron et al, 2008). Through a literature search, the challenges and risks of this aggregate in the event of a naturally occurring or manmade emergency, including epidemiological and environmental risks, are identified. Evidence-based literature reveals that the foundation of an effective emergency response and recovery is planning and preparation. Lessons learned from past disasters in the United States have brought attention to the needs of disabled and chronically ill older adults. Developing partnerships, improving communication systems, identifying emergency shelters for disabled adults, and empowering ACF residents and staff through education are recommended with the universal goal of reducing injury, preventing or controlling illness, and saving lives. An innovative educational program utilizing Hybrid Modality is outlined in this article including planning, coalition building, and the use of mapping systems as tools and strategies to improve outcomes. Resources such as local, state, and federal agencies; consumer groups; and trade associations are referenced for accessibility. PMID:22826922

  17. Social support and depression of adults with visual impairments.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Papakonstantinou, Doxa; Montgomery, Anthony; Solomou, Argyro

    2014-07-01

    Relatively little research exists with regard to the relationship between social support and depression among adults with visual impairments. Such a gap is noteworthy when one considers that individuals become more dependent on others as they enter middle and late adulthood. The present research will examine the association between social networks, social support and depression among adults with visual impairments. Seventy-seven adults with visual impairments participated in the study. Depression, social network and emotional/practical social support were measured with self-report measures. Additionally, the degree to which emotional/practical social support received were positive or negative and the ability of respondents to self-manage their daily living were assessed. Less than a third of respondents scored above the threshold for depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were not related to gender or vision status. Depression was correlated with age, educational level, less positive practical support, more negative practical support and more negative emotional support, with lower perceptions of self-management representing the most robust predictor of depression. Age moderated the relationship between depression and self-management, and between depression and negative emotional support. Lower perceptions of self-management and negative emotional support were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. PMID:24679546

  18. Social support and depression of adults with visual impairments.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Papakonstantinou, Doxa; Montgomery, Anthony; Solomou, Argyro

    2014-07-01

    Relatively little research exists with regard to the relationship between social support and depression among adults with visual impairments. Such a gap is noteworthy when one considers that individuals become more dependent on others as they enter middle and late adulthood. The present research will examine the association between social networks, social support and depression among adults with visual impairments. Seventy-seven adults with visual impairments participated in the study. Depression, social network and emotional/practical social support were measured with self-report measures. Additionally, the degree to which emotional/practical social support received were positive or negative and the ability of respondents to self-manage their daily living were assessed. Less than a third of respondents scored above the threshold for depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were not related to gender or vision status. Depression was correlated with age, educational level, less positive practical support, more negative practical support and more negative emotional support, with lower perceptions of self-management representing the most robust predictor of depression. Age moderated the relationship between depression and self-management, and between depression and negative emotional support. Lower perceptions of self-management and negative emotional support were significantly associated with depressive symptoms.

  19. Social workers' use of spiritual practices in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Dane, Barbara; Moore, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Numerous studies have examined client use of spiritual and/or religious practices to cope with illness and adversity. This study explores social workers' use of spiritual practices as reflected in their work with palliative care clients. Survey results (n = 327) indicated significant relationships of spiritual practices such as yoga, prayer and meditation to working with palliative care clients. The total number of these approaches is predicted by factors such as theoretical orientation and the social workers' own struggles with palliative care and other issues. Our study supports the need for additional investigation of spiritual issues in practice.

  20. Social capital and health among older adults in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about social capital and health among older adults in South Africa. This study investigates the association between social capital and several health variables, namely: self-rated health, depressive symptoms, cognitive functioning and physical inactivity, among older South Africans. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a national probability sample of 3840 individuals aged 50 years or older who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE wave 1) in 2008 in South Africa. Measures included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, cognitive functioning and physical activity. Social capital was assessed with six components, namely: marital status, social action, sociability, trust and solidarity, safety, and civic engagement. Results The social capital assessment revealed that 56% of the respondents were married or cohabiting, 45% reported low (0) social action, 42% reported medium (2–3) sociability, 43% reported high (2) trust and solidarity, 50% reported high (2–4) civic engagement and 42% reported medium (6) psychological resources. In multivariate analysis, self-reported good health was associated with younger age, having secondary education and higher social capital (being married or cohabiting, high trust and solidarity and greater psychological resources). Depressive symptoms were associated with lower social capital (not being married or cohabiting, lack of high trust and solidarity and low psychological resources). Better cognitive functioning was associated with younger age, higher educational level, greater wealth and higher social capital (being married or cohabiting, high trust and solidarity, lack of safety, higher civic engagement and greater psychological resources). Physical inactivity was associated with older age and lower social capital (lower social action, lack of safety, lower civic engagement and poorer psychological resources). Conclusions

  1. Care of the Older Adult in the Emergency Department: Nurses Views of the Pressing Issues

    PubMed Central

    Boltz, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to describe nurses’ views of the issues to be addressed to improve care of the older adult in the emergency department (ED). Design and Methods: An exploratory content analysis examined the qualitative responses of 527 registered nurses from 49U.S. hospitals who completed the Geriatric Institutional Profile. Results: 5 central themes emerged from the analysis, representing a lack of older personhospital environment fit in the ED: (a) respect for the older adult and carers, (b) correct and best procedures and treatment, (c) time and staff to do things right, (d) transitions, and (e) a safe and enabling environment. The nurses offered solutions to address lack of fit, including modifications to the social climate, policies and procedures, care systems and processes, and physical design. Implications: The nurses’ descriptions of the pressing issues surrounding care of older adults in the ED provide useful information to consider when developing a senior-friendly ED. Results also illuminate solutions that can be taken to address issues. These solutions give direction for future intervention research. PMID:23442380

  2. [The development of organization of medical social care of adolescents].

    PubMed

    Chicherin, L P; Nagaev, R Ia

    2014-01-01

    The model of the subject of the Russian Federation is used to consider means of development of health protection and health promotion in adolescents including implementation of the National strategy of activities in interest of children for 2012-2017 approved by decree No761 of the President of Russia in June 1 2012. The analysis is carried out concerning organization of medical social care to this group of population in medical institutions and organizations of different type in the Republic of Bashkortostan. Nowadays, in 29 territories medical social departments and rooms, 5 specialized health centers for children, 6 clinics friendly to youth are organized. The analysis of manpower support demonstrates that in spite of increasing of number of rooms and departments of medical social care for children and adolescents decreasing of staff jobs both of medical personnel and psychologists and social workers occurs. The differences in priorities of functioning of departments and rooms of medical social care under children polyclinics, health centers for children and clinics friendly to youth are established. The questionnaire survey of pediatricians and adolescents concerning perspectives of development of adolescent service established significant need in development of specialized complex center. At the basis of such center problems of medical, pedagogical, social, psychological, legal profile related to specific characteristics of development and medical social needs of adolescents can be resolved. The article demonstrates organizational form of unification on the functional basis of the department of medical social care of children polyclinic and clinic friendly to youth. During three years, number of visits of adolescents to specialists of the center increases and this testifies awareness of adolescents and youth about activities of department of medical social care. The most percentage of visits of adolescents to specialists was made with prevention purpose. Among

  3. [The development of organization of medical social care of adolescents].

    PubMed

    Chicherin, L P; Nagaev, R Ia

    2014-01-01

    The model of the subject of the Russian Federation is used to consider means of development of health protection and health promotion in adolescents including implementation of the National strategy of activities in interest of children for 2012-2017 approved by decree No761 of the President of Russia in June 1 2012. The analysis is carried out concerning organization of medical social care to this group of population in medical institutions and organizations of different type in the Republic of Bashkortostan. Nowadays, in 29 territories medical social departments and rooms, 5 specialized health centers for children, 6 clinics friendly to youth are organized. The analysis of manpower support demonstrates that in spite of increasing of number of rooms and departments of medical social care for children and adolescents decreasing of staff jobs both of medical personnel and psychologists and social workers occurs. The differences in priorities of functioning of departments and rooms of medical social care under children polyclinics, health centers for children and clinics friendly to youth are established. The questionnaire survey of pediatricians and adolescents concerning perspectives of development of adolescent service established significant need in development of specialized complex center. At the basis of such center problems of medical, pedagogical, social, psychological, legal profile related to specific characteristics of development and medical social needs of adolescents can be resolved. The article demonstrates organizational form of unification on the functional basis of the department of medical social care of children polyclinic and clinic friendly to youth. During three years, number of visits of adolescents to specialists of the center increases and this testifies awareness of adolescents and youth about activities of department of medical social care. The most percentage of visits of adolescents to specialists was made with prevention purpose. Among

  4. Caring for nanotechnology? Being an integrated social scientist.

    PubMed

    Viseu, Ana

    2015-10-01

    One of the most significant shifts in science policy of the past three decades is a concern with extending scientific practice to include a role for 'society'. Recently, this has led to legislative calls for the integration of the social sciences and humanities in publicly funded research and development initiatives. In nanotechnology--integration's primary field site--this policy has institutionalized the practice of hiring social scientists in technical facilities. Increasingly mainstream, the workings and results of this integration mechanism remain understudied. In this article, I build upon my three-year experience as the in-house social scientist at the Cornell NanoScale Facility and the United States' National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network to engage empirically and conceptually with this mode of governance in nanotechnology. From the vantage point of the integrated social scientist, I argue that in its current enactment, integration emerges as a particular kind of care work, with social scientists being fashioned as the main caretakers. Examining integration as a type of care practice and as a 'matter of care' allows me to highlight the often invisible, existential, epistemic, and affective costs of care as governance. Illuminating a framework where social scientists are called upon to observe but not disturb, to reify boundaries rather than blur them, this article serves as a word of caution against integration as a novel mode of governance that seemingly privileges situatedness, care, and entanglement, moving us toward an analytically skeptical (but not dismissive) perspective on integration.

  5. Caring for nanotechnology? Being an integrated social scientist.

    PubMed

    Viseu, Ana

    2015-10-01

    One of the most significant shifts in science policy of the past three decades is a concern with extending scientific practice to include a role for 'society'. Recently, this has led to legislative calls for the integration of the social sciences and humanities in publicly funded research and development initiatives. In nanotechnology--integration's primary field site--this policy has institutionalized the practice of hiring social scientists in technical facilities. Increasingly mainstream, the workings and results of this integration mechanism remain understudied. In this article, I build upon my three-year experience as the in-house social scientist at the Cornell NanoScale Facility and the United States' National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network to engage empirically and conceptually with this mode of governance in nanotechnology. From the vantage point of the integrated social scientist, I argue that in its current enactment, integration emerges as a particular kind of care work, with social scientists being fashioned as the main caretakers. Examining integration as a type of care practice and as a 'matter of care' allows me to highlight the often invisible, existential, epistemic, and affective costs of care as governance. Illuminating a framework where social scientists are called upon to observe but not disturb, to reify boundaries rather than blur them, this article serves as a word of caution against integration as a novel mode of governance that seemingly privileges situatedness, care, and entanglement, moving us toward an analytically skeptical (but not dismissive) perspective on integration. PMID:26630815

  6. New constitutionalism and the social reproduction of caring institutions.

    PubMed

    Gill, Stephen; Bakker, Isabella

    2006-01-01

    This essay analyzes neo-liberal economic agreements and legal and political frameworks or what has been called the "new constitutionalism," a governance framework that empowers market forces to reshape economic and social development worldwide. The article highlights some consequences of new constitutionalism for caring institutions specifically, and for what feminists call social reproduction more generally: the biological reproduction of the species; the reproduction of labor power; and the reproduction of social institutions and processes associated with the creation and maintenance of communities. New constitutional governance frameworks fundamentally reshape conditions under which the care of human beings takes place. Caring institutions once governed by enabling professions geared to universal care are now determined increasingly by market values and private forces, and driven directly by the profit motive. This is one of the reasons why neo-liberalism is increasingly contested in both the North and the global South. PMID:16532302

  7. New constitutionalism and the social reproduction of caring institutions.

    PubMed

    Gill, Stephen; Bakker, Isabella

    2006-01-01

    This essay analyzes neo-liberal economic agreements and legal and political frameworks or what has been called the "new constitutionalism," a governance framework that empowers market forces to reshape economic and social development worldwide. The article highlights some consequences of new constitutionalism for caring institutions specifically, and for what feminists call social reproduction more generally: the biological reproduction of the species; the reproduction of labor power; and the reproduction of social institutions and processes associated with the creation and maintenance of communities. New constitutional governance frameworks fundamentally reshape conditions under which the care of human beings takes place. Caring institutions once governed by enabling professions geared to universal care are now determined increasingly by market values and private forces, and driven directly by the profit motive. This is one of the reasons why neo-liberalism is increasingly contested in both the North and the global South.

  8. Preparing social work students to work with grandparents in kinship care: an approach to infusion of content materials into selected core social work courses.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Dalzine, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Grandparents in kinship care represent an expanding population of older adults assuming primary parenting responsibilities for their grandchildren at a time when many grandparents may also be experiencing developmental changes accompanying their own aging process. Research documents a lack of social workers prepared to respond to the needs of an aging population in general, and grandparents in kinship care in particular, as curricular content on this population has been limited in undergraduate and graduate social work programs. This article describes an infusion model proposed for an undergraduate social work program's GeroRich Project designed to introduce content on an aging population in four foundation courses to expand students' knowledge of older adults and grandparents as kinship care providers. PMID:17210540

  9. Adolescents' and Emerging Adults' Social Networking Online: Homophily or Diversity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Elizabeth; Richards, Lacey

    2011-01-01

    More than half of all online American adolescents and emerging adults have created personal profiles for social networking on the Internet. Does homophily in their offline friendships extend online? Drawing mainly on research of face-to-face friendship, we collected data from the public spaces, called "walls," of 129 young Americans ages 16 to 19…

  10. Screening for ADHD in an Adult Social Phobia Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortberg, Ewa; Tilfors, Kerstin; Bejerot, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Recent studies have suggested a link between a primary anxiety disorder and ADHD. Method: A total of 39 participants with a primary diagnosis of social phobia were compared with 178 patients with ADHD and 88 patients with other psychiatric disorders on measures for childhood and adult ADHD (the Wender Utah Rating Scale and the Adult…

  11. Legitimacy and Social Class in Catalan Language Education for Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frekko, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Adult students of Catalan are worthy of study because they reveal complexities underlying taken-for-granted assumptions about Catalan speakers and Castilian speakers. Far from fitting into neat bundles aligning language of origin, social class, and national orientation, the students in this study exemplify the breakdown of boundaries traditionally…

  12. Social norms and its correlates as a pathway to smoking among young Latino adults.

    PubMed

    Echeverría, Sandra E; Gundersen, Daniel A; Manderski, Michelle T B; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2015-01-01

    Socially and culturally embedded norms regarding smoking may be one pathway by which individuals adopt smoking behaviors. However, few studies have examined if social norms operate in young adults, a population at high risk of becoming regular smokers. There is also little research examining correlates of social norms in populations with a large immigrant segment, where social norms are likely to differ from the receiving country and could contribute to a better understanding of previously reported acculturation-health associations. Using data from a nationally representative sample of young adults in the United States reached via a novel cell-phone sampling design, we explored the relationships between acculturation proxies (nativity, language spoken and generational status), socioeconomic position (SEP), smoking social norms and current smoking status among Latinos 18-34 years of age (n = 873). Specifically, we examined if a measure of injunctive norms assessed by asking participants about the acceptability of smoking among Latino co-ethnic peers was associated with acculturation proxies and SEP. Results showed a strong gradient in smoking social norms by acculturation proxies, with significantly less acceptance of smoking reported among the foreign-born and increasing acceptance among those speaking only/mostly English at home and third-generation individuals. No consistent and significant pattern in smoking social norms was observed by education, income or employment status, possibly due to the age of the study population. Lastly, those who reported that their Latino peers do not find smoking acceptable were significantly less likely to be current smokers compared to those who said their Latino peers were ambivalent about smoking (do not care either way) in crude models, and in models that adjusted for age, sex, generational status, language spoken, and SEP. This study provides new evidence regarding the role of social norms in shaping smoking behaviors among

  13. Social norms and its correlates as a pathway to smoking among young Latino adults

    PubMed Central

    Echeverría, Sandra E.; Gundersen, Daniel A.; Manderski, Michelle T.B.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2014-01-01

    Socially and culturally embedded norms regarding smoking may be one pathway by which individuals adopt smoking behaviors. However, few studies have examined if social norms operate in young adults, a population at high risk of becoming regular smokers. There is also little research examining correlates of social norms in populations with a large immigrant segment, where social norms are likely to differ from the receiving country and could contribute to a better understanding of previously reported acculturation-health associations. Using data from a nationally representative sample of young adults in the United States reached via a novel cell-phone sampling design, we explored the relationships between acculturation proxies (nativity, language spoken and generational status), socioeconomic position (SEP), smoking social norms and current smoking status among Latinos 18–34 years of age (n=873). Specifically, we examined if a measure of injunctive norms assessed by asking participants about the acceptability of smoking among Latino co-ethnic peers was associated with acculturation proxies and SEP. Results showed a strong gradient in smoking social norms by acculturation proxies, with significantly less acceptance of smoking reported among the foreign-born and increasing acceptance among those speaking only/ mostly English at home and third-generation individuals. No consistent and significant pattern in smoking social norms was observed by education, income or employment status, possibly due to the age of the study population. Lastly, those who reported that their Latino peers do not find smoking acceptable were significantly less likely to be current smokers compared to those who said their Latino peers were ambivalent about smoking (do not care either way) in crude models, and in models that adjusted for age, sex, generational status, language spoken, and SEP. This study provides new evidence regarding the role of social norms in shaping smoking behaviors among

  14. Nurses' and care workers' attitudes toward death and caring for dying older adults in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Miho; Braun, Kathryn

    2010-12-01

    Registered nurses (RNs) and care workers (CWs) have important roles in providing end-of-life care to older adults, but little is known about the attitudes of RNs and CWs in Japan. In this study, 464 RNs and CWs working in facilities in Japan were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire that included the Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying Scale, Form B, Japanese version (FATCOD-Form B-J) and the Death Attitude Profile (DAP), Japanese version. A total of 388 (83.6%) questionnaires were returned, and 367 (79.1%) were fully completed. The final sample included 190 RNs and 177 CWs. Multiple regression analysis showed that better attitudes toward caring for the dying were positively associated with seminar attendance and negatively associated with fear of death.

  15. [Self-care and the asthmatic adult: systematization of nursing care].

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Estela Maria Leite Meirelles; da Nóbrega, Maria Miriam Lima; de Lima, Luciane Soares

    2002-01-01

    This research aims at the systematization of nursing assistance under Orem's nursing theory of self-care deficit. In order to conduct this study, the convergent approach was used through the performance of the nursing processes in an adult with asthma. Interviews, physical examinations, observations, data record, observation of nursing assistance in policlinics along with home visits were the techniques used to gather data. After the observation of the nursing assistance, self-care deficits were identified and a new assistance plan and objectives were established, as well as a system and methods of support. The assistance plan was performed through the implementation of nursing assistance, prioritizing educational support. Based on the results, it was concluded that the application of the nursing processes through Orem's self-care referential is feasible and necessary for the engagement of clients and their family in self-care.

  16. Access to Technology in Transnational Social Fields: Simultaneity and Digital Literacy Socialization of Adult Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nogueron-Liu, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Some studies of technology use by immigrants have explored the role of digital media in their maintenance of affiliations with their nations of origin. However, the potential for transnational social networks to serve as "resources" that facilitate digital literacy socialization for adult immigrant learners remains unexplored. In this study, I…

  17. Transition of care from paediatric to adult services in haematology

    PubMed Central

    Bolton‐Maggs, Paula H B

    2007-01-01

    The need for adequate preparation for transition for young people with health care needs who require long term follow‐up in the adult sector has long been recognised and is a required part of the national service framework for children. The Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health and the Royal College of Nursing have endorsed this need for improvement in services for adolescents. In 2006 the Department of Health launched guidelines with a wealth of recommendations. Despite these initiatives only slow progress has been made (usually by enthusiasts) and much work is needed to develop good programmes in many specialties, including non‐malignant haematology. PMID:17715443

  18. Care of the adult patient with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ross, Whitney Trotter; Olsen, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome have an increased risk for many conditions, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, infections, and osteoporosis, and endocrine, neurological, orthopedic, auditory, and ophthalmic disorders. They also are at increased risk for abuse and human rights violations and receive fewer screenings and interventions than the population without Down syndrome. In this literature review, the most common health conditions associated with Down syndrome are examined, along with the topics of sexual abuse, menstrual hygiene, contraception, and human rights. Clinical guidelines for this population are summarized in an effort to assist practicing physicians in improving their provision of health care to the adult patient with Down syndrome.

  19. Early Nonparental Care and Social Behavior in Elementary School: Support for a Social Group Adaptation Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Tremblay, Richard E; Vitaro, Frank; Japel, Christa; Boivin, Michel; Côté, Sylvana M

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of nonparental child-care services received during the preschool years to the development of social behavior between kindergarten and the end of elementary school with a birth cohort from Québec, Canada (N = 1,544). Mothers reported on the use of child-care services, while elementary school teachers rated children's shyness, social withdrawal, prosociality, opposition, and aggression. Children who received nonparental child-care services were less shy, less socially withdrawn, more oppositional, and more aggressive at school entry (age 6 years). However, these differences disappeared during elementary school as children who received exclusive parental care caught up with those who received nonparental care services. This "catch-up" effect from the perspective of children's adaptation to the social group is discussed.

  20. Social networks of older adults living with HIV in Finland.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Nuno Ribeiro; Kylmä, Jari; Kirsi, Tapio; Pereira, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the social networks of older adults living with HIV. Interviews were conducted with nine individuals aged 50 or older living with HIV in Helsinki, Finland. Analysis of transcripts was analysed by inductive qualitative content analysis. Results indicated that these participants' networks tended to be large, including those both aware and unaware of the participants' health status. Analysis identified three main themes: large multifaceted social networks, importance of a support group, and downsizing of social networks. Support received appeared to be of great importance in coping with their health condition, especially since the time of diagnosis. Friends and family were the primary source of informal support. The majority of participants relied mostly on friends, some of whom were HIV-positive. Formal support came primarily from the HIV organisation's support group. In this study group, non-disclosure did not impact participants' well-being. In years to come, social networks of older adults living with HIV may shrink due to personal reasons other than HIV-disclosure. What is of primary importance is that healthcare professionals become knowledgeable about psychosocial issues of older adults living with HIV, identifying latent problems and developing adequate interventions in the early stages of the disease; this would help prevent social isolation and foster successful ageing with HIV.

  1. Social networks of older adults living with HIV in Finland.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Nuno Ribeiro; Kylmä, Jari; Kirsi, Tapio; Pereira, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the social networks of older adults living with HIV. Interviews were conducted with nine individuals aged 50 or older living with HIV in Helsinki, Finland. Analysis of transcripts was analysed by inductive qualitative content analysis. Results indicated that these participants' networks tended to be large, including those both aware and unaware of the participants' health status. Analysis identified three main themes: large multifaceted social networks, importance of a support group, and downsizing of social networks. Support received appeared to be of great importance in coping with their health condition, especially since the time of diagnosis. Friends and family were the primary source of informal support. The majority of participants relied mostly on friends, some of whom were HIV-positive. Formal support came primarily from the HIV organisation's support group. In this study group, non-disclosure did not impact participants' well-being. In years to come, social networks of older adults living with HIV may shrink due to personal reasons other than HIV-disclosure. What is of primary importance is that healthcare professionals become knowledgeable about psychosocial issues of older adults living with HIV, identifying latent problems and developing adequate interventions in the early stages of the disease; this would help prevent social isolation and foster successful ageing with HIV. PMID:26278329

  2. Barriers and facilitators to successful transition from pediatric to adult inflammatory bowel disease care from the perspectives of providers

    PubMed Central

    Paine, Christine Weirich; Stollon, Natalie B.; Lucas, Matthew S.; Brumley, Lauren D.; Poole, Erika S.; Peyton, Tamara; Grant, Anne W.; Jan, Sophia; Trachtenberg, Symme; Zander, Miriam; Mamula, Petar; Bonafide, Christopher P.; Schwartz, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Background For adolescents and young adults (AYA) with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the transition from pediatric to adult care is often challenging and associated with gaps in care. Our study objectives were to (1) identify outcomes for evaluating transition success and (2) elicit the major barriers and facilitators of successful transition. Methods We interviewed pediatric and adult IBD providers from across the United States with experience caring for AYAs with IBD until thematic saturation was reached after 12 interviews. We elicited the participants' backgrounds, examples of successful and unsuccessful transition of AYAs for whom they cared, and recommendations for improving transition using the Social-ecological Model of Adolescent and Young Adult Readiness to Transition framework. We coded interview transcripts using the constant comparative method and identified major themes. Results Participants reported evaluating transition success and failure using healthcare utilization outcomes (e.g. maintaining continuity with adult providers), health outcomes (e.g. stable symptoms), and quality of life outcomes (e.g. attending school). The patients' level of developmental maturity (i.e. ownership of care) was the most prominent determinant of transition outcomes. The style of parental involvement (i.e. helicopter parent vs. optimally-involved parent) also influenced outcomes as well as the degree of support by providers (e.g. care coordination). Conclusion IBD transition success is influenced by a complex interplay of patient developmental maturity, parenting style, and provider support. Multidisciplinary IBD care teams should aim to optimize these factors for each patient to increase the likelihood of a smooth transfer to adult care. PMID:25137417

  3. Emerging Technologies for Pediatric and Adult Trauma Care

    PubMed Central

    Moulton, Steven L.; Haley-Andrews, Stephanie; Mulligan, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the Review Current EMS protocols rely on provider directed care for evaluation, management and triage of injured patients from the field to a trauma center. New methods to quickly diagnose, support and coordinate the movement of trauma patients from the field to the most appropriate trauma center are in development. These methods will enhance trauma care and promote trauma system development. Recent Findings Recent advances in machine learning, statistical methods, device integration and wireless communication are giving rise to new methods for vital sign data analysis and a new generation of transport monitors. These monitors will collect and synchronize exponentially growing amounts of vital sign data with electronic patient care information. The application of advanced statistical methods to these complex clinical data sets has the potential to reveal many important physiological relationships and treatment effects. Summary Several emerging technologies are converging to yield a new generation of smart sensors and tightly integrated transport monitors. These technologies will assist pre-hospital providers in quickly identifying and triaging the most severely injured children and adults to the most appropriate trauma centers. They will enable the development of real-time clinical support systems of increasing complexity, able to provide timelier, more cost-effective, autonomous care. PMID:20407375

  4. Primary Care for the Older Adult Patient: Common Geriatric Issues and Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Katherine; Shi, Sandra; Kiraly, Carmela

    2016-06-01

    Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the US population and the majority of older adults are women. Primary care for the older adult patient requires a wide variety of skills, reflecting the complexity and heterogeneity of this patient population. Individualizing care through consideration of patients' goals, medical conditions, and prognosis is paramount. Quality care for the older adult patient requires familiarity with common geriatric syndromes, such as dementia, falls, and polypharmacy. In addition, developing the knowledge and communication skills necessary for complex care and end-of-life care planning is essential.

