Krause, Neal; Borawski-Clark, Elaine
Tested for social class differences in social support among older adults. Data suggest social class differences emerge when measures of contact with friends, support provided to others, and satisfaction with support are examined. Significant differences failed to emerge with indicators of contact with family, support received from others, and…
Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Arozullah, Ahsan M.; Cho, Young Ik; Crittenden, Kathleen; Vicencio, Daniel
The study examines whether social support interacts with health literacy in affecting the health status of older adults. Health literacy is assessed using the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Social support is measured with the Medical Outcome Study social support scale. Results show, unexpectedly, that rather…
Investigates social support for older adults in the computer-mediated environment. Finds that: satisfaction with Internet providers of social support was significantly higher for high Internet users than for low Internet users, whereas low Internet users were more satisfied with their non-Internet support networks than high Internet users; and…
Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Papakonstantinou, Doxa; Montgomery, Anthony; Solomou, Argyro
Relatively little research exists with regard to the relationship between social support and depression among adults with visual impairments. Such a gap is noteworthy when one considers that individuals become more dependent on others as they enter middle and late adulthood. The present research will examine the association between social networks, social support and depression among adults with visual impairments. Seventy-seven adults with visual impairments participated in the study. Depression, social network and emotional/practical social support were measured with self-report measures. Additionally, the degree to which emotional/practical social support received were positive or negative and the ability of respondents to self-manage their daily living were assessed. Less than a third of respondents scored above the threshold for depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were not related to gender or vision status. Depression was correlated with age, educational level, less positive practical support, more negative practical support and more negative emotional support, with lower perceptions of self-management representing the most robust predictor of depression. Age moderated the relationship between depression and self-management, and between depression and negative emotional support. Lower perceptions of self-management and negative emotional support were significantly associated with depressive symptoms.
Krause, Neal; Keith, Verna
Studies exposure to life stress as an explanation for gender differences in older adults' utilization of social support. Results suggest that, as stressful events increase, elderly men and women are equally likely to become more involved in their social network, while gender differences emerge in response to chronic financial strain. (JS)
Beach, Scott R; Schulz, Richard; Sneed, Rodlescia
Social support and social networks are important correlates of elder mistreatment. This study tests hypothesized associations between perceived social support, social network size, and financial exploitation (FE). A population-based survey of 903 older adults (60+) in Allegheny County (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) found that lower perceived social support and larger social networks were simultaneously associated with higher risk for FE since age 60, controlling for known risk factors. The same associations were found for FE in the last 6 months. Older adults with larger social networks combined with lower perceived social support were most likely to report FE. When it comes to the role of social relationships and risk for FE, "more may not always be better." Encouragement to widen the social network by "making new friends" should be stressed less than making sure these new network members will truly be supportive of the older adult.
Chaichanawirote, Uraiwan; Higgins, Patricia A
The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed snapshot of the diversity of social support networks of 95 independent-living older adults (mean age = 76). Participants in the convenience sample were recruited from senior centers and a retirement community. Using the Arizona Social Support Interview Schedule and egocentric network analysis, participants' networks are described in terms of patterns, density, size of positive networks (available and utilized), size of negative networks (available and utilized), support need, and support satisfaction. Each participant and the identified members of his or her network were considered a complex adaptive system. Network boundary was 7 members; average network size was 6.22 members (SD = 1.50); network density was moderate (mean = 0.53, SD = 0.33); positive interaction networks were larger than negative networks; and overall, participants reported moderate support need (mean = 2.5, SD = 0.7) and high support satisfaction (mean = 5.9, SD = 1.0).
Arthur, Heather M
Research evidence related specifically to psychosocial issues in older adults with cardiovascular disease remains sparse; however, widespread recognition of the impact of the changing population demographic is spurring new research in this important area. National guidelines for cardiac rehabilitation and secondary prevention in several countries include recommendations related to psychosocial issues; authors are beginning to address the older cardiac patient in their recommendations. The purpose of this article is to highlight some key psychosocial factors that have been independently associated with coronary heart disease but to do so with a focus on the older adult in the secondary prevention setting. The selected psychosocial factors are social support, social isolation, and depression. Although evidence supports a relationship between psychosocial factors and coronary heart disease, the issue addressed in this article is whether such relationships hold true in the older adult and whether rehabilitation and secondary prevention interventions are targeted to address these factors. As much as possible, current recommendations (related to psychosocial issues) from worldwide Clinical Practice Guidelines are highlighted. Finally, any examination of psychosocial factors and coronary heart disease must consider the possibility of sex and/or gender differences. Therefore, a commentary on reported differences between men and women with respect to social support, social isolation, and depression is included.
Tyler, Kimberly A.
The current study uses longitudinal data from the 1993 U.S. Midwest floods to examine the influence of support received and support provision on changes in perceived social support among older adults exposed to an acute stressor. Results indicated that flood exposure and higher levels of social support at Time 1 were positively associated with…
Tyler, Kimberly A
The current study uses longitudinal data from the 1993 U.S. Midwest floods to examine the influence of support received and support provision on changes in perceived social support among older adults exposed to an acute stressor. Results indicated that flood exposure and higher levels of social support at Time 1 were positively associated with both receiving social support and providing social support specific to the food. Individuals with higher levels of support provision and received support in turn reported higher levels of perceived support post disaster. Women were more likely to have received flood specific support and to have perceived higher social support post flood. This study provides support and elaboration of earlier findings that link disaster exposure to post-disaster changes in perceived social support.
Brennan-Ing, Mark; Seidel, Liz; Karpiak, Stephen E
Social networks of older adults with HIV have been characterized as fragile, with a greater reliance on friends as compared to family. However, we know little about the subgroup differences in the social network constellations of this population, how such characteristics are related to social support resources, and their relationship with psychosocial well-being. We developed a typology of social networks of older HIV-positive adults and examined if they would be related to receipt of informal assistance, perceptions of support sufficiency, and psychosocial well-being. Data were obtained from Research on Older Adults with HIV (n = 914). Participants were 50 years and older, HIV positive, and diverse in terms of race/ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation. Cluster analysis identified Isolated, Friend-centered, and Integrated social network types. The Isolated reported significantly lower levels of assistance, lower perceptions of support availability and adequacy, greater stigma and psychological distress, and lower well-being compared to their peers. While friends dominate many social networks in this population, a more nuanced interpretation is needed; many have no friends and a substantial proportion receive significant family support. Those with Isolated network types will likely need to access a high volume of community-based services as they age as they lack informal support resources.
Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Cassel, Kevin; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe‘aimoku; Herzog, Thaddeus A.
Cigarette smoking may be one of the factors contributing to the high levels of cancer-related mortality experienced by certain Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) subgroups (e.g., Native Hawaiian). Given the collectivist cultural orientation attributed to A/PI groups, social strategies are recommended for substance abuse or smoking cessation treatment among A/PI. However, research examining how social network characteristics and social support relate to smoking across A/PI subgroups has been lacking. This study investigated the associations between social network characteristics (e.g., size, composition), perceived social support, and recent cigarette use across Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and East Asian (e.g., Japanese, Chinese) young adults (18–35 year old). Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from N = 435 participants (M age = 25.6, SD = 8.3; 61% women). Ethnic differences were found in a number of pathways linking social network characteristics, perceived social support, and cigarette smoking. Larger network size was strongly associated with higher perceived social support and lower recent cigarette smoking among Native Hawaiians but not Filipinos or East Asians. Higher perceived social support was associated with lower recent smoking among East Asians and Filipinos but not Native Hawaiians. Implications are discussed with regard to smoking prevention and cessation among A/PI. PMID:27297612
Lunsky, Yona; Neely, Lynn C
The extra-individual social support responses provided by adults with intellectual disabilities on a social support survey were examined. Felton and Berry (1992) argued that extra-individual social support, support from larger than individual entities, is a valid source of social support for older adults. We hypothesized that extra-individual support would also be relevant to adults with intellectual disabilities. Results showed that 43% of participants with intellectual disabilities listed extra-individual support sources in their social networks or as providers of one of several support functions. The most popular forms of extra-individual support were those from "staff" and "work." Findings are discussed in terms of implications for social support measurement for persons with intellectual disabilities.
Sheets, Raymond L., Jr.; Mohr, Jonathan J.
In this study, the authors investigated the degree to which perceived social support was associated with depression, life satisfaction, and internalized binegativity in a sample of 210 bisexual young adult college students. Two types of social support (general and sexuality specific) and 2 sources of social support (family and friends) were…
Schiamberg, Lawrence B.; Abler, William
A detailed review of research was conducted on the relationship of social support of older adults to their general health and well being, and the findings were applied to educational outcomes and performance. The following dimensions of social support were examined: (1) an ecological framework or perspective of social support, (2) definitions and…
Guerette, Amy R.; Smedema, Susan Miller
The relationship between perceived social support and multiple indicators of well-being in adults with visual impairments was investigated. The results included significant correlation of social support and depressive symptoms, satisfaction with life, as well as with physical, psychological, economic, family, and social well-being. Implications…
Colvin, Jan; Chenoweth, Lillian; Bold, Mary; Harding, Cheryl
We explored the perceptions of caregivers of older adults using Internet-based social support networks regarding the unique advantages and disadvantages of online social support. Participants were recruited with permission of Web owners through 15 Web sites that offered social networks, and responses from 63 electronically submitted surveys were…
Sterrett, E. M.; Jones, D. J.; McKee, L. G.; Kincaid, C.
Supportive Non-Parental Adults (SNPAs), or non-parental adults who provide social support to youth, are present in the lives of many adolescents; yet to date, a guiding framework for organizing the existing literature on the provision of support provided by multiple types of SNPAS, such as teachers, natural mentors, and extended family members, as well as to inform future research efforts, is lacking. The aim of the current paper is to utilize the well-established lens of social support to integrate, across this broad range of literatures, recent findings regarding associations between SNPAs and four indices of adolescent psychosocial adjustment: academic functioning, self-esteem, and behavioral and emotional problems. Beyond offering an integrative framework for understanding the link between SNPAs and adolescent functioning, the issues reviewed here have potentially far-reaching consequences for adolescents and their families, as well as the professionals working with adolescents and their families in the health care, school, and community settings. PMID:21384233
Winningham, R G; Pike, N L
Nearly all older adults experience social losses, which can disrupt their social support networks and impair their quality of life. Events such as retirement, an inability to drive, death of a spouse and/or close life-long friends, or moving to an elder care facility may negatively affect the quality of older adults' social support networks. Low levels of perceived social support are associated with increased depression, impaired immune functioning and reduced life expectancy. Moreover, social interactions can be cognitively stimulating and may help older adults preserve their cognitive abilities. In the present study, institutionalized older adults were exposed to either a cognitive enhancement programme designed to enhance social networks or a control group. Measures of perceived social support and loneliness were administered before and after a 3-month, group-based intervention. There was a significant interaction between group and time. Those who did not participate in the intervention experienced a decrease in perceived social support and an increase in perceived loneliness. Participants in the intervention group stayed the same on the above measures. Helping older adults increase or maintain the quality of their social networks may lead to enhanced cognitive functioning, decreased depression and improved quality of life. Recommendations to help assisted living facilities, nursing homes, retirement communities and senior centres develop social and cognitive interventions are provided.
Nahm, Eun Shim; Resnick, Barbara; Mills, Mary Etta
Internet use has been growing exponentially, and older adults are one of the fastest growing online user groups. Due to the various physiological and psychosocial changes associated with aging, older adults are prone to social isolation. The Internet and e-mail may serve as a new source of support for older adults by connecting them with friends and family members, as well as providing useful information. In this study, based on prior research findings in sociology, communications, and informatics, A Model of Computer-Mediated Social Support Among Older Adults that explains relationships among a computer-mediated social network (CMSN), perceived functional social support from that network, and psychological well-being of community dwelling older adults was proposed. The primary purpose of this study was to test this model using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM).
Toro, Paul A.; Tulloch, Elizabeth; Ouellette, Nicole
This study investigated the main effects of social support measures and their stress-buffering effects in two samples of homeless adults (Ns =249 and 219) obtained in the same large county (surrounding Detroit) at different points in time over an 8-year period (1992-1994 and 2000-2002). The findings suggest that the construct of social support,…
Lee, Kyoung Hag; Woo, Hyeyoung
Through this cross-sectional study the authors explore how stressors, social support, and religious practice are associated with the general well-being of 147 Korean adult immigrants through interviews. Hierarchical regression analysis reveals that low English proficiency and financial hardship are significantly related to low general well-being. However, high social support and religious practice are significantly associated with high general well-being. Social service and health care providers need to carefully assess stressors, social support systems, and spiritual issues for providing appropriate services/programs for English, culture, or social activities as well as spiritual intervention to maximize the strengths of Korean immigrants coping with health issues.
Wedgeworth, Monika; LaRocca, Michael A; Chaplin, William F; Scogin, Forrest
The mental health of elderly individuals in rural areas is increasingly relevant as populations age and social structures change. While social support satisfaction is a well-established predictor of quality of life, interpersonal sensitivity symptoms may diminish this relation. The current study extends the findings of Scogin et al by investigating the relationship among interpersonal sensitivity, social support satisfaction, and quality of life among rural older adults and exploring the mediating role of social support in the relation between interpersonal sensitivity and quality of life (N = 128). Hierarchical regression revealed that interpersonal sensitivity and social support satisfaction predicted quality of life. In addition, bootstrapping resampling supported the role of social support satisfaction as a mediator between interpersonal sensitivity symptoms and quality of life. These results underscore the importance of nurses and allied health providers in assessing and attending to negative self-perceptions of clients, as well as the perceived quality of their social networks.
Burton, Charles L.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Bonanno, George A.
Social support has been repeatedly associated with mental and physical health outcomes, with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity posited as a potential mechanism. The influence of social bonds appears particularly important in the face of stigma-related stress; however, there is a dearth of research examining social support and HPA axis response among members of a stigmatized group. To address this gap in the literature, we tested in a sample of 70 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) young adults whether family support or peer support differentially predict cortisol reactivity in response to a laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test. While greater levels of family support were associated with reduced cortisol reactivity, neither peer support nor overall support satisfaction was associated with cortisol response. These findings suggest that the association between social support and neuroendocrine functioning differs according to the source of support among members of one stigmatized group. PMID:24972382
DellaMattera, Julie N.
Studies show that for preschool-age children, social skills can have a profound effect on, and be a predictor of, future societal success and school achievement. Therefore, it is essential that young children develop appropriate social behaviors. To do this, preschoolers need support and guidance from the adults in their life: parents, family, and…
This paper concerns the declining role of the welfare state in supporting young adults. The literature on new social risks concentrates on the incapacity of institutions to respond to a new social situation, and has so far largely neglected the capacity of alternative systems or institutions to fill the vacuum created. The focus in the paper is on…
Chalise, Hom Nath; Kai, Ichiro; Saito, Tami
The aim of this study was to analyze the situation of social support exchange among elderly men and women and to study the cross-cultural validity of predictors of loneliness in two Nepalese castes/ethnicities of older adults. Data for this study were taken from a cross-sectional study of the elderly at least 60 years old living in one ward of Kathmandu City, conducted in 2005. Loneliness was measured using a three-item loneliness scale based on the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale. Sources of social support were classified as spouse, children living with their elders, children living apart, and friends/neighbors. Study findings indicate that the main social support exchange for the elderly was with adult children living together, spouse, and friends/neighbors. Results also show gender difference in social support. Significant variables of loneliness were social support received from spouse, social support provided to spouse, and children living together with both elderly parents. This finding shows there is a high degree of cross-cultural invariance in the predictor sources of social support on loneliness among two Nepalese castes/ethnicities older adults.
Howard, Siobhán; Creaven, Ann-Marie; Hughes, Brian M; O'Leary, Éanna D; James, Jack E
The benefits of perceived social support for physical and psychological health are well-established. However, little research has explored associations between perceived social support and cardiovascular reactivity in older adults. This exploratory study recruited a sample of older adults (Mage=69years, SD=5.62) and examined quality and quantity of perceived social support as predictors of cardiovascular reactivity to laboratory-based stress (N=39 participants) and ambulatory cardiovascular activity in everyday life (n=28). The results suggest that quality, but not quantity, of perceived social support predicts reduced blood pressure reactivity to stress in the laboratory. Although quality of support was not associated with ambulatory blood pressure, results suggest that quantity of daily social support may be associated with higher ambulatory heart rate, but not with social contact during measurement. This preliminary study extends prior work on social support and cardiovascular function to a group of older adults in both laboratory and field settings. Challenges for much-needed future research in this area are discussed.
Evans, Sarah E.; Steel, Anne; DiLillo, David
Objectives The current study investigates the moderating effect of perceived social support on associations between child maltreatment severity and adult trauma symptoms. We extend the existing literature by examining the roles of severity of multiple maltreatment types (i.e., sexual, physical, and emotional abuse; physical and emotional neglect) and gender in this process. Methods The sample included 372 newlywed individuals recruited from marriage license records. Participants completed a number of self-report questionnaires measuring the nature and severity of child maltreatment history, perceived social support from friends and family, and trauma-related symptoms. These questionnaires were part of a larger study, investigating marital and intrapersonal functioning. We conducted separate, two-step hierarchical multiple regression models for perceived social support from family and perceived social support from friends. In each of these models, total trauma symptomatology was predicted from each child maltreatment severity variable, perceived social support, and the product of the two variables. In order to examine the role of gender, we conducted separate analyses for women and men. Results As hypothesized, increased severity of several maltreatment types (sexual abuse, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect) predicted greater trauma symptoms for both women and men, and increased physical abuse severity predicted greater trauma symptoms for women. Perceived social support from both family and friends predicted lower trauma symptoms across all levels of maltreatment for men. For women, greater perceived social support from friends, but not from family, predicted decreased trauma symptoms. Finally, among women, perceived social support from family interacted with child maltreatment such that, as the severity of maltreatment (physical and emotional abuse, emotional neglect) increased, the buffering effect of perceived social support from family on
Burgio, Maria R.; Tryanski, Mandy
Some research suggests that sources of social support change through the lifespan. Given that the support network changes because of both the individual's needs and the particular life stage of the individual, peer relationships may emerge as crucial sources of emotional support at different times in the lifespan. This study examined friend and…
Hinnen, Chris; Schreuder, Imke; Jong, Eefje; van Duijn, Miranda; Dahmen, Rutger; van Gorp, Eric C M
The present study investigated the relationship between adult attachment style and depressive symptomatology in patients with HIV. Moreover, perceived social support was investigated as a potential mediator between adult attachment and depressive symptoms. A sample of 233 HIV-infected patients (90% male) completed questionnaires assessing adult attachment style (Relationship Questionnaire), depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory), and perceived social support (Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey). After controlling for demographic and medical variables, an insecure adult attachment style was found to be strongly related with depressive symptoms. Half of the insecurely attached patients reported clinically elevated levels of distress, while one in nine securely attached patients reported elevated levels of distress (χ(2)=32.25, p=0.001). Moreover, the association between attachment style and depressive symptomatology was found to be partly mediated through perceived social support. This study strongly supports the notion that an insecure attachment style is a vulnerability factor for developing depressive symptoms that would warrant clinical attention when confronted with a chronic illness such as HIV. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.
Social support has multiple dimensions, the context of which can be explored by qualitative methods. In this study, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 local senior center members (9 men and 12 women aged 65 and older) in Seoul, South Korea, in order to explore how they perceive and desire social support in an aging society. The qualitative methods in this study also included thematic analysis and constant comparison to identify three main themes: "no or denied support," "not to be greedy and shameless," and "justification and hopelessness." In the interviews, perceived and desired support did not emerge immediately as the participants were reluctant to share personal concerns with or to seek support from others. Nevertheless, they would turn to spouses and children for both emotional and instrumental support when in dire need. A shared norm among the participants was that seeking support would be an embarrassing and shameless act for themselves and a burden to others. They justified the discrepancy between the perceived and desired support as part of aging and felt hopelessness about it. The findings of this study have implications that implicit, individual social support may be effective than explicit, group support activities for those who are passive in recognizing the need for and seeking social support. In assessing and interpreting social support in old age, both perceived and desired support should be included and contextual approaches can be useful in so doing. The senior centers should be a more active advocate of successful aging that would offset hopelessness, negative attitude toward life, and social disconnection. Future research should focus on identifying effective strategies to bridge the gap between perceived and desired social support in older adults in this society of changing values and social norms.
Ayotte, Brian J; Allaire, Jason C; Whitfield, Keith E
Social support and functional ability are related to a number of outcomes in later life among African Americans, including cognitive performance. This study examined how providing and receiving social support was related to fluid and crystallized cognitive abilities among aging African American adults after accounting for functional limitations, age, education, sex, income, and self-reported health. Data from 602 African American adults (M = 69.08, SD = 9.74; 25% male) were analyzed using latent variable modeling. Fluid ability was a second-order factor indicated by measures that assessed verbal memory, working memory, perceptual speed, and inductive reasoning. Crystallized ability was a first-order factor indicated by three measures that assessed vocabulary (Shipley Verbal Meaning Test and parts A and B of the ETS Vocabulary Test). Results indicated that the receipt of social support was negatively related to both fluid and crystallized abilities, while the provision of support was positively related to fluid and crystallized ability. Follow-up tests found that the receipt of support was more strongly related to fluid ability than crystallized ability. There was no significant difference regarding the relationship of provision of support with fluid ability compared to crystallized ability. Results discuss the importance of considering the social context of older adults when examining cognitive ability.
Kendall, Sophie; Cameron, Ailsa
In 2007, "self-directed support" was introduced in adult social care in England to establish choice and control--in the assessment process itself and over service provision--for "all" service users. The personalisation agenda is underpinned by a range of ideologies, particularly a civil rights empowerment approach and…
Lou, Vivian W. Q.
This study explores the relationship between the life satisfaction of older adults and the social support from grandchildren in Hong Kong. Two hundred and fifteen older people (from the ages of 64 to 101, mean age 79.3), whose youngest grandchild was aged 12 or older, were recruited from elderly service agencies to participate in the study.…
Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick
The present study investigated the impact of social support on the psychological well-being of mothers of adolescents and adults with ASD (n = 269). Quantity of support (number of social network members) as well as valence of support (positive support and negative support) were assessed using a modified version of the "convoy model" developed by…
Fagg, James; Curtis, Sarah; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Cattell, Vicky; Tupuola, Ann-Marie; Arephin, Muna
This paper uses national survey data for young adults in England to explore empirically the relationships between social fragmentation in communities (measured for geographical areas), social support experienced by individuals from their immediate social circle, and psychosocial health of young adults. After reviewing previous research about these associations, we adopted an empirical approach to these questions, which was innovative in using data on area social fragmentation from a different source to the survey data on individuals. Also, we have examined the relevance for mental health of interactions between individual social support and area social fragmentation, as well as their independent associations with health. To test these ideas empirically, we present a statistical analysis, using survey data from the national Health Survey for England on young people aged 16-24 years, linked to a geographical indicator of social fragmentation, derived from the population census and with a measure of material poverty. The outcome variable was distress measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). In a logistic regression model that controls for grouping of individuals within areas we included data on individuals' sex, ethnic group, employment status, social class and educational level. Controlling for these indicators, we demonstrate that risk of individual distress (indicated by GHQ score of 3+) was significantly and positively associated with area social fragmentation and there was a significant association with social support received within the individual's immediate social circle, which was negative ('protective'). An index of material poverty in one's area of residence did not predict individual distress. There was no evidence that social support was more 'protective' in areas of greatest social fragmentation. We also note that while being in employment was associated with better mental health in this sample, higher educational level was associated with
Rand, Stacey; Malley, Juliette
Informal carers make a vital contribution to the well-being of the people they care for or look after. Against the policy background in England, the purpose of this study was to explore the views of carers who are in contact with adult social care support services. A qualitative study with 31 carers, who were recruited via local authorities and carers' organisations, was conducted between April and July 2012 to collect data on carers' experiences and perceptions of their quality of life (QoL) with and without adult social care and support for themselves or the person they look after. Through framework analysis, three key themes were identified: (i) definitions of social care services 'for' the carer or 'for' care recipient and social care outcomes; (ii) carers' access to social care services; and (iii) the meaning and value of informal care. We find that carers' QoL is affected by social care support directed at carers and support directed at those they care for, as well as access to services, the experience of stigma in communities, and in how individual needs and preferences are considered when making decisions about care. While there is much to welcome in the direction of policy in England, this study has shown that there are some gaps in thinking around these areas that will need to be addressed if the lives of carers are to be improved.
Shensa, Ariel; Sidani, Jaime E; Lin, Liu Yi; Bowman, Nicholas D; Primack, Brian A
Low emotional support is associated with poor health outcomes. Engagement with face-to-face social networks is one way of increasing emotional support. However, it is not yet known whether engagement with proliferating electronic social networks is similarly associated with increased emotional support. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess associations between social media use and perceived emotional support in a large, nationally-representative sample. In October 2014, we collected data from 1796 U.S. adults ages 19-32. We assessed social media use using both total time spent and frequency of visits to each of the 11 most popular social media platforms. Our dependent variable was perceived emotional support as measured by the brief Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) emotional support scale. A multivariable model including all sociodemographic covariates and accounting for survey weights demonstrated that, compared with the lowest quartile of time on social media, being in the highest quartile (spending two or more hours per day) was significantly associated with decreased odds of having higher perceived emotional support (AOR 0.62, 95 % CI 0.40, 0.94). However, compared with those in the lowest quartile, being in the highest quartile regarding frequency of social media use was not significantly associated with perceived emotional support (AOR 0.70, 95 % CI 0.45, 1.09). In conclusion, while the cross-sectional nature of these data hinder inference regarding directionality, it seems that heavy users of social media may actually feel less and not more emotional support.
Park, Mijung; Cuijpers, Pim; van Straten, Annemieke; Reynolds, Charles F.
Social support is an important extra-therapeutic context of depression treatment, yet no overall estimate is available on how depression treatment affects social support or the size of such an effect. We conducted a meta-analysis of clinical trials of psychotherapy for depression that reported results for social support at post-treatment. A total of 1,579 adults with depression from 11 trials comparing psychotherapy to care-as-usual or waiting list were included. The majority of these studies assessed the participants’ perceptions of social support. Specifically, three studies targeted women with postpartum depression, and four studies targeted individuals with chronic disease. In all these studies, psychotherapy had a small to moderate, yet consistent effect on social support compared to care-as-usual or waiting list at post-treatment (g = 0.38; 95% CI: 0.29~0.48) and at 3–6 month follow-up (g= 0.38; 95% CI: 0.14~0.63). Little evidence of heterogeneity was found across studies, and the results were consistent in several sensitivity analyses. No significant publication bias was detected (Egger’s test p > 0.1). The result of meta-regression showed that improvement in depression symptoms was associated with improvement in social support, but this was not statistically significant. PMID:26085699
Ahn, SangNam; Kim, Seonghoon; Zhang, Hongmei
Depression severely affects older adults in the United States. As part of the social environment, significant social support was suggested to ameliorate depression among older adults. We investigate how varying forms of social support moderate depressive symptomatology among older adults with multiple chronic conditions (MCC). Data were analyzed using a sample of 11,400 adults, aged 65 years or older, from the 2006-2012 Health and Retirement Study. The current study investigated the moderating effects of positive or negative social support from spouse, children, other family, and friends on the association between MCC and depression. A linear mixed model with repeated measures was used to estimate the effect of MCC on depression and its interactions with positive and negative social support in explaining depression among older adults. Varying forms of social support played different moderating roles in depressive symptomatology among older adults with MCC. Positive spousal support significantly weakened the deleterious effect of MCC on depression. Conversely, all negative social support from spouse, children, other family, and friends significantly strengthened the deleterious effect of MCC on depression. Minimizing negative social support and maximizing positive spousal support can reduce depression caused by MCC and lead to successful aging among older adults.
Ahn, SangNam; Kim, Seonghoon; Zhang, Hongmei
Depression severely affects older adults in the United States. As part of the social environment, significant social support was suggested to ameliorate depression among older adults. We investigate how varying forms of social support moderate depressive symptomatology among older adults with multiple chronic conditions (MCC). Data were analyzed using a sample of 11,400 adults, aged 65 years or older, from the 2006–2012 Health and Retirement Study. The current study investigated the moderating effects of positive or negative social support from spouse, children, other family, and friends on the association between MCC and depression. A linear mixed model with repeated measures was used to estimate the effect of MCC on depression and its interactions with positive and negative social support in explaining depression among older adults. Varying forms of social support played different moderating roles in depressive symptomatology among older adults with MCC. Positive spousal support significantly weakened the deleterious effect of MCC on depression. Conversely, all negative social support from spouse, children, other family, and friends significantly strengthened the deleterious effect of MCC on depression. Minimizing negative social support and maximizing positive spousal support can reduce depression caused by MCC and lead to successful aging among older adults. PMID:28035968
Gabrielian, Sonya; Young, Alexander S; Greenberg, Jared M; Bromley, Elizabeth
Objective: Research suggests that social supports are associated with housing retention among adults who have experienced homelessness. Yet, we know very little about the social support context in consumers find and retain housing. We examined the ways and identified the junctures in which consumers' skills and deficits in accessing and mobilizing social supports influenced their longitudinal housing status. Method: We performed semi-structured qualitative interviews with VA Greater Los Angeles consumers (n = 19) with serious mental illness, substance use disorders, and a history of homelessness; interviews explored associations between longitudinal housing status (categorized as: stable, independent housing; sheltered housing, continually engaged in structured housing programs; and unstable housing) and social supports. We compared data from consumers in these 3 mutually exclusive categories. Results: All participants described social support as important for finding and maintaining housing. However, participants used formal (provider/case managers) and informal (family/friends) supports in different ways. Participants in stable housing relied on formal and informal supports to obtain/maintain housing. Participants in sheltered housing primarily used formal supports, for example, case management staff. Unstably housed participants used formal and informal supports, but some of these relationships were superficial or of negative valence. Interpersonal problems were prevalent across longitudinal housing status categories. Conclusions and Implications for Practice: Social context, including patterns of formal and informal support, was associated with participants' longitudinal housing status. Within interventions to end homelessness, these findings suggest the value of future research to identify, tailor, and implement practices that can help consumers improve their social resources. (PsycINFO Database Record
Lee, Chih-Yuan Steven; Dik, Bryan J
This study aimed to examine how sources of social support intersect with stress and health by testing two theoretical models. Three relationship-specific sources of social support (family, friends, and romantic partners) and two health indicators (self-rated physical health and depressive symptoms) were investigated. The sample consisted of 636 emerging adults attending college (age range: 18-25). Results suggest that only support from family was a stress-buffer, in that it buffered the adverse association between stress and depressive symptoms. Holding stress constant, only support from family was related to self-rated physical health and only support from friends or romantic partners was associated with depressive symptoms. There were no gender differences in the mean levels of self-rated physical health and depressive symptoms. However, gender moderations were found, in that the positive relationship between friends support and physical health was observed only in women, that the association between friends support and depressive symptoms was greater in men than in women, and that family support buffered the negative relationship between stress and physical health only in men. Findings of this study suggest that the associations among stress, social support, and health vary by the sources of support, the health outcome, and gender.
Faw, Meara H
Obesity and being overweight often result in serious health problems. Despite growing awareness of the dangers associated with being overweight, many individuals struggle to lose weight. Investigators have identified social support as a key element in weight-loss attempts. Unfortunately, little has been done to investigate how people solicit social support from members of their pre-existing social network without a structured intervention. To address this limitation, I conducted in-depth interviews with 25 participants. Through grounded theory analysis of these interviews, I developed a typology of support management strategies used by overweight young adults when attempting to lose weight. I outline these strategies, their perceived success, and implications for future research in this article.
Chalise, Hom Nath; Kai, Ichiro; Saito, Tami
The aim of this study was to analyze the situation of social support exchange among elderly men and women and to study the cross-cultural validity of predictors of loneliness in two Nepalese castes/ethnicities of older adults. Data for this study were taken from a cross-sectional study of the elderly at least 60 years old living in one ward of…
Gurung, Regan A R; Taylor, Shelley E; Seeman, Teresa E
Using longitudinal, community-based data from the MacArthur Studies of Successful Aging, the authors examined determinants of changes in social support receipt among 439 married older adults. In general, social support increased over time, especially for those with many preexisting social ties, but those experiencing more psychological distress and cognitive dysfunction reported more negative encounters with others. Gender affected social support receipt: Men received emotional support primarily from their spouses, whereas women drew more heavily on their friends and relatives and children for emotional support. Discussion centers on the importance of social support provision to those with the greatest needs.
Tindale, J; Denton, M; Ploeg, J; Lillie, J; Hutchison, B; Brazil, K; Akhtar-Danesh, N; Plenderleith, J
Community support services (CSSs) have been developed in Canada and other Western nations to enable persons coping with health or social issues to continue to live in the community. This study addresses the extent to which awareness of CSSs is structured by the social determinants of health. In a telephone interview conducted in February-March 2006, 1152 community-dwelling older adults (response rate 12.4%) from Hamilton, Ontario, Canada were made to read a series of four vignettes and were asked whether they were able to identify a CSS they may turn to in that situation. Across the four vignettes, 40% of participants did name a CSS as a possible source of assistance. Logistic regression was used to determine factors related to awareness of CSSs. Respondents most likely to have awareness of CSS include the middle-aged and higher-income groups. Being knowledgeable about where to look for information about CSSs, having social support and being a member of a club or voluntary organisations are also significant predictors of awareness of CSSs. Study results suggest that efforts be made to improve the level of awareness and access to CSSs among older adults by targeting their social networks as well as their health and social care providers.
Dodd, Zane; Warren, Ann Marie; Riggs, Shelley; Clark, Mike
Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) can cause psychological consequences that negatively affect quality of life. It is increasingly recognized that factors such as resilience and social support may produce a buffering effect and are associated with improved health outcomes. However the influence of adult attachment style on an individual’s ability to utilize social support after SCI has not been examined. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between adult romantic attachment perceived social support depression and resilience in individuals with SCI. In addition we evaluated potential mediating effects of social support and adult attachment on resilience and depression. Methods: Participants included 106 adults with SCI undergoing inpatient rehabilitation. Individuals completed measures of adult attachment (avoidance and anxiety) social support resilience and depression. Path analysis was performed to assess for presence of mediation effects. Results: When accounting for the smaller sample size support was found for the model (comparative fit index = .927 chi square = 7.86 P = .01 β = -0.25 standard error [SE] = -2.93 P < .05). The mediating effect of social support on the association between attachment avoidance and resilience was the only hypothesized mediating effect found to be significant (β = -0.25 SE = -2.93 P < .05). Conclusion: Results suggest that individuals with SCI with higher levels of attachment avoidance have lower perceived social support which relates to lower perceived resilience. Assessing attachment patterns during inpatient rehabilitation may allow therapists to intervene to provide greater support. PMID:26364285
Herrenkohl, Todd I; Jung, Hyunzee; Klika, J Bart; Mason, W Alex; Brown, Eric C; Leeb, Rebecca T; Herrenkohl, Roy C
A number of cross-sectional and a few longitudinal studies have shown a developmental relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Published findings also suggest that social support can lessen the risk of adverse outcomes for some abused children. However, few studies have investigated whether social support mediates or moderates the relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Structural equation modeling was used to examine data on these topics from a longitudinal study of more than 30 years. While a latent construct of physical and emotional child abuse did not predict adult health outcomes directly, child abuse did predict outcomes indirectly through social support. A test of variable moderation for child abuse and social support was nonsignificant. Results suggest that social support may help explain the association between child abuse and health outcomes at midlife. Implications of the findings for prevention and treatment are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Jung, Hyunzee; Klika, J. Bart; Mason, W. Alex; Brown, Eric C.; Leeb, Rebecca T.; Herrenkohl, Roy. C.
A number of cross-sectional and a few longitudinal studies have shown a developmental relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Published findings also suggest that social support can lessen the risk of adverse outcomes for some abused children. However, few studies have investigated whether social support mediates or moderates the relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Structural equation modeling was used to examine data on these topics from a longitudinal study of more than 30 years. While a latent construct of physical and emotional child abuse did not predict adult health outcomes directly, child abuse did predict outcomes indirectly through social support. A test of variable moderation for child abuse and social support was nonsignificant. Results suggest that social support may help explain the association between child abuse and health outcomes at midlife. Implications of the findings for prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:26845043
Kwag, Kyung Hwa; Martin, Peter; Russell, Daniel; Franke, Warren; Kohut, Marian
This study investigated how perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity affected older adults' fatigue, loneliness, and depression. We also explored whether social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health problems. The data of 163 older participants were analyzed in this…
Nahm, Eun-Shim; Resnick, Barbara; Gaines, Jean
With the increasing number of older adult online users, the Internet and e-mail are becoming a new source of social support for older adults. To assess this computer-mediated social support, two traditional social support measures were modified: (1) the Lubben Social Network Scale and (2) the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey. The purpose of this pilot study was to test the reliability and validity of these modified measures. This study was a single group descriptive study with two data collection points. Data were collected using Web surveys. A total of 38 older adult participants completed the first survey; 35, the second survey. The findings of this preliminary study provided evidence for the reliability, content validity, and, to a limited extent, construct validity, of the modified measures. Additional studies with a larger representative sample are needed to further examine the psychometric aspects of these measures.
Tsai, Hsin-Yi Sandy; Shillair, Ruth; Cotten, Shelia R
This study examines how older adults learn to use tablet computers. Learning to use new technologies can help older adults to be included in today's digital society. However, learning to use new technologies is not always easy, especially for older adults. This study focuses on how older adults learn to use a specific technology, tablet computers, and the role that social support plays in this process. Data for this project are from 21 in-depth interviews with individuals who own tablet computers. We examine how older adults engage with tablet devices and increase their digital literacy. The findings suggest that, for older adults to start to use tablets, social support plays an important role. In addition, a key way that many participants report gaining expertise with the technology is through "playing around" with the tablets. Suggestions for how to help older adults learn to use new technologies are detailed.
Alvarez-Fernandez, Sonia; Brown, Hallie R; Zhao, Yihong; Raithel, Jessica A; Bishop, Somer L; Kern, Sarah B; Lord, Catherine; Petkova, Eva; Di Martino, Adriana
Perceived social support (PSS) has been related to physical and mental well-being in typically developing individuals, but systematic characterizations of PSS in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are limited. We compared self-report ratings of the multidimensional scale of PSS (MSPSS) among age- and IQ-matched groups of adults (18-58 years) with cognitively high-functioning ASD (N = 41), or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; N = 69), and neurotypical controls (NC; N = 69). Accompanying group comparisons, we used machine learning random forest (RF) analyses to explore predictors among a range of psychopathological and socio-emotional variables. Relative to both ADHD and NC, adults with ASD showed lower MSPSS ratings, specifically for the friends subscale (MSPSS-f). Across ASD and ADHD, interindividual differences in autism severity, affective empathy, symptoms of anxiety related to social interactions, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and somatization best predicted MSPSS-f. These relationships did not differ between clinical groups. While group comparisons demonstrated greater impairment in individuals with ASD, analyzing individuals' characteristics revealed cross-diagnoses similarities in regard to their MSPSS-f relationships. This is consistent with the Research Domain Criteria framework, supporting a trans-diagnostic approach as on the path toward "precision medicine." Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Miller, David James
Young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) face unique social skills challenges as they transition into independent living environments and seek fulfilling relationships within their communities. Research has focused on social education and interventions for children with autism, while transitioning young adults with ASD have received…
Prins, Esther; Toso, Blaire Willson; Schafft, Kai A.
Supportive social relationships are an important dimension of marginalized women's participation in community-based adult education programs. However, policy makers and researchers often consider these social dimensions to be tangential or secondary to instrumental outcomes such as obtaining employment or increasing standardized test scores.…
Joensen, Lene E; Filges, Tine; Willaing, Ingrid
Aim To explore the function of peer support from the perspective of adults with type 1 diabetes in Denmark. Methods The study population consisted of 20 adults with type 1 diabetes. The sample was diverse in relation to educational background, age, sex, and cohabitation status. Inspired by action research, several methods and perspectives on peer support were explored and tested. Workshops and group and individual interviews were performed. Systematic text condensation was used to analyze data, supplemented with theory-based interpretive analysis. Results Adults with type 1 diabetes found peer support highly relevant to reduce a burdensome feeling of diabetes-specific loneliness. Peer support showed potential to create diabetes-specific social capital not only by creating reciprocal social support between peers but also, more importantly, by creating space for genuine trust and a feeling of communality. There was a widespread feeling of the pervasive impact of diabetes on daily life and thus the relevance of discussing all aspects of life. However, participants perceived peer support as particularly relevant in relation to big changes in life, for example, in family life, at work, or through treatment events such as getting an insulin pump. Conclusion Peer support programs focusing on creating and establishing diabetes-specific social capital using participatory approaches seem highly relevant among adults with type 1 diabetes. Content, methods, and effects of peer support need further exploration in collaboration with adults with type 1 diabetes. PMID:27536076
McInnis-Perry, Gloria; Weeks, Lori E; Stryhn, Henrik
It is well documented that nursing is concerned about the social support needs of older adults and the effects of those needs on health and well-being. Using survey data from the Atlantic Seniors Housing Research Alliance, the authors explore the emotional and informational social support needs of community-dwelling Canadians aged 65 and older living in the Atlantic provinces. The results indicate that these needs are not being met fully and that they increase with age. Also, men and women report different insufficiencies for specific needs; more men than women report having no support across all items. Nurses should be sensitive to specific age and gender support needs of older adults. They should also increase their social assessments and promote healthy social networks, especially for those 80 years and older. Further nursing research is recommended.
Liu, Xiaohua; Liu, Chunqin; Tian, Xiaohong; Zou, Guiyuan; Li, Guopeng; Kong, Linghua; Li, Ping
Sleep disturbance is often described as sleeping poorly, difficulty falling asleep and maintaining sleep, and waking early. Currently, most studies examining sleep disturbance have focused on negative psychological variables; however, few studies have combined both negative and positive psychosocial factors to assess sleep. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sleep disturbance and psychosocial correlates in Chinese community-dwelling adults. A total of 1471 adults, between 18 and 60 years old, from eight selected community settings in Jinan, China, were surveyed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Perceived Stress Scale, 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and provided sociodemographic information. We found that the prevalence of sleep disturbance was 33.9%. After adjusting for age, employment status and physical co-morbidity, perceived stress was significantly associated with sleep disturbance [odds ratio (OR) = 1.14, p < 0.001], while resilience and social support were associated with a low likelihood of sleep disturbance (OR = 0.90, p < 0.001; OR = 0.97, p < 0.001). Furthermore, regression analysis showed that the interaction between perceived stress and resilience was significant (p < 0.05). Resilience buffered the negative impact of perceived stress on sleep disturbance. Given the close relationship between sleep disturbance and psychosocial correlates, the development of effective intervention programmes to improve sleep quality in this population should be considered. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
da Silva, Simone Márcia; Braido, Natalia Fernanda; Ottaviani, Ana Carolina; Gesualdo, Gabriela Dutra; Zazzetta, Marisa Silvana; Orlandi, Fabiana de Souza
ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the instrumental and emotional social support of patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. Method: descriptive cross-sectional study. The sample was sized for convenience and included 103 participants under treatment in a Renal Replacement Therapy Unit. Data were collected through individual interviews, using the Social Support Scale. Results: the mean scores of the emotional and instrumental social support were 3.92 (± 0.78) and 3.81 (± 0.69) respectively, an indication of good support received. The most frequent sources of instrumental and emotional social support mentioned by participants were partners, spouse, companion or boyfriend and friends. Conclusion: patients with chronic kidney disease have high social support, both instrumental and emotional, and the main support comes from the family. PMID:27508920
Lippold, T.; Burns, J.
