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Sample records for adult social support

  1. Health Literacy, Social Support, and Health Status among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Arozullah, Ahsan M.; Cho, Young Ik; Crittenden, Kathleen; Vicencio, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The study examines whether social support interacts with health literacy in affecting the health status of older adults. Health literacy is assessed using the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Social support is measured with the Medical Outcome Study social support scale. Results show, unexpectedly, that rather…

  2. Social support and depression of adults with visual impairments.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Papakonstantinou, Doxa; Montgomery, Anthony; Solomou, Argyro

    2014-07-01

    Relatively little research exists with regard to the relationship between social support and depression among adults with visual impairments. Such a gap is noteworthy when one considers that individuals become more dependent on others as they enter middle and late adulthood. The present research will examine the association between social networks, social support and depression among adults with visual impairments. Seventy-seven adults with visual impairments participated in the study. Depression, social network and emotional/practical social support were measured with self-report measures. Additionally, the degree to which emotional/practical social support received were positive or negative and the ability of respondents to self-manage their daily living were assessed. Less than a third of respondents scored above the threshold for depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were not related to gender or vision status. Depression was correlated with age, educational level, less positive practical support, more negative practical support and more negative emotional support, with lower perceptions of self-management representing the most robust predictor of depression. Age moderated the relationship between depression and self-management, and between depression and negative emotional support. Lower perceptions of self-management and negative emotional support were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. PMID:24679546

  3. Social support and depression of adults with visual impairments.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Papakonstantinou, Doxa; Montgomery, Anthony; Solomou, Argyro

    2014-07-01

    Relatively little research exists with regard to the relationship between social support and depression among adults with visual impairments. Such a gap is noteworthy when one considers that individuals become more dependent on others as they enter middle and late adulthood. The present research will examine the association between social networks, social support and depression among adults with visual impairments. Seventy-seven adults with visual impairments participated in the study. Depression, social network and emotional/practical social support were measured with self-report measures. Additionally, the degree to which emotional/practical social support received were positive or negative and the ability of respondents to self-manage their daily living were assessed. Less than a third of respondents scored above the threshold for depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were not related to gender or vision status. Depression was correlated with age, educational level, less positive practical support, more negative practical support and more negative emotional support, with lower perceptions of self-management representing the most robust predictor of depression. Age moderated the relationship between depression and self-management, and between depression and negative emotional support. Lower perceptions of self-management and negative emotional support were significantly associated with depressive symptoms.

  4. The impact of social support networks on adult health.

    PubMed

    Asher, C C

    1984-04-01

    Knowledge of the determinants of adult health offers important implications for planning policy that may affect the overall level of health and thus the costs of health care. One potentially important factor that has not been incorporated in previous research is the amount of information individuals have concerning health care or methods of preventive care. This study uses the number of social support networks and the degree of contact individuals have with them as an alternative measure of information. This measure of information is incorporated into an economic model based partly on Becker's Human Capital framework. Social support networks are found to have virtually no impact in explaining health outcomes for illnesses over which the individual has little control. However, when a broader range of illnesses is considered, social support networks do play a role in producing better health.

  5. The Impact of Support Received and Support Provision on Changes in Perceived Social Support among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.

    2006-01-01

    The current study uses longitudinal data from the 1993 U.S. Midwest floods to examine the influence of support received and support provision on changes in perceived social support among older adults exposed to an acute stressor. Results indicated that flood exposure and higher levels of social support at Time 1 were positively associated with…

  6. Assessing Social Support, Companionship, and Distress: NIH Toolbox Adult Social Relationship Scales

    PubMed Central

    Cyranowski, Jill M.; Zill, Nicholas; Bode, Rita; Butt, Zeeshan; Kelly, Morgen A. R.; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Salsman, John M.; Cella, David

    2013-01-01

    Objective The quality of our daily social interactions – including perceptions of support, feelings of loneliness, and distress stemming from negative social exchanges – influence physical health and well-being. Despite the importance of social relationships, brief yet precise, unidimensional scales that assess key aspects of social relationship quality are lacking. As part of the NIH Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function, we developed brief self-report scales designed to assess aspects of social support, companionship, and social distress across age cohorts. This report details the development and psychometric testing of the adult NIH Toolbox Social Relationship scales. Methods Social relationship concepts were selected, and item sets were developed and revised based on expert feedback and literature review. Items were then tested across a community-dwelling U.S. internet panel sample of adults aged 18 and above (N=692) using traditional (classic) psychometric methods and item response theory (IRT) approaches to identify items for inclusion in 5–8 item unidimensional scales. Finally, concurrent validity of the newly-developed scales was evaluated with respect to their inter-relationships with classic social relationship validation instruments. Results Results provide support for the internal reliability and concurrent validity of resulting self-report scales assessing Emotional Support, Instrumental Support, Friendship, Loneliness, Perceived Rejection, and Perceived Hostility. Conclusion These brief social relationship scales provide the pragmatic utility and enhanced precision needed to promote future epidemiological and social neuroscience research on the impact of social relationships on physical and emotional health outcomes. PMID:23437856

  7. Social Network Characteristics, Social Support, and Cigarette Smoking among Asian/Pacific Islander Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Cassel, Kevin; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe‘aimoku; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking may be one of the factors contributing to the high levels of cancer-related mortality experienced by certain Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) subgroups (e.g., Native Hawaiian). Given the collectivist cultural orientation attributed to A/PI groups, social strategies are recommended for substance abuse or smoking cessation treatment among A/PI. However, research examining how social network characteristics and social support relate to smoking across A/PI subgroups has been lacking. This study investigated the associations between social network characteristics (e.g., size, composition), perceived social support, and recent cigarette use across Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and East Asian (e.g., Japanese, Chinese) young adults (18–35 year old). Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from N = 435 participants (M age = 25.6, SD = 8.3; 61% women). Ethnic differences were found in a number of pathways linking social network characteristics, perceived social support, and cigarette smoking. Larger network size was strongly associated with higher perceived social support and lower recent cigarette smoking among Native Hawaiians but not Filipinos or East Asians. Higher perceived social support was associated with lower recent smoking among East Asians and Filipinos but not Native Hawaiians. Implications are discussed with regard to smoking prevention and cessation among A/PI. PMID:27297612

  8. Social Network Characteristics, Social Support, and Cigarette Smoking among Asian/Pacific Islander Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Cassel, Kevin; Trinidad, Dennis R; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2016-06-01

    Cigarette smoking may be one of the factors contributing to the high levels of cancer-related mortality experienced by certain Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) subgroups (e.g., Native Hawaiian). Given the collectivist cultural orientation attributed to A/PI groups, social strategies are recommended for substance abuse or smoking cessation treatment among A/PI. However, research examining how social network characteristics and social support relate to smoking across A/PI subgroups has been lacking. This study investigated the associations between social network characteristics (e.g., size, composition), perceived social support, and recent cigarette use across Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and East Asian (e.g., Japanese, Chinese) young adults (18-35 year old). Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from N = 435 participants (M age = 25.6, SD = 8.3; 61% women). Ethnic differences were found in a number of pathways linking social network characteristics, perceived social support, and cigarette smoking. Larger network size was strongly associated with higher perceived social support and lower recent cigarette smoking among Native Hawaiians but not Filipinos or East Asians. Higher perceived social support was associated with lower recent smoking among East Asians and Filipinos but not Native Hawaiians. Implications are discussed with regard to smoking prevention and cessation among A/PI.

  9. Social Network Characteristics, Social Support, and Cigarette Smoking among Asian/Pacific Islander Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Cassel, Kevin; Trinidad, Dennis R; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2016-06-01

    Cigarette smoking may be one of the factors contributing to the high levels of cancer-related mortality experienced by certain Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) subgroups (e.g., Native Hawaiian). Given the collectivist cultural orientation attributed to A/PI groups, social strategies are recommended for substance abuse or smoking cessation treatment among A/PI. However, research examining how social network characteristics and social support relate to smoking across A/PI subgroups has been lacking. This study investigated the associations between social network characteristics (e.g., size, composition), perceived social support, and recent cigarette use across Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and East Asian (e.g., Japanese, Chinese) young adults (18-35 year old). Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from N = 435 participants (M age = 25.6, SD = 8.3; 61% women). Ethnic differences were found in a number of pathways linking social network characteristics, perceived social support, and cigarette smoking. Larger network size was strongly associated with higher perceived social support and lower recent cigarette smoking among Native Hawaiians but not Filipinos or East Asians. Higher perceived social support was associated with lower recent smoking among East Asians and Filipinos but not Native Hawaiians. Implications are discussed with regard to smoking prevention and cessation among A/PI. PMID:27297612

  10. Perceived social support among adults seeking care for acute respiratory tract infections in US EDs.

    PubMed

    Levin, Sara K; Metlay, Joshua P; Maselli, Judith H; Kersey, Ayanna S; Camargo, Carlos A; Gonzales, Ralph

    2009-06-01

    Emergency departments (EDs) provide a disproportionate amount of care to disenfranchised and vulnerable populations. We examined social support levels among a diverse population of adults seeking ED care for acute respiratory tract infections. A convenience sample of adults seeking care in 1 of 15 US EDs was telephone interviewed 1 to 6 weeks postvisit. The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (7-point Likert) assessed social support across 3 domains: friends, family, and significant others. Higher scores indicate higher support. Of 1104 subjects enrolled, 704 (64%) completed the follow-up interview. Factor analysis yielded 3 factors. Mean social support score was 5.54 (SD 1.04). Female sex, greater household income, and better health status were independently associated with higher levels of social support. Social support levels among adults seeking care in the ED for acute respiratory tract infections are similar to general population cohorts, suggesting that social support is not a strong determinant of health care seeking in EDs.

  11. Perceived Social Support from Friends and Family and Psychosocial Functioning in Bisexual Young Adult College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheets, Raymond L., Jr.; Mohr, Jonathan J.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the degree to which perceived social support was associated with depression, life satisfaction, and internalized binegativity in a sample of 210 bisexual young adult college students. Two types of social support (general and sexuality specific) and 2 sources of social support (family and friends) were…

  12. Do Coparenting and Social Support Have a Greater Effect on Adolescent Fathers than Adult Fathers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jay; Lee, Yookyong

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether coparenting support and social support had a stronger effect on father engagement with 3-year-olds among adolescent fathers compared with adult fathers. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 1,540), we found that coparenting support and paternal social support had a significantly stronger…

  13. Social support sources matter: Increased cellular aging among adults with unsupportive spouses.

    PubMed

    Barger, Steven D; Cribbet, Matthew R

    2016-03-01

    Social support is associated with better health but it is unknown whether the health advantages of social support depend on the support source. Using a probability sample of older U.S. adults (n=1430) we compared leukocyte telomere length, a biomarker of cellular aging, between married adults whose support sources either did or did not include their spouse. Despite having social support from other sources, participants who lacked spousal support had shorter telomeres relative to those with spousal support. The size of this telomere difference was comparable to differences between men and women and was independent of sociodemographic variables, coronary heart disease risk, diagnosed chronic disease and other social relationship resources such as the number of support sources, the number of friends, or the availability of financial support. Our findings suggest that relative to other sources of social support, spousal support may be especially important for cellular aging, a general biological mechanism that is implicated in age-related chronic disease risk.

  14. The Relationship of Perceived Social Support with Well-Being in Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerette, Amy R.; Smedema, Susan Miller

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between perceived social support and multiple indicators of well-being in adults with visual impairments was investigated. The results included significant correlation of social support and depressive symptoms, satisfaction with life, as well as with physical, psychological, economic, family, and social well-being. Implications…

  15. Caregivers of Older Adults: Advantages and Disadvantages of Internet-Based Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Jan; Chenoweth, Lillian; Bold, Mary; Harding, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    We explored the perceptions of caregivers of older adults using Internet-based social support networks regarding the unique advantages and disadvantages of online social support. Participants were recruited with permission of Web owners through 15 Web sites that offered social networks, and responses from 63 electronically submitted surveys were…

  16. Patterns of Self-Disclosure across Social Support Networks: Elderly, Middle-Aged, and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Rhonda G.; Parrott, Roxanne

    1995-01-01

    Functions served by self-disclosure may vary depending upon the adults' gender and stage in the life span. Studies such issues in regard to the elderly, middle-aged, and young adults' use of four functions of self-disclosure: self-expression, self-clarification, social control, and social validation. Findings support the claim that greater…

  17. A cognitive intervention to enhance institutionalized older adults' social support networks and decrease loneliness.

    PubMed

    Winningham, R G; Pike, N L

    2007-11-01

    Nearly all older adults experience social losses, which can disrupt their social support networks and impair their quality of life. Events such as retirement, an inability to drive, death of a spouse and/or close life-long friends, or moving to an elder care facility may negatively affect the quality of older adults' social support networks. Low levels of perceived social support are associated with increased depression, impaired immune functioning and reduced life expectancy. Moreover, social interactions can be cognitively stimulating and may help older adults preserve their cognitive abilities. In the present study, institutionalized older adults were exposed to either a cognitive enhancement programme designed to enhance social networks or a control group. Measures of perceived social support and loneliness were administered before and after a 3-month, group-based intervention. There was a significant interaction between group and time. Those who did not participate in the intervention experienced a decrease in perceived social support and an increase in perceived loneliness. Participants in the intervention group stayed the same on the above measures. Helping older adults increase or maintain the quality of their social networks may lead to enhanced cognitive functioning, decreased depression and improved quality of life. Recommendations to help assisted living facilities, nursing homes, retirement communities and senior centres develop social and cognitive interventions are provided.

  18. Nonparent Adult Social Support and Depressive Symptoms among Mexican American and European American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey-Cannon, Shannon; Pasch, Lauri A.; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Flores, Elena

    2006-01-01

    The notion that nonparent social support buffers the impact of parent depressive symptoms and substance use on adolescent depressive symptoms was tested in 142 Mexican American and 148 European American families with 12- through 15-year-old adolescents. Parent risk factors and adolescent nonparent adult social support were measured at baseline;…

  19. Stress, Social Support, and Outcomes in Two Probability Samples of Homeless Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Paul A.; Tulloch, Elizabeth; Ouellette, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the main effects of social support measures and their stress-buffering effects in two samples of homeless adults (Ns =249 and 219) obtained in the same large county (surrounding Detroit) at different points in time over an 8-year period (1992-1994 and 2000-2002). The findings suggest that the construct of social support,…

  20. Does social support impact depression in caregivers of adults ageing with spinal cord injuries?

    PubMed Central

    Rodakowski, Juleen; Skidmore, Elizabeth R.; Rogers, Joan C.; Schulz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the role of social support in predicting depression in caregivers of adults aging with spinal cord injuries (SCI). Design Cross-sectional secondary data analyses were conducted for this study. Setting Participants were recruited from multiple community locations in Pittsburgh, PA and Miami, FL. Subjects Community-dwelling caregivers of aging adults with SCI (N=173) were interviewed as part of a multisite randomized clinical trial. Main measures The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale measured caregiver depression symptom levels. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis examined the effect of social support (social integration, received social support, and negative social interactions) on depressive symptoms levels for the caregivers of adults aging with SCI, controlling for demographic characteristics and caregiving characteristics. Results Caregivers were, on average, 53 years old (SD=15) and care-recipients were 55 years old (SD=13). Average Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores indicated that sixty-nine (40%) caregivers had significant depressive symptoms (mean 8.69, SD=5.5). Negative social interactions (β̂ =.27, P<.01) and social integration (β̂ =−.25, P<.01) were significant independent predictors of depressive symptom levels in caregivers of adults aging with SCI. Conclusions Findings demonstrate that negative social interactions and social integration are associated with burden in caregivers of adults aging with SCI. Negative social interactions and social integration should be investigated in assessments and interventions intended to target caregiver depressive symptom levels. PMID:23117350

  1. Social Support Modifies the Relationship between Personality and Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Oddone, Cameron G.; Hybels, Celia F.; McQuoid, Douglas R.; Steffens, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between personality, social support, and depression in older adults, identify the personality trait and social support dimension most closely associated with depression, and determine if the relationship between personality and depression varies by level of social support. Design Cross-sectional analysis within longitudinal study. Participants Older patients originally diagnosed with major depression (n=108) and never depressed comparison group of older adults (n=103). Measurements Patients sufficiently recovered from major depression and comparison participants were administered the NEO Personality Inventory. Social support was measured annually for both groups. Patients were administered the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) every three months. Results Patients and comparison participants differed on four of the five NEO domains and all four social support dimensions, but personality did not significantly predict depression status (patient/comparison) in controlled analyses. Within the patient group, subjective social support was the only dimension correlated with MADRS score. In separate linear regression analyses among the patients, controlling for age, sex, and subjective social support, the domains of Neuroticism, Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, and Extraversion were associated with MADRS score. For Neuroticism and Openness, the association varied by level of subjective social support. Conclusions Our research confirmed older patients differed from never depressed older adults in dimensions of personality and social support, and the relationship between these variables differed by depression status. The relationship between personality, social support, and depressive symptoms in older adults recovering from depression is also complex, with subjective social support modifying the association between personality and depression. PMID:21328795

  2. Stressors, social support, religious practice, and general well-being among Korean adult immigrants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Hag; Woo, Hyeyoung

    2013-10-01

    Through this cross-sectional study the authors explore how stressors, social support, and religious practice are associated with the general well-being of 147 Korean adult immigrants through interviews. Hierarchical regression analysis reveals that low English proficiency and financial hardship are significantly related to low general well-being. However, high social support and religious practice are significantly associated with high general well-being. Social service and health care providers need to carefully assess stressors, social support systems, and spiritual issues for providing appropriate services/programs for English, culture, or social activities as well as spiritual intervention to maximize the strengths of Korean immigrants coping with health issues.

  3. Social Support, Mastery, and Psychological Distress in Black and White Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Morin, Ruth T; Midlarsky, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Social support and mastery can protect against psychological distress in late life, carrying implications for theory and intervention. However, some groups have not been well studied, with African Americans receiving less empirical attention, especially in regard to their satisfaction with social support. In this study, samples of African American and White American community-dwelling older adults reported their perceived mastery, degree of psychological distress, and social support. A model investigating the separate relationships of these variables by race explained significantly more variance than a model for all participants combined. For both groups, mastery was significantly associated with lower psychological distress. However, among White Americans, social support was significantly associated with lower distress, while among African Americans, there was no relationship between satisfaction with social support and distress. The findings indicate that social support and mastery are important variables to consider in their relationship to psychological distress in later life and that diverse racial groups may display differing relationships among these variables.

  4. Dismissed Intergenerational Support? New Social Risks and the Economic Welfare of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majamaa, Karoliina

    2011-01-01

    This paper concerns the declining role of the welfare state in supporting young adults. The literature on new social risks concentrates on the incapacity of institutions to respond to a new social situation, and has so far largely neglected the capacity of alternative systems or institutions to fill the vacuum created. The focus in the paper is on…

  5. Perceptions of Preservice Early Educators: How Adults Support Preschoolers' Social Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DellaMattera, Julie N.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that for preschool-age children, social skills can have a profound effect on, and be a predictor of, future societal success and school achievement. Therefore, it is essential that young children develop appropriate social behaviors. To do this, preschoolers need support and guidance from the adults in their life: parents, family, and…

  6. Social support and depressive symptoms among displaced older adults following the 1999 Taiwan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Chie; Okumura, Junko; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Wakai, Susumu

    2004-02-01

    This longitudinal study examines changes in depressive symptoms among displaced older Taiwanese adults (N = 54, M = 68 years), and the impact of various social supports for them at between 6 and 12 months after an earthquake. The average depression score between 6 and 12 months following the earthquake was unchanged and kept high score. Child and extended family support levels related to depressive symptoms after 6 months. In contrast, after 12 months, significant factors associated with a lessening of the depressive symptoms were social support from the extended family and neighbors, and social participation. Intervention to promote increased social networks and social participation, within their new environment in a temporary community, is highly recommended for older adults. PMID:15027795

  7. Effects of Social Support and Coping of Family Caregivers of Older Adults with Dementia in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiung-Yu; Musil, Carol M.; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A.; Wykle, May L.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of demographic characteristics, contextual factors, social support, and coping on health outcomes of family caregivers of older adults with dementia in Taiwan. This study also examined caregiving stress and whether support moderated the effects of caregiver stress on health. Lazarus and…

  8. Social support among African-American adults with diabetes. Part 1: Theoretical framework.

    PubMed Central

    Ford, M. E.; Tilley, B. C.; McDonald, P. E.

    1998-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects African Americans in disproportionate numbers relative to whites. Proper management of this disease is critical because of the increased morbidity and mortality associated with poor diabetes management. The role of social support in promoting diabetes management and improved glycemic control among African Americans is a little-explored area. This article, the first in a two-part series, provides a theoretical framework for examining the relationship between social support and glycemic control among African-American adults. PMID:9640907

  9. Comparing the Social Support Systems and Friendship Expectancies of Young Adults and Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgio, Maria R.; Tryanski, Mandy

    Some research suggests that sources of social support change through the lifespan. Given that the support network changes because of both the individual's needs and the particular life stage of the individual, peer relationships may emerge as crucial sources of emotional support at different times in the lifespan. This study examined friend and…

  10. The context of perceived and desired social support among Korean older adults.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seunghyun

    2013-01-01

    Social support has multiple dimensions, the context of which can be explored by qualitative methods. In this study, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 local senior center members (9 men and 12 women aged 65 and older) in Seoul, South Korea, in order to explore how they perceive and desire social support in an aging society. The qualitative methods in this study also included thematic analysis and constant comparison to identify three main themes: "no or denied support," "not to be greedy and shameless," and "justification and hopelessness." In the interviews, perceived and desired support did not emerge immediately as the participants were reluctant to share personal concerns with or to seek support from others. Nevertheless, they would turn to spouses and children for both emotional and instrumental support when in dire need. A shared norm among the participants was that seeking support would be an embarrassing and shameless act for themselves and a burden to others. They justified the discrepancy between the perceived and desired support as part of aging and felt hopelessness about it. The findings of this study have implications that implicit, individual social support may be effective than explicit, group support activities for those who are passive in recognizing the need for and seeking social support. In assessing and interpreting social support in old age, both perceived and desired support should be included and contextual approaches can be useful in so doing. The senior centers should be a more active advocate of successful aging that would offset hopelessness, negative attitude toward life, and social disconnection. Future research should focus on identifying effective strategies to bridge the gap between perceived and desired social support in older adults in this society of changing values and social norms.

  11. Social support, physical functioning, and cognitive functioning among older African American adults.

    PubMed

    Ayotte, Brian J; Allaire, Jason C; Whitfield, Keith E

    2013-01-01

    Social support and functional ability are related to a number of outcomes in later life among African Americans, including cognitive performance. This study examined how providing and receiving social support was related to fluid and crystallized cognitive abilities among aging African American adults after accounting for functional limitations, age, education, sex, income, and self-reported health. Data from 602 African American adults (M = 69.08, SD = 9.74; 25% male) were analyzed using latent variable modeling. Fluid ability was a second-order factor indicated by measures that assessed verbal memory, working memory, perceptual speed, and inductive reasoning. Crystallized ability was a first-order factor indicated by three measures that assessed vocabulary (Shipley Verbal Meaning Test and parts A and B of the ETS Vocabulary Test). Results indicated that the receipt of social support was negatively related to both fluid and crystallized abilities, while the provision of support was positively related to fluid and crystallized ability. Follow-up tests found that the receipt of support was more strongly related to fluid ability than crystallized ability. There was no significant difference regarding the relationship of provision of support with fluid ability compared to crystallized ability. Results discuss the importance of considering the social context of older adults when examining cognitive ability. PMID:23458286

  12. Life Satisfaction of Older Adults in Hong Kong: The Role of Social Support from Grandchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lou, Vivian W. Q.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between the life satisfaction of older adults and the social support from grandchildren in Hong Kong. Two hundred and fifteen older people (from the ages of 64 to 101, mean age 79.3), whose youngest grandchild was aged 12 or older, were recruited from elderly service agencies to participate in the study.…

  13. Personalisation of Adult Social Care: Self-Directed Support and the Choice and Control Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Sophie; Cameron, Ailsa

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, "self-directed support" was introduced in adult social care in England to establish choice and control--in the assessment process itself and over service provision--for "all" service users. The personalisation agenda is underpinned by a range of ideologies, particularly a civil rights empowerment approach and…

  14. Social Support and Well-Being at Mid-Life among Mothers of Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of social support on the psychological well-being of mothers of adolescents and adults with ASD (n = 269). Quantity of support (number of social network members) as well as valence of support (positive support and negative support) were assessed using a modified version of the "convoy model" developed by…

  15. Exercise and social support are associated with psychological distress outcomes in a population of community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Joanna E; Lawlor, Brian A

    2012-09-01

    Exercise reduces the likelihood of psychological distress, but this may be due to incidental socializing. We gathered information on exercise, social support and three aspects of psychological distress from 583 community-dwelling older adults. Exercise and social support from friends were both associated with lower scores of depression, anxiety and perceived stress. For infrequent exercisers, having a low level of social support indicated higher levels of depression, whereas for frequent exercisers, having a low level of social support did not affect depression levels. Both exercise and social support have roles in regulating psychological well-being in older populations and exercisers are less susceptible to effects of low social support on depression.