  5. Pharmacogenetics, race, and ethnicity: social identities and individualized medical care.

    PubMed

    Foster, M W; Sharp, R R; Mulvihill, J J

    2001-06-01

    Social categories such as race and ethnicity have long been used in interpreting patient symptoms, diagnosing disease, and predicting therapeutic response. DNA-based diagnostic tests and pharmacogenetic screens could make these uses of social categories largely irrelevant by allowing clinicians to base diagnosis and treatment decisions on the unique genetic features of individual patients. Despite this attractive vision of individualized care, however, social categories are likely to continue playing a significant role in the coming era of genetic medicine. Current uses of social categories in pharmacogenetic research, for example, illustrate how drug development and marketing will perpetuate the use of social categories such as race and ethnicity. Those uses may unintentionally blunt the precision of genetic technologies and pose new threats to socially identifiable populations. These implications suggest the need for greater caution in using social categories as indicators for specific tests or therapies and for federal legislation to protect against discriminatory uses of individuals' genetic information. In addition, more precise social classifications than those presently in use may allow us to realize the full potential of DNA-based technologies, thus minimizing social disparities in health care. Those more precise social classifications should reflect extended patient pedigrees and not the self-reported claims of racial and/or ethnic affiliation.

  6. Adult-Infant Ratios in Day Care Centers--What Evidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollomon, John W.

    This paper investigates the evidence for adult-infant ratios in day care centers, finding that current evidence is based largely on the premise that a low number of infants per adult should result in greater interaction between the adults and the infants, and, thereby, better infant care. Support for this premise is derived from three main…

  7. Social construction of the managerialism of needs assessment by health and social care professionals.

    PubMed

    Chevannes, Mel

    2002-05-01

    Managerialism in community care has not only radically changed organisational structures delivering care, but the assessment of health and social care needs, the justifications for the assessments, and the experience of those who require publicly funded services. The present paper describes the social construction of the managerialism of needs assessment by health and social care professionals, and illustrates this through the identification of older people as a particular kind of client. The argument draws on 'third way', modernity and postmodernity thinking to show needs assessment as a socially constructed area of welfare. The empirical work in this study is based on the views of 38 health and social care professionals obtained by semi-structured in-depth interviews and a postal questionnaire. The views of these professionals show that the social construction of needs assessment takes place in managing the matching of eligibility criteria against types of services. The key to this process is the application of the concept of management that places health and social care professionals in roles where they are acting for state, voluntary or private agencies, and not in all contexts working together with older people. The study shows that professionals identify older people into two groups or 'classes', i.e. those having health needs as distinct from those with social care. The techniques used amount to an exercise of power by professionals over older people. Change is necessary to break down the dominance by professionals in the needs assessment process. A broader concept of the 'third way' vision by Giddens (1998) is also required to achieve greater relevance to how health and social care is organised, and how relations between professionals and older people are integrated into the idea and practice of participatory care. Therefore, the emancipatory side of modernity remains a largely unfinished project.

  8. [Screening for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adult patients in primary care].

    PubMed

    Aragonès, Enric; Cañisá, Anna; Caballero, Antònia; Piñol-Moreso, Josep Lluís

    2013-05-01

    AIMS. To estimate the proportion of adult patients in primary care with a positive screening test for attention deficit hyper-activity disorder (ADHD) and to analyse their characteristics. PATIENTS AND METHODS. A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed in nine primary care clinics in the province of Tarragona. The sample consisted of 432 consecutive patients in primary care who visited for any reason, with ages ranging from 18 to 55 years. Screening for ADHD was carried out by means of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Data about functional impact (Sheehan Disability Inventory) were obtained and a review of the patient records provided data concerning psychiatric comorbidity and the consumption of psychopharmaceuticals. RESULTS. The percentage of positive results in the screening tests was 19.9% (95% CI = 16.4-23.9%). Taking into account the sensitivity and specificity of the ASRS, the 'real' prevalence was estimated to be 12.5% (95% CI = 8.2-16.8%). None of these patients were diagnosed or treated for ADHD. Positive screening tests are associated with occupational, social and familial dysfunction, and greater perceived stress. There is also a higher level of comorbidity with affective disorders and substance abuse, as well as greater use of psychopharmaceuticals. CONCLUSIONS. Screening for ADHD in adult patients in primary care gives rise to a notably high proportion of positive screening test results, which suggests that there could be a significant prevalence of patients with ADHD. These data contrast with the absence of this diagnosis in the patient records. Further research is needed to determine the usefulness of the diagnosis of ADHD and the possible role that must be played by primary care.

  9. Social capital, social participation and life satisfaction among Chilean older adults

    PubMed Central

    Ponce, María Soledad Herrera; Rosas, Raúl Pedro Elgueta; Lorca, María Beatriz Fernández

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine factors associated with social participation and their relationship with self-perceived well-being in older adults. METHODS This study was based on data obtained from the National Socioeconomic Characterization (CASEN) Survey conducted in Chile, in 2011, on a probability sample of households. We examined information of 31,428 older adults living in these households. Descriptive and explanatory analyses were performed using linear and multivariate logistic regression models. We assessed the respondents’ participation in different types of associations: egotropic, sociotropic, and religious. RESULTS Social participation increased with advancing age and then declined after the age of 80. The main finding of this study was that family social capital is a major determinant of social participation of older adults. Their involvement was associated with high levels of self-perceived subjective well-being. We identified four settings as sources of social participation: home-based; rural community-based; social policy programs; and religious. Older adults were significantly more likely to participate when other members of the household were also involved in social activities evidencing an intergenerational transmission of social participation. Rural communities, especially territorial associations, were the most favorable setting for participation. There has been a steady increase in the rates of involvement of older adults in social groups in Chile, especially after retirement. Religiosity remains a major determinant of associativism. The proportion of participation was higher among older women than men but these proportions equaled after the age of 80. CONCLUSIONS Self-perceived subjective well-being is not only dependent upon objective factors such as health and income, but is also dependent upon active participation in social life, measured as participation in associations, though its effects are moderate. PMID:25372164

  10. Oral health and dental care of elderly adults dependent on care.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Willy; Schimmel, Martin; Müller, Frauke

    2015-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy in Switzerland is posing new challenges, as more and more people are becoming dependent on care, both at home and in long-term care facilities. The dental profession must deal with patients retaining their own teeth until later in life with an increased incidence and severity of caries and periodontal diseases. The association between general and oral health is becoming important, particularly in older people with medical conditions. Aspiration pneumonia can develop as a result of pathogenic bacteria descending from the oral cavity to the bronchoalveolar system, which presents a frequent, potentially life-threatening danger. By adapting care and treatment concepts, the masticatory ability can be preserved or restored, which in turn helps preventing malnutrition. Other aims include preventing infections as well as maintaining subjective well-being and an attractive dental appearance. Care standards should be defined for the provision of oral-health related dentistry for the vulnerable population of the care-dependent adults. These should be implemented by an interdisciplinary care team composed of nursing personnel, long-term care facility managers, Spitex staff, physicians, dentists as well as dental assistants and hygienists. PMID:26169068

  11. 7 CFR 240.4 - Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult care institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and adult care institutions. 240.4 Section 240.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... LIEU OF DONATED FOODS § 240.4 Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult care... or adult care institutions participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. FNS shall pay...

  12. 7 CFR 240.4 - Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult care institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and adult care institutions. 240.4 Section 240.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... LIEU OF DONATED FOODS § 240.4 Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult care... or adult care institutions participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. FNS shall pay...

  13. 7 CFR 240.4 - Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult care institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and adult care institutions. 240.4 Section 240.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... LIEU OF DONATED FOODS § 240.4 Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult care... or adult care institutions participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. FNS shall pay...

  14. 7 CFR 240.4 - Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult care institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and adult care institutions. 240.4 Section 240.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... LIEU OF DONATED FOODS § 240.4 Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult care... or adult care institutions participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. FNS shall pay...

  15. Social Media in Health Care: How Close Is Too Close?

    PubMed

    Desai, Dolly G; Ndukwu, Jovita O; Mitchell, Jordan P

    2015-01-01

    Social media use is increasing personally and professionally across numerous industries worldwide. The purpose of this article is to explore the utilization of social media in the health care field; specifically, how the treatment of a physician's Facebook friends would differ from that of a patient the physician did not know prior to treatment. While there are several benefits that come with incorporating social media into health care, as well as into the physician-patient relationship, there are also immense risks. The present study surveyed physicians to assess their opinions on the boundaries of an appropriate patient-physician relationship on social media. Fifty-six of 70 physicians responded with their attitudes on the difference between adding a patient as a friend and adding a friend as a patient, as well as the difference in care between the two. The results of the study showed that most physicians would not be opposed to taking on their Facebook friends as patients; however, the care they provide could potentially be radically different between their Facebook friend and an average patient. This means that patients should take extra care before asking their Facebook physician friends for formal care when they are in need.

  16. Job satisfaction, burnout, and turnover in health care social workers.

    PubMed

    Siefert, K; Jayaratne, S; Chess, W A

    1991-08-01

    The findings of two consecutive surveys of job satisfaction and burnout in national samples of health care social workers are presented. Between 1979 and 1989, there were significant increases in the proportion of social workers employed in private versus public agencies, in quantitative workload, and in social workers' perceptions of the challenges presented by their jobs. Role conflict and role ambiguity, lack of comfort, and dissatisfaction with financial rewards emerged as significant predictors of depersonalization and burnout. However, a significant increase in social workers' feelings of personal accomplishment also occurred, and high challenge emerged as a significant predictor of sense of effectiveness. PMID:1894206

  17. Social equality and dental conditions--a study of an adult population in Southern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bagewitz, I C; Söderfeldt, B; Palmqvist, S; Nilner, K

    2000-01-01

    This study aimed to: describe dental conditions--focusing on prosthodontic variables--in relation to social conditions in the late 1990s in an adult population of Southern Sweden, evaluate if a change could be traced in the pattern of socioeconomic influences on dental conditions, and study if various attitudes toward dental care were associated with social as well as dental conditions. The study was based on questionnaire responses. Significant differences in dental conditions and denture prevalence were found for age and education. To a majority of the sample it was very important to have own teeth and/or fixed restorations and the opportunity to attend regular dental care. The cost for dental care was very important for 52% of the sample especially for men, those with low education, and those wearing removable denture. Need for dental care that could not be provided for because of the costs was experienced by 9%. Eighteen percent stated that they once or more had refrained from dental care because of the cost. Those with removable dentures and low education dominated. Besides socioeconomic differences in dental conditions, there were sociodental differences in attitudes concerning the importance of costs, self-estimated needs, and cost-barriers for dental care.

  18. Brief Report: The Medical Care of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders--Identifying the Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruder, Mary Beth; Kerins, Gerard; Mazzarella, Cynthia; Sims, Jessica; Stein, Neil

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of information concerning adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), especially with regards to their access to health care. A paper and electronic survey was sent to 1,580 primary care physicians in Connecticut. 346 respondents returned a survey and provided care to adults with an ASD. This physician survey provides data on…

  19. Who Are the Clients?: Goal Displacement in an Adult Care Center for Elders with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Corey M.

    2009-01-01

    This ethnographic study of "goal displacement" in an adult day care center explains how and why certain goals come to surpass others in the organizational practices of elder day care settings. Adult day care is often oriented towards providing family caregivers with respite rather than attempting to directly improve the lives of the elders…

  20. Mothers' and Fathers' Roles in Caring for an Adult Child with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, Michelle; Carroll, Annemaree; Cuskelly, Monica

    2011-01-01

    To date, there have been few studies of mothers' and fathers' roles in caring for their adult children with intellectual disabilities. The present study investigated the care-giving roles of mother and father couples caring for their adult offspring with an intellectual disability, their psychological health, and the demands and satisfaction of…

  1. 7 CFR 250.61 - Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... agencies and child care and adult care institutions must also adhere to Federal regulations in 7 CFR part... foods in NSLP, also apply to CACFP. However, in accordance with 7 CFR part 226, a child care or adult... lunches and suppers are those meeting the nutritional standards established in 7 CFR part 226. The...

  2. 7 CFR 250.61 - Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... agencies and child care and adult care institutions must also adhere to Federal regulations in 7 CFR part... foods in NSLP, also apply to CACFP. However, in accordance with 7 CFR part 226, a child care or adult... lunches and suppers are those meeting the nutritional standards established in 7 CFR part 226. The...

  3. 7 CFR 250.61 - Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... agencies and child care and adult care institutions must also adhere to Federal regulations in 7 CFR part... foods in NSLP, also apply to CACFP. However, in accordance with 7 CFR part 226, a child care or adult... lunches and suppers are those meeting the nutritional standards established in 7 CFR part 226. The...

  4. 7 CFR 250.61 - Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... agencies and child care and adult care institutions must also adhere to Federal regulations in 7 CFR part... foods in NSLP, also apply to CACFP. However, in accordance with 7 CFR part 226, a child care or adult... lunches and suppers are those meeting the nutritional standards established in 7 CFR part 226. The...

  5. Social Work, Pastoral Care and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Considine, Tom; Hollingdale, Paul; Neville, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    This paper briefly examines the growing interest in developing resilience in the social work curricula as it is seen as a crucial quality necessary to cope with the increasing demands of the profession. The recent research into developing resilience is dominated by a psychological model which emphasises personal qualities. It runs the risk of…

  6. Widespread pain and depression are key modifiable risk factors associated with reduced social participation in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, Ross; Blagojevic-Bucknall, Milisa; Belcher, John; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Lacey, Rosie J.; McBeth, John

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In older adults, reduced social participation increases the risk of poor health-related quality of life, increased levels of inflammatory markers and cardiovascular disease, and increased mortality. Older adults frequently present to primary care, which offers the potential to deliver interventions at the point of care to increase social participation. The aim of this prospective study was to identify the key modifiable exposures that were associated with reduced social participation in a primary care population of older adults. The study was a population-based prospective cohort study. Participants (n = 1991) were those aged ≥65 years who had completed questionnaires at baseline, and 3 and 6-year follow-ups. Generalized linear mixed modeling framework was used to test for associations between exposures and decreasing social participation over 6 years. At baseline, 44% of participants reported reduced social participation, increasing to 49% and 55% at 3 and 6-year follow-up. Widespread pain and depression had the strongest independent association with reduced social participation over the 6-year follow-up period. The prevalence of reduced social participation for those with widespread pain was 106% (adjusted incidence rate ratio 2.06, 95% confidence interval 1.72, 2.46), higher than for those with no pain. Those with depression had an increased prevalence of 82% (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.82, 95% confidence interval 1.62, 2.06). These associations persisted in multivariate analysis. Population ageing will be accompanied by increasing numbers of older adults with pain and depression. Future trials should assess whether screening for widespread pain and depression, and targeting appropriate treatment in primary care, increase social participation in older people. PMID:27495019

  7. Korea: Balancing Economic Growth and Social Protection for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Population aging in Korea is projected to be the most rapid among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries between 2000 and 2050. However, social spending in Korea remains low, reflecting Korea's relatively young population, limited health and long-term care insurance coverage, and immaturity of its pension system.…

  8. Korea: balancing economic growth and social protection for older adults.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyun-Sook

    2013-06-01

    Population aging in Korea is projected to be the most rapid among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries between 2000 and 2050. However, social spending in Korea remains low, reflecting Korea's relatively young population, limited health and long-term care insurance coverage, and immaturity of its pension system. As these factors evolve in coming years, social spending in Korea is likely to rise toward the OECD average. Sustaining economic growth requires policies to mitigate the impact of rapid population aging by providing social protection for the elderly population. Korea confronts difficult challenges in balancing economic growth and social protection for the elderly population, whereas also ensuring efficiency in social spending.

  9. Overcoming Barriers to Eye Care: Patient Response to a Medical Social Worker in a Glaucoma Service.

    PubMed

    Fudemberg, Scott J; Amarasekera, Dilru C; Silverstein, Marlee H; Linder, Kathryn M; Heffner, Paul; Hark, Lisa A; Waisbourd, Michael

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigates the patient response to a medical social worker in a glaucoma clinic. The literature suggests that medical social workers are effective in a variety of health care settings, yet the efficacy of a medical social worker in an adult ophthalmic setting has not been studied. We present the results of a retrospective chart review of 50 patients with glaucoma referred to a medical social worker between January 5, 2015 and June 31, 2015 in an outpatient clinic of an urban eye hospital. Clinical and demographic data, as well as the data from a quality of care questionnaire, were collected for each patient. Patients rated their interaction with the medical social worker as highly positive (mean = 4.75, 5-point Likert scale), and nearly 90 % of patients expressed interest in future contact with the social worker. Additionally, most patients reported that the social worker resolved the issues they were facing (61.1 %), supported them in seeing their ophthalmologist (70.6 %), and helped them to manage their glaucoma (69.7 %). Reported barriers to glaucoma care were emotional distress; cost of office visits and medications; lack of medical insurance; transportation; poor medication adherence; impairment of daily activities; follow-up adherence; and language. As vision loss from glaucoma is irreversible, it is important to detect and treat patients at early stages of the disease. Therefore, it is imperative for patients to regularly visit their eye care providers and adhere to treatment and follow-up recommendations. This study suggests that a medical social worker could play a pivotal role in helping patients with glaucoma overcome barriers to treatment and facilitate disease management. PMID:26860278

  10. The Affordable Care Act, Accountable Care Organizations, and Mental Health Care for Older Adults: Implications and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Stephen J.; Gill, Lydia; Naslund, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) represents the most significant legislative change in the United States health care system in nearly half a century. Key elements of the ACA include reforms aimed at addressing high-cost, complex, vulnerable patient populations. Older adults with mental health disorders are a rapidly growing segment of the population and are among the most challenging subgroups within health care, and they account for a disproportionate amount of costs. What does the ACA mean for geriatric mental health? We address this question by highlighting opportunities for reaching older adults with mental health disorders by leveraging the diverse elements of the ACA. We describe nine relevant initiatives: (1) accountable care organizations, (2) patient-centered medical homes, (3) Medicaid-financed specialty health homes, (4) hospital readmission and health care transitions initiatives, (5) Medicare annual wellness visit, (6) quality standards and associated incentives, (7) support for health information technology and telehealth, (8) Independence at Home and 1915(i) State Plan Home and Community-Based Services program, and (9) Medicare-Medicaid Coordination Office, Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation, and the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute. We also consider potential challenges to full implementation of the ACA and discuss novel solutions for advancing geriatric mental health in the context of projected workforce shortages and the opportunities afforded by the ACA. PMID:25811340

  11. The Affordable Care Act, Accountable Care Organizations, and Mental Health Care for Older Adults: Implications and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Stephen J; Gill, Lydia; Naslund, John A

    2015-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) represents the most significant legislative change in the United States health care system in nearly half a century. Key elements of the ACA include reforms aimed at addressing high-cost, complex, vulnerable patient populations. Older adults with mental health disorders are a rapidly growing segment of the population and are among the most challenging subgroups within health care, and they account for a disproportionate amount of costs. What does the ACA mean for geriatric mental health? We address this question by highlighting opportunities for reaching older adults with mental health disorders by leveraging the diverse elements of the ACA. We describe nine relevant initiatives: (1) accountable care organizations, (2) patient-centered medical homes, (3) Medicaid-financed specialty health homes, (4) hospital readmission and health care transitions initiatives, (5) Medicare annual wellness visit, (6) quality standards and associated incentives, (7) support for health information technology and telehealth, (8) Independence at Home and 1915(i) State Plan Home and Community-Based Services program, and (9) Medicare-Medicaid Coordination Office, Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation, and the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute. We also consider potential challenges to full implementation of the ACA and discuss novel solutions for advancing geriatric mental health in the context of projected workforce shortages and the opportunities afforded by the ACA.

  12. Access to health care and social protection.

    PubMed

    Martin, Philippe

    2012-06-01

    In France, the access to healthcare has been conceived as a social right and is mainly managed through the coverage of the population by the National Health Insurance, which is a part of the whole French social security scheme. This system was based on the so-called Bismarckian model, which implies that it requires full employment and solid family links, as the insured persons are the workers and their dependents. This paper examines the typical problems that this system has to face as far as the right to healthcare is concerned. First, it addresses the need to introduce some universal coverage programs, in order to integrate the excluded population. Then, it addresses the issue of financial sustainability as the structural weakness of the French system--in which healthcare is still mainly provided by private practice physicians and governed by the principle of freedom--leads to conceive and implement complex forms of regulations between the State, the Social security institutions and the healthcare providers. PMID:22924190

  13. Paternal signature in kin recognition cues of a social insect: concealed in juveniles, revealed in adults

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Janine W. Y.; Meunier, Joël; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Kin recognition is a key mechanism to direct social behaviours towards related individuals or avoid inbreeding depression. In insects, recognition is generally mediated by cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) compounds, which are partly inherited from parents. However, in social insects, potential nepotistic conflicts between group members from different patrilines are predicted to select against the expression of patriline-specific signatures in CHC profiles. Whereas this key prediction in the evolution of insect signalling received empirical support in eusocial insects, it remains unclear whether it can be generalized beyond eusociality to less-derived forms of social life. Here, we addressed this issue by manipulating the number of fathers siring clutches tended by females of the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, analysing the CHC profiles of the resulting juvenile and adult offspring, and using discriminant analysis to estimate the information content of CHC with respect to the maternal and paternal origin of individuals. As predicted, if paternally inherited cues are concealed during family life, increases in mating number had no effect on information content of CHC profiles among earwig juveniles, but significantly decreased the one among adult offspring. We suggest that age-dependent expression of patriline-specific cues evolved to limit the risks of nepotism as family-living juveniles and favour sibling-mating avoidance as group-living adults. These results highlight the role of parental care and social life in the evolution of chemical communication and recognition cues. PMID:25165768

  14. Paternal signature in kin recognition cues of a social insect: concealed in juveniles, revealed in adults.

    PubMed

    Wong, Janine W Y; Meunier, Joël; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-10-22

    Kin recognition is a key mechanism to direct social behaviours towards related individuals or avoid inbreeding depression. In insects, recognition is generally mediated by cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) compounds, which are partly inherited from parents. However, in social insects, potential nepotistic conflicts between group members from different patrilines are predicted to select against the expression of patriline-specific signatures in CHC profiles. Whereas this key prediction in the evolution of insect signalling received empirical support in eusocial insects, it remains unclear whether it can be generalized beyond eusociality to less-derived forms of social life. Here, we addressed this issue by manipulating the number of fathers siring clutches tended by females of the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, analysing the CHC profiles of the resulting juvenile and adult offspring, and using discriminant analysis to estimate the information content of CHC with respect to the maternal and paternal origin of individuals. As predicted, if paternally inherited cues are concealed during family life, increases in mating number had no effect on information content of CHC profiles among earwig juveniles, but significantly decreased the one among adult offspring. We suggest that age-dependent expression of patriline-specific cues evolved to limit the risks of nepotism as family-living juveniles and favour sibling-mating avoidance as group-living adults. These results highlight the role of parental care and social life in the evolution of chemical communication and recognition cues.

  15. Health care reform and social movements in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Beatrix

    2003-01-01

    Because of the importance of grassroots social movements, or "change from below," in the history of US reform, the relationship between social movements and demands for universal health care is a critical one. National health reform campaigns in the 20th century were initiated and run by elites more concerned with defending against attacks from interest groups than with popular mobilization, and grassroots reformers in the labor, civil rights, feminist, and AIDS activist movements have concentrated more on immediate and incremental changes than on transforming the health care system itself. However, grassroots health care demands have also contained the seeds of a wider critique of the American health care system, leading some movements to adopt calls for universal coverage.

  16. Health care reform and social movements in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Beatrix

    2008-09-01

    Because of the importance of grassroots social movements, or "change from below," in the history of US reform, the relationship between social movements and demands for universal health care is a critical one. National health reform campaigns in the 20th century were initiated and run by elites more concerned with defending against attacks from interest groups than with popular mobilization, and grassroots reformers in the labor, civil rights, feminist, and AIDS activist movements have concentrated more on immediate and incremental changes than on transforming the health care system itself. However, grassroots health care demands have also contained the seeds of a wider critique of the American health care system, leading some movements to adopt calls for universal coverage.

  17. Health Care Reform and Social Movements in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Beatrix

    2003-01-01

    Because of the importance of grassroots social movements, or “change from below,” in the history of US reform, the relationship between social movements and demands for universal health care is a critical one. National health reform campaigns in the 20th century were initiated and run by elites more concerned with defending against attacks from interest groups than with popular mobilization, and grassroots reformers in the labor, civil rights, feminist, and AIDS activist movements have concentrated more on immediate and incremental changes than on transforming the health care system itself. However, grassroots health care demands have also contained the seeds of a wider critique of the American health care system, leading some movements to adopt calls for universal coverage. PMID:12511390

  18. Corporate social responsibility and the future health care manager.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sandra K

    2010-01-01

    The decisions and actions of health care managers are oftentimes heavily scrutinized by the public. Given the current economic climate, managers may feel intense pressure to produce higher results with fewer resources. This could inadvertently test their moral fortitude and their social consciousness. A study was conducted to determine what corporate social responsibility orientation and viewpoint future health care managers may hold. The results of the study indicate that future health care managers may hold patient care in high regard as opposed to profit maximization. However, the results of the study also show that future managers within the industry may continue to need rules, laws, regulations, and legal sanctions to guide their actions and behavior.

  19. Health care reform and social movements in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Beatrix

    2008-09-01

    Because of the importance of grassroots social movements, or "change from below," in the history of US reform, the relationship between social movements and demands for universal health care is a critical one. National health reform campaigns in the 20th century were initiated and run by elites more concerned with defending against attacks from interest groups than with popular mobilization, and grassroots reformers in the labor, civil rights, feminist, and AIDS activist movements have concentrated more on immediate and incremental changes than on transforming the health care system itself. However, grassroots health care demands have also contained the seeds of a wider critique of the American health care system, leading some movements to adopt calls for universal coverage. PMID:18687625

  20. Health Care Reform and Social Movements in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Beatrix

    2008-01-01

    Because of the importance of grassroots social movements, or “change from below,” in the history of US reform, the relationship between social movements and demands for universal health care is a critical one. National health reform campaigns in the 20th century were initiated and run by elites more concerned with defending against attacks from interest groups than with popular mobilization, and grassroots reformers in the labor, civil rights, feminist, and AIDS activist movements have concentrated more on immediate and incremental changes than on transforming the health care system itself. However, grassroots health care demands have also contained the seeds of a wider critique of the American health care system, leading some movements to adopt calls for universal coverage. PMID:18687625

  1. Perceived Need for Mental Health Care Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Robert L.; Kaas, Merrie; Kane, Rosalie A.