Background: Social support has been identified as a major protective factor in preventing mental health problems and also as a major contributor to quality of life. People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have been identified as having limited social support structures. Interventions have been focused on promoting their social presence and…
Objectives. This study examined whether or not direct social support is associated with long-term health among middle-aged and older adults with diabetes mellitus. Method. Direct social support was assessed at baseline (2003) for 1,099 adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus from the Health and Retirement Study. Self-reported health status was examined at baseline and in 4 biennial survey waves (2003–2010). A series of ordinal logistic regression models examined whether or not the 7-item Diabetes Care Profile scale was associated with a subsequent change in health status over time. Additional analyses examined whether or not individual components of direct social support were associated with health status change. Results. After adjusting for baseline covariates, greater direct social support as measured by the Diabetes Care Profile was associated with improved health outcomes over time; however, this trend was not significant (p = .06). The direct social support measures that were associated with improved health over follow-up were support for taking medicines (odds ratio [OR] = 1.22), physical activity (OR = 1.26), and going to health care providers (OR = 1.22; all p < .05). Discussion. Interventions that specifically target improving specific aspects of diabetes social support may be more effective in improving long-term health than less targeted efforts. PMID:24150176
Perkins, Elizabeth A.; LaMartin, Kimberly M.
Social support is a potentially powerful mediator of well-being for family carers. Given that social engagement often decreases with age, the Internet broadens the opportunities for aging carers of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD) to provide support to one another. This article reviews what constitutes social…
Greenberg, Jan S.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Krauss, Marty Wyngaarden; Kim, Hea-won
Examines the role of social support in mitigating caregiving stress among two groups of parental caregivers (N=361). Results indicate that although mothers of adults with mental illness had smaller social support networks than mothers of adults with mental retardation, the former were more likely to be members of support groups. (RJM)
Elovainio, Marko; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Ojanlatva, Ansa; Korkeila, Katariina; Suominen, Sakari; Helenius, Hans; Koskenvuo, Markku
The aim of the study was to examine associations of social support with early retirement and reported retirement preference. Logistic regression analyses of early retirement (retired before the age of 55) were based on a cohort of 10,489 respondents (5960 female, 4529 male) aged 40-55 years. Analyses of retirement preference (planning of early retirement) were based on a sub-cohort of 7759 full-time employees (4233 female, 3526 male). The measures for social support were the social network size (number of close personal relationships) and social network heterogeneity (number of different roles as sources of social support). Among women, early retirement was associated with small social networks (OR 5.1, 95% CI = 2.8-9.2) and low social network heterogeneity (OR 9.1, 95% CI = 3.2-25.9). Among men, the corresponding associations were somewhat smaller (1.5; 0.9-2.6 and 8.0; 1.8-35.7, respectively). Adjustments for age, occupational training, and spouse at home did not considerably affect these associations. Among men, the association between social network heterogeneity and early retirement was not statistically significant after additional adjustments had been made for marital status and perceived health status. The characteristics of the social network were not associated with a retirement preference among employed men. Among women, the lack of social relations was associated with low retirement preference. Our findings suggested that social support is not independently associated with a retirement preference among men. Socially isolated women prefer retirement less often than other women do. Being retired before the age of 55 years may be predicted by limited social support or it may restrain one's possibilities to establish and maintain social relationships.
Ferguson, Susan Jeanne; Goodwin, Andrea D.
To investigate how psychosocial resources may improve well-being for older adults, this study explored the relationship among questionnaire measures of optimism, social support and perceptions of control in predicting subjective well-being (measured with the positive affect subscale of the Affect Balance Scale) (Bradburn, 1969) and psychological…
Saarinen, Minna K.; Jahnukainen, Markku T.; Pirttimaa, Raija A.
This article describes the social networks of four young people with intellectual disabilities in supported adult education, focusing on their inclusion in school and leisure environments. A multiple case study approach with content analysis was used. Data were collected through interviews with young people and their family members, relationship…
Kwag, Kyung Hwa; Martin, Peter; Russell, Daniel; Franke, Warren; Kohut, Marian
This study investigated how perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity affected older adults' fatigue, loneliness, and depression. We also explored whether social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health problems. The data of 163 older participants were analyzed in this study. Structural equation modeling using LISREL 8.71 was performed to assess the effects of stress, support, and physical activity on mental health. The findings indicate that perceived stress predicted higher levels of depression, social support predicted lower levels of loneliness and fatigue, and physical activity predicted lower levels of fatigue among older adults. Social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health, except depression. In conclusion, the relative impacts of perceived stress, social support, and physical activity on types of mental health (e.g., fatigue, loneliness, and depression) were different. Furthermore, stress had direct and indirect effects on each construct of mental health (e.g., fatigue, loneliness, and depression).
Hartley, Robyn; Horne, Jackie
This document was produced by the authors based on their research for the report, "Social and Economic Benefits of Improved Adult Literacy: Towards a Better Understanding," and is an added resource for further information. The original document is a feasibility study which explores the frameworks and methodologies available for…
Li, Hong; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Proctor, Enola; Rubin, Eugene
This study assessed the relationships between older patients' social support resources and depressive symptoms and psychosocial functioning at 6 months following a psychiatric hospital discharge. The data used in this study were extracted from a prospective study titled "Service Use of Depressed Elders after Acute Care" (National Institute of Mental Health-56208). This sample included 148 older patients who participated in the initial and the 6-month follow-up assessment. Ordinary Least Squares regression (OLS) was used to examine important social support resources in relation to older patients' depressive symptoms and psychosocial functioning. A vast majority of patients were embedded in a social support network that consisted of acquaintances and confidants. Patients' depressive symptoms were related to availability of a confidant and the extent to which they spent time with others. However, patients' psychosocial functioning was not related to social support resources assessed in this study.
Suzuki, Tomoko; Kitaike, Tadashi; Ikezaki, Sumie
The purpose of this cross-sectional survey was to explore relationships between life-space mobility and the related factors in elderly Japanese people who attend orthopaedic clinics. The study measures included surveys of life-space mobility (Life-space Assessment (LSA) score), social support (social network diversity and social ties), physical ability (instrumental self-maintenance, intellectual activity, social role), orthopaedic factors (diseases and symptoms) and demographic information. The questionnaire was distributed to 156 subjects; 152 persons responded, yielding 140 valid responses. Mean age of the sample was 76.0 ± 6.4 (range, 65-96 years), with 57.9% women (n = 81). In a multiple regression analysis, the six factors were significantly associated with LSA. Standardized partial regression coefficients (β) were gender (0.342), instrumental self-maintenance (0.297), social network diversity (0.217), age (-0.170), difficulty of motion (-0.156) and intellectual activity (0.150), with an adjusted R(2) = 0.488. These results suggest that outpatient health-care providers need to intervene in not only addressing orthopaedic factors but also promoting social support among elderly Japanese.
Singletary, Caitlin; Goodwyn, Mary Ann; Carter, Alice P.
Because initial and unexamined reactions to life-changing events or permanent disabilities are often negative, sometimes even debilitating, factors that help create positive change in the affected individuals' lives need to be examined. In the study presented here, the authors examined the relationship between levels of hope and social support in…
Millan-Calenti, Jose C.; Sanchez, Alba; Lorenzo-Lopez, Laura; Cao, Ricardo; Maseda, Ana
The influence of social support dimensions (the extent of contact with others, the satisfaction with contacts, and the availability of help if sick or disabled) in elderly people with cognitive impairment (COG), depressive symptoms (DEP), or the co-occurrence of these symptoms (COG-DEP) was assessed in a cross-sectional analysis of a…
Pruneau, Genevieve Mary Catherine
Although many people are exposed to trauma, substantially fewer develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Given this, studies have examined risk and protective factors for developing PTSD. This literature has established that there is a robust negative correlation between social support and PTSD. Attachment insecurity may be an informative…
Factor, Rhonda J; Rothblum, Esther D
A national sample of 295 transgender adults and their nontransgender siblings were surveyed about demographics, perceptions of social support, and violence, harassment, and discrimination. Transwomen were older than the other 4 groups. Transwomen, transmen, and genderqueers were more highly educated than nontransgender sisters and nontransgender brothers, but did not have a corresponding higher income. Other demographic differences between groups were found in religion, geographic mobility, relationship status, and sexual orientation. Transgender people were more likely to experience harassment and discrimination than nontransgender sisters and nontransgender brothers. All transgender people perceived less social support from family than nontransgender sisters. This is the first study to compare trans people to nontrans siblings as a comparison group.
Robitaille, Annie; Orpana, Heather; McIntosh, Cameron N
In this study we examined the longitudinal relationships between five dimensions of social support and psychological distress to determine whether (1) social support was related to subsequent psychological distress levels; or (2) if distress levels were related to subsequent social support levels; or (3) if distress and support had a reciprocal (bi-directional) relationship across time. Using bivariate autoregressive cross-lagged models, we analysed data from 2,564 older adults. We found support for the reciprocal relationship between affectionate support and distress. Higher psychological distress was related to subsequently higher levels of positive social interaction, and significantly related to subsequently higher emotional/informational support. No significant relationship was found between tangible and structural support and psychological distress. This study demonstrates that different types of support are associated in correspondingly different ways with psychological distress, and that psychological distress may be important in predicting levels of social support two years later.
Wherton, Joseph; Prendergast, David
There are a variety of factors that can lead to social isolation and loneliness in old age, including decline in physical and mental health, as well as change to social environment. The Building Bridges project explores how communication technology can help older adults remain socially connected. This paper will first provide an overview of a prototype communication system designed to support peer-to-peer group interaction. A description of the user-centered design process will be provided to demonstrate the importance of involving older adults at the earliest stages. The implications for designing new technology for older adults are discussed.
Trent, J T; Smith, A L; Wood, D L
Occupational stress and social support were measured in adults, 15 working as telecommuters, 9 working at home, and 14 working in a company office. Analysis showed telecommuters and office workers perceived more support than those working at home. Telecommuters also reported less stress and a stronger preference for this new work option.
Atukunda, Esther C; Musiimenta, Angella; Musinguzi, Nicholas; Wyatt, Monique A; Ashaba, Justus; Ware, Norma C; Haberer, Jessica E
SMS is a widely used technology globally and may also improve ART adherence, yet SMS notifications to social supporters following real-time detection of missed doses showed no clear benefit in a recent pilot trial. We examine the demographic and social-cultural dynamics that may explain this finding. In the trial, 63 HIV-positive individuals initiating ART received a real-time adherence monitor and were randomized to two types of SMS reminder interventions versus a control (no SMS). SMS notifications were also sent to 45 patient-identified social supporters for sustained adherence lapses. Like participants, social supporters were interviewed at enrollment, following their matched participant's adherence lapse and at exit. Social supporters with regular income (RR = 0.27, P = 0.001) were significantly associated with fewer adherence lapses. Instrumental support was associated with fewer adherence lapses only among social supporters who were food secure (RR = 0.58, P = 0.003). Qualitative interview data revealed diverse and complex economic and relationship dynamics, affecting social support. Resource availability in emotionally positive relationships seemingly facilitated helpful support, while limited resources prevented active provision of support for many. Effective social support appeared subject to social supporters' food security, economic stability and a well-functioning social network dependent on trust and supportive disclosure.
Seok, Soonhwa; DaCosta, Boaventura
This study investigated relationships between digital propensity and support needs as well as predictors of digital propensity in the context of support intensity, age, gender, and social maturity. A total of 118 special education teachers rated the support intensity, digital propensity, and social maturity of 352 students with intellectual disability. Leveraging the Digital Propensity Index, Supports Intensity Scale, and the Social Maturity Scale, descriptive statistics, correlations, multiple regressions, and regression analyses were employed. The findings revealed significant relationships between digital propensity and support needs. In addition, significant predictors of digital propensity were found with regard to support intensity, age, gender, and social maturity.
Karb, Rebecca A.; Elliott, Michael R.; Dowd, Jennifer B.; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.
Neighborhood disadvantage has consistently been linked to increased rates of morbidity and mortality, but the mechanisms through which neighborhood environments may get “under the skin” remain largely unknown. Differential exposure to chronic environmental stressors has been identified as a potential pathway linking neighborhood disadvantage and poor health, particularly through the dysregulation of stress-related biological pathways such as cortisol secretion, but the majority of existing observational studies on stress and neuroendocrine functioning have focused exclusively on individual-level stressors and psychosocial characteristics. This paper aims to fill that gap by examining the association between features of the neighborhood environment and the diurnal cortisol patterns of 308 individuals from Chicago, Illinois, USA. We found that respondents in neighborhoods with high levels of perceived and observed stressors or low levels of social support experienced a flatter rate of cortisol decline throughout the day. In addition, overall mean cortisol levels were found to be lower in higher stress, lower support neighborhoods. This study adds to the growing evidence of hypocortisolism among chronically stressed adult populations and suggests hypocortisolism rather than hypercortisolism as a potential mechanism linking social disadvantage to poor health. PMID:22698925
Tovar, Elizabeth; Rayens, Mary Kay; Gokun, Yevgeniya; Clark, Michele
Depression and diabetes have been linked in a variety of ways, and the presence of depression in those with diabetes can negatively affect adherence to care recommendations. A sample of 201 participants with Type 2 Diabetes completed a cross-sectional survey that assessed depressive symptoms, adherence, self-efficacy, social support, and personal characteristics. Multiple regression analysis was used to test whether self-efficacy and social support mediate the relationship between depressive symptoms and adherence. The findings suggest complete mediation via self-efficacy and some types of social support. Intervening to bolster self-efficacy and social support may decrease the negative effect of depression on adherence.
Sherman, Stephanie M; Cheng, Yen-Pi; Fingerman, Karen L; Schnyer, David M
Social support benefits health and well-being in older individuals, however the mechanism remains poorly understood. One proposal, the stress-buffering hypothesis states social support 'buffers' the effects of stress on health. Alternatively, the main effect hypothesis suggests social support independently promotes health. We examined the combined association of social support and stress on the aging brain. Forty healthy older adults completed stress questionnaires, a social network interview and structural MRI to investigate the amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex circuitry, which is implicated in social and emotional processing and negatively affected by stress. Social support was positively correlated with right medial prefrontal cortical thickness while amygdala volume was negatively associated with social support and positively related to stress. We examined whether the association between social support and amygdala volume varied across stress level. Stress and social support uniquely contribute to amygdala volume, which is consistent with the health benefits of social support being independent of stress.
Mansbach, William; Heller, Kenneth
Despite evidence that levels of social support can affect health, there has been little work isolating the factors which actually mediate the relationship between social support and health. In an attempt to analyze the role of nutrition as a mediating factor of health and social support among the elderly, female older adults (N=43) responded to an…
Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E.; Dedert, Eric A.; Calhoun, Patrick S.; Brancu, Mira; Runnals, Jennifer; Beckham, Jean C.
Objective: This study examined the relationship among childhood trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and adult social support in a large sample of veterans who served in the military after 09/11/2001, with a specific focus on the potential role of the PTSD avoidance and numbing cluster as intervening in the association between…
Li, Jinhui; Theng, Yin-Leng; Foo, Schubert
Social support and resilience were considered to be two significant influential factors for depression in late life. The study aims to present a mediation model for understanding the interrelations among social support, resilience, and geriatric depression. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted among 162 community-dwelling Chinese older adults in Singapore. Findings indicated a significant indirect effect of social support on geriatric depression through the mediation of resilience, by controlling demographic variables. Further, an identical influencing pattern between problem-solving resilience and emotion regulation resilience were found in the two individual models, suggesting a similar mediation role in linking social support and geriatric depression. These results extended and integrated earlier findings on the relationship of psychosocial factors and geriatric depression, and pointed out practical implications for future work on depression interventions.
Coulon, S M; Wilson, D K
Socioeconomic disadvantage has been linked to elevated blood pressure (BP), and the purpose of this study was to assess whether interpersonal social supports buffer these adverse relations in African-American adults. In three communities matched demographically, a subsample of participants (N = 204) of the Positive Action for Today's Health trial provided measures of perceived social support, annual household income, and BP. Multiple regression analyses with cross-product interactions were conducted using follow-up data. The sample had a mean age of 52.8 years (SD = 15.1), and was predominantly female (66 %) with a high body mass index (M = 33.5, SD = 14.7). Results indicated an inverse relation between social support and diastolic BP (B = -.178, p = .005), and also an interaction with income (p = .046), such that higher social support related to lower diastolic BP in the lowest-income individuals (B = -1.05). The same direct (B = -.141, p = .025) and interacting (B = -1.42, p = .040) social support effects were present for systolic BP, however the omnibus model for systolic BP was not significant, F(6, 196) = 1.80, p = .09. The hypothesized buffering effect of social support on the adverse relation of income to BP was partially supported in at-risk African-American adults. Future prevention efforts for reducing the impact of socioeconomic stress on BP may aim to increase perceptions of social support.
Koskinen, Maarit; Elovainio, Marko; Raaska, Hanna; Sinkkonen, Jari; Matomäki, Jaakko; Lapinleimu, Helena
Quantitative literature on international adoptees and racial/ethnic discrimination is lacking despite results in qualitative studies from Europe and the United States that have consistently indicated how racism constantly complicates adoptees' everyday lives. To advance the literature, the present study examined the prevalence of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination among 213 adult international adoptees in Finland (59.6% women and 40.4% men, mean age 24.1 years), and the association between perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and psychological well-being indicators, including psychological distress and sleeping problems. In addition, we examined social support and sense of coherence as moderators of the association between perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and psychological well-being. Our results showed that, on average, adult international adoptees perceived racial/ethnic discrimination occasionally. Hierarchical linear regression analyses indicated a significant association between perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and psychological distress and sleeping problems. Additionally, a significant 2-way interaction of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and social support indicated that the availability of social support may moderate the association between perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and psychological distress such that adoptees with high levels of social support may be protected from the harmful effects of discrimination. These results highlight the potential significance of social support in reducing the harmful effects of racial/ethnic discrimination on international adoptees. (PsycINFO Database Record
Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Sathasivam-Rueckert, Nina
Several risk factors, including female sex, racial minority status, and family poverty, have been implicated in adolescents' depression. The present study focused on the role of one specific aspect of adolescents' ecological context, interactions with adults, in depressive symptomology. We examined the relationship between perceived support from…
Declercq, Frédéric; Palmans, Vicky
This paper presents the result of a research which investigated the influence of the subjective factors 'adult attachment style' and 'perception of social support' in the occurrence of post traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) in a population of 544 subjects working for a security company and the Belgian Red Cross. The analysis of the results suggests that 'adult attachment style' and 'perception of social support' moderate between a critical incident and the occurrence of a PTSD. In other words, these independent variables differentiate between individuals who are more, and who are less prone, to suffer from a PTSD after having experienced a critical incident. The results of this research shed light on subjective risk factors related to PTSD. The findings can also suggest guidelines for the treatment of individuals suffering from a PTSD.
Bélanger, Emmanuelle; Ahmed, Tamer; Vafaei, Afshin; Curcio, Carmen Lucia; Phillips, Susan P; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria
Objectives To examine whether the association between emotional support and indicators of health and quality of life differs between Canadian and Latin American older adults. Design Cross-sectional analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS). Social support from friends, family members, children and partner was measured with a previously validated social network and support scale (IMIAS-SNSS). Low social support was defined as ranking in the lowest site-specific quartile. Prevalence ratios (PR) of good health, depression and good quality of life were estimated with Poisson regression models, adjusting for age, gender, education, income and disability in activities of daily living. Setting Kingston and Saint-Hyacinthe in Canada, Manizales in Colombia and Natal in Brazil. Participants 1600 community-dwelling adults aged 65–74 years, n=400 at each site. Outcome measures Likert scale question on self-rated health, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and 10-point analogical quality-of-life (QoL) scale. Results Relationships between social support and study outcomes differed between Canadian and Latin American older adults. Among Canadians, those without a partner had a lower prevalence of good health (PR=0.90; 95% CI 0.82 to 0.98), and those with high support from friends had a higher prevalence of good health (PR=1.09; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.18). Among Latin Americans, depression was lower among those with high levels of support from family (PR=0.63; 95% CI 0.48 to 0.83), children (PR=0.60; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.80) and partner (PR=0.57; 95% CI 0.31 to 0.77); good QoL was associated with high levels of support from children (PR=1.54; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.99) and partner (PR=1.31; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.67). Conclusions Among older adults, different sources of support were relevant to health across societies. Support from friends and having a partner were related to good health in Canada, whereas in Latin America, support from family, children and
Peterson, Jana J.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Lowe, John B.; Nothwehr, Faryle K.
Background: Many individuals with intellectual disabilities are not sufficiently active for availing health benefits. Little is known about correlates of physical activity among this population on which to build health promotion interventions. Materials and Methods: We developed scales for measurement of self-efficacy and social support for…
Fergie, Gillian; Hunt, Kate; Hilton, Shona
Social media offer opportunities to both produce and consume content related to health experiences. However, people's social media practices are likely to be influenced by a range of individual, social and environmental factors. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore how engagement with user-generated content can support people with long-term health conditions, and what limits users' adoption of these technologies in the everyday experience of their health condition. Forty semi-structured interviews were conducted with young adults, aged between 18 and 30 years, with experience of diabetes or a common mental health disorder (CMHD). We found that the online activities of these young adults were diverse; they ranged from regular production and consumption ('prosumption') of health-related user-generated content to no engagement with such content. Our analysis suggested three main types of users: 'prosumers'; 'tacit consumers' and 'non-engagers'. A key determinant of participants' engagement with resources related to diabetes and CMHDs in the online environment was their offline experiences of support. Barriers to young adults' participation in online interaction, and sharing of content related to their health experiences, included concerns about compromising their presentation of identity and adherence to conventions about what content is most appropriate for specific social media spaces. Based on our analysis, we suggest that social media do not provide an unproblematic environment for engagement with health content and the generation of supportive networks. Rather, producing and consuming user-generated content is an activity embedded within individuals' specific health experiences and is impacted by offline contexts, as well as their daily engagement with, and expectations, of different social media platforms.
Mehta, Neil; Atreja, Ashish
Peer support groups have a long history and have been shown to improve health outcomes. With the increasing familiarity with online social networks like Facebook and ubiquitous access to the Internet, online social support networks are becoming popular. While studies have shown the benefit of these networks in providing emotional support or meeting informational needs, robust data on improving outcomes such as a decrease in health services utilization or reduction in adverse outcomes is lacking. These networks also pose unique challenges in the areas of patient privacy, funding models, quality of content, and research agendas. Addressing these concerns while creating patient-centred, patient-powered online support networks will help leverage these platforms to complement traditional healthcare delivery models in the current environment of value-based care.
Maercker, A; Heim, E; Hecker, T; Thoma, M V
The classical concept of social support has recently become of relevance again, particularly in the context of traumatized patient groups, which include refugees and migrants. This article summarizes the evidence from social support research, e. g. different types of positive effects as well as context, gender and cultural aspects. These aspects are highlighted by means of studies stemming from applied healthcare research and thus describe a wide range of health effects, e.g. increased well-being and reduced depressive symptoms, improved functional abilities, better immune status and longevity. Two new trauma-specific differentiations of the social support concept are introduced: societal acknowledgement as a trauma survivor and disclosure of traumatic experiences. Against this background several implications for working with refugees arise: promotion of self-efficacy and posttraumatic maturation as well as the treatment of mental disorders show considerable benefits from focusing on social support. Finally, possibilities emerging from digital communication media are discussed, which are particularly relevant in this context.
Yeji, Francis; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Newell, Marie-Louise; Hirschhorn, Lisa R; Hosegood, Victoria; Bärnighausen, Till
We assess depression rates and investigate whether depression among HIV-infected adults receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) is associated with social support and HIV coping strategies in rural South Africa (SA). The study took place in a decentralised public-sector ART programme in a poor, rural area of KwaZulu-Natal, SA, with high-HIV prevalence and high-ART coverage. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12), validated in this setting, was used to assess depression in 272 adults recently initiated on ART. Estimates of depression prevalence ranged from 33% to 38%, depending on the method used to score the GHQ12. Instrumental social support (providing tangible factors for support, such as financial assistance, material goods or services), but not emotional social support (expressing feelings, such as empathy, love, trust or acceptance, to support a person), was significantly associated with lower likelihood of depression [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52-0.81, P < 0.001], when controlling for sex, age, marital status, education, household wealth and CD4 cell count. In addition, using "avoidance of people" as a strategy to cope with HIV was associated with an almost three times higher odds of depression (aOR = 2.79, CI: 1.34-5.82, P = 0.006), whereas none of the other five coping strategies we assessed was significantly associated with depression. In addition to antidepressant drug treatment, interventions enhancing instrumental social support and behavioural therapy replacing withdrawal behaviours with active HIV coping strategies may be effective in reducing the burden of depression among patients on ART.
Cohen, Mary Riggs
All adults need strong social skills to find and keep a job, establish relationships, and participate fully in adult life--but building these skills can be a special challenge for people with autism, Asperger syndrome, nonverbal learning disorder, social anxiety, and other disorders affecting social learning. Give them the essential support they…
Aschbrenner, Kelly; Mueser, Kim; Bartels, Stephen; Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth; Pratt, Sarah; Barre, Laura; Naslund, John; Kinney, Allison
Current efforts to reduce the increased risk of premature death from preventable cardiovascular disease among adults with serious mental illness (SMI) through lifestyle change have had limited success. Engaging informal support systems to promote healthy behaviors in everyday life may increase the effectiveness of health promotion interventions targeting this at-risk population. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 10 fitness trainers serving adults with SMI in a health promotion program at community mental health centers to explore their perspectives on the potential of enlisting support from significant others for health behavior change. Trainers reported that the majority of participants had a relative or significant other who influenced their health behaviors, and they saw potential value in involving them in efforts to improve health outcomes by extending support into participants' daily lives. They did not feel qualified to work with families of individuals with mental illness, but they were willing to partner with providers who had experience in this area. Social workers who practice with families could play a critical role on health promotion teams addressing cardiovascular risk in adults with SMI by using their skills and experiences to engage families in supporting a relative through the process of health behavior change.
Stewart, D; Sun, J
This study examines the association between firstly, student resiliency and their perceptions of social support from parents/caregivers, teachers, and peers, and secondly, between student's perception of their general health status and their social support. A cross-sectional research project was designed and conducted in 2003 in an urban and remote area of Queensland, Australia. The study population comprised of 2580 students (Years three, five, and seven) across 20 primary schools. The main outcome measures were self-reported health status and resiliency behaviours. Independent variables included student perceptions of support from parents/caregivers, teachers, school peers, and prosocial groups. Students who perceived parents, teachers, and peers as supportive were more likely to have higher resiliency behaviour in communication and cooperation, self-esteem, empathy, help-seeking, goals and aspirations. Students who considered that their parents, peers at school and prosocial groups were supportive, were more likely to feel healthy. Findings suggest that providing adult and peer support to students at primary school age is a vital strategy in promoting student resiliency and general health for children of primary school age.
Background Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant public health problem in Peru, causing an estimated 35,000 new cases each year, 6.7% of whom are co-infected with HIV. Social support mechanisms are key in influencing health-seeking behavior, adherence, and overall patient wellbeing in clinical settings. We examine the types of social support received by TB patients and parents of pediatric patients in peri-urban Lima, Peru, to understand its role in patients’ psychosocial wellbeing during treatment. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted between August 2004 and May 2005 among 43 individuals: 19 adults with TB, 8 adults with TB/HIV, 13 parents of pediatric TB patients, and 3 parents of pediatric TB/HIV patients. Results Patients described the need for psychosocial support to mitigate the difficulty of continually going to the clinic to take medications, tending to other family or professional responsibilities while on treatment, and confronting stigma and social isolation within their community. Family members most often contributed to meeting these psychosocial needs, and were also crucial in providing economic support to patients faced with burdensome medical expenses or who were forced to leave their jobs due to being on treatment. Most healthcare personnel were described as key providers of emotional support and encouragement for patients to successfully adhere to treatment, however there were a select few doctors whose “scare tactics” seemingly discouraged patient adherence. During the treatment process, patients described being more socially withdrawn as a result of feeling fatigued from their medications, however most participants also described forming new mutually supportive friendships among their fellow patients. Conclusions Despite the general reluctance of patients to disclose their disease status, patients received a significant amount of psychosocial support from both family members to whom they disclosed, and from positive
Chalise, Hom Nath; Saito, Tami; Takahashi, Miyako; Kai, Ichiro
Social support, subjective well-being (SWB), and loneliness are issues of central importance in research concerned with the quality of life (QOL) of elderly people in the 21st century. However, very little is known about the situation in low-income countries such as in Nepal. The purpose of this paper is to identify the relationships significant in social support (received (SSR) and provided (SSP)) and analyze their connections with loneliness and SWB. The subjects, not suffering from dementia, were 60 years and above living in Kathmandu city. The data was analyzed using logistic regression with some confounding variables controlled. The results indicate that loneliness is high and SWB is low amongst Nepalese older adults. SSR from children living together and SSP to spouse, children living together and friends and neighbors reduce loneliness. SSP to children living apart increases SWB-life satisfaction. SSR from children living together and SSP to children (living together and apart) increases SWB-life stability. However, SSP to relatives reduces SWB-life satisfaction and SSR from relatives reduces SWB-life stability in Nepalese older adult men.
Matthews, Anne Martin
The role of social support in helping elderly people deal with stressful life events is quite complex. This complexity exists because it is difficult to define exactly what social support is, and because the experiences of `normal' aging vary. This article uses the example of adaptation to widowhood to examine the relationship between normal aging and sources, types, and patterns of social support. These factors influence the extent to which support lessens the impact of age-related stressful events. The physician has a role in primary social support, and also in facilitating the supportive functions of family and others. PMID:21279087
Mosack, Katie E.; Weinhardt, Lance S.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; McAuliffe, Timothy L.; Johnson, Mallory O.; Remien, Robert H.; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Ehrhardt, Anke A.; Chesney, Margaret A.; Morin, Stephen F.
The authors examined associations between psychosocial variables (coping self-efficacy, social support, and cognitive depression) and subjective health status among a large national sample (N = 3,670) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive persons with different sexual identities. After controlling for ethnicity, heterosexual men reported fewer symptoms than did either bisexual or gay men and heterosexual women reported fewer symptoms than did bisexual women. Heterosexual and bisexual women reported greater symptom intrusiveness than did heterosexual or gay men. Coping self-efficacy and cognitive depression independently explained symptom reports and symptom intrusiveness for heterosexual, gay, and bisexual men. Coping self-efficacy and cognitive depression explained symptom intrusiveness among heterosexual women. Cognitive depression significantly contributed to the number of symptom reports for heterosexual and bisexual women and to symptom intrusiveness for lesbian and bisexual women. Individuals likely experience HIV differently on the basis of sociocultural realities associated with sexual identity. Further, symptom intrusiveness may be a more sensitive measure of subjective health status for these groups. PMID:19064372
Harada, Ken; Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Sugihara, Yoko; Yanagisawa, Shizuko; Shimmei, Masaya
This study examined the additive effects of social support and negative interactions in various relationship domains and the cross-domain buffering effects of social support on the detrimental impact of negative interactions on mental health among older adults in Japan. Data were obtained from a survey of residents of 30 municipalities in the Tokyo metropolitan area ( N = 1,592). The results indicated that family members living together may share ambivalent social ties, anchored in positive sentiments and serving as sources of support but where criticism and excessive demands may occur. We found that negative interactions had a more potent additive effect on mental health. Moreover, the interaction effects of negative interactions with family and social support from other relatives suggested reverse buffering. Our findings suggest that interventions might be more necessary to cope with the negative social exchanges of close kin relationships among the elderly Japanese.
Forthofer, M S; Janz, N K; Dodge, J A; Clark, N M
This study explored and compared the role of self esteem, stress and social support in maintenance or improvement in physical and psychosocial functioning over 12 months in older men and women with cardiovascular disease. Data from 502 adults over 60 years of age showed that self esteem and stress were both significantly associated with functioning when demographic and clinical factors were controlled. Men were significantly more likely than women to maintain or improve in functioning. Self esteem, stress, compliance with medication regimens, and marital status were significantly associated with maintenance or improvement of functioning among women. Only age and stress were significantly associated with maintenance or improvement in functioning among men. Findings indicated that: (1) stress and self esteem were stronger predictors of functioning, especially among women, than demographic and clinical factors; and (2) women in the highest quartile of the self esteem distribution were approximately five times as likely to maintain or improve their functioning as women in the lowest quartile.
de Greef, Maurice; Verté, Dominique; Segers, Mien
To date a significant share of the European population can be considered at risk of social exclusion. It has been argued that adult education programmes are a powerful tool to support vulnerable adults increasing their social inclusion. This study aims to answer the question if and which subgroups of vulnerable adults experience an increase in…
... a good person to be around. Feeling of security. Your social network gives you access to information, ... Here are some ideas for building your social network: Volunteer. Pick ... your area or check the local community center. Or, start a walking group at ...
Test, David W.
Thirty studies on supported employment for people with disabilities were evaluated using a proposed Social Validity Matrix. Results suggested further research should investigate alternative strategies for assessing social validity, develop systematic procedures for collecting and using social validity data, and establish functional variables…
Choi, Namkee G.; Wodarski, John S.
Analyzes a sample of 695 elderly adults to determine the elasticity of informal social support systems in response to declining health and the effects of such support on their health outcomes. Findings indicate that the extent of informal support is more likely to be bound by the social support network size than by the demand for care associated…
Wrosch, Carsten; Rueggeberg, Rebecca; Hoppmann, Christiane A
A 6-year longitudinal study of 180 older adults (M age at baseline = 72.12 years) examined whether goal adjustment capacities (i.e., goal disengagement and goal reengagement) moderate the associations between transient and long-term longitudinal changes in social support partners with social support satisfaction. Results from hierarchical linear models show that high levels of, and increases in, goal disengagement capacities buffered the adverse effect of transient declines in perceptions of social support partners on satisfaction with social support. Moreover, increases in goal disengagement buffered the effect of long-term longitudinal declines in perceived social support on reduced levels of social support satisfaction. However, when participants perceived longitudinal increases in the number of social support partners, low levels of, and declines in, goal reengagement capacities were associated with high levels or increases in social support satisfaction. This pattern of findings suggests that goal disengagement can ameliorate social support satisfaction if older adults perceive a reduction in their social support network. Withdrawing from engagement in new goals, by contrast, may contribute to social support satisfaction if older adults perceive an increase in the number of social support partners.
Neill, James T.; Dias, Katica L.
Social support, a key factor in determining physical and mental health, strongly predicted changes in outdoor adventure participants' psychological resilience. The support received from the least supportive person best predicted gains in resilience. Outdoor education programs should provide a learning environment that is both challenging and…
Lieberwirth, Claudia; Wang, Zuoxin
Adult neurogenesis – the formation of new neurons in adulthood – has been shown to be modulated by a variety of endogenous (e.g., trophic factors, neurotransmitters, and hormones) as well as exogenous (e.g., physical activity and environmental complexity) factors. Research on exogenous regulators of adult neurogenesis has focused primarily on the non-social environment. More recently, however, evidence has emerged suggesting that the social environment can also affect adult neurogenesis. The present review details the effects of adult–adult (e.g., mating and chemosensory interactions) and adult–offspring (e.g., gestation, parenthood, and exposure to offspring) interactions on adult neurogenesis. In addition, the effects of a stressful social environment (e.g., lack of social support and dominant–subordinate interactions) on adult neurogenesis are reviewed. The underlying hormonal mechanisms and potential functional significance of adult-generated neurons in mediating social behaviors are also discussed. PMID:22586385
A strong social support system can help you manage your cancer treatment and day-to-day life. Use this action deck to get information on dealing with different parts of a support network and learn how to make the most of the people who play a role in your life and cancer care.
Thomas, Jamie; Nix, Susan
The statistical data reports that current unemployment rates for young adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in the United States is bleak. In 2004, Hurlbutt and Chalmers noted that difficulties obtaining and keeping employment are many times connected to issues involving social interactions and communication skills rather than performing…
Gordon-Hollingsworth, Arlene T.; Thompson, Julia E.; Geary, Meghan A.; Schexnaildre, Mark A.; Lai, Betty S.; Kelley, Mary Lou
The Social Support Questionnaire for Children (SSQC) is a 50-item scale that assesses children's social support from parents, relatives, nonrelative adults, siblings, and peers. The SSQC demonstrates good psychometric properties (e.g., internal consistency, factorial validity). Furthermore, the SSQC appears to be an ethnically sensitive measure of…
Al-Kandari, Yagoub Y; Crews, Douglas E
The aim of this study was to examine differences in several aspects of health between Kuwaiti men and women aged 60 years and over across three age categories (60-69, 70-79, 80+ years). The relationships between several social support variables, somatic symptoms and systolic and diastolic blood pressures were examined. A total of 1427 adult men (472) and women (955) aged 60 years and over representing all six governorates were selected. Data were collected during 2008-2009 by interview and completion of a questionnaire by participants in their own homes, after obtaining their informed consent. The Social Support Scale (SSS), Frequency of Contact Scale (FOC), Strength of Relations (SOR), Somatic Symptoms Inventory (SSI) and self-rated scales of general health were included. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured. The data show that self-rated health and health in the last year differ significantly across age groups. Glycaemia differed significantly across the three age groups for the total sample. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were higher in older respondents than younger ones, but no significant differences were observed between men and women. No significant differences in somatic symptoms were observed across the three age groups. Strength of relationship, frequency of contact, social support and children living with an elderly adult were all associated with fewer somatic symptoms, and all, except social support, were associated with lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Having children, the perception of social support, frequency of contact with, and strength of, relationships with kin are important modulators of somatic symptoms and blood pressure among elderly Kuwaitis.
Feng, Danjun; Ji, Linqin; Xu, Lingzhong
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of psychological distress among elderly people in rural China. Moreover, the mediating effect of social support on the association between functional disability and psychological distress and whether this effect varies with age would be examined. A total of 741 elderly people aged 60-89 years from a rural area of Shandong Province, China participated in a cross-sectional survey. Their psychological distress, perceived social support, enacted social support, and functional disability were assessed through questionnaires. A total of 217 (29.3%) rural elderly people had psychological distress. The functional disability of people ≥75 years old had smaller total effects (0.18) on their psychological distress than in people <75 years old (0.30). Moreover, most of the effects of functional disability on psychological distress among the people ≥75 years old were indirect (0.12; 66.67% of total effects) through the mediating effect of social support especially perceived support, while the direct effect of functional disability was insignificant. In contrast, most of the effects of functional disability on psychological distress among the people <75 years old were direct (0.29; 96.67% of total effects), while the mediating effect of social support was insignificant. In conclusion, the total effect of functional disability, especially the direct effect, on psychological distress decreases sharply with age. The mediating effect of social support on the association between functional disability and psychological distress varies with age and is only found in people ≥75 years.
Minnis, John R.
Argues that the process of education, including adult education, involves the adoption and possibly the transmission of values. Applies concepts of socialization theory and curriculum theory to adult education, focusing on the work of Brim, Berger and Luckmann, and Bourdieu. Discusses the relationship between adult education and social change.…
Thompson, Jacklyn J.; Porto, Stella C. S.
Online education cannot continue to grow at the current pace while ignoring a crucial component of campus support, wellness for adult online learners. This paper brings awareness to the concept of wellness as an important student support service in adult online education. It includes a summarized review of relevant literature and identifies…
Barnes, Donelle M; Aguilar, Rocio
Social support has been linked to positive health outcomes for many populations across multiple health issues. The interactional approach defines social support as a complex, transactional process between the person and his or her social environment. Being part of a community enhances the likelihood of social bonding, leading to increased perceived support. In this study, the authors describe recently arrived adult Cuban refugees' perceptions of community-level support in Texas. Practical and emotional support needs included jobs and companionship away from everyday problems. The two major sources of practical support were resettlement agencies and other Cubans. The two major sources of emotional support were other Cubans and English-speaking friends. There were no local Cuban clubs or associations where Cubans could meet. Besides receiving support, many Cubans were also supporting other Cubans locally and in Cuba, and some experienced discrimination.
Scott, Jean Pearson; Roberto, Karen A.
Compared rural and urban older adults on exchanges of assistance and social activities with children and friends. Found that illness prompted more giving and receiving of assistance for rural in comparison to urban informal supports. Rural widows were more actively involved in exchanges of assistance with friend networks than were urban widows.…
Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Washington, Karla; Demiris, George; Oliver, Debra Parker; Shaunfield, Sara
Despite the abundance of research on social support, both as a variable in larger studies and as a central focus of examination, there is little consensus about the relationship between social support and health outcomes. Current social support measures typically account only for frequency and size of network, and a paucity of research exists that has explained social support burden, defined as the burden associated with accessing and receiving support from others. We analyzed audio-recorded discussions by hospice family caregivers about their caregiving problems and potential solutions to examine social relationships within networks and identify the processes that influence social support seeking and receiving. Using qualitative thematic analysis, we found that caregivers providing hospice care experience social support burden resulting from perceived relational barriers between friends and family, the inclination to remain in control, recognition of the loss of the patient as a source of social support and guidance in decision making, family dynamics, and decreased availability of emotional support. Social support researchers should consider how the quality of communication and relationships within social networks impacts the provision and subsequent outcomes of social support in varying contexts. Findings from this study suggest that hospice social support resources should be tailored to the caregiver's support needs and include assessment on the type of support to be offered.
Jantz, Kathryn Mederise
A total of 35 adults (24-77 years; 24 males and 11 females) with Asperger syndrome (AS) who were in, were waiting to get in, or had been in support groups participated in the study. In general, the adults were highly educated but unemployed or underemployed and living alone with family members as friends. The participants were interviewed,…
Cnaan, Ram A; Boddie, Stephanie C; Kang, Jennifer
A large proportion of older adults are affiliated with congregations. The literature suggests that, in general, religious participation among the older adults enhances their quality of life and provides a network of social care. In this article, we explored the relevant literature on organized religion and social support for older adults. Based on a census study of congregations in Philadelphia (N = 1,393), we documented the following: (1) the number of congregations serving older adults, (2) the types of services provided, and (3) the number of beneficiaries. The study also identified the organizational factors that predict the provision of congregation-based services for older adults. The findings suggest that serving older adults is not a top priority for most congregations. Most senior programs are small and often informal. Approximately half (48%) of the congregations do not provide a formal social service. However, those congregations that are more likely to serve older adults have larger budgets, more members over 65-years-old, and a moderate political orientation. We recommend that congregations, social service providers, and older adults explore ways to maximize this underutilized resource of congregational services to meet the needs of the increasing number of older adults.