  16. Carers' quality of life and experiences of adult social care support in England

    PubMed Central

    Rand, Stacey; Malley, Juliette

    2014-01-01

    Informal carers make a vital contribution to the well-being of the people they care for or look after. Against the policy background in England, the purpose of this study was to explore the views of carers who are in contact with adult social care support services. A qualitative study with 31 carers, who were recruited via local authorities and carers' organisations, was conducted between April and July 2012 to collect data on carers' experiences and perceptions of their quality of life (QoL) with and without adult social care and support for themselves or the person they look after. Through framework analysis, three key themes were identified: (i) definitions of social care services ‘for’ the carer or ‘for’ care recipient and social care outcomes; (ii) carers' access to social care services; and (iii) the meaning and value of informal care. We find that carers' QoL is affected by social care support directed at carers and support directed at those they care for, as well as access to services, the experience of stigma in communities, and in how individual needs and preferences are considered when making decisions about care. While there is much to welcome in the direction of policy in England, this study has shown that there are some gaps in thinking around these areas that will need to be addressed if the lives of carers are to be improved. PMID:24330095

  17. Carers' quality of life and experiences of adult social care support in England.

    PubMed

    Rand, Stacey; Malley, Juliette

    2014-07-01

    Informal carers make a vital contribution to the well-being of the people they care for or look after. Against the policy background in England, the purpose of this study was to explore the views of carers who are in contact with adult social care support services. A qualitative study with 31 carers, who were recruited via local authorities and carers' organisations, was conducted between April and July 2012 to collect data on carers' experiences and perceptions of their quality of life (QoL) with and without adult social care and support for themselves or the person they look after. Through framework analysis, three key themes were identified: (i) definitions of social care services 'for' the carer or 'for' care recipient and social care outcomes; (ii) carers' access to social care services; and (iii) the meaning and value of informal care. We find that carers' QoL is affected by social care support directed at carers and support directed at those they care for, as well as access to services, the experience of stigma in communities, and in how individual needs and preferences are considered when making decisions about care. While there is much to welcome in the direction of policy in England, this study has shown that there are some gaps in thinking around these areas that will need to be addressed if the lives of carers are to be improved.

  18. Social Media Use and Perceived Emotional Support Among US Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Shensa, Ariel; Sidani, Jaime E; Lin, Liu Yi; Bowman, Nicholas D; Primack, Brian A

    2016-06-01

    Low emotional support is associated with poor health outcomes. Engagement with face-to-face social networks is one way of increasing emotional support. However, it is not yet known whether engagement with proliferating electronic social networks is similarly associated with increased emotional support. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess associations between social media use and perceived emotional support in a large, nationally-representative sample. In October 2014, we collected data from 1796 U.S. adults ages 19-32. We assessed social media use using both total time spent and frequency of visits to each of the 11 most popular social media platforms. Our dependent variable was perceived emotional support as measured by the brief Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) emotional support scale. A multivariable model including all sociodemographic covariates and accounting for survey weights demonstrated that, compared with the lowest quartile of time on social media, being in the highest quartile (spending two or more hours per day) was significantly associated with decreased odds of having higher perceived emotional support (AOR 0.62, 95 % CI 0.40, 0.94). However, compared with those in the lowest quartile, being in the highest quartile regarding frequency of social media use was not significantly associated with perceived emotional support (AOR 0.70, 95 % CI 0.45, 1.09). In conclusion, while the cross-sectional nature of these data hinder inference regarding directionality, it seems that heavy users of social media may actually feel less and not more emotional support.

  19. Social Support and Its Correlation with Loneliness: A Cross-Cultural Study of Nepalese Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalise, Hom Nath; Kai, Ichiro; Saito, Tami

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the situation of social support exchange among elderly men and women and to study the cross-cultural validity of predictors of loneliness in two Nepalese castes/ethnicities of older adults. Data for this study were taken from a cross-sectional study of the elderly at least 60 years old living in one ward of…

  20. Accounting for changes in social support among married older adults: insights from the MacArthur Studies of Successful Aging.

    PubMed

    Gurung, Regan A R; Taylor, Shelley E; Seeman, Teresa E

    2003-09-01

    Using longitudinal, community-based data from the MacArthur Studies of Successful Aging, the authors examined determinants of changes in social support receipt among 439 married older adults. In general, social support increased over time, especially for those with many preexisting social ties, but those experiencing more psychological distress and cognitive dysfunction reported more negative encounters with others. Gender affected social support receipt: Men received emotional support primarily from their spouses, whereas women drew more heavily on their friends and relatives and children for emotional support. Discussion centers on the importance of social support provision to those with the greatest needs.

  1. The place of proximity: social support in mother-adult daughter relationships.

    PubMed

    Scelza, Brooke A

    2011-07-01

    The mother-adult daughter relationship has been highlighted in both the social sciences and the public health literature as an important facet of social support networks, particularly as they pertain to maternal and child health. Evolutionary anthropologists also have shown positive associations between support from maternal grandmothers and various outcomes related to reproductive success; however, many of these studies rely on proximity as a surrogate measure of support. Here I present data from the Puerto Rican Maternal and Infant Health Survey (PRMIHS) comparing geographic proximity of mother and daughter with a self-reported measure of mother-to-daughter support. These two measures were used to predict infant health outcomes as well as various measures of instrumental and emotional aid provided during pregnancy and after birth. Primary support was shown to have a positive effect across the analyses, whereas geographic proximity was associated with an increased risk of infant mortality and low birth weight as well as reduced odds of receiving support. This paradox was then examined using a combination variable that teased out the interactions of maternal support and proximity. Women who were geographically close to their mothers but who did not consider them a primary source of support had increased odds of infant death and low birth weight, and were less likely to receive either tangible or intangible forms of aid, while women whose mothers were both close and primary showed uniformly positive outcomes. These results place the role of propinquity within the larger context of social support and highlight the need for more detailed studies of social support within evolutionary anthropology. PMID:22388803

  2. Burden, professional support, and social network in families of children and young adults with muscular dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Patalano, Melania; Sagliocchi, Alessandra; Scutifero, Marianna; Zaccaro, Antonella; D'angelo, Maria Grazia; Civati, Federica; Brighina, Erika; Vita, Giuseppe; Vita, Gian Luca; Messina, Sonia; Sframeli, Maria; Pane, Marika; Lombardo, Maria Elena; Scalise, Roberta; D'amico, Adele; Colia, Giulia; Catteruccia, Michela; Balottin, Umberto; Berardinelli, Angela; Chiara Motta, Maria; Angelini, Corrado; Gaiani, Alessandra; Semplicini, Claudio; Bello, Luca; Battini, Roberta; Astrea, Guja; Politano, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: This study explores burden and social and professional support in families of young patients with muscular dystrophies (MDs) in Italy. Methods: The study was carried out on 502 key relatives of 4‐ to 25‐year‐old patients suffering from Duchenne, Becker, or Limb‐Girdle MD who were living with at least 1 adult relative. Results: A total of 77.1% of relatives reported feelings of loss, 74.0% had feelings of sadness, and 59.1% had constraints in leisure activities. Burden was higher among relatives of patients with higher disability and who spent more daily hours in caregiving. Practical difficulties were higher among relatives who perceived lower help in patient emergencies and less practical support by their social network. Psychological burden was higher in those relatives who were unemployed, those with poorer support in emergencies, and those with lower social contacts. Conclusions: Caring for patients with MDs may be demanding for relatives even in the early stages of these disorders, especially when social support is poor and the patient's disability increases. Muscle Nerve 52: 13–21, 2015 PMID:25363165

  3. Mediating and Moderating Effects of Social Support in the Study of Child Abuse and Adult Physical and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Jung, Hyunzee; Klika, J. Bart; Mason, W. Alex; Brown, Eric C.; Leeb, Rebecca T.; Herrenkohl, Roy. C.

    2016-01-01

    A number of cross-sectional and a few longitudinal studies have shown a developmental relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Published findings also suggest that social support can lessen the risk of adverse outcomes for some abused children. However, few studies have investigated whether social support mediates or moderates the relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Structural equation modeling was used to examine data on these topics from a longitudinal study of more than 30 years. While a latent construct of physical and emotional child abuse did not predict adult health outcomes directly, child abuse did predict outcomes indirectly through social support. A test of variable moderation for child abuse and social support was nonsignificant. Results suggest that social support may help explain the association between child abuse and health outcomes at midlife. Implications of the findings for prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:26845043

  4. Attachment and Social Support in the Prediction of Psychopathology among Young Adults with and without a History of Physical Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLewin, Lise A.; Muller, Robert T.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the roles that social support and attachment play with regard to psychopathology among young adults with and without a history of physical maltreatment. Attachment was conceptualized in terms of the dimensions of view of self and view of other. Attachment and social support were examined…

  5. The Impact of Perceived Stress, Social Support, and Home-Based Physical Activity on Mental Health among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwag, Kyung Hwa; Martin, Peter; Russell, Daniel; Franke, Warren; Kohut, Marian

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity affected older adults' fatigue, loneliness, and depression. We also explored whether social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health problems. The data of 163 older participants were analyzed in this…

  6. Social Support in the Workplace for Working-Age Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papakonstantinou, Doxa; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    The research presented in this article investigated the social support provided in the workplace for persons with visual impairments. The results reveal the more frequently demonstrated forms of positive and negative social support, the range of social support, and the level of satisfaction with this support.

  7. Reframing Adult Literacy and Numeracy Outcomes: A Social Capital Perspective. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balatti, Jo; Black, Stephen; Falk, Ian

    2006-01-01

    This document was produced by the authors based on their research for the report "Reframing Adult Literacy and Numeracy Outcomes: A Social Capital Perspective" [ED493887] and is an added resource for further information. The original report investigated whether adult literacy and numeracy courses produced social capital outcomes, which are changes…

  8. Educator Perceptions of Visual Support Systems and Social Skills for Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, David James

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) face unique social skills challenges as they transition into independent living environments and seek fulfilling relationships within their communities. Research has focused on social education and interventions for children with autism, while transitioning young adults with ASD have received…

  9. Social Networks and Health Among Older Adults in Lebanon: The Mediating Role of Support and Trust

    PubMed Central

    Antonucci, Toni C.; Ajrouch, Kristine J.; Abdulrahim, Sawsan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Despite a growing body of literature documenting the influence of social networks on health, less is known in other parts of the world. The current study investigates this link by clustering characteristics of network members nominated by older adults in Lebanon. We then identify the degree to which various types of people exist within the networks. This study further examines how network composition as measured by the proportion of each type (i.e., type proportions) is related to health; and the mediating role of positive support and trust in this process. Method. Data are from the Family Ties and Aging Study (2009). Respondents aged ≥60 were selected (N = 195) for analysis. Results. Three types of people within the networks were identified: Geographically Distant Male Youth, Geographically Close/Emotionally Distant Family, and Close Family. Having more Geographically Distant Male Youth in one’s network was associated with health limitations, whereas more Close Family was associated with no health limitations. Positive support mediated the link between type proportions and health limitations, whereas trust mediated the link between type proportions and depressive symptoms. Discussion. Results document links between the social networks and health of older adults in Lebanon within the context of ongoing demographic transitions. PMID:25324295

  10. Patient perspectives on peer support for adults with type 1 diabetes: a need for diabetes-specific social capital

    PubMed Central

    Joensen, Lene E; Filges, Tine; Willaing, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Aim To explore the function of peer support from the perspective of adults with type 1 diabetes in Denmark. Methods The study population consisted of 20 adults with type 1 diabetes. The sample was diverse in relation to educational background, age, sex, and cohabitation status. Inspired by action research, several methods and perspectives on peer support were explored and tested. Workshops and group and individual interviews were performed. Systematic text condensation was used to analyze data, supplemented with theory-based interpretive analysis. Results Adults with type 1 diabetes found peer support highly relevant to reduce a burdensome feeling of diabetes-specific loneliness. Peer support showed potential to create diabetes-specific social capital not only by creating reciprocal social support between peers but also, more importantly, by creating space for genuine trust and a feeling of communality. There was a widespread feeling of the pervasive impact of diabetes on daily life and thus the relevance of discussing all aspects of life. However, participants perceived peer support as particularly relevant in relation to big changes in life, for example, in family life, at work, or through treatment events such as getting an insulin pump. Conclusion Peer support programs focusing on creating and establishing diabetes-specific social capital using participatory approaches seem highly relevant among adults with type 1 diabetes. Content, methods, and effects of peer support need further exploration in collaboration with adults with type 1 diabetes. PMID:27536076

  11. Social support of adults and elderly with chronic kidney disease on dialysis

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Simone Márcia; Braido, Natalia Fernanda; Ottaviani, Ana Carolina; Gesualdo, Gabriela Dutra; Zazzetta, Marisa Silvana; Orlandi, Fabiana de Souza

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the instrumental and emotional social support of patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. Method: descriptive cross-sectional study. The sample was sized for convenience and included 103 participants under treatment in a Renal Replacement Therapy Unit. Data were collected through individual interviews, using the Social Support Scale. Results: the mean scores of the emotional and instrumental social support were 3.92 (± 0.78) and 3.81 (± 0.69) respectively, an indication of good support received. The most frequent sources of instrumental and emotional social support mentioned by participants were partners, spouse, companion or boyfriend and friends. Conclusion: patients with chronic kidney disease have high social support, both instrumental and emotional, and the main support comes from the family. PMID:27508920

  12. Social Support and Intellectual Disabilities: A Comparison between Social Networks of Adults with Intellectual Disability and Those with Physical Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippold, T.; Burns, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Social support has been identified as a major protective factor in preventing mental health problems and also as a major contributor to quality of life. People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have been identified as having limited social support structures. Interventions have been focused on promoting their social presence and…

  13. The Internet as Social Support for Older Carers of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Elizabeth A.; LaMartin, Kimberly M.

    2012-01-01

    Social support is a potentially powerful mediator of well-being for family carers. Given that social engagement often decreases with age, the Internet broadens the opportunities for aging carers of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD) to provide support to one another. This article reviews what constitutes social…

  14. Optimism and Well-Being in Older Adults: The Mediating Role of Social Support and Perceived Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Susan Jeanne; Goodwin, Andrea D.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate how psychosocial resources may improve well-being for older adults, this study explored the relationship among questionnaire measures of optimism, social support and perceptions of control in predicting subjective well-being (measured with the positive affect subscale of the Affect Balance Scale) (Bradburn, 1969) and psychological…

  15. The Social Networks of People with Intellectual Disabilities during the On-Campus Supported Adult Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saarinen, Minna K.; Jahnukainen, Markku T.; Pirttimaa, Raija A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the social networks of four young people with intellectual disabilities in supported adult education, focusing on their inclusion in school and leisure environments. A multiple case study approach with content analysis was used. Data were collected through interviews with young people and their family members, relationship…

  16. Social and Economic Benefits of Improved Adult Literacy: Towards a Better Understanding: Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Robyn; Horne, Jackie

    2005-01-01

    This document was produced by the authors based on their research for the report, "Social and Economic Benefits of Improved Adult Literacy: Towards a Better Understanding," and is an added resource for further information. The original document is a feasibility study which explores the frameworks and methodologies available for determining and…

  17. Life-space mobility and social support in elderly adults with orthopaedic disorders.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tomoko; Kitaike, Tadashi; Ikezaki, Sumie

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional survey was to explore relationships between life-space mobility and the related factors in elderly Japanese people who attend orthopaedic clinics. The study measures included surveys of life-space mobility (Life-space Assessment (LSA) score), social support (social network diversity and social ties), physical ability (instrumental self-maintenance, intellectual activity, social role), orthopaedic factors (diseases and symptoms) and demographic information. The questionnaire was distributed to 156 subjects; 152 persons responded, yielding 140 valid responses. Mean age of the sample was 76.0 ± 6.4 (range, 65-96 years), with 57.9% women (n = 81). In a multiple regression analysis, the six factors were significantly associated with LSA. Standardized partial regression coefficients (β) were gender (0.342), instrumental self-maintenance (0.297), social network diversity (0.217), age (-0.170), difficulty of motion (-0.156) and intellectual activity (0.150), with an adjusted R(2) = 0.488. These results suggest that outpatient health-care providers need to intervene in not only addressing orthopaedic factors but also promoting social support among elderly Japanese.

  18. Influence of Social Support on Older Adults with Cognitive Impairment, Depressive Symptoms, or Both Coexisting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millan-Calenti, Jose C.; Sanchez, Alba; Lorenzo-Lopez, Laura; Cao, Ricardo; Maseda, Ana

    2013-01-01

    The influence of social support dimensions (the extent of contact with others, the satisfaction with contacts, and the availability of help if sick or disabled) in elderly people with cognitive impairment (COG), depressive symptoms (DEP), or the co-occurrence of these symptoms (COG-DEP) was assessed in a cross-sectional analysis of a…

  19. Hope and Social Support in Adults Who Are Legally Blind at a Training Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singletary, Caitlin; Goodwyn, Mary Ann; Carter, Alice P.

    2009-01-01

    Because initial and unexamined reactions to life-changing events or permanent disabilities are often negative, sometimes even debilitating, factors that help create positive change in the affected individuals' lives need to be examined. In the study presented here, the authors examined the relationship between levels of hope and social support in…

  20. Self-Reported Life Events, Social Support and Psychological Problems in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulbert-Williams, Lee; Hastings, Richard P.; Crowe, Rachel; Pemberton, Jemma

    2011-01-01

    Background: Several studies have reported relationships between life events and psychological problems in people with intellectual disabilities. In contrast to the general literature, data have consistently been collected via proxy informants and putative moderator variables such as social support have not been examined. Materials and Methods:…

  1. Relationships among Adult Attachment, Social Support, and PTSD Symptoms in Trauma-Exposed College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruneau, Genevieve Mary Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Although many people are exposed to trauma, substantially fewer develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Given this, studies have examined risk and protective factors for developing PTSD. This literature has established that there is a robust negative correlation between social support and PTSD. Attachment insecurity may be an informative…

  2. Optimism and well-being in older adults: the mediating role of social support and perceived control.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Susan Jeanne; Goodwin, Andrea D

    2010-01-01

    To investigate how psychosocial resources may improve well-being for older adults, this study explored the relationship among questionnaire measures of optimism, social support and perceptions of control in predicting subjective well-being (measured with the positive affect subscale of the Affect Balance Scale) (Bradburn, 1969) and psychological well-being (measured with the purpose in life scale of the Ryff Psychological Well-being scales) (Ryff, Lee, Essex, & Schmutte, 1994) among older adults. The potential mediating roles of perceived social support and perception of control were also explored. Participants were 225 adults aged from 65 to 94 years. Optimism was found to be a predictor of both subjective and psychological well-being, and perceived social support was found to mediate the relationship between optimism and subjective well-being, but not psychological well-being. In contrast, perception of control was found to mediate the relationship between optimism and psychological well-being, but not subjective wellbeing. Longitudinal research is needed to confirm these pathways.

  3. A study of transgender adults and their non-transgender siblings on demographic characteristics, social support, and experiences of violence.

    PubMed

    Factor, Rhonda J; Rothblum, Esther D

    2007-01-01

    A national sample of 295 transgender adults and their nontransgender siblings were surveyed about demographics, perceptions of social support, and violence, harassment, and discrimination. Transwomen were older than the other 4 groups. Transwomen, transmen, and genderqueers were more highly educated than nontransgender sisters and nontransgender brothers, but did not have a corresponding higher income. Other demographic differences between groups were found in religion, geographic mobility, relationship status, and sexual orientation. Transgender people were more likely to experience harassment and discrimination than nontransgender sisters and nontransgender brothers. All transgender people perceived less social support from family than nontransgender sisters. This is the first study to compare trans people to nontrans siblings as a comparison group.

  4. Families of Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Taiwan: The Role of Social Support and Coping in Family Adaptation and Maternal Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Ling-Yi; Orsmond, Gael I.; Coster, Wendy J.; Cohn, Ellen S.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we examined differences in social support and coping between mothers of adolescents and adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Taiwan and the United States and to investigate the effects of social support and coping strategies on family adaptation and maternal well-being. Participants were 76 Taiwanese mothers who had at…

  5. The Building Bridges Project: Involving Older Adults in the Design of a Communication Technology to Support Peer-to-Peer Social Engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wherton, Joseph; Prendergast, David

    There are a variety of factors that can lead to social isolation and loneliness in old age, including decline in physical and mental health, as well as change to social environment. The Building Bridges project explores how communication technology can help older adults remain socially connected. This paper will first provide an overview of a prototype communication system designed to support peer-to-peer group interaction. A description of the user-centered design process will be provided to demonstrate the importance of involving older adults at the earliest stages. The implications for designing new technology for older adults are discussed.

  6. Physical activity, healthy lifestyle behaviors, neighborhood environment characteristics and social support among Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal adults.

    PubMed

    Macniven, Rona; Richards, Justin; Gubhaju, Lina; Joshy, Grace; Bauman, Adrian; Banks, Emily; Eades, Sandra

    2016-06-01

    Physical inactivity is the third leading cause of the burden of disease for Australian Aboriginal adults. The neighborhood environment and social support are known to influence physical activity (PA) participation. This study examined these factors in relation to achieving PA recommendations in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. Cross-sectional data from the 2010 Social, Economic, and Environmental Factor (SEEF) Study in New South Wales, Australia were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal participants for PA-related attributes, including achieving PA recommendations. ORs for achieving PA recommendations were estimated in both groups. Overall, 63.1% of Aboriginal (n = 314) and 65.4% of non-Aboriginal (n = 59,175) participants met PA recommendations. Odds of healthy sleep duration were lower, and receiving GP advice to be active was higher, among Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal participants. Aboriginal respondents had higher odds of reporting that the crime rate made it unsafe to walk and that local public transport was inaccessible. They had higher odds of disagreeing they have local shops, footpaths or free/low cost recreation facilities. PA correlates were similar in both groups. The factors relating to PA were similar in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people. Neighborhood and social features were less PA-favorable for Aboriginal participants suggesting multiple possible avenues for increasing PA in this older population group. PMID:27419016

  7. Neighborhood-level stressors, social support, and diurnal patterns of cortisol: the Chicago Community Adult Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Karb, Rebecca A.; Elliott, Michael R.; Dowd, Jennifer B.; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    Neighborhood disadvantage has consistently been linked to increased rates of morbidity and mortality, but the mechanisms through which neighborhood environments may get “under the skin” remain largely unknown. Differential exposure to chronic environmental stressors has been identified as a potential pathway linking neighborhood disadvantage and poor health, particularly through the dysregulation of stress-related biological pathways such as cortisol secretion, but the majority of existing observational studies on stress and neuroendocrine functioning have focused exclusively on individual-level stressors and psychosocial characteristics. This paper aims to fill that gap by examining the association between features of the neighborhood environment and the diurnal cortisol patterns of 308 individuals from Chicago, Illinois, USA. We found that respondents in neighborhoods with high levels of perceived and observed stressors or low levels of social support experienced a flatter rate of cortisol decline throughout the day. In addition, overall mean cortisol levels were found to be lower in higher stress, lower support neighborhoods. This study adds to the growing evidence of hypocortisolism among chronically stressed adult populations and suggests hypocortisolism rather than hypercortisolism as a potential mechanism linking social disadvantage to poor health. PMID:22698925

  8. Mediators of adherence among adults with comorbid diabetes and depression: The role of self-efficacy and social support.

    PubMed

    Tovar, Elizabeth; Rayens, Mary Kay; Gokun, Yevgeniya; Clark, Michele

    2015-11-01

    Depression and diabetes have been linked in a variety of ways, and the presence of depression in those with diabetes can negatively affect adherence to care recommendations. A sample of 201 participants with Type 2 Diabetes completed a cross-sectional survey that assessed depressive symptoms, adherence, self-efficacy, social support, and personal characteristics. Multiple regression analysis was used to test whether self-efficacy and social support mediate the relationship between depressive symptoms and adherence. The findings suggest complete mediation via self-efficacy and some types of social support. Intervening to bolster self-efficacy and social support may decrease the negative effect of depression on adherence.

  9. Measuring Social Supports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Stan; And Others

    Although social support has been operationally defined, a lack of conceptual clarity has made measurement modest and unreliable. To investigate the feasibility of measuring social support from a qualitative rather than a quantitative perspective, and to consider negative social interactions in the assessment, 130 college students were administered…

  10. Social Support, Life Stress, and Psychological Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Brian L.

    The manner in which social support mediates the relationship between stressful life events and psychological distress was examined. A random sample of 320 adult community residents completed and returned a questionnaire assessing levels of life stress, social support, and psychological adjustment. As hypothesized, a social support-life stress…

  11. Social support, stress and the aging brain.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Stephanie M; Cheng, Yen-Pi; Fingerman, Karen L; Schnyer, David M

    2016-07-01

    Social support benefits health and well-being in older individuals, however the mechanism remains poorly understood. One proposal, the stress-buffering hypothesis states social support 'buffers' the effects of stress on health. Alternatively, the main effect hypothesis suggests social support independently promotes health. We examined the combined association of social support and stress on the aging brain. Forty healthy older adults completed stress questionnaires, a social network interview and structural MRI to investigate the amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex circuitry, which is implicated in social and emotional processing and negatively affected by stress. Social support was positively correlated with right medial prefrontal cortical thickness while amygdala volume was negatively associated with social support and positively related to stress. We examined whether the association between social support and amygdala volume varied across stress level. Stress and social support uniquely contribute to amygdala volume, which is consistent with the health benefits of social support being independent of stress. PMID:26060327

  12. Social support, stress and the aging brain.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Stephanie M; Cheng, Yen-Pi; Fingerman, Karen L; Schnyer, David M

    2016-07-01

    Social support benefits health and well-being in older individuals, however the mechanism remains poorly understood. One proposal, the stress-buffering hypothesis states social support 'buffers' the effects of stress on health. Alternatively, the main effect hypothesis suggests social support independently promotes health. We examined the combined association of social support and stress on the aging brain. Forty healthy older adults completed stress questionnaires, a social network interview and structural MRI to investigate the amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex circuitry, which is implicated in social and emotional processing and negatively affected by stress. Social support was positively correlated with right medial prefrontal cortical thickness while amygdala volume was negatively associated with social support and positively related to stress. We examined whether the association between social support and amygdala volume varied across stress level. Stress and social support uniquely contribute to amygdala volume, which is consistent with the health benefits of social support being independent of stress.