    2009-01-01

    Only half of older adults with a mental disorder use mental health services, and little is known about the causes of perceived need for mental health care (MHC). We used logistic regression to examine relationships among depression, anxiety, chronic physical illness, alcohol abuse and/or dependence, sociodemographics, and perceived need among a national sample of community-dwelling individuals 65 years of age and older (the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys data set). Less than half of respondents with depression or anxiety perceived a need for care. Perceived need was greater for respondents with more symptoms of depression regardless of whether they met diagnostic criteria for a mental illness. History of chronic physical conditions, history of depression or anxiety, and more severe mental illness were associated with greater perceived need for MHC. Future studies of perceived need should account for individual perceptions of mental illness and treatment and the influence of social networks. PMID:19820231

  2. Philosophizing social justice in rural palliative care: Hayek's moral stone?

    PubMed

    Pesut, Barbara; Beswick, Frances; Robinson, Carole A; Bottorff, Joan L

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, palliative care is being referred to as an essential programme and in some cases as a human right. Once it is recognized as such, it becomes part of the lexicon of social justice in that it can be argued that all members of society should have access to such care. However, this begs the question of how that care should be enacted, particularly in rural and remote areas. This question illustrates some of Friedrich Hayek's critiques of social justice. Hayek has likened social justice to a 'moral stone' arguing that social justice is meaningless to the extent that society is impersonal and as such cannot be just, only those individuals who make up that society can be just. When responsibility for justice is assigned to an impersonal society, ideas of social justice can become a clarion call for whom no one is directly accountable. This opens the door for questionable macro-level political agendas that have no capacity to enact the ideal, and worse, may suppress individual moral acts towards the desired end. Further, acts of interference at the macro level with the ideal of equal opportunity run the risk of disadvantaging other members of society. Instead, he has argued that a better approach lies in finding ways to induce and support individual moral acts that promote the human good. Hayek's arguments are particularly compelling for rural palliative care. In this paper we draw upon data from an ethnographic study in rural palliative care to illustrate the potential misfit between the ethical ideal of palliative care as expressed by rural participants and the narratives of social justice.

  3. An examination of the health profile, service use and care needs of older adults in residential care facilities.

    PubMed

    Aminzadeh, F; Dalziel, W B; Molnar, F J; Alie, J

    2004-01-01

    Private, unregulated residential care facilities have become an increasingly important component of the continuum of housing and care for frail older adults in Canada. To date, this growing segment of the older population has received very little research attention. This study involved an in-depth examination of the functional/health profile, patterns of service use, and medical/care needs of a representative sample of 178 older adults in residential care facilities in the City of Ottawa. The results indicate great diversity in resident and facility profiles in this setting and confirm earlier impressions that special care units in the residential care sector have become increasingly close to being unlicensed pseudo-nursing homes. Despite the heavy burden of care, the evidence suggests that the care needs of the majority of residents are adequately met in the residential care environment. The results can inform future research, case finding, educational, and policy planning initiatives in this setting.

  4. Advance Care Planning and Goals of Care Communication in Older Adults with Cardiovascular Disease and Multi-Morbidity.

    PubMed

    Lum, Hillary D; Sudore, Rebecca L

    2016-05-01

    This article provides an approach to advance care planning (ACP) and goals of care communication in older adults with cardiovascular disease and multi-morbidity. The goal of ACP is to ensure that the medical care patients receive is aligned with their values and preferences. In this article, the authors outline common benefits and challenges to ACP for older adults with cardiovascular disease and multimorbidity. Recognizing that these patients experience diverse disease trajectories and receive care in multiple health care settings, the authors provide practical steps for multidisciplinary teams to integrate ACP into brief clinic encounters.

  5. 76 FR 44573 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care... Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2011 Through June 30, 2012 Correction In notice document 2011... page 43255, the table labeled ``Administrative Reimbursement Rates for Sponsoring Organizations of...

  6. The heterogeneity of socially isolated older adults: a social isolation typology.

    PubMed

    Machielse, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Recent statistics show a growing number of older adults who are living alone and are socially isolated. It is against this background that, in recent years, many interventions have been developed to address social isolation among the elderly. Evaluative studies show that most interventions are hardly effective, though. An important reason for this is the heterogeneity of the socially isolated. This article offers insight into this heterogeneity by presenting a typology with different profiles of socially isolated older adults and the intervention implications of this typology. The typology is derived from an extensive qualitative study on socially isolated elderly individuals in the Netherlands. The typology imposes some degree of order to a diversity of circumstances, ambitions, and possibilities of the socially isolated elderly, thereby deepening the understanding of the heterogeneity of this population. The definition of social isolation used in this study starts from a societal angle of incidence, namely the current policy context of Western European welfare states, in which governments emphasize the importance of independence and self-reliance of their citizens. Developed from that perspective, the typology provides a theoretical basis for applying interventions aimed at increasing self-reliance of social isolated elderly. This perspective on social isolation also has consequences for the way in which the effectiveness of interventions to alleviate social isolation is assessed.

  7. [Citizen constitution and social representations: reflecting about health care models].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Sílvio Eder Dias; Ramos, Flávia Regina Souza; Martins, Cleusa Rios; Padilha, Maria Itayra; Vasconcelos, Esleane Vilela

    2010-12-01

    This article presents a reflection on the meaning of the terms citizenship and health, addressing the Theory of Social Representations as a strategy for implementing and evaluating health care models in Brazil. First, a brief history about the concept of citizenship is presented; then the article addresses the principles of freedom and equality according to Kant; the third section of the article shows that health is as a right of the citizen and a duty of the state. Finally, the Theory of Social Representations is emphasized as a strategy to evaluate and implement the health services provided to citizens by the current health care models in Brazil.

  8. Cost-benefit analysis in social care for elderly people.

    PubMed

    Dutrénit, Jean-Marc

    2005-10-01

    Social care at home for elderly people is now growing rapidly in France. A new question is, What are better forms of care for the different partners concerned? The research presented here, and made for the Comity of Lille Employment Area with cooperation of the Caisse Primaire d'Assurance Maladiede Lille (the local board of the national social security system), offers some answers to that question. Ceteris paribus, cultural activities-in a group or at home-versus others appear to produce more interest for elderly, professional caregivers, and the rest of society. PMID:16127119

  9. Oral health-care utilization in adults with disabilities in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Roos; Declerck, Dominique

    2013-02-01

    Reports on oral health-service utilization among individuals with disabilities are very sparse. Nevertheless, such data are a prerequisite for the provision of proper care and for the development of optimal reimbursement schemes and may ultimately lead to better access to care. The objective of the present study was to provide data on oral health-care utilization in Belgian residents with disabilities and to compare these data with the utilization pattern of their peers without special needs. Data from the Permanent Sample of Socially Insured Persons, an anonymous representative sample of Belgian residents, were used. The database contained prospective data on oral and general health-care utilization and socio-demographic variables from 1,221 individuals with disabilities and from 131,877 individuals without disabilities, collected from 2002 to 2008. Overall, annual dental-attendance rates were very low and in those who attended, professional debridements, a cornerstone in preventive oral health care, were infrequently recorded. In adults with disabilities, significantly fewer radiographs, restorations, and endodontic treatments were recorded, whereas significantly more emergency visits were charged. Further research is indicated to evaluate whether this outcome points to high unmet oral-treatment needs. PMID:23331422

  10. Incentivizing health care behaviors in emerging adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Catherine H; Guarna, Giuliana; Tsao, Pamela; Jesuthasan, Jude R; Lau, Adrian NC; Siddiqi, Ferhan S; Gilmour, Julie Anne; Ladha, Danyal; Halapy, Henry; Advani, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Purpose For emerging adults with chronic medical diseases, the transition from pediatric to adult health care is often a time of great upheaval, commonly associated with unhealthy self-management choices, loss to follow-up, and adverse outcomes. We conducted a systematic review to examine the use of incentive strategies to promote positive health-related behaviors in young adults with chronic medical diseases. Methods The Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsycInfo, and Cochrane databases were searched through June 2014. Studies of any design where an incentive was used to achieve a target behavior or outcome in a pediatric or emerging adult population (age <30 years) with chronic medical conditions including addictions, were included. Results A total of 26 studies comprising 10,880 patients met our inclusion criteria after screening 10,305 abstracts and 301 full-text articles. Of these studies, 20 examined the effects of behavioral incentives on cigarette smoking or substance abuse, including alcohol; four studies explored behavioral incentives in the setting of HIV or sexual health; and two articles studied individuals with other chronic medical conditions. Seventeen articles reported a statistically significant benefit of the behavioral incentive on one or more outcomes, although only half reported follow-up after the incentive period was terminated. Conclusion While the majority of studies reported positive outcomes, these studies focused on promoting the cessation of adverse behaviors rather than promoting positive behaviors. In addition, conclusions were limited by the high risk of bias present in the majority of studies, as well as lack of follow-up after the incentive period. Whether behavioral incentives facilitate the adoption of positive health choices in this population remains to be determined. PMID:27069356

  11. Burns ITU admissions: length of stay in specific levels of care for adult and paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Maan, Zeshaan N; Frew, Quentin; Din, Asmat H; Unluer, Zeynep; Smailes, Sarah; Philp, Bruce; El-Muttardi, Naguib; Dziewulski, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Prediction of total length of stay (LOS) for burns patients based on the total burn surface area (TBSA) is well accepted. Total LOS is a poor measure of resource consumption. Our aim was to determine the LOS in specific levels of care to better inform resource allocation. We performed a retrospective review of LOS in intensive treatment unit (ITU), burns high dependency unit (HDU) and burns low dependency unit (LDU) for all patients requiring ITU admission in a regional burns service from 2003 to 2011. During this period, our unit has admitted 1312 paediatric and 1445 adult patients to our Burns ITU. In both groups, ITU comprised 20% of the total LOS (mean 0.23±0.02 [adult] and 0.22±0.02 [paediatric] days per %burn). In adults, 33% of LOS was in HDU (0.52±0.06 days per %burn) and 48% (0.68±0.06 days per %burn) in LDU, while in children, 15% of LOS was in HDU (0.19±0.03 days per %burn) and 65% in LDU (0.70±0.06 days per %burn). When considering Burns ITU admissions, resource allocation ought to be planned according to expected LOS in specific levels of care rather than total LOS. The largest proportion of stay is in low dependency, likely due to social issues.

  12. Social Workers' Attitudes toward Older Adults: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Donna; Chonody, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Ageist attitudes toward older adults have been recognized as barriers to recruiting and training competent social workers. This article provides a systematic review of the literature that focused on social workers' and social work students' attitudes toward older adults and working with older adults. The authors sought empirical studies…

  13. On the significance of adult play: what does social play tell us about adult horse welfare?

    PubMed

    Hausberger, Martine; Fureix, Carole; Bourjade, Marie; Wessel-Robert, Sabine; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick

    2012-04-01

    Play remains a mystery and adult play even more so. More typical of young stages in healthy individuals, it occurs rarely at adult stages but then more often in captive/domestic animals, which can imply spatial, social and/or feeding deprivations or restrictions that are challenging to welfare, than in animals living in natural conditions. Here, we tested the hypothesis that adult play may reflect altered welfare states and chronic stress in horses, in which, as in several species, play rarely occurs at adult stages in natural conditions. We observed the behaviour (in particular, social play) of riding school horses during occasional outings in a paddock and measured several stress indicators when these horses were in their individual home boxes. Our results revealed that (1) the number of horses and rates of adult play appeared very high compared to field report data and (2) most stress indicators measured differed between 'players' and 'non-players', revealing that most 'playful' animals were suffering from more chronic stress than 'non-playful' horses. Frequency of play behaviour correlated with a score of chronic stress. This first discovery of a relationship between adult play and altered welfare opens new lines of research that certainly deserves comparative studies in a variety of species.

  14. On the significance of adult play: what does social play tell us about adult horse welfare?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausberger, Martine; Fureix, Carole; Bourjade, Marie; Wessel-Robert, Sabine; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick

    2012-04-01

    Play remains a mystery and adult play even more so. More typical of young stages in healthy individuals, it occurs rarely at adult stages but then more often in captive/domestic animals, which can imply spatial, social and/or feeding deprivations or restrictions that are challenging to welfare, than in animals living in natural conditions. Here, we tested the hypothesis that adult play may reflect altered welfare states and chronic stress in horses, in which, as in several species, play rarely occurs at adult stages in natural conditions. We observed the behaviour (in particular, social play) of riding school horses during occasional outings in a paddock and measured several stress indicators when these horses were in their individual home boxes. Our results revealed that (1) the number of horses and rates of adult play appeared very high compared to field report data and (2) most stress indicators measured differed between `players' and `non-players', revealing that most `playful' animals were suffering from more chronic stress than `non-playful' horses. Frequency of play behaviour correlated with a score of chronic stress. This first discovery of a relationship between adult play and altered welfare opens new lines of research that certainly deserves comparative studies in a variety of species.

  15. Taking Care of Business: The Opportunities and Dilemmas for Adult Education in a Changing Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scully-Russ, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The new emphasis on vocational skills provides adult education a new raison d'être and presents new developmental dilemmas to the field of adult education. This chapter examines these tensions in light of significant social change that places underqualified adults at great risk to a vicious cycle of marginalization and how adult education will be…

  16. Early Nonparental Care and Social Behavior in Elementary School: Support for a Social Group Adaptation Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Tremblay, Richard E.; Vitaro, Frank; Japel, Christa; Boivin, Michel; Côté, Sylvana M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of nonparental child-care services received during the preschool years to the development of social behavior between kindergarten and the end of elementary school with a birth cohort from Québec, Canada (N = 1,544). Mothers reported on the use of child-care services, while elementary school teachers rated…

  17. The need for a social revolution in residential care.

    PubMed

    Theurer, Kristine; Mortenson, W Ben; Stone, Robyn; Suto, Melinda; Timonen, Virpi; Rozanova, Julia

    2015-12-01

    Loneliness and depression are serious mental health concerns across the spectrum of residential care, from nursing homes to assisted and retirement living. Psychosocial care provided to residents to address these concerns is typically based on a long-standing tradition of 'light' social events, such as games, trips, and social gatherings, planned and implemented by staff. Although these activities provide enjoyment for some, loneliness and depression persist and the lack of resident input perpetuates the stereotype of residents as passive recipients of care. Residents continue to report lack of meaning in their lives, limited opportunities for contribution and frustration with paternalistic communication with staff. Those living with dementia face additional discrimination resulting in a range of unmet needs including lack of autonomy and belonging-both of which are linked with interpersonal violence. Research suggests, however, that programs fostering engagement and peer support provide opportunities for residents to be socially productive and to develop a valued social identity. The purpose of this paper is to offer a re-conceptualization of current practices. We argue that residents represent a largely untapped resource in our attempts to advance the quality of psychosocial care. We propose overturning practices that focus on entertainment and distraction by introducing a new approach that centers on resident contributions and peer support. We offer a model-Resident Engagement and Peer Support (REAP)-for designing interventions that advance residents' social identity, enhance reciprocal relationships and increase social productivity. This model has the potential to revolutionize current psychosocial practice by moving from resident care to resident engagement. PMID:26568229

  18. MOBILITY, DISABILITY, AND SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT IN OLDER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Andrea L.; Taylor, Jennifer A.; Tabb, Loni Philip; Michael, Yvonne L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine cross-sectional associations between mobility with or without disability and social engagement in a community-based sample of older adults Methods Social engagement of participants (n=676) was outside the home (participation in organizations and use of senior centers) and in home (talking by phone and use of internet). Logistic or proportional odds models evaluated the association between social engagement and position in the disablement process (no mobility limitations, mobility limitations/no disability, and mobility limitations/disability). Results Low mobility was associated with lower level of social engagement of all forms (OR=0.59, CI: 0.41–0.85 for organizations; OR=0.67, CI: 0.42–1.06 for senior center; OR=0.47, CI: 0.32–0.70 for phone; OR=0.38, CI: 0.23–0.65 for internet). For social engagement outside the home, odds of engagement were further reduced for individuals with disability. Discussion Low mobility is associated with low social engagement even in the absence of disability; associations with disability differed by type of social engagement. PMID:23548944

  19. Food choice patterns among frail older adults: The associations between social network, food choice values, and diet quality.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-O

    2016-01-01

    Social network type might affect an individual's food choice because these decisions are often made as a group rather than individually. In this study, the associations between social network type, food choice value, and diet quality in frail older adults with low socioeconomic status were investigated. For this cross-sectional study, 87 frail older adults were recruited from the National Home Healthcare Services in Seoul, South Korea. Social network types, food choice values, and diet quality were assessed using The Practitioner Assessment of Network Type Instrument, The Food Choice Questionnaire, and mean adequacy ratio, respectively. Results showed that frail older adults with close relationships with local family and/or friends and neighbors were less likely to follow their own preferences, such as taste, price, and beliefs regarding food health values. In contrast, frail older adults with a small social network and few community contacts were more likely to be influenced by their food choice values, such as price or healthiness of food. Frail older adults who tend to choose familiar foods were associated with low-quality dietary intake, while older adults who valued healthiness or use of natural ingredients were associated with a high-quality diet. The strength and direction of these associations were dependent on social network type of frail older adults. This study explored the hypothesis that food choice values are associated with a certain type of social network and consequently affect diet quality. While additional research needs to be conducted, community-based intervention intended to improve diet quality of frail older adults must carefully consider individual food choice values as well as social network types.

  20. An Examination of the Social Networks and Social Isolation in Older and Younger Adults Living with HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emlet, Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined social networks and social isolation in older (50 years or more) and younger (ages 20 to 39) adults with HIV/AIDS. The author conducted interviews with 88 individuals living with HIV/AIDS in the Pacific Northwest. Both groups' social networks had similar patterns; however, older adults were more likely to live alone. More than…

  1. Social barriers to listing for adult liver transplantation: their prevalence and association with program characteristics.

    PubMed

    Flattau, Anna; Olaywi, Manhal; Gaglio, Paul J; Marcus, Paula; Meissner, Paul; L Dorfman, Emily B; Reinus, John F

    2011-10-01

    Social barriers to effective medical care are mandated to be routinely assessed as part of an evaluation for liver transplantation. This study explores how frequently liver transplant programs encounter these barriers in patients undergoing an evaluation and whether programs with higher proportions of Medicaid patients, historically disadvantaged minority patients, and rural patients encounter social barriers more frequently. A survey for assessing patient demographics and social barriers was electronically completed by representatives of 61 of 104 eligible US adult liver transplant programs (59%). Fifty-eight of the 61 programs identified themselves, and their characteristics were similar to those of all 104 US programs according to publicly available data from the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network. Social barriers were reported to be encountered sometimes (10%-30%) or frequently (>30%) by the 61 programs as follows: inadequate or unstable health insurance (68.9% of the programs), a chaotic social environment (63.9%), a lack of a care partner (60.7%), an inability to obtain transportation (49.2%), a low educational level (36.1%), inadequate housing (23.0%), a language barrier (19.7%), no reliable way of contacting the patient (16.4%), difficulty in obtaining child care (11.5%), and food insecurity (8.2%). The frequencies of perceived social barriers did not differ significantly between programs reporting higher or lower proportions of Medicaid, minority, or rural patients. Our analysis suggests that program-level operational planning for addressing social barriers to transplant listing should be considered regardless of the proportions of Medicaid-insured, racial or ethnic minority, and rural patients in the population.

  2. Adult Social Roles and Alcohol Use among American Indians

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Kaylin M.; Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David

    2014-01-01

    American Indians are disproportionately burdened by alcohol-related problems. Yet, research exploring predictors of alcohol use among American Indians has been limited by cross-sectional designs and reservation-based samples. Guided by a life course developmental perspective, the current study used a subsample of American Indians (n=927) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to explore alcohol use (current drinking, usual number of drinks, and binge drinking) among this population. We examined whether adult social roles (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, parenthood, college enrollment, full-time work) were linked to the rise and fall of alcohol use. Multi-level models demonstrated that adult social roles were linked to alcohol use at the within- and between-person levels. Becoming a parent was linked to a lower likelihood of being a current drinker, fewer alcoholic drinks, and less frequent binge drinking. Transitioning to full-time work was associated with a higher likelihood of being a current drinker and more frequent binge drinking. Results point to the importance of exploring within-group trajectories of alcohol use and highlight the protective and risky nature of adult social roles among American Indians. PMID:24857795

  3. Out of place: mediating health and social care in Ontario's long-term care sector.

    PubMed

    Daly, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses two reforms in Ontario's long-term care. The first is the commercialization of home care as a result of the implementation of a "managed competition" delivery model. The second is the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care's privileging of "health care" over "social care" through changes to which types of home care and home support services receive public funding. It addresses the effects of these reforms on the state–non-profit relationship, and the shifting balance between public funding of health and social care. At a program level, and with few exceptions, homemaking services have been cut from home care, and home support services are more medicalized. With these changes, growing numbers of people no longer eligible to receive publicly funded home care services look for other alternatives: they draw available resources from home support, they draw on family and friend networks, they hire privately and pay out of pocket, they leave home and enter an institution, or they do without.

  4. Facilitating Online Reflective Learning for Health and Social Care Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Jane; Rawlinson, Mark; Weaver, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Health and social care education has a long established association with reflective learning as a way of developing post-qualifying professional practice. Reflective learning is also a key feature of self-regulatory learning, which is an essential aspect of life-long learning for today's National Health Service workforce. Using a small-scale case…

  5. [Compassionate care and management in the medical-social sector].

    PubMed

    Lambert Barraquier, Arièle

    2016-05-01

    Compassionate care can appear ambiguous when subject to critical examination. The spotlight falls on the responsibility and activity of management with regard to policy guidance and the management of activities in the medical-social field. Discussion around this subject enables an assessment of current standards and ethical progress to be carried out.

  6. Rethinking care through social reproduction: articulating circuits of migration.

    PubMed

    Kofman, Eleonore

    2012-01-01

    Care has come to dominate much feminist research on globalized migrations and the transfer of labor from the South to the North, while the older concept of reproduction had been pushed into the background but is now becoming the subject of debates on the commodification of care in the household and changes in welfare state policies. This article argues that we could achieve a better understanding of the different modalities and trajectories of care in the reproduction of individuals, families, and communities, both of migrant and nonmigrant populations by articulating the diverse circuits of migration, in particular that of labor and the family. In doing this, I go back to the earlier North American writing on racialized minorities and migrants and stratified social reproduction. I also explore insights from current Asian studies of gendered circuits of migration connecting labor and marriage migrations as well as the notion of global householding that highlights the gender politics of social reproduction operating within and beyond households in institutional and welfare architectures. In contrast to Asia, there has relatively been little exploration in European studies of the articulation of labor and family migrations through the lens of social reproduction. However, connecting the different types of migration enables us to achieve a more complex understanding of care trajectories and their contribution to social reproduction. PMID:22611577

  7. Oncology Social Workers' Attitudes toward Hospice Care and Referral Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Janet E.

    2004-01-01

    Members of the Association of Oncology Social Workers completed a survey, which included the Hospice Philosophy Scale (HPS) assessing the likelihood of the worker referring a terminally ill patient to hospice, background and experience, and demographics. The respondents held overwhelmingly favorable attitudes toward hospice philosophy and care,…

  8. [Social inequalities in health and primary care. SESPAS Report 2012].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Aguado, Ildefonso; Santaolaya Cesteros, María; Campos Esteban, Pilar

    2012-03-01

    The health system is a social determinant of health. Although not the most important determinant of health, the health system's potential contribution to reducing social inequalities in health should not be underestimated. Due to its characteristics, primary health care is well placed to attain equity in health. To make progress in achieving this goal, the main measures to be considered are the removal of barriers to access to services, the provision of care proportionate to need, and engagement in intersectoral work. This article reviews the background and framework for action to tackle social inequalities in health and provides a summary of the primary health care actions that could help to reduce social inequalities in health and are mentioned in the most important national and international documents on health policy. We hope to stimulate debate, promote research in the field and encourage implementation. The proposals are grouped in the following five intervention lines: information systems; participation; training; intersectoral work; and reorientation of health care. Each intervention is ordered according to its targets (population and civil society; primary health team; health center and health area management; and health policy decision-makers).

  9. The Social Work Role in Reducing 30-Day Readmissions: The Effectiveness of the Bridge Model of Transitional Care.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Renae; Ginsburg, Jacob; Grabowski, Jessica; Post, Sharon; Rosenberg, Walter

    2016-04-01

    The hospital experience is taxing and confusing for patients and their families, particularly those with limited economic and social resources. This complexity often leads to disengagement, poor adherence to the plan of care, and high readmission rates. Novel approaches to addressing the complexities of transitional care are emerging as possible solutions. The Bridge Model is a person-centered, social work-led, interdisciplinary transitional care intervention that helps older adults safely transition from the hospital back to their homes and communities. The Bridge Model combines 3 key components-care coordination, case management, and patient engagement-which provide a seamless transition during this stressful time and improve the overall quality of transitional care for older adults, including reducing hospital readmissions. The post Affordable Care Act (ACA) and managed care environment's emphasis on value and quality support further development and expansion of transitional care strategies, such as the Bridge Model, which offer promising avenues to fulfil the triple aim by improving the quality of individual patient care while also impacting population health and controlling per capita costs.

  10. The Social Work Role in Reducing 30-Day Readmissions: The Effectiveness of the Bridge Model of Transitional Care.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Renae; Ginsburg, Jacob; Grabowski, Jessica; Post, Sharon; Rosenberg, Walter

    2016-04-01

    The hospital experience is taxing and confusing for patients and their families, particularly those with limited economic and social resources. This complexity often leads to disengagement, poor adherence to the plan of care, and high readmission rates. Novel approaches to addressing the complexities of transitional care are emerging as possible solutions. The Bridge Model is a person-centered, social work-led, interdisciplinary transitional care intervention that helps older adults safely transition from the hospital back to their homes and communities. The Bridge Model combines 3 key components-care coordination, case management, and patient engagement-which provide a seamless transition during this stressful time and improve the overall quality of transitional care for older adults, including reducing hospital readmissions. The post Affordable Care Act (ACA) and managed care environment's emphasis on value and quality support further development and expansion of transitional care strategies, such as the Bridge Model, which offer promising avenues to fulfil the triple aim by improving the quality of individual patient care while also impacting population health and controlling per capita costs. PMID:27276523

  11. Integrated and Culturally Relevant Care: A Model to Prepare Social Workers for Primary Care Behavioral Health Practice.