Suggests some ideas that could stimulate and be incentives for defining programs of adult education in the future. These involve changing priorities, developing a framework which allows adult education programs to be established, and managing decision-making processes. (CT)
Chen, Jen-Hao; Lauderdale, Diane S; Waite, Linda J
Sleep complaints are common among older adults, and poor sleep has been found to predict chronic diseases and mortality. Many studies suggest that social participation benefits healthy aging. We examined the relationships between older adults' social participation and their sleep using two waves (2005-2006, 2010-2011) of data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP). The NSHAP recorded older adults' social participation (including religious attendance, volunteer work, and attendance at meetings of organized groups) over five years, and included self-reported sleep duration in both waves and, in the second wave, measures of insomnia symptoms and measures of sleep patterns and rhythms using actigraphy for a subsample. Cross-sectional analysis of the second wave indicates that those reporting higher levels of social participation had better actigraphic sleep but not better self-reported sleep. However, longitudinal analysis suggests that change in social participation was not associated with actigraphic or self-reported sleep characteristics in the second wave data. Further analysis using fixed-effects model showed no association between change in social participation and change in self-reported sleep duration. Thus, although older adults with greater social participation slept better, we did not find that increasing social participation improved sleep. These findings imply that a self-selection process may at work; or if social participation does affect sleep, the causal effect may be over a much shorter time frame than five years.
Kokkonen, J; Saukkonen, A L; Timonen, E; Serlo, W; Kinnunen, P
The social status of 52 disabled young adults (29 men, 23 women) was reviewed at the age of 19 to 25 years, and compared with that of 209 age-matched controls. 40 had successfully completed elementary school and 10 had completed high-school. 28 had gone on to basic further education and 11 had progressed to more advanced levels. 35 per cent of the study group and 11 per cent of the controls had had no further education. Half of the study group were receiving disability benefit and 12 had no occupation outside the home. There was little difference in present employment status between groups, but the study group had experienced twice as much unemployment as controls. Leaving the parents' home and sexual experience were delayed among the study group. The results indicate the need for more practical support for these adolescents and their parents.
Erosheva, Elena A.; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Emlet, Charles; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.
Purpose This study examines global social networks—including friendship, support, and acquaintance networks—of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. Design and Methods Utilizing data from a large community-based study, we employ multiple regression analyses to examine correlates of social network size and diversity. Results Controlling for background characteristics, network size was positively associated with being female, transgender identity, employment, higher income, having a partner or a child, identity disclosure to a neighbor, engagement in religious activities, and service use. Controlling in addition for network size, network diversity was positively associated with younger age, being female, transgender identity, identity disclosure to a friend, religious activity, and service use. Implications According to social capital theory, social networks provide a vehicle for social resources that can be beneficial for successful aging and well-being. This study is a first step at understanding the correlates of social network size and diversity among LGBT older adults. PMID:25882129
Ditzen, Beate; Heinrichs, Markus
Social integration and social support have a substantial influence on individual health and longevity, an effect assumed to be mediated through reduced stress reactivity in support recipients. However, considerable variability in individual responses to social support has been documented, suggesting that the beneficial effect of social support interacts with early experiences, genetically influenced differences in biological systems mediating social behavior, personality traits, and psychopathology. Here we outline the historical background of social support research, including epidemiological studies, laboratory studies, and field studies on the subject of social support and health, with regard to different psychobiological effector systems. Most recent research has focused on brain mechanisms which link social integration or social support with reduced neural threat responses. As numerous mental disorders are associated with considerable social impairment, understanding the potentially underlying mechanisms of neural plasticity in relation to social support, stress buffering and health in these disorders can help tailor new diagnostic and treatment strategies. Thus, theories of socially-driven emotional learning and memory, as presented in this review, might eventually lead to psychobiology-based treatment concepts for mental disorders involving social deficits.
An examination of the current government policy discourse on social value and the capturing of social impact leads immediately into the centre of the fast-moving and transforming public-sector reform agenda. The thinking around social value takes an individual to the heart of contracting, localism, the relationship between the public sector and…
Ihlenfeld, J T
A meta-analysis of 125 nurses in three types of nursing roles investigated whether these nurses received social support from their administrators, the types of social support received, and whether more or less social support from these managers was desired. The Arizona Social Support Interview Schedule (ASSIS) was used to assess these questions. Results showed that home health nurses received social participation and physical assistance, whereas staff nurses received positive feedback and physical assistance. Nursing faculty received little support from their managers. Social exchange theory predicts that intangibles such as social support should exist in equitable relationships. It is possible that the difference in the nurses' and administrators' statuses and power levels affected staff nurses' results. Mental health clinical nurse specialists can use these results to help nurses understand their work relationships.
Nobre, Nuno Ribeiro; Kylmä, Jari; Kirsi, Tapio; Pereira, Marco
The aim of this study was to explore the social networks of older adults living with HIV. Interviews were conducted with nine individuals aged 50 or older living with HIV in Helsinki, Finland. Analysis of transcripts was analysed by inductive qualitative content analysis. Results indicated that these participants' networks tended to be large, including those both aware and unaware of the participants' health status. Analysis identified three main themes: large multifaceted social networks, importance of a support group, and downsizing of social networks. Support received appeared to be of great importance in coping with their health condition, especially since the time of diagnosis. Friends and family were the primary source of informal support. The majority of participants relied mostly on friends, some of whom were HIV-positive. Formal support came primarily from the HIV organisation's support group. In this study group, non-disclosure did not impact participants' well-being. In years to come, social networks of older adults living with HIV may shrink due to personal reasons other than HIV-disclosure. What is of primary importance is that healthcare professionals become knowledgeable about psychosocial issues of older adults living with HIV, identifying latent problems and developing adequate interventions in the early stages of the disease; this would help prevent social isolation and foster successful ageing with HIV.
Fuller-Iglesias, Heather R.; Antonucci, Toni
The Convoy Model suggests that at different stages of the lifespan the makeup of the social support network varies in step with developmental and contextual needs. Cultural norms may shape the makeup of social convoys as well as denote socio-demographic differences in social support. This study examines the social convoys of adults in Mexico.…
Vogel, Susan A.; Forness, Steven R.
Reviews literature on possible causes of social functioning deficits in adults with learning disabilities including language disorders, information processing deficits, and behavioral and/or attention problems. Discusses co-occurrence of social functioning deficits with nonverbal learning disability, and effects of educational isolation,…
Popliger, Mina; Toste, Jessica R.; Heath, Nancy L.
The perceived availability of social support has been documented as a protective mechanism among adults and adolescents. However, little research has explored the role of social support among children with emotional and behavioural difficulties (E/BD). The current study sought to investigate the effects of perceived social support from family,…
Richards, Tara N.; Branch, Kathryn A.
Although much research has focused on the function of social support in adult intimate partner violence, little is known about the role of social support in adolescent dating violence. This study is an exploratory analysis of the independent impact of social support from friends and family on the risk of adolescent dating violence perpetration and…
McIntosh, William Alex; And Others
Investigated effects of recent life events, psychological adjustment, and social support on lymphocyte count among 192 older adults. For males, recent sexual dysfunction lowered lymphocyte count, whereas psychological adjustment and percentage kin in intimate network elevated it. For females, family or legal problems elevated count as did frequent…
The perception that support is available is central to a person's well being. Nonetheless, naturalistic studies and experimental manipulations of support visibility have uncovered that receiving specific acts of support can entail an emotional cost and that a supportive act is most effective when it is accomplished outside of the recipient's…
Tozer, Rosemary; Atkin, Karl
Background: The potential of adult siblings to offer long-term support to a brother or sister with autism is rarely realized. To understand this, our study explores the expectations of social care among adult siblings. Method: Using qualitative interviews, we spoke to 21 adult siblings about their family relationships and engagement with service…
Kamitani, Emiko; Bonnet, Kemberlee; Lindgren, Teri
Background The onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus can be prevented or delayed by lifestyle changes. Communication technologies such as a mobile phone can be used as a means of delivering these lifestyle changes. Objectives The purposes of this analysis were to explore applicability of potential components of a mobile phone-based healthy lifestyle program and to understand motivators and barriers to continued engagement in a mobile phone healthy lifestyle program. Methods We conducted 6 focus groups (4 female and 2 male groups) in May and June 2010 with 35 focus group participants. The qualitative data were analyzed by 3 researchers using a qualitative description method in an ATLAS.ti software program. Inclusion criteria for enrollment in a focus group were as follows: (1) being aged from 30 to 69 years, (2) speaking and reading English, (3) having a sedentary lifestyle at work or during leisure time (screened by the Brief Physical Activity Survey questionnaire), and (4) having a body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2 (Asian >23 kg/m2) based on self-reported weight and height or 5) having a self-reported prediabetic condition. Results The mean age was 51 (SD 10.6) years; 54% (n = 19) were white; 71% (n = 25) used a mobile phone at least once a week during the last month prior to the study enrollment; and mean BMI was 32.5 (SD 6.5) kg/m2. In the qualitative analyses, the following 4 major themes and their subthemes emerged: (1) real-time social support (real-time peer support from participants who are similarly engaged in a diet or physical activity program, and professional support from health care providers or a researcher), (2) tailoring of mobile phone programs (3) self-monitoring and motivation, and (4) potential barriers and sustainability of the program (fear of failing, age and mobile technologies, and loss of interest over time). Conclusions Participants from a wide range of age and racial groups expressed interest in a mobile phone-based lifestyle program. Such a
Chou, Yueh-Ching; Chiao, Chi; Fu, Li-Yeh
Background: Primary family carers of adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) experience a range of considerable demands. Method: A census survey was conducted in a city of Taiwan; 796 family carers of adults (aged 18 or older) diagnosed with intellectual disability and/or with multiple disabilities living with the family…
Jacobs, Stephanie; Tsien, Joe Z
Motivation to engage in social interaction is critical to ensure normal social behaviors, whereas dysregulation in social motivation can contribute to psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, autism, social anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While dopamine is well known to regulate motivation, its downstream targets are poorly understood. Given the fact that the dopamine 1 (D1) receptors are often physically coupled with the NMDA receptors, we hypothesize that the NMDA receptor activity in the adult forebrain principal neurons are crucial not only for learning and memory, but also for the proper gating of social motivation. Here, we tested this hypothesis by examining sociability and social memory in inducible forebrain-specific NR1 knockout mice. These mice are ideal for exploring the role of the NR1 subunit in social behavior because the NR1 subunit can be selectively knocked out after the critical developmental period, in which NR1 is required for normal development. We found that the inducible deletion of the NMDA receptors prior to behavioral assays impaired, not only object and social recognition memory tests, but also resulted in profound deficits in social motivation. Mice with ablated NR1 subunits in the forebrain demonstrated significant decreases in sociability compared to their wild type counterparts. These results suggest that in addition to its crucial role in learning and memory, the NMDA receptors in the adult forebrain principal neurons gate social motivation, independent of neuronal development.
Vlasova, Vera K.; Simonova, Galina I.; Soleymani, Nassim
The urgency of the problem stated in the article is caused by the need of pedagogical support of students' social adaptation on the basis of systematicity, which is achieved if we correctly define the components of the process. The aim of the article is to determine the pedagogical support components of students' social adaptation. The leading…
understanding, and intellectual curiosity, this process would have been a much lonelier and more stressful experience. I feel especially indebted to my...39 3.4. Mean Values of Scales at Baseline ........................... 40 3.5. Mean Values of Scales at One Year...Support Only .............................. . ......................... .. 53 4.4. Outcome: Health Status; Scale Combining Social Support and Social
Gamble, Wendy C; Woulbroun, E. Jeanne
Examined how young children participating in early childhood programs perceive the social support they receive. Results indicated that pre- and early elementary school-age children can respond to questions about their social support networks in reasonably reliable and valid ways. Significant correlations with indices of perceived competence and…
The "Programme for Government" is the Welsh Government's plan of action for this term of the Assembly. At the forefront of the programme is growth and sustainable jobs. As a small economy, still recovering from the decline of manufacturing and the coal industry, Wales' economic and social outcomes are inextricably linked. Certainly, the…
Barton, Christopher; Effing, Tanya W; Cafarella, Paul
A scoping review was conducted to determine the size and nature of the evidence describing associations between social support and networks on health, management and clinical outcomes amongst patients with COPD. Searches of PubMed, PsychInfo and CINAHL were undertaken for the period 1966-December 2013. A descriptive synthesis of the main findings was undertaken to demonstrate where there is current evidence for associations between social support, networks and health outcomes, and where further research is needed. The search yielded 318 papers of which 287 were excluded after applying selection criteria. Two areas emerged in which there was consistent evidence of benefit of social support; namely mental health and self-efficacy. There was inconsistent evidence for a relationship between perceived social support and quality of life, physical functioning and self-rated health. Hospital readmission was not associated with level of perceived social support. Only a small number of studies (3 articles) have reported on the social network of individuals with COPD. There remains a need to identify the factors that promote and enable social support. In particular, there is a need to further understand the characteristics of social networks within the broader social structural conditions in which COPD patients live and manage their illness.
Darwich, Lina; Hymel, Shelley; Waterhouse, Terry
This study examined differences among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning youths in their perceptions of adult support. For socially stigmatized youths, adult support is of particular significance. However, there is very little understanding about how adult support protects youths from homophobic victimization as well as other risk factors. In…
Cornwell, Erin York; Waite, Linda J
Previous research has identified a wide range of indicators of social isolation that pose health risks, including living alone, having a small social network, infrequent participation in social activities, and feelings of loneliness. However multiple forms of isolation are rarely studied together making it difficult to determine which aspects of isolation are most deleterious for health. Using population-based data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, we combine multiple indicators of social isolation into scales assessing social disconnectedness (e.g., small social network, infrequent participation in social activities) and perceived isolation (e.g., loneliness, perceived lack of social support). We examine the extent to which social disconnectedness and perceived isolation have distinct associations with physical and mental health among older adults. Results indicate that social disconnectedness and perceived isolation are independently associated with lower levels of self-rated physical health. However, the association between disconnectedness and mental health may operate through the strong relationship between perceived isolation and mental health. We conclude that health researchers need to consider social disconnectedness and perceived isolation simultaneously.
CORNWELL, ERIN YORK; WAITE, LINDA J.
Previous research has identified a wide range of indicators of social isolation that pose health risks, including living alone, having a small social network, infrequent participation in social activities, and feelings of loneliness. However, multiple forms of isolation are rarely studied together, making it difficult to determine which aspects of isolation are most deleterious for health. Using population-based data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, we combine multiple indicators of social isolation into scales assessing social disconnectedness (e.g., small social network, infrequent participation in social activities) and perceived isolation (e.g., loneliness, perceived lack of social support). We examine the extent to which social disconnectedness and perceived isolation have distinct associations with physical and mental health among older adults. Results indicate that social disconnectedness and perceived isolation are independently associated with lower levels of self-rated physical health. However, the association between disconnectedness and mental health may operate through the strong relationship between perceived isolation and mental health. We conclude that health researchers need to consider social disconnectedness and perceived isolation simultaneously. PMID:19413133
Emlet, Charles A
This study examined social networks and social isolation in older (50 years or more) and younger (ages 20 to 39) adults with HIV/AIDS. The author conducted interviews with 88 individuals living with HIV/AIDS in the Pacific Northwest. Both groups' social networks had similar patterns; however, older adults were more likely to live alone. More than 38 percent of older adults and 54 percent of older adults of color were at risk of social isolation compared with 25 percent of those 20 to 39 years of age. Older men and older adults of color had significantly lower scores on the social network scale than others. Having a confidant and receiving instrumental support were significantly correlated with reduced HIV stigma. Implications for social work practitioners are discussed.
Wohn, Donghee Yvette; Carr, Caleb T; Hayes, Rebecca A
A national survey asked 323 U.S. adults about paralinguistic digital affordances (PDAs) and how these forms of lightweight feedback within social media were associated with their perceived social support. People perceived PDAs (e.g., Likes, Favorites, and Upvotes) as socially supportive both quantitatively and qualitatively, even without implicit meaning associated with them. People who are highly sensitive about what others think of them and have high self-esteem are more likely to perceive higher social support from PDAs.
Heightened levels of support provision are systematically observed in adults immediately following natural disasters, yet knowledge about adolescents' social support provision is less extensive. This longitudinal study of 262 adolescents assessed their help-providing behaviors during and after a flood. It was hypothesized that social support provided by adolescents would relate to subsequent perceptions of their relationships with others and perceptions of the self. Descriptive analyses demonstrated that the majority of respondents reported that they provided tangible, emotional, and informational support to others in need. A series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that higher levels of support provided following the flood were subsequently associated with higher levels of perceived social support, a stronger sense of community at school, and greater propensity to engage in proactive coping. These associations were statistically significant, controlling for the impact of exposure to disaster stressors, age, gender, and received social support. Theoretical considerations and practical implications related to processes of social support provisions in times of stress are discussed.
Muratore, Christopher S.
Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) has become increasingly popular as a salvage strategy for critically ill adults. Major advances in technology and the severe acute respiratory distress syndrome that characterized the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic have stimulated renewed interest in the use of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal to support the respiratory system. Theoretical advantages of ECLS for respiratory failure include the ability to rest the lungs by avoiding injurious mechanical ventilator settings and the potential to facilitate early mobilization, which may be advantageous for bridging to recovery or to lung transplantation. The use of venoarterial ECMO has been expanded and applied to critically ill adults with hemodynamic compromise from a variety of etiologies, beyond postcardiotomy failure. Although technology and general care of the ECLS patient have evolved, ECLS is not without potentially serious complications and remains unproven as a treatment modality. The therapy is now being tested in clinical trials, although numerous questions remain about the application of ECLS and its impact on outcomes in critically ill adults. PMID:25046529
The aim of the present study was to gain additional information about the relationship between emotional intelligence, social support, and affectivity. The subjects were 64 university students who completed the short form of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS-30), the Social Support Questionnaire, and the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List (MAACL). The results show that Social Support is high and significantly related with both Mood Repair, on one hand, and more Positive Affects and Sensation Seeking, on the other. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that social support can be considered, somehow, as a way of mood repair; and thus not surprisingly is also associated with more Positive Affects and Sensation Seeking.
Levine, Ellen G.; Aviv, Caryn; Ewing, Cheryl; Au, Alfred
Introduction One in ten women over the age of 65 will develop breast cancer. Despite this high incidence of breast cancer among older women, social support for them is often inadequate. This paper describes a qualitative study of the impact of a breast cancer diagnosis on older women from racially/ethnically diverse populations and their subsequent need for social support. Methods Forty-seven older African American, Asian American, Caucasian and Latina women between the ages of 65 to 83 participated in a larger study examining the impact of breast cancer on women from racially/ethnically diverse populations and the meaning and nature of social support. The women completed an in-depth qualitative interview on the psychosocial impact of breast cancer and the meaning and nature of social support. Results and Conclusion The results indicate that there are variations in reactions to a breast cancer diagnosis among older women, and that these reactions impact their experiences with seeking social support at diagnosis and during treatment. Respondents were concerned about their aging bodies, potential dependency on others, and loss of autonomy. At the same time, the severity of cancer treatment and existing co-morbidities often meant they needed to learn to receive support, and to reach out if they had no support. The implications of these findings underscore the older cancer patient’s need to strengthen her supportive networks at the time of diagnosis, during treatment, and post-treatment. PMID:20967554
social experience. jurna 9L Raragnan _E Social F .. 1982, 4 979-996. Russell, D.W., Peplau, L.A., & Cutrona, C.E. The revised UCLA Loneliness Scale ...constructed rating manual and two questionnaires, the UCLA Loneliness Questionnaire p 13 (Russell, Peplau & Cutrona, 1980) and a specially constructed...groups differed significantly in their scores on the UCLA Loneliness Questionnaire [7(1,161)-46.00, p<.OO1. Those low in social support reported much
Angley, Meghan; Divney, Anna; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace
Depression is known to mediate the association between low social support and parenting competence in adult mothers, but this relationship is rarely assessed in adolescent mothers and fathers. The primary aim of this study was to identify the association between social support, family functioning and social capital on parenting competence, including self-efficacy and satisfaction in adolescent mothers and their partners. Secondary aims included identifying potential partner effects (e.g. whether a partner's social support influenced the respondent's parenting efficacy). Data was obtained from a subset of participants from a longitudinal study of pregnant adolescent females and their partners. Couples completed individual structured interviews via audio computer-assisted self-interview during pregnancy and at 6 months postpartum. To measure the influence of support on parenting outcomes, multi-level modeling was used to assess the Actor-Partner Interdependence model, which examines responses from both members of a dyad in a single analysis. Greater social support was associated with increased parenting self-efficacy (B = 0.062, p = 0.006) and parenting satisfaction (B = 0.111, p < 0.001). Higher family functioning was also associated with greater parenting satisfaction (B = 0.05, p = 0.035). Greater partner family functioning was associated with higher parenting satisfaction (B = 0.047, p = 0.026). This study found the importance of a strong support structure during pregnancy on perceived parenting competence in the early postpartum period for young mothers and fathers. Both social support and family functioning during pregnancy were associated with a greater sense of parenting competence, and these associations were mediated by parental depression. The results of this study underscore the importance of providing social support for young expectant fathers as well as mothers.
While the literature widely acknowledges the importance of social support to the health, well-being and performance of older adults, little is known about the way in which occupational conditions affect older employees’ access to social support over time and whether these effects are maintained after retirement. Accordingly, in the current study we examine the degree to which work hours have longer term effects on the amount and type of support older individuals receive from intimate coworkers, family and non-work friends, and whether these effects are attenuated or intensified for those who retire. Longitudinal data were collected from a random sample of members of nine unions, 6 months prior to their retirement eligibility (T1) and approximately one year after Time 1 (T2). Our findings indicate that while retirement attenuates the positive association between Time 1 work hours and subsequent coworkers' support as well as the negative relationship between Time 1 work hours and subsequent non-work friends support, retirement fails to attenuate the negative effect of Time 1 work hours on subsequent family support. Policy implications are discussed. PMID:20485475
Lindle, Jane Clark; Miller, Linda Demarco
This study maintains that social support systems alleviate the physical and psychological effects of stress; however, the school administrator often has no peers in the same building and therefore stands apart from any of the built in support systems developed by the subculture within his school. Further, as discovered through interviews with 35…
Rook, Karen S
Gaps in social support resources in later life may arise when older adults lose social network members due to illness, death, or residential relocation. Gaps also may arise when social networks remain intact but are not well suited to meet older adults' intensifying support needs, such as needs for extended or highly personal instrumental support. Significant gaps in support resources are likely to require adaptive responses by older adults. This discussion highlights theoretical perspectives and illustrates empirical findings regarding the nature and effectiveness of older adults' responses to gaps in their social support resources. The literature examining these issues is relatively small and, as a result, is ripe for further development. Promising directions for future research are suggested.
Butler, Dennis J.; Beltran, Lou R.
Reports on development of adult sickle cell support group and provides description of psychosocial factors most prevalent in patients' lives (anxiety about death, disruption of social support network, disability, dependence on pain medication, conflicts with health care providers). Notes that support group enhanced participants' knowledge about…
Brandt, Martina; Deindl, Christian
Understanding the role of social policies in intergenerational transfers from old to young people is especially important in times of population aging. This paper focuses on the influences of social expenditures and social services on financial support and on practical help from older parents to their adult children based on the first two waves…
Arnberg, Filip K; Hultman, Christina M; Michel, Per-Olof; Lundin, Tom
Social support buffers the negative impact of stressful events. Less, however, is known about the characteristics of this association in the context of disaster and findings have been discrepant regarding direct and buffering effects. This study tested whether the protective effects of social support differed across levels of exposure severity (i.e., buffered distress) and assessed whether the buffering effect differed between event-specific and general distress. Participants were 4,600 adult Swedish tourists (44% of invited; 55% women) repatriated within 3 weeks after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. A survey 14 months after the disaster included the Crisis Support Scale, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Social support buffered the negative impact of exposure on both outcomes. The support and distress association ranged from very small in participants with low exposure to moderate in those with high exposure (η(p)(2) = .004 to .053). The buffering effect was not found to differ between the IES-R and GHQ-12, F(2, 4589) = 0.87, p = .42. The findings suggest that social support moderates the stressor-distress relationship after disasters. This study might help explain discrepant findings and point to refinements of postdisaster interventions.
Calsyn, Robert J.; Winter, Joel P.; Burger, Gary K.
This study compared the strength of competing causal models in explaining the relationship between perceived support, enacted support, and social anxiety in adolescents. The social causation hypothesis postulates that social support causes social anxiety, whereas the social selection hypothesis postulates that social anxiety causes social support.…
Conte, Kathleen P.; Schure, Marc B.; Goins, R. Turner
Objectives This study examined social support and identified demographic and health correlates among American Indians aged 55 years and older. Methods Data were derived from the Native Elder Care Study, a cross-sectional study of 505 community-dwelling American Indians aged ≥55 years. Social support was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey measure (MOS-SSS) of which psychometric properties were examined through factor analyses. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify associations between age, sex, educational attainment, marital status, depressive symptomatology, lower body physical functioning, and chronic pain and social support. Results Study participants reported higher levels of affectionate and positive interaction social support (88.2% and 81.8%, respectively) than overall (75.9%) and emotional (69.0%) domains. Increased age, being married/partnered, and female sex were associated with high social support in the final model. Decreased depressive symptomatology was associated with high overall, affectionate, and positive interaction support, and decreased chronic pain with affectionate support. The count of chronic conditions and functional disability were not associated with social support. Conclusions Overall, we found high levels of social support for both men and women in this population, with the oldest adults in our study exhibiting the highest levels of social support. Strong cultural values of caring for older adults and a historical tradition of community cooperation may explain this finding. Future public health efforts may be able to leverage social support to reduce health disparities and improve mental and physical functioning. PMID:25322933
Analysis of data on 1,121 older adolescents and young adults from a national longitudinal survey examined effects of community involvement, social satisfaction, social network size, race, gender, and age on use of alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine. Social support did influence use of alcohol and other drugs, but the direction of influence varied by…
Objectives. Despite increases in social support following widowhood, loneliness is among the most frequently reported challenges of bereavement. This analysis explores the dynamic relationship between social support and loneliness among recently bereaved older adults. Methods. Using longitudinal data from “Living After Loss” (n = 328), latent growth curve modeling was used to estimate changes in loneliness and social support during the first year and a half of bereavement among older adults aged 50+. Results. Both loneliness and social support declined over the first year and a half of bereavement. Greater social support was associated with lower levels of loneliness overall, but the receipt of social support did not modify one’s expression of loneliness over time. Loneliness was more highly correlated with support from friends than family. Together, social support from both friends and family accounted for 36% of the total variance in loneliness. Discussion. There is conceptual and empirical overlap between the concepts of loneliness and social support, but results suggest that loneliness following widowhood cannot be remedied by interventions aimed only at increasing social support. Social support, especially that from friends, appears to be most effective if it is readily accessible and allows the newly bereaved an opportunity to express him/herself. PMID:24056690
Pearlman, Deborah N.; Crown, William H.
Examined effects of social support dimensions on risk institutionalization. Specific aspects of social support (having spouse or adult child caregiver) or having caregiving relationship of at least three years' duration moderated impact of one type of stress on risk of entering nursing home. Networks that included paid provider modestly offset…
Kim, Joongbaeck; Ross, Catherine E.
Is neighborhood-specific social support the most effective type of social support for buffering the effect of neighborhood disorder on depression? Matching theory suggests that it is. The authors extend the research on neighborhood disorder and adult depression by showing that individuals who have higher levels of both general and…
Tinajero, Carolina; Martínez-López, Zeltia; Rodríguez, Mª Soledad; Guisande, Mª Adelina; Páramo, Mª Fernanda
Perceived social support has been shown to be one of the most important protective factors for emerging adult students during their transition to university. However, the relationships between perceived social support and dimensions of gender and family background, which have been shown to affect adjustment to college life, remain unexplored. The…
psychological support The absence of the military may induce anxiety, tensions, a feeling of isolation among the family; the support of competent ...social de la formation, dans le respect du secret professionnel . L’assistant de service social exerce ses fonctions tant au profit des personnels, qu’à...familles ont exprimé au travers de diverses enquêtes le souhait de bénéficier de conférences tenues par des professionnels traitant des problématiques
Leeves, Sylvia; Banerjee, Robin
Social support-seeking is recognised as an important strategy used by children to cope with negative emotions. However, there are important gaps in our knowledge about children's perceptions of different sources of social support, and the associations that these perceptions have with individual differences in socio-emotional functioning. The…
Goll, Johanna C.; Charlesworth, Georgina; Scior, Katrina; Stott, Joshua
Introduction Loneliness among older adults is a major public health problem that may be associated with processes of social participation and identity. This study therefore sought to examine the relationship between social participation and identity in a sample of lonely older adults living independently in London, England. Method An inductive qualitative approach, based on semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis, was employed. Results Participants commonly spoke of barriers to social participation that have been reported elsewhere, including illness/disability, loss of contact with friends/relatives, lack of a supportive community, and lack of acceptable social opportunities. However, novel findings were also derived. In particular, participants commonly minimised the difficulties they faced alone, and described attempts to avoid social opportunities. These behaviours were linked to fears about engaging in social participation opportunities, including fears of social rejection and/or exploitation, and fears of losing valued aspects of identity. Discussion It is concluded that social participation amongst lonely older people will not improve through the removal of previously reported barriers alone; instead, older peoples’ beliefs, fears and identities must be addressed. Suggestions for implementing these findings within community organisations are provided. PMID:25706933
Cramm, Jane M.; van Dijk, Hanna M.; Nieboer, Anna P.
Purpose of the Study: We aimed to investigate whether social capital (obtaining support through indirect ties such as from neighbors) and social cohesion (interdependencies among neighbors) within neighborhoods positively affect the well being of older adults. Design and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 945 of 1,440 (66% response rate)…
Wu, Chia-huei; Yang, Cheng-Ta
Research examining the relationship between adult attachment styles and exploratory behavior has shown that anxious and avoidant attachment styles are negatively related to exploration. However, little research has been conducted on the mediation process between adult attachment styles and exploration. Given that perceived social support has been shown to be the basis for secure attachment and may be related to exploration behavior, the current study examines whether perceived social support mediates the relationship between adult attachment and exploration. University students in Taiwan (N = 168) completed questionnaires that assessed attachment styles; perceived social support from their father, mother, and best friend; and their intellectual, social, and environmental exploration. Our results revealed that perceived social support mediates the relationship between avoidant attachment and exploration behavior.
This article describes a research study about the experiences of adult educators in which the stories of three of the participants were central in exploring the issue of social care in adult education. It proposes that the adult educators with a social care orientation in this study acknowledge the importance of, and work to provide for, human…
Giddan, Norman S.
This overview of peer counseling and self-help groups in contemporary higher education examines current practices and offers recommendations for program development. Section I looks at the historical background and current context of campus peer counseling and social support programs; types and functions of self-help groups; student…
Haeseler, Lisa Ann
At-risk families cope with many issues simultaneously and are often overwhelmed. To assist families, early childhood professionals must offer community- and family-centered support through collaborations with social service providers and outreach professionals. Educational professionals working in high-needs schools must re-examine their funding…
Anxiety and anger . New York: Basic Books, 1973. Cobb, S. Social support as a moderator of life stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1976, 38 (5), 300-313...for Manpowerg Personnel, and Training HQ Naval Material Command (Code 08D22) 678 Crystal Plata 15 Washington, DC 20370 4aval Material Command
Woodley, Carolyn; Meredith, CaAtherine
Views about the role of Facebook and other social networking sites in education are extremely varied. Facebook threatens academic success and yet "certain kinds of Facebook use" can support study; indeed, Facebooking students may perform better than their unwired peers (Ellison, Steinfield, and Lampe 2007). Facebook is emphatically a…
Schwartz, Tatiane; Vieira, Renata; Geib, Lorena Teresinha Consalter
This descriptive-exploratory study using a qualitative approach was undertaken to describe the perceptions of pregnant adolescents in relation to social support provided during pregnancy. Twelve adolescents in their first pregnancy who frequented the outpatient health service in Passo Fundo in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil) participated in the study. The data was obtained by semi-structured interviews, genograms and ecomaps and was assessed by thematic analysis. It highlighted the need for support to overcome the fears and challenges of motherhood. The mothers and partners were perceived as the main sources of support in affective and material terms. Common sense knowledge prevailed in the information dimension and pregnancy as a mediator in the reconciliation with the father fulfilled the emotional dimension. The perception of the dimension of positive social interaction was blurred by self-imposed isolation. Thus the adolescent's perception of the social support received is clear in relation to the family nucleus and includes the people in the family circle. The network of care outside the family, including the healthcare services, is tenuous and generated the perception of psychosocial difficulties. This reveals the need for greater investment of primary healthcare professionals in the inclusion of first-time-pregnancy adolescents in social care groups, which ensure the healthy progress of the pregnancy.
Beecham, Jennifer; Snell, Tom; Perkins, Margaret; Knapp, Martin
Maintaining contact with services will help improve clinical and social outcomes as children with epilepsy move into their adult lives. This study has collated evidence on the extent to which young adults with epilepsy are supported by health and social care services posttransition, and the costs of such support. UK prevalence and service use data were taken from policy and research literature, as well as national data sets and reports. Costs were attached to these data to arrive at agency and overall total costs. There are approximately 42,000 young adults (18-25 years) with epilepsy costing the UK health and social care budgets 715.3 pound million per annum, on average 17,000 found per young adult with epilepsy. A further 61 pound million falls to the social security budget. Most young adults with epilepsy will rarely use these services, but those with additional health needs have high and often long-term support needs, including supported accommodation and personal care. Current resources used by these young adults are summarised but deficits in service availability can mean long waiting times and sub-optimal treatment. Young adults also want more support to help them take advantage of education and employment opportunities and more information about managing the impacts of epilepsy on their lives. Improving services will cost money, but has the potential to lead to better outcomes for young adults.
Nguyen, Vicky P.K.H.; Sarkari, Feroz; MacNeil, Kate; Cowan, Laura; Rankin, Joyce
Background Disadvantaged older adults living in non-family situations in Toronto are more likely than older adults living in family situations to have less economic security, less social support, and less choice in housing. Older adults who live in poverty and are precariously housed are more likely to be chronically ill, to live with multiple illnesses, to have poor nutrition, high stress and loneliness, all of which are strongly associated with the determinant of health social exclusion. The aim of this study is to: 1) evaluate the level of social disadvantage and exclusion experienced by low-income older adults 65 years of age and older living alone or in non-family situations; 2) assess the level of dependency on government and community services (support services) to maintain a reasonable standard of living (minimize effects of social exclusion); and 3) identify consequences of social exclusion not addressed by current available services. Methods Fifteen male older adult members of the Good Neighbours’ Club in downtown Toronto were interviewed. Semi-structured questionnaires assessed barriers to, utility of, and perceived impact of support services available to disadvantaged older adults living in the central core of southeast Toronto. Results Support services for income, housing, food security, social support, and health care do mitigate the effects of social exclusion in the study participants. Data gathered from interviews identified factors that counter the efforts by support services to increase social inclusion in this population. Conclusions Support services reduce social isolation experienced by these older adults. Evidence of the detrimental impact of low financial literacy suggests a need to design and implement training programs to build the older adults’ capacity to manage their own finances effectively, and resist falling victim to financial fraud. PMID:24278093
Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E., Jr.
Adults with intellectual disability are vulnerable to stressful social interactions. We determined frequency and severity of various stressful social interactions, identified the social partners in these interactions, and examined the specific interpersonal skill difficulties of 114 adults with mild intellectual disability. Participants'…
Jutagir, Devika R.; Gudenkauf, Lisa M.; Stagl, Jamie M.; Carver, Charles S.; Bouchard, Laura C.; Lechner, Suzanne C.; Glück, Stefan; Blomberg, Bonnie B.; Antoni, Michael H.
Objectives Diagnosis of and treatment for breast cancer (BCa) may require psychological adaptation and often involve heightened distress. Several types of social support positively relate to psychological adaptation to BCa, and negative support is associated with poorer adaptation. Although Hispanic women report greater distress than non-Hispanic White (NHW) women after diagnosis of BCa, no studies have examined ethnic differences in types of social support received from varying sources after surgery for BCa. Design Hispanic (N=61) and NHW (N=150) women diagnosed with early-stage BCa self-reported emotional, informational, instrumental, and negative support from five sources. Ethnic differences in levels of social support were compared using multiple regression analysis. Results When controlling for age, income, days since surgery, and stage of disease in multivariable models there were no ethnic differences in levels of emotional support from any source. Hispanic women reported greater informational support from adult women family members and children and male adult family members than did NHW women. Instrumental support from adult women family members was also greater among Hispanic than NHW women. Hispanic women reported higher negative support from husbands/partners and from children and male adult family members. When number of years in the U.S. was controlled, Hispanic women showed greater informational support from adult women family members, children and male adult family members, and friends. Instrumental support from adult women family members remained greater in Hispanic women, but negative support no longer differed. Conclusion Family is a greater source of informational and instrumental support for Hispanic than NHW women. Hispanic women reported higher negative support from male sources than did NHW women. Level of support from different sources may also depend on time spent in the U.S. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether patterns and
Freeman, Harry; Almond, Tasha M.
A mixed methods approach was used to examine how young adults (n = 1012) perceive fathers as targets for attachment support. Participants ranked the level of attachment support received and sought from fathers, mothers, best friends, and romantic partners, and provided relationship-specific information on additional indices of social support…
Anker, Ashley E; Akey, Jessica E; Feeley, Thomas Hugh
Eighty-five organ procurement coordinators (OPCs) completed face-to-face interviews designed to elicit the emotional and instrumental social support strategies communicated to potential donor families throughout the request for deceased organ donation. OPCs identified six forms of emotional support and eight forms of instrumental support, with greater reported use of instrumental support strategies. In terms of instrumental support, OPCs most frequently ensured in-hospital comfort (61.2%) or met the nutritional needs of family members (51.8%). With respect to emotional support, OPCs most often expressed sympathy (31.8%) to families and provided support in the form of physical contact (27.1%) with family members. Identifying the forms of social support used by OPCs is a first step toward understanding the strategies that are more (or less) effective in achieving persuasive and support goals.
Hsiao, I.-Han; Bakalov, Fedor; Brusilovsky, Peter; König-Ries, Birgitta
The increased volumes of online learning content have produced two problems: how to help students to find the most appropriate resources and how to engage them in using these resources. Personalized and social learning have been suggested as potential ways to address these problems. Our work presented in this paper combines the ideas of personalized and social learning in the context of educational hypermedia. We introduce Progressor, an innovative Web-based tool based on the concepts of social navigation and open student modeling that helps students to find the most relevant resources in a large collection of parameterized self-assessment questions on Java programming. We have evaluated Progressor in a semester-long classroom study, the results of which are presented in this paper. The study confirmed the impact of personalized social navigation support provided by the system in the target context. The interface encouraged students to explore more topics attempting more questions and achieving higher success rates in answering them. A deeper analysis of the social navigation support mechanism revealed that the top students successfully led the way to discovering most relevant resources by creating clear pathways for weaker students.
Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita
Existing empirical evidence has well documented the role of social support in both physical and psychological well-being among various populations. In the context of HIV prevention, the rapid increase of studies on social support merits a systematic review to synthesize the current global literature on association between social support and HIV-related risk behaviors. The current review reveals a complex picture of this relationship across diverse populations. Existing studies indicate that higher levels of social support are related to fewer HIV-related risk behaviors among female sex workers and people living with HIV/AIDS and heterosexual adults in general. However, influences of social support on HIV-related risk behaviors are inconsistent within drug users, men who have sex with men and adolescents. These variations in findings may be attributed to different measurement of social support in different studies, specific context of social support for diverse population, or various characteristics of the social networks the study population obtained support from. Future studies are needed to explore the mechanism of how social support affects HIV-related risk behaviors. HIV prevention intervention efforts need to focus on the positive effect of social support for various vulnerable and at-risk populations. Future efforts also need to incorporate necessary structure change and utilize technical innovation in order to maximize the protective role of social support in HIV risk prevention or reduction.
Adams, Tangeria R.; Rabin, Laura A.; Da Silva, Valdiva G.; Katz, Mindy J.; Fogel, Joshua; Lipton, Richard B.
Objectives Life satisfaction is an important component of overall well-being. Decline in life satisfaction is related to many adverse health outcomes including mortality. Methods We investigate the association of various psychosocial and health-related factors to life satisfaction in 237 non-demented community-dwelling older adults. Results Lower levels of depressive symptoms, less perceived stress, higher levels of social support, and better self-perceived general health were significantly associated with higher life satisfaction. Social support buffered the adverse impact of depressive symptoms on life satisfaction where more depressive symptoms were associated with much lower life satisfaction at low levels of social support than at high levels of social support. Discussion We discuss study implications, future research directions, and possible interventions that involve boosting social support in at-risk older adults. PMID:27418714
Wormington, Stephanie V.; Anderson, Kristen G.; Tomlinson, Kristin L.; Brown, Sandra A.
The current study examined the impact of supportive social relationships (i.e., teacher support, adult support, school relatedness) and peer victimization on middle school students' substance use. Over 3,000 middle school students reported on alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use, supportive social relationships, and instances in which they were…
Taylor, Robert Joseph; Forysthe-Brown, Ivy; Lincoln, Karen D; Chatters, Linda M
This paper investigates the extended family social support networks of Caribbean Black adults (Afro Caribbeans). Although there are several ethnographic accounts of familial ties and support exchanges among Black Caribbean immigrants, only a handful of studies utilize quantitative data. This paper utilizes data from the National Survey of American Life, which contains the first national probability sample of Caribbean Blacks in the United States. Age, gender, income, material hardship and immigration status were all associated with at least one of the four indicators of family support networks. Subjective family closeness and frequency of family contact were significantly associated with both giving and receiving informal support. A significant age and parental status interaction for receiving support indicated that older adults without children received assistance from their extended families less frequently than older adults with children. Overall, study findings affirm the importance of extended family networks for Caribbean Black adults.
Meranius, Martina Summer; Josefsson, Karin
Multimorbidity, a condition common among older adults, may be regarded as a failure of a complex system. The aim of this study was to describe the core components in health and social care management for older adults with multimorbidity. A cross-sectional design included two methods: individual interviews and group discussions. A total of 105 participants included older adults with multimorbidity and their relatives, care staff and healthcare policymakers. Data were analysed using content analysis. The results show that seven core components comprise a multiperspective view of health and social care management for older adults with multimorbidity: political steering, leadership, cooperation, competence, support for relatives, availability and continuity. Steps should be taken to ensure that every older adult with multimorbidity has a treatment plan according to a multiperspective view to prevent fragmentation of their health care. This study provides relevant evidence developing a multiperspective model of health and social care management for older adults with multimorbidity.