  13. Childhood Trauma Exposure in Iraq and Afghanistan War Era Veterans: Implications for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Adult Functional Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E.; Dedert, Eric A.; Calhoun, Patrick S.; Brancu, Mira; Runnals, Jennifer; Beckham, Jean C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship among childhood trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and adult social support in a large sample of veterans who served in the military after 09/11/2001, with a specific focus on the potential role of the PTSD avoidance and numbing cluster as intervening in the association between…

  14. Social support buffering of the relation between low income and elevated blood pressure in at-risk African-American adults.

    PubMed

    Coulon, S M; Wilson, D K

    2015-10-01

    Socioeconomic disadvantage has been linked to elevated blood pressure (BP), and the purpose of this study was to assess whether interpersonal social supports buffer these adverse relations in African-American adults. In three communities matched demographically, a subsample of participants (N = 204) of the Positive Action for Today's Health trial provided measures of perceived social support, annual household income, and BP. Multiple regression analyses with cross-product interactions were conducted using follow-up data. The sample had a mean age of 52.8 years (SD = 15.1), and was predominantly female (66 %) with a high body mass index (M = 33.5, SD = 14.7). Results indicated an inverse relation between social support and diastolic BP (B = -.178, p = .005), and also an interaction with income (p = .046), such that higher social support related to lower diastolic BP in the lowest-income individuals (B = -1.05). The same direct (B = -.141, p = .025) and interacting (B = -1.42, p = .040) social support effects were present for systolic BP, however the omnibus model for systolic BP was not significant, F(6, 196) = 1.80, p = .09. The hypothesized buffering effect of social support on the adverse relation of income to BP was partially supported in at-risk African-American adults. Future prevention efforts for reducing the impact of socioeconomic stress on BP may aim to increase perceptions of social support. PMID:26156119

  15. Social support buffering of the relation between low income and elevated blood pressure in at-risk African-American adults.

    PubMed

    Coulon, S M; Wilson, D K

    2015-10-01

    Socioeconomic disadvantage has been linked to elevated blood pressure (BP), and the purpose of this study was to assess whether interpersonal social supports buffer these adverse relations in African-American adults. In three communities matched demographically, a subsample of participants (N = 204) of the Positive Action for Today's Health trial provided measures of perceived social support, annual household income, and BP. Multiple regression analyses with cross-product interactions were conducted using follow-up data. The sample had a mean age of 52.8 years (SD = 15.1), and was predominantly female (66 %) with a high body mass index (M = 33.5, SD = 14.7). Results indicated an inverse relation between social support and diastolic BP (B = -.178, p = .005), and also an interaction with income (p = .046), such that higher social support related to lower diastolic BP in the lowest-income individuals (B = -1.05). The same direct (B = -.141, p = .025) and interacting (B = -1.42, p = .040) social support effects were present for systolic BP, however the omnibus model for systolic BP was not significant, F(6, 196) = 1.80, p = .09. The hypothesized buffering effect of social support on the adverse relation of income to BP was partially supported in at-risk African-American adults. Future prevention efforts for reducing the impact of socioeconomic stress on BP may aim to increase perceptions of social support.

  16. Effects of the Relationship Enhancement® Program on Social Skills, Empathy and Social Support for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    An important area of research is emerging for adults diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with respect to the challenges they face in their social relationships. Social relationships include those that are romantic in nature such as dating, cohabitation and marriage. Researchers suggest that engaging in a healthy and happy romantic…

  17. Stress and Social Support

    PubMed Central

    Baqutayan, Shadiya

    2011-01-01

    Background: This is an experimental study and it discusses the effectiveness of social support in managing academic stress among students. Aim: The purpose of this study is to understand the importance of social support in managing stress. Materials and Methods: Simple random sampling was assigned to a number of 120 students, equally divided into an experimental and a control group. Classes on social support as coping mechanisms were given to the experimental group only. The accumulated data were then analyzed, descriptive statistics were used to interpret and evaluate the prevalence of academic stress, and social support. Correlation analysis was employed in the examination of the relationship between stress and social support. Results: The findings of this study indicate that there are significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in relation to stress and social support. Eventually, the experimental group proved to cope with academic stress better than the control group, and they were satisfied with their academic performance during the experimentation. Conclusion: Hence, it is highly advisable to encourage the students to use social support as coping mechanisms. PMID:22021950

  18. Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and psychological outcomes among adult international adoptees in Finland: Moderating effects of social support and sense of coherence.

    PubMed

    Koskinen, Maarit; Elovainio, Marko; Raaska, Hanna; Sinkkonen, Jari; Matomäki, Jaakko; Lapinleimu, Helena

    2015-11-01

    Quantitative literature on international adoptees and racial/ethnic discrimination is lacking despite results in qualitative studies from Europe and the United States that have consistently indicated how racism constantly complicates adoptees' everyday lives. To advance the literature, the present study examined the prevalence of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination among 213 adult international adoptees in Finland (59.6% women and 40.4% men, mean age 24.1 years), and the association between perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and psychological well-being indicators, including psychological distress and sleeping problems. In addition, we examined social support and sense of coherence as moderators of the association between perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and psychological well-being. Our results showed that, on average, adult international adoptees perceived racial/ethnic discrimination occasionally. Hierarchical linear regression analyses indicated a significant association between perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and psychological distress and sleeping problems. Additionally, a significant 2-way interaction of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and social support indicated that the availability of social support may moderate the association between perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and psychological distress such that adoptees with high levels of social support may be protected from the harmful effects of discrimination. These results highlight the potential significance of social support in reducing the harmful effects of racial/ethnic discrimination on international adoptees. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Perceived Support from Adults, Interactions with Police, and Adolescents' Depressive Symptomology: An Examination of Sex, Race, and Social Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Sathasivam-Rueckert, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Several risk factors, including female sex, racial minority status, and family poverty, have been implicated in adolescents' depression. The present study focused on the role of one specific aspect of adolescents' ecological context, interactions with adults, in depressive symptomology. We examined the relationship between perceived support from…

  20. A Developmental Analysis of Children's Social Support Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kriegler, Julie A.; Bogat, G. Anne

    Although much investigation of adult social support networks has been done, little attention has been paid to children's social support networks. Childhood patterns of social support probably influence adult patterns. A study was conducted to describe the social networks of third through sixth grade children. It also tests the validity of a new…

  1. Two subjective factors as moderators between critical incidents and the occurrence of post traumatic stress disorders: adult attachment and perception of social support.

    PubMed

    Declercq, Frédéric; Palmans, Vicky

    2006-09-01

    This paper presents the result of a research which investigated the influence of the subjective factors 'adult attachment style' and 'perception of social support' in the occurrence of post traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) in a population of 544 subjects working for a security company and the Belgian Red Cross. The analysis of the results suggests that 'adult attachment style' and 'perception of social support' moderate between a critical incident and the occurrence of a PTSD. In other words, these independent variables differentiate between individuals who are more, and who are less prone, to suffer from a PTSD after having experienced a critical incident. The results of this research shed light on subjective risk factors related to PTSD. The findings can also suggest guidelines for the treatment of individuals suffering from a PTSD.

  2. Sources of social support associated with health and quality of life: a cross-sectional study among Canadian and Latin American older adults

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, Emmanuelle; Ahmed, Tamer; Vafaei, Afshin; Curcio, Carmen Lucia; Phillips, Susan P; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether the association between emotional support and indicators of health and quality of life differs between Canadian and Latin American older adults. Design Cross-sectional analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS). Social support from friends, family members, children and partner was measured with a previously validated social network and support scale (IMIAS-SNSS). Low social support was defined as ranking in the lowest site-specific quartile. Prevalence ratios (PR) of good health, depression and good quality of life were estimated with Poisson regression models, adjusting for age, gender, education, income and disability in activities of daily living. Setting Kingston and Saint-Hyacinthe in Canada, Manizales in Colombia and Natal in Brazil. Participants 1600 community-dwelling adults aged 65–74 years, n=400 at each site. Outcome measures Likert scale question on self-rated health, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and 10-point analogical quality-of-life (QoL) scale. Results Relationships between social support and study outcomes differed between Canadian and Latin American older adults. Among Canadians, those without a partner had a lower prevalence of good health (PR=0.90; 95% CI 0.82 to 0.98), and those with high support from friends had a higher prevalence of good health (PR=1.09; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.18). Among Latin Americans, depression was lower among those with high levels of support from family (PR=0.63; 95% CI 0.48 to 0.83), children (PR=0.60; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.80) and partner (PR=0.57; 95% CI 0.31 to 0.77); good QoL was associated with high levels of support from children (PR=1.54; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.99) and partner (PR=1.31; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.67). Conclusions Among older adults, different sources of support were relevant to health across societies. Support from friends and having a partner were related to good health in Canada, whereas in Latin America, support from family, children and

  3. Promoting Leisure Physical Activity Participation among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Validation of Self-Efficacy and Social Support Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jana J.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Lowe, John B.; Nothwehr, Faryle K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Many individuals with intellectual disabilities are not sufficiently active for availing health benefits. Little is known about correlates of physical activity among this population on which to build health promotion interventions. Materials and Methods: We developed scales for measurement of self-efficacy and social support for…

  4. Social Literacy: A Social Skills Seminar for Young Adults with ASDs, NLDs, and Social Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Mary Riggs

    2011-01-01

    All adults need strong social skills to find and keep a job, establish relationships, and participate fully in adult life--but building these skills can be a special challenge for people with autism, Asperger syndrome, nonverbal learning disorder, social anxiety, and other disorders affecting social learning. Give them the essential support they…

  5. The Other 23 Hours: A Qualitative Study of Fitness Provider Perspectives on Social Support for Health Promotion for Adults with Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Aschbrenner, Kelly; Mueser, Kim; Bartels, Stephen; Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth; Pratt, Sarah; Barre, Laura; Naslund, John; Kinney, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Current efforts to reduce the increased risk of premature death from preventable cardiovascular disease among adults with serious mental illness (SMI) through lifestyle change have had limited success. Engaging informal support systems to promote healthy behaviors in everyday life may increase the effectiveness of health promotion interventions targeting this at-risk population. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 10 fitness trainers serving adults with SMI in a health promotion program at community mental health centers to explore their perspectives on the potential of enlisting support from significant others for health behavior change. Trainers reported that the majority of participants had a relative or significant other who influenced their health behaviors, and they saw potential value in involving them in efforts to improve health outcomes by extending support into participants' daily lives. They did not feel qualified to work with families of individuals with mental illness, but they were willing to partner with providers who had experience in this area. Social workers who practice with families could play a critical role on health promotion teams addressing cardiovascular risk in adults with SMI by using their skills and experiences to engage families in supporting a relative through the process of health behavior change. PMID:26027417

  6. Social Interaction: The Reciprocity of Social Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Linda A.

    This study examined social support as a component of naturally occurring social interaction, focusing on the provision and receipt of support and examining sex differences in support exchange. Seventy female and 54 male college freshmen completed a modified version of the Rochester Interaction Record on which they recorded any social interaction…

  7. The provision of and need for social support among adult and pediatric patients with tuberculosis in Lima, Peru: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant public health problem in Peru, causing an estimated 35,000 new cases each year, 6.7% of whom are co-infected with HIV. Social support mechanisms are key in influencing health-seeking behavior, adherence, and overall patient wellbeing in clinical settings. We examine the types of social support received by TB patients and parents of pediatric patients in peri-urban Lima, Peru, to understand its role in patients’ psychosocial wellbeing during treatment. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted between August 2004 and May 2005 among 43 individuals: 19 adults with TB, 8 adults with TB/HIV, 13 parents of pediatric TB patients, and 3 parents of pediatric TB/HIV patients. Results Patients described the need for psychosocial support to mitigate the difficulty of continually going to the clinic to take medications, tending to other family or professional responsibilities while on treatment, and confronting stigma and social isolation within their community. Family members most often contributed to meeting these psychosocial needs, and were also crucial in providing economic support to patients faced with burdensome medical expenses or who were forced to leave their jobs due to being on treatment. Most healthcare personnel were described as key providers of emotional support and encouragement for patients to successfully adhere to treatment, however there were a select few doctors whose “scare tactics” seemingly discouraged patient adherence. During the treatment process, patients described being more socially withdrawn as a result of feeling fatigued from their medications, however most participants also described forming new mutually supportive friendships among their fellow patients. Conclusions Despite the general reluctance of patients to disclose their disease status, patients received a significant amount of psychosocial support from both family members to whom they disclosed, and from positive

  8. Stressful Events, Social Support, and Cognitive Function in Middle-aged Adults with a Family History of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zuelsdorff, Megan L.; Engelman, Corinne D.; Friedman, Elliot M.; Koscik, Rebecca L.; Jonaitis, Erin M.; La Rue, Asenath; Sager, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the associations of stressful experiences and social support with cognitive function in a sample of middle-aged adults with a family history of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Methods Using data from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention (WRAP; N=623), we evaluated relationships between stressful events experienced in the past year, as well as social support, and cognitive performance in four domains: speed and flexibility, immediate memory, verbal learning and memory, and working memory. We assessed interactions between psychosocial predictors, and with APOE ε4 status. Results Greater number of stressful events was associated with poorer performance on tests of speed and flexibility. Greater social support was associated with better performance in the same domain; this relationship was diminished by presence of the ε4 allele. No associations were seen in the remaining three domains. Discussion Psychosocial factors may influence cognition in at-risk individuals; influence varies by cognitive domain and ε4 status. PMID:23945762

  9. Influence of Coping, Social Support, and Depression on Subjective Health Status Among HIV-Positive Adults With Different Sexual Identities

    PubMed Central

    Mosack, Katie E.; Weinhardt, Lance S.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; McAuliffe, Timothy L.; Johnson, Mallory O.; Remien, Robert H.; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Ehrhardt, Anke A.; Chesney, Margaret A.; Morin, Stephen F.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined associations between psychosocial variables (coping self-efficacy, social support, and cognitive depression) and subjective health status among a large national sample (N = 3,670) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive persons with different sexual identities. After controlling for ethnicity, heterosexual men reported fewer symptoms than did either bisexual or gay men and heterosexual women reported fewer symptoms than did bisexual women. Heterosexual and bisexual women reported greater symptom intrusiveness than did heterosexual or gay men. Coping self-efficacy and cognitive depression independently explained symptom reports and symptom intrusiveness for heterosexual, gay, and bisexual men. Coping self-efficacy and cognitive depression explained symptom intrusiveness among heterosexual women. Cognitive depression significantly contributed to the number of symptom reports for heterosexual and bisexual women and to symptom intrusiveness for lesbian and bisexual women. Individuals likely experience HIV differently on the basis of sociocultural realities associated with sexual identity. Further, symptom intrusiveness may be a more sensitive measure of subjective health status for these groups. PMID:19064372

  10. Associations of Social Support and Hardiness with Mental Health Among Mothers of Adult Children with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Zur, H.; Duvdevany, I.; Lury, L.

    2005-01-01

    The study was conducted with mothers of adult children with developmental disabilities and had two aims: (1) to examine the mental health, resources and stress among mothers who keep their adult child at home vs. those who choose placement in a community arrangement; and (2) to assess the associations of mothers resources and stress with mental…

  11. Differential Outcomes of Adult Education on Adult Learners' Increase in Social Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Greef, Maurice; Verté, Dominique; Segers, Mien

    2015-01-01

    To date a significant share of the European population can be considered at risk of social exclusion. It has been argued that adult education programmes are a powerful tool to support vulnerable adults increasing their social inclusion. This study aims to answer the question if and which subgroups of vulnerable adults experience an increase in…

  12. Use of Social Support: Gender and Personality Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reevy, Gretchen M.; Maslach, Christina

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed male and female adults to test several hypotheses about the relationship between sex, gender, personality, and social support. Overall, gender, but not sex, significantly correlated with patterns of social support. Femininity in both sexes associated with seeking and receiving emotional support, and with seeking and receiving support from…

  13. Social Supports among the Homeless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solarz, Andrea

    The homeless have long been considered a disaffiliated and socially isolated group. Research has indicated that most of the homeless are single and have no family relationships or friends to provide support. A study was conducted to gather information on both objective and subjective measures of social support from 125 individuals residing at a…

  14. The Relationship between Social Support and Health Status of Elderly People: Does Social Support Slow Down Physical and Functional Deterioration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Namkee G.; Wodarski, John S.

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes a sample of 695 elderly adults to determine the elasticity of informal social support systems in response to declining health and the effects of such support on their health outcomes. Findings indicate that the extent of informal support is more likely to be bound by the social support network size than by the demand for care associated…

  15. Social Environment and Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellenz, Robert A., Ed.; Conti, Gary J., Ed.

    This monograph contains papers from an institute on the theme of adult learning in the social environment. "Bill Moyers' Journal: An Interview with Myles Horton" provides excerpts from a televised interview that discusses Myles Horton's life, work, and association with the Highlander Folk School. "Myles Horton's Views on Learning in the Social…

  16. The Social Environment and Neurogenesis in the Adult Mammalian Brain

    PubMed Central

    Lieberwirth, Claudia; Wang, Zuoxin

    2012-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis – the formation of new neurons in adulthood – has been shown to be modulated by a variety of endogenous (e.g., trophic factors, neurotransmitters, and hormones) as well as exogenous (e.g., physical activity and environmental complexity) factors. Research on exogenous regulators of adult neurogenesis has focused primarily on the non-social environment. More recently, however, evidence has emerged suggesting that the social environment can also affect adult neurogenesis. The present review details the effects of adult–adult (e.g., mating and chemosensory interactions) and adult–offspring (e.g., gestation, parenthood, and exposure to offspring) interactions on adult neurogenesis. In addition, the effects of a stressful social environment (e.g., lack of social support and dominant–subordinate interactions) on adult neurogenesis are reviewed. The underlying hormonal mechanisms and potential functional significance of adult-generated neurons in mediating social behaviors are also discussed. PMID:22586385

  17. Size, composition, and strength of ties of personal social support networks among adult people living with HIV/AIDS in Henan and Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Cao, Weihua; Lv, Jun; Wang, Ning; Reilly, Kathleen Heather; Zhu, Qian; Li, Liming

    2012-05-01

    To characterize the level of personal support available to people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Henan and Beijing, China, face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect information on network size, composition, and strength of ties. The number of people as sources of support for participants in Henan varied from 1 to 13 and 1 to 16 in Beijing. In Henan, family members were more likely to provide support than non-relatives and they provided support more frequently; in Beijing non-relatives were more likely to provide support than family members. Family members were closer to PLWHA than non-relatives in both sites, but the closest type of relative and non-relative supporters were different between Henan and Beijing. PLWHA in Henan and Beijing receive considerable social support, but there is still opportunity for additional social support. Efforts should be made to mobilize civil society to provide support for PLWHA in China. PMID:21861194

  18. Identification of environmental supports for healthy eating in older adults.

    PubMed

    Sylvie, Amanda K; Jiang, Qianzhi; Cohen, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Many environmental settings and influences can affect food choices and eating behaviors in the growing population of community-dwelling older adults. Using the Social Ecological model, an expert panel participated in online discussions and an Analytic Hierarchy Process survey to identify the most important and changeable environmental settings and enabling factors that promote healthy eating in older adults. Food stores were rated most important when considering accessibility and affordability. Congregate nutrition sites were important for social support along with supporting access and affordability of healthful foods and living accommodations. Senior housing, health care, and religious settings also contributed to the goal of promoting healthful eating in aging adults. Restaurants were rated of lower importance. Based on these results, it is recommended that community food policies include the nutritional needs of older adults by addressing food accessibility and affordability, social support, and living accommodations, with a focus on congregate nutrition sites, food stores, senior housing, health care, and religious organizations.

  19. Social Support Questionnaire for Children: Development and Initial Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon-Hollingsworth, Arlene T.; Thompson, Julia E.; Geary, Meghan A.; Schexnaildre, Mark A.; Lai, Betty S.; Kelley, Mary Lou

    2016-01-01

    The Social Support Questionnaire for Children (SSQC) is a 50-item scale that assesses children's social support from parents, relatives, nonrelative adults, siblings, and peers. The SSQC demonstrates good psychometric properties (e.g., internal consistency, factorial validity). Furthermore, the SSQC appears to be an ethnically sensitive measure of…

  20. Adult Education as Socialization: Implications for Personal and Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnis, John R.

    1990-01-01

    Argues that the process of education, including adult education, involves the adoption and possibly the transmission of values. Applies concepts of socialization theory and curriculum theory to adult education, focusing on the work of Brim, Berger and Luckmann, and Bourdieu. Discusses the relationship between adult education and social change.…

  1. Depression, Dementia, and Social Supports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Sally R.; Vitaliano, Peter P.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews recent literature on the relationships among dementia, depression, and social support, emphasizing the diagnostic differentiation of dementia and depression, and the role of these three entities in elderly with cognitive impairment. Discusses dementia-like symptoms arising in depression and the coexistence of dementia and depression.…

  2. Perceptions of Social Networks by Adults Who Are Deafblind.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Katrina; Parker, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Findings are presented from a descriptive qualitative study of 10 adults who were deafblind who were interviewed about their social lives. Additional data were collected from a discussion board and e-mails from the study participants. Three findings emerged from the data: (a) Navigating adaptations was a significant part of socialization. (b) Gaps existed in work, family, and formal support networks. PMID:27477042

  3. Marital status, childlessness, and social support among older Canadians.

    PubMed

    Penning, Margaret J; Wu, Zheng

    2014-12-01

    Despite evidence of increasing diversification of family structures, little is known regarding implications of marital and parental status for access to social support in later life. Using data from Statistics Canada's 2007 General Social Survey, this study assessed the impact of marital and parental status intersections on social support among adults aged 60 and older (n = 11,503). Two-stage probit regression models indicated that among those who were currently married or separated/divorced, childless individuals were more likely to report instrumental (domestic, transportation) and emotional support from people outside the household. Conversely, among never-married or widowed older adults, being childless was associated with reduced domestic support but without differences in other support domains. Findings suggest that marital and parental status intersections are not uniformly positive, neutral, or negative regarding implications for extra-household social support. Future work should address complexities of these relationships in order to better understand rapidly changing family structures.

  4. The Social World of Preadolescents with Mental Retardation: Social Support, Family Environment and Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenz-Gross, Melodie; Siperstein, Gary N.

    1996-01-01

    Social networks, social supports, family environment, and adjustment among 36 preadolescent students with and without mild mental retardation (MMR) were examined. Students with MMR were more likely to turn to family and adults for companionship, while those without MMR generally turned to peers. Those who received greater support experienced fewer…

  5. "We can talk while we're walking": seeking the views of adults with intellectual disability to inform a walking and social-support program.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Katie; Mutch, Allyson; McPherson, Lyn; Ware, Robert; Lennox, Nick; van Dooren, Kate

    2015-01-01

    To better understand how physical activity programs may contribute to improved health and social-support outcomes for people with intellectual disability, the authors conducted semistructured interviews with 11 people with intellectual disability and community-based volunteers in Brisbane, Australia. Three broad themes emerged: individual factors that generally facilitated activity, external factors that posed barriers to participation, and broader normative factors that directed participation. A key reflection arising out of the thematic analysis was that participants with intellectual disability and volunteers highlighted subtle but pervasive differences in barriers and facilitators to being active. Recommendations are provided for interventions aiming to improve physical activity and social support among those with intellectual disability. The authors' research process demonstrates the utility of seeking the views of potential participants before program rollout to inform implementation and demonstrates the usefulness of a qualitative, actively inclusive approach to health interventions.

  6. Support Groups for Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantz, Kathryn Mederise

    2011-01-01

    A total of 35 adults (24-77 years; 24 males and 11 females) with Asperger syndrome (AS) who were in, were waiting to get in, or had been in support groups participated in the study. In general, the adults were highly educated but unemployed or underemployed and living alone with family members as friends. The participants were interviewed,…

  7. Risk for Depression as a Function of Social Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Steven R. H.; And Others

    Although marital dissatisfaction and social contact factors have been related to depression, the impact of these variables on a heterogeneous population is unclear. To determine risk for depression resulting from the absence of social support variables, 267 married adults (131 males, 136 females), with a mean age of 47 years, completed the Marital…

  8. Understanding Social Support Burden Among Family Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Karla; Demiris, George; Parker Oliver, Debra; Shaunfield, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Despite the abundance of research on social support, both as a variable in larger studies and as a central focus of examination, there is little consensus about the relationship between social support and health outcomes. Current social support measures typically account only for frequency and size of network and a paucity of research exists that has explained social support burden, defined as the burden associated with accessing and receiving support from others. We analyzed audio-recorded discussions by hospice family caregivers about their caregiving problems and potential solutions to examine social relationships within networks and identify the processes that influence social support seeking and receiving. Using qualitative thematic analysis, we found that caregivers providing hospice care experience social support burden resulting from perceived relational barriers between friends and family, the inclination to remain in control, recognition of the loss of the patient as a source of social support and guidance in decision-making, family dynamics and decreased availability of emotional support. Social support researchers should consider how the quality of communication and relationships within social networks impacts the provision and subsequent outcomes of social support in varying contexts. Findings from this study suggest that hospice social support resources should be tailored to the caregiver’s support needs and include assessment on the type of support to be offered. PMID:24345081

  9. Social Networks of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Erosheva, Elena A.; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Emlet, Charles; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examines global social networks—including friendship, support, and acquaintance networks—of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. Design and Methods Utilizing data from a large community-based study, we employ multiple regression analyses to examine correlates of social network size and diversity. Results Controlling for background characteristics, network size was positively associated with being female, transgender identity, employment, higher income, having a partner or a child, identity disclosure to a neighbor, engagement in religious activities, and service use. Controlling in addition for network size, network diversity was positively associated with younger age, being female, transgender identity, identity disclosure to a friend, religious activity, and service use. Implications According to social capital theory, social networks provide a vehicle for social resources that can be beneficial for successful aging and well-being. This study is a first step at understanding the correlates of social network size and diversity among LGBT older adults. PMID:25882129

  10. Social Value and Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Penny

    2011-01-01

    An examination of the current government policy discourse on social value and the capturing of social impact leads immediately into the centre of the fast-moving and transforming public-sector reform agenda. The thinking around social value takes an individual to the heart of contracting, localism, the relationship between the public sector and…

  11. Social networks of older adults living with HIV in Finland.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Nuno Ribeiro; Kylmä, Jari; Kirsi, Tapio; Pereira, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the social networks of older adults living with HIV. Interviews were conducted with nine individuals aged 50 or older living with HIV in Helsinki, Finland. Analysis of transcripts was analysed by inductive qualitative content analysis. Results indicated that these participants' networks tended to be large, including those both aware and unaware of the participants' health status. Analysis identified three main themes: large multifaceted social networks, importance of a support group, and downsizing of social networks. Support received appeared to be of great importance in coping with their health condition, especially since the time of diagnosis. Friends and family were the primary source of informal support. The majority of participants relied mostly on friends, some of whom were HIV-positive. Formal support came primarily from the HIV organisation's support group. In this study group, non-disclosure did not impact participants' well-being. In years to come, social networks of older adults living with HIV may shrink due to personal reasons other than HIV-disclosure. What is of primary importance is that healthcare professionals become knowledgeable about psychosocial issues of older adults living with HIV, identifying latent problems and developing adequate interventions in the early stages of the disease; this would help prevent social isolation and foster successful ageing with HIV.