    PubMed

    Davis, Tamara S; Guada, Joe; Reno, Rebecca; Peck, Adriane; Evans, Shannon; Sigal, Laura Moskow; Swenson, Staci

    2015-01-01

    Policymakers and researchers emphasize needs for an integrated, effective, and efficient health care system to address well-documented disparities and inequities in care experienced by diverse populations. The Affordable Care Act, through its support of integrated health care, addresses social determinants of health with a goal of increasing access to care. Social work is poised to assume a central position in health care reform and integrated behavioral health, but must prepare practitioners to work alongside medical providers in health care settings. This article describes a social work field education model developed in partnership with community mental health and health care providers. The model, Integrated and Culturally Relevant Care, prepares social work students to provide behavioral health services in integrated primary care environments.

  12. Overcoming social segregation in health care in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Cotlear, Daniel; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Knaul, Felicia; Atun, Rifat; Barreto, Ivana C H C; Cetrángolo, Oscar; Cueto, Marcos; Francke, Pedro; Frenz, Patricia; Guerrero, Ramiro; Lozano, Rafael; Marten, Robert; Sáenz, Rocío

    2015-03-28

    Latin America continues to segregate different social groups into separate health-system segments, including two separate public sector blocks: a well resourced social security for salaried workers and their families and a Ministry of Health serving poor and vulnerable people with low standards of quality and needing a frequently impoverishing payment at point of service. This segregation shows Latin America's longstanding economic and social inequality, cemented by an economic framework that predicted that economic growth would lead to rapid formalisation of the economy. Today, the institutional setup that organises the social segregation in health care is perceived, despite improved life expectancy and other advances, as a barrier to fulfilling the right to health, embodied in the legislation of many Latin American countries. This Series paper outlines four phases in the history of Latin American countries that explain the roots of segmentation in health care and describe three paths taken by countries seeking to overcome it: unification of the funds used to finance both social security and Ministry of Health services (one public payer); free choice of provider or insurer; and expansion of services to poor people and the non-salaried population by making explicit the health-care benefits to which all citizens are entitled.

  13. Overcoming social segregation in health care in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Cotlear, Daniel; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Knaul, Felicia; Atun, Rifat; Barreto, Ivana C H C; Cetrángolo, Oscar; Cueto, Marcos; Francke, Pedro; Frenz, Patricia; Guerrero, Ramiro; Lozano, Rafael; Marten, Robert; Sáenz, Rocío

    2015-03-28

    Latin America continues to segregate different social groups into separate health-system segments, including two separate public sector blocks: a well resourced social security for salaried workers and their families and a Ministry of Health serving poor and vulnerable people with low standards of quality and needing a frequently impoverishing payment at point of service. This segregation shows Latin America's longstanding economic and social inequality, cemented by an economic framework that predicted that economic growth would lead to rapid formalisation of the economy. Today, the institutional setup that organises the social segregation in health care is perceived, despite improved life expectancy and other advances, as a barrier to fulfilling the right to health, embodied in the legislation of many Latin American countries. This Series paper outlines four phases in the history of Latin American countries that explain the roots of segmentation in health care and describe three paths taken by countries seeking to overcome it: unification of the funds used to finance both social security and Ministry of Health services (one public payer); free choice of provider or insurer; and expansion of services to poor people and the non-salaried population by making explicit the health-care benefits to which all citizens are entitled. PMID:25458715

  14. Adult Hospice Social Work Intervention Outcomes in the United States.

    PubMed

    Alcide, Amary; Potocky, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    A descriptive and critical analysis of the available empirical literature on social work psychosocial intervention outcomes for adult hospice patients and caregivers was conducted. The electronic bibliographic databases CINHAL (EBSCO), MEDLINE, ProQuest, EMBASE, Campbell Collaboration, and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library) were searched. Search criteria were (a) social work interventions, (b) intervention was tested, (c) adult hospice patients and/or caregivers, (d) studies within the United States, (e) and studies between 2004 and 2014. Of the 21 studies that met the initial search criteria, 5 publications met all review criteria. Based on assessment of study results, intervention effect, and quality of evidence, the ADAPT Problem-Solving Intervention (PSI) and the Hospice Caregiver Support Project have some indications of practical effect on caregiver quality of life, anxiety, stress, and problem-solving skills. The Caregiver Life Line (CaLL) intervention had little to no effect on caregiver role stress or coping skills. The few available studies provide foundational insight into the need for the expansion of research efforts to evaluate hospice social work interventions and document the contributions of social work to the field.

  15. Care of Adults With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Benjamin; Jones, Kyle Bradford; Weedon, Dean; Bilder, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder involving excess genetic material from chromosome 21. The incidence of DS is increasing, and the life expectancy for individuals with DS has increased to a median age of 55 years. Adults with DS are at increased risk of several conditions, including significant neurologic, cardiovascular, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, endocrine, psychiatric, hematologic, and social comorbidities, and additional screening or monitoring may be needed. Additional preventive measures for patients with DS include regular screening for thyroid dysfunction, hearing loss, eye disorders, heart disease, osteoporosis, and dementia, and one-time vaccination with the polyvalent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23). Quality of life should be the main focus of treatment, with patients being involved in medical decisions as much as possible.

  16. Barriers to Social Participation among Lonely Older Adults: The Influence of Social Fears and Identity

    PubMed Central

    Goll, Johanna C.; Charlesworth, Georgina; Scior, Katrina; Stott, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Loneliness among older adults is a major public health problem that may be associated with processes of social participation and identity. This study therefore sought to examine the relationship between social participation and identity in a sample of lonely older adults living independently in London, England. Method An inductive qualitative approach, based on semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis, was employed. Results Participants commonly spoke of barriers to social participation that have been reported elsewhere, including illness/disability, loss of contact with friends/relatives, lack of a supportive community, and lack of acceptable social opportunities. However, novel findings were also derived. In particular, participants commonly minimised the difficulties they faced alone, and described attempts to avoid social opportunities. These behaviours were linked to fears about engaging in social participation opportunities, including fears of social rejection and/or exploitation, and fears of losing valued aspects of identity. Discussion It is concluded that social participation amongst lonely older people will not improve through the removal of previously reported barriers alone; instead, older peoples’ beliefs, fears and identities must be addressed. Suggestions for implementing these findings within community organisations are provided. PMID:25706933

  17. Motivation of chemical industry social responsibility through Responsible Care.

    PubMed

    Givel, Michael

    2007-04-01

    Advocates of corporate social responsibility argue corporations should not only meet the needs of shareholders, but other key stakeholders including the community, customers, suppliers, and employees. Since 1988, the chemical industry has engaged in a major self-regulatory "Responsible Care" industry-wide social responsibility campaign to ensure environmental, public health, safety, and security performance among member companies. Contrary to the arguments of advocates of corporate social responsibility that such efforts meet the needs of stakeholders other than shareholders such as the community, the primary goal of the Responsible Care effort has been to change public concerns and opinion about chemical industry environmental and public health practices while also opposing support for stronger and more expensive public health and environmental legislation and regulation of chemical products, even if warranted.

  18. Network social capital, social participation, and physical inactivity in an urban adult population.

    PubMed

    Legh-Jones, Hannah; Moore, Spencer

    2012-05-01

    Research on individual social capital and physical activity has tended to focus on the association among physical activity, generalized trust, and social participation. Less is known about the association between network social capital, i.e., the resources accessed through one's social connections, and physical inactivity. Using formal network measures of social capital, this study examined which specific dimension of network capital (i.e. diversity, reach and range) was associated with physical inactivity, and whether network social capital mediated the association between physical inactivity and social participation. Data came from the 2008 Montreal (Canada) Neighbourhood Networks and Healthy Aging survey, in which 2707 adults 25 years and older in 300 Montreal neighbourhoods were surveyed. Physical activity was self-reported using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). IPAQ guidelines provided the basis for the physical inactivity cutoff. Network social capital was measured with a position generator instrument. Multilevel logistic methods were used to examine the association between physical inactivity and individual social capital dimensions, while adjusting for socio-demographic and -economic factors. Higher network diversity was associated with a decreased likelihood of physical inactivity. Consistent with previous findings, individuals who did not participate in any formal associations were more likely to be physically inactive compared to those with high levels of participation. Network diversity mediated the association between physical inactivity and participation. Generalized trust and the network components of reach and range were not shown associated with physical inactivity. Findings highlight the importance of social participation and network social capital and the added value of network measures in the study of social capital and physical inactivity. Population-based programs targeting physical inactivity among adults might

  19. Assessing Social Support, Companionship, and Distress: NIH Toolbox Adult Social Relationship Scales

    PubMed Central

    Cyranowski, Jill M.; Zill, Nicholas; Bode, Rita; Butt, Zeeshan; Kelly, Morgen A. R.; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Salsman, John M.; Cella, David

    2013-01-01

    Objective The quality of our daily social interactions – including perceptions of support, feelings of loneliness, and distress stemming from negative social exchanges – influence physical health and well-being. Despite the importance of social relationships, brief yet precise, unidimensional scales that assess key aspects of social relationship quality are lacking. As part of the NIH Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function, we developed brief self-report scales designed to assess aspects of social support, companionship, and social distress across age cohorts. This report details the development and psychometric testing of the adult NIH Toolbox Social Relationship scales. Methods Social relationship concepts were selected, and item sets were developed and revised based on expert feedback and literature review. Items were then tested across a community-dwelling U.S. internet panel sample of adults aged 18 and above (N=692) using traditional (classic) psychometric methods and item response theory (IRT) approaches to identify items for inclusion in 5–8 item unidimensional scales. Finally, concurrent validity of the newly-developed scales was evaluated with respect to their inter-relationships with classic social relationship validation instruments. Results Results provide support for the internal reliability and concurrent validity of resulting self-report scales assessing Emotional Support, Instrumental Support, Friendship, Loneliness, Perceived Rejection, and Perceived Hostility. Conclusion These brief social relationship scales provide the pragmatic utility and enhanced precision needed to promote future epidemiological and social neuroscience research on the impact of social relationships on physical and emotional health outcomes. PMID:23437856

  20. To Shape the Future: Towards a Framework for Adult Education Social Policy Research and Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, B. Allan

    1993-01-01

    Compares three social policy models (market, progressive-liberal-welfare, social redistribution); links them to adult education models (vocational-behaviorist, liberal-humanist-progressive, liberatory/social reconstruction) and to sociological theories (structural functionalism and conflict theory). (SK)

  1. Social Relationships, Leisure Activity, and Health in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Po-Ju; Wray, Linda; Lin, Yeqiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although the link between enhanced social relationships and better health has generally been well established, few studies have examined the role of leisure activity in this link. This study examined how leisure influences the link between social relationships and health in older age. Methods Using data from the 2006 and 2010 waves of the nationally representative U.S. Health and Retirement Study and structural equation modelling analyses, we examined data on 2,965 older participants to determine if leisure activities mediated the link between social relationships and health in 2010, controlling for race, education level, and health in 2006. Results The results demonstrated that leisure activities mediate the link between social relationships and health in these age groups. Perceptions of positive social relationships were associated with greater involvement in leisure activities, and greater involvement in leisure activities was associated with better health in older age. Discussion & Conclusions The contribution of leisure to health in these age groups is receiving increasing attention, and the results of this study add to the literature on this topic, by identifying the mediating effect of leisure activity on the link between social relationships and health. Future studies aimed at increasing leisure activity may contribute to improved health outcomes in older adults. PMID:24884905

  2. Barriers and facilitators to dental care among HIV-Infected adults.

    PubMed

    Parish, Carrigan; Siegel, Karolynn; Pereyra, Margaret; Liguori, Terri; Metsch, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Oral health problems can significantly compromise HIV-infected individuals' general health and well-being, yet many of them experience an unmet need for oral care. The barriers and facilitators of obtaining dental care in a sample of HIV-infected adults, all of whom were eligible for Ryan White Part A funding for their treatment, were investigated through qualitative interviews with HIV-positive individuals who had not received dental services in the prior 12 months (n = 44). Identified barriers were as follows: (1) dental anxiety and fear, (2) cumbersome administrative procedures, (3) long waits at the dental office, (4) problem focused care-seeking behavior, (5) transportation difficulties, (6) dentists' reluctance to treat people like them, and (7) psychological issues. Identified facilitating factors were as follows: (1) coverage for dental care, (2) being treated with respect and acceptance, and (3) having an assigned case manager or social worker. Many of the barriers uncovered in this qualitative study can be addressed and overcome by case management services, but other approaches are needed to address the additional psychological and stigma-related factors that are impeding access to oral healthcare in this population.

  3. Predictors of positive psychosocial functioning of older adults in residential care facilities.

    PubMed

    Schanowitz, Jeff Y; Nicassio, Perry M

    2006-04-01

    This research examined the contributions of active and passive coping for health problems, and meaning-based coping, to positive psychosocial functioning in a sample of 100 individuals in residential care with a mean age of 83.11 years old. Study participants resided in skilled care, intermediate care, or assisted living facilities. Based on interview data collected on site in participants' residential settings, hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that active and passive coping and meaning-based coping had separate influences on measures of positive psychosocial functioning. Active coping was correlated with higher positive affect, whereas passive coping was associated with higher negative affect and self-acceptance. Positive reappraisal, a meaning-based coping strategy, was uniquely associated with higher positive affect, positive social relations, and self-acceptance. Positive religious coping was not independently associated with positive psychosocial functioning indices, whereas negative religious coping was related to higher negative affect. Health functioning did not contribute to positive psychosocial functioning in this sample. The results confirm the separate importance of health-related and meaning-based coping strategies in explaining positive psychosocial functioning in older adults living in residential care settings. PMID:16453068

  4. Impaired adult myelination in the prefrontal cortex of socially isolated mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Dietz, Karen; DeLoyht, Jacqueline M; Pedre, Xiomara; Kelkar, Dipti; Kaur, Jasbir; Vialou, Vincent; Lobo, Mary Kay; Dietz, David M; Nestler, Eric J; Dupree, Jeffrey; Casaccia, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Protracted social isolation of adult mice induced behavioral, transcriptional and ultrastructural changes in oligodendrocytes of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and impaired adult myelination. Social re-integration was sufficient to normalize behavioral and transcriptional changes. Short periods of isolation affected chromatin and myelin, but did not induce behavioral changes. Thus, myelinating oligodendrocytes in the adult PFC respond to social interaction with chromatin changes, suggesting that myelination acts as a form of adult plasticity. PMID:23143512

  5. Online and Offline Social Networks: Use of Social Networking Sites by Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Reich, Stephanie M.; Waechter, Natalia; Espinoza, Guadalupe

    2008-01-01

    Social networking sites (e.g., MySpace and Facebook) are popular online communication forms among adolescents and emerging adults. Yet little is known about young people's activities on these sites and how their networks of "friends" relate to their other online (e.g., instant messaging) and offline networks. In this study, college students…

  6. 38 CFR 52.61 - General requirements for adult day health care program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General requirements for adult day health care program. 52.61 Section 52.61 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards §...

  7. 38 CFR 52.61 - General requirements for adult day health care program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General requirements for adult day health care program. 52.61 Section 52.61 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards §...

  8. 38 CFR 52.61 - General requirements for adult day health care program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General requirements for adult day health care program. 52.61 Section 52.61 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards §...

  9. 38 CFR 52.61 - General requirements for adult day health care program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General requirements for adult day health care program. 52.61 Section 52.61 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards §...

  10. Education and Care for Adolescents and Adults with Autism: A Guide for Professionals and Carers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Kate

    2007-01-01

    Using case studies and examples that show the reader how to put theory into practice in multi-disciplinary settings, "Education and Care for Adolescents and Adults with Autism" explains how changes in policy and provision have affected how young people and adults with autism are cared for and educated. The author highlights current problematic…

  11. Young Adult Outcomes of the Abecedarian and CARE Early Childhood Educational Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Frances A.; Wasik, Barbara H.; Pungello, Elizabeth; Burchinal, Margaret; Barbarin, Oscar; Kainz, Kirsten; Sparling, Joseph J.; Ramey, Craig T.

    2008-01-01

    Adult benefits for participants in Project CARE were compared with those of the Abecedarian Project, a closely related randomized study of early childhood educational intervention for children from low-income families who were at risk of developmental delays and school failure. CARE replicated Abecedarian's young adult treatment-related…

  12. Separate and Cumulative Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Predicting Adult Health and Health Care Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chartier, Mariette J.; Walker, John R.; Naimark, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Objectives of this population-based study were: (1) to examine the relative contribution of childhood abuse and other adverse childhood experiences to poor adult health and increased health care utilization and (2) to examine the cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences on adult health and health care utilization. Methods:…

  13. Social genetic and social environment effects on parental and helper care in a cooperatively breeding bird

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Mark James; Robinson, Matthew R.; Mannarelli, Maria-Elena; Hatchwell, Ben J.

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypes expressed in a social context are not only a function of the individual, but can also be shaped by the phenotypes of social partners. These social effects may play a major role in the evolution of cooperative breeding if social partners differ in the quality of care they provide and if individual carers adjust their effort in relation to that of other carers. When applying social effects models to wild study systems, it is also important to explore sources of individual plasticity that could masquerade as social effects. We studied offspring provisioning rates of parents and helpers in a wild population of long-tailed tits Aegithalos caudatus using a quantitative genetic framework to identify these social effects and partition them into genetic, permanent environment and current environment components. Controlling for other effects, individuals were consistent in their provisioning effort at a given nest, but adjusted their effort based on who was in their social group, indicating the presence of social effects. However, these social effects differed between years and social contexts, indicating a current environment effect, rather than indicating a genetic or permanent environment effect. While this study reveals the importance of examining environmental and genetic sources of social effects, the framework we present is entirely general, enabling a greater understanding of potentially important social effects within any ecological population. PMID:26063846

  14. Social genetic and social environment effects on parental and helper care in a cooperatively breeding bird.

    PubMed

    Adams, Mark James; Robinson, Matthew R; Mannarelli, Maria-Elena; Hatchwell, Ben J

    2015-07-01

    Phenotypes expressed in a social context are not only a function of the individual, but can also be shaped by the phenotypes of social partners. These social effects may play a major role in the evolution of cooperative breeding if social partners differ in the quality of care they provide and if individual carers adjust their effort in relation to that of other carers. When applying social effects models to wild study systems, it is also important to explore sources of individual plasticity that could masquerade as social effects. We studied offspring provisioning rates of parents and helpers in a wild population of long-tailed tits Aegithalos caudatus using a quantitative genetic framework to identify these social effects and partition them into genetic, permanent environment and current environment components. Controlling for other effects, individuals were consistent in their provisioning effort at a given nest, but adjusted their effort based on who was in their social group, indicating the presence of social effects. However, these social effects differed between years and social contexts, indicating a current environment effect, rather than indicating a genetic or permanent environment effect. While this study reveals the importance of examining environmental and genetic sources of social effects, the framework we present is entirely general, enabling a greater understanding of potentially important social effects within any ecological population.

  15. Socio-Economic Determinants of the Need for Dental Care in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Trohel, Gilda; Bertaud-Gounot, Valérie; Soler, Marion; Chauvin, Pierre; Grimaud, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral health has improved in France. However, there are still inequalities related to the socio-economic status. Objectives The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of dental care needs in an adult population and to identify the demographic, socio-economic and behavioral variables that may explain variations in this parameter. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of the French SIRS cohort (n = 2,997 adults from the Paris region; 2010 data) was carried out to determine the prevalence of self-reported dental care needs relative to demographic, socio-economic and behavioral variables. A logistic regression model was used to identify the variables that were most strongly associated with the level of need. Results In 2010, the prevalence of the need for dental care in the SIRS cohort was 35.0% (95% CI [32.3–37.8]). It was lower in people with higher education levels (31.3% [27.9–34.6]), without immigrant background (31.3% [28.0–34.6]) and with comprehensive health insurance (social security + complementary health cover; 32.8% [30.2–35.4]). It decreased as the socio-economic status increased, but without following a strict linear change. It was also lower among individuals who had a dental check-up visit in the previous two years. In multivariate analyses, the socioeconomic variables most strongly associated with the need for dental care were: educational attainment (OR = 1.21 [1.02–1.44]), income level (OR = 1.66 [1.92–2.12]) and national origin (OR = 1.53 [1.26–1.86]). Conclusion These results confirm that the prevalence of dental care needs is higher among adults with low socio-economic status. Education level, income level and also national origin were more strongly associated with the need for dental care than insurance cover level. PMID:27441841

  16. Social Branding to Decrease Smoking Among Young Adults in Bars

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youn Ok; Hong, Juliette; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated a Social Branding antitobacco intervention for “hipster” young adults that was implemented between 2008 and 2011 in San Diego, California. Methods. We conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys of random samples of young adults going to bars at baseline and over a 3-year follow-up. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate changes in daily smoking, nondaily smoking, and binge drinking, controlling for demographic characteristics, alcohol use, advertising receptivity, trend sensitivity, and tobacco-related attitudes. Results. During the intervention, current (past 30 day) smoking decreased from 57% (baseline) to 48% (at follow-up 3; P = .002), and daily smoking decreased from 22% to 15% (P < .001). There were significant interactions between hipster affiliation and alcohol use on smoking. Among hipster binge drinkers, the odds of daily smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30, 0.63) and nondaily smoking (OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.42, 0.77) decreased significantly at follow-up 3. Binge drinking also decreased significantly at follow-up 3 (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.53, 0.78). Conclusions. Social Branding campaigns are a promising strategy to decrease smoking in young adult bar patrons. PMID:24524502

  17. The ethic of care: recapturing social work's first voice.

    PubMed

    Dybicz, Phillip

    2012-07-01

    This article examines the dynamic between expressions of care--that is, simple acts of kindness and consideration that make up friendly relations--and professional expertise. During the 20th century, social work based its expertise on a solid scientific foundation. Within the embrace of scientific expertise, expressions of care are assigned the vital, but limited, role of ameliorating the sterile application of scientific knowledge, mainly through the application of social work values. This role is limited, however, because social workers are cautioned to avoid dual relationships; one cannot be both a professional and a friend to the client. This was not always the case. Working from a different paradigm, Charity Organization Society workers and settlement house workers each actively embraced and nurtured the notion of being a friend and neighbor to those they served. Post-modern practices--also stemming from a different paradigm and embracing an expertise in critical consciousness, in turn--seek to redefine the client-social worker relationship along this dimension. Expressions of care, propagated through a genuine (albeit circumscribed) friendship, actively contribute to treatment planning and a more fruitful outcome.

  18. [The social sciences' other health-care discourse].

    PubMed

    Wanzo, M C

    1998-01-01

    Since the late 1960s and early 1970s, concern over inadequate social conditions - which is what has truly hampered human development - has been focused on growth together with equity. If human development is a process which should steadily broaden human options, what place does this concept play in the discourse of the social sciences and politics as 'master' - whose major product today is greater poverty, overpopulation, and less options for people? How can this situation be reverted, so that people can enjoy a long, healthy life, receive an education, and have access to the resources that are needed if their life chances are to be greater than their death chances? What role does or should the social sciences play in devising an ethical discourse on health care? To what objectives will we need to return, if we are to refrain from using scientific knowledge to validate the unjust social inequalities espoused in the discourses of power and of the master?

  19. Social adjustment in adult males affected with progressive muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Eggers, S; Zatz, M

    1998-02-01

    Adult male patients affected with Becker (BMD, N = 22), limb girdle (LGMD, N = 22) and facioscapulohumeral (FSHMD, N = 18) muscular dystrophy were interviewed to assess for the first time how the disease's severity and recurrence risk (RR) magnitude alter their social adjustment. BMD (X-linked recessive) is the severest form and confers an intermediate RR because all daughters will be carriers, LGMD (autosomal-recessive) is moderately severe with a low RR in the absence of consanguineous marriage, and FSHMD (autosomal-dominant) is clinically the mildest of these three forms of MD but with the highest RR, of 50%. Results of the semistructured questionnaire [WHO (1988): Psychiatric Disability Assessment Schedule] showed no significant difference between the three clinical groups, but more severely handicapped patients as well as patients belonging to lower socioeconomic levels from all clinical groups showed poorer social adjustment. Taken together, myopathic patients displayed intermediate social dysfunction compared to controls and schizophrenics studied by Jablensky [1988: WHO Psychiatric Disability Assessment Schedule]. Since the items of major dysfunction proportion among myopathic patients concern intimate relationships (70%), interest in working among those unemployed (67%), and social isolation (53%), emotional support and social and legal assistance should concentrate on these aspects. Interestingly, the results of this study also suggest that high RRs do not affect relationships to the opposite sex.

  20. Congenital causes of neurogenic bladder and the transition to adult care

    PubMed Central

    Loftus, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The population of patients with congenital genitourinary disorders has unique healthcare demands that require an additional interpersonal and medical skillset. Adults with congenital neurogenic bladder may have complex urinary anatomy, abnormal bladder function and atypical voiding mechanisms. While initial surgery and care of these patients is typically managed by a pediatric urologist, growth and development into adulthood necessitates transition of care to an adult care team. Failure of transition to adult care has been demonstrated to result in lower quality healthcare and increased risk of developing preventable complications. PMID:26904411

  1. Attaining baccalaureate competencies for nursing care of older adults through curriculum innovation.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Ann Marie P; Hickey, Mary T; McCabe, Donna E; Ea, Emerson

    2012-01-01

    This new curriculum promotes up-to-date, evidence-based plans of care for older adults in acute care, long-term care, and community settings. Geriatric-specific content is a curricular thread and strong focus. Students have responded positively to the many opportunities they have to learn about the unique needs of older adults in multiple settings. Fortunately, we have several geriatric nurse practitioners on faculty along. Our students observe experts who are committed to promoting safe, quality, compassionate care to older adults in action on a daily basis.