Cawyer, Carol Stringer; Smith-Dupre, Athena
Describes supportive episodes in an HIV/AIDS support group and the role of social support for group members. Finds that members used communication as a healing agent, as a preparatory mechanism for living with AIDS, as an outlet for expressing emotions, and as a means for changing society. Identifies feedback and self-disclosure as essential…
Feather, B L; Wainstock, J M; Remington, A; Ringenberg, Q S
Due to shorter hospitalization periods and changes in surgical procedures, breast cancer patients have less inpatient contact with rehabilitation resources. A questionnaire related to educational needs and social support was mailed statewide to 2,000 postmastectomy women who had received a Reach to Recovery visit. The findings are based on quantitative data reported by 933 women and from 27 women in follow-up interviews. Respondents ranked their educational needs in six categories from greatest to least importance as follows: (1) information about breast cancer, (2/3) personal hygiene/exercise and nutrition/weight control (both ranked of equal importance), (4) prosthesis/clothing information, (5) social support, and (6) sexual issues. Performance on the knowledge assessment correlated directly with the amount of educational experience and inversely with age. Respondents who lived in communities of less than 2,500 were less informed than those from other locations. Participation in formalized support groups was infrequent (11%). The major source of information was the media, with 88% indicating they would watch television programs about breast cancer. Thirty-three percent of the respondents indicated they owned a video cassette recorder (VCR); about 93% said VCRs were available for rent in their community. Work associates were identified as a group that encouraged information seeking; health care professionals were the most successful in motivating women to participate in support groups.
Waite, Linda J.
Objectives The National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) data contain multiple indicators of social connectedness, social participation, social support, and loneliness among older adults. We suggest that these indicators can be combined to measure two aspects of social isolation: social disconnectedness (i.e., physical separation from others) and perceived isolation (i.e., feelings of loneliness and a lack of social support). We use the NSHAP data to create scales measuring social disconnectedness and perceived isolation and examine their distribution among older adults. Methods We assess the reliability of the scales using Cronbach’s alpha and item-total correlations and perform confirmatory factor analysis to test the model against the data. Finally, we test differences in scale means across subgroups to assess the distribution of social disconnectedness and perceived isolation among older adults. Results We find that 17 indicators combine into two reliable scales. The social disconnectedness scale has a two-factor structure, including the restricted social network dimension and the social inactivity dimension. The perceived isolation scale also comprises two dimensions: lack of support and loneliness. We find that social disconnectedness does not vary across age groups, but the oldest old feel more isolated than the young old. Social disconnectedness and perceived isolation are greater among those who have worse health. Discussion The creation of scales measuring social disconnectedness and perceived isolation provides one way to utilize the wide variety of indicators of social isolation collected in the NSHAP study. Although individual indicators of social connectedness or isolation are useful in their own right, these scales provide parsimonious, continuous variables that account for a variety of aspects of social isolation, which may be especially useful for inclusion in multivariate analyses predicting health outcomes. PMID:19508982
Sherman, David K; Kim, Heejung S; Taylor, Shelley E
Social support is an effective means by which people cope with stressful events, and consequently, it beneficially affects health and well-being. Yet there are profound cultural differences in the effectiveness of different types of support and how people use their support networks. In this paper, we examine research on the impact of culture on social support, the neural underpinnings of social support, and how cultural differences in social support seeking are manifested biologically. We focus on cultural factors that may affect individuals' decisions to seek or not to seek social support and how culture moderates the impact of support seeking on biological and psychological health outcomes. We also examine recent research on the interaction between genes and culture in social support use. Discussion centers on the importance of developing an overarching framework of social support that integrates health psychology, cultural psychology, social neuroscience, and genetics.
Monteiro, Brisa M M; Moreira, Fabrício A; Massensini, André R; Moraes, Márcio F D; Pereira, Grace S
Social memory consists of the information necessary to identify and recognize cospecifics and is essential to many forms of social interaction. Social memory persistence is strongly modulated by the animal's experiences. We have shown in previous studies that social isolation (SI) in adulthood impairs social memory persistence and that an enriched environment (EE) prevents this impairment. However, the mechanisms involved in the effects of SI and EE on social memory persistence remain unknown. We hypothesized that the mechanism by which SI and EE affect social memory persistence is through their modulation of neurogenesis. To investigate this hypothesis, adult mice were submitted to 7 days of one of the following conditions: group-housing in a standard (GH) or enriched environment (GH+EE); social isolation in standard (SI) or enriched environment (SI+EE). We observed an increase in the number of newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG) and glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb (OB) in both GH+EE and SI+EE mice. However, this increase of newborn neurons in the granule cell layer of the OB was restricted to the GH+EE group. Furthermore, both SI and SI+EE groups showed less neurogenesis in the mitral layer of the OB. Interestingly, the performance of the SI mice in the buried food-finding task was inferior to that of the GH mice. To further analyze whether increased neurogenesis is in fact the mechanism by which the EE improves social memory persistence in SI mice, we administered the mitotic inhibitor AraC or saline directly into the lateral ventricles of the SI+EE mice. We found that the AraC treatment decreased cell proliferation in both the DG and OB, and impaired social memory persistence in the SI+EE mice. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that neurogenesis is what supports social memory persistence in socially isolated mice.
Hardesty, Patrick H.; Richardson, George B.
The factor structure and concurrent validity of the Multidimensional Social Support Questionnaire, a brief measure of perceived social support for use with adolescents, was examined. Findings suggest that four dimensions of perceived social support may yield more information than assessments of the unitary construct of support. (Contains 8 tables…
Eggers, S; Zatz, M
Adult male patients affected with Becker (BMD, N = 22), limb girdle (LGMD, N = 22) and facioscapulohumeral (FSHMD, N = 18) muscular dystrophy were interviewed to assess for the first time how the disease's severity and recurrence risk (RR) magnitude alter their social adjustment. BMD (X-linked recessive) is the severest form and confers an intermediate RR because all daughters will be carriers, LGMD (autosomal-recessive) is moderately severe with a low RR in the absence of consanguineous marriage, and FSHMD (autosomal-dominant) is clinically the mildest of these three forms of MD but with the highest RR, of 50%. Results of the semistructured questionnaire [WHO (1988): Psychiatric Disability Assessment Schedule] showed no significant difference between the three clinical groups, but more severely handicapped patients as well as patients belonging to lower socioeconomic levels from all clinical groups showed poorer social adjustment. Taken together, myopathic patients displayed intermediate social dysfunction compared to controls and schizophrenics studied by Jablensky [1988: WHO Psychiatric Disability Assessment Schedule]. Since the items of major dysfunction proportion among myopathic patients concern intimate relationships (70%), interest in working among those unemployed (67%), and social isolation (53%), emotional support and social and legal assistance should concentrate on these aspects. Interestingly, the results of this study also suggest that high RRs do not affect relationships to the opposite sex.
Bogart, Kathleen R; Tickle-Degnen, Linda; Joffe, Matthew S
This focus group study explored the social interaction experiences and strategies of 12 adults with Moebius Syndrome, a rare congenital condition characterized by facial paralysis. Content analysis revealed five themes of social functioning: social engagement/disengagement; resilience/sensitivity; social support/stigma; being understood/misunderstood; and public awareness/lack of awareness of Moebius Syndrome. Participants used compensatory expressive strategies such as vocal tone, gestures, and humor. The combination of being unable to express oneself with the face, having a facial difference, and having a rare disease is particularly stigmatizing. Increasing public awareness and developing social skills programs for people with facial paralysis could facilitate social functioning.
Webley, Paul; Nyhus, Ellen K.
We analyze the role economic socialization plays in the economic behavior and asset accumulation of young adults by parents using data from European young adults and teenagers. We study the role of four distinct strands of economic socialization (providing pocket money, jobs at home, work for others, and parental encouragement) using a Dutch…
Walsh, R Stephen; Muldoon, Orla T; Gallagher, Stephen; Fortune, Donal G
Social support is an important factor in rehabilitation following acquired brain injury (ABI). Research indicates that social identity makes social support possible and that social identity is made possible by social support. In order to further investigate the reciprocity between social identity and social support, the present research applied the concepts of affiliative and "self-as-doer" identities to an analysis of relationships between social identity, social support, and emotional status amongst a cohort of 53 adult survivors of ABI engaged in post-acute community neurorehabilitation. Path analysis was used to test a hypothesised mediated model whereby affiliative identities have a significant indirect relationship with emotional status via social support and self-as-doer identification. Results support the hypothesised model. Evidence supports an "upward spiral" between social identity and social support such that affiliative identity makes social support possible and social support drives self-as-doer identity. Our discussion emphasises the importance of identity characteristics to social support, and to emotional status, for those living with ABI.
Peter, J P; Chinsky, R R; Fisher, M J
The patterns of social integration of adults with primary and secondary groups were evaluated for 196 adult cleft subjects, their 190 siblings and 209 random controls. Results indicated that cleft adults tended to rely on the extended family for mutual aid and social activities. They also participated less frequently in voluntary associations and relied on a few one-to-one friendships. Social activities tended to be that of informal visiting patterns. While it would be inaccurate to characterize the cleft adult family as grossly different from other American families, they are a definable population experiencing some degree of limitation associated with having a cleft.
Saleh, Lena D.; Chambers, Christopher S.; Operario, Don
Previous research has suggested a need to understand the social-psychological factors contributing to HIV risk among African American men who have sex with men (MSM). We conducted individual in-depth interviews with 34 adult African American MSM to examine their personal experiences about: (i) sources of social support, (ii) psychological responses to the presence or absence of social support, and (iii) influences of social support on sexual behaviors. The majority of participants described limited positive encouragement and lack of emotional support from family, as well as few meaningful personal relationships. Feelings of isolation and mistrust about personal relationships led many participants to avoid emotional intimacy and seek physical intimacy through sexual encounters. Findings highlight a need for multi-level interventions that enhance social support networks and address the social-psychological, emotional, and interpersonal factors that contribute to HIV risk among African American MSM. PMID:26588945
Saleh, Lena D; van den Berg, Jacob J; Chambers, Christopher S; Operario, Don
Previous research has suggested a need to understand the social-psychological factors contributing to HIV risk among African American men who have sex with men (MSM). We conducted individual in-depth interviews with 34 adult African American MSM to examine their personal experiences about: (i) sources of social support, (ii) psychological responses to the presence or absence of social support and (iii) influences of social support on sexual behaviours. The majority of participants described limited positive encouragement and lack of emotional support from family, as well as few meaningful personal relationships. Feelings of isolation and mistrust about personal relationships led many participants to avoid emotional intimacy and seek physical intimacy through sexual encounters. Findings highlight a need for multilevel interventions that enhance social support networks and address the social-psychological, emotional and interpersonal factors that contribute to HIV risk among African American MSM.
Flatt, Jason D; Agimi, Yll; Albert, Steve M
A common network phenomenon, homophily, involves developing relationships with others who are similar to you. The intent of this study was to determine if older adults' health behaviors were shared within social networks. We interviewed older adults from low-income senior housing (egos) on egocentric social network characteristics and key health behaviors for themselves and for named social ties (alters). Findings suggest strong effects for homophily, especially for those who smoked and were physically inactive. Public health interventions for older adults should consider the influence that social relationships have on personal health behaviors. Network-based interventions may be required.
Davis, Sara D; Meade, Michelle L
In the present study, we examined the impacts of participant age and confederate age on social memory processes. During a collaborative recall phase, young and older adult participants were exposed to the erroneous memory reports of a young or an older adult confederate. On a subsequent individual recall test, young and older adult participants were equally likely to incorporate the confederates' erroneous suggestions into their memory reports, suggesting that participant age had a minimal effect on social memory processes. However, confederate age did have a marked effect: Young adult participants were less likely to incorporate misleading suggestions from older adult confederates and less likely to report "remembering" items suggested by older adult confederates. Critically, older adult participants were also less likely to incorporate misleading information from fellow older adult confederates. Both young and older adult participants discounted older adult confederates' contributions to a memory test.
Miller-Graff, Laura E; Howell, Kathryn H; Martinez-Torteya, Cecilia; Grein, Katherine
Children's social competence is a key characteristic of resilience, yet little research has assessed contributing factors to this construct. The objectives of this study were to examine direct and indirect effects of maltreatment on children's social competence, the promotive role of child and caregiver social support, and factors contributing to reports of child social competence across informants. Structural equation modeling evaluated the influence of CPS report history, child adjustment, and child and caregiver social support on child social competence in n = 783 caregiver-child dyads. CPS report history (age 0-8) was indirectly related to low social competence through child adjustment problems. Social support was a significant promotive factor of child social competence, with caregiver social supports predicting higher levels of parent-reported child social competence. Child social support predicted self-reported child social competence. Findings reinforce the assertion that both caregiver and child social support networks are critical to promoting child well-being after adversity.
Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Mueser, Kim T; Naslund, John A; Gorin, Amy A; Zawacki, Stacey A; Pratt, Sarah I; Kinney, Allison; Bartels, Stephen
The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the feasibility of an intervention designed to facilitate partner support for lifestyle change among overweight and obese adults with serious mental illness (SMI). Fifteen adults with SMI enrolled in a lifestyle intervention at community mental health centers participated with a self-selected partner in an additional 12-week intervention component designed to facilitate social support for health behavior change. Participants reported that the program was useful, convenient, and helped them reach their goals. Approximately two-thirds (66%) of participants were below their baseline weight at follow-up, including 27% achieving clinically significant weight loss. Participants reported significant increases in partner support for exercise and use of persuasive social support strategies. Partner support interventions that promote exercising together and positive communication may be effective for helping individuals with SMI initiate and sustain health behavior change necessary to reduce cardiovascular risk.
Dominguez-Fuentes, Juan Manuel; Hombrados-Mendieta, María Isabel
The association between perceived social support and happiness was investigated in women who are members of various associations in Malaga (Spain) that work with immigrant women. Based on the Social Convoy model, the association between sources of support, frequency of support, satisfaction with support, and happiness reported by women were examined. The main social support predictor of happiness was satisfaction with the support received. Thus, the best predictors of happiness were emotional support from the family and instrumental support from the indigenous population and associations. The best predictor of frequency of support was the frequency of informational support received from social services. These results may prove useful for developing lines of action or interventions centred on the social network and the functions that social support can fulfil among immigrant women.
Fuller-Iglesias, Heather R; Antonucci, Toni
The Convoy Model suggests that at different stages of the lifespan the makeup of the social support network varies in step with developmental and contextual needs. Cultural norms may shape the makeup of social convoys as well as denote socio-demographic differences in social support. This study examines the social convoys of adults in Mexico. Specifically, it examines whether social network structure varies by age, gender, and education level, thus addressing the paucity of research on interpersonal relations in Mexico. A sample of 1,202 adults (18-99 years of age) was drawn from the Study of Social Relations and Well-being in Mexico. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated older adults had larger, more geographically proximate networks with a greater proportion of kin but less frequent contact. Women had larger, less geographically proximate networks with less frequent contact. Less educated individuals had smaller, more geographically proximate networks with more frequent contact and a greater proportion of kin. Age moderated gender and education effects indicated that younger women have more diverse networks and less educated older adults have weaker social ties. This study highlights socio-demographic variation in social convoys within the Mexican context, and suggests implications for fostering intergenerational relationships, policy, and interventions. Future research on Mexican convoys should further explore sources of support, and specifically address implications for well-being.
Fuller-Iglesias, Heather R.; Antonucci, Toni
The Convoy Model suggests that at different stages of the lifespan the makeup of the social support network varies in step with developmental and contextual needs. Cultural norms may shape the makeup of social convoys as well as denote socio-demographic differences in social support. This study examines the social convoys of adults in Mexico. Specifically, it examines whether social network structure varies by age, gender, and education level, thus addressing the paucity of research on interpersonal relations in Mexico. A sample of 1,202 adults (18–99 years of age) was drawn from the Study of Social Relations and Well-being in Mexico. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated older adults had larger, more geographically proximate networks with a greater proportion of kin but less frequent contact. Women had larger, less geographically proximate networks with less frequent contact. Less educated individuals had smaller, more geographically proximate networks with more frequent contact and a greater proportion of kin. Age moderated gender and education effects indicated that younger women have more diverse networks and less educated older adults have weaker social ties. This study highlights socio-demographic variation in social convoys within the Mexican context, and suggests implications for fostering intergenerational relationships, policy, and interventions. Future research on Mexican convoys should further explore sources of support, and specifically address implications for well-being. PMID:27340310
Research on loneliness and research on social support offer complementary perspectives on how social relationships affect health and well being. However, despite considerable overlap, loneliness and lack of social support reflect deficits of different kinds of social exchanges and these deficits have distinct consequences for well being. Social…
Eisenberger, Naomi I; Taylor, Shelley E; Gable, Shelly L; Hilmert, Clayton J; Lieberman, Matthew D
It is well established that a lack of social support constitutes a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality, comparable to risk factors such as smoking, obesity, and high blood pressure. Although it has been hypothesized that social support may benefit health by reducing physiological reactivity to stressors, the mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. Moreover, to date, no studies have investigated the neurocognitive mechanisms that translate experiences of social support into the health outcomes that follow. To investigate these processes, thirty participants completed three tasks in which daily social support, neurocognitive reactivity to a social stressor, and neuroendocrine responses to a social stressor were assessed. Individuals who interacted regularly with supportive individuals across a 10-day period showed diminished cortisol reactivity to a social stressor. Moreover, greater social support and diminished cortisol responses were associated with diminished activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and Brodmann's area (BA) 8, regions previously associated with the distress of social separation. Lastly, individual differences in dACC and BA 8 reactivity mediated the relationship between high daily social support and low cortisol reactivity, such that supported individuals showed reduced neurocognitive reactivity to social stressors, which in turn was associated with reduced neuroendocrine stress responses. This study is the first to investigate the neural underpinnings of the social support-health relationship and provides evidence that social support may ultimately benefit health by diminishing neural and physiological reactivity to social stressors.
Chronister, Julie; Chou, Chih-Chin; Kwan, Kwong-Liem Karl; Lawton, Melissa; Silver, Kurt
Aim This study sought to better understand the population-specific types of social support relevant to adults living with serious mental illness (SMI). Our study was exploratory and used a qualitative approach that centered on uncovering the types of social support meaningful and relevant to persons with SMI. Method The sample comprised of 52 adults receiving county mental health services in the San Francisco Bay Area. Data was gathered from six focus groups and analyzed using NVivo10 and Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR; Hill et al., 2005; Hill et al., 1997). Results Six qualitative domains were identified: a) Supportive Conditions, b) Day-to-Day Living, c) Illness Management, d) Resources and Information, e) Guidance and Advice, and f) Community Participation Support. Discussion While the six support domains share some broad-based conceptual underpinnings with traditional models of emotional and instrumental support, the domains emerging from our study represent supports uniquely tied to the stressors associated with living with an SMI, and therefore hold conceptual distinction from traditional types of support. Conclusions/Implications Findings from this study offer a conceptual framework for understanding social support for persons living with SMI and lay the groundwork for the development of a SMI-specific measure of social support. In addition, our research permits future researchers to investigate the conditions under which social support buffers the impact of SMI stressors, assisting service providers in more effective identification of individual support needs for clinical intervention. PMID:26009778
Huffman, S; Szafron, M
Research on the correlates of sedentary behaviour among adults is needed to design health interventions to modify this behaviour. This study explored the associations of social correlates with leisure-time sedentary behaviour of Canadian adults, and whether these associations differ between different types of sedentary behaviour. A sample of 12,021 Canadian adults was drawn from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey, and analyzed using binary logistic regression to model the relationships that marital status, the presence of children in the household, and social support have with overall time spent sitting, using a computer, playing video games, watching television, and reading during leisure time. Covariates included gender, age, education, income, employment status, perceived health, physical activity level, body mass index (BMI), and province or territory of residence. Extensive computer time was primarily negatively related to being in a common law relationship, and primarily positively related to being single/never married. Being single/never married was positively associated with extensive sitting time in men only. Having children under 12 in the household was protective against extensive video game and reading times. Increasing social support was negatively associated with extensive computer time in men and women, while among men increasing social support was positively associated with extensive sitting time. Computer, video game, television, and reading time have unique correlates among Canadian adults. Marital status, the presence of children in the household, and social support should be considered in future analyses of sedentary activities in adults.
Mendonça, Gerfeson; Júnior, José Cazuza de Farias
Little is known about the influence of different types and sources of social support on physical activity in adolescents. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between physical activity and different types and sources of social support in adolescents. The sample consisted of 2,859 adolescents between 14-19 years of age in the city of João Pessoa, in Northeastern Brazil. Physical activity was measured with a questionnaire and social support from parents and friends using a 10-item scale five for each group (type of support: encouragement, joint participation, watching, inviting, positive comments and transportation). Multivariable analysis showed that the types of support provided by parents associated with physical activity in adolescents were encouragement for females (P < 0.001) and adolescents between 14-16 years of age (P = 0.003), and transportation (P = 0.014) and comments (P = 0.037) for males. The types of social support provided by friends were: joint participation in male adolescents (P < 0.001) and in these 17-19-year-olds (P < 0.001), and comments in both genders (males: P = 0.009; females: P < 0.001) and 14-16-year-olds (P < 0.001). We conclude that the type of social support associated with physical activity varies according to its source, as well as the gender and age of the adolescents.
Rash, Elizabeth M.
The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of social support and the influencing factors on social support in nursing home environments. Observations and staff questionnaires from two central Florida nursing homes were used in this grounded theory study to answer the following questions: (1) How is social support manifested? and…
Tredinnick, Gerlind; Cocks, Naomi
This study investigated the effectiveness of a 1-day dysphagia training package delivered to support workers who work with adults with a learning disability. Thirty-eight support staff took part in this study. Twenty-five support staff received training, and 13 did not receive training and therefore acted as a control group. Three questionnaires…
What types of personal support are critical in helping teachers to integrate technology? How can adult education programs provide this support and who is best equipped to provide it? What organizational implications should program administrators consider when institutionalizing this personal support infrastructure? The experiences of eight adult…
Glass, Anne P
Social isolation has serious negative public health impacts for older adults. Survey data were collected at three resident-managed elder intentional neighborhoods in the United States (n = 59), to determine if these neighborhoods, each based on the cohousing model, promote development of social resources for their residents. Social resources were measured on three dimensions: social networks, neighborly support, and satisfaction with the neighborhood community. Respondents were White, mean age of 73.3 (range = 63-91), primarily female (76.3%), and generally had high levels of education and self-reported health. Almost half (47%) were never married/divorced and 37% were childless. Inclusion of neighborhood ties ameliorated risk of social isolation. Satisfaction with support and a variety of neighboring behaviors were reported. These neighborhoods are meeting the needs of a potentially at-risk population as an avenue to promote social resources and reduce social isolation. The implications for gerontological social workers include a role in helping to mobilize and support these types of neighborhoods as a way to encourage mutual support among older adults. With the increase in the aging population, such models of proactive interdependence and communal coping have the potential to lessen or delay the demands that socially isolated elders place on social workers.
Park, Jiyoung; Kitayama, Shinobu; Karasawa, Mayumi; Curhan, Katherine; Markus, Hazel R; Kawakami, Norito; Miyamoto, Yuri; Love, Gayle D; Coe, Christopher L; Ryff, Carol D
Although it is commonly assumed that social support positively predicts health, the empirical evidence has been inconsistent. We argue that three moderating factors must be considered: (1) support-approving norms (cultural context); (2) support-requiring situations (stressful events); and (3) support-accepting personal style (low neuroticism). Our large-scale cross-cultural survey of Japanese and US adults found significant associations between perceived support and health. The association was more strongly evident among Japanese (from a support-approving cultural context) who reported high life stress (in a support-requiring situation). Moreover, the link between support and health was especially pronounced if these Japanese were low in neuroticism.
Schulz, Anja; Bergen, Emilia; Schuhmann, Petya; Hoyer, Jürgen
This study examined the association of social anxiety, loneliness, and problematic Internet use (PIU) with the online solicitation of minors. Within a convenience sample of adult Internet users from Germany, Finland, and Sweden (N = 2,828), we compared the responses of participants who had not interacted sexually with strangers online (n = 2,049) with participants who sexually interacted with unknown adults online (n = 642), and both groups with adults who sexually solicited unknown minors online (n = 137). Online sexual interaction with adults was associated with higher levels of social anxiety, loneliness, and PIU compared with not sexually interacting with strangers online. Sexually soliciting minors online was associated with higher levels of social anxiety, loneliness, and PIU compared with sexually interacting with adults and not sexually interacting with strangers at all. Interestingly, compared with those with adult contacts, loneliness was specifically pronounced for participants who solicited children, whereas social anxiety and PIU were pronounced for participants soliciting adolescents. These findings suggest that social anxiety, loneliness, and PIU may be among the motivators for using the Internet to solicit individuals of different age groups for sexual purposes. These factors emerged as specifically relevant for adults who sexually solicited minors and who reported greater impairments compared with adults who sexually interacted with adults. These characteristics may thus be important to consider for assessment and treatment procedures for individuals soliciting minors online.
Barker, Gary; Olukoya, Adepeju; Aggleton, Peter
This paper contributes to understanding of young people's help-seeking behaviour. A conceptual framework is proposed that seeks to integrate differing sources of influence and their implications for policy and programme development. Data was collected by means of an international literature review followed by a purposive international survey of expert informants. Findings suggest that it is important to distinguish between individual and structural determinants of young people's help-seeking behaviour. Policy and programme influences also impact upon the demand for help and the supply of social support that is available. It is important to focus on the normative needs of young people as well as specific health needs and problems. Creating trust, rethinking adult attitudes toward young people, and reducing the stigma associated with seeking help are key to promoting help-seeking behaviour. Many young people are hindered from seeking help, or are not offered help because of social exclusion, violence, poverty, prejudice (including homophobia) and gender inequalities. Future actions to promote help-seeking and enhance social support must consider these structural barriers, making special efforts to reach and work with excluded populations.
Patients who become critically ill can have problems maintaining nutritional intake and it can be challenging for nurses to provide nutritional support. No one assessment method can identify each patient's risk of malnutrition, so nurses need to look at different aspects in their nutritional assessment and refer for specialist help from dietitians and nutrition support teams when needed. This article focuses on how severe physiological stress affects patients who are critically ill and impacts on their nutritional requirements. A nursing nutritional assessment is explored, as are nutritional support methods that may be used to manage these patients' nutritional needs.
... 163392.html Most U.S. Adults Support Routine Child Vaccine Survey finds 80 percent have positive view of ... Americans believe that the benefits of the MMR vaccine outweigh any risks. Nearly three-quarters of the ...
Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Greeno, Catherine G.; Kim, Kevin H.; Anderson, Carol M.
Maternal depression in low-income women is a significant problem because of its negative consequences for both mothers and their children. Economic stress increases risk for depression; however, mechanisms linking economic stress and depression are not well understood. The social support deterioration model suggests that chronic stressors can…
Tampere Univ., Hameelinna (Finland). Dept. of Education.
This yearbook contains 18 papers reflecting the major trends in adult education research in the Nordic countries in 1992-93. The following papers are included: "Popular Adult Education and Social Mobilization: Reflections in Connection with the Swedish Committee on Power" (Rubenson); "Direction of Finnish Adult Education Policies…
Puckett, Julia A; Woodward, Eva N; Mereish, Ethan H; Pantalone, David W
Sexual minority individuals face unique stressors because of their sexual identity. We explored associations between parental reactions to children's coming out, internalized homophobia (IH), social support, and mental health in a sample of 257 sexual minority adults. Path analyses revealed that higher IH and lower social support mediated the association between past parental rejection and current psychological distress. Mental health providers may benefit clients by utilizing interventions that challenge internalized stereotypes about homosexuality, increase social support, and process parental rejection, as well as focusing on how certain crucial experiences of rejection may impact clients' IH and mental health.
Social networking sites such as Facebook provide a new way to seek and receive social support, a factor widely recognized as important for one's health. However, few studies have used actual conversations from social networking sites to study social support for health related matters. We studied 3,899 Facebook users, among a sample of 33,326 monitored adults, who initiated a conversation that referred to surgery on their Facebook Wall during a six-month period to explore predictors of social support as measured by number of response posts from “friends.” Among our sample, we identified 8,343 Facebook conversation threads with the term “surgery” in the initial post with, on average, 5.7 response posts (SD 6.2). We used a variant of latent semantic analysis to explore the relationship between specific words in the posts that allowed us to develop three thematic categories of words related to family, immediacy of the surgery, and prayer. We used generalized linear mixed models to examine the association between characteristics of the Facebook user as well as the thematic categories on the likelihood of receiving response posts following the announcement of a surgery. Words from the three thematic categories were used in 32.5% (family), 39.5 (immediacy), and 50.7% (prayer) of root posts. Surprisingly, few user characteristics were associated with response in multivariate models [rate ratios, RR, 1.08 (95% CI 1.01,1.15) for married/living with partner; 1.10 (95% CI 1.03,1.19) for annual income ≥ $75,000]. In multivariate models adjusted for Facebook user characteristics and network size, use of family and prayer words were associated with significantly higher number of response posts, RR 1.40 (95% CI 1.37,1.43) and 2.07 (95% CI 2.02,2.12) respectively. We found some evidence of social support on Facebook for surgery and that the language used in the initial post of a conversation thread is predictive of overall response. PMID:25753284
Davis, Matthew A; Anthony, Denise L; Pauls, Scott D
Social networking sites such as Facebook provide a new way to seek and receive social support, a factor widely recognized as important for one's health. However, few studies have used actual conversations from social networking sites to study social support for health related matters. We studied 3,899 Facebook users, among a sample of 33,326 monitored adults, who initiated a conversation that referred to surgery on their Facebook Wall during a six-month period. We explored predictors of social support as measured by number of response posts from "friends." Among our sample, we identified 8,343 Facebook conversation threads with the term "surgery" in the initial post with, on average, 5.7 response posts (SD 6.2). We used a variant of latent semantic analysis to explore the relationship between specific words in the posts that allowed us to develop three thematic categories of words related to family, immediacy of the surgery, and prayer. We used generalized linear mixed models to examine the association between characteristics of the Facebook user as well as the thematic categories on the likelihood of receiving response posts following the announcement of a surgery. Words from the three thematic categories were used in 32.5% (family), 39.5 (immediacy), and 50.7% (prayer) of root posts. Few user characteristics were associated with response in multivariate models [rate ratios, RR, 1.08 (95% CI 1.01, 1.15) for married/living with partner; 1.10 (95% CI 1.03, 1.19) for annual income > $75,000]. In multivariate models adjusted for Facebook user characteristics and network size, use of family and prayer words in the root post were associated with significantly higher number of response posts, RR 1.40 (95% CI 1.37, 1.43) and 2.07 (95% CI 2.02, 2.12) respectively. We found some evidence of social support on Facebook for surgery and that the language used in the root post of a conversation thread is predictive of overall response.
Richards, Tara N; Branch, Kathryn A
Although much research has focused on the function of social support in adult intimate partner violence, little is known about the role of social support in adolescent dating violence. This study is an exploratory analysis of the independent impact of social support from friends and family on the risk of adolescent dating violence perpetration and victimization among a large sample of youth (n = 970). Approximately, 21% of the sample reported experiencing victimization in a dating relationship whereas 23% indicated perpetrating dating violence. Male youth reported significantly more involvement in dating violence as both perpetrators and victims. Negative binomial regression modeling indicated that increased levels of support from friends was associated with significantly less dating violence perpetration and victimization; however, when gendered models were explored, the protective role of social support was only maintained for female youth. Family support was not significantly related to dating violence in any model. Implications for dating violence curriculum and future research are addressed.
Miller, Joan G; Akiyama, Hiroko; Kapadia, Shagufa
Whereas an interdependent cultural view of self has been linked to communal norms and to socially supportive behavior, its relationship to social support has been called into question in research suggesting that discomfort in social support is associated with an interdependent cultural view of self (e.g., Taylor et al., 2004). These contrasting claims were addressed in 2 studies conducted among Japanese, Indian, and American adults. Assessing everyday social support, Study 1 showed that Japanese and Americans rely on exchange norms more frequently than Indians among friends, whereas American rely on exchange norms more frequently than Indians and Japanese among siblings. Assessing responses to vignettes, Study 2 demonstrated that Japanese and Americans rely more frequently on exchange norms than Indians, with greatest relational concerns and most negative outlooks on social support observed among Japanese, less among Americans, and least among Indians. Results further indicated that relational concerns mediated the link between exchange norms and negative social support outlooks. Supporting past claims that relational concerns explain cultural variation in discomfort in social support (e.g., Kim, Sherman, & Taylor, 2008), the findings underscore the need to take into account as well the role of exchange norms in explaining such discomfort. The findings also highlight the existence of culturally variable approaches to exchange and call into question claims that discomfort in social support can be explained in terms of the global concept of an interdependent cultural view of self. (PsycINFO Database Record
Dixon, Kelly Elizabeth
Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) face the unknown as they negotiate their multiple roles and identities within the graduate school and classroom setting as teachers, students, and researchers. The purpose of this study is to identify the role that institutionalized socialization, social support, and behavioral observation and modeling play for…
Kirsch, Julie A; Lehman, Barbara J
Previous research suggests that in contrast to invisible social support, visible social support produces exaggerated negative emotional responses. Drawing on work by Bolger and colleagues, this study disentangled social support visibility from negative social evaluation in an examination of the effects of social support on negative emotions and cardiovascular responses. As part of an anticipatory speech task, 73 female participants were randomly assigned to receive no social support, invisible social support, non-confounded visible social support or visible social support as delivered in a 2007 study by Bolger and Amarel. Twelve readings, each for systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were taken at 5-min intervals throughout the periods of baseline, reactivity and recovery. Cardiovascular outcomes were tested by incorporating a series of theoretically driven planned contrasts into tests of stress reactivity conducted through piecewise growth curve modelling. Linear and quadratic trends established cardiovascular reactivity to the task. Further, in comparison to the control and replication conditions, the non-confounded visible and invisible social support conditions attenuated cardiovascular reactivity over time. Pre- and post-speech negative emotional responses were not affected by the social support manipulations. These results suggest that appropriately delivered visible social support may be as beneficial as invisible social support.
Dunbar, Angel S; Perry, Nicole B; Cavanaugh, Alyson M; Leerkes, Esther M
The current study aimed to identify parents' profiles of racial and emotion socialization practices, to determine if these profiles vary as a function of family income and young adult child gender, and to examine their links with young adults' emotional adaptation. Participants included 192 African American young adults (70% women) who ranged in age from 18 to 24 years (M = 19.44 years). Four maternal profiles emerged: cultural-supportive (high cultural socialization and supportive responses to children's negative emotions), moderate bias preparation (moderate preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses to negative emotions), high bias preparation (high preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses), and low engaged (low across racial and socialization constructs). Three paternal profiles emerged: multifaceted (moderate across racial and emotion socialization constructs), high bias preparation, and low engaged. Men were more likely to have mothers in the high bias preparation and to have fathers in the multifaceted or high bias preparation profiles. Individuals with higher income were more likely to have mothers in the cultural-supportive profile and to have fathers in the multifaceted profile. Young adults whose mothers fit the cultural-supportive profile or the moderate bias preparation profile had lower levels of depressive symptoms than young adults whose mothers fit the high bias preparation profile.
The current study examined the impact of size of social network on subjective well-being of elderly, mainly focused on confirmation of the mediator role of perceived social support. The results revealed that both size of social network and perceived social support were significantly correlated with subjective well-being. Structural equation modeling indicated that perceived social support partially mediated size of social network to subjective well-being. The final model also revealed significant both paths from size of social network to subjective well-being through perceived social support. The findings extended prior researches and provided valuable evidence on how to promote mental health of the elderly.
Fitzmaurice, Olivia; Mac an Bhaird, Ciarán; Ní Fhloinn, Eabhnat; O'Sullivan, Ciarán
The provision of some level of Mathematics Learning Support (MLS) is now standard in the majority of Higher Education Institutions in Ireland, the UK, and in many other countries. This provision is, in part, a response to the large numbers of students entering Higher Education who do not have the mathematical skills required and this cohort…
Ruppel, Erin K; McKinley, Christopher J
This study used the frameworks of social compensation and social enhancement to examine how social anxiety and social support were related to college students' (N=443) use and perceptions of online mental health resources (Web sites and online support groups). Potential interactions between social support and social anxiety were also examined. Consistent with the social compensation hypothesis, perceived usefulness of Web sites was positively associated with social support. Perceived usefulness of online support groups was positively associated with social support when participants reported average or high, but not low, social anxiety. In contrast, previous use of Web sites was consistent with the social compensation hypothesis. Participants who reported less social support were more likely to have used a Web site for a mental or emotional problem. These findings suggest that college students' use and perceptions of online mental health resources vary as a function of social support and social anxiety, and that patterns suggestive of social compensation and social enhancement depend on whether perceptions or actual use of resources are examined. Combined with the significant interaction between social support and social anxiety on perceived usefulness of online support groups, these findings highlight the potential complexity of social compensation and enhancement phenomena.
Wang, Edward Shih-Tse; Wang, Michael Chih-Hung
This study explores the relationship between social support and social interaction ties on Internet addiction by integrating both online and offline social encounters. A total of 1,642 members of online social communities participated in this research, for which structural equation modeling was used for analysis. The findings show that social support is positively associated with social interaction ties in both online and offline contexts. In addition, online social support and online social interaction ties are positively associated with Internet addiction, whereas offline social support and social interaction ties on Internet addiction are negatively associated. This finding has important implications not only for understanding the cause of Internet addiction but also for understanding the diminishing Internet addiction due to social support and social interaction ties.
Howie, Laura Odell; Troutman-Jordan, Meredith; Newman, Ann M.
Successful aging has been associated with adequate social support. However, impaired functionality, increased dependence, multiple comorbidities, and reduced social interactions place older assisted living community (ALC) residents at risk for poorer social support and less successful aging. This cross-sectional descriptive study used the revised…
Erickson, Deborah E.
The subject of adult learning has seen increased recognition during the past decade. Over 20 years ago, California established the New Teacher Project (NTP), a forerunner of the current Beginning Teacher Support and Assessment System (BTSA) which was developed to support new teachers in their journey in becoming an expert educator. Recently,…
Kemp, Candace L.
Being married in later life often prevents relocation to long-term care settings, but couples do relocate to these environments. Typically, this transition does not mark the end of support provided by families, especially adult children. Little is known about children's experiences providing support in care settings when both parents are involved.…
Krause, Neal; Hayward, R. David
The purpose of this study is to see if measures of church-based and secular social support offset the effects of functional disability on change in feelings of personal control over time. Survey data were obtained from Wave 2 and Wave 3 of a nationwide sample of older adults (N = 583). The findings suggest that spiritual support from fellow church members offsets the effects of functional disability on change in feelings of personal control over time. In contrast, neither emotional support from fellow church members nor emotional support from secular social network members exerted a similar effect. PMID:23553003
Prins, Esther; Toso, Blaire Willson; Schafft, Kai
Although many women value and benefit from social interaction in adult education and family literacy, these social dimensions are often treated as tangential or inconsequential. Utilizing data from two studies of family literacy programs in Pennsylvania, this study examined how family literacy programs provide a supportive social space for women…
Bozo, Ozlem; Toksabay, N Ece; Kürüm, Oya
The authors examined the effects of activities of daily living (ADL) and perceived social support on the level of depression among elderly Turkish people. Participants were 102 adults older than the age of 60 years. The authors hypothesized that (a) lower levels of ADL would predict a higher level of depression, (b) a higher level of perceived social support would predict a lower level of depression, and (c) perceived social support would moderate the relation between ADL and depression. Although hierarchical multiple regression analysis did not yield a significant effect for an ADL-perceived social support interaction, ADL and perceived social support significantly predicted depression among elderly people. Thus, perceived social support did not moderate the relation between ADL and depression among elderly people; however, higher ADL functioning and higher perceived social support predicted lower depression. The nonsignificant effect of an ADL-perceived social support interaction on the level of depression among elderly people was incongruent with the stress-buffering model (S. Cohen & T. A. Willis, 1985). The authors discuss the strengths, limitations, and possible implications of the findings.
Zhang, Xiaoyan; Ra, Chaelin Karen; Zhang, Donglan; Zhang, Yunting; MacLeod, Kara E.
Background and Purpose National reports showed that over 20% of high school students were victims of bullying, which could potentially lead to psychological problems. School social support may be protective against mental distress linked with victimization. This study examined the main and moderating effects of social support from adults in schools on non-specific serious psychological distress (SPD) related to victimization among California adolescents. Methods Utilizing the 2011–2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS), we analyzed a representative sample of 2,799 adolescents aged 12–17 years old. Logistic regression analyses were conducted modeling the odds of SPD in relation to school social support and victimization. Results Adolescents who were victimized were twice as likely to have SPD compared to non-victims. Higher level of social support from adults in schools was protective against SPD, but did not buffer the effect of bullying exposure. Discussion Findings from the present study suggested that adult support from schools can help with students’ psychological problems but does not appear to prevent the psychological consequences of victimization. Additional intervention is needed, above and beyond social support, to prevent victimization and its psychological consequences. PMID:27708555
Berndt, Nadine C.; O'Riordan, David L.; Winkler, Elisabeth; McDermott, Liane; Spathonis, Kym; Owen, Neville
Young adults participating in outdoor sports represent a high-risk group for excessive sun exposure. The purpose of this study was to identify modifiable social cognitive correlates of sunscreen use among young adult competitors. Participants aged 18 to 30 years who competed in soccer (n = 65), surf-lifesaving (n = 63), hockey (n = 61), and tennis…
This article presents the outcomes of recent research into adult education programs and experiences in the Shire of Campaspe, a region in northern Victoria. Research data of people from diverse cultural backgrounds reveal how individuals can utilize adult education as a space to explore their own social and cultural isolation in a regional…
Psychological distress in high-school students was examined in relation to negative life events, long-lasting adversities and perceived social support from the family, friends and the school class. Academic problems increased the symptom levels of psychological distress, and social support from family and social support from friends reduced the symptoms among males and females. For females, social support from school class-mates and problems with parents and friends also had direct independent effects on symptom levels. An effect of the total number of long-lasting adversities was significantly stronger for females than males. The buffer hypothesis was supported: both an increase in social support from parents and social support from peers reduced the effect of negative life events.
Waycott, Jenny; Morgans, Amee; Pedell, Sonja; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Vetere, Frank; Kulik, Lars; Davis, Hilary
The purpose of this article is to consider how ethical principles can inform the effective design and implementation of technology-based interventions that aim to promote the well-being of socially isolated older adults. We evaluated a new iPad application with small groups of older adults. In this article, we reflect on the ethical issues encountered at each stage of the research process. Drawing on the ethical principles of beneficence, research merit and integrity, justice, and respect, we identify key issues to consider in the future design and implementation of social isolation interventions that use new technologies. Key issues include (a) providing sufficient support to facilitate ongoing social interactions, (b) managing older adults' expectations, (c) providing encouragement without coercion, and (d) responding to individual needs. We conclude that it is important to report on ethical challenges incurred when evaluating social isolation interventions to inform future research in this important area.
Mayo, Marjorie, Ed.; Thompson, Jane, Ed.
This collection of 21 essays reviews the context of developments in adult education in the last 15 years. "Adult Education for Change in the Nineties and Beyond" (Marjorie Mayo) is a critical review of the context for these changes and of the theoretical debates that attempt to analyze and explain them. "Challenging the Postmodern…
Gramss, Denise; Struve, Doreen
The study reported in this paper investigated the usefulness of different instructions for guiding inexperienced older adults through interactive systems. It was designed to compare different media in relation to their social as well as their motivational impact on the elderly during the learning process. Precisely, the video was compared with…
Majer, John M; Salina, Doreen D; Jason, Leonard A
Social support types (abstinence, appraisal, belonging, tangible) were analyzed among a sample of women with criminal justice involvement and substance use disorders (n = 200). Hierarchical linear regression was conducted to examine social support types in relation to changes in abstinence self-efficacy while controlling for incarceration histories. Only abstinence social support and tangible social support predicted significant increases in abstinence self-efficacy, with tangible support accounting for more variance in the analytic model. Findings suggest women with criminal justice involvement who have substance use disorders have basic needs that if met would have an indirect effect on their recovery. Implications for treatment and research are discussed.