  12. Social networks of older adults living with HIV in Finland.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Nuno Ribeiro; Kylmä, Jari; Kirsi, Tapio; Pereira, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the social networks of older adults living with HIV. Interviews were conducted with nine individuals aged 50 or older living with HIV in Helsinki, Finland. Analysis of transcripts was analysed by inductive qualitative content analysis. Results indicated that these participants' networks tended to be large, including those both aware and unaware of the participants' health status. Analysis identified three main themes: large multifaceted social networks, importance of a support group, and downsizing of social networks. Support received appeared to be of great importance in coping with their health condition, especially since the time of diagnosis. Friends and family were the primary source of informal support. The majority of participants relied mostly on friends, some of whom were HIV-positive. Formal support came primarily from the HIV organisation's support group. In this study group, non-disclosure did not impact participants' well-being. In years to come, social networks of older adults living with HIV may shrink due to personal reasons other than HIV-disclosure. What is of primary importance is that healthcare professionals become knowledgeable about psychosocial issues of older adults living with HIV, identifying latent problems and developing adequate interventions in the early stages of the disease; this would help prevent social isolation and foster successful ageing with HIV. PMID:26278329

  13. Psychobiology of social support: the social dimension of stress buffering.

    PubMed

    Ditzen, Beate; Heinrichs, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Social integration and social support have a substantial influence on individual health and longevity, an effect assumed to be mediated through reduced stress reactivity in support recipients. However, considerable variability in individual responses to social support has been documented, suggesting that the beneficial effect of social support interacts with early experiences, genetically influenced differences in biological systems mediating social behavior, personality traits, and psychopathology. Here we outline the historical background of social support research, including epidemiological studies, laboratory studies, and field studies on the subject of social support and health, with regard to different psychobiological effector systems. Most recent research has focused on brain mechanisms which link social integration or social support with reduced neural threat responses. As numerous mental disorders are associated with considerable social impairment, understanding the potentially underlying mechanisms of neural plasticity in relation to social support, stress buffering and health in these disorders can help tailor new diagnostic and treatment strategies. Thus, theories of socially-driven emotional learning and memory, as presented in this review, might eventually lead to psychobiology-based treatment concepts for mental disorders involving social deficits.

  14. Nurses' perceptions of administrative social support.

    PubMed

    Ihlenfeld, J T

    1996-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 125 nurses in three types of nursing roles investigated whether these nurses received social support from their administrators, the types of social support received, and whether more or less social support from these managers was desired. The Arizona Social Support Interview Schedule (ASSIS) was used to assess these questions. Results showed that home health nurses received social participation and physical assistance, whereas staff nurses received positive feedback and physical assistance. Nursing faculty received little support from their managers. Social exchange theory predicts that intangibles such as social support should exist in equitable relationships. It is possible that the difference in the nurses' and administrators' statuses and power levels affected staff nurses' results. Mental health clinical nurse specialists can use these results to help nurses understand their work relationships.

  15. Nurses' perceptions of administrative social support.

    PubMed

    Ihlenfeld, J T

    1996-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 125 nurses in three types of nursing roles investigated whether these nurses received social support from their administrators, the types of social support received, and whether more or less social support from these managers was desired. The Arizona Social Support Interview Schedule (ASSIS) was used to assess these questions. Results showed that home health nurses received social participation and physical assistance, whereas staff nurses received positive feedback and physical assistance. Nursing faculty received little support from their managers. Social exchange theory predicts that intangibles such as social support should exist in equitable relationships. It is possible that the difference in the nurses' and administrators' statuses and power levels affected staff nurses' results. Mental health clinical nurse specialists can use these results to help nurses understand their work relationships. PMID:8920344

  16. Convoys of Social Support in Mexico: Examining Socio-Demographic Variation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller-Iglesias, Heather R.; Antonucci, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The Convoy Model suggests that at different stages of the lifespan the makeup of the social support network varies in step with developmental and contextual needs. Cultural norms may shape the makeup of social convoys as well as denote socio-demographic differences in social support. This study examines the social convoys of adults in Mexico.…

  17. Perceived Social Support and Domain-Specific Adjustment of Children with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popliger, Mina; Toste, Jessica R.; Heath, Nancy L.

    2009-01-01

    The perceived availability of social support has been documented as a protective mechanism among adults and adolescents. However, little research has explored the role of social support among children with emotional and behavioural difficulties (E/BD). The current study sought to investigate the effects of perceived social support from family,…

  18. The Relationship between Social Support and Adolescent Dating Violence: A Comparison across Genders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Tara N.; Branch, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Although much research has focused on the function of social support in adult intimate partner violence, little is known about the role of social support in adolescent dating violence. This study is an exploratory analysis of the independent impact of social support from friends and family on the risk of adolescent dating violence perpetration and…

  19. Aging Parents with Adult Mentally Retarded Children: Family Risk Factors and Sources of Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Krauss, Marty Wyngaarden

    1989-01-01

    Predictors of 4 indices of well-being (physical health, life satisfaction, burden, and parenting stress) were examined among 203 aging mothers of mentally retarded adults living at home. Predictive variables examined include maternal characteristics, retarded adult's characteristics, family social climate, mother's social support network, and…

  20. Adolescents' Ratings of Perceived Social Support and Its Importance: Validation of the Student Social Support Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malecki, Christine K.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of Student Social Support Scale (SSSS), a four-factor scale (Parent, Teacher, Classmate, and Close Friend), revealed that (1) SSSS is highly reliable, (2) social support differed by developmental/age groups and by sex, and (3) relationships exist among social support, self-concept, and social behavior. Concludes that SSSS is a promising…

  1. Social Support, Network Structure, and the Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Joseph P.; Wilson, Diane Grimard

    The Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors (ISSB) appears to be a satisfactory measure of social support with good reliability and some evidence of validity. To investigate the dimensionality of the ISSB through factor analytic procedures and to predict social support from social network variables, 179 college students (97 male, 82 female)…

  2. "Recognized, Valued and Supported"? The Experiences of Adult Siblings of People with Autism Plus Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tozer, Rosemary; Atkin, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Background: The potential of adult siblings to offer long-term support to a brother or sister with autism is rarely realized. To understand this, our study explores the expectations of social care among adult siblings. Method: Using qualitative interviews, we spoke to 21 adult siblings about their family relationships and engagement with service…

  3. Social support in Mexican American childbearing women.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Schallmoser, Lucy; MacMullen, Nancy J; Telleen, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Because the Mexican American population in the United States is increasing, nurses will inevitably come into contact with members of this cultural group. Social support is essential for women to adapt to the demands of the perinatal period, and Mexican American childbearing women face particular challenges in obtaining social support. In this article, traditional roles and social support in Mexican American families are described, the challenges of delivering prenatal care within these traditions are discussed, and strategies for nursing intervention are offered.

  4. Health Status, Social Support, and Quality of Life among Family Carers of Adults with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities (PIMD) in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Chiao, Chi; Fu, Li-Yeh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Primary family carers of adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) experience a range of considerable demands. Method: A census survey was conducted in a city of Taiwan; 796 family carers of adults (aged 18 or older) diagnosed with intellectual disability and/or with multiple disabilities living with the family…

  5. Real-Time Social Support Through a Mobile Virtual Community to Improve Healthy Behavior in Overweight and Sedentary Adults: A Focus Group Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kamitani, Emiko; Bonnet, Kemberlee; Lindgren, Teri

    2011-01-01

    Background The onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus can be prevented or delayed by lifestyle changes. Communication technologies such as a mobile phone can be used as a means of delivering these lifestyle changes. Objectives The purposes of this analysis were to explore applicability of potential components of a mobile phone-based healthy lifestyle program and to understand motivators and barriers to continued engagement in a mobile phone healthy lifestyle program. Methods We conducted 6 focus groups (4 female and 2 male groups) in May and June 2010 with 35 focus group participants. The qualitative data were analyzed by 3 researchers using a qualitative description method in an ATLAS.ti software program. Inclusion criteria for enrollment in a focus group were as follows: (1) being aged from 30 to 69 years, (2) speaking and reading English, (3) having a sedentary lifestyle at work or during leisure time (screened by the Brief Physical Activity Survey questionnaire), and (4) having a body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2 (Asian >23 kg/m2) based on self-reported weight and height or 5) having a self-reported prediabetic condition. Results The mean age was 51 (SD 10.6) years; 54% (n = 19) were white; 71% (n = 25) used a mobile phone at least once a week during the last month prior to the study enrollment; and mean BMI was 32.5 (SD 6.5) kg/m2. In the qualitative analyses, the following 4 major themes and their subthemes emerged: (1) real-time social support (real-time peer support from participants who are similarly engaged in a diet or physical activity program, and professional support from health care providers or a researcher), (2) tailoring of mobile phone programs (3) self-monitoring and motivation, and (4) potential barriers and sustainability of the program (fear of failing, age and mobile technologies, and loss of interest over time). Conclusions Participants from a wide range of age and racial groups expressed interest in a mobile phone-based lifestyle program. Such a

  6. Linguistic Correlates of Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    The perception that support is available is central to a person's well being. Nonetheless, naturalistic studies and experimental manipulations of support visibility have uncovered that receiving specific acts of support can entail an emotional cost and that a supportive act is most effective when it is accomplished outside of the recipient's…

  7. Adult Learning for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlong, Cerys

    2011-01-01

    The "Programme for Government" is the Welsh Government's plan of action for this term of the Assembly. At the forefront of the programme is growth and sustainable jobs. As a small economy, still recovering from the decline of manufacturing and the coal industry, Wales' economic and social outcomes are inextricably linked. Certainly, the link…

  8. Supported Employment: A Route to Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrester-Jones, Rachel; Jones, Samantha; Heason, Sophie; Di'Terlizzi, Michele

    2004-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that social networks mediate social functioning, self-esteem, mental health and quality of life. This paper presents findings concerning changes in the social lives, skills, behaviour and life experiences of a group of people with intellectual disabilities (n = 18), who gained support from an employment agency to find…

  9. Pedagogical Support Components of Students' Social Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlasova, Vera K.; Simonova, Galina I.; Soleymani, Nassim

    2016-01-01

    The urgency of the problem stated in the article is caused by the need of pedagogical support of students' social adaptation on the basis of systematicity, which is achieved if we correctly define the components of the process. The aim of the article is to determine the pedagogical support components of students' social adaptation. The leading…

  10. Changes in Mothers' Social Networks and Social Support Following Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Leigh A.; Grady, Katherine

    1985-01-01

    Interviewed 38 mothers to determine the relationship between network characteristics and social support, and changes in both following divorce. Results indicated that characteristics associated with the support a mother receives may differ from the characteristics associated with how satisfied she feels with her network. With time, social networks…

  11. Adult Education and the Social Media Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeNoue, Marvin; Hall, Tom; Eighmy, Myron A.

    2011-01-01

    The advent of Web 2.0 and the spread of social software tools have created new and exciting opportunities for designers of digitally-mediated education programs for adults. Whether working in fully online, blended, or face-to-face learning contexts, instructors may now access technologies that allow students and faculty to engage in cooperative…

  12. Childhood Adversity Is Associated with Adult Theory of Mind and Social Affiliation, but Not Face Processing

    PubMed Central

    Germine, Laura; Dunn, Erin C.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Smoller, Jordan W.

    2015-01-01

    People vary substantially in their ability to acquire and maintain social ties. Here, we use a combined epidemiological and individual differences approach to understand the childhood roots of adult social cognitive functioning. We assessed exposure to 25 forms of traumatic childhood experiences in over 5000 adults, along with measures of face discrimination, face memory, theory of mind, social motivation, and social support. Retrospectively-reported experiences of parental maltreatment in childhood (particularly physical abuse) were the most broadly and robustly associated with adult variations in theory of mind, social motivation, and social support. Adult variations in face discrimination and face memory, on the other hand, were not significantly associated with exposure to childhood adversity. Our findings indicate domains of social cognition that may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of adverse childhood environments, and suggest mechanisms whereby environmental factors might influence the development of social abilities. PMID:26068107

  13. Childhood Adversity Is Associated with Adult Theory of Mind and Social Affiliation, but Not Face Processing.

    PubMed

    Germine, Laura; Dunn, Erin C; McLaughlin, Katie A; Smoller, Jordan W

    2015-01-01

    People vary substantially in their ability to acquire and maintain social ties. Here, we use a combined epidemiological and individual differences approach to understand the childhood roots of adult social cognitive functioning. We assessed exposure to 25 forms of traumatic childhood experiences in over 5000 adults, along with measures of face discrimination, face memory, theory of mind, social motivation, and social support. Retrospectively-reported experiences of parental maltreatment in childhood (particularly physical abuse) were the most broadly and robustly associated with adult variations in theory of mind, social motivation, and social support. Adult variations in face discrimination and face memory, on the other hand, were not significantly associated with exposure to childhood adversity. Our findings indicate domains of social cognition that may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of adverse childhood environments, and suggest mechanisms whereby environmental factors might influence the development of social abilities. PMID:26068107

  14. Social Support and Social Networks in COPD: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Barton, Christopher; Effing, Tanya W; Cafarella, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A scoping review was conducted to determine the size and nature of the evidence describing associations between social support and networks on health, management and clinical outcomes amongst patients with COPD. Searches of PubMed, PsychInfo and CINAHL were undertaken for the period 1966-December 2013. A descriptive synthesis of the main findings was undertaken to demonstrate where there is current evidence for associations between social support, networks and health outcomes, and where further research is needed. The search yielded 318 papers of which 287 were excluded after applying selection criteria. Two areas emerged in which there was consistent evidence of benefit of social support; namely mental health and self-efficacy. There was inconsistent evidence for a relationship between perceived social support and quality of life, physical functioning and self-rated health. Hospital readmission was not associated with level of perceived social support. Only a small number of studies (3 articles) have reported on the social network of individuals with COPD. There remains a need to identify the factors that promote and enable social support. In particular, there is a need to further understand the characteristics of social networks within the broader social structural conditions in which COPD patients live and manage their illness. PMID:26263036

  15. Do Social Bonds Matter for Emerging Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Christopher; Taniguchi, Travis A.

    2013-01-01

    The extent to which social bonds and turning points influence criminal activity has been the focus of much empirical research. However, there have been few empirical studies exploring social bonds and turning points and offending for those who have experienced emerging adulthood, a recently identified stage of the life course. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health we examined if indicators of social bonds and turning points were predictors of criminal offending. Several of the turning points and social bonds included in these analyses were found to influence decreases in criminal offending for a cohort of emerging adults. We extend previous research by examining the influence of social bonds and turning points on patterns of criminal offending during emerging adulthood. PMID:23487587

  16. The relationship between social network, social support and periodontal disease among older Americans

    PubMed Central

    Sabbah, Wael; Tsakos, Georgios; Chandola, Tarani; Newton, Tim; Kawachi, Ichiro; Sheiham, Aubrey; Marmot, Michael G; Watt, Richard G

    2011-01-01

    Aim The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between social network, social support and periodontal disease among older American adults and to test whether social network and support mediates socioeconomic inequality in periodontal disease. Materials and Methods Data pertaining to participants aged 60 years and over from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2004 was used. Periodontal disease variables were extent loss of periodontal attachment ≥ 3mm, and moderate periodontitis. Social support and networks were indicated by need for emotional support, number of close friends and marital status. Results Widowed and those with lowest number of friends had higher rates of the extent of loss of periodontal attachment (1.27,95%CI:1.03,1.58) and (1.22,95%CI:1.03,1.45), respectively. Marital status and number of friends were not significantly associated with moderate periodontitis after adjusting for behavioural factors. The need for more emotional support was not related to periodontal disease in this analysis. Social networks and support had no impact on socioeconomic inequality in periodontal disease. Conclusion Certain aspects of social network, namely being widowed and having fewer friends were linked to the extent of loss of periodontal attachment but not to the definition of moderate periodontitis, in older adults. PMID:21362014

  17. Work Hours, Retirement and Supportive Relations among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nahum-Shani, Inbal

    2010-01-01

    While the literature widely acknowledges the importance of social support to the health, well-being and performance of older adults, little is known about the way in which occupational conditions affect older employees’ access to social support over time and whether these effects are maintained after retirement. Accordingly, in the current study we examine the degree to which work hours have longer term effects on the amount and type of support older individuals receive from intimate coworkers, family and non-work friends, and whether these effects are attenuated or intensified for those who retire. Longitudinal data were collected from a random sample of members of nine unions, 6 months prior to their retirement eligibility (T1) and approximately one year after Time 1 (T2). Our findings indicate that while retirement attenuates the positive association between Time 1 work hours and subsequent coworkers' support as well as the negative relationship between Time 1 work hours and subsequent non-work friends support, retirement fails to attenuate the negative effect of Time 1 work hours on subsequent family support. Policy implications are discussed. PMID:20485475

  18. Functions of an Adult Sickle Cell Group: Education, Task Orientation, and Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Dennis J.; Beltran, Lou R.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on development of adult sickle cell support group and provides description of psychosocial factors most prevalent in patients' lives (anxiety about death, disruption of social support network, disability, dependence on pain medication, conflicts with health care providers). Notes that support group enhanced participants' knowledge about…

  19. Social support, family functioning and parenting competence in adolescent parents.

    PubMed

    Angley, Meghan; Divney, Anna; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace

    2015-01-01

    Depression is known to mediate the association between low social support and parenting competence in adult mothers, but this relationship is rarely assessed in adolescent mothers and fathers. The primary aim of this study was to identify the association between social support, family functioning and social capital on parenting competence, including self-efficacy and satisfaction in adolescent mothers and their partners. Secondary aims included identifying potential partner effects (e.g. whether a partner's social support influenced the respondent's parenting efficacy). Data was obtained from a subset of participants from a longitudinal study of pregnant adolescent females and their partners. Couples completed individual structured interviews via audio computer-assisted self-interview during pregnancy and at 6 months postpartum. To measure the influence of support on parenting outcomes, multi-level modeling was used to assess the Actor-Partner Interdependence model, which examines responses from both members of a dyad in a single analysis. Greater social support was associated with increased parenting self-efficacy (B = 0.062, p = 0.006) and parenting satisfaction (B = 0.111, p < 0.001). Higher family functioning was also associated with greater parenting satisfaction (B = 0.05, p = 0.035). Greater partner family functioning was associated with higher parenting satisfaction (B = 0.047, p = 0.026). This study found the importance of a strong support structure during pregnancy on perceived parenting competence in the early postpartum period for young mothers and fathers. Both social support and family functioning during pregnancy were associated with a greater sense of parenting competence, and these associations were mediated by parental depression. The results of this study underscore the importance of providing social support for young expectant fathers as well as mothers.

  20. Sons, Daughters, and Intergenerational Social Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitze, Glenna; Logan, John

    1990-01-01

    Examined effects of the number and gender composition of children on the receipt of social support by older persons. Effects varied with type of support: having daughters was most salient for telephone contact, while frequency of visiting was affected by both gender and number of children. (Author/TE)

  1. Cognitive Processes in Perceptions of Social Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mankowski, Eric S.; Wyer, Robert S.

    1996-01-01

    Though research is exploratory, it suggests ways in which individuals' a priori beliefs in available social support might affect their reactions to new information and the mechanisms that could underlie the maintenance of these beliefs in light of that information. Evaluates implications for the stability of perceived support availability. (LSR)

  2. Importance of social support in diabetes care

    PubMed Central

    Rad, Ghalmreza Sharfi; Bakht, Leila Azad; Feizi, Avat; Mohebi, Siamak

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Diabetes is one of the major concerns in the third millennium, affecting more people every day. The prevalence of this disease in Iran is reported to be high (about 7.7%). The most important method to control this disease and prevent its complications is self-care. According to various studies, this method has not found its proper place among patients with diabetes due to several reasons. The present study was aimed at determining the relationship between social support, especially family support, and self-care behavior of diabetes patients. Materials and Methods: This study was a narrative review in which the relevant papers of cross-sectional, cohort, clinical trial, and systematic review designs were selected using databases and scientific search engines such as PubMed, ProQuest, SCOPUS, and Elsevier, with the keywords diabetes, social support, and self-care. Moreover, Persian papers were selected from MEDLAB and IRANMEDEX databases and through searching the websites of original research papers published in Iran. All the papers published from 1990 to 2011 were reviewed. Results: The results of the study indicated that the status of self-care and social support in patients with diabetes was not favorable. All the studied papers showed that there was a positive relationship between social support and self-care behavior. Also, some studies pointed to the positive effect of social support, especially family support and more specifically support from the spouse, on controlling blood sugar level and HbA1c. Conclusion: As social support can predict the health promoting behavior, this concept is also capable of predicting self-care behavior of patients with diabetes. Therefore, getting the family members, especially the spouse, involved in self-care behavior can be of significant importance in providing health care to patients with diabetes. PMID:24520558

  3. Intergenerational Transfers to Adult Children in Europe: Do Social Policies Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Martina; Deindl, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the role of social policies in intergenerational transfers from old to young people is especially important in times of population aging. This paper focuses on the influences of social expenditures and social services on financial support and on practical help from older parents to their adult children based on the first two waves…

  4. The influence of functional social support on executive functioning in middle-aged African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Regina C.; Levy, Shellie-Anne; Mwendwa, Denée T.; Callender, Clive O.; Campbell, Alfonso L.

    2012-01-01

    Social support has a positive influence on cognitive functioning and buffers cognitive decline in older adults. This study examined the relations between social support and executive functioning in middle-aged adults. A community-based sample of African Americans completed the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List, a measure of functions of social support, and two measures of executive functioning, the Stroop Color Word Test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Hierarchical regression analyses were used to explore the hypothesis that different facets of perceived social support influence performance on measures of executive functioning. After controlling for age, gender, and education, social support facets including belonging support, self-esteem support, appraisal support, and tangible support were significant predictors of Stroop performance. In addition, tangible support significantly predicted WCST performance. These findings add to previous literature on social support and cognition; however, findings for middle-aged adults are unique and suggest that social support has a positive influence on some executive functions in African Americans prior to old age. PMID:21614697

  5. The Structure and Quality of Social Network Support among Mental Health Consumers of Clubhouse Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pernice-Duca, Francesca M.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the structure and quality of social network support among a group of adult consumers of community-based mental health programs known as "clubhouses". The structure and quality of social network support was also examined by diagnosis, specifically between consumers living with and without schizophrenia. The study involved a…

  6. Neighborhood-Specific and General Social Support: Which Buffers the Effect of Neighborhood Disorder on Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Joongbaeck; Ross, Catherine E.