  2. Understanding HIV care delays in the US South and the role of the social-level in HIV care engagement/retention: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In a significant geographical shift in the distribution of HIV infection, the US South - comprising 17 states - now has the greatest number of adults and adolescents with HIV (PLHIV) in the nation. More than 60% of PLHIV are not in HIV care in Alabama and Mississippi, contrasted with a national figure of 25%. Poorer HIV outcomes raise concerns about HIV-related inequities for southern PLHIV, which warrant further study. This qualitative study sought to understand experiences of low-income PLHIV on the AIDS Drug Assistance Program in engagement and retention in continuous HIV care in two sites in Alabama. Methods The study was designed using grounded theory. Semi-structured interviews with 25 PLHIV explored experiences with care linkage, reported factors and behaviors affecting engagement/retention in continuous HIV care, including socio-economic factors. To triangulate sources, 25 additional interviews were conducted with health and social service providers from the same clinics and AIDS Service Organizations where clients obtained services. Across the narratives, we used the HIV care continuum to map where care delays and drop out occurred. Using open coding, constant comparison and iterative data collection and analysis, we constructed a conceptual model illustrating how participants described their path to HIV care engagement and retention. Results Most respondents reported delayed HIV care, describing concentric factors: psychological distress, fear, lack of information, substance use, incarceration, lack of food, transport and housing. Stark health system drop out occurred immediately after receipt of HIV test results, with ART initiation generally occurring when individuals became ill. Findings highlight these enablers to care: Alabama's 'social infrastructure'; 'twinning' medical with social services, 'social enablers' who actively link PLHIV to care; and 'enabling spaces' that break down PLHIV isolation, facilitating HIV care linkage

  3. Contributors to Adult Sibling Relationships and Intention to Care of Siblings of Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuskelly, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of childhood sibling relationships to adult sibling relationships and intention to provide care was investigated in a sample in which one member of each dyad had Down syndrome. Thirty-nine adult siblings of an adult with Down syndrome who had participated in a study of sibling relationships in childhood/adolescence provided data…

  4. Social Network Characteristics, Social Support, and Cigarette Smoking among Asian/Pacific Islander Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Cassel, Kevin; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe‘aimoku; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking may be one of the factors contributing to the high levels of cancer-related mortality experienced by certain Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) subgroups (e.g., Native Hawaiian). Given the collectivist cultural orientation attributed to A/PI groups, social strategies are recommended for substance abuse or smoking cessation treatment among A/PI. However, research examining how social network characteristics and social support relate to smoking across A/PI subgroups has been lacking. This study investigated the associations between social network characteristics (e.g., size, composition), perceived social support, and recent cigarette use across Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and East Asian (e.g., Japanese, Chinese) young adults (18–35 year old). Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from N = 435 participants (M age = 25.6, SD = 8.3; 61% women). Ethnic differences were found in a number of pathways linking social network characteristics, perceived social support, and cigarette smoking. Larger network size was strongly associated with higher perceived social support and lower recent cigarette smoking among Native Hawaiians but not Filipinos or East Asians. Higher perceived social support was associated with lower recent smoking among East Asians and Filipinos but not Native Hawaiians. Implications are discussed with regard to smoking prevention and cessation among A/PI. PMID:27297612

  5. Social Network Characteristics, Social Support, and Cigarette Smoking among Asian/Pacific Islander Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Cassel, Kevin; Trinidad, Dennis R; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2016-06-01

    Cigarette smoking may be one of the factors contributing to the high levels of cancer-related mortality experienced by certain Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) subgroups (e.g., Native Hawaiian). Given the collectivist cultural orientation attributed to A/PI groups, social strategies are recommended for substance abuse or smoking cessation treatment among A/PI. However, research examining how social network characteristics and social support relate to smoking across A/PI subgroups has been lacking. This study investigated the associations between social network characteristics (e.g., size, composition), perceived social support, and recent cigarette use across Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and East Asian (e.g., Japanese, Chinese) young adults (18-35 year old). Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from N = 435 participants (M age = 25.6, SD = 8.3; 61% women). Ethnic differences were found in a number of pathways linking social network characteristics, perceived social support, and cigarette smoking. Larger network size was strongly associated with higher perceived social support and lower recent cigarette smoking among Native Hawaiians but not Filipinos or East Asians. Higher perceived social support was associated with lower recent smoking among East Asians and Filipinos but not Native Hawaiians. Implications are discussed with regard to smoking prevention and cessation among A/PI.

  6. Social Network Characteristics, Social Support, and Cigarette Smoking among Asian/Pacific Islander Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Cassel, Kevin; Trinidad, Dennis R; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2016-06-01

    Cigarette smoking may be one of the factors contributing to the high levels of cancer-related mortality experienced by certain Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) subgroups (e.g., Native Hawaiian). Given the collectivist cultural orientation attributed to A/PI groups, social strategies are recommended for substance abuse or smoking cessation treatment among A/PI. However, research examining how social network characteristics and social support relate to smoking across A/PI subgroups has been lacking. This study investigated the associations between social network characteristics (e.g., size, composition), perceived social support, and recent cigarette use across Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and East Asian (e.g., Japanese, Chinese) young adults (18-35 year old). Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from N = 435 participants (M age = 25.6, SD = 8.3; 61% women). Ethnic differences were found in a number of pathways linking social network characteristics, perceived social support, and cigarette smoking. Larger network size was strongly associated with higher perceived social support and lower recent cigarette smoking among Native Hawaiians but not Filipinos or East Asians. Higher perceived social support was associated with lower recent smoking among East Asians and Filipinos but not Native Hawaiians. Implications are discussed with regard to smoking prevention and cessation among A/PI. PMID:27297612

  7. Childhood poverty, early motherhood and adult social exclusion.

    PubMed

    Hobcraft, J; Kiernan, K

    2001-09-01

    Childhood poverty and early parenthood are both high on the current political agenda. The key new issue that this research addresses is the relative importance of childhood poverty and of early motherhood as correlates of outcomes later in life. How far are the 'effects' of early motherhood on later outcomes due to childhood precursors, especially experience of childhood poverty? Subsidiary questions relate to the magnitude of these associations, the particular levels of childhood poverty that prove most critical, and whether, as often assumed, only teenage mothers are subsequently disadvantaged, or are those who have their first birth in their early twenties similarly disadvantaged? The source of data for this study is the National Child Development Study. We examine outcomes at age 33 for several domains of adult social exclusion: welfare, socio-economic, physical health, emotional well-being and demographic behaviour. We control for a wide range of childhood factors: poverty; social class of origin and of father; mother's and father's school leaving age; family structure; housing tenure; mother's and father's interest in education; personality attributes; performance on educational tests; and contact with the police by age 16. There are clear associations for the adult outcomes with age at first birth, even after controlling for childhood poverty and the other childhood background factors. Moreover, we demonstrate that the widest gulf in adult outcomes occurs for those who enter motherhood early (before age 23), though further reinforced by teenage motherhood for most adult outcomes. We also show that any experience of childhood poverty is clearly associated with adverse outcomes in adulthood, with reinforcement for higher levels of childhood poverty for a few outcomes. PMID:11578006

  8. Social burden and lifestyle in adults with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Zomer, A Carla; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P; van der Velde, Enno T; Sieswerda, Gert-Jan T; Wajon, Elly M C; Plomp, Koos; van Bergen, Paul F M; Verheugt, Carianne L; Krivka, Eva; de Vries, Cees J; Lok, Dirk J A; Grobbee, Diederick E; Mulder, Barbara J M

    2012-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate how the presence and severity of congenital heart disease (CHD) influence social life and lifestyle in adult patients. A random sample (n = 1,496) from the CONgenital CORvitia (n = 11,047), the Dutch national registry of adult patients with CHD, completed a questionnaire on educational attainment, employment and marital statuses, and lifestyle (response 76%). The Utrecht Health Project provided a large reference group (n = 6,810) of unaffected subjects. Logistic regression models were used for subgroup analyses and to adjust for age, gender, and socioeconomic status where appropriate. Of all patients 51.5% were men (median age 39 years, interquartile range 29 to 51) with mild (46%), moderate (44%), and severe (10%) CHD. Young (<40-year-old) patients with CHD were more likely to have achieved a lower education (adjusted odds ratios [ORs] 1.6 for men and 1.9 for women, p <0.05 for the 2 comparisons), significantly more often unemployed (adjusted ORs 5.9 and 2.0 for men and women, respectively), and less likely to be in a relationship compared to the reference group (adjusted ORs 8.5 for men and 4.5 for women). These poorer outcomes were seen in all severity groups. Overall, the CHD population smoked less (adjusted OR 0.5, p <0.05), had more sports participation (adjusted OR 1.2, p <0.05), and had less obesity (adjusted OR 0.7, p <0.05) than the reference group. In conclusion, there was a substantial social disadvantage in adult patients with CHD, which was seen in all severity groups and primarily in young men. In contrast, adults with CHD had healthier lifestyles compared to the reference group. PMID:22444325

  9. Young Adult Cancer Survivors’ Experience with Cancer Treatment and Follow-Up Care and Perceptions of Barriers to Engaging in Recommended Care

    PubMed Central

    Stratton, Erin; Esiashvili, Natia; Mertens, Ann

    2016-01-01

    We examined correlates of low engagement in the healthcare system, experiences with survivorship care, barriers to follow-up care, and potential resources for promoting follow-up care among young adult survivors of childhood cancers. We conducted a mixed-method study involving surveys of 106 survivors of childhood cancer aged 18–34 recruited from a university-affiliated children’s hospital and an NCI-designated cancer center in the Southeastern USA. Phone-based semistructured interviews were then conducted in a subset of 26. Assessments included health factors, psychosocial factors, healthcare system interaction, and interest in resources to promote engagement in healthcare. Survey participants were on average 22.14(SD=3.16) years old, 50.0 % female, and 77.4 % White. Overall, 46.0 % had attended survivorship clinic, 47.2 % reported receiving a treatment summary, 68.9 % had a primary care provider, and 17.0 % reported no interaction with healthcare in the past 2 years. Correlates of less than annual healthcare provider visits included being older (p=0.003), being male (p<0.001), lack of insurance (p=0.002), and having had chemotherapy (p=0.05). Participants reported varied experiences in terms of how health and treatment information was presented, from none or too little to overwhelming or anxiety-provoking amounts. Barriers to engaging in survivorship care included no/limited insurance, time, or transportation; major life changes; anxiety; and difficulty transitioning from pediatrics to adult care. Participants highlighted the need for educational and psychosocial resources, particularly technology-based resources. Multilevel interventions are needed to increase engagement in survivor-ship care among young adult cancer survivors. Technology-based resources addressing social support and mental well-being are intervention possibilities. PMID:25948413

  10. Drinking behavior among older adults at a continuing care retirement community: affective and motivational influences

    PubMed Central

    Sacco, Paul; Burruss, Karen; Smith, Cristan A.; Kuerbis, Alexis; Harrington, Donna; Moore, Alison A.; Resnick, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this pilot study was to describe patterns of alcohol consumption among continuing care retirement community(CCRC) residents and to explore the role of drinking motives and affective states on drinking context and consumption. Method We utilized a phone-based daily diary approach to survey older adults about their daily alcohol consumption, context of drinking (e.g. drinking alone), positive and negative affect, and their motives for drinking. Data were analyzed descriptively, and regression models were developed to examine associations between sociodemographic factors, affect, drinking context and motives, and alcohol consumption. Results CCRC residents drank most frequently at home and were alone almost half of drinking days on average, although the context of drinking varied considerably by participant. Problem alcohol use was rare, but hazardous use due to specific comorbidities, symptoms and medications, and the amount of alcohol consumption was common. Respondents endorsed higher social motives for drinking and lower coping motives. Social motives were associated with decreased likelihood of drinking alone, but negative affect was associated with decreased likelihood of drinking outside one’s home. Coping and social motives were associated with greater consumption, and higher positive affect was associated with lower consumption. Conclusion Among CCRC residents, alcohol use may be socially motivated rather than motivated by coping with negative affect. Future research should examine other motives for drinking in older adulthood. Evaluation of older adults living in CCRCs should include attention to health factors beyond problem use as other forms of hazardous use may be common in CCRCs. PMID:25010351

  11. Creating and Maintaining a Wellness Environment in Child Care Centers Participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofton, Kristi L.; Carr, Deborah H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study identifies issues associated with creating and maintaining a wellness environment in child care centers (CCCs) participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). Methods: Structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with CCC professionals and state agency personnel to develop a survey to assess…

  12. A Study of Childhood Social Competence, Adult Premorbid Competence, and Psychiatric Outcome in Three Schizophrenic Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewine, R. J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    School and hospital records were used to examine childhood social competence, adult premorbid competence, and psychiatric outcome in adult schizoaffective, paranoid, and undifferentiated schizophrenics. A significant difference existed in childhood interpersonal competence and adult social competence among the subtypes. Results reflect…

  13. Social and Economic Transformations: Contributions to the Professionalization of Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Larry G.

    1986-01-01

    This article addresses three questions which should help adult educators focus on the challenge of social and economic change: What are the sources of social and economic transformations? What are the role issues facing adult educators? What might be some suggestions for enhancing and expanding adult education programs so that they can…

  14. A Decade in Dental Care Utilization among Adults and Children (2001–2010)

    PubMed Central

    Vujicic, Marko; Nasseh, Kamyar

    2014-01-01

    Objective To decompose the change in pediatric and adult dental care utilization over the last decade. Data 2001 through 2010 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Study Design The Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition was used to explain the change in dental care utilization among adults and children. Changes in dental care utilization were attributed to changes in explained covariates and changes due to movements in estimated coefficients. Controlling for demographics, overall health status, and dental benefits variables, we estimated year-specific logistic regression models. Outputs from these models were used to compute the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition. Principal Findings Dental care utilization decreased from 40.5 percent in 2001 to 37.0 percent in 2010 for adults and increased from 43.2 percent in 2001 to 46.3 percent in 2010 for children (p < .05). Among adults, changes in insurance status, race, and income contributed to a decline in adult dental care utilization (−0.018, p < .01). Among children, changes in controlled factors did not substantially change dental care utilization, which instead may be explained by changes in policy, oral health status, or preferences. Conclusions Dental care utilization for adults has declined, especially among the poor and uninsured. Without further policy intervention, disadvantaged adults face increasing barriers to dental care. PMID:24299620

  15. Care for the elderly: the question of social goals.

    PubMed

    Collopy, B J

    1988-01-01

    Fiscal and strategic issues control healthcare policy in the United States, with questions of moral good drawing scant attention. A consequent need exists for policymakers and practitioners somewhere in the system to raise questions about the ultimate social goals of healthcare policy for the elderly. One approach to determining potential social goods is to examine standoffs that can occur between values. Should healthcare for the elderly be based on recompense for sociatal contributions, monetary and otherwise, or should it be based on need, disadvantage, and vulnerability? Should long-term care receive a greater share of the attention that now goes to acute care services? Should healthcare policy emphasize individual rights, needs, and resources, or society's priorities, needs, and resources? Our unreadiness to deal with questions of the ultimate good of healthcare for the elderly only promises ethical perplexity for the future. PMID:10285424

  16. Social justice considerations in neonatal care for nurse managers and executives.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Linda; Walden, Marlene; Verklan, M Terese

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the struggle between social justice and market justice within the current health care system, specifically issues affecting neonatal care. Community benefit is described and discussed as an aspect of social justice demonstrated by hospitals. The federal and state Children's Health Insurance Program also is discussed in relation to social justice and health care costs. Implications for managers and executives overseeing neonatal care are presented in relation to the economic and social issues.

  17. The needs of aging parents caring for an adult with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Minnes, Patricia; Woodford, Lynn; Carlson, Peter; Johnston, Jane; McColl, Mary Ann

    2010-06-01

    This study focused on issues of concern to and service needs of older parents caring for an adult son or daughter with an acquired brain injury (ABI) in Ontario. Three issues were identified as particularly challenging: diagnosis of the brain injury, parents' feelings about the cause of the brain injury, and planning for long-term accommodation for their family member with a brain injury. The most frequently cited services needed for the person with ABI were social and/or recreational activities, day programs, and residential placement. The most frequently cited services needed by parents were parent education and support groups. The information gathered provides a base for further research in other sectors. Implications of these initial findings for clinical practice and policy and program development are discussed.

  18. Survivorship care for older adults with cancer: U13 conference report.

    PubMed

    Guerard, Emily J; Nightingale, Ginah; Bellizzi, Keith; Burhenn, Peggy; Rosko, Ashley; Artz, Andrew S; Korc-Grodzicki, Beatriz; Canin, Beverly; Dale, William; Ferrell, Betty

    2016-07-01

    Older adult cancer survivors currently account for almost 60% of all cancer survivors. The number of older cancer survivors will continue to increase as the population ages and as patients' live longer after a cancer diagnosis. As part of cancer center accreditation, the American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer® (CoC) has placed great importance on survivorship care planning. While the CoC has set standards for general survivorship care, there is sparse evidence on how to best care for older adult cancer survivors. Concern exists among the medical community that survivorship care plans could increase paperwork without improving outcomes. Given the diverse and unique needs of older adult cancer survivors, the inter-professional team provides a structure and process for survivorship care built around the particular needs of older adults. The Cancer and Aging Research Group (CARG), in partnership with the NIA/NCI, held a U13 conference in May 2015 in part to discuss survivorship care for older adults with cancer. This report discusses four themes that emerged from one section of the conference: (1) survivorship care is a process that continually evolves to meet the needs of older adults; (2) older adult cancer survivors have unique needs and care plans should be tailored to meet these needs; (3) the inter-professional team is ideally suited to structure survivorship care of older adults; (4) patient advocacy must be encouraged throughout the cancer care continuum. As evidence based survivorship practices develop, the unique needs of older adults need to be given substantial attention. PMID:27424802

  19. Survivorship care for older adults with cancer: U13 conference report.

    PubMed

    Guerard, Emily J; Nightingale, Ginah; Bellizzi, Keith; Burhenn, Peggy; Rosko, Ashley; Artz, Andrew S; Korc-Grodzicki, Beatriz; Canin, Beverly; Dale, William; Ferrell, Betty

    2016-07-01

    Older adult cancer survivors currently account for almost 60% of all cancer survivors. The number of older cancer survivors will continue to increase as the population ages and as patients' live longer after a cancer diagnosis. As part of cancer center accreditation, the American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer® (CoC) has placed great importance on survivorship care planning. While the CoC has set standards for general survivorship care, there is sparse evidence on how to best care for older adult cancer survivors. Concern exists among the medical community that survivorship care plans could increase paperwork without improving outcomes. Given the diverse and unique needs of older adult cancer survivors, the inter-professional team provides a structure and process for survivorship care built around the particular needs of older adults. The Cancer and Aging Research Group (CARG), in partnership with the NIA/NCI, held a U13 conference in May 2015 in part to discuss survivorship care for older adults with cancer. This report discusses four themes that emerged from one section of the conference: (1) survivorship care is a process that continually evolves to meet the needs of older adults; (2) older adult cancer survivors have unique needs and care plans should be tailored to meet these needs; (3) the inter-professional team is ideally suited to structure survivorship care of older adults; (4) patient advocacy must be encouraged throughout the cancer care continuum. As evidence based survivorship practices develop, the unique needs of older adults need to be given substantial attention.

  20. Nurse Practitioner Primary Care Competencies in Specialty Areas: Adult, Family, Gerontological, Pediatric, and Women's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crabtree, M. Katherine; Stanley, Joan; Werner, Kathryn E.; Schmid, Emily

    This document presents the nurse practitioner primary care competencies that a national panel of representatives of nine national organizations of the five primary care nurse practitioner specialties--adult, family, gerontological, pediatric, and women's health--identified as necessary for entry-level primary care nurse practitioners. Section 1…

  1. Primary Care for Adults with Down Syndrome: Adherence to Preventive Healthcare Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, K. M.; Taylor, L. C.; Davis, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Due to significant medical improvements, persons with Down syndrome now live well into adulthood. Consequently, primary care for adults with Down syndrome needs to incorporate routine care with screening for condition-specific comorbidities. This study seeks to evaluate the adherence of primary care physicians to age- and…

  2. Physician Perspectives on Providing Primary Medical Care to Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warfield, Marji Erickson; Crossman, Morgan K.; Delahaye, Jennifer; Der Weerd, Emma; Kuhlthau, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted in-depth case studies of 10 health care professionals who actively provide primary medical care to adults with autism spectrum disorders. The study sought to understand their experiences in providing this care, the training they had received, the training they lack and their suggestions for encouraging more physicians to provide this…

  3. 76 FR 34541 - Child and Adult Care Food Program Improving Management and Program Integrity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... these two interim rules by family day care home sponsors and providers. This rule clarifies or modifies... improve Program management and integrity in the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), at 67 FR 43447... designed to evaluate implementation of the new regulatory requirements by family day care home sponsors...

  4. Staff Morale in Day Care Centres for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascha, Katerina

    2007-01-01

    Background: Levels of burnout, job satisfaction and intended turnover of staff working in day care centres for adults with intellectual disabilities are investigated in relation to role clarity, staff support and supervision, and coping strategies used by staff. Materials and methods: Thirty six direct-care staff of four day care centres in the UK…

  5. First and Fourth-Year Student's Perceptions about Importance of Nursing Care Behaviors: Socialization toward Caring

    PubMed Central

    Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Valizadeh, Leila; Azimzadeh, Roghaieh; Aminaie, Nasim; Yousefzadeh, Sedigeh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The essence of professional nursing is caring and so, nursing education must make caring as a significant part of their curricula. In this regard, little research exists about how nursing students perceive caring. The aim of this study is to investigate the nursing students' perception toward caring and thus, the impact of socialization process on their perception of caring will be determined. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done among all first and fourth-year nursing students (n=230) in Tabriz and Urmia faculties of nursing, 2012. Data were collected using Larson's Caring Questionnaire that assessed the importance of nursing care behaviors (n=50) in six dimensions: "being accessible", "explains and facilitates", "comforts", "anticipates", "trusting relationship" and "monitors and follows through". Results: The importance of caring behaviors was evaluated by the first and fourth-year nursing students in moderate to high level and also, the both groups considered higher ranks for "monitors and follows through" and "being accessible" and lower ranks for "anticipates" and "trusting relationships". The fourth-year students only ranked "explains and facilitates" higher than the first-year students, but the "comforts" dimension is not differed significantly between groups. Conclusion: The findings demonstrated that nursing education in this study has not likely succeeded in producing intended changes in the nursing students' perceptions. It is recommended to exactly find the perceptual changes or in principle the professional socialization process of nursing students, more research using longitudinal designs be conducted to examine the differences in students' perceptions of caring upon entering and completing the nursing program. PMID:25276752

  6. Early interactions with mother and peers independently build adult social skills and shape BDNF and oxytocin receptor brain levels

    PubMed Central

    Branchi, Igor; Curley, James P.; D’Andrea, Ivana; Cirulli, Francesca; Champagne, Frances A.; Alleva, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    The early social environment has a profound impact on developmental trajectories. Although an impoverished early environment can undermine the acquisition of appropriate social skills, the specific role played by the different components of an individual’s early environment in building social competencies has not been fully elucidated. Here we setup an asynchronous communal nesting paradigm in mice to disentangle the influence of maternal care and early peer interactions on adult social behavior and neural systems reportedly involved in the regulation of social interactions. The asynchronous communal nesting consists of three mothers giving birth three days apart, generating three groups of pups -- the Old, the Middle and the Young – all raised in a single nest from birth to weaning. We scored the amount of maternal and peer interactions received by these mice and by a fourth group reared under standard conditions. At adulthood, the four experimental groups have been investigated for social behavior in a social interaction test, i.e. facing an unfamiliar conspecific during five 20-min daily encounters, and for oxytocin receptor and BDNF levels. Results show that only individuals exposed to high levels of both maternal and peer interactions demonstrated elaborate adult agonistic competencies, i.e. the ability to promptly display a social status, and high BDNF levels in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and hypothalamus. By contrast, only individuals exposed to high levels of peer interactions showed enhanced adult affiliative behavior and enhanced oxytocin receptor levels in selected nuclei of the amygdala. Overall these findings indicate that early interactions with mother and peers independently shape specific facets of adult social behavior and neural systems involved in social interaction. PMID:22910688

  7. Reading for a Better World: Teaching for Social Responsibility with Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolk, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Teaching for social responsibility should be one of the vital aims of our schools. Young adult literature offers an authentic, meaningful, and critical way to teach for social responsibility. This article offers an overview of the different elements of social responsibility and some young adult novels and graphic novels that could be used to teach…

  8. Social Interaction with Adults with Severe Intellectual Disability: Having Fun and Hanging Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Hilary; Douglas, Jacinta; Bigby, Christine; Iacono, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social interaction is integral to social inclusion. Little is known about the nature of social interaction between adults with severe intellectual disability and those with whom they engage. Method: Participants were six adults with intellectual disability and people identified as those with whom they shared demonstrable pleasurable…

  9. The Social Inclusion of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Phenomenology of Their Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sarah A.

    2010-01-01

    Social inclusion enhances the quality of life of young adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Young adults with ID continue to face prejudice and discrimination that limit their social inclusion. They experience limited social inclusion because there are not enough appropriate activities available and they have limited opportunities to…

  10. Validation of a U.S. Adult Social Self-Efficacy Inventory in Chinese Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Jinyan; Meng, Hui; Gao, Xiangping; Lopez, Felix J.; Liu, Cong

    2010-01-01

    The authors report a series of efforts to validate a U.S. adult social self-efficacy inventory, the Perceived Social Self-Efficacy scale (PSSE), in Chinese populations. They argue that the construct underlying the PSSE scale constitutes an important component of Chinese adult social self-efficacy, which was confirmed in focus group discussions.…

  11. Exploration of Older and Younger British Adults' Performance on the Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdon, Paul; Dipper, Lucy; Cocks, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Social perception is an important skill. One assessment that is commonly used to assess social perception abilities is The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT). The only normative data available for this test are for Australian younger adults. Despite no normative data being available for British adults, the test is widely used…

  12. The Emergence of Social Play in Infancy: A Proposed Developmental Sequence of Infant-Adult Social Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaley, Kimberlee Kiehl

    A developmental sequence of adult-infant social play is proposed in this paper. Many adult interactions with infants take the form of early social play, although such play is often thought to originate with the onset of peer interaction. The sequence of five levels proposed in this work is based on, and approximately reverses, the Howes (1980)…

  13. Well-Being and Institutional Care in Older Adults: Cross-Sectional and Time Effects of Provided and Received Support

    PubMed Central

    Kroemeke, Aleksandra; Gruszczynska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of provided and received support on older adults’ subjective well-being (positive affect and depression) and to examine whether being a recipient of institutional care moderates these effects. Methods Social support (provided and received), positive affect, and depressive symptoms were assessed twice (at baseline and 1 month later) for 277 older adults (age 77.39 ± 9.20 years, 67.50% women, 65% residents of an institutional care facility). Findings Two structural equation models were analyzed: cross-sectional (at baseline) and longitudinal (after 1 month). The first model revealed a significant positive relationship between providing and receiving support and positive affect, and a negative relationship between receiving support and depression. However, being a recipient of institutional care appeared to be a significant moderator in the longitudinal model. Specifically, the findings indicated effects of both providing and receiving support on positive affect but only for noninstitutionalized older adults. Discussion Although both types of support may be beneficial for older adults, their effects depend on the nature of social exchange and the dimensions of well-being. This suggests that such factors should be systematically investigated in future research. PMID:27548721

  14. Labeling and the effect of adolescent legal system involvement on adult outcomes for foster youth aging out of care.

    PubMed

    Lee, JoAnn S; Courtney, Mark E; Harachi, Tracy W; Tajima, Emiko A

    2015-09-01

    This study uses labeling theory to examine the role that adolescent legal system involvement may play in initiating a process of social exclusion, leading to higher levels of adult criminal activities among foster youth who have aged out of care. We used data from the Midwest Evaluation of the Adult Functioning of Former Foster Youth (Midwest Study), a prospective study that sampled 732 youth from Illinois, Iowa, and Wisconsin as they were preparing to leave the foster care system at ages 17 or 18. The youth were interviewed again at ages 19, 21, and 23 or 24. We used structural equation modeling to examine pathways to self-reported adult criminal behaviors from juvenile legal system involvement. The path model indicated that legal system involvement as a juvenile was associated with a lower likelihood of having a high school diploma at age 19, which was associated with a reduced likelihood of employment and increased criminal activities at age 21. Legal system involvement is more common among foster youth aging out of care, and this legal system involvement appears to contribute to a process of social exclusion by excluding former foster youth from conventional opportunities.