Poor social support is a risk factor for the development of eating disorders (Ghaderi, 2003). We designed this study to investigate the relationship between social support and eating disorder symptomatology among a female, nonclinical population. The work is of international interest because disordered eating behavior is common across many nations. The results of this research should help build a better understanding of the links between social support and participants at risk of developing an eating disorder. In this study, family support was not correlated with disordered eating, but satisfaction with social support was.
Seagull, Elizabeth A. W.
Review of the research found little evidence that lack of social support plays a significant role in the etiology of physical child abuse. Stronger evidence exists which suggests that neglectful parents are socially isolated. (Author/DB)
support 11 Social Support and Health 13 Conceptual models linking social support and health 14 Main effect hypothesis 14 Stress-buffering...Stress Process Integrating Environmental, Psychological, and Biological Approaches to Stress Measurement Figure 2. Conceptual Model Outlining...including definitions of these variables as well as conceptual models and evidence linking each construct to health outcomes. Then, aims of the study will
presence of other people alters initial perceptions of objective social stimuli (Lazarus, 1966; Tajfel , 1968). Thus, social support could "buffer" the...workers discriminate between people in reporting their level of support. Many workers perceive one source as supportive but not another. Supervisor
Pilgram, Mary D.
This exploratory study examines veterinarians' perceptions of how they offer social support to grieving clients. Because many clients cannot find the social support they would like from other sources when grieving the death of a pet, the role of the vet in offering support becomes increasingly important. The results indicate that vets perceive…
Rankin, Sally H.; Monahan, Patricia
Compared patient and spousal perceived support during the cardiac surgery recovery period and explored effects of social support on patient/spouse subjective mood states for 117 couples. Social support buffered the impact of caregiving burden on mood disturbance for caregiving spouses but did not significantly impact physical or mental health…
Loper, Ann Booker; Gildea, Jennifer Whitney
Incarcerated women at a maximum security state facility (N= 216) completed a questionnaire concerning their perceived social support within the prison, structured activities, and perceived support from prison surrogate families. A series of regression analyses evaluated the relationship between social support measures and anger, as measured by the…
Caballo, Vicente E; Salazar, Isabel C; Irurtia, María Jesús; Arias, Benito; Hofmann, Stefan G
Much has been written about the situations most often feared by persons with social phobia, and several self-report measures are frequently used to assess such feared situations. However, it is not clear whether the situations feared by persons with social phobia form unidimensional or multidimensional factors. If these situations are multidimensional, reliance on a total score of feared situations would not reflect important differences between those dimensions. This research examined the multidimensional nature and multicultural validity of a newly developed instrument (the Social Anxiety Questionnaire for Adults [SAQ-A]) in two studies with a total of 539 patients diagnosed with social phobia and 15,753 nonpatients from 20 different countries. The structure (five clear and solid factors) and psychometric properties of the final instrument (the SAQ-A30) support the multidimensional nature of social anxiety and provide a new perspective in the assessment of social phobia.
Orsmond, Gael I.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Sterzing, Paul R.; Anderson, Kristy A.
Investigating social participation of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important given the increasing number of youth aging into young adulthood. Social participation is an indicator of life quality and overall functioning. Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2, we examined rates of participation in…
Alexander, Melissa G. F.; Dummer, Gail M.; Smeltzer, Ashley; Denton, Stephen J.
The purpose of the study was to determine if young adult Special Olympics participants could develop, generalize, and maintain target social skills (eye contact, contributing relevant information, and turn taking) as a result of a 14-week Social Skills and Sports (S[superscript 3]) Program that combined classroom instruction with soccer…
Maddox, Brenna B.; White, Susan W.
Social anxiety symptoms are common among cognitively unimpaired youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Few studies have investigated the co-occurrence of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adults with ASD, although identification may aid access to effective treatments and inform our scientific efforts to parse heterogeneity. In this preliminary…
Shiba, Koichiro; Kondo, Naoki; Kondo, Katsunori
Background We examined the associations of informal (eg, family members and friends) and formal (eg, physician and visiting nurses) social support with caregiver’s burden in long-term care and the relationship between the number of available sources of social support and caregiver burden. Methods We conducted a mail-in survey in 2003 and used data of 2998 main caregivers of frail older adults in Aichi, Japan. We used a validated scale to assess caregiver burden. Results Multiple linear regression demonstrated that, after controlling for caregivers’ sociodemographic and other characteristics, informal social support was significantly associated with lower caregiver burden (β = −1.59, P < 0.0001), while formal support was not (β = −0.30, P = 0.39). Evaluating the associations by specific sources of social support, informal social supports from the caregiver’s family living together (β = −0.71, P < 0.0001) and from relatives (β = −0.61, P = 0.001) were associated with lower caregiver burden, whereas formal social support was associated with lower caregiver burden only if it was from family physicians (β = −0.56, P = 0.001). Compared to caregivers without informal support, those who had one support (β = −1.62, P < 0.0001) and two or more supports (β = −1.55, P < 0.0001) had significantly lower burden. This association was not observed for formal support. Conclusions Social support from intimate social relationships may positively affect caregivers’ psychological wellbeing independent of the receipt of formal social support, resulting in less burden. PMID:27180934
Robustelli, Briana L; Newberry, Raeana E; Whisman, Mark A; Mittal, Vijay A
Studies suggest that individuals with schizophrenia have smaller social networks and less satisfying relationships. However, much is still unknown about the typical quantity and quality of social relationships in young adults during the ultra high-risk (UHR) period. Investigating these relationships holds significant importance for improving understanding of etiological processes, mapping the social environment, and highlighting treatment targets in a critical period. A total of 85 participants (44 UHR and 41 healthy controls) completed measures examining the participants' social relationships, social support, and loneliness. Mean differences between the UHR and healthy control participants and associations between social relationships and symptoms and functioning were examined. Results indicated significant differences between groups on several indices. Specifically, the UHR youth reported fewer close friends, less diverse social networks, less perceived social support, poorer relationship quality with family and friends, and more loneliness. Notably, within the UHR group, being lonely and having fewer and worse quality relationships was associated with greater symptom severity and lower overall functioning. This study suggests that youth at high-risk of developing psychosis have fewer and poorer quality social relationships. Interventions that focus on increasing the quantity and quality of young adults' social networks may be beneficial for this population.
Perry, Tam E
There has been limited research on the importance of seasons in the lives of older adults. Previous research has highlighted seasonal fluctuations in physical functioning--including limb strength, range of motion, and cardiac death--the spread of influenza in seasonal migration patterns. In addition, older adults experience isolation for various reasons, such as decline of physical and cognitive ability, lack of transportation, and lack of opportunities for social interaction. There has been much attention paid to the social isolation of older adults, yet little analysis about how the isolation changes throughout the year. Based on findings from an ethnographic study of older adults (n = 81), their family members (n = 49), and supportive professionals (n = 46) as they embark on relocation from their homes, this study analyzes the processes of moving for older adults. It examines the seasonal fluctuations of social isolation because of the effect of the environment on the social experiences of older adults. Isolation occurs because of the difficulty inclement weather causes on social interactions and mobility. The article concludes with discussion of the ways that research and practice can be designed and implemented to account for seasonal variation.
Perry, Tam E.
There has been limited research on the importance of seasons in the lives of older adults. Previous research has highlighted seasonal fluctuations in physical functioning—including limb strength, range of motion, and cardiac death—the spread of influenza in seasonal migration patterns. In addition, older adults experience isolation for various reasons, such as decline of physical and cognitive ability, lack of transportation, and lack of opportunities for social interaction. There has been much attention paid to the social isolation of older adults, yet little analysis about how the isolation changes throughout the year. Based on findings from an ethnographic study of older adults (n = 81), their family members (n = 49), and supportive professionals (n = 46) as they embark on relocation from their homes, this study analyzes the processes of moving for older adults. It examines the seasonal fluctuations of social isolation because of the effect of the environment on the social experiences of older adults. Isolation occurs because of the difficulty inclement weather causes on social interactions and mobility. The article concludes with discussion of the ways that research and practice can be designed and implemented to account for seasonal variation. PMID:24761536
Bowling, Nathan A; Beehr, Terry A; Johnson, Adam L; Semmer, Norbert K; Hendricks, Elizabeth A; Webster, Heather A
Effects of social support are an important topic in occupational stress theories and research, yet little is known about support's potential antecedents. Based on reciprocity theory, the authors hypothesized that the social support received is related to the extent the employee performs organizational citizenship behaviors directed at individuals and to one's social competence; based on the notion of personal attraction, the authors hypothesized that employees' physical attractiveness and sense of humor would be associated with the amount of social support received. In a survey of 123 high school employees and separate ratings of their attractiveness, reciprocity variables were related but attraction variables were not related to social support availability. Further research should examine reciprocity in predicting social support.
Schneider, Erin; Chesky, Kris
This study characterized perceived social support and performance anxiety of college music students, compared characteristics to those of non-music majors, and explored the relationships between social support and performance anxiety. Subjects (n = 609) completed a questionnaire that included demographics, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and visual analog scale measures of performance anxiety. Results showed that music majors perceived significantly lower levels of social support from significant others when compared to non-music majors. Perceived social support was significantly correlated with measures of performance anxiety. Students with greater perceived social support reported less frequent anxiety and lower levels of impact of anxiety on ability to perform. These findings may have practical implications for schools of music and conservatories.
Rapee, Ronald M; Peters, Lorna; Carpenter, Leigh; Gaston, Jonathan E
Support from social networks is generally considered to protect against mental disorder but in some circumstances support for negative behaviours (such as avoidance) may be counterproductive. Given the critical interplay between social anxiety disorder and social interactions, it is surprising that the relationship of support from significant others to this disorder has received so little attention. The current study evaluated the reciprocal relationships between perceived social support and perceived partner support for avoidance behaviours (avoidance support) among a sample of 131 participants with social anxiety disorder who were assessed three times within the context of a treatment outcome study. A new measure of partner support for avoidance behaviours was developed, called the Avoidance Support Measure, and showed adequate internal consistency and construct validity. Correlations at baseline showed significant negative relationships between perceived social support and social anxiety and significant positive relationships between avoidance support and social anxiety. Path analysis showed that perceived social support at Times 1 and 2 negatively predicted future social anxiety at Times 2 and 3. On the other hand, only a single predictive relationship involving avoidance support was significant and showed that social anxiety at Time 1 positively predicted avoidance support at Time 2. These early results point to the different ways that support from significant others might relate to social anxiety and suggest that further work in this area may be fruitful.
Polley, Beulah M.
Project ALMS (Adult Literacy Mission Support) was designed to improve the communication skills of semi-literate or illiterate adults, help participants become more self-sufficient, provide an ongoing program for other such individuals, and provide a manual of guidelines and suggestions for other programs. Three groups were established to make a…
Henness, Steven A.; Ball, Anna L.; Moncheski, MaryJo
Using 4-H and FFA case study findings, this article explores how community service-learning supports the building of social capital between rural youth and adults and the positive effects on community viability. Key elements of practice form a community development approach to service-learning, which opens up doorways for youth to partner with…
Shooshtari, Shahin; Naghipur, Saba; Zhang, Jin
The authors sought to create a demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related profile of older (40+) Canadian adults with developmental disabilities (DD) residing in their communities, and to enhance current knowledge of their unmet health and social support services needs. They provide a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the 2001…
Gerdenitsch, Cornelia; Scheel, Tabea E.; Andorfer, Julia; Korunka, Christian
Coworking spaces are shared office environments for independent professionals. Such spaces have been increasing rapidly throughout the world, and provide, in addition to basic business infrastructure, the opportunity for social interaction. This article explores social interaction in coworking spaces and reports the results of two studies. Study 1 (N = 69 coworkers) finds that social interaction in coworking spaces can take the form of social support. Study 2 further investigates social support among coworkers (N = 154 coworkers) and contrasts these results with those of social support among colleagues in traditional work organizations (N = 609). A moderated mediation model using time pressure and self-efficacy, based on the conservation of resources theory, is tested. Social support from both sources was positively related to performance satisfaction. Self-efficacy mediated this relationship in the employee sample, while in the coworking sample, self-efficacy only mediated the relationship between social support and performance satisfaction if time pressure was high. Thus, a mobilization of social support seems necessary in coworking spaces. We conclude that coworking spaces, as modern social work environments, should align flexible work infrastructure with well-constructed opportunities for social support. PMID:27199816
Gerdenitsch, Cornelia; Scheel, Tabea E; Andorfer, Julia; Korunka, Christian
Coworking spaces are shared office environments for independent professionals. Such spaces have been increasing rapidly throughout the world, and provide, in addition to basic business infrastructure, the opportunity for social interaction. This article explores social interaction in coworking spaces and reports the results of two studies. Study 1 (N = 69 coworkers) finds that social interaction in coworking spaces can take the form of social support. Study 2 further investigates social support among coworkers (N = 154 coworkers) and contrasts these results with those of social support among colleagues in traditional work organizations (N = 609). A moderated mediation model using time pressure and self-efficacy, based on the conservation of resources theory, is tested. Social support from both sources was positively related to performance satisfaction. Self-efficacy mediated this relationship in the employee sample, while in the coworking sample, self-efficacy only mediated the relationship between social support and performance satisfaction if time pressure was high. Thus, a mobilization of social support seems necessary in coworking spaces. We conclude that coworking spaces, as modern social work environments, should align flexible work infrastructure with well-constructed opportunities for social support.
Botting, Nicola; Durkin, Kevin; Toseeb, Umar; Pickles, Andrew; Conti-Ramsden, Gina
Children and adolescents with language impairment (LI) are at risk of emotional health difficulties. However, less is known about whether these difficulties continue into adulthood for this group, or about the potential role of environmental resources (e.g., social support) or internal resources (e.g., self-efficacy). This study investigates emotional health in 81 adults with a history of developmental LI (aged 24) compared with 87 age-matched peers (AMPs) using Beck Inventories. Social support and self-efficacy measures were examined as predictors. The results were fourfold: (1) adults with LI had higher levels of emotional health problems; (2) whilst the availability of social support was similar across groups, people with LI received more help from others compared to peers; (3) social support was not significantly related to emotional health in those with LI - in contrast, for AMPs, uptake of support indicated poorer emotional health; (4) self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of emotional health in both groups and fully mediated the relationship between language and emotional health (no moderation by group). This cross-sectional study has implications for concurrent factors that might affect emotional health outcomes for children and young people with and without LI.
Holst, John D.
The article identifies dispositions from a thematic investigation of the pedagogical practice of Ernesto Che Guevara and various social movements in the United States. The article outlines and places these dispositions within the context of debates over social justice and dispositions for education program accreditation in the United States that…
Zhou, Mi; Lin, Weipeng
The purpose of this study was to investigate the moderating role of social support in the relationship between adaptability and life satisfaction. Data were collected from 99 undergraduate freshmen in a Chinese university using a lagged design with a 1-month interval. Results demonstrated that social support moderated the relation between adaptability and life satisfaction, such that the positive relation between adaptability and life satisfaction was stronger for individuals with higher levels of social support than for individuals with lower levels of social support. The theoretical and practical implications of this result are discussed. PMID:27516753
Zhou, Mi; Lin, Weipeng
The purpose of this study was to investigate the moderating role of social support in the relationship between adaptability and life satisfaction. Data were collected from 99 undergraduate freshmen in a Chinese university using a lagged design with a 1-month interval. Results demonstrated that social support moderated the relation between adaptability and life satisfaction, such that the positive relation between adaptability and life satisfaction was stronger for individuals with higher levels of social support than for individuals with lower levels of social support. The theoretical and practical implications of this result are discussed.
Thompson, Ross A
Social support has been a topic of research for nearly 50 years, and its applications to prevention and intervention have grown significantly, including programs advancing child protection. This article summarizes the central conclusions of the 1994 review of research on social support and the prevention of child maltreatment prepared for the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, and surveys advances in the field since its publication. Among the lessons learned twenty years ago are (a) the diversity of the social support needs of at-risk families and their association with child endangerment, (b) the need to supplement the emotionally affirmative aspects of social support with efforts to socialize parenting practices and monitor child well-being, (c) the desirability of integrating formal and informal sources of social support for recipients, and (d) the importance of considering the complex recipient reactions to receiving support from others. The lessons we are now learning derive from research exploring the potential of online communication to enhance social support, the neurobiology of stress and its buffering through social support, and the lessons of evaluation research that are identifying the effective ingredients of social support interventions.
Presents conceptual reorientation for providing responsive psychological services to older adults, focusing on need to develop prevention programs that encourage maintenance of social roles. Discusses changes in social structures that encourage more active social engagement, with examples from housing options, part-time employment, and ways to…
Howarth, Sharon; Morris, David; Newlin, Meredith; Webber, Martin
People with learning disabilities are among the most socially excluded in society. There is a significant gap in research evidence showing how health and social care workers can intervene to improve the social participation of adults with learning disabilities. A systematic review and modified narrative synthesis was used to appraise the quality…
McSpadden, Kate E; Patrick, Heather; Oh, April Y; Yaroch, Amy L; Dwyer, Laura A; Nebeling, Linda C
Despite knowing that fruit and vegetable (FV) intake promotes health and well-being, few U.S. adults meet current guidelines. Thus, understanding people's motivation for FV intake is important for predicting dietary behavior. Applying self-determination theory, the goal of this study was to examine the role of social support as a potential moderator of the link between autonomous and controlled motivations and FV intake. Cross-sectional data from 2959 adults in the United States were analyzed. Autonomous motivation and perceived social support were positively associated with FV intake, while controlled motivation was negatively associated with FV intake. Additionally, there was evidence that the negative association between controlled motivation and FV intake was attenuated by higher levels of perceived social support. Findings suggest the need for a more comprehensive approach to understanding the role of motivation in health behaviors like FV intake and the potential roles played by friends and family in these motivational processes.
Arnault, Denise Saint
Research shows that social support is essential for healthy psychological functioning. Help seeking and social support are social processes shaped by cultural understandings about how need should be expressed, to whom, and in what circumstances. This study used grounded theory methodology to examine how cultural factors regulate help seeking and social support in a sample of 25 Japanese sojourners' wives living in America. Culturally based social edicts such as mutual responsibility and in-group solidarity were found to promote help seeking and social support. In contrast, culturally specific factors such as enryo (polite deference), hierarchy, and the cultural rules governing reciprocity inhibited these behaviors. From these data, a cultural model of social exchange, allowing for cultural diversity, is proposed. This model can increase the effectiveness of nursing interventions aimed at community-based health promotion. PMID:11911381
Heffner, Kathi L; Waring, Molly E; Roberts, Mary B; Eaton, Charles B; Gramling, Robert
Social isolation confers increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) events and mortality. In two recent studies, low levels of social integration among older adults were related to higher levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation, suggesting a possible biological link between social isolation and CHD. The current study examined relationships among social isolation, CRP, and 15-year CHD death in a community sample of US adults aged 40 years and older without a prior history of myocardial infarction. A nested case-cohort study was conducted from a parent cohort of community-dwelling adults from the southeastern New England region of the United States (N = 2321) who were interviewed in 1989 and 1990. CRP levels were measured from stored sera provided by the nested case-cohort (n = 370), which included all cases of CHD death observed through 2005 (n = 48), and a random sample of non-cases. We found that the most socially isolated individuals had two-and-a-half times the odds of elevated CRP levels compared to the most socially integrated. In separate logistic regression models, both social isolation and CRP predicted later CHD death. The most socially isolated continued to have more than twice the odds of CHD death compared to the most socially integrated in a model adjusting for CRP and more traditional CHD risk factors. The current findings support social isolation as an independent risk factor of both high levels of CRP and CHD death in middle-aged adults without a prior history of myocardial infarction. Prospective study of inflammatory pathways related to social isolation and mortality are needed to fully delineate whether and how CRP or other inflammatory markers contribute to mechanisms linking social isolation to CVD health.
Vondras, Dean D.; Pouliot, Gregory S.; Malcore, Sylvia A.; Iwahashi, Shigetoshi
This research explores the perceived exchange of social support resources of young, midlife, and older adults in the United States and Japan, and how perceptions of exchange may moderate attributions of control, difficulty, and success in attaining important life-goals. A survey was administered to participants in the United States and Japan who…
Schwarz, Sharon M.; Schellenberg, Richard P.
Ninety-four persons employed in direct care positions in a community-based agency that serves adults with mental retardation completed self-report questionnaires assessing relationships between social support and the adaptive outcomes of mood, perceived competence, and self-efficacy. Findings indicated that: (1) negative mood was negatively…
Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Budtz-Jorgensen, Esben; Avlund, Kirsten
This study examines the formation of group cohesion and social support in exercise classes among former sedentary adults, participating in a Danish community-based intervention. Furthermore, the aim is to analyze the impact of this process on exercise activity among the participants. A multimethod approach was used, analyzing both survey data and…
Testa, Maria; And Others
The role of social support in moderating the impact of childhood sexual abuse on adult psychological adjustment was examined. Women were drawn from three clinical samples (women in treatment for alcoholism, for being battered, or for mental health treatment) and two nonclinical sources (women arrested for driving while intoxicated and a random…
Iecovich, Esther; Barasch, Miriam; Mirsky, Julia; Kaufman, Roni; Avgar, Amos; Kolfogelson, Aliza
The collapse of the Soviet Union had devastating consequences for the lives of its population, especially for older adults, many of whom became impoverished and were left with no social support. Using data from a survey of 2,579 elderly Jews in two of the largest countries of the former Soviet Union, Russia and Ukraine, we examine variables that…
Kroenke, Candyce H; Kwan, Marilyn L; Neugut, Alfred I; Ergas, Isaac J; Wright, Jaime D; Caan, Bette J; Hershman, Dawn; Kushi, Lawrence H
We examined mechanisms through which social relationships influence quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer survivors. This study included 3,139 women from the Pathways Study who were diagnosed with breast cancer from 2006 to 2011 and provided data on social networks (the presence of a spouse or intimate partner, religious/social ties, volunteering, and numbers of close friends and relatives), social support (tangible support, emotional/informational support, affection, positive social interaction), and QOL, measured by the FACT-B, approximately 2 months post diagnosis. We used logistic models to evaluate associations between social network size, social support, and lower versus higher than median QOL scores. We further stratified by stage at diagnosis and treatment. In multivariate-adjusted analyses, women who were characterized as socially isolated had significantly lower FACT-B (OR = 2.18, 95 % CI: 1.72-2.77), physical well-being (WB) (OR = 1.61, 95 % CI: 1.27-2.03), functional WB (OR = 2.08, 95 % CI: 1.65-2.63), social WB (OR = 3.46, 95 % CI: 2.73-4.39), and emotional WB (OR = 1.67, 95 % CI: 1.33-2.11) scores and higher breast cancer symptoms (OR = 1.48, 95 % CI: 1.18-1.87) compared with socially integrated women. Each social network member independently predicted higher QOL. Simultaneous adjustment for social networks and social support partially attenuated associations between social networks and QOL. The strongest mediator and type of social support that was most predictive of QOL outcomes was "positive social interaction." However, each type of support was important depending on outcome, stage, and treatment status. Larger social networks and greater social support were related to higher QOL after a diagnosis of breast cancer. Effective social support interventions need to evolve beyond social-emotional interventions and need to account for disease severity and treatment status.
Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Lei; Liao, Jiangqun
The presence of delay of gratification (DG) in childhood is correlated with success later in a person's life. Is there any way of helping adults with a low level of DG to obtain similar success? The present research examines how social support helps those low in DG nonetheless to act similarly to those high in DG. This research includes both correlational studies and experiments that manipulate social support as well as both field studies and a laboratory study. The results show that with high social support, employees (Study 1) and university students (Study 2) low in DG report vocational and academic DG behavioral intentions, respectively, similar to those high in DG. Study 3 found that participants low in DG who were primed with high social support expressed job-choice DG similar to those high in the DG. Study 4 controlled for mood and self-image and found that participants low in DG who were primed with high social support expressed more money-choice DG than those high in the DG. Study 5 showed that social support moderated the relationship between DG and actual DG behaviors. These findings provide evidence for a moderating role of social support in the expression of DG behavior. PMID:27047408
Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Lei; Liao, Jiangqun
The presence of delay of gratification (DG) in childhood is correlated with success later in a person's life. Is there any way of helping adults with a low level of DG to obtain similar success? The present research examines how social support helps those low in DG nonetheless to act similarly to those high in DG. This research includes both correlational studies and experiments that manipulate social support as well as both field studies and a laboratory study. The results show that with high social support, employees (Study 1) and university students (Study 2) low in DG report vocational and academic DG behavioral intentions, respectively, similar to those high in DG. Study 3 found that participants low in DG who were primed with high social support expressed job-choice DG similar to those high in the DG. Study 4 controlled for mood and self-image and found that participants low in DG who were primed with high social support expressed more money-choice DG than those high in the DG. Study 5 showed that social support moderated the relationship between DG and actual DG behaviors. These findings provide evidence for a moderating role of social support in the expression of DG behavior.
Bulled, Nicola L
Extensive research over the past 30 years has revealed that individual and social determinants impact HIV risk. Even so, prevention efforts focus primarily on individual behaviour change, with little recognition of the dynamic interplay of individual and social environment factors that further exacerbate risk engagement. Drawing on long-term research with young adults in Lesotho, I examine how social environment factors contribute to HIV risk. During preliminary ethnographic analysis, I developed novel scales to measure social control, adoption of modernity, and HIV knowledge. In survey research, I examined the effects of individual characteristics (i.e., socioeconomic status, HIV knowledge, adoption of modernity) and social environment (i.e., social control) on HIV risk behaviours. In addition, I measured the impact of altered environments by taking advantage of an existing situation whereby young adults attending a national college are assigned to either a main campus in a metropolitan setting or a satellite campus in a remote setting, irrespective of the environment in which they were socialised as youth. This arbitrary assignment process generates four distinct groups of young adults with altered or constant environments. Regression models show that lower levels of perceived social control and greater adoption of modernity are associated with HIV risk, controlling for other factors. The impact of social control and modernity varies with environment dynamics.
van den Berg, Pauline; Kemperman, Astrid; de Kleijn, Boy; Borgers, Aloys
Social activities are an important aspect of health and quality of life of the aging population. They are key elements in the prevention of loneliness. In order to create living environments that stimulate older adults to engage in social activities, more insight is needed in the social activity patterns of the aging population. This study therefore analyzes the heterogeneity in older adults' preferences for different social activity location types and the relationship between these preferences and personal and mobility characteristics. This is done using a latent class multinomial logit model based on two-day diary data collected in 2014 in Noord-Limburg in the Netherlands among 213 respondents aged 65 or over. The results show that three latent classes can be identified among the respondents who recorded social activities in the diary: a group that mainly socializes at home, a group that mainly socializes at a community center and a group that is more likely to socialize at public 'third' places. The respondents who did not record any interactions during the two days, are considered as a separate segment. Relationships between segment membership and personal and mobility characteristics were tested using cross-tabulations with chi-square tests and analyses of variance. The results suggest that both personal and mobility characteristics play an important role in social activity patterns of older adults.
Reid, Keshia M; Taylor, Miles G
A large body of literature documents the link between social support, stress, and women's mental health during pregnancy and the postpartum period; however, uncertainty remains as to whether a direct effect or stress mediating pathway best describes the relationship between these factors. Moreover, specific dimensions of social support that may be influential (family type, sources of support) have largely been neglected. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study (N=4150), we examine the pathway between social support, stress exposure, and postpartum depression in greater detail. Findings reveal that social support is a significant, protective factor for postpartum depression, and the variety of support providers in a woman's social network is important, especially in the context of family type. Findings also reveal the importance of considering social support and stress exposure as part of a larger causal pathway to postpartum mental health.
Throughout the literature, teacher education is often described as being based on a specific tradition, paradigm, or agenda. Examples of these descriptions include: behavioristic, personalistic, inquiry-oriented, social reconstructionist, academic, developmentalist, and social-efficiency. These approaches are closely linked to the "beliefs and…
Dillis, Christopher; Humle, Tatyana; Snowdon, Charles T
We presented adult cottontop tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) with a novel foraging task that had been used previously to examine socially biased learning of juvenile observers [Humle & Snowdon, Animal Behaviour 75:267-277, 2008]. The task could be solved in one of two ways, and thus allowed for an analysis of behavioral matching between an observer and a skilled demonstrator (trained to use one of the two methods exclusively). Because the demonstrator was an adult in both this study and the juvenile study, the influence of the observer's age could be isolated and examined, as well as the behavior of demonstrators toward observers of different ages. Our main goals were to (1) compare adults and juveniles acquiring the same task to identify how the age of the observer affects socially biased learning and (2) examine the relationship between socially biased learning and behavioral matching in adults. Although adults spent less time observing the trained demonstrators than did juveniles, the adults were more proficient at solving the task. Furthermore, even though observers did not overtly match the behavior of the demonstrator, observation remained an important factor in the success of these individuals. The findings suggested that adult observers could extract information needed to solve a novel foraging task without explicitly matching the behavior of the demonstrator. Adult observers begged much less than juveniles and demonstrators did not respond to begging from adult. Skill acquisition and the process of socially biased learning are, therefore, age-dependent and are influenced by the behavioral interactions between observer and demonstrator. To what extent this holds true for other primates or animal species still needs to be more fully investigated and considered when designing experiments and interpreting results.
Mavranezouli, Ifigeneia; Megnin-Viggars, Odette; Cheema, Nadir; Howlin, Patricia; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Pilling, Stephen
Adults with autism face high rates of unemployment. Supported employment enables individuals with autism to secure and maintain a paid job in a regular work environment. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of supported employment compared with standard care (day services) for adults with autism in the United Kingdom. Thus, a decision-analytic economic model was developed, which used outcome data from the only trial that has evaluated supported employment for adults with autism in the United Kingdom. The main analysis considered intervention costs, while cost-savings associated with changes in accommodation status and National Health Service and personal social service resource use were examined in secondary analyses. Two outcome measures were used: the number of weeks in employment and the quality-adjusted life year. Supported employment resulted in better outcomes compared with standard care, at an extra cost of £18 per additional week in employment or £5600 per quality-adjusted life year. In secondary analyses that incorporated potential cost-savings, supported employment dominated standard care (i.e. it produced better outcomes at a lower total cost). The analysis suggests that supported employment schemes for adults with autism in the United Kingdom are cost-effective compared with standard care. Further research needs to confirm these findings.
Negron, Rennie; Martin, Anika; Almog, Meital; Balbierz, Amy; Howell, Elizabeth A
Research has indicated that social support is a major buffer of postpartum depression. Yet little is known concerning women's perceptions on social support during the postpartum period. The objective of this study was to explore postpartum women's views and experiences with social support following childbirth. Four focus groups were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of women (n = 33) in a large urban teaching hospital in New York City. Participants had completed participation in a postpartum depression randomized trial and were 6-12 months postpartum. Data transcripts were reviewed and analyzed for themes. The main themes identified in the focus group discussions were mother's major needs and challenges postpartum, social support expectations and providers of support, how mothers mobilize support, and barriers to mobilizing support. Women across all groups identified receipt of instrumental support as essential to their physical and emotional recovery. Support from partners and families was expected and many women believed this support should be provided without asking. Racial/ethnic differences existed in the way women from different groups mobilized support from their support networks. Instrumental support plays a significant role in meeting women's basic needs during the postpartum period. In addition, women's expectations surrounding support can have an impact on their ability to mobilize support among their social networks. The results of this study suggest that identifying support needs and expectations of new mothers is important for mothers' recovery after childbirth. Future postpartum depression prevention efforts should integrate a strong focus on social support.
Pittet, Florent; Babb, Jessica A; Carini, Lindsay; Nephew, Benjamin C
We investigated the consequences of chronic social instability (CSI) during adulthood on social and maternal behavior in females and social behavior of their offspring in a rat model. CSI consisted of changing the social partners of adult females every 2-3 days for 28 days, 2 weeks prior to mating. Females exposed to CSI behaved less aggressively and more pro-socially towards unfamiliar female intruders. Maternal care was not affected by CSI in a standard testing environment, but maternal behavior of CSI females was less disrupted by a male intruder. CSI females were quicker to attack prey and did not differ from control females in their saccharin consumption indicating, respectively, no stress-induced sensory-motor or reward system impairments. Offspring of CSI females exhibited slower growth and expressed more anxiety in social encounters. This study demonstrates continued adult vulnerability to social challenges with an impact specific to social situations for mothers and offspring.
Mallinckrodt, Brent; Wei, Meifen
In this survey study of 430 undergraduates, elements of the social competencies and interpersonal processes model (B. Mallinckrodt, 2000) were tested. Two social competencies were hypothesized to mediate the direct effects of 2 independent variables, attachment anxiety and avoidance, on 2 outcomes, psychological distress and perceived social…
Garca-Villamisar, D.; Hughes, C.
Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a supported employment programme on measures of executive functions for 44 adults with autism, assessed at the beginning and the end of the programme period. The average length of time of the community employment was 30 months. Methods: Based on their predominant work activity…
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships among lifetime exposure to traumatic events, emotional support, and life satisfaction in three cohorts of older adults. Design and Methods: Face-to-face interviews were conducted with a nationwide sample of 1,518 older people in 2003. Approximately 500 elders were interviewed in…
Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA).
This document presents an overview of support for economic development provided by the Swedish government to a variety of nonformal adult education programs in developing nations (mostly in Africa). The four sections of the report provide details of the following: (1) scope, objectives, and methods of Swedish development cooperation; (2) the…
Kelly, Sharon M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Schwartz, Robert P.; Peterson, James A.; Wilson, Monique E.; Brown, Barry S.
This study was conducted to determine the psychometric properties of a measure of social support, the Community Assessment Inventory (CAI), and to examine the role of social support in recovery. The CAI and the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) were administered to 196 opioid-dependent adults in (n = 135) or out of methadone treatment (n = 61) in Baltimore, Maryland between 2004 and 2006. Baseline CAI scale scores indicated a generally high level of internal consistency (α scores). Pearson correlations showed that the scales were stable and had good discriminant validity with the ASI composite scores. One-way analysis of variance indicated that in-treatment participants reported significantly more support at baseline than out-of-treatment participants. This study's findings indicate the CAI may be a useful measure of social support and that such support is an important factor in treatment entry. PMID:20391269
Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M.; Dawani, Hania A.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perception of social support and perceived stress among university students in Jordan. A sample of 241 university students from private and government universities in Jordan answered self-report questionnaires including the perceived social support scale and perceived stress scale.…
Mason, Gillian E.; Ullman, Sarah; Long, Susan E.; Long, LaDonna; Starzynski, Laura
Limited research on revictimization has examined the role of social support, which is known to affect sexual assault survivors' psychological recovery. Measuring social support also provides a more ecological approach to understanding revictimization, as it assesses the possible role of those in the survivors' environment. The current study…
Respler-Herman, Melissa; Mowder, Barbara A.; Yasik, Anastasia E.; Shamah, Renee
The present study built on prior research by examining the relationship of parental stress and social support to parenting beliefs and behaviors. A sample of 87 parents provided their views concerning the importance of parenting characteristics as well as their level of parental stress and perceived social support. These parents completed the…
El-Bishouty, Moushir M.; Ogata, Hiroaki; Rahman, Samia; Yano, Yoneo
Social networks are helpful for people to solve problems by providing useful information. Therefore, the importance of mobile social software for learning has been supported by many researches. In this research, a model of personalized collaborative ubiquitous learning environment is designed and implemented in order to support learners doing…
Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph
Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationships among stress, social support, negative interaction, and mental health in a sample of African American men and women between ages 18 and 54 (N = 591) from the National Comorbidity Study. The study findings indicated that social support decreased the number of depressive symptoms,…
Aquino, Juan A.; And Others
Examined the role of stressful life experiences and social support in the health of 292 community-living elderly. Findings suggest that the number of hours worked at a paying job, lower levels of depression, and greater perceived social support were directly related to higher levels of life satisfaction. (RJM)
Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; McKinnon, Allison; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.
This study examined how social support seeking and rumination interacted to predict depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later in early adolescents (N = 118; 11-14 years at baseline). We expected social support seeking would be more helpful for adolescents engaging in low rather than high levels of rumination. Adolescents self-reported on all…
Walsh, Anthony; Walsh, Patricia Ann
The twin processes of migration and assimilation are highly stressful. This stress can be manifested in elevated blood pressure. According to this study, immigrants receiving high levels of social support had significantly lower blood pressure levels than those receiving less social support. (VM)
Ye, Yanming; Yin, Jianwei; Xu, Yueshen
Process recommendation technologies have gained more and more attention in the field of intelligent business process modeling to assist the process modeling. However, most of the existing technologies only use the process structure analysis and do not take the social features of processes into account, while the process modeling is complex and comprehensive in most situations. This paper studies the feasibility of social network research technologies on process recommendation and builds a social network system of processes based on the features similarities. Then, three process matching degree measurements are presented and the system implementation is discussed subsequently. Finally, experimental evaluations and future works are introduced.
Laszig, P; Clement, U; Gramatikov, L
An explorative meta-analytic study analysed all published empirical studies on social support of HIV/AIDS patients (n = 57 studies with 347 data sets). Empirical and conceptual questions are addressed. The focus of the empirical questions is to identify meta-analytically confirmed correlates of social support. The conceptual question aims at differentiating the large-scale construct "social support". Results indicate that social support 1. is independent of objective physical parameters, 2. is positively correlated with approach coping and negatively with avoidance coping, 3. shows a substantial negative correlation with indicators of psychological distress, 4. is positively correlated with condom use. The conceptual analysis shows that 5. there is no consensus on how to operationalise the construct of "social support".
Gonçalves, Tonantzin Ribeiro; Pawlowski, Josiane; Bandeira, Denise Ruschel; Piccinini, Cesar Augusto
This study investigated the different ways of evaluating the social support in Brazilian studies. A surveying of scientific Brazilian publications from 1987 to 2007 was done in the Indexpsi, Pepsic, SciELO and Lilacs databases according to keywords social support and social network. Fifty-five studies included some type of assessing social support in Brazilian samples. The results indicated a rise in the number of studies about social support assessment in the last years using interviews to investigate received and perceived support, predominantly. However, the construction was applied without theoretical basis and was associated with many other concepts, sometimes without an appropriate articulation. Besides, there were evidences of lacking reliable, valid and standardized instruments to Brazilian population by considering the instruments currently used and revised by this study.
Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; De Donder, Liesbeth; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Buffel, Tine; De Witte, Nico; Dury, Sarah; Verté, Dominique; Deforche, Benedicte
Ecological models state that physical activity (PA) behaviors can be explained by the interplay between individuals and their surrounding physical and social environment. However, the majority of research on PA-environment relationships has focused upon the physical environment. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between the perceived social environment and older adults' walking for transportation, while adjusting for individual and perceived physical environmental factors. Questionnaires were used to collect data on walking for transportation, individual, perceived physical and social environmental factors in 50,986 Flemish older adults (≥65 years) in the period of 2004-2010. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were applied to examine the relationships between perceived social environmental factors and the odds of daily walking for transportation. The final models showed significant positive relationships for frequency of contacts with neighbors, neighbors' social support, too many immigrants residing in the neighborhood, neighborhood involvement, participation, and volunteering. These results emphasize the need for including social environmental factors in future studies examining correlates of older adults' physical activity. Current findings suggest that projects stimulating interpersonal relationships, place attachment, and formal community engagement might promote walking for transportation among older adults. Future research should try to further disentangle the complex (inter)relationships and causal mechanisms between older individuals, their environments, and their walking for transportation behavior.
Cornwell, Benjamin; Laumann, Edward O; Schumm, L Philip
For decades, scholars have wrestled with the notion that old age is characterized by social isolation. However, there has been no systematic, nationally representative evaluation of this possibility in terms of social network connectedness. In this paper, the authors develop a profile of older adults' social integration with respect to nine dimensions of connectedness to interpersonal networks and voluntary associations. The authors use new data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), a population-based study of non-institutionalized older Americans aged 57-85 conducted in 2005-2006. Findings suggest that among older adults, age is negatively related to network size, closeness to network members, and number of non-primary-group ties. On the other hand, age is positively related to frequency of socializing with neighbors, religious participation, and volunteering. In addition, it has a U-shaped relationship with volume of contact with network members. These findings are inconsistent with the notion that old age has a universal negative influence on social connectedness. Instead, life course factors have divergent consequences for different forms of social connectedness. Some later life transitions, like retirement and bereavement, may prompt greater connectedness. The authors close by urging increased dialogue between social gerontological and social network research.
Emmons, Karen M.; Barbeau, Elizabeth M.; Gutheil, Caitlin; Stryker, Jo Ellen; Stoddard, Anne M.
Little research has explored the relationship between social influences (e.g., social networks, social support, social norms) and health as related to modifying factors that may contribute to health disparities. This is a cross-sectional analysis of fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity, using baseline data from two cancer prevention…
Chhabra, Surbhi; Falciglia, Grace A; Lee, Seung-Yeon
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between food security, social capital, and social support among urban food pantry users in Cincinnati. In-person interviews with 53 participants were completed using the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module, Social Capital questionnaire, and Social Support questionnaire. Social capital was assessed through four subscales using a Likert scale, with a response range 1 to 4, and social support was measured by rating significant others' emotional, informational, and instrumental support as well as companionship (ranged from 0 to 4). The findings suggested that there were no significant associations among them. This may be due to a small sample size. Thus, the associations need to be examined with a larger sample. Further, a qualitative approach may be necessary to explore the contextual nature of social capital and social support related to food security.
Gaylord, Vicki, Ed.
This feature issue presents articles on the social inclusion of people with developmental disabilities into the community and also some related news items. This issue provides profiles of organizations, workplaces, and schools that are successfully integrating people with developmental disabilities into community activities. The articles are:…
Cassidy, Brittany S; Gutchess, Angela H
Previous research has demonstrated that older adults have difficulty retrieving contextual material over items alone. Recent research suggests this deficit can be reduced by adding emotional context, allowing for the possibility that memory for social impressions may show less age-related decline than memory for other types of contextual information. Two studies investigated how orienting to social or self-relevant aspects of information contributed to the learning and retrieval of impressions in young and older adults. Participants encoded impressions of others in conditions varying in the use of self-reference (Experiment 1) and interpersonal meaningfulness (Experiment 2), and completed memory tasks requiring the retrieval of specific traits. For both experiments, age groups remembered similar numbers of impressions. In Experiment 1 using more self-relevant encoding contexts increased memory for impressions over orienting to stimuli in a non-social way, regardless of age. In Experiment 2 older adults had enhanced memory for impressions presented in an interpersonally meaningful relative to a personally irrelevant way, whereas young adults were unaffected by this manipulation. The results provide evidence that increasing social relevance ameliorates age differences in memory for impressions, and enhances older adults' ability to successfully retrieve contextual information.