    2009-01-01

    Is neighborhood-specific social support the most effective type of social support for buffering the effect of neighborhood disorder on depression? Matching theory suggests that it is. The authors extend the research on neighborhood disorder and adult depression by showing that individuals who have higher levels of both general and…

  7. Gender and Socioeconomic Status Differences in University Students' Perception of Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinajero, Carolina; Martínez-López, Zeltia; Rodríguez, Mª Soledad; Guisande, Mª Adelina; Páramo, Mª Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Perceived social support has been shown to be one of the most important protective factors for emerging adult students during their transition to university. However, the relationships between perceived social support and dimensions of gender and family background, which have been shown to affect adjustment to college life, remain unexplored. The…

  8. Support Networks of Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Berit; Depner, Charlene

    Research on social supports of the aged indicates that creation and maintenance of supportive interpersonal bonds among the elderly result in an enhancement of their quality of life. The nature of social support networks at different points in the life course was investigated to determine the relative size of social networks and the way men and…

  9. Barriers to Social Participation among Lonely Older Adults: The Influence of Social Fears and Identity

    PubMed Central

    Goll, Johanna C.; Charlesworth, Georgina; Scior, Katrina; Stott, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Loneliness among older adults is a major public health problem that may be associated with processes of social participation and identity. This study therefore sought to examine the relationship between social participation and identity in a sample of lonely older adults living independently in London, England. Method An inductive qualitative approach, based on semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis, was employed. Results Participants commonly spoke of barriers to social participation that have been reported elsewhere, including illness/disability, loss of contact with friends/relatives, lack of a supportive community, and lack of acceptable social opportunities. However, novel findings were also derived. In particular, participants commonly minimised the difficulties they faced alone, and described attempts to avoid social opportunities. These behaviours were linked to fears about engaging in social participation opportunities, including fears of social rejection and/or exploitation, and fears of losing valued aspects of identity. Discussion It is concluded that social participation amongst lonely older people will not improve through the removal of previously reported barriers alone; instead, older peoples’ beliefs, fears and identities must be addressed. Suggestions for implementing these findings within community organisations are provided. PMID:25706933

  10. The Importance of Neighborhood Social Cohesion and Social Capital for the Well Being of Older Adults in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramm, Jane M.; van Dijk, Hanna M.; Nieboer, Anna P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: We aimed to investigate whether social capital (obtaining support through indirect ties such as from neighbors) and social cohesion (interdependencies among neighbors) within neighborhoods positively affect the well being of older adults. Design and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 945 of 1,440 (66% response rate)…

  11. Childhood Social Anxiety and Social Support-Seeking: Distinctive Links with Perceived Support from Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeves, Sylvia; Banerjee, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Social support-seeking is recognised as an important strategy used by children to cope with negative emotions. However, there are important gaps in our knowledge about children's perceptions of different sources of social support, and the associations that these perceptions have with individual differences in socio-emotional functioning. The…

  12. Socialisation, Social Change and Ideology in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Denis

    1991-01-01

    Argues that the process of education, including adult education, involves the adoption and possibly the transmission of values. Applies concepts of socialization theory and curriculum theory to adult education, focusing on the work of Brim, Berger and Luckmann, and Bourdieu. Discusses the relationship between adult education and social change.…

  13. Social Care in Adult Education: Resisting a Marketplace Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a research study about the experiences of adult educators in which the stories of three of the participants were central in exploring the issue of social care in adult education. It proposes that the adult educators with a social care orientation in this study acknowledge the importance of, and work to provide for, human…

  14. Social networks and social support: living with chronic renal disease.

    PubMed

    Rounds, K A; Israel, B A

    1985-09-01

    Individuals with chronic renal disease who receive dialysis treatment are continually faced with major adjustments. These may include dealing with changes in work and economic status, social roles, activity levels, self-image, health status, and normal routines, as well as learning to live with uncertainty and loss. The individual's social network plays a key role as the individual experiences and moves through various stages of adjustment. Networks with certain characteristics (e.g. provision of affective support, reciprocal ties) may be more effective than others lacking these characteristics in meeting the individual's changing needs during the process of adjusting to chronic renal disease. This paper examines this relationship between the characteristics of an individual's social network and adjustment to chronic renal illness. The discussion focuses on the impact of chronic renal disease on the individual, the composition and characteristics of the social network, and on the relationships between network members. How the social network affects a person's adjustment to stages of adaptation to chronic renal disease is also addressed. Finally, suggestions are presented for how health care professionals can intervene at the individual, network, and organizational level to strengthen and enlarge social networks in order to enhance social support.

  15. Factors affecting social integration of noninstitutionalized mentally retarded adults.

    PubMed

    Reiter, S; Levi, A M

    1980-07-01

    The social integration of noninstitutionalized moderately and mildly mentally retarded young adults was investigated. A group of moderately and mildly retarded adults (study group) was compared with a group of borderline retarded (control group) adults on employability, behavior at work, social integration and social skills, personality, and self-concept. Findings indicated that the study group was less well integrated at work and in society than was the control group and showed lack of social skills. The retarded adults who had nonretarded friends showed better social-educational skills than did the other subjects. Findings suggest that even retarded individuals who grow up in the community need help in order to become socially independent. The existence of a special social club for retarded adults was found to fulfill the functions of a sheltered framework. Participants in the club showed more positive self-concepts; however, the club did not seem to prepare them for social integration in the general community.

  16. Mapping Young Adults' Use of Fathers for Attachment Support: Implications on Romantic Relationship Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Harry; Almond, Tasha M.

    2010-01-01

    A mixed methods approach was used to examine how young adults (n = 1012) perceive fathers as targets for attachment support. Participants ranked the level of attachment support received and sought from fathers, mothers, best friends, and romantic partners, and provided relationship-specific information on additional indices of social support…

  17. Stressful Social Interactions Experienced by Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Adults with intellectual disability are vulnerable to stressful social interactions. We determined frequency and severity of various stressful social interactions, identified the social partners in these interactions, and examined the specific interpersonal skill difficulties of 114 adults with mild intellectual disability. Participants'…

  18. Impact of Choice on Social Outcomes of Adults with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehling, Margaret H.; Tassé, Marc J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores social outcomes for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in comparison to adults with developmental disabilities other than ASD by investigating the relationships between the constructs Social Participation and Relationships, Social Determination, and Personal Control. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test a…

  19. Cognitive functioning in socially anxious adults: insights from the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery

    PubMed Central

    Troller-Renfree, Sonya V.; Barker, Tyson V.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Theory suggests that individuals with social anxiety manifest unique patterns of cognition with less efficient fluid cognition and unperturbed crystallized cognition; however, empirical support for these ideas remains inconclusive. The heterogeneity of past findings may reflect unreliability in cognitive assessments or the influence of confounding variables. The present study examined the relations among social anxiety and performance on the reliable, newly established NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery. Results indicate that high socially anxious adults performed as well as low anxious participants on all measures of fluid cognition. However, high socially anxious adults demonstrated enhanced crystallized cognitive abilities relative to a low socially anxious comparison group. PMID:26106346

  20. Strategies for Building Social Support for Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haeseler, Lisa Ann

    2011-01-01

    At-risk families cope with many issues simultaneously and are often overwhelmed. To assist families, early childhood professionals must offer community- and family-centered support through collaborations with social service providers and outreach professionals. Educational professionals working in high-needs schools must re-examine their funding…

  1. Supporting Student Transition through Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodley, Carolyn; Meredith, CaAtherine

    2012-01-01

    Views about the role of Facebook and other social networking sites in education are extremely varied. Facebook threatens academic success and yet "certain kinds of Facebook use" can support study; indeed, Facebooking students may perform better than their unwired peers (Ellison, Steinfield, and Lampe 2007). Facebook is emphatically a social…

  2. Life stress, illness and social supports.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, R J

    1980-06-01

    Stress has been shown to lower resistance to disease and thus to have a significant effect on susceptibility to a variety of physical and psychological illnesses. A correlation has also been established between the degree of social stress and an individual's use of medical services. However, the majority of people do not respond to stress in these ways. Social supports (e.g. a caring family) seem to be an important protective factor against the effects of stress. Other mtethods of protection (meditation, relaxation response or learning specific coping skills) are also important, but have been little studied. Given their importance in preventive medicine, the author suggests that social support systems should pay an increasing part in health services.

  3. The Role of Support Services in Promoting Social Inclusion for the Disadvantaged Urban-dwelling Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Vicky P.K.H.; Sarkari, Feroz; MacNeil, Kate; Cowan, Laura; Rankin, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Background Disadvantaged older adults living in non-family situations in Toronto are more likely than older adults living in family situations to have less economic security, less social support, and less choice in housing. Older adults who live in poverty and are precariously housed are more likely to be chronically ill, to live with multiple illnesses, to have poor nutrition, high stress and loneliness, all of which are strongly associated with the determinant of health social exclusion. The aim of this study is to: 1) evaluate the level of social disadvantage and exclusion experienced by low-income older adults 65 years of age and older living alone or in non-family situations; 2) assess the level of dependency on government and community services (support services) to maintain a reasonable standard of living (minimize effects of social exclusion); and 3) identify consequences of social exclusion not addressed by current available services. Methods Fifteen male older adult members of the Good Neighbours’ Club in downtown Toronto were interviewed. Semi-structured questionnaires assessed barriers to, utility of, and perceived impact of support services available to disadvantaged older adults living in the central core of southeast Toronto. Results Support services for income, housing, food security, social support, and health care do mitigate the effects of social exclusion in the study participants. Data gathered from interviews identified factors that counter the efforts by support services to increase social inclusion in this population. Conclusions Support services reduce social isolation experienced by these older adults. Evidence of the detrimental impact of low financial literacy suggests a need to design and implement training programs to build the older adults’ capacity to manage their own finances effectively, and resist falling victim to financial fraud. PMID:24278093

  4. Adult Hospice Social Work Intervention Outcomes in the United States.

    PubMed

    Alcide, Amary; Potocky, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    A descriptive and critical analysis of the available empirical literature on social work psychosocial intervention outcomes for adult hospice patients and caregivers was conducted. The electronic bibliographic databases CINHAL (EBSCO), MEDLINE, ProQuest, EMBASE, Campbell Collaboration, and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library) were searched. Search criteria were (a) social work interventions, (b) intervention was tested, (c) adult hospice patients and/or caregivers, (d) studies within the United States, (e) and studies between 2004 and 2014. Of the 21 studies that met the initial search criteria, 5 publications met all review criteria. Based on assessment of study results, intervention effect, and quality of evidence, the ADAPT Problem-Solving Intervention (PSI) and the Hospice Caregiver Support Project have some indications of practical effect on caregiver quality of life, anxiety, stress, and problem-solving skills. The Caregiver Life Line (CaLL) intervention had little to no effect on caregiver role stress or coping skills. The few available studies provide foundational insight into the need for the expansion of research efforts to evaluate hospice social work interventions and document the contributions of social work to the field.

  5. Providing social support in a persuasive context: forms of social support reported by organ procurement coordinators.

    PubMed

    Anker, Ashley E; Akey, Jessica E; Feeley, Thomas Hugh

    2013-01-01

    Eighty-five organ procurement coordinators (OPCs) completed face-to-face interviews designed to elicit the emotional and instrumental social support strategies communicated to potential donor families throughout the request for deceased organ donation. OPCs identified six forms of emotional support and eight forms of instrumental support, with greater reported use of instrumental support strategies. In terms of instrumental support, OPCs most frequently ensured in-hospital comfort (61.2%) or met the nutritional needs of family members (51.8%). With respect to emotional support, OPCs most often expressed sympathy (31.8%) to families and provided support in the form of physical contact (27.1%) with family members. Identifying the forms of social support used by OPCs is a first step toward understanding the strategies that are more (or less) effective in achieving persuasive and support goals.

  6. Social Support Buffers the Impact of Depressive Symptoms on Life Satisfaction in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Tangeria R.; Rabin, Laura A.; Da Silva, Valdiva G.; Katz, Mindy J.; Fogel, Joshua; Lipton, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Life satisfaction is an important component of overall well-being. Decline in life satisfaction is related to many adverse health outcomes including mortality. Methods We investigate the association of various psychosocial and health-related factors to life satisfaction in 237 non-demented community-dwelling older adults. Results Lower levels of depressive symptoms, less perceived stress, higher levels of social support, and better self-perceived general health were significantly associated with higher life satisfaction. Social support buffered the adverse impact of depressive symptoms on life satisfaction where more depressive symptoms were associated with much lower life satisfaction at low levels of social support than at high levels of social support. Discussion We discuss study implications, future research directions, and possible interventions that involve boosting social support in at-risk older adults. PMID:27418714

  7. Alcohol and Other Drug Use in Middle School: The Interplay of Gender, Peer Victimization, and Supportive Social Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormington, Stephanie V.; Anderson, Kristen G.; Tomlinson, Kristin L.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the impact of supportive social relationships (i.e., teacher support, adult support, school relatedness) and peer victimization on middle school students' substance use. Over 3,000 middle school students reported on alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use, supportive social relationships, and instances in which they…

  8. Progressor: social navigation support through open social student modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, I.-Han; Bakalov, Fedor; Brusilovsky, Peter; König-Ries, Birgitta

    2013-06-01

    The increased volumes of online learning content have produced two problems: how to help students to find the most appropriate resources and how to engage them in using these resources. Personalized and social learning have been suggested as potential ways to address these problems. Our work presented in this paper combines the ideas of personalized and social learning in the context of educational hypermedia. We introduce Progressor, an innovative Web-based tool based on the concepts of social navigation and open student modeling that helps students to find the most relevant resources in a large collection of parameterized self-assessment questions on Java programming. We have evaluated Progressor in a semester-long classroom study, the results of which are presented in this paper. The study confirmed the impact of personalized social navigation support provided by the system in the target context. The interface encouraged students to explore more topics attempting more questions and achieving higher success rates in answering them. A deeper analysis of the social navigation support mechanism revealed that the top students successfully led the way to discovering most relevant resources by creating clear pathways for weaker students.

  9. Social support and HIV-related risk behaviors: a systematic review of the global literature.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2014-02-01

    Existing empirical evidence has well documented the role of social support in both physical and psychological well-being among various populations. In the context of HIV prevention, the rapid increase of studies on social support merits a systematic review to synthesize the current global literature on association between social support and HIV-related risk behaviors. The current review reveals a complex picture of this relationship across diverse populations. Existing studies indicate that higher levels of social support are related to fewer HIV-related risk behaviors among female sex workers and people living with HIV/AIDS and heterosexual adults in general. However, influences of social support on HIV-related risk behaviors are inconsistent within drug users, men who have sex with men and adolescents. These variations in findings may be attributed to different measurement of social support in different studies, specific context of social support for diverse population, or various characteristics of the social networks the study population obtained support from. Future studies are needed to explore the mechanism of how social support affects HIV-related risk behaviors. HIV prevention intervention efforts need to focus on the positive effect of social support for various vulnerable and at-risk populations. Future efforts also need to incorporate necessary structure change and utilize technical innovation in order to maximize the protective role of social support in HIV risk prevention or reduction. PMID:23921582

  10. Social Support Providers: A Multidimensional Analysis of Network Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srebnik, Debra S.; Cauce, Ana Mari

    The social support literature lacks empirical studies addressing structural distinctions between social network ties. It often divides social support into functional categories such as material, emotional, or advice support, with little regard to specific support providers or how the support from these providers can be delineated by individuals…

  11. Understanding the relationship of perceived social support to post-trauma cognitions and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Robinaugh, Donald J; Marques, Luana; Traeger, Lara N; Marks, Elizabeth H; Sung, Sharon C; Gayle Beck, J; Pollack, Mark H; Simon, Naomi M

    2011-12-01

    Poor social support in the aftermath of a traumatic event is a well-established risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among adult trauma survivors. Yet, a great deal about the relationship between social support and PTSD remains poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed data from 102 survivors of a serious motor vehicle accident (MVA) at 4 weeks (Time 1) and 16 weeks (Time 2) post-MVA. We assessed the role of perceived dyadic social support, positive dyadic interaction, and negative dyadic interaction in the development and maintenance of PTSD. In addition, we examined how these social support constructs work together with negative post-trauma cognitions to affect the maintenance of PTSD. Neither perceived social support nor the quality of social interaction (i.e., positive or negative) was associated with PTSD symptom severity at Time 1. However, among those with elevated PTSD symptom severity at Time 1, greater social support and positive social interaction and lower negative social interaction were each associated with reductions in PTSD symptom severity from Time 1 to Time 2. For social support and negative social interaction, this association ceased to be significant when jointly assessed with negative post-trauma cognitions, suggesting that perceived social support and negative dyadic interaction were associated with maintenance of PTSD symptom severity because of their association with negative post-trauma cognitions. These results provide support to models and treatments of PTSD that emphasize the role of negative post-trauma cognitions in maintenance of PTSD.

  12. Social support mediates loneliness and depression in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lijun; Gou, Zhenggang; Zuo, Junnan

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of loneliness on depression and further tested the mediating effect of social support. A total of 320 elderly persons completed the Emotional and Social Loneliness Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and Self-Rating Depression Scale. Results revealed that loneliness and social support significantly correlated with depression. Structural Equation Modeling indicated that social support partially mediates loneliness and depression. The final model illustrated a significant path from loneliness to depression through social support. This study sheds light on the concurrent effects of loneliness and social support on depression, providing evidence on how to reduce depression among the elderly.

  13. Effects of tangible social support and depression on diabetes self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Coffman, Maren J

    2008-04-01

    Although social support has been found to promote health and decrease depression in individuals with diabetes, little research has examined the kinds and sources of support. This descriptive correlational study examined the effects of diabetes-related tangible social support and depression on diabetes self-efficacy in Hispanic older adults. Participants were predominantly Puerto Rican, and many were depressed. Primary support needs included transportation and communication; family was the primary source of support. Variables associated with diabetes self-efficacy included tangible support and education. Understanding the relationship between diabetes tangible support, depression, and diabetes self-efficacy will help nurses adapt their care.

  14. Health-related social control within older adults' relationships.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joan S

    2002-09-01

    This study examined the size and composition of older adults' social control networks and investigated behavioral and affective responses to the experience of social control. Social control in the health domain refers to regulatory attempts by others (direct), and feelings of obligation and responsibility to others (indirect), that encourage engagement in a healthy lifestyle. Participants were 181 adults aged 65-80 years who completed a mail survey. On average, older adults reported having 3-5 people in their social network who exerted a positive influence on their health behaviors, with the size and composition of this network varying somewhat by marital and parental statuses. Social control was associated with both positive and negative behavioral and affective responses, depending on both the type of social control (direct vs indirect) and level of relationship satisfaction. Results indicate the importance of better understanding the conditions under which social relationships have beneficial versus detrimental effects on the well-being of older adults.

  15. Health-related social control within older adults' relationships.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joan S

    2002-09-01

    This study examined the size and composition of older adults' social control networks and investigated behavioral and affective responses to the experience of social control. Social control in the health domain refers to regulatory attempts by others (direct), and feelings of obligation and responsibility to others (indirect), that encourage engagement in a healthy lifestyle. Participants were 181 adults aged 65-80 years who completed a mail survey. On average, older adults reported having 3-5 people in their social network who exerted a positive influence on their health behaviors, with the size and composition of this network varying somewhat by marital and parental statuses. Social control was associated with both positive and negative behavioral and affective responses, depending on both the type of social control (direct vs indirect) and level of relationship satisfaction. Results indicate the importance of better understanding the conditions under which social relationships have beneficial versus detrimental effects on the well-being of older adults. PMID:12198097

  16. Importance Ratings of Socially Supportive Behaviors by Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick; Malecki, Christine Kerres

    2003-01-01

    The frequency of students' social support has been investigated in the literature, but little research has examined the social validity or social importance of supportive behaviors for children and adolescents. In the present study, data were gathered from 1,688 students in Grades 3 through 12 via the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale…

  17. Social adjustment in adult males affected with progressive muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Eggers, S; Zatz, M

    1998-02-01

    Adult male patients affected with Becker (BMD, N = 22), limb girdle (LGMD, N = 22) and facioscapulohumeral (FSHMD, N = 18) muscular dystrophy were interviewed to assess for the first time how the disease's severity and recurrence risk (RR) magnitude alter their social adjustment. BMD (X-linked recessive) is the severest form and confers an intermediate RR because all daughters will be carriers, LGMD (autosomal-recessive) is moderately severe with a low RR in the absence of consanguineous marriage, and FSHMD (autosomal-dominant) is clinically the mildest of these three forms of MD but with the highest RR, of 50%. Results of the semistructured questionnaire [WHO (1988): Psychiatric Disability Assessment Schedule] showed no significant difference between the three clinical groups, but more severely handicapped patients as well as patients belonging to lower socioeconomic levels from all clinical groups showed poorer social adjustment. Taken together, myopathic patients displayed intermediate social dysfunction compared to controls and schizophrenics studied by Jablensky [1988: WHO Psychiatric Disability Assessment Schedule]. Since the items of major dysfunction proportion among myopathic patients concern intimate relationships (70%), interest in working among those unemployed (67%), and social isolation (53%), emotional support and social and legal assistance should concentrate on these aspects. Interestingly, the results of this study also suggest that high RRs do not affect relationships to the opposite sex.

  18. Economic Socialization, Saving and Assets in European Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webley, Paul; Nyhus, Ellen K.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the role economic socialization plays in the economic behavior and asset accumulation of young adults by parents using data from European young adults and teenagers. We study the role of four distinct strands of economic socialization (providing pocket money, jobs at home, work for others, and parental encouragement) using a Dutch…

  19. Increasing Integrated Workplace Social Interactions: The Effects of Job Modification, Natural Supports, Adaptive Communication Instruction, and Job Coach Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mautz, Denise; Storey, Keith; Certo, Nick

    2001-01-01

    A study involving an adult with severe mental retardation and other disabilities found that the addition of a communication device, job coach social facilitation training, and eliciting co-worker support for social integration increased the social interactions of the employee in a supported employment setting. (Contains references.) (CR)

  20. Social support in cyberspace: the next generation.

    PubMed

    Weinert, Clarann; Cudney, Shirley; Winters, Charlene

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the Women to Women Project (WTW) is to help chronically ill rural women to adapt to their long-term illnesses by providing support and health information via computers. The specific aims are to (1) assess the impact of the computer-based intervention on psychosocial health (self-efficacy, self-esteem, empowerment, social support, stress, depression, loneliness), computer literacy skills, and health knowledge; and (2) analyze the computer exchanges for insights to explicate the complex process of adapting to chronic illness within the rural context. Participants are 240 rural women with a chronic illness who reside in rural areas of Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, North Dakota, and South Dakota. Preliminary data analysis suggests that the intervention is helping to improve the women's ability to adapt to their chronic illnesses. The WTW intervention model has the potential to effectively connect these women in a program of support and education. PMID:15681989

  1. How Affective Is a "Like"?: The Effect of Paralinguistic Digital Affordances on Perceived Social Support.

    PubMed

    Wohn, Donghee Yvette; Carr, Caleb T; Hayes, Rebecca A

    2016-09-01

    A national survey asked 323 U.S. adults about paralinguistic digital affordances (PDAs) and how these forms of lightweight feedback within social media were associated with their perceived social support. People perceived PDAs (e.g., Likes, Favorites, and Upvotes) as socially supportive both quantitatively and qualitatively, even without implicit meaning associated with them. People who are highly sensitive about what others think of them and have high self-esteem are more likely to perceive higher social support from PDAs. PMID:27635443

  2. Social Support and Health Through the Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Sidney

    Social support is defined, and its place in the broader scheme of support systems is delineated. The literature relating this concept to various aspects of health is summarized, and a possible theoretical explanation for the way in which social support acts to promote the health of individuals is proffered. Social support, defined as the sum of…

  3. The Structure and Validity of the Multidimensional Social Support Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Patrick H.; Richardson, George B.

    2012-01-01

    The factor structure and concurrent validity of the Multidimensional Social Support Questionnaire, a brief measure of perceived social support for use with adolescents, was examined. Findings suggest that four dimensions of perceived social support may yield more information than assessments of the unitary construct of support. (Contains 8 tables…

  4. Social support, psychological vulnerability, and HIV risk among African American men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Lena D.; Chambers, Christopher S.; Operario, Don

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has suggested a need to understand the social-psychological factors contributing to HIV risk among African American men who have sex with men (MSM). We conducted individual in-depth interviews with 34 adult African American MSM to examine their personal experiences about: (i) sources of social support, (ii) psychological responses to the presence or absence of social support, and (iii) influences of social support on sexual behaviors. The majority of participants described limited positive encouragement and lack of emotional support from family, as well as few meaningful personal relationships. Feelings of isolation and mistrust about personal relationships led many participants to avoid emotional intimacy and seek physical intimacy through sexual encounters. Findings highlight a need for multi-level interventions that enhance social support networks and address the social-psychological, emotional, and interpersonal factors that contribute to HIV risk among African American MSM. PMID:26588945

  5. Affiliative and "self-as-doer" identities: Relationships between social identity, social support, and emotional status amongst survivors of acquired brain injury (ABI).

    PubMed

    Walsh, R Stephen; Muldoon, Orla T; Gallagher, Stephen; Fortune, Donal G

    2015-01-01

    Social support is an important factor in rehabilitation following acquired brain injury (ABI). Research indicates that social identity makes social support possible and that social identity is made possible by social support. In order to further investigate the reciprocity between social identity and social support, the present research applied the concepts of affiliative and "self-as-doer" identities to an analysis of relationships between social identity, social support, and emotional status amongst a cohort of 53 adult survivors of ABI engaged in post-acute community neurorehabilitation. Path analysis was used to test a hypothesised mediated model whereby affiliative identities have a significant indirect relationship with emotional status via social support and self-as-doer identification. Results support the hypothesised model. Evidence supports an "upward spiral" between social identity and social support such that affiliative identity makes social support possible and social support drives self-as-doer identity. Our discussion emphasises the importance of identity characteristics to social support, and to emotional status, for those living with ABI.

  6. Effectiveness of Dysphagia Training for Adult Learning Disabilities Support Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tredinnick, Gerlind; Cocks, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a 1-day dysphagia training package delivered to support workers who work with adults with a learning disability. Thirty-eight support staff took part in this study. Twenty-five support staff received training, and 13 did not receive training and therefore acted as a control group. Three questionnaires…

  7. Relationships with Adult Children: Support Functions and Vulnerabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jeanne L.; And Others

    The family is the primary source of supportive services to the aged in this country. A study was undertaken to examine two issues related to developmental functions of relationships with adult children: the parent's view of assistance received from adult children, and age differences in those views; and, secondly, the functions of assistance…

  8. Supporting Academic Persistence in Low-Skilled Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Susan; Thomson, Margareta Maria

    2013-01-01

    The current literature review explores the factors that contribute to academic persistence for adult learners. The aim of the study is to identify current research-based strategies aimed at supporting learner persistence, particularly for low-skilled adults. Elements of three theoretical frameworks, namely, expectancy-value theory (EVT), goal…

  9. The association between perceived social support and amygdala structure.

    PubMed

    Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Kubota, Yasutaka; Uono, Shota; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2016-05-01

    The subjective perception of social support plays a crucial role in human well-being. However, its structural neural substrates remain unknown. We hypothesized that the amygdala, specifically its laterobasal and superficial subregions, which have been suggested to serve social functions, could be associated with the level of perceived social support. To test this hypothesis, we assessed perceived social support using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. In addition, we measured the volume and shape of the amygdala using structural magnetic resonance imaging in 49 healthy participants. Global amygdala volume in the left hemisphere was positively associated with the perceived social support score after adjusting for total cerebral volume, sex, age, intelligence, and five-factor personality domains. The local shape of the laterobasal and superficial subregions of the left amygdala showed the same association with perceived social support. These data suggest that the social subregions of the left amygdala are associated with the implementation of perceived social support.