  15. The attitudes of graduate healthcare students toward older adults, personal aging, health care reform, and interprofessional collaboration.

    PubMed

    Golden, Adam G; Gammonley, Denise; Hunt, Debra; Olsen, Edwin; Issenberg, S Barry

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare reform has led to an increased emphasis on interprofessional healthcare models for older adults. Unfortunately, best practice education that focuses on the interprofessional healthcare of the elderly does not yet exist. As a prelude to implementing interprofessional geriatric educational initiatives, we developed a survey to identify potential attitudinal differences among graduate healthcare students regarding personal aging, caring for older adults, healthcare reform and the role of the physician on the interprofessional team. We surveyed third-year medical students, nurse practitioner students and graduate social work students. Attitudes regarding personal aging were similar among the professions. Nurse practitioner and social work students had higher positive attitudes toward the care of older adults. Concerns about the impact of healthcare reform on quality and healthcare costs differed significantly. There was also a significant difference in attitudes concerning the role of the physician as the leader of the interprofessional team. These results provide insights into gerontologic-focused attitudes of graduate healthcare professional students. In an era of dramatic healthcare change, these findings will assist educators in the development and implementation of educational programs to prepare graduate students for the interprofessional care of elderly patients.

  16. [ELDERLY ADULTS IN NURSING HOMES IN THE PROVINCE OF CORDOBA: OBJECTS OF CARE OR LEGAL SUBJECTS?].

    PubMed

    Butinof, Mariana; Guri, Ana Karina; Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Abraham, María Daniela; Vera, Yanina; Gassmann, Jesica

    2015-01-01

    Argentina is among the Ibero-American countries with the greatest old age population, and is going through a process of advanced demographic transition. Elderly adults have long been considered a vulnerable group in need of care. The purpose of this work was to problematize the conceptions underlying the care given to the elderly in nursing homes, and the possible slides this involves from a human rights stance. An approach to this problem was built up by resorting to secondary documentary sources and interviews with key informants located in institutions for the elderly in the Province of Cordoba. This approach revealed a predominantly asylum-oriented conception centered on caring for others as objects, and a noticeable lack of consideration for the elderly as legal subjects, visible in numerous serious infringements of human rights, mostly silenced and rendered invisible. It seems that to overcome these situations it will be necessary not merely to review legal loopholes and current programs but also to reconsider the place given to the elderly in society. Regardless of their age and other social differences, the elderly require the same opportunities to claim full respect and exercise their human rights and fundamental freedoms. PMID:26650412

  17. Social support needs for equity in health and social care: a thematic analysis of experiences of people with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Needs-based resource allocation is fundamental to equitable care provision, which can meet the often-complex, fluctuating needs of people with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). This has posed challenges both for those providing and those seeking support providers, in building shared understanding of the condition and of actions to address it. This qualitative study reports on needs for equity in health and social care expressed by adults living with CFS/ME. Methods The participants were 35 adults with CFS/ME in England, purposively selected to provide variation in clinical presentations, social backgrounds and illness experiences. Accounts of experienced needs and needs-related encounters with health and social services were obtained through a focus group (n = 6) and semi-structured interviews (n = 35). These were transcribed and needs related topics identified through data-led thematic analysis. Findings Participants emphasised needs for personalised, timely and sustained support to alleviate CFS/ME impacts and regain life control, in three thematic areas: (1) Illness symptoms, functional limitations and illness management; (2) practical support and social care; (3) financial support. Access of people with CFS/ME to support from health and social services was seen to be constrained by barriers stemming from social, cultural, organisational and professional norms and practices, further heightened for disadvantaged groups including some ethnic minorities. These reduced opportunities for their illness to be explained or associated functional limitations and social disadvantages to be addressed through social support. Participants sought more understanding of bio-psycho-social aspects of CFS/ME, of felt needs of people with CFS/ME and of human rights and disability rights, for providing person-centred, equitable care. Conclusions Changes in attitudes of health practitioners, policy makers and general public and more flexibly

  18. Mental Illness, Behavior Problems, and Social Behavior in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straccia, Claudio; Baggio, Stéphanie; Barisnikov, Koviljka

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the behavioral characteristics of adults with Down syndrome (DS) without dementia. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the psychopathology and social behavior among adults with DS compared to adults with nonspecific intellectual disability (NSID). Thirty-four adults with DS were individually matched with 34…

  19. Lifestyles and social class: implications for primary care.

    PubMed

    Coulter, A

    1987-12-01

    Data from the Oxford healthy life survey were used to explore social class variations in beliefs about the determinants of health, willingness to contemplate behaviour change and experience of lifestyle advice in primary care.While the association between lifestyle factors and health was well-recognized by all social groups, those in social classes 1 and 2 were more likely than others to stress the importance of smoking, diet and exercise, while those in social classes 4 and 5 were more likely than middle class people to emphasize the effect of socioeconomic influences on health such as unemployment, income, pollution and housing. Members of all social classes attributed considerable importance to psychosocial influences on health. In all social classes a substantial proportion of overweight people expressed a desire to reduce their weight, smokers to modify their smoking habits and sedentary people to increase the amount of exercise they took. However, there was less interest in dietary change or reduction of alcohol consumption. One third of the smokers and of those who were overweight had received advice from health professionals about behaviour modification, but less than 10% of those in the other risk groups reported receiving advice. There was a high demand for advice on health; 44% of all respondents said they would be interested in receiving advice on a healthier lifestyle.

  20. Social cognitive correlates of young adult sport competitors' sunscreen use.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Nadine C; O'Riordan, David L; Winkler, Elisabeth; McDermott, Liane; Spathonis, Kym; Owen, Neville

    2011-02-01

    Young adults participating in outdoor sports represent a high-risk group for excessive sun exposure. The purpose of this study was to identify modifiable social cognitive correlates of sunscreen use among young adult competitors. Participants aged 18 to 30 years who competed in soccer (n = 65), surf-lifesaving (n = 63), hockey (n = 61), and tennis (n = 48) completed a sun habits survey. Almost half (n = 113) of the participants used sunscreen inadequately and 30% (n = 70) reported not using sunscreen. In fully adjusted models, social cognitive attributes significantly (p < .05) associated with inadequate sunscreen use (vs. nonuse) included skin cancer risk perceptions (OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.3, 1.0), perceived barriers to sunscreen use (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3, 0.9), and stronger personal norms for applying sunscreen (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.0, 3.2). These findings provide insight into the attributes that enable or inhibit the use of sunscreen among young competitors and as a result may be useful in informing behavior change interventions within the sporting context.

  1. Supporting Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Parents Through Social Media.

    PubMed

    Dzubaty, Dolores R

    2016-01-01

    Parents of infants in the neonatal intensive care unit may often find themselves seeking healthcare information from online and social media sources. Social media applications are available to healthcare consumers and their families, as well as healthcare providers, in a variety of formats. Information that parents gather on their own, and information that is explained by providers, is then used when parents make healthcare decisions regarding their infants. Parents also seek support from peers and family while making healthcare decisions. The combination of knowledge obtained and social support given may empower the parent to feel more confident in their decision making. Healthcare professionals can guide parents to credible resources. The exchange of information between providers and parents can occur using a variety of communication methods. Misperceptions can be corrected, support given, open sharing of information occurs, and parent empowerment may result. PMID:27465452

  2. Integrating funds for health and social care: an evidence review

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, Maria; Weatherly, Helen; Chalkley, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Integrated funds for health and social care are one possible way of improving care for people with complex care requirements. If integrated funds facilitate coordinated care, this could support improvements in patient experience, and health and social care outcomes, reduce avoidable hospital admissions and delayed discharges, and so reduce costs. In this article, we examine whether this potential has been realized in practice. Methods We propose a framework based on agency theory for understanding the role that integrated funding can play in promoting coordinated care, and review the evidence to see whether the expected effects are realized in practice. We searched eight electronic databases and relevant websites, and checked reference lists of reviews and empirical studies. We extracted data on the types of funding integration used by schemes, their benefits and costs (including unintended effects), and the barriers to implementation. We interpreted our findings with reference to our framework. Results The review included 38 schemes from eight countries. Most of the randomized evidence came from Australia, with nonrandomized comparative evidence available from Australia, Canada, England, Sweden and the US. None of the comparative evidence isolated the effect of integrated funding; instead, studies assessed the effects of ‘integrated financing plus integrated care’ (i.e. ‘integration’) relative to usual care. Most schemes (24/38) assessed health outcomes, of which over half found no significant impact on health. The impact of integration on secondary care costs or use was assessed in 34 schemes. In 11 schemes, integration had no significant effect on secondary care costs or utilisation. Only three schemes reported significantly lower secondary care use compared with usual care. In the remaining 19 schemes, the evidence was mixed or unclear. Some schemes achieved short-term reductions in delayed discharges, but there was anecdotal evidence of

  3. Committee Opinion No. 653: Concerns Regarding Social Media and Health Issues in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    Although there are many positive aspects of social media for adolescents and young adults, there are also risks. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental changes, during which adolescents exhibit a limited capacity for self-regulation and an increased risk of susceptibility to peer pressure and experimentation. Social media can be harmful, and obstetrician-gynecologists may screen their adolescent and young adult patients for high-risk sexual behaviors, especially if sexualized text communication (sexting), exposure to pornography, online dating, or other risk-taking behaviors are present. Victims of cyberbullying and those who engage in sexting are at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy. The effect of social media may be considered in the differential diagnosis of myriad health problems during adolescence. Referrals to mental health care providers or providing outside resources may be indicated. A multidisciplinary approach to address these issues can include the obstetrician-gynecologist, guardians, and school officials and personnel. Knowledge of resources, including those within the schools and community, allows the obstetrician-gynecologist to provide support to adolescents facing these issues. PMID:26942388

  4. Committee Opinion No. 653: Concerns Regarding Social Media and Health Issues in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    Although there are many positive aspects of social media for adolescents and young adults, there are also risks. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental changes, during which adolescents exhibit a limited capacity for self-regulation and an increased risk of susceptibility to peer pressure and experimentation. Social media can be harmful, and obstetrician-gynecologists may screen their adolescent and young adult patients for high-risk sexual behaviors, especially if sexualized text communication (sexting), exposure to pornography, online dating, or other risk-taking behaviors are present. Victims of cyberbullying and those who engage in sexting are at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy. The effect of social media may be considered in the differential diagnosis of myriad health problems during adolescence. Referrals to mental health care providers or providing outside resources may be indicated. A multidisciplinary approach to address these issues can include the obstetrician-gynecologist, guardians, and school officials and personnel. Knowledge of resources, including those within the schools and community, allows the obstetrician-gynecologist to provide support to adolescents facing these issues.

  5. Challenges and coping strategies of orphaned children in Tanzania who are not adequately cared for by adults.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Marguerite; Mathias, Angela

    2012-10-01

    Orphaned children in poor rural communities sometimes have no adult who is able to care for them or else the adult caregiver is not able to provide adequate care. Tanzania remains one of the poorest countries in the world, and poverty frequently constrains foster care. Although HIV prevalence is declining, AIDS is still a major cause of orphaning. This article explores the challenges and coping strategies accompanying two possible life trajectories for orphaned children without adequate adult care: 1) that they remain in rural areas in child-headed households, or 2) that they are trafficked to an urban area. Antonovsky's salutogenic model is used as the theoretical framework. The data come from two separate phenomenological studies with vulnerable children. In the first study, in-depth interviews were held with 12 orphaned children in a poor rural area; data concerning three child heads of households are included here. In the second study, 15 girls who were trafficked from rural areas to Dar es Salaam gave extended life-history narrations; data are included for nine of the girls who were orphaned. Loss of parents, a lack of cash, and the need to balance school attendance with food production were chronic stressors for the children heading households, while resources included income-generation strategies and the ability to negotiate with teachers for time to cultivate. For the trafficked girls chronic stressors included exploitation, long working hours, little or no pay, isolation and rape. Resources for them, although limited, included faith networks and neighbours; escape from the exploitative situation frequently involved external help. We conclude that given physical and social assets the child-headed households were able to cope with the challenges of caring for themselves and a younger child, but isolation and dependency on employers made it difficult for the trafficked girls to cope with this exploitation. The salutogenic model proved a useful tool in

  6. Nursing care for adolescents and young adults with cancer: literature review.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Juliet; Schwartz-Attias, Irit

    2014-01-01

    Cancer patients belonging to the adolescent and young adult (AYA) age group have unique and very specific needs, which require special attention from the caring staff. The difficulty in maintaining the personal and professional development at this age is both natural and normal. Adding to this, coping with a life-threatening disease turns this stage in life into a period with many dilemmas and challenges of quite a complex nature. AYA patients have to deal with issues above and beyond the disease itself, which create a very complex coping picture. On top of that, prognosis for this age group has not improved in recent years, unlike the situation in other age groups like children and adults. The literature on this subject is extensive and comprehensive. However, most of the papers on this subject are very specific and narrow in their approach, each dealing with a specific topic. In this article, we bring together many different papers which make a wide and comprehensive picture of the subject of AYAs coping with cancer, coupled with recommendations for the caring staff. In this review we focus on the various aspects of the disease and treatments in AYAs, based on the conceptual model of quality of life proposed by Ferrell and colleagues [Cancer Nurs 1992;15:153-160; Cancer Nurs 1992;15:247-253], including physical, social, emotional and spiritual aspects. From the psychological standpoint, most of the papers discuss the negative aspects; however, in this article we try to include some articles from the positive psychology school of thought. From our findings it is apparent that there is an opportunity and need to further explore research in this regard. It is apparent that taking a unique approach to AYA cancer patients is needed in order to deal with the unique needs of this age group. This article aims at putting a framework around this issue, with actionable recommendations for the caring staff.

  7. How Many Social Workers Are Needed in Primary Care? A Patient-Based Needs Assessment Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, James; Bikson, Karra; Blue-Howells, Jessica

    2005-01-01

    This study measured levels of self-reported social need in a sample of 684 veterans seen in four primary care clinics of a large Veterans Affairs health care system, using the Social Needs Checklist, and calculated levels of social work staffing to meet these needs. Data were obtained on the presence and severity of 15 areas of social needs,…

  8. Corticosterone may interact with peripubertal development to shape adult resistance to social defeat.

    PubMed

    Latsko, Maeson S; Farnbauch, Laure A; Gilman, T Lee; Lynch, Joseph F; Jasnow, Aaron M

    2016-06-01

    Studies of social stress in adult mice have revealed two distinct defeat-responsive behavioral phenotypes; "susceptible" and "resistant," characterized by social avoidance and social interaction, respectively. Typically, these phenotypes are observed at least 1day after the last defeat in adults, but may extend up to 30days later. The current study examined the impact of peripubertal social defeat on immediate (1day) and adult (30day) social stress phenotypes and neuroendocrine function in male C57BL/6 mice. Initially, peripubertal (P32) mice were resistant to social defeat. When the same mice were tested for social interaction again as adults (P62), two phenotypes emerged; a group of mice were characterized as susceptible evidenced by significantly lower social interaction, whereas the remaining mice exhibited normal social interaction, characteristic of resistance. A repeated analysis of corticosterone revealed that the adult (P62) resistant mice had elevated corticosterone following the social interaction test as juveniles. This was when all mice, regardless of adult phenotype, displayed equivalent levels of social interaction. Peripubertal corticosterone was positively correlated with adult social interaction levels in defeated mice, suggesting early life stress responsiveness impacts adult social behavior. In addition, adult corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) was elevated in all defeated mice, but there were no differences in CRF mRNA expression between the phenotypes. Thus, there is a delayed appearance of social stress-responsive phenotypes suggesting that early life stress exposure, combined with the resultant physiological responses, may interact with pubertal development to influence adult social behavior. PMID:27108196

  9. Corticosterone may interact with peripubertal development to shape adult resistance to social defeat.

    PubMed

    Latsko, Maeson S; Farnbauch, Laure A; Gilman, T Lee; Lynch, Joseph F; Jasnow, Aaron M

    2016-06-01

    Studies of social stress in adult mice have revealed two distinct defeat-responsive behavioral phenotypes; "susceptible" and "resistant," characterized by social avoidance and social interaction, respectively. Typically, these phenotypes are observed at least 1day after the last defeat in adults, but may extend up to 30days later. The current study examined the impact of peripubertal social defeat on immediate (1day) and adult (30day) social stress phenotypes and neuroendocrine function in male C57BL/6 mice. Initially, peripubertal (P32) mice were resistant to social defeat. When the same mice were tested for social interaction again as adults (P62), two phenotypes emerged; a group of mice were characterized as susceptible evidenced by significantly lower social interaction, whereas the remaining mice exhibited normal social interaction, characteristic of resistance. A repeated analysis of corticosterone revealed that the adult (P62) resistant mice had elevated corticosterone following the social interaction test as juveniles. This was when all mice, regardless of adult phenotype, displayed equivalent levels of social interaction. Peripubertal corticosterone was positively correlated with adult social interaction levels in defeated mice, suggesting early life stress responsiveness impacts adult social behavior. In addition, adult corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) was elevated in all defeated mice, but there were no differences in CRF mRNA expression between the phenotypes. Thus, there is a delayed appearance of social stress-responsive phenotypes suggesting that early life stress exposure, combined with the resultant physiological responses, may interact with pubertal development to influence adult social behavior.

  10. Professional perceptions of joint working in primary care and social care services for older people in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Gill; Themessl-Huber, Markus

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report health and social care professionals' perceptions on joint working for the care of older people in Scotland. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 34 primary care and social care professionals. These professionals emphasised that joint working requires a fundamental change in thinking and a scrutiny of professional roles and identities and is influenced by the given geographical and organisational infrastructure. In order to facilitate sustained joint working knowledge and models of care bespoke to joint working need to be developed. This requires health and social care organisations to focus on the co-creation and generation of new knowledge by health and social care professionals as well as the communication and exchange of existing knowledge between services. However, joint working also needs to be based on patient views to guarantee a whole systems perspective.

  11. Measuring health-related quality of life in adults with chronic conditions in primary care settings

    PubMed Central

    Hand, Carri

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe health-related quality of life (HRQOL) conceptual frameworks, critically review 3 commonly used HRQOL scales relevant to adults with chronic conditions in primary care settings, and make recommendations for using HRQOL scales in primary care practice. Data sources Information was accessed regarding HRQOL conceptual and theoretical approaches. A comprehensive search strategy identified 3 commonly used scales that met the review criteria and evidence regarding use of the scales in adults with chronic conditions in community settings. Scale selection Scales were selected if they were designed for clinical use; were easy to administer; were generic and broad in content areas; and contained some individualized items. Scales were critiqued according to content development, theoretical basis, psychometric properties, scoring, feasibility, the concepts being measured, and the number of items that measured an individualized concept. Synthesis Early HRQOL approaches focused on health and functional status while recent approaches incorporate individualized concepts such as the person’s own values and the environment. The abbreviated World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale (WHOQOL-BREF), the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Duke Health Profile were critiqued. All address physical, mental, and social domains, while the WHOQOL-BREF also addresses environment. Psychometric evidence supports use of the SF-36 and WHOQOL-BREF with this population. The SF-36 has the most evidence of responsiveness but has some floor and ceiling effects, while the WHOQOL-BREF does not appear to have floor or ceiling effects but has limited evidence of responsiveness. The WHOQOL-BREF has the highest proportion of individualized items. Conclusion Measurement of HRQOL in adults with chronic conditions can support patient management and contribute to primary care service evaluation. Scales that are based on a broad definition of health and that

  12. Early and adult social environments have independent effects on individual fitness in a social vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Berger, Vérane; Lemaître, Jean-François; Allainé, Dominique; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Cohas, Aurélie

    2015-08-22

    Evidence that the social environment at critical stages of life-history shapes individual trajectories is accumulating. Previous studies have identified either current or delayed effects of social environments on fitness components, but no study has yet analysed fitness consequences of social environments at different life stages simultaneously. To fill the gap, we use an extensive dataset collected during a 24-year intensive monitoring of a population of Alpine marmots (Marmota marmota), a long-lived social rodent. We test whether the number of helpers in early life and over the dominance tenure length has an impact on litter size at weaning, juvenile survival, longevity and lifetime reproductive success (LRS) of dominant females. Dominant females, who were born into a group containing many helpers and experiencing a high number of accumulated helpers over dominance tenure length showed an increased LRS through an increased longevity. We provide evidence that in a wild vertebrate, both early and adult social environments influence individual fitness, acting additionally and independently. These findings demonstrate that helpers have both short- and long-term effects on dominant female Alpine marmots and that the social environment at the time of birth can play a key role in shaping individual fitness in social vertebrates.

  13. Early and adult social environments have independent effects on individual fitness in a social vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Berger, Vérane; Lemaître, Jean-François; Allainé, Dominique; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Cohas, Aurélie

    2015-08-22

    Evidence that the social environment at critical stages of life-history shapes individual trajectories is accumulating. Previous studies have identified either current or delayed effects of social environments on fitness components, but no study has yet analysed fitness consequences of social environments at different life stages simultaneously. To fill the gap, we use an extensive dataset collected during a 24-year intensive monitoring of a population of Alpine marmots (Marmota marmota), a long-lived social rodent. We test whether the number of helpers in early life and over the dominance tenure length has an impact on litter size at weaning, juvenile survival, longevity and lifetime reproductive success (LRS) of dominant females. Dominant females, who were born into a group containing many helpers and experiencing a high number of accumulated helpers over dominance tenure length showed an increased LRS through an increased longevity. We provide evidence that in a wild vertebrate, both early and adult social environments influence individual fitness, acting additionally and independently. These findings demonstrate that helpers have both short- and long-term effects on dominant female Alpine marmots and that the social environment at the time of birth can play a key role in shaping individual fitness in social vertebrates. PMID:26246552

  14. Early and adult social environments have independent effects on individual fitness in a social vertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Vérane; Lemaître, Jean-François; Allainé, Dominique; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Cohas, Aurélie

    2015-01-01

    Evidence that the social environment at critical stages of life-history shapes individual trajectories is accumulating. Previous studies have identified either current or delayed effects of social environments on fitness components, but no study has yet analysed fitness consequences of social environments at different life stages simultaneously. To fill the gap, we use an extensive dataset collected during a 24-year intensive monitoring of a population of Alpine marmots (Marmota marmota), a long-lived social rodent. We test whether the number of helpers in early life and over the dominance tenure length has an impact on litter size at weaning, juvenile survival, longevity and lifetime reproductive success (LRS) of dominant females. Dominant females, who were born into a group containing many helpers and experiencing a high number of accumulated helpers over dominance tenure length showed an increased LRS through an increased longevity. We provide evidence that in a wild vertebrate, both early and adult social environments influence individual fitness, acting additionally and independently. These findings demonstrate that helpers have both short- and long-term effects on dominant female Alpine marmots and that the social environment at the time of birth can play a key role in shaping individual fitness in social vertebrates. PMID:26246552

  15. Occupational therapy in adult day-care (position paper). American Occupational Therapy Association.

    PubMed

    1986-12-01

    Occupational therapy personnel assume central roles in adult day-care regardless of specific program emphasis. Occupational therapy focuses on health rather than illness, on what the individual can do in spite of disabilities. Several of the profession's objectives directly parallel those of adult day-care--to enable individuals to function as independently as possible despite their physical and mental limitations. To achieve this, a variety of intervention strategies are used, including remedial therapeutic activities, environmental modifications, adapted living techniques, and, when necessary, adaptation of the home environment. In this way, occupational therapy contributes significantly to the quality of life of adult day-care participants.

  16. The Social Ecology of Maternal Infant Care in Socially and Economically Marginalized Community in Southern Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daoud, Nihaya; O'Campo, Patricia; Anderson, Kim; Agbaria, Ayman K.; Shoham-Vardi, Ilana

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to better understand the social ecology of infant care (IC) as experienced and perceived by mothers living in a deprived Arab Bedouin community in Israel, where children's health indicators are poor. We used the integrative model of Garcia Coll et al. (Garcia Coll C, Lamberty G, Jenkins R "et al." An integrative model for the study…

  17. Socialization Outcomes of Part Time Graduate Professional Social Work Education: A Comparison of Adult Students in Career Transition to Social Work with Returning Adult Students Who Have Undergraduate Training and Practical Experience in Social Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, David A.; Ross-Gordon, Jovita

    This study compared professional socialization outcomes in two groups of adult students in part time Masters of Social Work programs, 44 with an undergraduate degree in social work and at least 1 year of relevant work experience, and 26 with undergraduate degrees and work experience in other fields. Subjects were given three measures of attitudes…

  18. E-Mental Health Care Among Young Adults and Help-Seeking Behaviors: A Transversal Study in a Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Chollet, Aude; Menard, Estelle; Melchior, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background The Internet is widely used by young people and could serve to improve insufficient access to mental health care. Previous information on this topic comes from selected samples (students or self-selected individuals) and is incomplete. Objective In a community sample of young adults, we aimed to describe frequency of e-mental health care study-associated factors and to determine if e-mental health care was associated with the use of conventional services for mental health care. Methods Using data from the 2011 wave of the TEMPO cohort study of French young adults (N=1214, aged 18-37 years), we examined e-mental health care and associated factors following Andersen’s behavioral model: predisposing factors (age, sex, educational attainment, professional activity, living with a partner, children, childhood negative events, chronic somatic disease, parental history of depression), enabling factors (social support, financial difficulties, parents’ income), and needs-related factors (lifetime major depression or anxiety disorders, suicidal ideation, ADHD, cannabis use). We compared traditional service use (seeking help from a general practitioner, a psychiatrist, a psychologist; antidepressant or anxiolytics/hypnotics use) between participants who used e-mental health care versus those who did not. Results Overall, 8.65% (105/1214) of participants reported seeking e-mental health care in case of psychological difficulties in the preceding 12 months and 15.7% (104/664) reported psychological difficulties. Controlling for all covariates, the likelihood of e-mental health care was positively associated with 2 needs-related factors, lifetime major depression or anxiety disorder (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.36-4.09) and lifetime suicidal ideation (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.40-2.60), and negatively associated with a predisposing factor: childhood life events (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.38-0.93). E-mental health care did not hinder traditional care, but was associated with face

  19. Using a social entrepreneurial approach to enhance the financial and social value of health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sandra S; Lu, Jui-Fen Rachel; Guo, Kristina L

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a conceptual framework was developed to show that social entrepreneurial practices can be effectively translated to meet the social needs in health care. We used a theory-in-use case study approach that encompasses postulation of a working taxonomy from literature scanning and a deliberation of the taxonomy through triangulation of multilevel data of a case study conducted in a Taiwan-based hospital system. Specifically, we demonstrated that a nonprofit organization can adopt business principles that emphasize both financial and social value. We tested our model and found comprehensive accountability across departments throughout the case hospital system, and this led to sustainable and continual growth of the organization. Through social entrepreneurial practices, we established that both financial value creation and fulfilling the social mission for the case hospital system can be achieved. PMID:25223158

  20. Mental health in young adults and adolescents - supporting general physicians to provide holistic care.

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Izabela

    2015-04-01

    In the era of an ageing population, young adults on medical wards are quite rare, as only 12% of young adults report a long-term illness or disability. However, mental health problems remain prevalent in the younger population. In a recent report, mental health and obesity were listed as the most common problems in young adults. Teams set up specifically for the needs of younger adults, such as early intervention in psychosis services are shown to work better than traditional care and have also proven to be cost effective. On the medical wards, younger patients may elicit strong emotions in staff, who often feel protective and may identify strongly with the young patient's suffering. In order to provide holistic care for young adults, general physicians need to recognise common presentations of mental illness in young adults such as depression, deliberate self-harm, eating disorders and substance misuse. Apart from treating illness, health promotion is particularly important for young adults.