Woods, Sarah B; Priest, Jacob B; Roush, Tara
This study tests the inclusion of social support as a distinct exogenous variable in the Biobehavioral Family Model (BBFM). The BBFM is a biopsychosocial approach to health that proposes that biobehavioral reactivity (anxiety and depression) mediates the relationship between family emotional climate and disease activity. Data for this study included married, English-speaking adult participants (n = 1,321; 55% female; M age = 45.2 years) from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative epidemiological study of the frequency of mental disorders in the United States. Participants reported their demographics, marital functioning, social support from friends and relatives, anxiety and depression (biobehavioral reactivity), number of chronic health conditions, and number of prescription medications. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the items used in the measures of negative marital interactions, social support, and biobehavioral reactivity, as well as the use of negative marital interactions, friends' social support, and relatives' social support as distinct factors in the model. Structural equation modeling indicated a good fit of the data to the hypothesized model (χ(2) = 846.04, p = .000, SRMR = .039, CFI = .924, TLI = .914, RMSEA = .043). Negative marital interactions predicted biobehavioral reactivity (β = .38, p < .001), as did relatives' social support, inversely (β = -.16, p < .001). Biobehavioral reactivity predicted disease activity (β = .40, p < .001) and was demonstrated to be a significant mediator through tests of indirect effects. Findings are consistent with previous tests of the BBFM with adult samples, and suggest the important addition of family social support as a predicting factor in the model.
Rathner, G; Schulte, P; Dunkel, D
The ISEL scale (Interpersonal Support Evaluation List) has been developed to assess social support. Despite good reliability and validity of the original scale the German version has been rately applied. Thus, perceived social support as measured by the ISEL scale was studied in a general population sample of Tyrol/Austria (n = 216). The reliability of the German ISEL version is as high as the original version. Our results showed that sociodemographic variables significantly influence scale scores: Males and rural subjects indicated more tangible support than females and urban subjects, respectively. Elder people (50-70 years) reported the lowest scale scores, except in tangible support. With the exception of tangible support, significant socioeconomic status differences were found in all dimensions of social support. However, the middle classes showed less social support than upper and lower class subjects. Income only increased tangible support, as higher educational degrees did with self-esteem support. Marital status showed no influence on scale scores, whereas unemployment decreased tangible and belonging support. Our results can be used as preliminary German language norm data for evaluating social support in epidemiological and clinical studies.
Domínguez-Fuentes, Juan Manuel; Hombrados-Mendieta, María Isabel; García-Leiva, Patricia
Since the early 1960s, social support has been a topic of interest and study among social psychologists and other professionals investigating social issues. In spite of this growing interest by the scientific community, there are few studies on social support in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community, and even fewer on the impact of social support on life satisfaction. In this regard, in Spain, there are very few psychosocial studies on homosexual groups. In the present study, the authors analyze social support data and life satisfaction in a sample of 220 gay residents of Málaga and Sevilla. The results show that friends are the most important source of overall social support, and that, in the family, sisters provide the most support and contribute to increased life satisfaction. On the other hand, social support had an effect on the level of life satisfaction, although the results indicate that factors associated with homosexual identity are the best predictors of life satisfaction. The implications of these results are discussed as well as potential future research.
Ceballo, Rosario; McLoyd, Vonnie C
This study investigated how stressful environmental conditions influence the relation between mothers' social support and parenting strategies, utilizing interview data from a sample of 262 poor, African American single mothers and their seventh- and eighth-grade children, as well as objective data about respondents' neighborhoods. In general, the results indicated that neighborhood conditions moderate the relation between social support and parenting behaviors. Specifically, as neighborhood conditions worsened, the positive relation between emotional support and mothers' nurturant parenting was weakened. In a similar fashion, the negative relation between instrumental social support and punishment was stronger in better neighborhoods. As the surrounding environments became poorer and more dangerous, the relation between greater instrumental support and a lower reliance on punishment was weakened. Thus, on the whole, hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the positive influences of social support on parenting behavior were strained and attenuated in poorer, high-crime environments.
Kamenov, Kaloyan; Cabello, Maria; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Cieza, Alarcos; Sabariego, Carla; Raggi, Alberto; Anczewska, Marta; Pitkänen, Tuuli; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis
Despite the huge body of research on social support, literature has been primarily focused on its beneficial role for both physical and mental health. It is still unclear why people with mental and neurological disorders experience low levels of social support. The main objective of this study was to explore what are the strongest factors related to social support and how do they interact with each other in neuropsychiatric disorders. The study used cross-sectional data from 722 persons suffering from dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, and substance use disorders. Multiple linear regressions showed that disability was the strongest factor for social support. Extraversion and agreeableness were significant personality variables, but when the interaction terms between personality traits and disability were included, disability remained the only significant variable. Moreover, level of disability mediated the relationship between personality (extraversion and agreeableness) and level of social support. Moderation analysis revealed that people that had mental disorders experienced lower levels of support when being highly disabled compared to people with neurological disorders. Unlike previous literature, focused on increasing social support as the origin of improving disability, this study suggested that interventions improving day-to-day functioning or maladaptive personality styles might also have an effect on the way people perceive social support. Future longitudinal research, however, is warranted to explore causality.
Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Christine; Oh, In-Hwan; Kwon, Young Dae
This study aims to investigate the relationship between social activities and overweight among middle-aged and older adults. This study used data from the 2008 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging which included a total of 8157 adults. We divided body mass index into 2 groups: normal weight and overweight. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the association between social activities and overweight. For males, frequency of meetings with neighbors (1-3 times a week) was associated with being less overweight. Middle-aged adults who met with neighbors 1 to 3 times a week were less likely being overweight than those with once a year meeting frequency. On the contrary, social activity participation is related with high risk of overweight especially in the female and older adults. Our results suggest that social activity participation and social support needs to be taken into consideration when dealing with being overweight.
Lee, Chih-Yuan Steven; Goldstein, Sara E
Social support protects individuals against adversity throughout the lifespan, and is especially salient during times of intense social change, such as during the transition to adulthood. Focusing on three relationship-specific sources of social support (family, friends, and romantic partners), the current study examined the stress-buffering function of social support against loneliness and whether the association between social support and loneliness with stress held constant would vary by its source. The role of gender in these associations was also considered. The sample consisted of 636 ethnically diverse college youth (age range 18-25; 80 % female). The results suggest that the stress-buffering role of social support against loneliness varies by its source. Only support from friends buffered the association between stress and loneliness. Further, when stress was held constant, the association between social support and loneliness differed by the sources, in that support from friends or romantic partners (but not from family) was negatively associated with loneliness. Regarding gender differences, the adverse impact of lower levels of familial or friends' support on loneliness was greater in females than in males. This research advances our understanding of social support among college-aged youth; implications of the findings and directions for future research are discussed.
van den Berg, Pauline; Kemperman, Astrid; de Kleijn, Boy; Borgers, Aloys
Social activities are an important aspect of health and quality of life of the aging population. They are key elements in the prevention of loneliness. In order to create living environments that stimulate older adults to engage in social activities, more insight is needed in the social activity patterns of the aging population. This study therefore analyzes the heterogeneity in older adults’ preferences for different social activity location types and the relationship between these preferences and personal and mobility characteristics. This is done using a latent class multinomial logit model based on two-day diary data collected in 2014 in Noord-Limburg in the Netherlands among 213 respondents aged 65 or over. The results show that three latent classes can be identified among the respondents who recorded social activities in the diary: a group that mainly socializes at home, a group that mainly socializes at a community center and a group that is more likely to socialize at public ‘third’ places. The respondents who did not record any interactions during the two days, are considered as a separate segment. Relationships between segment membership and personal and mobility characteristics were tested using cross-tabulations with chi-square tests and analyses of variance. The results suggest that both personal and mobility characteristics play an important role in social activity patterns of older adults. PMID:26343690
Background Little is known about social capital and health among older adults in South Africa. This study investigates the association between social capital and several health variables, namely: self-rated health, depressive symptoms, cognitive functioning and physical inactivity, among older South Africans. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a national probability sample of 3840 individuals aged 50 years or older who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE wave 1) in 2008 in South Africa. Measures included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, cognitive functioning and physical activity. Social capital was assessed with six components, namely: marital status, social action, sociability, trust and solidarity, safety, and civic engagement. Results The social capital assessment revealed that 56% of the respondents were married or cohabiting, 45% reported low (0) social action, 42% reported medium (2–3) sociability, 43% reported high (2) trust and solidarity, 50% reported high (2–4) civic engagement and 42% reported medium (6) psychological resources. In multivariate analysis, self-reported good health was associated with younger age, having secondary education and higher social capital (being married or cohabiting, high trust and solidarity and greater psychological resources). Depressive symptoms were associated with lower social capital (not being married or cohabiting, lack of high trust and solidarity and low psychological resources). Better cognitive functioning was associated with younger age, higher educational level, greater wealth and higher social capital (being married or cohabiting, high trust and solidarity, lack of safety, higher civic engagement and greater psychological resources). Physical inactivity was associated with older age and lower social capital (lower social action, lack of safety, lower civic engagement and poorer psychological resources). Conclusions
Nishiyama, Yoshiko; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Kunisato, Yoshihiko; Okada, Go; Yoshimura, Shinpei; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Yamamura, Takanao; Yoshino, Atsuo; Jinnin, Ran; Takagaki, Koki; Onoda, Keiichi; Yamawaki, Shigeto
Social anxiety is characterized by an excessive fear of being embarrassed in social interactions or social performance situations. Emotional support can help to decrease or diminish social distress. Such support may play an important role at different points of social interaction. However, it is unclear how the beneficial effects of social support are represented in the brains of socially anxious individuals. To explore this, we used the same paradigm previously used to examine the effects of emotional support on social pain caused by exclusion. Undergraduates (n = 46) showing a wide range of social anxiety scores underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participating in a Cyberball game. Participants were initially included and later excluded from the game. In the latter half of the session in which participants were excluded, they were provided with supportive messages. In line with our previous work, we found that social exclusion led to increased anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity, whereas emotional support led to increased left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity. Despite validation of the paradigm, social anxiety was not associated with increased ACC activity during social exclusion, or during perceived emotional support. Instead, fear of negative evaluation as assessed by the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation (BFNE) scale showed positive associations with left DLPFC activation while receiving emotional support, compared to while being socially excluded. The more socially anxious an individual was, the greater was the left DLPFC activity increased during receipt of messages. This suggests that highly socially anxious people still have the ability to perceive social support, but that they are nevertheless susceptible to negative evaluation by others. PMID:26000902
Nishiyama, Yoshiko; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Kunisato, Yoshihiko; Okada, Go; Yoshimura, Shinpei; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Yamamura, Takanao; Yoshino, Atsuo; Jinnin, Ran; Takagaki, Koki; Onoda, Keiichi; Yamawaki, Shigeto
Social anxiety is characterized by an excessive fear of being embarrassed in social interactions or social performance situations. Emotional support can help to decrease or diminish social distress. Such support may play an important role at different points of social interaction. However, it is unclear how the beneficial effects of social support are represented in the brains of socially anxious individuals. To explore this, we used the same paradigm previously used to examine the effects of emotional support on social pain caused by exclusion. Undergraduates (n = 46) showing a wide range of social anxiety scores underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participating in a Cyberball game. Participants were initially included and later excluded from the game. In the latter half of the session in which participants were excluded, they were provided with supportive messages. In line with our previous work, we found that social exclusion led to increased anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity, whereas emotional support led to increased left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity. Despite validation of the paradigm, social anxiety was not associated with increased ACC activity during social exclusion, or during perceived emotional support. Instead, fear of negative evaluation as assessed by the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation (BFNE) scale showed positive associations with left DLPFC activation while receiving emotional support, compared to while being socially excluded. The more socially anxious an individual was, the greater was the left DLPFC activity increased during receipt of messages. This suggests that highly socially anxious people still have the ability to perceive social support, but that they are nevertheless susceptible to negative evaluation by others.
Beck, Stephenson J; Paskewitz, Emily A; Anderson, Whitney A; Bourdeaux, Renee; Currie-Mueller, Jenna
Online support groups are attractive to individuals suffering from various types of mental and physical illness due to their accessibility, convenience, and comfort level. Individuals coping with depression, in particular, may seek social support online to avoid the stigma that accompanies face-to-face support groups. We explored how task and relational messages created social support in online depression support groups using Cutrona and Suhr's social support coding scheme and Bales's Interaction Process Analysis coding scheme. A content analysis revealed emotional support as the most common type of social support within the group, although the majority of messages were task rather than relational. Informational support consisted primarily of task messages, whereas network and esteem support were primarily relational messages. Specific types of task and relational messages were associated with different support types. Results indicate task messages dominated online depression support groups, suggesting the individuals who participate in these groups are interested in solving problems but may also experience emotional support when their uncertainty is reduced via task messages.
Sanchez, Mariana; Romano, Eduardo; Dawson, Christyl; Huang, Hui; Sneij, Alicia; Cyrus, Elena; Rojas, Patria; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Brook, Judith; De La Rosa, Mario
Latinos are disproportionately impacted by drinking and driving arrests and alcohol-related fatal crashes. Why, and how, these disparities occur remains unclear. The neighborhood environments that recent Latino immigrants encounter in their host communities can potentially influence health behaviors over time, including the propensity to engage in drinking and driving. This cross-sectional study utilizes a sample of 467 documented and undocumented adult recent Latino immigrants in the United States to answer the following research questions: (a) How do neighborhood-level factors, combined with social support, impact drinking and driving risk behaviors?; and (b) Does acculturative stress moderate the effects of those associations? Results indicate neighborhood-level factors (informal social control and social capital) have protective effects against drinking and driving risk behaviors via the mediating mechanism of social support. Acculturative stress moderated associations between neighborhood informal social control and social support, whereby the protective effects of informal social control on social support were not present for those immigrants with higher levels of acculturative stress. Our findings contribute to the limited knowledge of drinking and driving among Latino immigrants early in the immigration process and suggest that, in the process of developing prevention programs tailored to Latino immigrants, greater attention must be paid to neighborhood-level factors. PMID:27801856
Finn, Seth; Gorr, Mary Beth
Explores relationships between motivations for television viewing, including shyness, loneliness, self-esteem, and three measures of social support. Suggests viewing motivations are related to needs arising from two distinct sources: social compensation and mood management. (MS)
Castillo, Jason T.; Sarver, Christian M.
Literature and research examining non-resident fathers’ involvement with their chidren has focused primarily on the fathers’ relationship with their child’s mother. Receiving limited attention in the literature has been the inclusion of examining non-resident fathers’ social support networks, the function of these social networks—perceived and received social support, and how these social support networks affect non-resident fathers’ involvement with their children. Using data from Wave One of the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study, this study examined the social support networks non-resident fathers (n = 895) utilized in their involvement with their children. Results of the regression analyses indicate that non-resident fathers’ relationship with their child’s mother and perceived social support from their social networks contributed positively to their involvement with their children. Policy and practice implications are discussed. PMID:23288998
Kaniasty, Krzysztof; Norris, Fran H
The authors examined social causation and social selection explanations for the association between perceptions of social support and psychological distress. Data came from a sample of 557 victims of natural disaster in Mexico. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that social causation (more social support leading to less posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) explained the support-to-distress relationship in the earlier postdisaster phase, 6 to 12 months after the impact. Both causal mechanisms emerged as significant paths in the midpoint of the study (12 and 18 months). Only social selection (more PTSD leading to less social support) accounted for the support-to-distress relationship at 18 to 24 months after the event. Interpersonal and social dynamics of disasters may explain why these two contrasting causal mechanisms emerged over time.
Luther, Edith H; Canham, Daryl L; Young Cureton, Virginia
Autism in children has increased significantly in the past 15 years. The challenges and stressors associated with providing services and caring for a child with autism affect families, educators, and health professionals. This descriptive study used a survey to collect data on parents' perceptions of coping strategies and social support. Instruments included the Social Support Index and the Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scales. One half of the families identified serious stressors in addition to autism. Acquiring social support and reframing were the most frequently used coping strategies. The school nurse is in a position to identify needs and refer families to local support groups and agencies, facilitating social support and development of coping strategies.
Sneed, Rodlescia S.; Cohen, Sheldon
Objective To determine if negative social interactions are prospectively associated with hypertension among older adults. Methods This is a secondary analysis of data from the 2006 and 2010 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, a survey of community-dwelling older adults (age >50). Total average negative social interactions were assessed at baseline by averaging the frequency of negative interactions across four domains (partner, children, other family, friends). Blood pressure was measured at both waves. Individuals were considered to have hypertension if they reported use of antihypertensive medications, had measured average resting systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, or measured average resting diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg. Analyses excluded those hypertensive at baseline and controlled for demographics, personality, positive social interactions, and baseline health. Results Twenty-nine percent of participants developed hypertension over the four-year follow-up. Each one-unit increase in the total average negative social interaction score was associated with a 38% increased odds of developing hypertension. Sex moderated the association between total average negative social interactions and hypertension, with effects observed among women but not men. The association of total average negative interactions and hypertension in women was attributable primarily to interactions with friends, but also to negative interactions with family and partners. Age also moderated the association between total average negative social interactions and hypertension, with effects observed among those ages 51–64, but not those ages ≥65. Conclusion In this sample of older adults, negative social interactions were associated with increased hypertension risk in women and the youngest older adults. PMID:24884909
Some studies of technology use by immigrants have explored the role of digital media in their maintenance of affiliations with their nations of origin. However, the potential for transnational social networks to serve as "resources" that facilitate digital literacy socialization for adult immigrant learners remains unexplored. In this…
Horton, Todd A.
This paper explores educating for democratic citizenship with a focus on the intersection between reading and values, specifically the nurturing of social responsibility. Using a pre-designed framework for teaching for social responsibility, excerpts from a young adult historical fiction series are used to consider learning possibilities in the…
Väänänen, Juha-Matti; Marttunen, Mauri; Helminen, Mika; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu
Social phobia and depression are common and highly comorbid disorders in adolescence. There is a lack of studies on possible psychosocial shared risk factors for these disorders. The current study examined if low social support is a shared risk factor for both disorders among adolescent girls and boys. This study is a part of the Adolescent Mental Health Cohort Study's two-year follow-up. We studied cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of perceived social support with social phobia, depression, and comorbid social phobia and depression among girls and boys. The study sample consisted of 2070 15-year-old adolescents at baseline. Depression was measured by the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory, social phobia by the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN), and perceived social support by the Perceived Social Support Scale-Revised (PSSS-R). Girls reported higher scores on the PSSS-R than boys in total scores and in friend and significant other subscales. Cross-sectional PSSS-R scores were lower among adolescents with social phobia, depression, and comorbid disorder than among those without these disorders. Low PSSS-R total score and significant other subscale were risk factors for depression among both genders, and low support from friends among girls only. Low perceived social support from any source was not a risk factor for social phobia or comorbid social phobia and depression. As conclusion of the study, low perceived social support was a risk factor for depression, but not a shared risk factor for depression and social phobia. Interventions enhancing perceived social support should be an important issue in treatment of depression. PMID:25750832
Brannan, Debi; Bleistein, Tasha
As new teachers navigate the challenging first years of work, they need positive support providers (Villani, 2002). The impact of support providers on novice educators' beliefs about teaching efficacy previously went unexplored. This study examined novice English to speakers of other languages (ESOL) teachers' perceptions of social support and…
Wenz-Gross, Melodie; Schneider-Rosen, Karen
Differences in 4- and 6-year-old children's perceptions of their inner social circle, their major sources of emotional and problem solving support, their reasons for choosing a particular source of support, and the types of behaviors they view as supportive in various stressful situations were studied. Mother, father, siblings, grandparents,…
Silva, Nicole M; Henrie, James A; Patrick, Julie Hicks
While much research has investigated the association between personality and health, little research has done so using a bereaved sample. Additionally, little research has investigated how personality influences the frequency of negative social exchanges bereaved individuals receive. This study utilized a structural equation model to investigate the associations among age, gender, personality, negative social exchanges, length of bereavement, and self-reported physical health in a sample of bereaved adults. Results indicated that personality was associated with negative social exchanges and physical health. Therefore, these variables are important and should be studied further in this context. PMID:28070398
Drawing on the Community of Inquiry model (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000), this mixed-method case study examined the nature and interactions of teaching, cognitive, and social presence created by online instructors and adult students in diverse course contexts. The study results indicated online instructional design and teaching elements that…
Frekko, Susan E.
Adult students of Catalan are worthy of study because they reveal complexities underlying taken-for-granted assumptions about Catalan speakers and Castilian speakers. Far from fitting into neat bundles aligning language of origin, social class, and national orientation, the students in this study exemplify the breakdown of boundaries traditionally…
Wahlgren, Bjarne; Mariager-Anderson, Kristina
Dropout is a serious problem within education. This article reports on an intervention project, titled "New Roles for the Teacher--Increased Completion Rates Through Social Responsibility," which sought to reduce nonattendance and drop-out rates in the Danish adult educational system by improving teachers' competences. This goal was…
Changes in British social policy regarding community health care has implications for local education agency (LEA) providers of adult continuing education. LEAs will either have a role in providing staff training and other learning opportunities, will be forced to provide cheaper forms of community care, or will be ignored altogether. (SK)
Mortberg, Ewa; Tilfors, Kerstin; Bejerot, Susanne
Objective: Recent studies have suggested a link between a primary anxiety disorder and ADHD. Method: A total of 39 participants with a primary diagnosis of social phobia were compared with 178 patients with ADHD and 88 patients with other psychiatric disorders on measures for childhood and adult ADHD (the Wender Utah Rating Scale and the Adult…
Perez, Lilli Ann; Natividad, Lisalinda; Chung, William; Haddock, Robert L.; Wenzel, Lari; Hubbell, F. Allan
Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the types of social support used by Chamorro (indigenous) breast cancer survivors on Guam. Methods We assessed social support use among 25 self-reported Chamorro women with a diagnosis of breast cancer through interviews and construction of genograms and ecomaps -pictorial displays of the women's family relationships, medical history, and their social networks. Results The mean age of the participants was 54.5 years. The average number of years since the diagnosis of breast cancer was 7.8 years. Respondents indicated that the nuclear family was the most important form of social support (34.2%). Indeed, nuclear family and other types of informal systems were the most common type of social support used by the women (60.2%). Formal support services, clubs, and organizations were reported by 17.9% of participants while spiritual and/or religious resources were reported by 21.9% of them. Conclusion These Chamorro breast cancer survivors depended largely on family for social support. Support from family, although informal, should be recognized as a pivotal factor in recovery and survivorship. Future directions could incorporate formal and informal mechanisms to utilize this natural support resource. PMID:25866489
Yli-Uotila, Tiina; Rantanen, Anja; Suominen, Tarja
Patient education in the public healthcare system does not necessarily meet the needs of patients with cancer. Because of this, they may turn to the Internet, or they are guided to electronic sources of social support. The purposes of this study were to describe what kind of social support patients with cancer receive from the Internet and its meaning for them. The data were collected using an online survey that consisted of open-ended questions based on a theory of online social support. The data were analyzed using an inductive content analysis. Online social support consisted of three categories: disease-related information from reliable sources, supportive interaction enhancing positive emotions, and practical tips for daily life with cancer. Three major categories related to the meaning of online social support were identified: peers helping make life easier, empowerment, and inadequate support. The findings can be utilized in tailoring educational interventions for patients with cancer. In the future, the long-lasting effects of online social support need to be examined.
Eslinger, Jessica G.; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Scaccia, Jamie; Lai, Betty S.; Lewis, Catrin; Alisic, Eva
Objective To examine the impact of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and support on self-reported work inability of adults reporting disability. Participants Adults (ages 18–64) who participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in 2009 or 2010 and who reported having a disability (n = 13,009). Design and Main Outcome Measures The study used a retrospective cohort design with work inability as the main outcome. ACE categories included abuse (sexual, physical, emotional) and family dysfunction (domestic violence, incarceration, mental illness, substance abuse, divorce). Support included functional (perceived emotional/social support) and structural (living with another adult) support. Logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders (age, sex and race) and to evaluate whether there was an independent effect of ACEs on work inability after adding other important predictors (support, education, health) to the model. Results ACEs were highly prevalent with almost 75% of the sample reporting at least one ACE category and over 25% having a high ACE burden (4 or more categories). ACEs were strongly associated with functional support. Participants experiencing a high ACE burden had a higher adjusted odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval] of 1.9 [1.5–2.4] of work inability (reference: zero ACEs). Good functional support (adjusted OR 0.52 [0.42–0.63]) and structural support (adjusted OR 0.48 [0.41–0.56]) were protective against work inability. After adding education and health to the model, ACEs no longer appeared to have an independent effect. Structural support remained highly protective, but functional support only appeared to be protective in those with good physical health. Conclusions ACEs are highly prevalent in working-age US adults with a disability, particularly young adults. ACEs are associated with decreased support, lower educational attainment and worse adult health. Health care providers are encouraged to screen
Shirey, Maria R
The state of the science as it relates to the stress-mediating role of social support in the health care work environment is explored. The ability to build a nursing leadership workforce is dependent upon a type of social support mechanism that mediates the inherent stress that comes along with managerial positions. Independent of the inevitable work-related stress associated with the nurse manager role, social support provided to current and aspiring nurse leaders is assumed to assist with coping and thriving in the work environment.
Brennan-Ing, Mark; Seidel, Liz; Larson, Britta; Karpiak, Stephen E
Research on service needs among older adults rarely addresses the special circumstances of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals, such as their reliance on friend-centered social networks or the experience of discrimination from service providers. Limited data suggests that older LGBT adults underutilize health and social services that are important in maintaining independence and quality of life. This study explored the social care networks of this population using a mixed-methods approach. Data were obtained from 210 LGBT older adults. The average age was 60 years, and 71% were men, 24% were women, and 5% were transgender or intersex. One-third was Black, and 62% were Caucasian. Quantitative assessments found high levels of morbidity and friend-centered support networks. Need for and use of services was frequently reported. Content analysis revealed unmet needs for basic supports, including housing, economic supports, and help with entitlements. Limited opportunities for socialization were strongly expressed, particularly among older lesbians. Implications for senior programs and policies are discussed.
Gomez, Rapson; Watson, Shaun D.
For the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) together, this study examined support for a bifactor model, and also the internal consistency reliability and external validity of the factors in this model. Participants (N = 526) were adults from the general community who completed the SPS and SIAS. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of their ratings indicated good support for the bifactor model. For this model, the loadings for all but six items were higher on the general factor than the specific factors. The three positively worded items had negligible loadings on the general factor. The general factor explained most of the common variance in the SPS and SIAS, and demonstrated good model-based internal consistency reliability (omega hierarchical) and a strong association with fear of negative evaluation and extraversion. The practical implications of the findings for the utilization of the SPS and SIAS, and the theoretical and clinical implications for social anxiety are discussed. PMID:28210232
Gomez, Rapson; Watson, Shaun D
For the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) together, this study examined support for a bifactor model, and also the internal consistency reliability and external validity of the factors in this model. Participants (N = 526) were adults from the general community who completed the SPS and SIAS. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of their ratings indicated good support for the bifactor model. For this model, the loadings for all but six items were higher on the general factor than the specific factors. The three positively worded items had negligible loadings on the general factor. The general factor explained most of the common variance in the SPS and SIAS, and demonstrated good model-based internal consistency reliability (omega hierarchical) and a strong association with fear of negative evaluation and extraversion. The practical implications of the findings for the utilization of the SPS and SIAS, and the theoretical and clinical implications for social anxiety are discussed.
Abbott, Katherine M; Bettger, Janet Prvu; Hampton, Keith; Kohler, Hans-Peter
Social integration is measured by a variety of social network indicators each with limitations in its ability to produce a complete picture of the variety and scope of interactions of older adults receiving long-term services and supports. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the feasibility of collecting sociocentric (whole network) data among older adults in one assisted living neighborhood. The sociocentric approach is required to conduct social network analysis. Applying social network analysis is an innovative way to measure different facets of social integration among residents. Sociocentric data are presented for 12 residents. Network visualization or sociograms are used to illustrate the level of social integration among residents and between residents and staff. Measures of network centrality are reported to illustrate the number of personal connections and cohesion. The use of resident photographs helped residents with cognitive impairment to nominate individuals with whom they interacted. The sociocentric approach to data collection is feasible and allows researchers to measure levels and different aspects of social integration in assisted living environments. Residents with mild to moderate cognitive impairment were able to participate with the aid of resident and staff photographs. This approach is sensitive to capturing routine day-to-day interactions between residents and assisted living staff members that are often not reported in person-centered networks. This study contributes to the foundation for larger more representative studies of entire assisted living organizations that could in the future inform interventions aimed at improving social integration and cohesion among recipients of long-term services and supports.
Lewis, Gary J; Bates, Timothy C; Posthuma, Danielle; Polderman, Tinca J C
Specific personality traits and poor social support are risk factors for anxiety and depression. Little work, however, has considered the effects of social support and personality on these aspects of psychopathology simultaneously. We examined whether perceived social support mediates the effects of core personality domains on symptoms of anxiety and depression. Measures of personality (based on the Five-Factor Model [FFM]), perceived social support, and symptoms of depression and anxiety were collected in a large Dutch adult population-based sample (n = 555), and, except for depression symptoms, in an independent U.S. adult population-based sample (n = 511). Path modeling was used to test the effects of FFM traits on symptoms of depression and anxiety, with and without the mediation of perceived social support. Social support showed no link to symptoms of anxiety and only modest links to symptoms of depression when controlling for the FFM traits. Neuroticism had the strongest effect on symptoms of both depression and anxiety, with Extraversion also showing links to symptoms of depression. Social support has limited influence on symptoms of depression, and no effects on anxiety, over and above the effects of personality. Links between social support and anxiety/depression may largely reflect influences of Neuroticism and Extraversion.
Becofsky, Katie M.; Shook, Robin P.; Sui, Xuemei; Wilcox, Sara; Lavie, Carl J.; Blair, Steven N.
Objective To examine associations between relative, friend, and partner support, as well as size and source of weekly social network, on mortality risk in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS). Patients and Methods In a mail-back survey completed between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 1990, adult ACLS participants (n=12,709) answered questions regarding whether they received social support from relatives, friends, and spouse/partner (yes or no for each), and the number of friends and relatives they had contact with at least once per week. Participants were followed until December 31, 2003 or death. Cox proportional hazard regression evaluated the strength of the associations, controlling for covariates. Results Participants (25% women) averaged 53.0 years at baseline. During a median 13.5 years of follow-up, 1,139 deaths occurred. Receiving social support from relatives reduced mortality risk 19% (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68–0.95). Receiving spousal/partner support also reduced mortality risk 19% (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.66-.99). Receiving social support from friends was not associated with mortality risk (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.75–1.09), however, participants reporting social contact with 6 or 7 friends on a weekly basis had a 24% lower mortality risk than those in contact with ≤ 1 friend (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.58–0.98). Contact with 2–5 or ≥8 friends was not associated with mortality risk, nor was number of weekly relative contacts. Conclusions Receiving social support from one’s spouse/partner and relatives and maintaining weekly social interaction with 6–7 friends reduced mortality risk. Such data may inform interventions to improve long-term survival. PMID:26055526
Caballo, Vicente E.; Arias, Benito; Salazar, Isabel C.; Irurtia, María Jesús; Hofmann, Stefan G.
This paper presents the psychometric properties of a new measure of social anxiety, the Social Anxiety Questionnaire for adults (SAQ), composed of 30 items that were developed based on participants from 16 Latin American countries, Spain, and Portugal. Two groups of participants were included in the study: a non-clinical group involving 18,133 persons and a clinical group comprising 334 patients with a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder (social phobia). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 5-factor structure of the questionnaire. The factors were labeled: 1) Interactions with strangers, 2) Speaking in public/talking with people in authority, 3) Interactions with the opposite sex, 4) Criticism and embarrassment, and 5) Assertive expression of annoyance, disgust or displeasure. Psychometric evidence supported the internal consistency, convergent validity, and measurement invariance of the SAQ. To facilitate clinical applications, a ROC analysis identified cut scores for men and women for each factor and for the global score. PMID:25774643
Caballo, Vicente E; Arias, Benito; Salazar, Isabel C; Irurtia, María Jesús; Hofmann, Stefan G
This article presents the psychometric properties of a new measure of social anxiety, the Social Anxiety Questionnaire for adults (SAQ), composed of 30 items that were developed based on participants from 16 Latin American countries, Spain, and Portugal. Two groups of participants were included in the study: a nonclinical group involving 18,133 persons and a clinical group comprising 334 patients with a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder (social phobia). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 5-factor structure of the questionnaire. The factors were labeled as follows: (1) Interactions with strangers, (2) Speaking in public/talking with people in authority, (3) Interactions with the opposite sex, (4) Criticism and embarrassment, and (5) Assertive expression of annoyance, disgust, or displeasure. Psychometric evidence supported the internal consistency, convergent validity, and measurement invariance of the SAQ. To facilitate clinical applications, a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis identified cut scores for men and women for each factor and for the global score.
Ponce, María Soledad Herrera; Rosas, Raúl Pedro Elgueta; Lorca, María Beatriz Fernández
OBJECTIVE To examine factors associated with social participation and their relationship with self-perceived well-being in older adults. METHODS This study was based on data obtained from the National Socioeconomic Characterization (CASEN) Survey conducted in Chile, in 2011, on a probability sample of households. We examined information of 31,428 older adults living in these households. Descriptive and explanatory analyses were performed using linear and multivariate logistic regression models. We assessed the respondents’ participation in different types of associations: egotropic, sociotropic, and religious. RESULTS Social participation increased with advancing age and then declined after the age of 80. The main finding of this study was that family social capital is a major determinant of social participation of older adults. Their involvement was associated with high levels of self-perceived subjective well-being. We identified four settings as sources of social participation: home-based; rural community-based; social policy programs; and religious. Older adults were significantly more likely to participate when other members of the household were also involved in social activities evidencing an intergenerational transmission of social participation. Rural communities, especially territorial associations, were the most favorable setting for participation. There has been a steady increase in the rates of involvement of older adults in social groups in Chile, especially after retirement. Religiosity remains a major determinant of associativism. The proportion of participation was higher among older women than men but these proportions equaled after the age of 80. CONCLUSIONS Self-perceived subjective well-being is not only dependent upon objective factors such as health and income, but is also dependent upon active participation in social life, measured as participation in associations, though its effects are moderate. PMID:25372164
Examines the psychological studies of bereavement support groups as well as exploring the ways in which people talk about their participation in such groups after their family member's suicide. This paper draws on a study of 16 interviews with bereaved parents and (adult) children, half of whom had attended a bereavement support group after their…
Müller, Rachel; Rauch, Alexandra; Cieza, Alarcos; Geyh, Szilvia
This study reports on a patient with spinal cord injury (SCI) in whom the interaction between social skills and social support seems to influence functioning. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was used as a reference framework. Qualitative (i.e. observation, structured, and open interviews with the patient and health professionals) and quantitative data (i.e. spinal cord independence measure, medical records) were collected. Content analysis of the interviews was carried out to identify aspects of social skills and social support. An ICF-based documentation tool (i.e. ICF Assessment Sheet) was used to structure information about the level of functioning of body functions and structures, activity and participation, and environmental and personal factors of a 57-year-old man with incomplete paraplegia during first rehabilitation. The patient presented a variety of effective social skills (i.e. assertiveness, goal direction). However, the adaptation of skills, such as asking for help social problem-solving, sensitivity, and expressivity in social relations, became necessary to acquire. The patient received different types of social support (i.e. emotional, informational, and instrumental) from different sources (e.g. family and friends). The qualitative interviews provided indications for an interaction between social skills and social support. The impact of social skills and social support on functioning is discussed. Social skills can mobilize social support and enhance functioning. However, better understanding of social skills, social support, and their interaction in relation to functioning in SCI is required to develop targeted and effective interventions to strengthen psychosocial resources for the enhancement of functioning in patients with SCI.
Burkert, Silke; Kendel, Friederike; Kiep, Henriette; Holtkamp, Martin; Gaus, Verena
The present study focused on social support as a key feature of the enhancement and maintenance of mental health. So far, literature on gender differences in social support and its effects on the experience of stress in individuals with epilepsy is scarce. We hypothesized that in individuals with epilepsy, social support buffers detrimental effects of stressors (e.g., unpredictable occurrence of seizures) on mental health. Additionally, we explored the role of gender in this process. In 299 individuals with epilepsy, data from validated questionnaires on seizures in the last 3months, perceived support, social network size, and depressive symptoms were analyzed. Women reported higher depressive symptoms (t=2.51, p<.01) and higher perceived support (t=2.50, p<.01) than men. Women and men did not differ in social network size (t=-0.46, p=64), nor in experiencing seizures (χ(2)=0.07, p=.82). Regression analyses revealed no buffer effects. Perceived support was negatively associated with depressive symptoms (B=-0.49, p<.001, 95% CI [-0.67; -0.32]). With regard to depressive symptoms, social integration was slightly more beneficial for women (Bcond.=-0.06, p<.001; 95% CI [-0.09; -0.03]) than for men (Bcond.=-0.02, p=.09; 95% CI [-0.04; 0.01]). Findings present perceived support and social integration as general health resources in individuals with epilepsy regardless of previously experienced seizures. They also encourage further research on gender-specific effects in individuals with epilepsy and move towards recommendations for practitioners and gender-specific interventions. Future aims will be to enhance social integration in order to support adjustment to the chronic condition of epilepsy and to improve individuals' confidence in support interactions.
In this article I examine how young adults used social comparisons in research interviews about their experiences of chronic illness. The interviews were originally conducted not only to provide data for academic analysis but also to generate experiential accounts for publication online as part of an Internet-based health information resource for patients, professionals, and the public wanting to learn about people's real-life experiences of illness in the United Kingdom. Through secondary analysis of these data, I show how the young adults used various social comparisons to represent themselves and their experiences to the target audience. Two new concepts-analogues and foils-are introduced to describe how the young adults likened themselves to, and contrasted themselves with, different reference groups in their accounts. Through these and related strategies, they created positive renditions of their experiences for the audience, helping to inform and support others in the process.
Eng, E; Hatch, J; Callan, A
The positive influence of social support on such health related outcomes as patient adherence to medical regimens and stress reduction at the worksite has captured the attention of public health researchers and practitioners alike. Yet, the broader social outcome of building community competency to undertake and sustain health related solutions without constant intervention from professionals still remains elusive. The difficulty may lie with the need to uncover on each occasion the various roles and functions of social support structures that may or may not exist in a given community. The intent would then be to graft an intervention onto these existing roles and functions in order to mirror the naturally occurring social support structures. A conceptual framework that has been used to institutionalize health related activities through the role and function of the black Church, as a social unit of identity and solution for rural black communities in North Carolina, is put forth for consideration.
Schnall, Simone; Harber, Kent D.; Stefanucci, Jeanine K.; Proffitt, Dennis R.
The visual perception of geographical slant is influenced by physiological resources, such as physical fitness, age, and being physically refreshed. In two studies we tested whether a psychosocial resource, social support, can also affect the visual perception of slants. Participants accompanied by a friend estimated a hill to be less steep when compared to participants who were alone (Study 1). Similarly, participants who thought of a supportive friend during an imagery task saw a hill as less steep than participants who either thought of a neutral person or a disliked person (Study 2). In both studies, the effects of social relationships on visual perception appear to be mediated by relationship quality (i.e., relationship duration, interpersonal closeness, warmth). Artifacts such as mood, social desirability, and social facilitation did not account for these effects. This research demonstrates that an interpersonal phenomenon, social support, can influence visual perception. PMID:22389520
Hostinar, Camelia E.; Gunnar, Megan R.
Social support from close relationship partners is an important resource for coping with stress, particularly during childhood. We discuss ethical challenges associated with studying stress and its social buffering in the laboratory, as well as emerging evidence regarding two potential neural substrates for the social buffering of stress: hypothalamic oxytocin activity and activation of areas in the prefrontal cortex associated with effective self-regulation. We also address the role of early-life social experiences in shaping brain development, as well as recommendations for practice and policy that would advance the ethical treatment of children and reduce social inequalities in early-life experiences and opportunities–e.g., investing in programs that prevent child maltreatment and facilitating access to high-quality child care for economically disadvantaged families. We also debate the ethical implications of using oxytocin nasal sprays to simulate the stress-reducing properties of social support and advise waiting for more evidence before recommending their use. PMID:26478822
Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Lim, Lynette; Sleigh, Adrian
Social capital includes collective features such as social trust, norms, and networks. This paper examines social capital-related variables against demographic, socioeconomic and geographic characteristics of 87,134 adult distance-learning students from Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University. We have found economic stress to be higher in non-married groups, lower income groups, and those residing in rural areas. Social trust was higher among married, especially with higher income and those in rural areas. Those who were separated, divorced or widowed and those with lower socioeconomic status had the highest economic stress and the least social trust. These groups also reported high importance of religious belief, karma and spiritual belief, along with lower income groups. Despite having high economic stress, social interaction with and support from families were found to be high among those not-married, with lower income, and in rural areas. As Thailand urbanises and progresses economically, diverse patterns of social capital have emerged and some changes might have offset others. For example, we have shown that economic stress associated with low income tends to co-occur with high social interaction and family support. This observation should be reassuring to policymakers aiming to preserve and promote social capital as Thailand continues to urbanise and modernise. PMID:22003268
DeFreese, J D; Smith, Alan L
Social support and negative social interactions have implications for athlete psychological health, with potential to influence the links of stress-related experiences with burnout and well-being over time. Using a longitudinal design, perceived social support and negative social interactions were examined as potential moderators of the temporal stress-burnout and burnout-well-being relationships. American collegiate athletes (N = 465) completed reliable and valid online assessments of study variables at four time points during the competitive season. After controlling for dispositional and conceptually important variables, social support and negative social interactions did not moderate the stress-burnout or burnout-well-being relationships, respectively, but did simultaneously contribute to burnout and well-being across the competitive season. The results showcase the importance of sport-related social perceptions to athlete psychological outcomes over time and inform development of socially driven interventions to improve the psychological health of competitive athletes.
Cornwell, Benjamin; Laumann, Edward O.; Schumm, L. Philip
For decades, scholars have wrestled with the notion that old age is characterized by social isolation. However, there has been no systematic, nationally representative evaluation of this possibility in terms of social network connectedness. In this paper, the authors develop a profile of older adults’ social integration with respect to nine dimensions of connectedness to interpersonal networks and voluntary associations. The authors use new data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), a population-based study of non-institutionalized older Americans aged 57–85 conducted in 2005–2006. Findings suggest that among older adults, age is negatively related to network size, closeness to network members, and number of non-primary-group ties. On the other hand, age is positively related to frequency of socializing with neighbors, religious participation, and volunteering. In addition, it has a U-shaped relationship with volume of contact with network members. These findings are inconsistent with the notion that old age has a universal negative influence on social connectedness. Instead, life course factors have divergent consequences for different forms of social connectedness. Some later life transitions, like retirement and bereavement, may prompt greater connectedness. The authors close by urging increased dialogue between social gerontological and social network research. PMID:19018292
Hussein, Shereen; Manthorpe, Jill
More people will receive personal budgets to pay for social care services in England. Such people may or may not continue using services such as adult day care centres. Many day centres are under threat of closure. These trends will affect those working in adult day care. This article examines the profile of this workforce, using recent NMDS-SC data and applying multinomial statistical modelling. We identified nearly 6000 adult day care workers, over half supporting adults with learning disability. The results of the analysis show significant variations between the adult day care, residential care and domiciliary workforces. At the personal level, day care workers are significantly older and less ethnically diverse than other workers. They tend to have been working in the sector for longer, and their work patterns are more stable. The findings are discussed within the context of policy changes affecting learning disabilities and social care workforce strategies.