  10. Convoys of social support in Mexico: Examining socio-demographic variation

    PubMed Central

    Fuller-Iglesias, Heather R.; Antonucci, Toni

    2015-01-01

    The Convoy Model suggests that at different stages of the lifespan the makeup of the social support network varies in step with developmental and contextual needs. Cultural norms may shape the makeup of social convoys as well as denote socio-demographic differences in social support. This study examines the social convoys of adults in Mexico. Specifically, it examines whether social network structure varies by age, gender, and education level, thus addressing the paucity of research on interpersonal relations in Mexico. A sample of 1,202 adults (18–99 years of age) was drawn from the Study of Social Relations and Well-being in Mexico. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated older adults had larger, more geographically proximate networks with a greater proportion of kin but less frequent contact. Women had larger, less geographically proximate networks with less frequent contact. Less educated individuals had smaller, more geographically proximate networks with more frequent contact and a greater proportion of kin. Age moderated gender and education effects indicated that younger women have more diverse networks and less educated older adults have weaker social ties. This study highlights socio-demographic variation in social convoys within the Mexican context, and suggests implications for fostering intergenerational relationships, policy, and interventions. Future research on Mexican convoys should further explore sources of support, and specifically address implications for well-being. PMID:27340310

  11. Social support and happiness in immigrant women in Spain.

    PubMed

    Dominguez-Fuentes, Juan Manuel; Hombrados-Mendieta, María Isabel

    2012-06-01

    The association between perceived social support and happiness was investigated in women who are members of various associations in Malaga (Spain) that work with immigrant women. Based on the Social Convoy model, the association between sources of support, frequency of support, satisfaction with support, and happiness reported by women were examined. The main social support predictor of happiness was satisfaction with the support received. Thus, the best predictors of happiness were emotional support from the family and instrumental support from the indigenous population and associations. The best predictor of frequency of support was the frequency of informational support received from social services. These results may prove useful for developing lines of action or interventions centred on the social network and the functions that social support can fulfil among immigrant women.

  12. Social support and happiness in immigrant women in Spain.

    PubMed

    Dominguez-Fuentes, Juan Manuel; Hombrados-Mendieta, María Isabel

    2012-06-01

    The association between perceived social support and happiness was investigated in women who are members of various associations in Malaga (Spain) that work with immigrant women. Based on the Social Convoy model, the association between sources of support, frequency of support, satisfaction with support, and happiness reported by women were examined. The main social support predictor of happiness was satisfaction with the support received. Thus, the best predictors of happiness were emotional support from the family and instrumental support from the indigenous population and associations. The best predictor of frequency of support was the frequency of informational support received from social services. These results may prove useful for developing lines of action or interventions centred on the social network and the functions that social support can fulfil among immigrant women. PMID:22897099

  13. Positive Behaviour Support and Supported Employment for Adults with Severe Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Elizabeth A.; Patton, Holly Ann

    2010-01-01

    Background: Functional assessments and supported employment procedures have the potential to enhance quality of life factors for adults who have historically been isolated. Method: Functional assessments and supported employment procedures were used to assist four adults with severe disability who exhibited challenging behaviour, to achieve…

  14. The Meaning of Social Support for Persons with Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Chronister, Julie; Chou, Chih-Chin; Kwan, Kwong-Liem Karl; Lawton, Melissa; Silver, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Aim This study sought to better understand the population-specific types of social support relevant to adults living with serious mental illness (SMI). Our study was exploratory and used a qualitative approach that centered on uncovering the types of social support meaningful and relevant to persons with SMI. Method The sample comprised of 52 adults receiving county mental health services in the San Francisco Bay Area. Data was gathered from six focus groups and analyzed using NVivo10 and Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR; Hill et al., 2005; Hill et al., 1997). Results Six qualitative domains were identified: a) Supportive Conditions, b) Day-to-Day Living, c) Illness Management, d) Resources and Information, e) Guidance and Advice, and f) Community Participation Support. Discussion While the six support domains share some broad-based conceptual underpinnings with traditional models of emotional and instrumental support, the domains emerging from our study represent supports uniquely tied to the stressors associated with living with an SMI, and therefore hold conceptual distinction from traditional types of support. Conclusions/Implications Findings from this study offer a conceptual framework for understanding social support for persons living with SMI and lay the groundwork for the development of a SMI-specific measure of social support. In addition, our research permits future researchers to investigate the conditions under which social support buffers the impact of SMI stressors, assisting service providers in more effective identification of individual support needs for clinical intervention. PMID:26009778

  15. [Social support in the family caregiver experience].

    PubMed

    Marques, Ana Karina Monte Cunha; Landim, Fátima Luna Pinheiro; Collares, Patrícia Moreira; de Mesquita, Rafael Barreto

    2011-01-01

    This is a qualitative and descriptive study aiming to know the experience of taking care of sick people in the context of homes, analyzing the implications of the social support in the physical and emotional health of the family caregiver. The data had been collected by means of the semi-structured interview with 18 family caregivers of people with chronic illnesses. The technique of the Collective subject discourse was used for the organization of the data. One evidenced that all the informers were of the feminine sex, with average age of 50 years and medium instructional level. They took care uninterruptedly of sick people predominating the mothers with sequel of stroke. They reported health complications related to the care carried through: back pain, hypertension, migraine and depression. The collective speeches are suggestive of the break of the social networks and of the scarcity of support, leading the person to reject the caregiver condition. The overload was characterized by the caregiver to face innumerable situations which he did not succeed to manage it.

  16. Critical Levels of Perceived Social Support Associated with Student Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick; Malecki, Christine Kerres

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the relationships among students' perceived social support and a wide range of academic, behavioral, and social indicators. Significant, positive relationships among perceived social support and a variety of positive indicators (e.g., social skills, self-concept, and adaptive skills) were found. In addition, significant, negative…

  17. Postpartum Depression and Social Support in China: A Cultural Perspective.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lu; Zhu, Ruijuan; Zhang, Xueying

    2016-09-01

    This study explored how Chinese culture affects the relationship between social support and postpartum depression. In-depth interviews with 38 mothers in mainland China showed that discrepancies between expected and perceived available social support and conflicts among social support providers are two major contributors to the stress associated with postpartum depression. These dynamics are deeply rooted in the context of Chinese culture with its distinctive gender roles and family dynamics. These cultural norms further prevent women from seeking social support. PMID:27491938

  18. Social Change and Adult Education Research. Adult Education Research in Nordic Countries 1992/93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tampere Univ., Hameelinna (Finland). Dept. of Education.

    This yearbook contains 18 papers reflecting the major trends in adult education research in the Nordic countries in 1992-93. The following papers are included: "Popular Adult Education and Social Mobilization: Reflections in Connection with the Swedish Committee on Power" (Rubenson); "Direction of Finnish Adult Education Policies within the…

  19. Physical activity and social support in adolescents: analysis of different types and sources of social support.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Gerfeson; Júnior, José Cazuza de Farias

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of different types and sources of social support on physical activity in adolescents. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between physical activity and different types and sources of social support in adolescents. The sample consisted of 2,859 adolescents between 14-19 years of age in the city of João Pessoa, in Northeastern Brazil. Physical activity was measured with a questionnaire and social support from parents and friends using a 10-item scale five for each group (type of support: encouragement, joint participation, watching, inviting, positive comments and transportation). Multivariable analysis showed that the types of support provided by parents associated with physical activity in adolescents were encouragement for females (P < 0.001) and adolescents between 14-16 years of age (P = 0.003), and transportation (P = 0.014) and comments (P = 0.037) for males. The types of social support provided by friends were: joint participation in male adolescents (P < 0.001) and in these 17-19-year-olds (P < 0.001), and comments in both genders (males: P = 0.009; females: P < 0.001) and 14-16-year-olds (P < 0.001). We conclude that the type of social support associated with physical activity varies according to its source, as well as the gender and age of the adolescents.

  20. Functional Impairment, Illness Burden, and Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults: Does Type of Social Relationship Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Hatfield, Joshua P.; Hirsch, Jameson K.; Lyness, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The nature of interpersonal relationships, whether supportive or critical, may affect the association between health status and mental health outcomes. We examined the potential moderating effects of social support, as a buffer, and family criticism, as an exacerbating factor, on the association between illness burden, functional impairment and depressive symptoms. Methods Our sample of 735 older adults, aged 65 and older, was recruited from internal and family medicine primary care offices. Trained interviewers administered the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Duke Social Support Inventory, and Family Emotional Involvement and Criticism Scale. Physician-rated assessments of health, including the Karnofsky Performance Status Scale and Cumulative Illness Rating Scale were also completed. Results Linear multivariable hierarchical regression results indicate that social interaction was a significant buffer, weakening the association between illness burden and depressive symptoms, whereas perceived social support buffered the relationship between functional impairment and depressive symptoms. Family criticism and instrumental social support were not significant moderators. Conclusions Type of medical dysfunction, whether illness or impairment, may require different therapeutic and supportive approaches. Enhancement of perceived social support, for those who are impaired, and encouragement of social interactions, for those who are ill, may be important intervention targets for treatment of depressive symptoms in older adult primary care patients. PMID:22495689

  1. Unemployment, Social Support, Individual Resources, and Job Search Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slebarska, Katarzyna; Moser, Klaus; Gunnesch-Luca, George

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated the relation between the social support received by unemployed individuals (N = 104) and their job search behavior. A moderated mediation model demonstrated that the effect of social support on job search behaviors was mediated by self-esteem but only if adequacy of social support was perceived as low. In addition, the…

  2. A Multilevel Framework for Increasing Social Support in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grapin, Sally L.; Sulkowski, Michael L.; Lazarus, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    In school contexts, social support refers to the overall perception one has of feeling included and cared for in a community of peers, teachers, caregivers, and others. Social support is critical for promoting positive academic and psychosocial outcomes for students. Conversely, a lack of perceived social support may be associated with increased…

  3. Social Support in Elderly Nursing Home Populations: Manifestations and Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rash, Elizabeth M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of social support and the influencing factors on social support in nursing home environments. Observations and staff questionnaires from two central Florida nursing homes were used in this grounded theory study to answer the following questions: (1) How is social support manifested? and…

  4. Clarifying the links between social support and health: culture, stress, and neuroticism matter.

    PubMed

    Park, Jiyoung; Kitayama, Shinobu; Karasawa, Mayumi; Curhan, Katherine; Markus, Hazel R; Kawakami, Norito; Miyamoto, Yuri; Love, Gayle D; Coe, Christopher L; Ryff, Carol D

    2013-02-01

    Although it is commonly assumed that social support positively predicts health, the empirical evidence has been inconsistent. We argue that three moderating factors must be considered: (1) support-approving norms (cultural context); (2) support-requiring situations (stressful events); and (3) support-accepting personal style (low neuroticism). Our large-scale cross-cultural survey of Japanese and US adults found significant associations between perceived support and health. The association was more strongly evident among Japanese (from a support-approving cultural context) who reported high life stress (in a support-requiring situation). Moreover, the link between support and health was especially pronounced if these Japanese were low in neuroticism.

  5. Adult Learners and Mathematics Learning Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzmaurice, Olivia; Mac an Bhaird, Ciarán; Ní Fhloinn, Eabhnat; O'Sullivan, Ciarán

    2015-01-01

    The provision of some level of Mathematics Learning Support (MLS) is now standard in the majority of Higher Education Institutions in Ireland, the UK, and in many other countries. This provision is, in part, a response to the large numbers of students entering Higher Education who do not have the mathematical skills required and this cohort…

  6. Measuring Perceived Social Support: Development of the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (CASSS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malecki, Christine Kerres; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick

    2002-01-01

    Study conducts confirmatory factor, reliability, and correlational analyses of scores on the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (CASSS). Analyses revealed evidence of reliability, a four-factor structure (Parent, Teacher, Classmate, and Close Friend subscales), and construct validity. There is evidence that the CASSS can be used to…

  7. Economic Stress, Social Support, and Maternal Depression: Is Social Support Deterioration Occurring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Greeno, Catherine G.; Kim, Kevin H.; Anderson, Carol M.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal depression in low-income women is a significant problem because of its negative consequences for both mothers and their children. Economic stress increases risk for depression; however, mechanisms linking economic stress and depression are not well understood. The social support deterioration model suggests that chronic stressors can…

  8. Parental Rejection Following Sexual Orientation Disclosure: Impact on Internalized Homophobia, Social Support, and Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Puckett, Julia A; Woodward, Eva N; Mereish, Ethan H; Pantalone, David W

    2015-09-01

    Sexual minority individuals face unique stressors because of their sexual identity. We explored associations between parental reactions to children's coming out, internalized homophobia (IH), social support, and mental health in a sample of 257 sexual minority adults. Path analyses revealed that higher IH and lower social support mediated the association between past parental rejection and current psychological distress. Mental health providers may benefit clients by utilizing interventions that challenge internalized stereotypes about homosexuality, increase social support, and process parental rejection, as well as focusing on how certain crucial experiences of rejection may impact clients' IH and mental health. PMID:26788675

  9. Parental Rejection Following Sexual Orientation Disclosure: Impact on Internalized Homophobia, Social Support, and Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Puckett, Julia A; Woodward, Eva N; Mereish, Ethan H; Pantalone, David W

    2015-09-01

    Sexual minority individuals face unique stressors because of their sexual identity. We explored associations between parental reactions to children's coming out, internalized homophobia (IH), social support, and mental health in a sample of 257 sexual minority adults. Path analyses revealed that higher IH and lower social support mediated the association between past parental rejection and current psychological distress. Mental health providers may benefit clients by utilizing interventions that challenge internalized stereotypes about homosexuality, increase social support, and process parental rejection, as well as focusing on how certain crucial experiences of rejection may impact clients' IH and mental health.

  10. African American parents' racial and emotion socialization profiles and young adults' emotional adaptation.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Angel S; Perry, Nicole B; Cavanaugh, Alyson M; Leerkes, Esther M

    2015-07-01

    The current study aimed to identify parents' profiles of racial and emotion socialization practices, to determine if these profiles vary as a function of family income and young adult child gender, and to examine their links with young adults' emotional adaptation. Participants included 192 African American young adults (70% women) who ranged in age from 18 to 24 years (M = 19.44 years). Four maternal profiles emerged: cultural-supportive (high cultural socialization and supportive responses to children's negative emotions), moderate bias preparation (moderate preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses to negative emotions), high bias preparation (high preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses), and low engaged (low across racial and socialization constructs). Three paternal profiles emerged: multifaceted (moderate across racial and emotion socialization constructs), high bias preparation, and low engaged. Men were more likely to have mothers in the high bias preparation and to have fathers in the multifaceted or high bias preparation profiles. Individuals with higher income were more likely to have mothers in the cultural-supportive profile and to have fathers in the multifaceted profile. Young adults whose mothers fit the cultural-supportive profile or the moderate bias preparation profile had lower levels of depressive symptoms than young adults whose mothers fit the high bias preparation profile. PMID:25090149

  11. Married Couples in Assisted Living: Adult Children's Experiences Providing Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Candace L.

    2012-01-01

    Being married in later life often prevents relocation to long-term care settings, but couples do relocate to these environments. Typically, this transition does not mark the end of support provided by families, especially adult children. Little is known about children's experiences providing support in care settings when both parents are involved.…

  12. Social support, self-care, and quality of life in cancer patients receiving radiotherapy in Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Hanucharurnkul, S.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the study was two-fold: (1) to examine the relationships among self-care, social support, and quality of life in adult cancer patients receiving radiotherapy while the selected basic conditioning factors of age, marital and socio-economic status, living arrangement, stage and site of cancer were statistically controlled; and (2) to test a theoretical model which postulated that (a) quality of life was predicted jointly by the selected basic conditioning factors, social support and self-care, and (b) self-care was predicted jointly by the selected basic conditioning factors and social support. A convenience sample of 112 adult cervical and head/neck cancer patients receiving radiotherapy was obtained from radiotherapy outpatient clinic in three hospitals located in Bangkok, Thailand. Results of the study indicated positive relationships among self-care, social support, and quality of life. Socio-economic status, site of cancer, and self-care were significant predictors for reported quality of life. Social support appeared to be a significant predictor of quality of life indirectly through self-care. Socio-economic status and social support were also significant predictors of self-care, whereas, stage and site of cancer seemed to predict self-care indirectly through social support.

  13. Social Skills in Adults with AD/HD

    MedlinePlus

    ... often struggle in social situations. Interacting successfully with peers and significant adults is one of the most ... percent of children with ADHD have difficulty with peer relationships. Over 25 percent of Americans experience chronic ...

  14. An Ideological Framework in Adult Education: Poverty and Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jo-Anne

    1981-01-01

    Posits that the basic system of values and beliefs held by adult educators influences their stance on social problems. Examples of responses to the problem of poverty illustrate four basic ideological positions: liberalism, conservatism, liberal radicalism, and Marxism. (JOW)

  15. Seeking and Receiving Social Support on Facebook for Surgery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Social networking sites such as Facebook provide a new way to seek and receive social support, a factor widely recognized as important for one's health. However, few studies have used actual conversations from social networking sites to study social support for health related matters. We studied 3,899 Facebook users, among a sample of 33,326 monitored adults, who initiated a conversation that referred to surgery on their Facebook Wall during a six-month period to explore predictors of social support as measured by number of response posts from “friends.” Among our sample, we identified 8,343 Facebook conversation threads with the term “surgery” in the initial post with, on average, 5.7 response posts (SD 6.2). We used a variant of latent semantic analysis to explore the relationship between specific words in the posts that allowed us to develop three thematic categories of words related to family, immediacy of the surgery, and prayer. We used generalized linear mixed models to examine the association between characteristics of the Facebook user as well as the thematic categories on the likelihood of receiving response posts following the announcement of a surgery. Words from the three thematic categories were used in 32.5% (family), 39.5 (immediacy), and 50.7% (prayer) of root posts. Surprisingly, few user characteristics were associated with response in multivariate models [rate ratios, RR, 1.08 (95% CI 1.01,1.15) for married/living with partner; 1.10 (95% CI 1.03,1.19) for annual income ≥ $75,000]. In multivariate models adjusted for Facebook user characteristics and network size, use of family and prayer words were associated with significantly higher number of response posts, RR 1.40 (95% CI 1.37,1.43) and 2.07 (95% CI 2.02,2.12) respectively. We found some evidence of social support on Facebook for surgery and that the language used in the initial post of a conversation thread is predictive of overall response. PMID:25753284

  16. Seeking and receiving social support on Facebook for surgery.

    PubMed

    Davis, Matthew A; Anthony, Denise L; Pauls, Scott D

    2015-04-01

    Social networking sites such as Facebook provide a new way to seek and receive social support, a factor widely recognized as important for one's health. However, few studies have used actual conversations from social networking sites to study social support for health related matters. We studied 3,899 Facebook users, among a sample of 33,326 monitored adults, who initiated a conversation that referred to surgery on their Facebook Wall during a six-month period. We explored predictors of social support as measured by number of response posts from "friends." Among our sample, we identified 8,343 Facebook conversation threads with the term "surgery" in the initial post with, on average, 5.7 response posts (SD 6.2). We used a variant of latent semantic analysis to explore the relationship between specific words in the posts that allowed us to develop three thematic categories of words related to family, immediacy of the surgery, and prayer. We used generalized linear mixed models to examine the association between characteristics of the Facebook user as well as the thematic categories on the likelihood of receiving response posts following the announcement of a surgery. Words from the three thematic categories were used in 32.5% (family), 39.5 (immediacy), and 50.7% (prayer) of root posts. Few user characteristics were associated with response in multivariate models [rate ratios, RR, 1.08 (95% CI 1.01, 1.15) for married/living with partner; 1.10 (95% CI 1.03, 1.19) for annual income > $75,000]. In multivariate models adjusted for Facebook user characteristics and network size, use of family and prayer words in the root post were associated with significantly higher number of response posts, RR 1.40 (95% CI 1.37, 1.43) and 2.07 (95% CI 2.02, 2.12) respectively. We found some evidence of social support on Facebook for surgery and that the language used in the root post of a conversation thread is predictive of overall response.

  17. Seeking and receiving social support on Facebook for surgery.

    PubMed

    Davis, Matthew A; Anthony, Denise L; Pauls, Scott D

    2015-04-01

    Social networking sites such as Facebook provide a new way to seek and receive social support, a factor widely recognized as important for one's health. However, few studies have used actual conversations from social networking sites to study social support for health related matters. We studied 3,899 Facebook users, among a sample of 33,326 monitored adults, who initiated a conversation that referred to surgery on their Facebook Wall during a six-month period. We explored predictors of social support as measured by number of response posts from "friends." Among our sample, we identified 8,343 Facebook conversation threads with the term "surgery" in the initial post with, on average, 5.7 response posts (SD 6.2). We used a variant of latent semantic analysis to explore the relationship between specific words in the posts that allowed us to develop three thematic categories of words related to family, immediacy of the surgery, and prayer. We used generalized linear mixed models to examine the association between characteristics of the Facebook user as well as the thematic categories on the likelihood of receiving response posts following the announcement of a surgery. Words from the three thematic categories were used in 32.5% (family), 39.5 (immediacy), and 50.7% (prayer) of root posts. Few user characteristics were associated with response in multivariate models [rate ratios, RR, 1.08 (95% CI 1.01, 1.15) for married/living with partner; 1.10 (95% CI 1.03, 1.19) for annual income > $75,000]. In multivariate models adjusted for Facebook user characteristics and network size, use of family and prayer words in the root post were associated with significantly higher number of response posts, RR 1.40 (95% CI 1.37, 1.43) and 2.07 (95% CI 2.02, 2.12) respectively. We found some evidence of social support on Facebook for surgery and that the language used in the root post of a conversation thread is predictive of overall response. PMID:25753284

  18. The relationship between perceived social support and mood of testicular cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ord-Lawson, S; Fitch, M

    1997-05-01

    A descriptive correlational study was conducted to investigate the relationship between perceived social support and mood of testicular cancer patients two to three months post-diagnosis. The conceptualization for the study was based on the cognitive-phenomenological theory of psychological stress (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984). A convenience sample of 30 young adult males with testicular cancer was interviewed. Data were collected using the Demographic Data Sheet, MOS Social Support Survey. Importance of Social Support Questionnaire, Profile of Mood States and two open-ended interview questions. Data indicated subjects felt well-supported, especially in areas that they thought were important. No significant relationship was found between perceived social support and mood in this sample. The findings suggest the need for the nurse's individualized assessment regarding the testicular cancer patient's number of close friends/relatives and the importance placed on different types of support.

  19. Instructional Videos for Supporting Older Adults Who Use Interactive Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gramss, Denise; Struve, Doreen

    2009-01-01

    The study reported in this paper investigated the usefulness of different instructions for guiding inexperienced older adults through interactive systems. It was designed to compare different media in relation to their social as well as their motivational impact on the elderly during the learning process. Precisely, the video was compared with…

  20. Social skills training with mildly retarded young adults.

    PubMed

    Meredith, R L; Saxon, S; Doleys, D M; Kyzer, B

    1980-10-01

    Described a social skills assessment and training model for use with mildly retarded young adults (N = 20). The assessment procedure examined social behavior in three types of social situations (e.g., conversational situation, cooperative task and assertive situation) with both male and female respondents. Group behavioral social skills training was compared with a no treatment control condition using various dependent measures collected in the in-vivo social situations. Group behavioral social skills training was more effective than the control condition in increasing positive social behavior, attention to the transaction, and degree of empathy. It was also more effective than a control condition in decreasing negative social skill behavior. A situation effect also was observed, which suggests a need for more focus on particular social skills and a need to address issues of generalization. A comprehensive social skills assessment and training model is discussed. PMID:7440726

  1. Social Movements, Class, and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Shirley

    2005-01-01

    Social movements in South Africa, often organized around class-related issues, provide rich material to illustrate how class, intertwined with other social categories, shapes organizational and educational practices.

  2. Comparing Visible and Invisible Social Support: Non-evaluative Support Buffers Cardiovascular Responses to Stress.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Julie A; Lehman, Barbara J

    2015-12-01

    Previous research suggests that in contrast to invisible social support, visible social support produces exaggerated negative emotional responses. Drawing on work by Bolger and colleagues, this study disentangled social support visibility from negative social evaluation in an examination of the effects of social support on negative emotions and cardiovascular responses. As part of an anticipatory speech task, 73 female participants were randomly assigned to receive no social support, invisible social support, non-confounded visible social support or visible social support as delivered in a 2007 study by Bolger and Amarel. Twelve readings, each for systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were taken at 5-min intervals throughout the periods of baseline, reactivity and recovery. Cardiovascular outcomes were tested by incorporating a series of theoretically driven planned contrasts into tests of stress reactivity conducted through piecewise growth curve modelling. Linear and quadratic trends established cardiovascular reactivity to the task. Further, in comparison to the control and replication conditions, the non-confounded visible and invisible social support conditions attenuated cardiovascular reactivity over time. Pre- and post-speech negative emotional responses were not affected by the social support manipulations. These results suggest that appropriately delivered visible social support may be as beneficial as invisible social support.