  1. Rethinking Social Justice and Adult Education for Welcoming, Inclusive Communities: Synthesis of Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Elizabeth; Baillie Abidi, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the key themes across the articles on transnational migration, social inclusion, and adult education, using Nancy Fraser's framework of redistributive, recognitive, and representational justice.

  2. Intravenous fish oil in adult intensive care unit patients.

    PubMed

    Heller, Axel R

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids contained in fish oils have shown efficacy in the treatment of chronic and acute inflammatory diseases due to their pleiotropic effects on inflammatory cell signalling pathways. In a variety of experimental and clinical studies, omega-3 fatty acids attenuated hyperinflammatory conditions and induced faster recovery. This chapter will shed light on the effects of intravenous fish oil in adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients and will discuss clinical data and recent meta-analyses on the topic. While significant beneficial effects on infection rates and the lengths of ICU and hospital stays have concordantly been identified in three recent meta-analyses on non-ICU surgical patients, the level of evidence is not so clear for critically ill patients. Three meta-analyses published in 2012 or 2013 explored data on the ICU population. Although the present data suggest the consideration of enteral nutrition enriched with fish oil, borage oil and antioxidants in mild to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, only one of the three meta-analyses found a trend (p = 0.08) of lower mortality in ICU patients receiving intravenous omega-3 fatty acids. Two of the meta-analyses indicated a significantly shorter hospital stay (5.17-9.49 days), and one meta-analysis found a significant reduction in ICU days (1.92). As a result of these effects, cost savings were postulated. Unlike in surgical patients, the effects of fish oil on infection rates were not found to be statistically significant in ICU patients, and dose-effect relationships were not established for any cohort. Thus, obvious positive secondary outcome effects with intravenous fish oil have not yet been shown to transfer to lower mortality in critically ill patients. There is a need for adequately powered, well-planned and well-conducted randomized trials to give clear recommendations on the individual utility and dosage of intravenous omega-3 fatty acids in critical illness. PMID:25471809

  3. Kindergarteners’ Self-Reported Social Inhibition and Observed Social Reticence: Moderation by Adult-Reported Social Inhibition and Social Anxiety Disorder Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Molitor, Joseph G.

    2014-01-01

    Prevention of later anxiety problems would best be accomplished by identifying at-risk children early in development. For example, children who develop Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) may show social withdrawal in the form of social inhibition (i.e., shyness with unfamiliar adults and peers) at school entry. Although the use of children’s perceptions of their own social inhibition would provide insight into early risk, the utility of young children’s self-reports remains unclear. The current study examined whether children deemed more extreme on social inhibition or social anxiety by adult report provided self-report of social inhibition that related to observed social reticence in the laboratory. Participants included 85 kindergarten children (36 female, 49 male), their parents, and their teachers. Moderation analyses revealed that children’s self-reported social inhibition related significantly to observed social reticence under the conditions of high parent-reported social inhibition, high teacher-reported social inhibition, and high SAD symptoms. These results suggest that the most inhibited children are aware of their behavior and can report it in a meaningfully way as young as kindergarten age. PMID:25113397

  4. The community social and health care system in Finland.

    PubMed

    Tervo-Pellikka, R

    1995-04-01

    The greatest challenge to the national social and health policy in Finland since 1992 has been the task of finding a correct cost/quality ratio of required services. The local authorities have the responsibility to arrange the services to the citizens and may purchase the service from a municipal or a private sector provider. The State supervises the field and contributes to the finding, but the local authorities are responsible for organizing the health services. The central bodies are the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, and the National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health which operates under supervision of the Ministry. Introduction into practice of the population responsibility principle has been started. A patient applies first to his local health centre or private practitioner for examination and treatment. If he cannot be treated there, he is referred to the outpatient department of a hospital. The aim is to ensure continuity in staff-patient contacts. Health care and social care is a natural right of every citizen. The national plan for social and health services is based on statistical data. The entire population is covered by sickness insurance, which includes compensation for lost earnings and treatment costs. Sickness insurance is run by the Social Insurance Institution, directly subordinate to the Parliament and also administering the flat-rate pensions. The Institution has its own network of district and local offices. The Act on the Status and the Rights of a Patient is a comprehensive Act covering the fields of admission, treatments, patient's autonomy, access to information, report on patients, and confidentiality.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. [Social constructionism in primary health care: an integrative review].

    PubMed

    Cadoná, Eliane; Scarparo, Helena

    2015-09-01

    This study sets out to analyze scientific articles in order to investigate how researchers in the area of Social Constructionism define "health" in Primary Health Care. An integrative review of the literature was conducted along with a decision to concentrate on those works with narrative experiences and research studies. The database researched was the Brazilian Virtual Health Library, with experiences in the scope of Primary Health Care. The effectiveness of this step resulted in 12 articles. Data were analyzed and discussed based on the perspectives of social constructionism, which generated two central themes. They were: citizenship exercises - promoting health in collective spaces; health practices - overcoming the dichotomies and absolute truths. This study revealed the relevance of the notion of shared responsibility on meanings of health contained in the texts analyzed. The researchers claim that it is possible to expand health practices into collective action to facilitate ongoing dialogue between health users and workers. However, the dominance of biomedical discourse is criticized by the researchers, because that paradigm still promotes practices of care focused on illness.

  6. Childhood Adversity Is Associated with Adult Theory of Mind and Social Affiliation, but Not Face Processing

    PubMed Central

    Germine, Laura; Dunn, Erin C.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Smoller, Jordan W.

    2015-01-01

    People vary substantially in their ability to acquire and maintain social ties. Here, we use a combined epidemiological and individual differences approach to understand the childhood roots of adult social cognitive functioning. We assessed exposure to 25 forms of traumatic childhood experiences in over 5000 adults, along with measures of face discrimination, face memory, theory of mind, social motivation, and social support. Retrospectively-reported experiences of parental maltreatment in childhood (particularly physical abuse) were the most broadly and robustly associated with adult variations in theory of mind, social motivation, and social support. Adult variations in face discrimination and face memory, on the other hand, were not significantly associated with exposure to childhood adversity. Our findings indicate domains of social cognition that may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of adverse childhood environments, and suggest mechanisms whereby environmental factors might influence the development of social abilities. PMID:26068107

  7. Childhood Adversity Is Associated with Adult Theory of Mind and Social Affiliation, but Not Face Processing.

    PubMed

    Germine, Laura; Dunn, Erin C; McLaughlin, Katie A; Smoller, Jordan W

    2015-01-01

    People vary substantially in their ability to acquire and maintain social ties. Here, we use a combined epidemiological and individual differences approach to understand the childhood roots of adult social cognitive functioning. We assessed exposure to 25 forms of traumatic childhood experiences in over 5000 adults, along with measures of face discrimination, face memory, theory of mind, social motivation, and social support. Retrospectively-reported experiences of parental maltreatment in childhood (particularly physical abuse) were the most broadly and robustly associated with adult variations in theory of mind, social motivation, and social support. Adult variations in face discrimination and face memory, on the other hand, were not significantly associated with exposure to childhood adversity. Our findings indicate domains of social cognition that may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of adverse childhood environments, and suggest mechanisms whereby environmental factors might influence the development of social abilities. PMID:26068107

  8. The Effectiveness of Social Stories[TM] to Develop Social Interactions with Adults with Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Rachel; Stansfield, Jois

    2012-01-01

    Most research into the effectiveness of Social Stories has focused on children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study examines the use of Social Stories with four adults with learning disabilities and social communication impairments characteristic of ASD. This study employed an N = 1 multiple-baseline, across-participant, AB design with…

  9. Indicators of Youth Social Capital: The Case for Not Using Adult Indicators in the Measurement of Youth Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billett, Paulina

    2012-01-01

    Social capital is a difficult concept to define, and the task of defining the social capital of youth is even more complicated. The concept has not only been poorly researched but is also imperfectly understood. This article examines the problems faced in the use of adult indicators in youth social capital research and explores current…

  10. Lack of access and continuity of adult health care: a national population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Dilélio, Alitéia Santiago; Tomasi, Elaine; Thumé, Elaine; da Silveira, Denise Silva; Siqueira, Fernando Carlos Vinholes; Piccini, Roberto Xavier; Silva, Suele Manjourany; Nunes, Bruno Pereira; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the lack of access and continuity of health care in adults. METHODS A cross-sectional population-based study was performed on a sample of 12,402 adults aged 20 to 59 years in urban areas of 100 municipalities of 23 states in the five Brazilian geopolitical regions. Barriers to the access and continuity of health care and were investigated based on receiving, needing and seeking health care (hospitalization and accident/emergency care in the last 12 months; care provided by a doctor, by other health professional or home care in the last three months). Based on the results obtained by the description of the sample, a projection is provided for adults living in Brazilian urban areas. RESULTS The highest prevalence of lack of access to health services and to provision of care by health professionals was for hospitalization (3.0%), whilst the lowest prevalence was for care provided by a doctor (1.1%). The lack of access to care provided by other health professionals was 2.0%; to accident and emergency services, 2.1%; and to home care, 2.9%. As for prevalences, the greatest absolute lack of access occurred in emergency care (more than 360,000 adults). The main reasons were structural and organizational problems, such as unavailability of hospital beds, of health professionals, of appointments for the type of care needed and charges made for care. CONCLUSIONS The universal right to health care in Brazil has not yet been achieved. These projections can help health care management in scaling the efforts needed to overcome this problem, such as expanding the infrastructure of health services and the workforce. PMID:26061454

  11. Preventive Care Service Usage Among Chinese Older Adults in the Greater Chicago Area

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Dong, XinQi

    2014-01-01

    Background. Preventive care is important for reducing morbidity and mortality among the elderly, but racial/ethnic disparities exist in use of preventive care services. We aimed to develop a better understanding of preventive care service utilization among Chinese older adults in the Greater Chicago area. Methods. We used data collected from the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago study, a population-based survey of 3,159 community-dwelling Chinese older adults in the Greater Chicago area. Preventive care services assessed include use of flu, pneumonia, and hepatitis B vaccines as well as colon, breast, cervical and prostate cancer screening. We also examined sociodemographic, health and quality of life correlates for preventive care service use. Results. We found that although Chinese older adults had lower utilization rates for the pneumonia vaccine and cancer screening, their utilization of the flu shot was consistent with national utilization rates. No sociodemographic, self-reported health, or quality of life characteristics were associated with all nine of the preventive care services. Conclusion. Use of preventive care services except flu vaccination was low among Chinese older adults in the Greater Chicago area. However, future longitudinal studies may be necessary to further elucidate preventive care service utilization patterns among Chinese older adults. PMID:25378452

  12. Who Provides Care? A Prospective Study of Caregiving Among Adult Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Pillemer, Karl; Suitor, J. Jill

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We use data from a longitudinal, within-family study to identify factors that predict which adult siblings assumed caregiving responsibilities to older mothers over a 7-year period. Design and Methods: Data for the study were collected from 139 older mothers at 2 points 7 years apart regarding their expectations and experiences of care from 537 adult children. Results: Children whom mothers identified at T1 as their expected future caregivers were much more likely to provide care when a serious illness occurred. Caregiving offspring were also more likely at T1 to have shared their mothers’ values, lived in proximity, and to be daughters. Implications: The findings indicate the degree to which a mother’s expectations for care predict actual caregiving by that child. Practitioners working with older adults should explore parents’ expectations for future care that involves their adult children. PMID:23840019

  13. Contributors to Adult Sibling Relationships and Intention to Care of Siblings of Individuals With Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cuskelly, Monica

    2016-05-01

    The contribution of childhood sibling relationships to adult sibling relationships and intention to provide care was investigated in a sample in which one member of each dyad had Down syndrome. Thirty-nine adult siblings of an adult with Down syndrome who had participated in a study of sibling relationships in childhood/adolescence provided data about the quality of current relationships and of their intention to provide care for their brother/sister with Down syndrome in the future. Only behavior problems in the child with Down syndrome predicted warmth of the current adult relationship. Although adult sibling relationships were reported to be warm, the quality of neither the current nor the past relationship was associated with the reported intention to provide care.

  14. Using social media in supportive and palliative care research.

    PubMed

    Casañas i Comabella, Carolina; Wanat, Marta

    2015-06-01

    Difficulties relating to supportive and palliative care research are often reported. However, studies have highlighted that people near the end of life are happy to participate in research and want their voices heard. Thus, one may raise a twofold question: are we limiting the free will of people who are seriously ill? And are we missing important data, which probably cannot be obtained from other sources? In light of this landscape, a new opportunity has emerged: the use of social media (SM). This paper provides a comprehensive summary of SM, including its theoretical underpinnings, and recent examples of successful uses of SM in healthcare research. It also outlines the opportunities (wider reach, direct access, the potential of Big Data, readiness of research data, empowered participants) and challenges (anonymity of participants, digital divide, sample bias, screening and 'saying no' to participants, data analysis) of using SM in end-of-life care research. Finally, it describes the practical steps that a researcher could follow to recruit patients using SM. Implications for palliative care clinicians, researchers and policymakers are also discussed, with a focus on the need to facilitate patient-centred care through the use of SM. The need for relevant and updated guidelines in this new, emerging field is highlighted. PMID:25311211

  15. [Clinical and social fate of craniocerebral injuries in young adults].

    PubMed

    Girard, V; Schadelle, J M

    1976-03-01

    After looking 15 years back, the authors based two detailed observations of young adult cranio-cerebral injured taken amongst a group of 30 others who had been the subject of a medical doctorate thesis. From then on, the authors drew notions of semeiology, concerning the subjects becoming aware of their body before being injured, when waking up from coma and during the phasis of after effects. They mean to suggest to consider the notions of "normal person" and of pre-traumatic mind, of "present person" and of traumatic mind, and of "future person" and of post-traumatic mind. They attempted to write a comparative essay with the cerebral and physical disable of early youth. By way of conclusion, they briefly studied the attitudes of the clinical, familial and social relations and of the medical and legal consequences of these attitudes. PMID:942162

  16. Reframing Adult Literacy and Numeracy Course Outcomes: A Social Capital Perspective. An Adult Literacy National Project Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balatti, Jo; Black, Stephen; Falk, Ian

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether adult literacy and numeracy courses produced social capital outcomes, which are changes in students' connections with networks of people. Interviews seeking information about participation in adult literacy and numeracy courses were conducted with 57 students and 18 teachers in four courses, one each in the Northern…

  17. Burden, professional support, and social network in families of children and young adults with muscular dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Patalano, Melania; Sagliocchi, Alessandra; Scutifero, Marianna; Zaccaro, Antonella; D'angelo, Maria Grazia; Civati, Federica; Brighina, Erika; Vita, Giuseppe; Vita, Gian Luca; Messina, Sonia; Sframeli, Maria; Pane, Marika; Lombardo, Maria Elena; Scalise, Roberta; D'amico, Adele; Colia, Giulia; Catteruccia, Michela; Balottin, Umberto; Berardinelli, Angela; Chiara Motta, Maria; Angelini, Corrado; Gaiani, Alessandra; Semplicini, Claudio; Bello, Luca; Battini, Roberta; Astrea, Guja; Politano, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: This study explores burden and social and professional support in families of young patients with muscular dystrophies (MDs) in Italy. Methods: The study was carried out on 502 key relatives of 4‐ to 25‐year‐old patients suffering from Duchenne, Becker, or Limb‐Girdle MD who were living with at least 1 adult relative. Results: A total of 77.1% of relatives reported feelings of loss, 74.0% had feelings of sadness, and 59.1% had constraints in leisure activities. Burden was higher among relatives of patients with higher disability and who spent more daily hours in caregiving. Practical difficulties were higher among relatives who perceived lower help in patient emergencies and less practical support by their social network. Psychological burden was higher in those relatives who were unemployed, those with poorer support in emergencies, and those with lower social contacts. Conclusions: Caring for patients with MDs may be demanding for relatives even in the early stages of these disorders, especially when social support is poor and the patient's disability increases. Muscle Nerve 52: 13–21, 2015 PMID:25363165

  18. Social Competence of Adult Chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") with Severe Deprivation History: I. An Individual Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalcher-Sommersguter, Elfriede; Preuschoft, Signe; Crailsheim, Karl; Franz, Cornelia

    2011-01-01

    Early social deprivation in highly social mammals interferes with their varying needs for security and stimulation. Toleration of social stimulation was studied in 18 adult ex-laboratory chimpanzees, who had been deprived for 16 to 27 years, during their 1st year after resocialization into 1 of 3 social groups. For this, a model of social…

  19. Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training for Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandalaft, Michelle R.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Allen, Tandra T.; Chapman, Sandra B.

    2013-01-01

    Few evidence-based social interventions exist for young adults with high-functioning autism, many of whom encounter significant challenges during the transition into adulthood. The current study investigated the feasibility of an engaging Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training intervention focused on enhancing social skills, social cognition,…

  20. Is older adult care mediated by caregivers’ cultural stereotypes? The role of competence and warmth attribution

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío; Bustillos, Antonio; Santacreu, Marta; Schettini, Rocio; Díaz-Veiga, Pura; Huici, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine, from the stereotype content model (SCM) perspective, the role of the competence and warmth stereotypes of older adults held by professional caregivers. Methods A quasi-experimental design, ex post facto with observational analyses, was used in this study. The cultural view on competence and warmth was assessed in 100 caregivers working in a set of six residential geriatric care units (three of them organized following a person-centered care approach and the other three providing standard geriatric care). In order to assess caregivers’ cultural stereotypical views, the SCM questionnaire was administered. To evaluate the role of caregivers’ cultural stereotypes in their professional performance as well as in older adult functioning, two observational scales from the Sistema de Evaluación de Residencias de Ancianos (assessment system for older adults residences)-RS (staff functioning and residents’ functioning) were applied. Results Caregivers’ cultural views of older adults (compared to young people) are characterized by low competence and high warmth, replicating the data obtained elsewhere from the SCM. Most importantly, the person-centered units predict better staff performance and better resident functioning than standard units. Moreover, cultural stereotyping of older adult competence moderates the effects of staff performance on resident functioning, in line with the findings of previous research. Conclusion Our results underline the influence of caregivers’ cultural stereotypes on the type of care, as well as on their professional behaviors and on older adult functioning. Caregivers’ cultural stereotypes could be considered as a central issue in older adult care since they mediate the triangle of care: caregivers/older adults/type of care; therefore, much more attention should be paid to this psychosocial care component. PMID:27217736

  1. Nurse managers' perceptions of Quality of life of older adults living in long-stay care in Ireland: is it time for a bill of rights?

    PubMed

    Murphy, Kathy; O'Shea, Eamon; Cooney, Adeline

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore nurse managers' perceptions of quality of life of older adults living in residential care in Ireland and key policy issues. Residential care facilities ultimately determine residents' quality of life. A qualitative descriptive design was used in all seven focus groups with 67 participants. Two themes were identified: Factors Influencing Quality of Life and Factors Influencing Policy. Managers highlighted that the physical environment, making it like home, involving the family, the social environment, meaningful recreational activities, and community connections were central to residents' quality of life. It is argued that a Bill of Rights for older adults should be developed.

  2. Clues of subjective social status among young adults.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, François; Roos, J Micah; Combs, R M

    2015-07-01

    We investigate determinants of subjective social status (SSS) as measured by respondents placing themselves on a ten-rung ladder from least to most "money", "education" and "respected job", in a large sample of young adults. The most potent clues of SSS are proximate in the life course, reflecting educational attainment and current socioeconomic and job situation, rather than distal characteristics such as family background, although relatively distal High school GPA has a lingering effect. Additional analyses reveal that College selectivity has a substantial impact on SSS, net of other variables in the model; Currently married does not significantly contribute to SSS, but contrary to some expectations Number of children significantly lowers SSS. We find no evidence of greater "status borrowing" by women as associations of SSS with shared household characteristics (Household income, Household assets, Home ownership) do not differ by gender. Our findings for these young adults support the conclusion of earlier research that SSS reflects a "cognitive averaging" of standard dimensions of socioeconomic status. PMID:26004468

  3. The Integration of Adult Acute Care Surgeons into Pediatric Surgical Care Models Supplements the Workforce without Compromising Quality of Care.

    PubMed

    Judhan, Rudy J; Silhy, Raquel; Statler, Kristen; Khan, Mija; Dyer, Benjamin; Thompson, Stephanie; Richmond, Bryan

    2015-09-01

    Acute care of children remains a challenge due to a shortage of pediatric surgeons, particularly in rural areas. In our institutional norm, all cases in patients age six and older are managed by dedicated general surgeons. The provision of care to these children by these surgeons alleviates the impact of such shortages. We conducted a five-year retrospective analysis of all acute care pediatric surgical cases performed in patients aged 6 to 17 years by a dedicated group of adult general surgeons in a rural tertiary care hospital. Demographics, procedure, complications, outcomes, length of stay, and time of consultation/operation were obtained via chart review. Elective, trauma related, or procedures performed by a pediatric surgeon were excluded. Descriptive statistics are reported. A total of 397 cases were performed by six dedicated general surgeons during the study period. Mean age was 11.5 ± 3.1 years. In all, 100 (25.2%) were transferred from outlying facilities and 52.6 per cent of consultations/operations occurred at night (7P-7A), of which 33.2 per cent occurred during late night hours (11P-7A). On weekends, 34.0 per cent occurred. Appendectomy was the most commonly performed operation (n = 357,89.9%), of which 311 were laparoscopic (87.1%). Others included incision/drainage (4.5%), laparoscopic cholecystectomy (2.0%), bowel resection (1.5%), incarcerated hernia (0.5%), small bowel obstruction (0.5%), intra-abdominal abscess drainage (0.3%), resection of intussusception (0.3%), Graham patch (0.3%), and resection omental torsion (0.3%). Median length of stay was two days. Complications occurred in 23 patients (5.8%), of which 22(5.5%) were the result of the disease process. These results parallel those published by pediatric surgeons in this age group and for the diagnoses treated. Models integrating dedicated general surgeons into pediatric call rotations can be designed such that quality of pediatric care is maintained while providing relief to an

  4. The Integration of Adult Acute Care Surgeons into Pediatric Surgical Care Models Supplements the Workforce without Compromising Quality of Care.

    PubMed

    Judhan, Rudy J; Silhy, Raquel; Statler, Kristen; Khan, Mija; Dyer, Benjamin; Thompson, Stephanie; Richmond, Bryan

    2015-09-01

    Acute care of children remains a challenge due to a shortage of pediatric surgeons, particularly in rural areas. In our institutional norm, all cases in patients age six and older are managed by dedicated general surgeons. The provision of care to these children by these surgeons alleviates the impact of such shortages. We conducted a five-year retrospective analysis of all acute care pediatric surgical cases performed in patients aged 6 to 17 years by a dedicated group of adult general surgeons in a rural tertiary care hospital. Demographics, procedure, complications, outcomes, length of stay, and time of consultation/operation were obtained via chart review. Elective, trauma related, or procedures performed by a pediatric surgeon were excluded. Descriptive statistics are reported. A total of 397 cases were performed by six dedicated general surgeons during the study period. Mean age was 11.5 ± 3.1 years. In all, 100 (25.2%) were transferred from outlying facilities and 52.6 per cent of consultations/operations occurred at night (7P-7A), of which 33.2 per cent occurred during late night hours (11P-7A). On weekends, 34.0 per cent occurred. Appendectomy was the most commonly performed operation (n = 357,89.9%), of which 311 were laparoscopic (87.1%). Others included incision/drainage (4.5%), laparoscopic cholecystectomy (2.0%), bowel resection (1.5%), incarcerated hernia (0.5%), small bowel obstruction (0.5%), intra-abdominal abscess drainage (0.3%), resection of intussusception (0.3%), Graham patch (0.3%), and resection omental torsion (0.3%). Median length of stay was two days. Complications occurred in 23 patients (5.8%), of which 22(5.5%) were the result of the disease process. These results parallel those published by pediatric surgeons in this age group and for the diagnoses treated. Models integrating dedicated general surgeons into pediatric call rotations can be designed such that quality of pediatric care is maintained while providing relief to an

  5. Use of and interest in alternative therapies among adult primary care clinicians and adult members in a large health maintenance organization.