Social scientists tend to adopt either a qualitative or a quantitative perspective in research on social support. As single methods, each perspective has unique distinctions, limitations, and trade-offs. These approaches are based on differing epistemological assumptions. Qualitative research attempts to understand human behavior from the…
Väyrynen, Sai; Kesälahti, Essi; Pynninen, Tanja; Siivola, Jenny; Flotskaya, Natalia; Bulanova, Svetlana; Volskaya, Olga; Usova, Zoya; Kuzmicheva, Tatyana; Afonkina, Yulia
We argue that a key aspect of inclusive pedagogy is the interaction between the learners, their teachers and the environment. For effective interaction, learners need to develop social competence. This study explores how teachers support the development of the key social skills in schools in Finland and in Russia. The data were collected by…
Anderson, Dale Robert
A review of the clinically relevant literature on prevention of child maltreatment was conducted in an attempt to provide: (1) a definition and theoretical understanding of some aspects of prevention, child maltreatment, and social support systems; (2) a proposal of the usefulness of social isolation as an important theme in interpreting the…
High rates of lifetime trauma experiences exist among men incarcerated in US state and federal prisons. Because lifetime trauma experiences have been linked to problematic behavioral and psychiatric outcomes for incarcerated populations, trauma-informed interventions could improve post-release well-being of releasing men prisoners with trauma histories. Social support has consistently been found to have a positive impact on trauma-related outcomes in non-incarcerated populations. Therefore, it is reasonable to hypothesize that social support may be an important intervention component for releasing men prisoners with trauma experiences; yet, the relationship between trauma experiences, psychiatric and behavioral factors, and social support has received almost no attention in research with men prisoners. Using a probability sample of 165 soon-to-be-released men, the present study examined differences in certain demographic, criminal justice history, mental health, substance abuse, and social support (type, quality, amount, and source) variables between releasing men prisoners with and without lifetime trauma experiences. Results indicate that men with trauma histories had more negative social support experiences and fewer positive social support resources before prison than their counterparts. Men with trauma histories also had more lifetime experiences with mental health and substance use problems. On further investigation of the subsample of men with trauma histories, those who were older, had substance use disorders, and histories of mental health problems anticipated fewer post-release social support resources. Study findings underscore the nuances of social support for men prisoners with trauma experiences and point to implications for future directions in targeted trauma-informed intervention development for releasing men prisoners.
McIinnis-Perry, Gloria J; Good, Jim M
Older adults with loved ones who are dependent on alcohol or drugs often experience the adverse effects of a codependent relationship. Many experience anxiety, low self-esteem, depression, and suicidal thoughts. A pilot psychoeducational codependency support group was developed to promote well-being and reduce the adverse effects of codependency among older persons. The study participants were a voluntary convenience sample of 22 older adults (ages 65 and older) residing in the community. A pretest and posttest were administered. Six 90-minute group sessions based on a curriculum developed by the authors were held during a 2-month period. Yalom's Therapeutic Factors were used to evaluate the group process. Results indicated that older adults benefit from a psychoeducational support group format and that codependency issues can be reduced.
Hynie, Michaela; Crooks, Valorie A; Barragan, Jackeline
Recent immigrants and refugees (newcomers) vary on many dimensions but do share similar challenges. Newcomers must rebuild social networks to obtain needed social support but often face social exclusion because of their race, language, religion, or immigrant status. In addition, most have limited access to personal, social, and community resources. Effects of situational and personal variables on the benefits and limitations associated with the social networks of female newcomers were explored through interviews and focus groups with 87 women from 7 communities. Using thematic analysis, the authors identify 5 sources of informal support across all 7 communities, which were almost exclusively limited to co-ethnic relationships, and the types of support, limitations, and reciprocity within each. Perceived support was strongest from family and close friends and, when support from close relationships was unavailable, from primary care providers. The results suggest that co-ethnic peer support networks may be overwhelmed in newcomer communities because of their limited size and resources.
Clinton, M; Lunney, P; Edwards, H; Weir, D; Barr, J
Prompted by the continuing transition to community care, mental health nurses are considering the role of social support in community adaptation. This article demonstrates the importance of distinguishing between kinds of social support and presents findings from the first round data of a longitudinal study of community adaptation in 156 people with schizophrenia conducted in Brisbane, Australia. All clients were interviewed using the relevant subscales of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule to confirm a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia. The study set out to investigate the relationship between community adaptation and social support. Community adaptation was measured with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Life Skills Profile (LSP) and measures of dissatisfaction with life and problems in daily living developed by the authors. Social support was measured with the Arizona Social Support Interview Schedule (ASSIS). The BPRS and ASSIS were incorporated into a client interview conducted by trained interviewers. The LSP was completed on each client by an informal carer (parent, relative or friend) or a professional carer (case manager or other health professional) nominated by the client. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between community adaptation and four sets of social support variables. Given the order in which variables were entered in regression equations, a set of perceived social support variables was found to account for the largest unique variance of four measures of community adaptation in 96 people with schizophrenia for whom complete data are available from the first round of the three-wave longitudinal study. A set of the subjective experiences of the clients accounted for the largest unique variance in measures of symptomatology, life skills, dissatisfaction with life, and problems in daily living. Sets of community support, household support and functional variables accounted for less variance
Children are often regarded as being supported and controlled by adults, rather than their peer groups. In contrast, drawing on research carried out in Finland, this article considers peers as a resource. Using mainly a 14-year-old's oral narratives, it is shown how the spatial and social context enables and inhibits children's mutual support and…
Sukkarieh-Haraty, Ola; Howard, Elizabeth
The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between diabetes self-care, diabetes-specific emotional distress, and social support and glycemic control (hemoglobin A1C levels: HbA1c) among a sample of Lebanese adults with type 2 diabetes. A descriptive correlational design was adapted with descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regressions for analyses. A convenience sample of 140 adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes was recruited from 2 diabetes clinics in Greater Beirut. Participants were asked to complete 4 questionnaires in Arabic. Significant associations (P < .05) were found between following a general diet for more than 3.5 days per week and higher social support and HbA1c levels of 7% or more. Social support was positively associated with HbA1c levels such that participants with uncontrolled glycemic levels, as evidenced by higher values for HbA1c, received more support from their social network.
Keating, David M; Rains, Stephen A
The reported study explored the implications of informal computer-mediated social support for the well-being of individuals coping with illness over the course of 3 years. A panel study was conducted in which respondents--bloggers writing about their experiences living with a health condition--reported on their perceptions of social support and well-being during 2010 and again during 2013. Among respondents who completed both questionnaires (n = 49), increases in support availability from family and friends were related to improvements in bloggers' health self-efficacy as well as improvements in bloggers' loneliness, particularly among those who also experienced increased support availability from blog readers. Increased blog reader support availability was associated with improvements in bloggers' health-related uncertainty. Among respondents who completed the initial questionnaire (N = 121), a survival analysis showed that neither support available from family and friends nor support from blog readers predicted continued health blogging over the 3-year period.
Recent statistics show a growing number of older adults who are living alone and are socially isolated. It is against this background that, in recent years, many interventions have been developed to address social isolation among the elderly. Evaluative studies show that most interventions are hardly effective, though. An important reason for this is the heterogeneity of the socially isolated. This article offers insight into this heterogeneity by presenting a typology with different profiles of socially isolated older adults and the intervention implications of this typology. The typology is derived from an extensive qualitative study on socially isolated elderly individuals in the Netherlands. The typology imposes some degree of order to a diversity of circumstances, ambitions, and possibilities of the socially isolated elderly, thereby deepening the understanding of the heterogeneity of this population. The definition of social isolation used in this study starts from a societal angle of incidence, namely the current policy context of Western European welfare states, in which governments emphasize the importance of independence and self-reliance of their citizens. Developed from that perspective, the typology provides a theoretical basis for applying interventions aimed at increasing self-reliance of social isolated elderly. This perspective on social isolation also has consequences for the way in which the effectiveness of interventions to alleviate social isolation is assessed.
McKimmie, Blake M; Jimmieson, Nerina L; Mathews, Rebecca; Moffat, Kieren
Workers who experience fire in the workplace are faced with disruption to their work routine, as well as the emotional strain of the fire. In the broader occupational stress literature, researchers have suggested that social support will be most effective at reducing the negative effects of stressors on strain when the type of support matches the type of stressor being experienced (either instrumental or emotional). This study was a preliminary investigation into employee responses to less routine stressors, such as workplace fires, and the role of different sources of social support in predicting coping effectiveness. This study also was a first attempt at considering the influence of the social context (in terms of group identification) on the effectiveness of social support as a predictor of coping effectiveness. Specifically, it was predicted that social support would be more effective when it came from multiple sources within the organization, that it would be especially effective when provided from a group that workers identified more strongly with, and that simply feeling part of a group would improve adjustment. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 33 employees who had recently experienced a significant fire in their workplace. Results suggested that the type of stressors experienced and the type of support were mismatched, but despite this, coping effectiveness was generally moderate to high. There was mixed support for predictions about the effects of social support-no moderating effect of group identification on coping effectiveness was observed for measures of workplace support, although it did moderate the effects of family support on this adjustment indicator.
Pfeiffer, Jens P.; Pinquart, Martin; Krick, Kathrin
Social development may vary depending on contextual factors, such as attending a day school or a boarding school. The present study compares students from these school types with regard to the achievement of specific social goals, perceived social support, and reported prosocial behaviour. A sample of 701 students was examined. Students from…
Potoczniak, Daniel J.; Aldea, Mirela A.; DeBlaere, Cirleen
This study examined a model in which the relationship between social anxiety and two dimensions of ego identity (commitment and exploration) was expected to be mediated by social support and self-concealment for a sample of lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals (N=347). Statistically significant paths were found from social anxiety to social…
Reitzes, Donald C.; Crimmins, Timothy J.; Yarbrough, Johanna; Parker, Josie
This study applies a typology of social support with 3 categories of social networks to investigate social ties and their benefits for homeless people. Data were derived from a 2-year long series of participant observations of homeless or precariously housed people who came regularly to a downtown Atlanta public park. The findings are as follows:…
Elias, Maurice J.; Haynes, Norris M.
Despite living in disadvantaged urban communities experiencing social and economic hardships, many children emerge with positive outcomes. Social-emotional competence and social support were hypothesized to have strong influences on academic trajectories during the critical period of academic skill acquisition. Participants were 282 third-grade…
This study examined sense of burnout among 126 social workers who directly treat children and adolescents within the human service professions. Burnout was investigated in relation to social workers' demographic characteristics (age, family status, education, and seniority at work), extrinsic and intrinsic work conditions, and social support by…
Johnson, Jennifer E.; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Miranda, Robert; Rizzo, Christie J.; Justus, Alicia N.; Clum, George
Knowing where criminal justice involved teens look for support and whether those supports reduce depression has important and possibly gender-specific treatment implications for this vulnerable population. This study examines the relationships between social support and depression in a mixed-gender sample of 198 incarcerated adolescents. Greater support from families and overall and greater satisfaction with supports predicted lower depression for boys and girls. Support from siblings and extended family strongly predicted lower depression; support from parents and from friends was either not related or only weakly related to depression. Girls reported higher levels of depression, more support from friends and extended family, and less support from parents than did boys. Family, sibling, and overall support were stronger predictors of depression for girls than for boys. Results suggest that non-parent family members, especially siblings and extended family, provide important emotional resources for teens in the criminal justice system. PMID:20937728
Many universities implement programs and interventions to increase students' perceived instrumental social support within the classroom setting, yet to date, no measures exist to adequately assess such perceptions. In response to this need, the current research developed an operational definition of instrumental classroom social support and also…
Stevenson, Howard C.; And Others
Explores the relationship between adolescent reports of the level of kinship support they experience as members of an extended family network and racial socialization beliefs. Responses from 229 African American adolescents support the hypothesis that adolescent perceptions of the importance of racial socialization relate directly to perceived…
Herman, Daniel B.
Professional social workers and other mental health providers have for many years been involved in delivering treatment and support services focused on the needs of adults with severe mental illnesses living in the community. While some models have evolved largely through practice experience, others have developed through research paradigms in…
Lavrencic, Louise M; Kurylowicz, Lisa; Valenzuela, Michael J; Churches, Owen F; Keage, Hannah A D
Social and general cognitive abilities decline in late life. Those with high cognitive reserve display better general cognitive performance in old age; however, it is unknown whether this is also the case for social cognition. A total of 115 healthy older adults, aged 60-85 years (m = 44, f = 71) were assessed using The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT-R; social cognition), the Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire (LEQ; cognitive reserve), and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI-II; general cognitive ability). The LEQ did not predict performance on any TASIT-R subtest: Emotion Evaluation Test (β = -.097, p = .325), Social Inference - Minimal (β = -.004, p = .972), or Social Inference - Enriched (β = -.016, p = .878). Sensitivity analyses using two alternative cognitive reserve measures, years of education and the National Adult Reading Test, supported these effects. Cognitive reserve was strongly related to WASI-II performance. Unlike general cognitive ability, social cognition appears unaffected by cognitive reserve. Findings contribute to the emerging understanding that cognitive reserve differentially affects individual cognitive domains, which has implications for the theoretical understanding of cognitive reserve and its brain correlates. Cognitive measures unbiased by cognitive reserve may serve as best indicators of brain health, free of compensatory mechanisms.
Allemand, Mathias; Schaffhuser, Kathrin; Martin, Mike
This study investigated long-term correlated change between personality traits and perceived social support in middle adulthood. Two measurement occasions with an 8-year time interval from the Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study on Adult Development (ILSE) were used. The sample consisted of 346 middle-aged adults (46-50 years at T1). Four different types of perceived social support were assessed. Personality traits were assessed with the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Longitudinal measurement invariance (MI) was established for both measures. The mean rank-order stabilities were .79 and .62 for personality traits and for perceived social support, respectively. The results demonstrated a mean-level increase for neuroticism and a decrease for extraversion and significant change variances for all constructs. The results of latent change models showed significant initial level correlations and correlated changes between personality traits and social support, implying that changes in these constructs show commonality. The results can expand our current thinking about correlated change in personality.
Guo, Suran; Tian, Donghua; Wang, Xiaohua; Xiao, Yun; He, Huan; Qu, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xiulan
A magnitude 8.0 earthquake struck China's southwestern Sichuan province on 12 May 2008. The reported rates of depression symptoms across studies were not consistent, and its protective factors were unknown. This study collected data from Wenchuan earthquake survivors to estimate the prevalence of depression and explore the protective effects of social support and support source on depression. A randomized sampling cross-sectional survey based on community was conducted in January 2009, in Mianzhu and Anxian counties, and 633 survivors were entered into the study. The Chinese edition of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the Social Support Rating Scale were used to investigate depression and social support. The prevalence of probable depression in adults 6 months after the Wenchuan earthquake was 22.9% (145/633). Total social support, subjective support, support use and support from family members, neighbours and organizations negatively predicted depression. According to the results, depression was common 6 months after this major disaster. Total social support, subjective support, support use and support from family members, neighbours and organizations were all protective factors for depression after a major disaster.
Frisch, Johanna U; Häusser, Jan A; van Dick, Rolf; Mojzisch, Andreas
In many situations humans are influenced by the behavior of other people and their relationships with them. For example, in stressful situations supportive behavior of other people as well as positive social relationships can act as powerful resources to cope with stress. In order to study the interplay between these variables, this protocol describes two effective experimental manipulations of social relationships and supportive behavior in the laboratory. In the present article, these two manipulations are implemented in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST)-a standard stress induction paradigm in which participants are subjected to a simulated job interview. More precisely, we propose (a) a manipulation of the relationship between different protagonists in the TSST by making a shared social identity salient and (b) a manipulation of the behavior of the TSST-selection committee, which acts either supportively or unsupportively. These two experimental manipulations are designed in a modular fashion and can be applied independently of each other but can also be combined. Moreover, these two manipulations can also be integrated into other stress protocols and into other standardized social interactions such as trust games, negotiation tasks, or other group tasks.
Wang, Donna; Chonody, Jill
Ageist attitudes toward older adults have been recognized as barriers to recruiting and training competent social workers. This article provides a systematic review of the literature that focused on social workers' and social work students' attitudes toward older adults and working with older adults. The authors sought empirical studies…
Pillemer, Sarah; Holtzer, Roee; Blumen, Helena M
Poor social networks and decreased levels of social support are associated with worse mood, health, and cognition in younger and older adults. Yet, we know very little about the brain substrates associated with social networks and social support, particularly in older adults. This study examined functional brain substrates associated with social networks using the Social Network Index (SNI) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Resting-state fMRI data from 28 non-demented older adults were analyzed with independent components analyses. As expected, four established resting-state networks-previously linked to motor, vision, speech, and other language functions-correlated with the quality (SNI-1: total number of high-contact roles of a respondent) and quantity (SNI-2: total number of individuals in a respondent's social network) of social networks: a sensorimotor, a visual, a vestibular/insular, and a left frontoparietal network. Moreover, SNI-1 was associated with greater functional connectivity in the lateral prefrontal regions of the left frontoparietal network, while SNI-2 was associated with greater functional connectivity in the medial prefrontal regions of this network. Thus, lateral prefrontal regions may be particularly linked to the quality of social networks while medial prefrontal regions may be particularly linked to the quantity of social networks.
Moeller, Christin; Chung-Yan, Greg A.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how various types of workplace social support from different support sources interact with occupational stressors to predict the psychological well-being of university professors. Design/method/approach: A total of 99 full-time professors participated via an online or paper questionnaire. Findings:…
Dolan, Pat; Brady, Bernadine
Youth mentoring can be an effective way of supporting troubled youth, helping them sustain positive mental health, cope with stress, and lead successful lives through adolescence and into adulthood. This book is a comprehensive guide to youth mentoring programmes, illustrating how, if managed well, they can increase the social support available to…
Ceballo, Rosario; McLoyd, Vonnie C.
This study investigated how stressful environmental conditions influence the relation between mothers' social support and parenting strategies among poor, African American single mothers and their young adolescent children. Findings indicated that as neighborhood conditions worsened, the positive relation between emotional support and mothers'…
necessary for altering threat evaluation and enhancing self - esteem . Informational support, also referred to as appraisal support, describes the availability...1994). Social connections have been shown to enhance mood, reinforce self - esteem , and introduce adaptive coping resources for stress (Spiegel, Bloom...6MWT), self -reported symptoms as indicated by the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ), and levels of the biomarker BNP). Methods. Ninety
Bucx, Freek; van Wel, Frits; Knijn, Trudie
The authors investigated intergenerational support exchanges in relation to young adults' life course status. In a sample of 2,022 young adults (ages 18-34 years) in The Netherlands, single young adults reported receiving more advice from parents than married young adults, and those with children of their own received more practical support.…
Frost, David M.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Schwartz, Sharon
This paper reports a study of the function and composition of social support networks among diverse lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) men and women (n = 396) in comparison to their heterosexual peers (n = 128). Data were collected using a structured social support network matrix in a community sample recruited in New York City. Our findings show that gay and bisexual men may rely on “chosen families” within LGBT communities more so than lesbian and bisexual women. Both heterosexuals and LGBs relied less on family and more on other people (e.g., friends, co-workers) for everyday social support (e.g., recreational and social activities, talking about problems). Providers of everyday social support were most often of the same sexual orientation and race/ethnicity as participants. In seeking major support (e.g., borrowing large sums of money), heterosexual men and women along with lesbian and bisexual women relied primarily on their families, but gay and bisexual men relied primarily on other LGB individuals. Racial/ethnic minority LGBs relied on LGB similar others at the same rate at White LGBs but, notably, racial/ethnic minority LGBs reported receiving fewer dimensions of support. PMID:26752447
Hausberger, Martine; Fureix, Carole; Bourjade, Marie; Wessel-Robert, Sabine; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick
Play remains a mystery and adult play even more so. More typical of young stages in healthy individuals, it occurs rarely at adult stages but then more often in captive/domestic animals, which can imply spatial, social and/or feeding deprivations or restrictions that are challenging to welfare, than in animals living in natural conditions. Here, we tested the hypothesis that adult play may reflect altered welfare states and chronic stress in horses, in which, as in several species, play rarely occurs at adult stages in natural conditions. We observed the behaviour (in particular, social play) of riding school horses during occasional outings in a paddock and measured several stress indicators when these horses were in their individual home boxes. Our results revealed that (1) the number of horses and rates of adult play appeared very high compared to field report data and (2) most stress indicators measured differed between `players' and `non-players', revealing that most `playful' animals were suffering from more chronic stress than `non-playful' horses. Frequency of play behaviour correlated with a score of chronic stress. This first discovery of a relationship between adult play and altered welfare opens new lines of research that certainly deserves comparative studies in a variety of species.
The body of evidence on older adults' sexual health is beginning to grow. However, it remains an under-researched area particularly within the social sciences. This viewpoint outlines four considerations for those who carry out social science research in this area: 1. defining the age category "older adults"; 2. being clear about the types of sex under research; 3. capturing a range of diverse voices; and 4. considering the use of qualitative research methods to explore the topic in depth. These suggestions are aimed at helping researchers to avoid some of the pitfalls of research in this area, as well as improving the evidence base in order to advance recognition of the issues and drive change in service provision.
Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Johnson, Jeffrey C.; Boster, James S.
The influence of isolation and confinement on social support and depressed mood was examined in a study of 235 men and women who spent a year at McMurdo Station in Antarctica, and a study of 77 men and women who spent a year at the Amundson-Scott South Pole Station. Although availability of support remained unchanged, there was a significant decrease in reported satisfaction with support obtained, as well as a significant increase in depressed mood. Satisfaction with support was inversely associated with depressed mood at the beginning and end of isolation and confinement. At the end of winter, this association varied by source of support. High levels of tension-anxiety, depression and anger preceded an increase in advice seeking, but high levels of advice seeking also preceded an increase in tension-anxiety and depression. Results suggest a significant erosion of social support under conditions of prolonged isolation and confinement, leading to an increase in depressed mood.
Impacts on lay helpers of participation in part-time work supporting rural elders with severe mental illness were explored in a group of 17 older adults employed in a demonstration project. Self-rated well-being and social support were assessed over 1 year. Ratings of autonomy and positive relations with others varied over 1 year. Perceptions of the amount of social support provided showed a trend toward improvement at 1 year. Results are considered in the context of role theory and illustrated with an ethnographic case study of the service environment. The lay helper role is a form of productive engagement through paid caregiving, with potential to supplement rural mental health service systems while supporting elders' needs for meaningful civic engagement.
Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P
Adolescence is associated with potentially stressful challenges, and adolescents may differ from adults in their stress responsivity. To investigate possible age-related differences in stress responsiveness, the consequences of repeated restraint stress (90 min/day for 5 days) on anxiety, as indexed using the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and modified social interaction (SI) tests, were assessed in adolescent and adult Sprague-Dawley male and female rats. Control groups at each age included non-stressed and socially deprived animals, with plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels also measured in another group of rats on days 1 and 5 of stress (sampled 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min following restraint onset). While repeatedly restrained animals exhibited similar anxiety levels compared to non-stressed controls in the EPM, restraint stress increased anxiety at both ages in the SI test (as indexed by reduced social investigation and social preference). Daily weight gain measurements, however, revealed more marked stress-related suppression of body weight in adolescents versus adults. Analysis of stress-induced increases in CORT likewise showed that adolescents demonstrated less habituation than adults, embedded within typical sex differences in CORT magnitude (females greater than males) and age differences in CORT recovery (adolescents slower than adults). Despite no observable age-related differences in the behavioral response to restraint, adolescents were more sensitive to the repeated stressor in terms of physiological indices of attenuated weight gain and habituation of stress-induced CORT.
Watkins, Christopher D; DeBruine, Lisa M; Little, Anthony C; Jones, Benedict C
Most previous studies of individual differences in women's and men's preferences for sexually dimorphic physical characteristics have focused on the importance of mating-related factors for judgments of opposite-sex individuals. Although studies have suggested that people may show stronger preferences for feminine individuals of both sexes under conditions where social support may be at a premium (e.g., during phases of the menstrual cycle where raised progesterone prepares women's bodies for pregnancy), these studies have not demonstrated that perceptions of available social support directly influence femininity preferences. Here we found that (1) women and men randomly allocated to low social support priming conditions demonstrated stronger preferences for feminine shape cues in own- and opposite-sex faces than did individuals randomly allocated to high social support priming conditions and (2) that people perceived men and women displaying feminine characteristics as more likely to provide them with high-quality social support than those displaying relatively masculine characteristics. Together, these findings suggest that social support influences face preferences directly, potentially implicating facultative responses whereby people increase their preferences for pro-social individuals under conditions of low social support.
Channon, Shelley; Crawford, Sarah; Orlowska, Danuta; Parikh, Nimmi; Thoma, Patrizia
Introduction It is well established that autistic spectrum disorder is linked to difficulties with mentalising, but the ways in which this affects everyday behaviour is less well understood. This study explored the nature and extent of difficulties in everyday social functioning in adults with Asperger's syndrome (AS), since increased understanding can enhance the development of more effective intervention strategies. Methods Individuals with AS (n = 21) were compared with healthy control participants (n = 21) on three tests of social cognition: the Mentalistic Interpretation task, which assesses interpretation of sarcasm and actions; the Social Problem Fluency task, which assesses ability to generate problem solutions; and the Social Problem Resolution task, which assesses judgement in selecting problem solutions. Results Comprehension of both sarcastic remarks and actions was impaired in those with AS on the mentalistic interpretation task. Participants with AS showed difficulties in identifying the awkward elements of everyday social scenarios, and they were also impaired in generating problem solutions but not in judging alternative solutions on the social problem fluency and resolution tasks. Conclusions These tasks potentially provide a means of profiling strengths and weaknesses in social processing, which in turn has implications for informing clinical evaluation and training. PMID:23875885
Emlet, Charles A.
This study examined social networks and social isolation in older (50 years or more) and younger (ages 20 to 39) adults with HIV/AIDS. The author conducted interviews with 88 individuals living with HIV/AIDS in the Pacific Northwest. Both groups' social networks had similar patterns; however, older adults were more likely to live alone. More than…
Theeke, Laurie A; Goins, R Turner; Moore, Julia; Campbell, Heather
This study's purpose was to describe loneliness and to examine the relationships between loneliness, depression, social support, and QOL in chronically ill, older Appalachians. In-person interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 60 older, chronically ill, community-dwelling, and rural adults. Those with dementia or active grief were excluded. The UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell, Peplau, & Cutrona, 1985), Geriatric Depression Scale (Shiekh & Yesavage, 1986), Katz ADL scale (Katz, Down, & Cash, 1970), MOS Social Support Scale (Sherbourne & Stewart, 1991), and a visual analog scale for Quality of Life (Spitzer et al., 1981) scale were used. Diagnoses were obtained through chart reviews. SPSS was used for data analyses. The majority of the 65% female sample (M age = 75 years) were married and impoverished. Participants' number of chronic illnesses averaged more than 3. Over 88% of participants reported at least 1 area of functional impairment. Loneliness was prevalent with UCLA loneliness scores indicating moderate to high loneliness, ranging from 39 to 62 (possible scores were 20-80). Higher loneliness scores correlated with depression, lower Qol, and lower social support, particularly lower emotional support. This study provides evidence that loneliness is a significant problem for older chronically ill Appalachian adults and that it may be related to low emotional support. Further, it provides evidence that this population may be significantly lonely and may not self-identify as lonely. Screening for loneliness and designing interventions that target the emotional aspects of loneliness could be important in this population.
Greene, Kaylin M; Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David
American Indians are disproportionately burdened by alcohol-related problems. Yet, research exploring predictors of alcohol use among American Indians has been limited by cross-sectional designs and reservation-based samples. Guided by a life course developmental perspective, the current study used a subsample of American Indians (n=927) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to explore alcohol use (current drinking, usual number of drinks, and binge drinking) among this population. We examined whether adult social roles (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, parenthood, college enrollment, and full-time work) were linked to the rise and fall of alcohol use. Multi-level models demonstrated that adult social roles were linked to alcohol use at the within- and between-person levels. Becoming a parent was linked to a lower likelihood of being a current drinker, fewer alcoholic drinks, and less frequent binge drinking. Transitioning to full-time work was associated with a higher likelihood of being a current drinker and more frequent binge drinking. Results point to the importance of exploring within-group trajectories of alcohol use and highlight the protective and risky nature of adult social roles among American Indians.
Pilcher, June J.; Bryant, Stewart A.
Self-control is an intricate component of decision making and effectively managing day-to-day life. Failing to maintain adequate self-control can have negative effects on many desired goals and social experiences. As such, understanding how different facets of the human experience may affect self-control is an important undertaking. One area that is yet unclear is the possible relationships between social support and self-control. Research suggests that social support can be an effective resource in reducing stress and promoting health and well-being. Research has also indicated that stress can be a limiting factor on self-control. In contrast, few studies have focused on social support as a potential resource for self-control. The goal of this mini-review article is to explore the intersections between self-control and social support and encourage integration of these two relatively independent areas of research. This review will help provide a broader understanding of self-control resources and how we can better understand the relationships between social well-being and our ability to monitor and utilize our capacity to maintain self-control. PMID:27965551
Opendak, Maya; Offit, Lily; Monari, Patrick; Schoenfeld, Timothy J.; Sonti, Anup N.; Cameron, Heather A.
Research on social instability has focused on its detrimental consequences, but most people are resilient and respond by invoking various coping strategies. To investigate cellular processes underlying such strategies, a dominance hierarchy of rats was formed and then destabilized. Regardless of social position, rats from disrupted hierarchies had fewer new neurons in the hippocampus compared with rats from control cages and those from stable hierarchies. Social disruption produced a preference for familiar over novel conspecifics, a change that did not involve global memory impairments or increased anxiety. Using the neuropeptide oxytocin as a tool to increase neurogenesis in the hippocampus of disrupted rats restored preference for novel conspecifics to predisruption levels. Conversely, reducing the number of new neurons by limited inhibition of adult neurogenesis in naive transgenic GFAP–thymidine kinase rats resulted in social behavior similar to disrupted rats. Together, these results provide novel mechanistic evidence that social disruption shapes behavior in a potentially adaptive way, possibly by reducing adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To investigate cellular processes underlying adaptation to social instability, a dominance hierarchy of rats was formed and then destabilized. Regardless of social position, rats from disrupted hierarchies had fewer new neurons in the hippocampus compared with rats from control cages and those from stable hierarchies. Unexpectedly, these changes were accompanied by changes in social strategies without evidence of impairments in cognition or anxiety regulation. Restoring adult neurogenesis in disrupted rats using oxytocin and conditionally suppressing the production of new neurons in socially naive GFAP–thymidine kinase rats showed that loss of 6-week-old neurons may be responsible for adaptive changes in social behavior. PMID:27358459
Gray, Jennifer B
Pregnancy is a time of uncertainty and stress for many women, and these aspects are compounded for those facing unplanned pregnancies. Social support communication is considered a vital part of healthy outcomes in pregnancy but is largely unexplored in the unplanned pregnancy context, particularly for college-aged young women. The present study aimed to identify various dimensions of social support in unplanned pregnancy for this population, including support types desired and enacted, sources of support, support types helpful in various stages of this health experience, and message strategies used in helpful support communication. Results of an online semi-structured survey exploring message content and these other elements were analyzed through qualitative and quantitative content analysis as well as statistical analysis. Nurturing support, specifically network support, was found to be most desired in this health context, and the message strategies found in the most helpful support messages differed according to support type. Source and timing of support were also factors in the most helpful types of support in this context. Implications of these results will be discussed in terms of future research in social support in the unplanned pregnancy context.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are supportive services for adults and..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ADULT AND DISLOCATED WORKER ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Supportive Services § 663.800 What are supportive services for adults and dislocated workers?...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are supportive services for adults and..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ADULT AND DISLOCATED WORKER ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Supportive Services § 663.800 What are supportive services for adults and dislocated...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What are supportive services for adults and..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ADULT AND DISLOCATED WORKER ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Supportive Services § 663.800 What are supportive services for adults and dislocated...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are supportive services for adults and..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ADULT AND DISLOCATED WORKER ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Supportive Services § 663.800 What are supportive services for adults and dislocated workers?...
Background Social networks play a key role in caring for older adults. A better understanding of the characteristics of different social networks types (TSNs) in a given community provides useful information for designing policies to care for this age group. Therefore this study has three objectives: 1) To derive the TSNs among older adults affiliated with the Mexican Institute of Social Security; 2) To describe the main characteristics of the older adults in each TSN, including the instrumental and economic support they receive and their satisfaction with the network; 3) To determine the association between functional dependency and the type of social network. Methods Secondary data analysis of the 2006 Survey of Autonomy and Dependency (N = 3,348). The TSNs were identified using the structural approach and cluster analysis. The association between functional dependency and the TSNs was evaluated with Poisson regression with robust variance analysis in which socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and medical history covariates were included. Results We identified five TSNs: diverse with community participation (12.1%), diverse without community participation (44.3%); widowed (32.0%); nonfriends-restricted (7.6%); nonfamily-restricted (4.0%). Older adults belonging to widowed and restricted networks showed a higher proportion of dependency, negative self-rated health and depression. Older adults with functional dependency more likely belonged to a widowed network (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.5; 95%CI: 1.1-2.1). Conclusion The derived TSNs were similar to those described in developed countries. However, we identified the existence of a diverse network without community participation and a widowed network that have not been previously described. These TSNs and restricted networks represent a potential unmet need of social security affiliates. PMID:20187973
Paterson, Barbara L; Brewer, Joan; Stamler, Lynnette Leeseberg
The purpose of this scoping review was to determine what the relevant research informs us about which parents of children with chronic disease and/or disability are likely to engage in an on-line social support program and why they choose to be engaged. The review included 16 peer-reviewed research reports about on-line social support offered to parents of children with chronic disease and/or disability. It was conducted using scoping review approaches recommended by H. Arskey and L. O'Malley (2005). A key finding of this review is that it appears that the development of on-line social support interventions for parents may not have integrated what is known in the field of Internet technology as necessary to engage users. This has implications for nurses wishing to provide on-line social support for parents. As well, it highlights future directions for research, including investigations of which parents are likely to engage in on-line social support interventions and the features of the intevention that will attract and sustain them as participants.
Hefner, Jennifer; Eisenberg, Daniel
This study is the first, to our knowledge, to evaluate the relationship between mental health and social support in a large, random sample of college students. A Web-based survey was administered at a large, public university, with 1,378 students completing the measures in this analysis (response rate = 57%). The results support our hypothesis that students with characteristics differing from most other students, such as minority race or ethnicity, international status, and low socioeconomic status, are at greater risk of social isolation. In addition, the authors found that students with lower quality social support, as measured by the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, were more likely to experience mental health problems, including a sixfold risk of depressive symptoms relative to students with high quality social support. These results may help administrators and health providers to identify more effectively the population of students at high risk for mental illness and develop effective interventions to address this significant and growing public health issue.
One of the most intriguing characteristics of interpersonal dependency is its ability to predict elevated levels of social support. Yet studies of interpersonal dependency use various measures to assess this effect. In this study, I compared 3 commonly used measures of interpersonal dependency in terms of their prediction of social support: Hirschfield's Interpersonal Dependency Inventory (IDI; Hirschfeld et al., 1977), the dependency factor of the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ; Blatt, D'Afflitti, & Quinlan, 1976), and the Dependency subscale of the Personal Style Inventory (PSI; Robins et al., 1994). A total of 152 undergraduates were administered these measures as well as measures of depressive symptoms and social support a week prior to their first exam period and a week after this period (interval time = 8 weeks). DEQ-dependency predicted an increase in social support, whereas PSI-Dependency and IDI predicted a decrease in social support over time. DEQ-dependency appears to capture better than the other 2 measures the dialectic tension between risk and resilience in interpersonal dependency.
Canesqui, Ana Maria; Barsaglini, Reni Aparecida
This article analyses the themes and conceptual-theoretical approaches of the social support in the literature from important international journals about social sciences and medicine, and in from 1983 to 2005 are analyzed. 259 international and 57 national abstracts was reading for the identification and computing the relations of the social support with health/disease/care. A deeper conceptual analysis about social support and the theories of social science were reported in an intentional sample of 56 international and 18 national texts. The international literature is based on the social psychology, in the several trends of the sociology and of the political science and less in the anthropology. The national literature dialogues less with the psychosocial theories and more with the sociological and anthropological theories. In this latter literature the social support approaches are concerned with social network theories; reciprocity, exchanges and cultural values. It is concluded that different trends guide the conceptual-theoretical analyses of the social support, being the international literature older, wider, more diversified and empirical, but with scarce anthropological production. The national literature is more reflexive them empirical.
Abrefa-Gyan, Tina; Wu, Liyun; Lewis, Marilyn W
HIV/AIDS, a chronic burden in Ghana, poses social and health outcome concerns to those infected. Examining the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS) instrument among 300 Ghanaians from a cross-sectional design, Principal Component Analysis yielded four factors (positive interaction, trust building, information giving, and essential support), which accounted for 85.73% of the total variance in the MOS-SSS. A logistic regression analysis showed that essential support was the strongest predictor of the length of time an individual stayed in the support group, whereas positive interaction indicated negative association. The study's implications for policy, research, and practice were discussed.
Arrington, Michael Irvin
This article inquires into whether and how uncertainty reduction theory and problematic integration theory, two theories relevant to social support as enacted within a chapter of the Man-to-Man prostate cancer support group, inform us of how such groups can assist group members most effectively. Interview data from members of a prostate cancer support group shed light on theoretical assumptions about uncertainty. Although the group applies elements of both theories, prostate cancer survivors likely would benefit from a more comprehensive and flexible treatment of social support theory.
Kuo, Caroline; Fitzgerald, Jane; Operario, Don; Casale, Marisa
Drawing upon a sample of 1,599 adults caring for children in HIV-endemic Umlazi Township in South Africa, this cross-sectional survey investigated whether perceived social support varied among caregivers of AIDS-orphaned children (n=359) as compared to caregivers of children orphaned by other causes (n=171) and caregivers of non-orphaned children (n=1,069). Results of multivariate linear regressions indicate that caregivers of AIDS-orphaned children reported significantly lower levels of social support compared to caregivers of other-orphaned children and non-orphaned children independent of socio-demographic covariates. Caregivers of other-orphaned and non-orphaned children reported similar levels of social support. In terms of sources of support, all caregivers were more likely to draw support from family and significant others rather than friends. These findings indicate a need to develop interventions that can increase levels of social support for caregivers of AIDS-orphaned children, particularly networks that include friends and significant others. PMID:22904575
Haslam, S Alexander; O'Brien, Anne; Jetten, Jolanda; Vormedal, Karine; Penna, Sally
The social identity/self-categorization model of stress suggests that social identity can play a role in protecting group members from adverse reactions to strain because it provides a basis for group members to receive and benefit from social support. To examine this model, two studies were conducted with groups exposed to extreme levels of strain: patients recovering from heart surgery (Study 1), bomb disposal officers and bar staff (Study 2). Consistent with predictions, in both studies there was a strong positive correlation between social identification and both social support and life/job satisfaction and a strong negative correlation between social identification and stress. In both studies path analysis also indicated that social support was a significant mediator of the relationship between (a) social identification and stress and (b) social identification and life/job satisfaction. In addition, Study 2 revealed that group membership plays a significant role in perceptions of how stressful different types of work are. Implications for the conceptualization of stress and social support are discussed.
Legh-Jones, Hannah; Moore, Spencer
Research on individual social capital and physical activity has tended to focus on the association among physical activity, generalized trust, and social participation. Less is known about the association between network social capital, i.e., the resources accessed through one's social connections, and physical inactivity. Using formal network measures of social capital, this study examined which specific dimension of network capital (i.e. diversity, reach and range) was associated with physical inactivity, and whether network social capital mediated the association between physical inactivity and social participation. Data came from the 2008 Montreal (Canada) Neighbourhood Networks and Healthy Aging survey, in which 2707 adults 25 years and older in 300 Montreal neighbourhoods were surveyed. Physical activity was self-reported using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). IPAQ guidelines provided the basis for the physical inactivity cutoff. Network social capital was measured with a position generator instrument. Multilevel logistic methods were used to examine the association between physical inactivity and individual social capital dimensions, while adjusting for socio-demographic and -economic factors. Higher network diversity was associated with a decreased likelihood of physical inactivity. Consistent with previous findings, individuals who did not participate in any formal associations were more likely to be physically inactive compared to those with high levels of participation. Network diversity mediated the association between physical inactivity and participation. Generalized trust and the network components of reach and range were not shown associated with physical inactivity. Findings highlight the importance of social participation and network social capital and the added value of network measures in the study of social capital and physical inactivity. Population-based programs targeting physical inactivity among adults might
McDougall, Matthew A; Walsh, Michael; Wattier, Kristina; Knigge, Ryan; Miller, Lindsey; Stevermer, Michalene; Fogas, Bruce S
This study examined whether Social Networking Sites (SNSs) have a negative moderator effect on the established relationship between perceived social support and depression in psychiatric inpatients. Survey instruments assessing for depression, perceived social support, and SNS use, were filled out by 301 psychiatric inpatients. Additional data on age, gender, and primary psychiatric diagnosis were collected. A step-wise multiple regression analysis was performed to determine significant interactions. There was no significant interaction of SNS use on the relationship between perceived social support and depression when measured by Social Media Use Integration Scale or by hours of SNS use per day. There was a significant negative relationship between perceived social support and depression, and a significant positive relationship between hours of SNS use per day and depression, measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Limitations include a gender discrepancy among participants, generalizability, recall bias, and SNS measurement. This is the first study to look at SNS use and depression in psychiatric inpatients. SNS use did not affect perceived social support or the protective relationship between perceived social support and depression. Hours of SNS use per day were correlated with depression scores. Future studies between SNS use and depression should quantify daily SNS use.
Novick, Andrew M; Forster, Gina L; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz M; Watt, Michael J
Stressful experiences during adolescence can alter the trajectory of neural development and contribute to psychiatric disorders in adulthood. We previously demonstrated that adolescent male rats exposed to repeated social defeat stress show changes in mesocorticolimbic dopamine content both at baseline and in response to amphetamine when tested in adulthood. In the present study we examined whether markers of adult dopamine function are also compromised by adolescent experience of social defeat. Given that the dopamine transporter as well as dopamine D1 receptors act as regulators of psychostimulant action, are stress sensitive and undergo changes during adolescence, quantitative autoradiography was used to measure [(3)H]-GBR12935 binding to the dopamine transporter and [(3)H]-SCH23390 binding to dopamine D1 receptors, respectively. Our results indicate that social defeat during adolescence led to higher dopamine transporter binding in the infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex and higher dopamine D1 receptor binding in the caudate putamen, while other brain regions analyzed were comparable to controls. Thus it appears that social defeat during adolescence causes specific changes to the adult dopamine system, which may contribute to behavioral alterations and increased drug seeking.