  3. Adult Education, Social Inclusion and Cultural Diversity in Regional Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Rob

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the outcomes of recent research into adult education programs and experiences in the Shire of Campaspe, a region in northern Victoria. Research data of people from diverse cultural backgrounds reveal how individuals can utilize adult education as a space to explore their own social and cultural isolation in a regional…

  4. Social Cognitive Correlates of Young Adult Sport Competitors' Sunscreen Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, Nadine C.; O'Riordan, David L.; Winkler, Elisabeth; McDermott, Liane; Spathonis, Kym; Owen, Neville

    2011-01-01

    Young adults participating in outdoor sports represent a high-risk group for excessive sun exposure. The purpose of this study was to identify modifiable social cognitive correlates of sunscreen use among young adult competitors. Participants aged 18 to 30 years who competed in soccer (n = 65), surf-lifesaving (n = 63), hockey (n = 61), and tennis…

  5. Perceptions of social challenges of adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Sperry, Laurie A; Mesibov, Gary B

    2005-10-01

    This study examines perceptions of social challenges by adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The investigators analyzed three separate, regularly scheduled social group meetings attended by a total of 18 adults with ASD where the activity was a discussion of social issues. Participants generated social questions and challenges they had encountered as a result of having autism. The questions were presented to the group for a discussion of potential solutions. Written and audio data were collected and a member check was completed. The data were plumbed for key words and emergent themes to identify major social challenges as viewed by adults with ASD. The emergent themes included relationships at work, developing and maintaining personal relationships, appropriate behaviors around members of the opposite sex, and personal perspectives on having ASD.

  6. Socialization, Social Support, and Social Cognitive Theory: An Examination of the Graduate Teaching Assistant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Kelly Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) face the unknown as they negotiate their multiple roles and identities within the graduate school and classroom setting as teachers, students, and researchers. The purpose of this study is to identify the role that institutionalized socialization, social support, and behavioral observation and modeling play for…

  7. Adult Learning, Critical Intelligence and Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Marjorie, Ed.; Thompson, Jane, Ed.

    This collection of 21 essays reviews the context of developments in adult education in the last 15 years. "Adult Education for Change in the Nineties and Beyond" (Marjorie Mayo) is a critical review of the context for these changes and of the theoretical debates that attempt to analyze and explain them. "Challenging the Postmodern Condition"…

  8. Subjective well-being associated with size of social network and social support of elderly.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingmin

    2016-06-01

    The current study examined the impact of size of social network on subjective well-being of elderly, mainly focused on confirmation of the mediator role of perceived social support. The results revealed that both size of social network and perceived social support were significantly correlated with subjective well-being. Structural equation modeling indicated that perceived social support partially mediated size of social network to subjective well-being. The final model also revealed significant both paths from size of social network to subjective well-being through perceived social support. The findings extended prior researches and provided valuable evidence on how to promote mental health of the elderly.

  9. Social Support and Social Anxiety in Use and Perceptions of Online Mental Health Resources: Exploring Social Compensation and Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Ruppel, Erin K; McKinley, Christopher J

    2015-08-01

    This study used the frameworks of social compensation and social enhancement to examine how social anxiety and social support were related to college students' (N=443) use and perceptions of online mental health resources (Web sites and online support groups). Potential interactions between social support and social anxiety were also examined. Consistent with the social compensation hypothesis, perceived usefulness of Web sites was positively associated with social support. Perceived usefulness of online support groups was positively associated with social support when participants reported average or high, but not low, social anxiety. In contrast, previous use of Web sites was consistent with the social compensation hypothesis. Participants who reported less social support were more likely to have used a Web site for a mental or emotional problem. These findings suggest that college students' use and perceptions of online mental health resources vary as a function of social support and social anxiety, and that patterns suggestive of social compensation and social enhancement depend on whether perceptions or actual use of resources are examined. Combined with the significant interaction between social support and social anxiety on perceived usefulness of online support groups, these findings highlight the potential complexity of social compensation and enhancement phenomena.

  10. Project ALMS: Adult Literacy Mission Support. An Adult Basic Reading Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polley, Beulah M.

    Project ALMS (Adult Literacy Mission Support) was designed to improve the communication skills of semi-literate or illiterate adults, help participants become more self-sufficient, provide an ongoing program for other such individuals, and provide a manual of guidelines and suggestions for other programs. Three groups were established to make a…

  11. The Importance of Social Interaction and Support for Women Learners: Evidence from Family Literacy Programs. Research Brief #2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prins, Esther; Toso, Blaire Willson; Schafft, Kai

    2008-01-01

    Although many women value and benefit from social interaction in adult education and family literacy, these social dimensions are often treated as tangential or inconsequential. Utilizing data from two studies of family literacy programs in Pennsylvania, this study examined how family literacy programs provide a supportive social space for women…

  12. The Impact of School Social Support and Bullying Victimization on Psychological Distress among California Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Ra, Chaelin Karen; Zhang, Donglan; Zhang, Yunting; MacLeod, Kara E.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose National reports showed that over 20% of high school students were victims of bullying, which could potentially lead to psychological problems. School social support may be protective against mental distress linked with victimization. This study examined the main and moderating effects of social support from adults in schools on non-specific serious psychological distress (SPD) related to victimization among California adolescents. Methods Utilizing the 2011–2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS), we analyzed a representative sample of 2,799 adolescents aged 12–17 years old. Logistic regression analyses were conducted modeling the odds of SPD in relation to school social support and victimization. Results Adolescents who were victimized were twice as likely to have SPD compared to non-victims. Higher level of social support from adults in schools was protective against SPD, but did not buffer the effect of bullying exposure. Discussion Findings from the present study suggested that adult support from schools can help with students’ psychological problems but does not appear to prevent the psychological consequences of victimization. Additional intervention is needed, above and beyond social support, to prevent victimization and its psychological consequences. PMID:27708555

  13. The Impact of School Social Support and Bullying Victimization on Psychological Distress among California Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Ra, Chaelin Karen; Zhang, Donglan; Zhang, Yunting; MacLeod, Kara E.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose National reports showed that over 20% of high school students were victims of bullying, which could potentially lead to psychological problems. School social support may be protective against mental distress linked with victimization. This study examined the main and moderating effects of social support from adults in schools on non-specific serious psychological distress (SPD) related to victimization among California adolescents. Methods Utilizing the 2011–2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS), we analyzed a representative sample of 2,799 adolescents aged 12–17 years old. Logistic regression analyses were conducted modeling the odds of SPD in relation to school social support and victimization. Results Adolescents who were victimized were twice as likely to have SPD compared to non-victims. Higher level of social support from adults in schools was protective against SPD, but did not buffer the effect of bullying exposure. Discussion Findings from the present study suggested that adult support from schools can help with students’ psychological problems but does not appear to prevent the psychological consequences of victimization. Additional intervention is needed, above and beyond social support, to prevent victimization and its psychological consequences.

  14. Age Moderates the Relationship between Social Support and Psychosocial Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segrin, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Examines the association between social support from various sources and psychosocial problems, and how these associations vary over the life span. Finds that perceived social support and contact with social network members appears to have beneficial effects for all participants, as evidenced through reduced symptoms of depression and loneliness.…

  15. Social Support and Successful Aging in Assisted Living Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, Laura Odell; Troutman-Jordan, Meredith; Newman, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    Successful aging has been associated with adequate social support. However, impaired functionality, increased dependence, multiple comorbidities, and reduced social interactions place older assisted living community (ALC) residents at risk for poorer social support and less successful aging. This cross-sectional descriptive study used the revised…

  16. Developing the Social Skills of Young Adult Special Olympics Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Melissa G. F.; Dummer, Gail M.; Smeltzer, Ashley; Denton, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if young adult Special Olympics participants could develop, generalize, and maintain target social skills (eye contact, contributing relevant information, and turn taking) as a result of a 14-week Social Skills and Sports (S[superscript 3]) Program that combined classroom instruction with soccer…

  17. Social Participation among Young Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsmond, Gael I.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Sterzing, Paul R.; Anderson, Kristy A.

    2013-01-01

    Investigating social participation of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important given the increasing number of youth aging into young adulthood. Social participation is an indicator of life quality and overall functioning. Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2, we examined rates of participation in…

  18. Comorbid Social Anxiety Disorder in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, Brenna B.; White, Susan W.

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety symptoms are common among cognitively unimpaired youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Few studies have investigated the co-occurrence of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adults with ASD, although identification may aid access to effective treatments and inform our scientific efforts to parse heterogeneity. In this preliminary…

  19. Social Vulnerability Scale for Older Adults: Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinsker, Donna M.; Stone, Valerie; Pachana, Nancy; Greenspan, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    The Social Vulnerability Scale (SVS), an informant-report of social vulnerability for older adults, was piloted in a sample of 167 undergraduate students (63 male, 104 female) from the University of Queensland. Participants aged 18 - 53 (M = 25.53 years, SD = 7.83 years) completed the SVS by rating a relative or friend aged [greater than or equal…

  20. Seasonal variation and homes: understanding the social experiences of older adults.

    PubMed

    Perry, Tam E

    2014-01-01

    There has been limited research on the importance of seasons in the lives of older adults. Previous research has highlighted seasonal fluctuations in physical functioning--including limb strength, range of motion, and cardiac death--the spread of influenza in seasonal migration patterns. In addition, older adults experience isolation for various reasons, such as decline of physical and cognitive ability, lack of transportation, and lack of opportunities for social interaction. There has been much attention paid to the social isolation of older adults, yet little analysis about how the isolation changes throughout the year. Based on findings from an ethnographic study of older adults (n = 81), their family members (n = 49), and supportive professionals (n = 46) as they embark on relocation from their homes, this study analyzes the processes of moving for older adults. It examines the seasonal fluctuations of social isolation because of the effect of the environment on the social experiences of older adults. Isolation occurs because of the difficulty inclement weather causes on social interactions and mobility. The article concludes with discussion of the ways that research and practice can be designed and implemented to account for seasonal variation.

  1. Clues of subjective social status among young adults.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, François; Roos, J Micah; Combs, R M

    2015-07-01

    We investigate determinants of subjective social status (SSS) as measured by respondents placing themselves on a ten-rung ladder from least to most "money", "education" and "respected job", in a large sample of young adults. The most potent clues of SSS are proximate in the life course, reflecting educational attainment and current socioeconomic and job situation, rather than distal characteristics such as family background, although relatively distal High school GPA has a lingering effect. Additional analyses reveal that College selectivity has a substantial impact on SSS, net of other variables in the model; Currently married does not significantly contribute to SSS, but contrary to some expectations Number of children significantly lowers SSS. We find no evidence of greater "status borrowing" by women as associations of SSS with shared household characteristics (Household income, Household assets, Home ownership) do not differ by gender. Our findings for these young adults support the conclusion of earlier research that SSS reflects a "cognitive averaging" of standard dimensions of socioeconomic status. PMID:26004468

  2. A Community Development Approach to Service-Learning: Building Social Capital between Rural Youth and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henness, Steven A.; Ball, Anna L.; Moncheski, MaryJo

    2013-01-01

    Using 4-H and FFA case study findings, this article explores how community service-learning supports the building of social capital between rural youth and adults and the positive effects on community viability. Key elements of practice form a community development approach to service-learning, which opens up doorways for youth to partner with…

  3. Unmet Healthcare and Social Services Needs of Older Canadian Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shooshtari, Shahin; Naghipur, Saba; Zhang, Jin

    2012-01-01

    The authors sought to create a demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related profile of older (40+) Canadian adults with developmental disabilities (DD) residing in their communities, and to enhance current knowledge of their unmet health and social support services needs. They provide a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the 2001…

  4. Social Justice and Dispositions for Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holst, John D.

    2010-01-01

    The article identifies dispositions from a thematic investigation of the pedagogical practice of Ernesto Che Guevara and various social movements in the United States. The article outlines and places these dispositions within the context of debates over social justice and dispositions for education program accreditation in the United States that…

  5. Social Support and Anger Expression among Incarcerated Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loper, Ann Booker; Gildea, Jennifer Whitney

    2004-01-01

    Incarcerated women at a maximum security state facility (N= 216) completed a questionnaire concerning their perceived social support within the prison, structured activities, and perceived support from prison surrogate families. A series of regression analyses evaluated the relationship between social support measures and anger, as measured by the…

  6. Communicating Social Support to Grieving Clients: The Veterinarians' View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilgram, Mary D.

    2010-01-01

    This exploratory study examines veterinarians' perceptions of how they offer social support to grieving clients. Because many clients cannot find the social support they would like from other sources when grieving the death of a pet, the role of the vet in offering support becomes increasingly important. The results indicate that vets perceive…

  7. Great Expectations: Perceived Social Support in Couples Experiencing Cardiac Surgery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Sally H.; Monahan, Patricia

    1991-01-01

    Compared patient and spousal perceived support during the cardiac surgery recovery period and explored effects of social support on patient/spouse subjective mood states for 117 couples. Social support buffered the impact of caregiving burden on mood disturbance for caregiving spouses but did not significantly impact physical or mental health…

  8. Social support and performance anxiety of college music students.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Erin; Chesky, Kris

    2011-09-01

    This study characterized perceived social support and performance anxiety of college music students, compared characteristics to those of non-music majors, and explored the relationships between social support and performance anxiety. Subjects (n = 609) completed a questionnaire that included demographics, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and visual analog scale measures of performance anxiety. Results showed that music majors perceived significantly lower levels of social support from significant others when compared to non-music majors. Perceived social support was significantly correlated with measures of performance anxiety. Students with greater perceived social support reported less frequent anxiety and lower levels of impact of anxiety on ability to perform. These findings may have practical implications for schools of music and conservatories.

  9. Health and Social Care Interventions Which Promote Social Participation for Adults with Learning Disabilities: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howarth, Sharon; Morris, David; Newlin, Meredith; Webber, Martin

    2016-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are among the most socially excluded in society. There is a significant gap in research evidence showing how health and social care workers can intervene to improve the social participation of adults with learning disabilities. A systematic review and modified narrative synthesis was used to appraise the quality…

  10. Love Hurts: The Influence of Social Relations on Exercise Self-Efficacy for Older Adults With Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, Kelly A.; Sherman, Aurora M.

    2010-01-01

    Exercise self-efficacy is a powerful predictor of physical activity behavior, which enhances health and well-being for older adults. Social relations have been proposed as influential precursors for exercise self-efficacy. In a longitudinal study of 160 older adults with osteoarthritis (76.9% women), the authors found that social support (but not social strain) significantly predicted exercise self-efficacy in a structural equation model examining cross-sectional data: χ2(178, N = 160) = 264.57, p < .01; RMSEA = .06; CFI = .92; TLI = .90. When data were examined longitudinally, however, social strain (but not social support) significantly predicted lower exercise self-efficacy 1 year later: χ2(233, N = 160) = 288.64, p < .01; RMSEA = .04; CFI = .96; TLI = .95. Results support the negativity effect, suggesting that social strain might be the more potent aspect of social relations and should be the target of interventions. PMID:19033606

  11. The Investigation of Social Problem Solving Abilities of University Students in Terms of Perceived Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tras, Zeliha

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze of university students' perceived social support and social problem solving. The participants were 827 (474 female and 353 male) university students. Data were collected Perceived Social Support Scale-Revised (Yildirim, 2004) and Social Problem Solving (Maydeu-Olivares and D'Zurilla, 1996)…

  12. Coworking Spaces: A Source of Social Support for Independent Professionals.

    PubMed

    Gerdenitsch, Cornelia; Scheel, Tabea E; Andorfer, Julia; Korunka, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Coworking spaces are shared office environments for independent professionals. Such spaces have been increasing rapidly throughout the world, and provide, in addition to basic business infrastructure, the opportunity for social interaction. This article explores social interaction in coworking spaces and reports the results of two studies. Study 1 (N = 69 coworkers) finds that social interaction in coworking spaces can take the form of social support. Study 2 further investigates social support among coworkers (N = 154 coworkers) and contrasts these results with those of social support among colleagues in traditional work organizations (N = 609). A moderated mediation model using time pressure and self-efficacy, based on the conservation of resources theory, is tested. Social support from both sources was positively related to performance satisfaction. Self-efficacy mediated this relationship in the employee sample, while in the coworking sample, self-efficacy only mediated the relationship between social support and performance satisfaction if time pressure was high. Thus, a mobilization of social support seems necessary in coworking spaces. We conclude that coworking spaces, as modern social work environments, should align flexible work infrastructure with well-constructed opportunities for social support.

  13. Coworking Spaces: A Source of Social Support for Independent Professionals.

    PubMed

    Gerdenitsch, Cornelia; Scheel, Tabea E; Andorfer, Julia; Korunka, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Coworking spaces are shared office environments for independent professionals. Such spaces have been increasing rapidly throughout the world, and provide, in addition to basic business infrastructure, the opportunity for social interaction. This article explores social interaction in coworking spaces and reports the results of two studies. Study 1 (N = 69 coworkers) finds that social interaction in coworking spaces can take the form of social support. Study 2 further investigates social support among coworkers (N = 154 coworkers) and contrasts these results with those of social support among colleagues in traditional work organizations (N = 609). A moderated mediation model using time pressure and self-efficacy, based on the conservation of resources theory, is tested. Social support from both sources was positively related to performance satisfaction. Self-efficacy mediated this relationship in the employee sample, while in the coworking sample, self-efficacy only mediated the relationship between social support and performance satisfaction if time pressure was high. Thus, a mobilization of social support seems necessary in coworking spaces. We conclude that coworking spaces, as modern social work environments, should align flexible work infrastructure with well-constructed opportunities for social support. PMID:27199816

  14. Coworking Spaces: A Source of Social Support for Independent Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Gerdenitsch, Cornelia; Scheel, Tabea E.; Andorfer, Julia; Korunka, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Coworking spaces are shared office environments for independent professionals. Such spaces have been increasing rapidly throughout the world, and provide, in addition to basic business infrastructure, the opportunity for social interaction. This article explores social interaction in coworking spaces and reports the results of two studies. Study 1 (N = 69 coworkers) finds that social interaction in coworking spaces can take the form of social support. Study 2 further investigates social support among coworkers (N = 154 coworkers) and contrasts these results with those of social support among colleagues in traditional work organizations (N = 609). A moderated mediation model using time pressure and self-efficacy, based on the conservation of resources theory, is tested. Social support from both sources was positively related to performance satisfaction. Self-efficacy mediated this relationship in the employee sample, while in the coworking sample, self-efficacy only mediated the relationship between social support and performance satisfaction if time pressure was high. Thus, a mobilization of social support seems necessary in coworking spaces. We conclude that coworking spaces, as modern social work environments, should align flexible work infrastructure with well-constructed opportunities for social support. PMID:27199816

  15. Stress, social support, and college adjustment among Latino students.

    PubMed

    Jarama Alvan, S L; Belgrave, F Z; Zea, M C

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the role of social support and stress on adjustment to college among Latino students. Measures of social support, stress, and adjustment to college were obtained from 77 Latino college students. Social support was positively associated with adjustment and negatively associated with stress. A negative relationship was found between stress and adjustment in bivariate analyses indicating that exposure to stress interferes with adequate adjustment. However, stress did not significantly contribute to adjustment when included with social support in multivariate analyses. The functional nature of support was also examined in this study. Emotional support was associated with better overall and academic adjustment and less stress than instrumental support. there was a significant negative relationship between support from friend/other and stress. Finally, support from friend/other was negatively correlated with stress from exposure to racism. Implications of the study in terms of future research and college programs for Latino students are discussed.

  16. The cost-effectiveness of supported employment for adults with autism in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Mavranezouli, Ifigeneia; Megnin-Viggars, Odette; Cheema, Nadir; Howlin, Patricia; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Pilling, Stephen

    2014-11-01

    Adults with autism face high rates of unemployment. Supported employment enables individuals with autism to secure and maintain a paid job in a regular work environment. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of supported employment compared with standard care (day services) for adults with autism in the United Kingdom. Thus, a decision-analytic economic model was developed, which used outcome data from the only trial that has evaluated supported employment for adults with autism in the United Kingdom. The main analysis considered intervention costs, while cost-savings associated with changes in accommodation status and National Health Service and personal social service resource use were examined in secondary analyses. Two outcome measures were used: the number of weeks in employment and the quality-adjusted life year. Supported employment resulted in better outcomes compared with standard care, at an extra cost of £18 per additional week in employment or £5600 per quality-adjusted life year. In secondary analyses that incorporated potential cost-savings, supported employment dominated standard care (i.e. it produced better outcomes at a lower total cost). The analysis suggests that supported employment schemes for adults with autism in the United Kingdom are cost-effective compared with standard care. Further research needs to confirm these findings.

  17. Supported Employment Improves Cognitive Performance in Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garca-Villamisar, D.; Hughes, C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a supported employment programme on measures of executive functions for 44 adults with autism, assessed at the beginning and the end of the programme period. The average length of time of the community employment was 30 months. Methods: Based on their predominant work activity…

  18. Lifetime Trauma, Emotional Support, and Life Satisfaction among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Neal

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships among lifetime exposure to traumatic events, emotional support, and life satisfaction in three cohorts of older adults. Design and Methods: Face-to-face interviews were conducted with a nationwide sample of 1,518 older people in 2003. Approximately 500 elders were interviewed in…

  19. Swedish Support to Non-Formal Adult Education Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA).

    This document presents an overview of support for economic development provided by the Swedish government to a variety of nonformal adult education programs in developing nations (mostly in Africa). The four sections of the report provide details of the following: (1) scope, objectives, and methods of Swedish development cooperation; (2) the…

  20. Social network structure and social support in HIV-positive inner city mothers.

    PubMed

    Hough, Edythe S; Magnan, Morris A; Templin, Thomas; Gadelrab, Hesham F

    2005-01-01

    It has been documented that social support influences health outcomes of persons with chronic illnesses. The incidence of HIV and AIDS among minority women is growing at an alarming rate, but little is known about social support in this vulnerable population, and even less is known about the social network conveying that support. Guided by the convoy of social networks model, this study describes the social networks in a sample of HIV-positive, urban-dwelling mothers (N = 147) by stage of disease (i.e., asymptomatic, symptomatic, AIDS) and examines relationships between social network structure and social support. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that women's social networks were disproportionately populated by children, and network members of women with AIDS were significantly older than network members of HIV-positive women with or without symptoms. Profile analyses showed that women's perceptions of the quality of social support differed according to the proportion of family members populating different segments of the social network.

  1. Adaptability and Life Satisfaction: The Moderating Role of Social Support.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mi; Lin, Weipeng

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the moderating role of social support in the relationship between adaptability and life satisfaction. Data were collected from 99 undergraduate freshmen in a Chinese university using a lagged design with a 1-month interval. Results demonstrated that social support moderated the relation between adaptability and life satisfaction, such that the positive relation between adaptability and life satisfaction was stronger for individuals with higher levels of social support than for individuals with lower levels of social support. The theoretical and practical implications of this result are discussed. PMID:27516753

  2. Social support and child protection: Lessons learned and learning.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Ross A

    2015-03-01

    Social support has been a topic of research for nearly 50 years, and its applications to prevention and intervention have grown significantly, including programs advancing child protection. This article summarizes the central conclusions of the 1994 review of research on social support and the prevention of child maltreatment prepared for the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, and surveys advances in the field since its publication. Among the lessons learned twenty years ago are (a) the diversity of the social support needs of at-risk families and their association with child endangerment, (b) the need to supplement the emotionally affirmative aspects of social support with efforts to socialize parenting practices and monitor child well-being, (c) the desirability of integrating formal and informal sources of social support for recipients, and (d) the importance of considering the complex recipient reactions to receiving support from others. The lessons we are now learning derive from research exploring the potential of online communication to enhance social support, the neurobiology of stress and its buffering through social support, and the lessons of evaluation research that are identifying the effective ingredients of social support interventions. PMID:25043921

  3. Adaptability and Life Satisfaction: The Moderating Role of Social Support

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Mi; Lin, Weipeng

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the moderating role of social support in the relationship between adaptability and life satisfaction. Data were collected from 99 undergraduate freshmen in a Chinese university using a lagged design with a 1-month interval. Results demonstrated that social support moderated the relation between adaptability and life satisfaction, such that the positive relation between adaptability and life satisfaction was stronger for individuals with higher levels of social support than for individuals with lower levels of social support. The theoretical and practical implications of this result are discussed. PMID:27516753

  4. Social support and child protection: Lessons learned and learning.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Ross A

    2015-03-01

    Social support has been a topic of research for nearly 50 years, and its applications to prevention and intervention have grown significantly, including programs advancing child protection. This article summarizes the central conclusions of the 1994 review of research on social support and the prevention of child maltreatment prepared for the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, and surveys advances in the field since its publication. Among the lessons learned twenty years ago are (a) the diversity of the social support needs of at-risk families and their association with child endangerment, (b) the need to supplement the emotionally affirmative aspects of social support with efforts to socialize parenting practices and monitor child well-being, (c) the desirability of integrating formal and informal sources of social support for recipients, and (d) the importance of considering the complex recipient reactions to receiving support from others. The lessons we are now learning derive from research exploring the potential of online communication to enhance social support, the neurobiology of stress and its buffering through social support, and the lessons of evaluation research that are identifying the effective ingredients of social support interventions.