    PubMed

    Gordon, N P; Sobel, D S; Tarazona, E Z

    1998-09-01

    During spring 1996, random samples of adult primary care physicians, obstetrics-gynecology physicians and nurse practitioners, and adult members of a large northern California group practice model health maintenance organization (HMO) were surveyed by mail to assess the use of alternative therapies and the extent of interest in having them incorporated into HMO-delivered care. Sixty-one percent (n = 624) of adult primary care physicians, 70% (n = 157) of obstetrics-gynecology clinicians, and 50% (2 surveys, n = 1,507 and n = 17,735) of adult HMO members responded. During the previous 12 months, 25% of adults reported using and nearly 90% of adult primary care physicians and obstetrics-gynecology clinicians reported recommending at least 1 alternative therapy, primarily for pain management. Chiropractic, acupuncture, massage, and behavioral medicine techniques such as meditation and relaxation training were most often cited. Obstetrics-gynecology clinicians used herbal and homeopathic medicines more often than adult primary care physicians, primarily for menopause and premenstrual syndrome. Two thirds of adult primary care physicians and three fourths of obstetrics-gynecology clinicians were at least moderately interested in using alternative therapies with patients, and nearly 70% of young and middle-aged adult and half of senior adult members were interested in having alternative therapies incorporated into their health care. Adult primary care physicians and members were more interested in having the HMO cover manipulative and behavioral medicine therapies than homeopathic or herbal medicines.

  6. Effectiveness of a social robot, "Paro," in a VA long-term care setting.

    PubMed

    Lane, Geoffrey W; Noronha, Delilah; Rivera, Alexandra; Craig, Kathy; Yee, Christina; Mills, Brent; Villanueva, Eimee

    2016-08-01

    Interest in animal assisted interventions (AAI) has grown over the years, but acceptance of AAI by the clinical and research community has been hampered by safety, hygiene, and logistical concerns. Advances in the field of social robotics have provided a promising route to deliver AAI while avoiding these aforementioned obstacles. Although there has been promising initial research on social robotics in older adults, to date there has been no such research conducted with a veteran population. The present pilot study followed 23 veteran residents of a Veterans Affairs (VA) geropsychiatric long-term care facility over the span of approximately a year and a half. It was found that use of Paro, a social robot, resulted in increased observed positive affective and behavioral indicators, with concomitant decreases observed in negative affective and behavioral indicators. The authors concluded that Paro is likely an effective nonpharmacological approach for managing dementia-related mood and behavior problems with veterans in VA long term care facilities. They additionally observed that Paro is best presented to residents who are relatively calm and approachable, as opposed to actively exhibiting behavior or mood problems. Future research directions are discussed in light of both the positive results noted and the inherent limitations of our pilot study. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27195530

  7. Effectiveness of a social robot, "Paro," in a VA long-term care setting.

    PubMed

    Lane, Geoffrey W; Noronha, Delilah; Rivera, Alexandra; Craig, Kathy; Yee, Christina; Mills, Brent; Villanueva, Eimee

    2016-08-01

    Interest in animal assisted interventions (AAI) has grown over the years, but acceptance of AAI by the clinical and research community has been hampered by safety, hygiene, and logistical concerns. Advances in the field of social robotics have provided a promising route to deliver AAI while avoiding these aforementioned obstacles. Although there has been promising initial research on social robotics in older adults, to date there has been no such research conducted with a veteran population. The present pilot study followed 23 veteran residents of a Veterans Affairs (VA) geropsychiatric long-term care facility over the span of approximately a year and a half. It was found that use of Paro, a social robot, resulted in increased observed positive affective and behavioral indicators, with concomitant decreases observed in negative affective and behavioral indicators. The authors concluded that Paro is likely an effective nonpharmacological approach for managing dementia-related mood and behavior problems with veterans in VA long term care facilities. They additionally observed that Paro is best presented to residents who are relatively calm and approachable, as opposed to actively exhibiting behavior or mood problems. Future research directions are discussed in light of both the positive results noted and the inherent limitations of our pilot study. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Notation of Depression in Case Records of Older Adults in Community Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Enola K.

    2008-01-01

    Although significant numbers of social service clients experience mental health problems, virtually no research has examined the responsiveness of social service agencies to mental disorder. This article examines the extent to which client depression is reflected in records of a public social service agency, community long-term care (CLTC).…

  9. Good-quality social care for people with Parkinson’s disease: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Fiona; Stocks, Amanda-Jayne; McDonnell, Ann; Ramaswamy, Bhanu; Wood, Brendan; Whitfield, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The study examines the meaning of good-quality social care for people with Parkinson's disease and their carers. It identifies, from their perspective, the impact of good-quality social care on health and well-being. Design Qualitative case study methodology, interview and framework analysis techniques were used. Setting: community locations in the north and midlands of England. Participants Data were collected from 43 participants including individual interviews with people with Parkinson's disease (n=4), formal and informal social care providers (n=13), 2 focus groups, 1 with people with Parkinson's disease and their carers (n=17), and 1 with professionals (n=8), plus a telephone interview with a former commissioner. Findings Good-quality social care, delivered in a timely fashion, was reported to have a positive impact on health. Furthermore, there is an indication that good-quality social care can prevent untoward events, such as infections, symptom deterioration and deterioration in mental health. The concept of the ‘Impact Gap’ developed from the findings, illustrates how the costs of care may be reduced by delivering good-quality social care. Control, choice and maintaining independence emerged as indicators of good-quality social care, irrespective of clinical condition. Participants identified characteristics indicative of good-quality social care specific to Parkinson's disease, including understanding Parkinson's disease, appropriate administration of medication, timing of care and reassessment. ‘Parkinson's aware’ social care was seen to generate psychological, physical and social benefits that were inter-related. Conclusions The findings indicate how maximising quality in social care delivery for people with Parkinson's disease can impact on health and well-being. Long-term or short-term benefits may result in prevented events and reductions in health and social care resource. Health professionals can be instrumental in early

  10. What is the perceived nature of parental care and support for young people with cystic fibrosis as they enter adult health services?

    PubMed

    Iles, Nicola; Lowton, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The majority of those diagnosed with cystic fibrosis (CF) now live to adulthood. In response to increased survival age, transition services have been developed to ensure smooth transfer from paediatric to adult specialist healthcare, although the majority of treatment and care continues to be delivered in the home. However, little is known about how young adults and staff conceptualise the nature of the parental role after young people have left paediatric care. The aim of this study is to explore the nature of parental support that is perceived to be available at this time. As part of a larger study of transitional care, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 50 young people with CF aged 13-24 years (32 with experience of transition and/or adult CF services) and 23 specialist healthcare professionals (14 working in adult care) across two CF centres in Southeast England. Interviews took place in young people's homes or within CF services, using a topic guide and were recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. Four domains of perceived parental support were identified by the young people interviewed, with varying degrees of continuity into adult care: (1) Providing non-clinical practical and emotional support; (2) Acting as 'troubleshooters' in times of health-related crisis; (3) Working in partnership with offspring in ongoing disease management in the home and clinic; (4) Acting as 'protectors' of their children. Young people and service staff expressed tensions in managing parental involvement in post-paediatric consultations and the degree to which parents should be aware of their offspring's deteriorating health and social concerns. Parental anxiety and over-involvement was perceived by many young people and staff as unsupportive. We suggest that although health and social care providers are mindful of the tensions that arise for those leaving paediatric services, the place of parental support in adult care is currently contentious for these 'new

  11. Substitute Decision-Making for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Living in Residential Care: Learning Through Experience

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Michael C.; Clare, Isabel C. H.; Holland, Anthony J.

    2009-01-01

    In the UK, current policies and services for people with mental disorders, including those with intellectual disabilities (ID), presume that these men and women can, do, and should, make decisions for themselves. The new Mental Capacity Act (England and Wales) 2005 (MCA) sets this presumption into statute, and codifies how decisions relating to health and welfare should be made for those adults judged unable to make one or more such decisions autonomously. The MCA uses a procedural checklist to guide this process of substitute decision-making. The personal experiences of providing direct support to seven men and women with ID living in residential care, however, showed that substitute decision-making took two forms, depending on the type of decision to be made. The first process, ‘strategic substitute decision-making’, paralleled the MCA’s legal and ethical framework, whilst the second process, ‘relational substitute decision-making’, was markedly different from these statutory procedures. In this setting, ‘relational substitute decision-making’ underpinned everyday personal and social interventions connected with residents’ daily living, and was situated within a framework of interpersonal and interdependent care relationships. The implications of these findings for residential services and the implementation of the MCA are discussed. PMID:18240026

  12. 76 FR 43254 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... REDUCED PRICE 1.46 2.85 0.44 FREE 1.76 3.25 0.89 Breakfast Lunch and Supper Snack Day Care Homes Tier I... the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1753, 1759a, and 1766), section 4 of the..., 2010, at 75 FR 41793. Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) [Per meal rates in whole or...

  13. Pathways of Adult Children Providing Care to Older Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Amanda E.

    2013-01-01

    Guided by life course and stress process theory, this study investigated pathways of adult child caregivers' family (caregiving, marital, parenting) and nonfamily (employment) roles. Eight waves of data from the Health and Retirement Study were analyzed for 1,300 adult child caregivers. Latent class analysis provided strong evidence for a 4-class…

  14. Emotion Dysregulation and Anxiety in Adults with ASD: Does Social Motivation Play a Role?

    PubMed

    Swain, Deanna; Scarpa, Angela; White, Susan; Laugeson, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    Young adults with ASD and no intellectual impairment are more likely to exhibit clinical levels of anxiety than typically developing peers (DSM-5, American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study tests a mechanistic model in which anxiety culminates via emotion dysregulation and social motivation. Adults with ASD (49 males, 20 females) completed self-report measures on emotion regulation, caregivers completed measures on ASD severity and both on social anxiety. Results indicated that emotion dysregulation (p < .001; p < .05) and social motivation (p < .05, p < .001) significantly predicted social anxiety as reported by caregivers and young adults respectively. However, social motivation did not appear to play a moderating role in the relationship between emotion regulation and anxiety, even when controlling for social awareness. Significant predictor variables of social anxiety varied based on reporter (i.e. caregiver versus young adult), with difficulty engaging in goal-directed behaviors during negative emotions serving as the only shared predictor. PMID:26319254

  15. Emotion Dysregulation and Anxiety in Adults with ASD: Does Social Motivation Play a Role?

    PubMed

    Swain, Deanna; Scarpa, Angela; White, Susan; Laugeson, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    Young adults with ASD and no intellectual impairment are more likely to exhibit clinical levels of anxiety than typically developing peers (DSM-5, American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study tests a mechanistic model in which anxiety culminates via emotion dysregulation and social motivation. Adults with ASD (49 males, 20 females) completed self-report measures on emotion regulation, caregivers completed measures on ASD severity and both on social anxiety. Results indicated that emotion dysregulation (p < .001; p < .05) and social motivation (p < .05, p < .001) significantly predicted social anxiety as reported by caregivers and young adults respectively. However, social motivation did not appear to play a moderating role in the relationship between emotion regulation and anxiety, even when controlling for social awareness. Significant predictor variables of social anxiety varied based on reporter (i.e. caregiver versus young adult), with difficulty engaging in goal-directed behaviors during negative emotions serving as the only shared predictor.

  16. Effects of neonatal paternal deprivation or early deprivation on anxiety and social behaviors of the adults in mandarin voles.

    PubMed

    Jia, Rui; Tai, Fadao; An, Shucheng; Zhang, Xia; Broders, Hugh

    2009-11-01

    This study examined whether neonatal paternal deprivation (PD: father was removed and pups were raised just by mother) or early deprivation (ED: pups were raised by both parents except separated from not only the dam but also the peers for three hours a day from PND 0 to 13) has long-term effects on anxiety and social behaviors of adult mandarin voles. Newborn mandarin voles of F2 generation were randomly assigned to one of three groups: bi-parental care (PC: pups were raised by both parents), PD and ED. The parental care behaviors of F1 generation were observed at the age of 0, 13 and 21 days (PND 0, 13, 21) of F2 generation of PC and PD groups. Moreover, each mandarin vole of F2 generation received an open field test and a social interaction test on PND 70 and PND 75, respectively. No significant differences of parental behavior were observed between mothers and fathers from PC families, showing typical parental behavior of socially monogamous rodents. In addition, no significant differences of maternal behaviors were found between mothers from PC and PD families, indicating no maternal compensation towards pups for the absence of the paternal care. In the open field test, mandarin voles from both PD and ED families displayed higher levels of anxiety and lower locomotor activity, relative to offspring of PC family. In the social interaction test, both PD and ED mandarin voles also showed lower levels of social behavior and higher levels of anxiety. Thus, both PD and ED significantly increase anxiety and reduce social behavior of adult mandarin voles, suggesting that variation in parental investment may lead to variation in anxiety and social behaviors in rodents with different mating systems.

  17. Quality Outcomes in Group Home Dementia Care for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janicki, M. P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dementia, as a public health challenge, is a phenomenon vexing many care organisations providing specialised residential and family supports for older adults with intellectual disabilities. With increasing survivorship to ages when risk is greatest, expectations are that many more adults in service will present with cognitive decline…

  18. Caring for an Established Lawn. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Vocational Education in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Martha A.; Dickens, John W.

    This unit was developed as a guide for use by Kentucky teachers in planning and conducting adult classes in lawn care. Although primarily intended for use by horticulture instructors, the material could be used with young farmers and/or adult farmers and their spouses. The unit contains four lessons covering the following topics: conducting…

  19. Making Work Fit Care: Reconciliation Strategies Used by Working Mothers of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Fu, Li-yeh; Chang, Heng-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study explored the experiences of working mothers with an adult child with intellectual disabilities to understand how they reconcile paid work and care responsibilities. Methods: Fifteen working mothers in Taiwan with an adult child with intellectual disabilities were interviewed, and an interpretative phenomenological approach…

  20. Access to dental care for low-income adults: perceptions of affordability, availability and acceptability.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Bruce B; Macentee, Michael I

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to explore access to dental care for low-income communities from the perspectives of low-income people, dentists and related health and social service-providers. The case study included 60 interviews involving, low-income adults (N = 41), dentists (N = 6) and health and social service-providers (N = 13). The analysis explores perceptions of need, evidence of unmet needs, and three dimensions of access--affordability, availability and acceptability. The study describes the sometimes poor fit between private dental practice and the public oral health needs of low-income individuals. Dentists and low-income patients alike explained how the current model of private dental practice and fee-for-service payments do not work well because of patients' concerns about the cost of dentistry, dentists' reluctance to treat this population, and the cultural incompatibility of most private practices to the needs of low-income communities. There is a poor fit between private practice dentistry, public dental benefits and the oral health needs of low-income communities, and other responses are needed to address the multiple dimensions of access to dentistry, including community dental clinics sensitive to the special needs of low-income people. PMID:21590434

  1. Caring for Older Adults With Complex Needs: Drafting an Interdisciplinary Team.

    PubMed

    Chávez, Elisa M; Hendre, Amruta

    2015-10-01

    Providing dental care for seniors with complex medical and/or social needs can seem daunting. Many dental providers may question their resources to manage such patients. However, many of these patients have teams in place that can be accessed to improve the efficacy and satisfaction in providing care to them. Seeking out patients' other health care providers, and understanding how to work effectively with them, is important to improve total patient care, comfort, function and dignity. PMID:26798913

  2. A New Social Capital Paradigm for Adult Literacy: Partnerships, Policy and Pedagogy. An Adult Literacy National Project Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balatti, Jo; Black, Stephen; Falk, Ian

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this project is to produce a set of guidelines on how to deliver adult literacy and numeracy education and training using a social capital approach. Social capital in this project refers to the networks that operate during resourcing, course design, recruitment, teaching and evaluation. The study focused on three specific…

  3. 77 FR 11001 - Small Business Size Standards: Health Care and Social Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG30 Small Business Size Standards: Health Care and Social Assistance... Industry Classification System (NAICS) Sector 62, Health Care and Social Assistance. As part of its ongoing... Subsector 621(Ambulatory Health Care Services), NAICS Subsector 622 (Hospitals), and NAICS Subsector...

  4. Individual and contextual-level factors associated with continuity of care for adults with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Fontanella, Cynthia A; Guada, Joseph; Phillips, Gary; Ranbom, Lorin; Fortney, John C

    2014-09-01

    This retrospective cohort study examined rates of conformance to continuity of care treatment guidelines and factors associated with conformance for persons with schizophrenia. Subjects were 8,621 adult Ohio Medicaid recipients, aged 18-64, treated for schizophrenia in 2004. Information on individual-level (demographic and clinical characteristics) and contextual-level variables (county socio-demographic, economic, and health care resources) were abstracted from Medicaid claim files and the Area Resource File. Outcome measures captured four dimensions of continuity of care: (1) regularity of care; (2) transitions; (3) care coordination, and (4) treatment engagement. Multilevel modeling was used to assess the association between individual and contextual-level variables and the four continuity of care measures. The results indicated that conformance rates for continuity of care for adults with schizophrenia are below recommended guidelines and that variations in continuity of care are associated with both individual and contextual-level factors. Efforts to improve continuity of care should target high risk patient groups (racial/ethnic minorities, the dually diagnosed, and younger adults with early onset psychosis), as well as community-level risk factors (provider supply and geographic barriers of rural counties) that impede access to care.

  5. Identifying Care Coordination Interventions Provided to Community-Dwelling Older Adults Using Electronic Health Records.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Youn; Marek, Karen D; Coenen, Amy

    2016-07-01

    Although care coordination is a popular intervention, there is no standard method of delivery. Also little is known about who benefits most, or characteristics that predict the amount of care coordination needed, especially with chronically ill older adults. The purpose of this study was to identify types and amount of nurse care coordination interventions provided to 231 chronically ill older adults who participated in a 12-month home care medication management program in the Midwest. For each participant, the nurse care coordinator spent an average of 134 min/mo providing in-person home care, 48 min/mo of travel, and 18 min/mo of indirect care occurring outside the home visit. This accounted for 67.2%, 23.8%, and 9.0% of nursing time, respectively, for home visits, travel, and indirect care. Four of 11 nursing interventions focused on medication management were provided to all participants. Seven of the 11 main interventions were individualized according to each person's special needs. Wide variations were observed in time provided with in-person home care and communications with multiple stakeholders. Study findings indicate the importance of individualizing interventions and the variability in the amount of nursing time needed to provide care coordination to chronically ill older adults.

  6. Identifying Care Coordination Interventions Provided to Community-Dwelling Older Adults Using Electronic Health Records.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Youn; Marek, Karen D; Coenen, Amy

    2016-07-01

    Although care coordination is a popular intervention, there is no standard method of delivery. Also little is known about who benefits most, or characteristics that predict the amount of care coordination needed, especially with chronically ill older adults. The purpose of this study was to identify types and amount of nurse care coordination interventions provided to 231 chronically ill older adults who participated in a 12-month home care medication management program in the Midwest. For each participant, the nurse care coordinator spent an average of 134 min/mo providing in-person home care, 48 min/mo of travel, and 18 min/mo of indirect care occurring outside the home visit. This accounted for 67.2%, 23.8%, and 9.0% of nursing time, respectively, for home visits, travel, and indirect care. Four of 11 nursing interventions focused on medication management were provided to all participants. Seven of the 11 main interventions were individualized according to each person's special needs. Wide variations were observed in time provided with in-person home care and communications with multiple stakeholders. Study findings indicate the importance of individualizing interventions and the variability in the amount of nursing time needed to provide care coordination to chronically ill older adults. PMID:26985762

  7. Adult Education and Palliative Care: The Last Journey of Life and Two Main Kinds of Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsey, Barry

    1996-01-01

    As a voluntary learning movement, adult education finds expression through a search for values. Continuing and community education provide support for both hospice and palliative care workers as well as families and friends of terminally ill persons in dealing with death and dying. (SK)

  8. Patterns of Self-Disclosure across Social Support Networks: Elderly, Middle-Aged, and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Rhonda G.; Parrott, Roxanne

    1995-01-01

    Functions served by self-disclosure may vary depending upon the adults' gender and stage in the life span. Studies such issues in regard to the elderly, middle-aged, and young adults' use of four functions of self-disclosure: self-expression, self-clarification, social control, and social validation. Findings support the claim that greater…

  9. Reframing Adult Literacy and Numeracy Outcomes: A Social Capital Perspective. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balatti, Jo; Black, Stephen; Falk, Ian

    2006-01-01

    This document was produced by the authors based on their research for the report "Reframing Adult Literacy and Numeracy Outcomes: A Social Capital Perspective" [ED493887] and is an added resource for further information. The original report investigated whether adult literacy and numeracy courses produced social capital outcomes, which are changes…

  10. Coping Strategies of Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability for Stressful Social Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Adults with mild intellectual disability (ID) experience stressful social interactions and often utilize maladaptive coping strategies to manage these interactions. We investigated the specific types of "Active and Avoidant" coping strategies reported by 114 adults with mild ID to deal with stressful social interactions. Open-ended responses to a…

  11. The Social Outcomes of Older Adult Learning in Taiwan: Evaluation Framework and Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li-Hui

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the social outcomes of older adult learning in Taiwan. In light of our society's aging population structure, the task of establishing evaluation framework and indicators for the social outcomes of learning (SOL) as applied to older adults is urgent. In order to construct evaluation indicators for older…

  12. An Investigation of the Relationship between Health Literacy and Social Communication Skills in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hester, Eva Jackson

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine connections between health literacy and social communication skills in older adults, a population that experiences chronic health conditions but is reported to have low health literacy and declines in communication skills. Sixty-three older adults were administered the "Social Communication" subtest of the…

  13. Conceptualizing Social Integration among Formerly Homeless Adults with Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    The multiple dimensions of social integration among formerly homeless adults with severe mental illness have not been well-studied. Previous studies have focused on clinical measures or narrow components of social integration. We used a multisite study of chronically homeless adults who were provided housing to (a) identify the main factors…

  14. The Influence of Social Media on Adult Learners' Knowledge Construction and Democratic Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a resource on the impact of social media on adult learners' construction of knowledge, particularly as it pertains to adult education's role in fostering a robust democratic society. There has been an increase in the literature in recent years that explores the various aspects of social media use, such as the incivility of…

  15. Educator Perceptions of Visual Support Systems and Social Skills for Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, David James

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) face unique social skills challenges as they transition into independent living environments and seek fulfilling relationships within their communities. Research has focused on social education and interventions for children with autism, while transitioning young adults with ASD have received…

  16. The effect of social health insurance on prenatal care: the case of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Abrokwah, Stephen O; Moser, Christine M; Norton, Edward C

    2014-12-01

    Many developing countries have introduced social health insurance programs to help address two of the United Nations' millennium development goals-reducing infant mortality and improving maternal health outcomes. By making modern health care more accessible and affordable, policymakers hope that more women will seek prenatal care and thereby improve health outcomes. This paper studies how Ghana's social health insurance program affects prenatal care use and out-of-pocket expenditures, using the two-part model to model prenatal care expenditures. We test whether Ghana's social health insurance improved prenatal care use, reduced out-of-pocket expenditures, and increased the number of prenatal care visits. District-level differences in the timing of implementation provide exogenous variation in access to health insurance, and therefore strong identification. Those with access to social health insurance have a higher probability of receiving care, a higher number of prenatal care visits, and lower out-of-pocket expenditures conditional on spending on care.

  17. Public support for social financing of health care in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Perneger, Thomas V; Hudelson, Patricia M

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with the public's preference for financing health care according to people's ability to pay. The authors compared voters' support in 26 Swiss cantons for a legislative proposal to replace regionally rated health insurance premiums (current system) with premiums proportional to income and wealth, and co-financed through the value added tax. The vote took place in May 2003, and the initiative was rejected, with only 27 percent of support nationwide. However, support varied more than threefold, from 13 to 44 percent, among cantons. In multivariate analysis, support was most strongly correlated with the approval rate of the 1994 law on health insurance, which strengthened solidarity between the sick and the healthy. More modest associations were seen between support for the initiative and the health insurance premium of 2003, and proportions of elderly and urban residents in the population. Hence support for more social financing of health care was best explained by past preference for a social health insurance system in the local community. PMID:15759558

  18. Support workers in social care in England: a scoping study.

    PubMed

    Manthorpe, Jill; Martineau, Stephen; Moriarty, Jo; Hussein, Shereen; Stevens, Martin

    2010-05-01

    This paper reports the findings of a scoping study designed to describe the evidence base with regard to support workers in social care in the United Kingdom and to identify gaps in knowledge. Multiple bibliographic databases were searched for studies published since 2003. The results revealed that the support worker role, though not well-defined, could be characterised as one aimed at fostering independence among service users, undertaking tasks across social and health-care, and not being trained in, or a member of, a specific profession. The studies identified were predominantly small-scale qualitative projects which considered issues such as role clarity, training and pay, worker satisfaction, service user views and the amount of time support workers are able to spend with service users compared to other staff. The review concluded that the research base lacks longitudinal studies, there is definitional confusion and imprecision, and there is limited evidence about employment terms and conditions for support workers or about their accountability and performance. The desirability and value of training and how it is resourced need further analysis. It is concluded that moves to self-directed support or personalisation and the increased reliance on and use of support workers, in the form of personal assistants, call for closer scrutiny of the role. PMID:20345887

  19. Young adult females' perceptions of high-risk social media behaviors: a focus-group approach.

    PubMed

    Virden, Amber L; Trujillo, Angelia; Predeger, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This study describes young adult female college students' perceptions of risky social media behaviors. A sample of 14 young adult females, aged 18-22 years and residing in an urban university, participated in 1 of 3 focus groups held in campus housing. Data analysis yielded 4 themes surrounding young adults' engagement in risky behaviors associated with social media. Themes described the predominant culture, associated risk, and prevention. Important insights into young adult female college students' thoughts on risky social media behaviors can be used by advanced practice nurses to inform preventive education for young college women.

  20. Social Well-Being Among Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Echo L.; Kent, Erin E.; Trevino, Kelly M.; Parsons, Helen M.; Zebrack, Brad J.; Kirchhoff, Anne C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND A cancer diagnosis during adolescence or young adulthood may negatively influence social well-being. The existing literature concerning the social well-being of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer was reviewed to identify gaps in current research and highlight priority areas for future research. METHODS A systematic review of the scientific literature published in English from 2000 through 2014 was performed. Eligible studies included patients and survivors diagnosed between the ages of 15 to 39 years that reported on social well-being domains in the City of Hope Cancer Survivor Quality of Life Model. Each article was reviewed for relevance using a standardized template. A total of 253 potential articles were identified. After exclusions, a final sample of 26 articles identified domains of social well-being that are believed to be understudied among AYAs with cancer: 1) educational attainment, employment, and financial burden; 2) social relationships; and 3) supportive care. Articles were read in their entirety, single coded, and summarized according to domain. RESULTS AYAs with cancer report difficulties related to employment, educational attainment, and financial stability. They also report problems with the maintenance and development of peer and family relationships, intimate and marital relationships, and peer support. Supportive services are desired among AYAs. Few studies have reported results in reference to comparison samples or by cancer subtypes. CONCLUSIONS Future research studies on AYAs with cancer should prioritize the inclusion of underserved AYA populations, more heterogeneous cancer samples, and comparison groups to inform the development of supportive services. Priority areas for potential intervention include education and employment reintegration, and social support networks. PMID:26848713