Novick, Andrew M.; Forster, Gina L.; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz M.; Watt, Michael J.
Stressful experiences during adolescence can alter the trajectory of neural development and contribute to psychiatric disorders in adulthood. We previously demonstrated that adolescent male rats exposed to repeated social defeat stress show changes in mesocorticolimbic dopamine content both at baseline and in response to amphetamine when tested in adulthood. In the present study we examined whether markers of adult dopamine function are also compromised by adolescent experience of social defeat. Given that the dopamine transporter as well as dopamine D1 receptors act as regulators of psychostimulant action, are stress sensitive and undergo changes during adolescence, quantitative autoradiography was used to measure [3H]-GBR12935 binding to the dopamine transporter and [3H]-SCH23390 binding to dopamine D1 receptors, respectively. Our results indicate that social defeat during adolescence led to higher dopamine transporter binding in the infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex and higher dopamine D1 receptor binding in the caudate putamen, while other brain regions analyzed were comparable to controls. Thus it appears that social defeat during adolescence causes specific changes to the adult DA system, which may contribute to behavioral alterations and increased drug seeking. PMID:21741457
Kaiser, Bonnie N; Keys, Hunter M; Foster, Jennifer; Kohrt, Brandon A
This mixed-method study explored the social world of Haitian migrants, examining forms of social support and social stress, as well as their relationship to mental health. Among six Haitian migrant communities in the Cibao Valley of the Dominican Republic, a community-based survey (n = 127) was conducted to assess migration experiences, current stressors, mental health, and functioning. In addition, to explore perceptions and experiences of migration, social interactions, and mental health, the study drew upon in-depth interviews and free-listing activities among Haitian migrants, as well as cognitive interviews with select survey participants. Depressive, anxiety, and mental distress survey scores were associated with 1) negative social interactions (including interrogation or deportation, perceived mistreatment by Dominicans, and overcrowding) and 2) lack of social support, including migrating alone. Mental distress scores were higher among women, and being married was associated with higher anxiety scores, potentially reflecting unmet social expectations. In qualitative data, participants emphasized a lack of social support, often referred to as tèt ansanm (literally meaning "heads together" in Haitian Creole or Kreyòl and roughly defined as solidarity or reciprocal social collaboration). The authors of the study propose that the practice of tèt ansanm-also termed konbit, and, in the Dominican Republic, convite-could be used as a means of facilitating positive-contact events among Haitians and Dominicans. These interactions could help counteract social stress and build social capital in settings similar to those of the study.
Quigley, B. Allan
Compares three social policy models (market, progressive-liberal-welfare, social redistribution); links them to adult education models (vocational-behaviorist, liberal-humanist-progressive, liberatory/social reconstruction) and to sociological theories (structural functionalism and conflict theory). (SK)
Jia, Cunxian; Zhang, Jie
The study is aimed to examine the psychometric characteristics of the Duke Social Support Scale (DSSI) in young rural Chinese individuals (379 suicides, 411 controls) aged 15-34 years. Social support was measured by 23-item DSSI, which included Social Interaction Scale, Subjective Social Support, and Instrumental Social Support. DSSI had high…
Haddad, Anneke D. M.; Norman, Thomas
There is a paucity of experimental data addressing how peers influence adolescent risk-taking. Here, we examined peer effects on risky decision-making in adults and adolescents using a virtual social context that enabled experimental control over the peer “interactions.” 40 adolescents (age 11–18) and 28 adults (age 20–38) completed a risk-taking (Wheel of Fortune) task under four conditions: in private; while being observed by (fictitious) peers; and after receiving ‘risky’ or ‘safe’ advice from the peers. For high-risk gambles (but not medium-risk or even gambles), adolescents made more risky decisions under peer observation than adults. Adolescents, but not adults, tended to resist ‘safe’ advice for high-risk gambles. Although both groups tended to follow ‘risky’ advice for high-risk gambles, adults did so more than adolescents. These findings highlight the importance of distinguishing between the effects of peer observation and peer advice on risky decision-making. PMID:25566150
Kontos, Emily Z.; Emmons, Karen M.; Puleo, Elaine; Viswanath, K.
Background Social media, and specifically social networking sites (SNS), are emerging as an important platform for communication and health information exchange. Yet, despite the increase in popularity and use, only a limited number of empirical studies document which segments of the adult population are and are not using social networking sites and with what, if any, affect on health. Methods The purpose of this study is to identify potential communication inequalities in social networking site use among a representative sample of US adults and to examine the association between SNS-use and psychological well-being. We analyzed data from the National Cancer Institute’s 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Results Thirty-five percent of online adults reported SNS-use within the past 12 months, and; there were no significant differences in SNS-use by race/ethnicity or socio-economic position. Younger age (p=.00) was the most significant predictor of SNS-use while being married (p=.02) and having a history of cancer (p=.02) were associated with a decreased odds of SNS-use. Social networking site use was significantly associated with a 0.80 (p=.00) increment in psychological distress score after controlling for other factors. Conclusion The absence of inequalities in adult SNS-use across race/ethnicity and class offers some support for the continued use of social media to promote public health efforts; however, issues such as the persisting Digital Divide and potential deleterious effects of SNS-use on psychological well-being need to be addressed. PMID:21154095
Kroenke, Candyce H; Michael, Yvonne; Tindle, Hilary; Gage, Elizabeth; Chlebowski, Rowan; Garcia, Lorena; Messina, Catherine; Manson, Joann E; Caan, Bette J
Though larger social networks are associated with reduced breast cancer mortality, there is a need to clarify how both social support and social burden influence this association. We included 4,530 women from the Women's Health Initiative who were diagnosed with breast cancer between 1993 and 2009, and provided data on social networks (spouse or intimate partner, religious ties, club ties, and number of first-degree relatives) before diagnosis. Of those, 354 died during follow-up, with 190 from breast cancer. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate associations of social network members with risk of post-diagnosis mortality, further evaluating associations by social support and social burden (caregiving, social strain). In multivariate-adjusted analyses, among women with high but not low social support, being married was related to lower all-cause mortality. By contrast, among women with high but not low social burden, those with a higher number of first-degree relatives, including siblings, parents, and children, had higher all-cause and breast cancer mortality (among caregivers: 0-3 relatives (ref), 4-5 relatives, HR = 1.47 (95% CI: 0.62-3.52), 6-9 relatives, HR = 2.08 (95% CI: 0.89-4.86), 10+ relatives, HR = 3.55 (95% CI: 1.35-9.33), P-continuous = 0.02, P-interaction = 0.008). The association by social strain was similar though it was not modified by level of social support. Other social network members were unrelated to mortality. Social relationships may have both adverse and beneficial influences on breast cancer survival. Clarifying these depends on understanding the context of women's relationships.
Cherry, Katie E; Walker, Erin Jackson; Brown, Jennifer Silva; Volaufova, Julia; LaMotte, Lynn R; Welsh, David A; Su, L Joseph; Jazwinski, S Michal; Ellis, Rebecca; Wood, Robert H; Frisard, Madlyn I
Social support has been shown to influence health outcomes in later life. In this study, we focus on social engagement as an umbrella construct that covers select social behaviors in a life span sample that included oldest-old adults, a segment of the adult population for whom very little data currently exist. We examined relationships among social engagement, positive health behaviors, and physical health to provide new evidence that addresses gaps in the extant literature concerning social engagement and healthy aging in very old adults. Participants were younger (21-59 years), older (60-89 years), and oldest-old (90-97 years) adults (N = 364) in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). Linear regression analyses indicated that age, gender, and hours spent outside of the house were significantly associated with self-reported health. The number of clubs and hours outside of home were more important factors in the analyses of objective health status than positive health behaviors, after considering age group and education level. These data strongly suggest that social engagement remains an important determinant of physical health into very late adulthood. The discussion focuses on practical applications of these results including social support interventions to maintain or improve late-life health.
Tokunaga, Robert S; Wright, Paul J; McKinley, Christopher J
Pornography consumption may affect judgments on a wide range of sexual and reproductive topics. The present study hypothesized that the consistent images projected in pornography affect sexual scripts related to abortion judgments. National, three-wave longitudinal data gathered from U.S. adults were employed to examine associations between earlier pornography consumption and subsequent support for abortion. The findings suggested that prior pornography consumption may lead to later support for abortion. This study provides additional evidence of pornography's socializing impact, particularly for the older White segment of the population, and adds to knowledge about what environmental factors influence judgments about abortion. Mechanisms that may explain how pornography viewing shapes support for abortion are discussed.
Wickham, Sophie; Taylor, Peter; Shevlin, Mark; Bentall, Richard P.
The negative implications of living in a socially unequal society are now well documented. However, there is poor understanding of the pathways from specific environmental risk to symptoms. Here we examine the associations between social deprivation, depression, and psychotic symptoms using the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, a cross-sectional dataset including 7,353 individuals. In addition we looked at the mediating role of stress, discrimination, trust and lack of social support. We found that the participants' neighbourhood index of multiple deprivation (IMD) significantly predicted psychosis and depression. On inspection of specific psychotic symptoms, IMD predicted paranoia, but not hallucinations or hypomania. Stress and trust partially mediated the relationship between IMD and paranoid ideation. Stress, trust and a lack of social support fully mediated the relationship between IMD and depression. Future research should focus on the role deprivation and social inequalities plays in specific manifestations of psychopathology and investigate mechanisms to explain those associations that occur. Targeting the mediating mechanisms through appropriate psychological intervention may go some way to dampen the negative consequences of living in an unjust society; ameliorating economic injustice may improve population mental health. PMID:25162703
Wickham, Sophie; Taylor, Peter; Shevlin, Mark; Bentall, Richard P
The negative implications of living in a socially unequal society are now well documented. However, there is poor understanding of the pathways from specific environmental risk to symptoms. Here we examine the associations between social deprivation, depression, and psychotic symptoms using the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, a cross-sectional dataset including 7,353 individuals. In addition we looked at the mediating role of stress, discrimination, trust and lack of social support. We found that the participants' neighbourhood index of multiple deprivation (IMD) significantly predicted psychosis and depression. On inspection of specific psychotic symptoms, IMD predicted paranoia, but not hallucinations or hypomania. Stress and trust partially mediated the relationship between IMD and paranoid ideation. Stress, trust and a lack of social support fully mediated the relationship between IMD and depression. Future research should focus on the role deprivation and social inequalities plays in specific manifestations of psychopathology and investigate mechanisms to explain those associations that occur. Targeting the mediating mechanisms through appropriate psychological intervention may go some way to dampen the negative consequences of living in an unjust society; ameliorating economic injustice may improve population mental health.
Keating, David M
This study examined supportive messages in spiritual and non-spiritual online support groups for depression. Both social support and religiosity have been associated with reduced depressive symptomology. Proportions of three types of support (i.e., informational, emotional, and network) were considered; messages were further delineated as being either religious or non-religious in nature. Messages (N=2,674) from two Christian and two unaffiliated online groups were analyzed. Results indicated that Christian groups communicated more informational support and General groups communicated more network support. Christian groups communicated more religious messages. This and future research is valuable to practitioners and clergy aiding depressed individuals and to the literature on social support and religion.
Background To strengthen the mental well-being of close family of persons newly diagnosed as having cancer, it is necessary to acquire a greater understanding of their experiences of social support networks, so as to better assess what resources are available to them from such networks and what professional measures are required. The main aim of the present study was to explore the meaning of these networks for close family of adult persons in the early stage of treatment for advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer. An additional aim was to validate the study’s empirical findings by means of the Finfgeld-Connett conceptual model for social support. The intention was to investigate whether these findings were in accordance with previous research in nursing. Methods Seventeen family members with a relative who 8–14 weeks earlier had been diagnosed as having lung or gastrointestinal cancer were interviewed. The data were subjected to qualitative latent content analysis and validated by means of identifying antecedents and critical attributes. Results The meaning or main attribute of the social support network was expressed by the theme Confirmation through togetherness, based on six subthemes covering emotional and, to a lesser extent, instrumental support. Confirmation through togetherness derived principally from information, understanding, encouragement, involvement and spiritual community. Three subthemes were identified as the antecedents to social support: Need of support, Desire for a deeper relationship with relatives, Network to turn to. Social support involves reciprocal exchange of verbal and non-verbal information provided mainly by lay persons. Conclusions The study provides knowledge of the antecedents and attributes of social support networks, particularly from the perspective of close family of adult persons with advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer. There is a need for measurement instruments that could encourage nurses and other health
Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Reich, Stephanie M.; Waechter, Natalia; Espinoza, Guadalupe
Social networking sites (e.g., MySpace and Facebook) are popular online communication forms among adolescents and emerging adults. Yet little is known about young people's activities on these sites and how their networks of "friends" relate to their other online (e.g., instant messaging) and offline networks. In this study, college students…
Mathis, Arlesia; Rooks, Ronica; Kruger, Daniel
Objective: By 2030, older adults will account for 20% of the U.S. population. Over 80% of older adults live in urban areas. This study examines associations between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) among urban older adults. Methods: We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ living in a deindustrialized Midwestern city who answered questions on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. The relationship between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) was analyzed using regression and GIS models. Neighborhood variables included social support and participation, perceived racism and crime. Additional models included actual crime indices to compare differences between perceived and actual crime. Results: Seniors who have poor SRH are 21% more likely to report fear of crime than seniors with excellent SRH (p = 0.01). Additional analyses revealed Black seniors are 7% less likely to participate in social activities (p = 0.005) and 4% more likely to report experiencing racism (p < 0.001). Discussion: Given the increasing numbers of older adults living in urban neighborhoods, studies such as this one are important for well-being among seniors. Mitigating environmental influences in the neighborhood which are associated with poor SRH may allow urban older adults to maintain health and reduce disability. PMID:26703659
Leininger, Lindsey Jeanne; Ryan, Rebecca M; Kalil, Ariel
This study examined the association between low-income mothers' perceived social support and the prevalence of their children's medically treated accidents and injuries. Data were drawn from the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies (NEWWS), an experimental evaluation of 11 welfare-to-work programs in seven U.S. cities. In regression models, maternal social support was significantly associated with the likelihood that children experienced an accident or injury between the ages of 8 and 10 such that children of mothers with very limited support were at the highest risk. This association was robust to the inclusion of a wide range of controls, including a prior measure of accident and injury occurrence. A primary finding was that only children whose mothers had the lowest levels of social support, characterized here as socially isolated, suffered significantly higher rates of injury. This suggests that social isolation presents a meaningful threat to child safety and may play an important role in the etiology of child injury among low-income families.
Wong, Janine W Y; Meunier, Joël; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias
Kin recognition is a key mechanism to direct social behaviours towards related individuals or avoid inbreeding depression. In insects, recognition is generally mediated by cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) compounds, which are partly inherited from parents. However, in social insects, potential nepotistic conflicts between group members from different patrilines are predicted to select against the expression of patriline-specific signatures in CHC profiles. Whereas this key prediction in the evolution of insect signalling received empirical support in eusocial insects, it remains unclear whether it can be generalized beyond eusociality to less-derived forms of social life. Here, we addressed this issue by manipulating the number of fathers siring clutches tended by females of the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, analysing the CHC profiles of the resulting juvenile and adult offspring, and using discriminant analysis to estimate the information content of CHC with respect to the maternal and paternal origin of individuals. As predicted, if paternally inherited cues are concealed during family life, increases in mating number had no effect on information content of CHC profiles among earwig juveniles, but significantly decreased the one among adult offspring. We suggest that age-dependent expression of patriline-specific cues evolved to limit the risks of nepotism as family-living juveniles and favour sibling-mating avoidance as group-living adults. These results highlight the role of parental care and social life in the evolution of chemical communication and recognition cues.
Franks, P; Campbell, T L; Shields, C G
The associations between social relationships and health have been examined using two major research traditions. Using a social epidemiological approach, much research has shown the beneficial effect of social supports on health and health behaviors. Family interaction research, which has grown out of a more clinical tradition, has shown the complex effects of family functioning on health, particularly mental health. No studies have examined the relative power of these two approaches in explicating the connections between social relationships and health. We hypothesized that social relationships (social support and family functioning) would exert direct and indirect (through depressive symptoms) effects on health behaviors. We also hypothesized that the effects of social relationships on health would be more powerfully explicated by family functioning than by social support. We mailed a pilot survey to a random sample of patients attending a family practice center, including questions on depressive symptoms, cardiovascular health behaviors, demographics, social support using the ISEL scale, and family functioning using the FEICS scale. FEICS is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess family emotional involvement and criticism, the media elements of family expressed emotion. Eighty-three useable responses were obtained. Regression analyses and structural modelling showed both direct and indirect statistically significant paths from social relationships to health behaviors. Family criticism was directly associated (standardized coefficient = 0.29) with depressive symptoms, and family emotional involvement was directly associated with both depressive symptoms (coefficient = 0.35) and healthy cardiovascular behaviors (coefficient = 0.32). The results support the primacy of family functioning factors in understanding the associations among social relationships, mental health, and health behaviors. The contrasting relationships between emotional involvement and
Yli-Uotila, T; Rantanen, A; Suominen, T
The purpose of the study was to describe why Finnish cancer patients choose the internet as a source of social support. The data were collected in May 2010, using an online questionnaire with open-ended questions, through four discussion forums on the websites of the non-profit Cancer Society of Finland. Seventy-four adult patients with cancer participated. The data were analysed using inductive content analysis. The mean age of the participants was 53 years and they were predominantly women. The most common cancer was breast cancer and more than three quarters of the participants had suffered from cancer for less than 5 years. The initial stimuli to use the internet as a source of social support were the ease of communication and access to information as well as the need for emotional and informational support. The actual motives that drove the use of the internet as a source of social support were the requirements for information and peer support, internet technology, a lack of support outside the internet and the negative experiences caused by the illness. The fact that there is an enormous need for information as well as for emotional support and that cancer treatment in Finland is concentrated in major hospitals, to which cancer patients may travel a considerable distance, suggests that nurses should learn to make more frequent virtual contact with their patients.
Moore, Raeanne C; Eyler, Lisa T; Mausbach, Brent T; Zlatar, Zvinka Z; Thompson, Wesley K; Peavy, Guerry; Fazeli, Pariya L; Jeste, Dilip V
Psychological and psychosocial resources, including resilience and social support, have traditionally been studied in the context of the stress paradigm and, more recently, in the context of successful aging. This study used moderated mediation analyses to examine the role of perceived stress in the relationships between physical and mental health functioning and self-rated successful aging (SRSA) and whether differences between people in level of resilience and social support changes the role of perceived stress in these relationships. A cross-sectional study of 1,006 older adults (mean age: 77 years) completed scales addressing SRSA, physical and mental health functioning, perceived stress, resilience, and social support. Results indicated that the strength of relationships between both physical and mental health functioning and SRSA were reduced after accounting for variation in level of perceived stress. The role of perceived stress in the association between mental health functioning and SRSA was found to be stronger among participants with the highest levels of resilience, and the influence of perceived stress on the degree of relationship between physical health functioning and SRSA was stronger among those with greatest social support. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce perceived stress may help break the link between disability and poor well-being in older adults. The findings further suggest that the impact of such interventions might differ depending on psychological resources (i.e., resilience) for mental health disabilities and external resources (i.e., social support) for those with physical health problems. The complex interplay of these factors should be taken into account in clinical settings.
Lakon, Cynthia M; Pechmann, Cornelia; Wang, Cheng; Pan, Li; Delucchi, Kevin; Prochaska, Judith J
We examined engagement in novel quit-smoking private social support networks on Twitter, January 2012 to April 2014. We mapped communication patterns within 8 networks of adult smokers (n = 160) with network ties defined by participants' tweets over 3 time intervals, and examined tie reciprocity, tie strength, in-degree centrality (popularity), 3-person triangles, 4-person cliques, network density, and abstinence status. On average, more than 50% of ties were reciprocated in most networks and most ties were between abstainers and nonabstainers. Tweets formed into more aggregated patterns especially early in the study. Across networks, 35.00% (7 days after the quit date), 49.38% (30 days), and 46.88% (60 days) abstained from smoking. We demonstrated that abstainers and nonabstainers engaged with one another in dyads and small groups. This study preliminarily suggests potential for Twitter as a platform for adult smoking-cessation interventions.
Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Delgado, Jeannette; Medina, Lissette
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of yoga (physical activity) versus social support (verbal activity) on prenatal and postpartum depression. Ninety-two prenatally depressed women were randomly assigned to a yoga or a social support control group at 22 weeks gestation. The yoga group participated in a 20-min group session (only physical poses) once per week for 12 weeks. The social support group (a leaderless discussion group) met on the same schedule. At the end of the first and last sessions the yoga group reported less depression, anxiety, anger, back and leg pain as compared to the social support group. At the end of the last session the yoga group and the support group did not differ. They both had lower depression (CES-D), anxiety (STAI), and anger (STAXI) scores and improved relationship scores. In addition, cortisol levels decreased for both groups following each session. Estriol and progesterone levels decreased after the last session. At the postpartum follow-up assessment depression and anxiety levels were lower for both groups.
Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Avlund, Kirsten
This study examines the formation of group cohesion and social support in exercise classes among former sedentary adults, participating in a Danish community-based intervention. Furthermore, the aim is to analyze the impact of this process on exercise activity among the participants. A multimethod approach was used, analyzing both survey data and 18 personal interviews collected among 87 participants who completed the intervention project. Analysis was performed according to the grounded theory method. The formation of group cohesion was conditioned by the social composition of the group, the teaching ability by the instructors, and the activity by itself. The cohesive group was characterized by an attitude of mutual support toward exercise activities. This mutual support facilitated development of self-efficacy beliefs among the participants improving their mastery expectation regarding exercise. Manipulating group dynamics may be a promising intervention tool in the promotion of leisure-time physical activity.
Lee, Youn Ok; Hong, Juliette; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.; Glantz, Stanton A.
Objectives. We evaluated a Social Branding antitobacco intervention for “hipster” young adults that was implemented between 2008 and 2011 in San Diego, California. Methods. We conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys of random samples of young adults going to bars at baseline and over a 3-year follow-up. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate changes in daily smoking, nondaily smoking, and binge drinking, controlling for demographic characteristics, alcohol use, advertising receptivity, trend sensitivity, and tobacco-related attitudes. Results. During the intervention, current (past 30 day) smoking decreased from 57% (baseline) to 48% (at follow-up 3; P = .002), and daily smoking decreased from 22% to 15% (P < .001). There were significant interactions between hipster affiliation and alcohol use on smoking. Among hipster binge drinkers, the odds of daily smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30, 0.63) and nondaily smoking (OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.42, 0.77) decreased significantly at follow-up 3. Binge drinking also decreased significantly at follow-up 3 (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.53, 0.78). Conclusions. Social Branding campaigns are a promising strategy to decrease smoking in young adult bar patrons. PMID:24524502
Bitetti, Dana; Hammer, Carol Scheffner
Purpose This study examined the impact of maternal depressive symptomatology and social support on the English and Spanish language growth of young bilingual children from low-income backgrounds. It was hypothesized that maternal depression would slow children's development in both languages but that social support would buffer the negative effect. Method Longitudinal data were collected from 83 mothers of Puerto Rican descent and their children who were attending Head Start preschool for 2 years. The effects of maternal depressive symptomatology and social support from family and friends on receptive vocabulary and oral comprehension development in both languages were examined. Results Growth curve modeling revealed that maternal depressive symptomatology negatively affected Spanish receptive vocabulary development only. Maternal depression did not affect children's English receptive vocabulary or their oral comprehension in either language. Social support was not related to maternal depressive symptomatology or child language. Conclusions These findings suggest that maternal depression is 1 risk factor that contributes to less robust primary language development of bilingual children from low-income households. Speech-language pathologists must (a) increase their awareness of maternal depression in order to provide families with appropriate mental health referrals and (b) consider their roles as supportive adults for children whose mothers may be depressed. PMID:25863774
Bershad, Anya K; Seiden, Jacob A; de Wit, Harriet
In addition to its classical role in mediating responses to pain, the opioid system is strongly implicated in the regulation of social behavior. In young laboratory animals, low doses of opioid analgesic drugs reduce responses to isolation distress and increase play behavior. However, little is known about how opioid drugs affect responses to social stimuli in humans. Here we examined the effects of buprenorphine, a mu-opioid partial agonist and kappa-antagonist, on three dimensions of social processing: (i) responses to simulated social rejection, (ii) attention to emotional facial expressions, and (iii) emotional responses to images with and without social content. Healthy adults (N=36) attended two sessions during which they received either placebo or 0.2mg sublingual buprenorphine in randomized order, under double-blind conditions. Ninety minutes after drug administration, they completed three behavioral tasks: (i) a virtual ball-toss game in which they were first included and then excluded by the other players; (ii) an attention task in which they were shown pairs of faces (one emotional and one neutral), while the direction of their gazes was recorded using electrooculography, and (iii) a picture-viewing task, in which they rated standardized images with and without social content. During the ball-toss game, buprenorphine decreased perceived social rejection. During the attention task, the drug reduced initial attention to fearful facial expressions, without influencing attention to angry, happy, or sad faces. Finally, during the picture-viewing task, buprenorphine increased ratings of positivity of images with social content without affecting ratings of nonsocial images. These results suggest that even at low doses, opioid analgesic drugs reduce responses to some types of negative social stimuli while enhancing positive responses to social stimuli. This provides further support for the role of the opioid system in mediating responses to social rejection and
Bershad, Anya K.; Seiden, Jacob A.; de Wit, Harriet
In addition to its classical role in mediating responses to pain, the opioid system is strongly implicated in the regulation of social behavior. In young laboratory animals, low doses of opioid analgesic drugs reduce responses to isolation distress and increase play behavior. However, little is known about how opioid drugs affect responses to social stimuli in humans. Here we examined the effects of buprenorphine, a mu-opioid partial agonist and kappa-antagonist, on three dimensions of social processing; i) responses to simulated social rejection, ii) attention to emotional facial expressions, and iii) emotional responses to images with and without social content. Healthy adults (N = 36) attended two sessions during which they received either placebo or 0.2mg sublingual buprenorphine in randomized order, under double-blind conditions. Ninety minutes after drug administration, they completed three behavioral tasks: i) a virtual ball-toss game in which they were first included and then excluded by the other players; ii) an attention task in which they were shown pairs of faces (one emotional and one neutral), while the direction of their gazes was recorded using electrooculography, and iii) a picture-viewing task, in which they rated standardized images with and without social content. During the ball-toss game, buprenorphine decreased perceived social rejection. During the attention task, the drug reduced initial attention to fearful facial expressions, without influencing attention to angry, happy, and sad faces. Finally, during the picture-viewing task, buprenorphine increased ratings of positivity of images with social content, without affecting ratings of nonsocial images. These results suggest that even at low doses, opioid analgesic drugs reduce responses to some types of negative social stimuli, while enhancing positive responses to social stimuli. This provides further support for the role of the opioid system in mediating responses to social rejection and
Hudson, Larry; McCloud, Rebekah; Buhler, Teresa; Cramer, Stephen; Greer, Linda; Paugh, Robert
A variety of educational practices are used to support adult learners (who are part-time learners and full-time workers as teachers or trainers) in fully World Wide Web-delivered college courses at the University of Central Florida. Use of the Web as the sole means of delivery offers some challenges for learner support, especially for adults,…
Ellenberg, Eytan; Sasporte, Jacob; Bar-On, Zvia; Sfez, Rolland; Cohen, Osnat; Taragin, Mark; Ostfeld, Ishay
Since its foundation, the State of Israel has been affected by terror violence toward its civilian population. For more than 45 years, the Israeli legislation has built a legal insurance allowing citizens casualties of such violence to benefit from specific coverage and support. The objective of this article is to describe the history, legal framework, and organization of social support for terror victims in Israel.
St-Onge, M; Lavoie, F
We describe in this paper the everyday support mothers give to their adult sons or daughters suffering from psychotic disorders. We also describe the support these women receive from their social network regarding specific needs related to their children's disorders. Ninety-nine women, representing all socioeconomic groups, were interviewed. They were recruited through hospitals and self-help groups. The results of this study highlight the fact that participants give a substantial amount of support to their children, that they have considerable concern for their children's well-being, and that members of their family are their main source of emotional and practical support, and of advice. Mental health professionals give primarily informational support to respondents, in part through community-based agencies. The respondents who belong to self-help groups have significantly more needs related to their children's disorders and have more concern for their children's well-being than do the other respondents.
Roesler, Caroline; Pautre, Isabelle; Thirry, Dominique; Flores, Soccoro; Chabbert, Catherine; Savre, Nikita; Pibarot, Michèle; Seveau, Marie-Aude; Dugas, Karyn; Rollin, Zoé; Dumont, Sarah; Gaspar, Nathalie
Socialisation, education, first jobs and autonomy are key steps to teenagers and young adults (TYA) integration into the society. The occurrence of a cancer in this population increases the difficulties. Although, suffering of cancer do affect TYA life journey at social, scholar and professional levels, from diagnosis to the after-cancer live and sometime forever, few studies exist in France. A national study on TYA with cancer (TYAC) social, scholar and professional pathways is on-going (ESPOIR-AJA). A national survey of the existing TYAC insertion support in 2013 by the "Insertion group" of groupe onco-hématologie adolescents et jeunes adultes (GO-AJA) revealed structured and ancient support at scholar level based on national governmental or associative structures, but insufficient and non-specific scholar help in secondary school and professional help. Specific initiatives have emerged since 2012 with the "Plan cancer 2". All these helps remain unequal across the country. A referential on TYAC social, scholar and professional insertion has been prepared by GO-AJA in collaboration with the association francophone des soins oncologiques de support (AFSOS). The impact of the action 9 of the nation "plan cancer 3" is awaited.
Social marketing involves the application of commercial marketing principles to advance the public good. Social marketing calls for much more than health communications campaigns. It involves four interrelated tasks: audience benefit, target behavior, essence (brand, relevance, positioning), and developing the "4Ps" (product, price, place, promotion) marketing mix. The ongoing U.S. Department of Agriculture "Loving Support Makes Breastfeeding Work" campaign was launched in 1997 based on social marketing principles to increase breastfeeding initiation rates and breastfeeding duration among Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) participants. Since then there have been improvements in breastfeeding duration in the country, and the majority of WIC women now initiate breastfeeding. Breastfeeding in public places is still not well accepted by society at large, and any and exclusive breastfeeding durations remain exceedingly low. Lessons learned from "Loving Support" and other campaigns indicate that it is important to design social marketing campaigns to target the influential societal forces (e.g., family and friends, healthcare providers, employers, formula industry, legislators) that affect women's decision and ability to breastfeed for the recommended amount of time. This will require formative research that applies the social-ecological model to different population segments, taking and identifying the right incentives to nudge more women to breastfeed for longer. Any new breastfeeding campaign needs to understand and take into account the information acquisition preferences of the target audiences. The vast majority of WIC women have mobile devices and are accessing social media. The Brazilian experience indicates that making breastfeeding the social norm can be done with a solid social marketing strategy. This is consistent with the recently released "Six Steps to Achieve Breastfeeding Goals for WIC Clinics," which identifies
Kontos, Emily Z; Emmons, Karen M; Puleo, Elaine; Viswanath, K
Social media, and specifically social networking sites (SNSs), are emerging as an important platform for communication and health information exchange. Yet, despite the increase in popularity and use, only a limited number of empirical studies document which segments of the adult population are and are not using social networking sites and with what, if any, affect on health. The purpose of this study is to identify potential communication inequalities in social networking site use among a representative sample of U.S. adults and to examine the association between SNS use and psychological well-being. We analyzed data from the National Cancer Institute's 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Thirty-five percent of online adults reported SNS use within the past 12 months, and there were no significant differences in SNS use by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic position. Younger age (p = .00) was the most significant predictor of SNS use, while being married (p = .02) and having a history of cancer (p = .02) were associated with a decreased odds of SNS use. SNS use was significantly associated with a 0.80 (p = .00) increment in psychological distress score after controlling for other factors. The absence of inequalities in adult SNS use across race/ethnicity and class offers some support for the continued use of social media to promote public health efforts; however, issues such as the persisting digital divide and potential deleterious effects of SNS use on psychological well-being need to be addressed.
Drawing from social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), this study explored social supports' influence on the career choice consideration of farmers during China's current process of urbanization. A questionnaire was designed based on interviews with 140 people and a pretest with a sample of 419 participants. A total of 628…
Israel, Barbara A.
Focuses on the linkage between social support and social networks and health educational programs that involve interventions at the network and community level. Addresses programs enhancing entire networks through natural helpers; and programs strengthening overlapping networks/communities through key opinion and informal leaders who are engaged…
The purpose of the study was to examine direct and indirect effects of social support, social connectedness, and loneliness in predicting adjustment difficulties. The sample of the study was 404 university students (212 females and 192 males) studying in different departments of the Faculty of Education at Pamukkale University. The ages of the…
Nilsen, Wendy; Karevold, Evalill; Roysamb, Espen; Gustavson, Kristin; Mathiesen, Kristin S.
The current population-based study of Norwegian adolescents examined gender-specific patterns in the prospective association between social skills in early adolescence (age 12.5; n = 566) and changes in depressive symptoms from early to late adolescence (age 16.5; n = 375). Further, a potential mediation effect of social support (from peers,…
Rzeszutek, Marcin; Oniszczenko, Włodzimierz; Żebrowska, Magdalena; Firląg-Burkacka, Ewa
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the average HIV infection duration and the level of quantitatively rated post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and social support dimensions in a sample of 562 Polish HIV+ adults. Possible moderating effects of social support on the relationship between the average HIV infection duration and the level of PTSD symptoms were also analysed. The results of this study suggest that the average HIV infection duration may intensify PTSD symptoms and deteriorate the perceived availability of social support in HIV+ individuals. However, a positive relationship between HIV infection duration and the level of trauma symptoms was observed only in the group of HIV+ individuals with low perceived available social support, but not in the group of HIV-infected individuals with high perceived available social support. This research provided some new insight into the psychological and social aspects of living with HIV. In particular, our results suggest that although HIV infection duration may intensify trauma symptoms and deteriorate social support, perceived available social support may act as a buffer against HIV-related trauma symptoms.
Zomer, A Carla; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P; van der Velde, Enno T; Sieswerda, Gert-Jan T; Wajon, Elly M C; Plomp, Koos; van Bergen, Paul F M; Verheugt, Carianne L; Krivka, Eva; de Vries, Cees J; Lok, Dirk J A; Grobbee, Diederick E; Mulder, Barbara J M
We aimed to evaluate how the presence and severity of congenital heart disease (CHD) influence social life and lifestyle in adult patients. A random sample (n = 1,496) from the CONgenital CORvitia (n = 11,047), the Dutch national registry of adult patients with CHD, completed a questionnaire on educational attainment, employment and marital statuses, and lifestyle (response 76%). The Utrecht Health Project provided a large reference group (n = 6,810) of unaffected subjects. Logistic regression models were used for subgroup analyses and to adjust for age, gender, and socioeconomic status where appropriate. Of all patients 51.5% were men (median age 39 years, interquartile range 29 to 51) with mild (46%), moderate (44%), and severe (10%) CHD. Young (<40-year-old) patients with CHD were more likely to have achieved a lower education (adjusted odds ratios [ORs] 1.6 for men and 1.9 for women, p <0.05 for the 2 comparisons), significantly more often unemployed (adjusted ORs 5.9 and 2.0 for men and women, respectively), and less likely to be in a relationship compared to the reference group (adjusted ORs 8.5 for men and 4.5 for women). These poorer outcomes were seen in all severity groups. Overall, the CHD population smoked less (adjusted OR 0.5, p <0.05), had more sports participation (adjusted OR 1.2, p <0.05), and had less obesity (adjusted OR 0.7, p <0.05) than the reference group. In conclusion, there was a substantial social disadvantage in adult patients with CHD, which was seen in all severity groups and primarily in young men. In contrast, adults with CHD had healthier lifestyles compared to the reference group.
Romero, Daniel H; Riggs, Shelley A; Ruggero, Camilo
With rising numbers of student veterans on today's college campuses, multicultural competence in college counseling centers increasingly includes an understanding of military culture and its relation to the psychological health and functioning of student veterans. Research on interpersonal and intrapersonal factors associated with college student veterans' mental health is scarce. The current study examines the contributions of coping style and family social support on symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress in a student veteran sample. We also tested the moderating role of family social support in the relationship between coping style and psychological symptoms. Data from 136 student veterans were analyzed by using path analysis. Results revealed that avoidant coping and family social support significantly predicted depressive and anxiety symptoms. Avoidant coping also significantly predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms. In addition, findings indicated that family social support moderated the relationship between problem-focused coping and depression, as well as between avoidant coping and symptoms of anxiety and depression but not posttraumatic stress. Implications of results for college and university counselors are discussed.
Chu, Samuel K. W.; Kwan, Alvin C. M.; Warning, Peter
The functions and possibilities afforded by blogging have been suggested to be relevant to learning and information management. Its increasing use in the business and education sectors is documented, but currently its use in professional education or internship is limited. The social nature of blogging appears to support the applicability of blogs…
Park, Jisung; Roh, Soonhee; Yeo, Younsook
Purpose: The present study tested Smith's (2003. Theorizing religious effects among American adolescents. "Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42", 17-30. doi:10.1111/1468-5906.t01-1-00158) theory of religious effects to explore the relationship of religiosity, social support, and life satisfaction among elderly Korean…
Danielsen, Anne G.; Samdal, Oddrun; Hetland, Jorn; Wold, Bente
The authors examined the effect of school-related social support from teachers, classmates, and parents on students' life satisfaction that school satisfaction, scholastic competence, and general self-efficacy, respectively, mediated. The authors based the analyses on data from a nationally representative sample of 13- and 15-year-old students (N…
Nahouraii, Helen; Wasserman, Melanie; Bender, Deborah E; Rozier, R Gary
Latino children use fewer professional dental services and experience more dental decay than non-Hispanic White and non-Hispanic Black children. This study tested the association between four types of social support (information, influence, material aid, emotional aid) and dental use among children of Latina immigrants in North Carolina. Latina mothers age 15-44 years (N=174) were sampled from four counties using a multistage church-based sampling design. Each mother reported dental care use for her oldest child younger than 11 years of age. Instrumental aid (information) alone was not associated with dental care use, but receiving any of the other types of social support was associated with dental care use at the bivariate level (p<.01) and at the multivariate level (OR=3.13; 95% CI=1.67-5.87). Over half of the women (65.2%) received at least one of these forms of social support. Interventions expanding dental-related social support could help Latina immigrant mothers overcome barriers to dental care for their children.
Cosio, Saharay E.
Occupational stress creates a negative impact both at the microlevel (i.e., individuals) and at the macrolevel (i.e., organization). This study investigated the role of protective factors of social support and religiosity on occupational stress among university employees. The study used data collected from participants ( N = 72) in a private…
Orte, Carmen; March, Marti X.; Vives, Margarita
In addition to educating and extending knowledge, university programs for seniors, at least the university program for seniors at the University of the Balearic Islands during the period analyzed, also fulfil physical and psychological health-related functions specifically related to our analysis of social support. This article reaches several…
Kojima, Hideo; Miyakawa, Juji
This poster presentation examined the structure of Japanese elementary school children's social support systems to demonstrate how they are related to: (1) academic achievement; (2) teacher evaluations; and (3) the children's own sense of self-esteem. A total of 91 fifth and sixth graders, along with their teachers, were interviewed and surveyed.…
Addonizio, Frank Patrick
The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship among sources and levels of stress, coping patterns, sources and levels of social support, and psychological distress for MSW students. Stress is a common feeling experienced by people throughout life and it is important to understand the way they cope with their stressors. Most of the…
Mendonça, Gerfeson; Cheng, Luanna Alexandra; Mélo, Edilânea Nunes; de Farias, José Cazuza, Jr.
The objective of this review was to systematically synthesize the results of original studies on the association between physical activity and social support in adolescents, published until April 2011. Searches were carried out in Adolec, ERIC, Lilacs, Medline, SciELO, Scopus, SportsDiscus and Web of Science electronic databases and the reference…
Pedrosa, Ignacio; García-Cueto, Eduardo; Suárez-Álvarez, Javier; Pérez Sánchez, Blanca
Social support is a variable that has a great influence in the sport context. In fact, this variable not only affects the athlete's performance but it has also shown to be related to psychological disorders such as Burnout Syndrome. The aim of this paper was to illustrate the Spanish adaptation of a social support scale in the sport context. The normative group who took part in the final version of the research was composed of 397 athletes aged between 13 and 64 years old (mean= 19.23 and standard deviation= 6.67). The scale shows: adequate factorial and construct validity, acceptable fit indexes (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin= 0.785, Root Mean Square Residual= 0.078; Kelly's criterion= 0.075), a negative correlation with the dimensions of burnout and no relationship with respect to self-esteem. In addition, it also shows high reliability (a= 0.88). Furthermore, statistically significant differences have been found in relation to genders - where women require greater social support. In contrast, males tend to display a lower level of social support with team players and international athletes. Moreover, differential item functioning (DIF) was carried out to explore sex bias, however, none of the items exhibit DIF problems.
Reininger, Belinda M.; Perez, Adriana; Flores, Maria I. Aguirre; Chen, Zhongxue; Rahbar, Mohammad H.
This study examined the association of perceived social support and community empowerment among urban middle-school students living in Matamoros, Mexico and the risk behaviors of fighting, alcohol and tobacco use, and sexual activity. Middle school students (n = 1,181) from 32 public and private Mexican schools were surveyed. Weighted multiple…
Hochstetler, Andy; DeLisi, Matt; Pratt, Travis C.
There is broad consensus that the strains of imprisonment and unsupported release affect offenders' mental health and operate to the detriment of their chances of successful reintegration. Drawing on data from 208 male inmates, the authors examine the mediating and moderating influences of social support on the links between inmates' perceptions…
Gruber, Kenneth J.
An assessment inventory (the Friend/Peer Support-Health Eating Physical Activity Scale-FPS-HEPAS) was developed to measure social influence patterns of college student physical activity and food consumption habits. Principal components analysis of 50 items with two referent sets (friends and peers) produced two scales with common factors:…
Riddell, Sheila; Stead, Joan; Weedon, Elisabet; Wright, Kevin
New additional support-needs legislation in Scotland sought to recognise the way in which poverty, as well as individual impairment, contribute to the creation of children's difficulties in learning. As well as identifying a wider range of needs, the legislation sought to provide parents, irrespective of social background, with more powerful means…
Monahan, Deborah J.; Hooker, Karen
Examines whether spouse caregivers of people either with noncognitive disorders (Parkinson's disease) or cognitive disorders (Alzheimer's disease) differed in their use and perception of social support resources. Results indicate that caregivers of spouses diagnosed with cognitive disorders were older, had fewer children, and had fewer financial…
Lesbians may face unique challenges when building friendships. The intersection of culturally sanctioned discrimination and familial rejection may intensify the role friendships play for lesbians and the development of social support networks. The author discusses existing research and qualitative findings and provides suggestions for counselors…
Shonkoff, Jack P.
Discusses the interactive effect of social networks and support systems on parent-child relationships and early childhood development. Suggests that greater attention to family ecology is needed, and raises a number of questions regarding the delivery of comprehensive health services for children and their families. (CJM)