  5. The association between motivation and fruit and vegetable intake: The moderating role of social support.

    PubMed

    McSpadden, Kate E; Patrick, Heather; Oh, April Y; Yaroch, Amy L; Dwyer, Laura A; Nebeling, Linda C

    2016-01-01

    Despite knowing that fruit and vegetable (FV) intake promotes health and well-being, few U.S. adults meet current guidelines. Thus, understanding people's motivation for FV intake is important for predicting dietary behavior. Applying self-determination theory, the goal of this study was to examine the role of social support as a potential moderator of the link between autonomous and controlled motivations and FV intake. Cross-sectional data from 2959 adults in the United States were analyzed. Autonomous motivation and perceived social support were positively associated with FV intake, while controlled motivation was negatively associated with FV intake. Additionally, there was evidence that the negative association between controlled motivation and FV intake was attenuated by higher levels of perceived social support. Findings suggest the need for a more comprehensive approach to understanding the role of motivation in health behaviors like FV intake and the potential roles played by friends and family in these motivational processes. PMID:26321416

  6. The association between motivation and fruit and vegetable intake: The moderating role of social support.

    PubMed

    McSpadden, Kate E; Patrick, Heather; Oh, April Y; Yaroch, Amy L; Dwyer, Laura A; Nebeling, Linda C

    2016-01-01

    Despite knowing that fruit and vegetable (FV) intake promotes health and well-being, few U.S. adults meet current guidelines. Thus, understanding people's motivation for FV intake is important for predicting dietary behavior. Applying self-determination theory, the goal of this study was to examine the role of social support as a potential moderator of the link between autonomous and controlled motivations and FV intake. Cross-sectional data from 2959 adults in the United States were analyzed. Autonomous motivation and perceived social support were positively associated with FV intake, while controlled motivation was negatively associated with FV intake. Additionally, there was evidence that the negative association between controlled motivation and FV intake was attenuated by higher levels of perceived social support. Findings suggest the need for a more comprehensive approach to understanding the role of motivation in health behaviors like FV intake and the potential roles played by friends and family in these motivational processes.

  7. Social models of HIV risk among young adults in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Bulled, Nicola L

    2015-01-01

    Extensive research over the past 30 years has revealed that individual and social determinants impact HIV risk. Even so, prevention efforts focus primarily on individual behaviour change, with little recognition of the dynamic interplay of individual and social environment factors that further exacerbate risk engagement. Drawing on long-term research with young adults in Lesotho, I examine how social environment factors contribute to HIV risk. During preliminary ethnographic analysis, I developed novel scales to measure social control, adoption of modernity, and HIV knowledge. In survey research, I examined the effects of individual characteristics (i.e., socioeconomic status, HIV knowledge, adoption of modernity) and social environment (i.e., social control) on HIV risk behaviours. In addition, I measured the impact of altered environments by taking advantage of an existing situation whereby young adults attending a national college are assigned to either a main campus in a metropolitan setting or a satellite campus in a remote setting, irrespective of the environment in which they were socialised as youth. This arbitrary assignment process generates four distinct groups of young adults with altered or constant environments. Regression models show that lower levels of perceived social control and greater adoption of modernity are associated with HIV risk, controlling for other factors. The impact of social control and modernity varies with environment dynamics. PMID:26284999

  8. Social models of HIV risk among young adults in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Bulled, Nicola L

    2015-01-01

    Extensive research over the past 30 years has revealed that individual and social determinants impact HIV risk. Even so, prevention efforts focus primarily on individual behaviour change, with little recognition of the dynamic interplay of individual and social environment factors that further exacerbate risk engagement. Drawing on long-term research with young adults in Lesotho, I examine how social environment factors contribute to HIV risk. During preliminary ethnographic analysis, I developed novel scales to measure social control, adoption of modernity, and HIV knowledge. In survey research, I examined the effects of individual characteristics (i.e., socioeconomic status, HIV knowledge, adoption of modernity) and social environment (i.e., social control) on HIV risk behaviours. In addition, I measured the impact of altered environments by taking advantage of an existing situation whereby young adults attending a national college are assigned to either a main campus in a metropolitan setting or a satellite campus in a remote setting, irrespective of the environment in which they were socialised as youth. This arbitrary assignment process generates four distinct groups of young adults with altered or constant environments. Regression models show that lower levels of perceived social control and greater adoption of modernity are associated with HIV risk, controlling for other factors. The impact of social control and modernity varies with environment dynamics.

  9. Social Support Networks and Loneliness among Elderly Jews in Russia and Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iecovich, Esther; Barasch, Miriam; Mirsky, Julia; Kaufman, Roni; Avgar, Amos; Kolfogelson, Aliza

    2004-01-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union had devastating consequences for the lives of its population, especially for older adults, many of whom became impoverished and were left with no social support. Using data from a survey of 2,579 elderly Jews in two of the largest countries of the former Soviet Union, Russia and Ukraine, we examine variables that…

  10. Work-Based Learning and Social Support: Relative Influences on High School Seniors' Occupational Engagement Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Jeffrey V.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the efforts of a large, urban school district to reduce future occupational disengagement risks by requiring all high school students to complete 60 hours of work-based internships. The hypothesis was that social support from adult supervisors and mentors positively affected students' occupational engagement orientations over…

  11. Effects of Culture and Age on the Perceived Exchange of Social Support Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vondras, Dean D.; Pouliot, Gregory S.; Malcore, Sylvia A.; Iwahashi, Shigetoshi

    2008-01-01

    This research explores the perceived exchange of social support resources of young, midlife, and older adults in the United States and Japan, and how perceptions of exchange may moderate attributions of control, difficulty, and success in attaining important life-goals. A survey was administered to participants in the United States and Japan who…

  12. Community Violence Victimization and Depressed Mood: The Moderating Effects of Coping and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haden, Sara C.; Scarpa, Angela

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of the current study were to (a) determine how lifetime community violence (CV) victimization, coping behavior, social support (SS), and depressed mood are related in young adults, and (b) assess whether the relationship between CV victimization and depressive reactions is moderated by perceived SS and coping style. Five hundred…

  13. Social Support and Maintenance of Safer Sex Practices among People Living with HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Thom; Woo, Grace

    2004-01-01

    The study discussed in this article addressed the relationship of social support to the maintenance of long-term safer sex practices of 360 HIV-positive adults recruited from outpatient medical facilities. Medical professionals, friends, and siblings were reported the most frequent sources for assistance, whereas regular sexual partners, medical…

  14. Social Support and Outcomes for Staff Serving Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Sharon M.; Schellenberg, Richard P.

    Ninety-four persons employed in direct care positions in a community-based agency that serves adults with mental retardation completed self-report questionnaires assessing relationships between social support and the adaptive outcomes of mood, perceived competence, and self-efficacy. Findings indicated that: (1) negative mood was negatively…

  15. Social Support Disparities for Caregivers of AIDS-Orphaned Children in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Caroline; Fitzgerald, Jane; Operario, Don; Casale, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    Drawing upon a sample of 1,599 adults caring for children in HIV-endemic Umlazi Township in South Africa, this cross-sectional survey investigated whether perceived social support varied among caregivers of AIDS-orphaned children (n = 359) as compared with caregivers of children orphaned by other causes (n = 171) and caregivers of nonorphaned…

  16. Effects of culture and age on the perceived exchange of social support resources.

    PubMed

    VonDras, Dean D; Pouliot, Gregory S; Malcore, Sylvia A; Iwahashi, Shigetoshi

    2008-01-01

    This research explores the perceived exchange of social support resources of young, midlife, and older adults in the United States and Japan, and how perceptions of exchange may moderate attributions of control, difficulty, and success in attaining important life-goals. A survey was administered to participants in the United States and Japan who ranged in age from 17 to 70 years. Results suggested culture and age to influence the designation of important life-goals, and to interactively moderate the perceived exchange of social support resources in the interpersonal contexts of family and business associates and co-workers. Furthermore, relationships between the perceived exchange of social support and perceptions of control and success in achieving life-goals indicated different intracultural effects. Overall, these findings suggest nuances in the perceived exchange of social support and social cognitions that reflect the cultural orientations of young, midlife and older adults in the United States and Japan. A culturally grounded model of social support is proposed and discussed.

  17. Enabling Delay of Gratification Behavior in Those Not So Predisposed: The Moderating Role of Social Support

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Lei; Liao, Jiangqun

    2016-01-01

    The presence of delay of gratification (DG) in childhood is correlated with success later in a person's life. Is there any way of helping adults with a low level of DG to obtain similar success? The present research examines how social support helps those low in DG nonetheless to act similarly to those high in DG. This research includes both correlational studies and experiments that manipulate social support as well as both field studies and a laboratory study. The results show that with high social support, employees (Study 1) and university students (Study 2) low in DG report vocational and academic DG behavioral intentions, respectively, similar to those high in DG. Study 3 found that participants low in DG who were primed with high social support expressed job-choice DG similar to those high in the DG. Study 4 controlled for mood and self-image and found that participants low in DG who were primed with high social support expressed more money-choice DG than those high in the DG. Study 5 showed that social support moderated the relationship between DG and actual DG behaviors. These findings provide evidence for a moderating role of social support in the expression of DG behavior. PMID:27047408

  18. Enabling Delay of Gratification Behavior in Those Not So Predisposed: The Moderating Role of Social Support.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Lei; Liao, Jiangqun

    2016-01-01

    The presence of delay of gratification (DG) in childhood is correlated with success later in a person's life. Is there any way of helping adults with a low level of DG to obtain similar success? The present research examines how social support helps those low in DG nonetheless to act similarly to those high in DG. This research includes both correlational studies and experiments that manipulate social support as well as both field studies and a laboratory study. The results show that with high social support, employees (Study 1) and university students (Study 2) low in DG report vocational and academic DG behavioral intentions, respectively, similar to those high in DG. Study 3 found that participants low in DG who were primed with high social support expressed job-choice DG similar to those high in the DG. Study 4 controlled for mood and self-image and found that participants low in DG who were primed with high social support expressed more money-choice DG than those high in the DG. Study 5 showed that social support moderated the relationship between DG and actual DG behaviors. These findings provide evidence for a moderating role of social support in the expression of DG behavior.

  19. Social networks, social support mechanisms, and quality of life after breast cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Kroenke, Candyce H; Kwan, Marilyn L; Neugut, Alfred I; Ergas, Isaac J; Wright, Jaime D; Caan, Bette J; Hershman, Dawn; Kushi, Lawrence H

    2013-06-01

    We examined mechanisms through which social relationships influence quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer survivors. This study included 3,139 women from the Pathways Study who were diagnosed with breast cancer from 2006 to 2011 and provided data on social networks (the presence of a spouse or intimate partner, religious/social ties, volunteering, and numbers of close friends and relatives), social support (tangible support, emotional/informational support, affection, positive social interaction), and QOL, measured by the FACT-B, approximately 2 months post diagnosis. We used logistic models to evaluate associations between social network size, social support, and lower versus higher than median QOL scores. We further stratified by stage at diagnosis and treatment. In multivariate-adjusted analyses, women who were characterized as socially isolated had significantly lower FACT-B (OR = 2.18, 95 % CI: 1.72-2.77), physical well-being (WB) (OR = 1.61, 95 % CI: 1.27-2.03), functional WB (OR = 2.08, 95 % CI: 1.65-2.63), social WB (OR = 3.46, 95 % CI: 2.73-4.39), and emotional WB (OR = 1.67, 95 % CI: 1.33-2.11) scores and higher breast cancer symptoms (OR = 1.48, 95 % CI: 1.18-1.87) compared with socially integrated women. Each social network member independently predicted higher QOL. Simultaneous adjustment for social networks and social support partially attenuated associations between social networks and QOL. The strongest mediator and type of social support that was most predictive of QOL outcomes was "positive social interaction." However, each type of support was important depending on outcome, stage, and treatment status. Larger social networks and greater social support were related to higher QOL after a diagnosis of breast cancer. Effective social support interventions need to evolve beyond social-emotional interventions and need to account for disease severity and treatment status. PMID:23657404

  20. Social cognitive theory correlates of moderate-intensity exercise among adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Heiss, Valerie J; Petosa, R L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify social cognitive theory (SCT) correlates of moderate- to vigorous-intensity exercise (MVPA) among adults with type 2 diabetes. Adults with type 2 diabetes (N = 181) participated in the study. Participants were recruited through ResearchMatch.org to complete an online survey. The survey used previously validated instruments to measure dimensions of self-efficacy, self-regulation, social support, outcome expectations, the physical environment, and minutes of MVPA per week. Spearman Rank Correlations were used to determine the relationship between SCT variables and MVPA. Classification and Regression Analysis using a decision tree model was used to determine the amount of variance in MVPA explained by SCT variables. Due to low levels of vigorous activity, only moderate-intensity exercise (MIE) was analyzed. SCT variables explained 42.4% of the variance in MIE. Self-monitoring, social support from family, social support from friends, and self-evaluative outcome expectations all contributed to the variability in MIE. Other contributing variables included self-reward, task self-efficacy, social outcome expectations, overcoming barriers, and self-efficacy for making time for exercise. SCT is a useful theory for identifying correlates of MIE among adults with type 2 diabetes. The SCT correlates can be used to refine diabetes education programs to target the adoption and maintenance of regular exercise.

  1. Social relevance enhances memory for impressions in older adults.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Brittany S; Gutchess, Angela H

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that older adults have difficulty retrieving contextual material over items alone. Recent research suggests this deficit can be reduced by adding emotional context, allowing for the possibility that memory for social impressions may show less age-related decline than memory for other types of contextual information. Two studies investigated how orienting to social or self-relevant aspects of information contributed to the learning and retrieval of impressions in young and older adults. Participants encoded impressions of others in conditions varying in the use of self-reference (Experiment 1) and interpersonal meaningfulness (Experiment 2), and completed memory tasks requiring the retrieval of specific traits. For both experiments, age groups remembered similar numbers of impressions. In Experiment 1 using more self-relevant encoding contexts increased memory for impressions over orienting to stimuli in a non-social way, regardless of age. In Experiment 2 older adults had enhanced memory for impressions presented in an interpersonally meaningful relative to a personally irrelevant way, whereas young adults were unaffected by this manipulation. The results provide evidence that increasing social relevance ameliorates age differences in memory for impressions, and enhances older adults' ability to successfully retrieve contextual information.

  2. Social Networks and Loneliness in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden-Kreutz, Deanna M.; And Others

    The long-term care of dementia sufferers has been conceptualized as a chronic stressor because of the growing evidence that the stress of caring for such an individual has adverse effects on caregivers, including significant decrements in social/recreational activities, emotional and physical fatigue, and depressive symptomatology. Because of…

  3. Social Inclusion of Adults with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord, Vicki, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This feature issue presents articles on the social inclusion of people with developmental disabilities into the community and also some related news items. This issue provides profiles of organizations, workplaces, and schools that are successfully integrating people with developmental disabilities into community activities. The articles are: "'I…

  4. The relationship of social support to treatment entry and engagement: The Community Assessment Inventory

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Sharon M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Schwartz, Robert P.; Peterson, James A.; Wilson, Monique E.; Brown, Barry S.

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the psychometric properties of a measure of social support, the Community Assessment Inventory (CAI), and to examine the role of social support in recovery. The CAI and the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) were administered to 196 opioid-dependent adults in (n = 135) or out of methadone treatment (n = 61) in Baltimore, Maryland between 2004 and 2006. Baseline CAI scale scores indicated a generally high level of internal consistency (α scores). Pearson correlations showed that the scales were stable and had good discriminant validity with the ASI composite scores. One-way analysis of variance indicated that in-treatment participants reported significantly more support at baseline than out-of-treatment participants. This study's findings indicate the CAI may be a useful measure of social support and that such support is an important factor in treatment entry. PMID:20391269

  5. Supporting Social Pretend Play in Young Children with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doctoroff, Sandra

    1996-01-01

    Describes features of social pretend play and identifies characteristics of young children's cognitive and social play that may inhibit their participation. Describes approaches for supporting the social pretend play of children with mild to moderate developmental delays and disabilities, including assessment of play skills, use of structured play…

  6. Social network supported process recommender system.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yanming; Yin, Jianwei; Xu, Yueshen

    2014-01-01

    Process recommendation technologies have gained more and more attention in the field of intelligent business process modeling to assist the process modeling. However, most of the existing technologies only use the process structure analysis and do not take the social features of processes into account, while the process modeling is complex and comprehensive in most situations. This paper studies the feasibility of social network research technologies on process recommendation and builds a social network system of processes based on the features similarities. Then, three process matching degree measurements are presented and the system implementation is discussed subsequently. Finally, experimental evaluations and future works are introduced.

  7. Social Support and Stress among University Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M.; Dawani, Hania A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perception of social support and perceived stress among university students in Jordan. A sample of 241 university students from private and government universities in Jordan answered self-report questionnaires including the perceived social support scale and perceived stress scale.…

  8. Building Social Support Systems through a Babysitting Exchange Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Jeanne A.; Jason, Leonard A.

    A babysitting exchange program was created for a group of women in order to build a social support network and to provide a test of the buffer hypothesis (i.e., the idea that social support may shield an individual from the negative physical and mental consequences of stress, particularly when stress is at high levels). The sample consisted of 30…

  9. Perceived Social Support among Bullies, Victims, and Bully-Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Melissa K.; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2007-01-01

    Research indicates that social support plays a protective role among adolescents, but little research has explicitly evaluated its function among youth involved in bullying. Accordingly, this study examined relations among social support, bully/victim status, and psychological distress in a sample of 784 ethnically diverse youth. We assessed…

  10. Parenting Beliefs, Parental Stress, and Social Support Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Respler-Herman, Melissa; Mowder, Barbara A.; Yasik, Anastasia E.; Shamah, Renee

    2012-01-01

    The present study built on prior research by examining the relationship of parental stress and social support to parenting beliefs and behaviors. A sample of 87 parents provided their views concerning the importance of parenting characteristics as well as their level of parental stress and perceived social support. These parents completed the…

  11. Social Support and Parental Adjustment to Pediatric Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Gary R.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Assessed the psychosocial adjustment of (N=107) parents whose children had cancer. Different patterns of association between 11 sources of social support and adjustment were found among groups of parents. Psychosocial adjustment of parents with a child in treatment was correlated more frequently with perceived social support. (Author)

  12. Posttraumatic growth and social support in Turkish patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Tanriverd, Derya; Savas, Esen; Can, Ganime

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic growth (PTG) is the experience of positive change that occurs as a result of the struggle with highly challenging life crises. The need to understand PTG in relation to actual changes in an individual's life has recently been raised. Little is known about the role of social support in the experience of positive outcomes. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of perceived social support in enhancing PTG in cancer patients. This study involved 105 cancer patients. The data were collected using a questionnaire that determined the socio-demographic features, posttraumatic growth inventory (PTGI) and perceived social support. Participants reported relatively high levels of PTG and social support. Total perceived social support, support from family, and friends were significantly positive associated with the development of PTG among cancer patients. Accordingly, the social surroundings of the patient should be informed about the importance of social support and how it helps the patient; they should be made aware of necessity of social support. PMID:23167334

  13. Social Support Seeking and Early Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; McKinnon, Allison; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how social support seeking and rumination interacted to predict depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later in early adolescents (N = 118; 11-14 years at baseline). We expected social support seeking would be more helpful for adolescents engaging in low rather than high levels of rumination. Adolescents self-reported on all…

  14. Social Support, Stress, and Adjustment to Spinal Cord Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rounds, James B; And Others

    Social support has been considered an important coping resource moderating the stress associated with physical illness and disability. The role of social support as a buffering agent for stressful life events inherent in physical illness and disability was examined in 78 individuals with spinal cord injury, residing in community settings in…

  15. Social Support, Assimilation and Biological Effective Blood Pressure Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Anthony; Walsh, Patricia Ann

    1987-01-01

    The twin processes of migration and assimilation are highly stressful. This stress can be manifested in elevated blood pressure. According to this study, immigrants receiving high levels of social support had significantly lower blood pressure levels than those receiving less social support. (VM)

  16. Social Knowledge Awareness Map for Computer Supported Ubiquitous Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Bishouty, Moushir M.; Ogata, Hiroaki; Rahman, Samia; Yano, Yoneo

    2010-01-01

    Social networks are helpful for people to solve problems by providing useful information. Therefore, the importance of mobile social software for learning has been supported by many researches. In this research, a model of personalized collaborative ubiquitous learning environment is designed and implemented in order to support learners doing…

  17. Social Support, Traumatic Events, and Depressive Symptoms among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationships among stress, social support, negative interaction, and mental health in a sample of African American men and women between ages 18 and 54 (N = 591) from the National Comorbidity Study. The study findings indicated that social support decreased the number of depressive symptoms,…

  18. Social Influences, Social Context, and Health Behaviors among Working-Class, Multi-Ethnic Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmons, Karen M.; Barbeau, Elizabeth M.; Gutheil, Caitlin; Stryker, Jo Ellen; Stoddard, Anne M.

    2007-01-01

    Little research has explored the relationship between social influences (e.g., social networks, social support, social norms) and health as related to modifying factors that may contribute to health disparities. This is a cross-sectional analysis of fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity, using baseline data from two cancer prevention…

  19. [Social health care for older adults in Peru].

    PubMed

    Casas-Vasquez, Paola; Apaza-Pino, Rossana; Del Canto Y Dorador, Juan; Chávez-Jimeno, Helver

    2016-06-01

    Demographic and epidemiological changes have led to restructuring of the local and global health systems, changes that focus on broader coverage in which importance is given to an individual's physical well-being as well as social welfare in an effort to ensure healthy aging. In this review, the current social health care approach is analyzed from the different institutions that care for older populations and the changes that have resulted from boarding and caring for older adults. PMID:27656937

  20. The early adult transition and friendships: mechanisms of support.

    PubMed

    Tokuno, K A

    1986-01-01

    The early adult transition is a neglected but increasingly important stage in the human life cycle. Research indicates that friends are a primary choice of support for young adults faced with developmental tasks such as choice of careers, consolidation of personal identity, and formation of long-term intimate relationships. This study sought to describe and categorize the specific processes by which friends serve to influence the emerging life structures of early adulthood. Five categories were developed from open-ended interviews of 34 young adults ranging from 20 to 28 years of age. These categories describe friends in the roles of models, active agents for change, reactors, interactors, and passive influences. Further specificity is gained through the descriptions of 13 subcategories. Implications of preliminary findings using these categories are discussed. PMID:3812066

  1. [Social space and support of people with chronic mental illness].

    PubMed

    Rohrmann, A

    2013-04-01

    This article deals with the conceptional meaning of social space orientation in the field of community psychiatry. The author argues to distinguish between social space sensitivity in professional support and the concept of social space orientation. The purpose of participation and self-determination of the Rehabilitation Act (SGB IX) and the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities require the integration of professional support services development in a local planning process.

  2. [Social support assessment in Brazilian studies: conceptual aspects and measures].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Tonantzin Ribeiro; Pawlowski, Josiane; Bandeira, Denise Ruschel; Piccinini, Cesar Augusto

    2011-03-01

    This study investigated the different ways of evaluating the social support in Brazilian studies. A surveying of scientific Brazilian publications from 1987 to 2007 was done in the Indexpsi, Pepsic, SciELO and Lilacs databases according to keywords social support and social network. Fifty-five studies included some type of assessing social support in Brazilian samples. The results indicated a rise in the number of studies about social support assessment in the last years using interviews to investigate received and perceived support, predominantly. However, the construction was applied without theoretical basis and was associated with many other concepts, sometimes without an appropriate articulation. Besides, there were evidences of lacking reliable, valid and standardized instruments to Brazilian population by considering the instruments currently used and revised by this study.

  3. Social Activities, Socioeconomic Factors, and Overweight Status Among Middle-Aged and Older Korean Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Christine; Oh, In-Hwan; Kwon, Young Dae

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between social activities and overweight among middle-aged and older adults. This study used data from the 2008 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging which included a total of 8157 adults. We divided body mass index into 2 groups: normal weight and overweight. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the association between social activities and overweight. For males, frequency of meetings with neighbors (1-3 times a week) was associated with being less overweight. Middle-aged adults who met with neighbors 1 to 3 times a week were less likely being overweight than those with once a year meeting frequency. On the contrary, social activity participation is related with high risk of overweight especially in the female and older adults. Our results suggest that social activity participation and social support needs to be taken into consideration when dealing with being overweight.

  4. The biobehavioral family model: testing social support as an additional exogenous variable.

    PubMed

    Woods, Sarah B; Priest, Jacob B; Roush, Tara

    2014-12-01

    This study tests the inclusion of social support as a distinct exogenous variable in the Biobehavioral Family Model (BBFM). The BBFM is a biopsychosocial approach to health that proposes that biobehavioral reactivity (anxiety and depression) mediates the relationship between family emotional climate and disease activity. Data for this study included married, English-speaking adult participants (n = 1,321; 55% female; M age = 45.2 years) from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative epidemiological study of the frequency of mental disorders in the United States. Participants reported their demographics, marital functioning, social support from friends and relatives, anxiety and depression (biobehavioral reactivity), number of chronic health conditions, and number of prescription medications. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the items used in the measures of negative marital interactions, social support, and biobehavioral reactivity, as well as the use of negative marital interactions, friends' social support, and relatives' social support as distinct factors in the model. Structural equation modeling indicated a good fit of the data to the hypothesized model (χ(2)  = 846.04, p = .000, SRMR = .039, CFI = .924, TLI = .914, RMSEA = .043). Negative marital interactions predicted biobehavioral reactivity (β = .38, p < .001), as did relatives' social support, inversely (β = -.16, p < .001). Biobehavioral reactivity predicted disease activity (β = .40, p < .001) and was demonstrated to be a significant mediator through tests of indirect effects. Findings are consistent with previous tests of the BBFM with adult samples, and suggest the important addition of family social support as a predicting factor in the model. PMID:24981970

  5. The biobehavioral family model: testing social support as an additional exogenous variable.

    PubMed

    Woods, Sarah B; Priest, Jacob B; Roush, Tara

    2014-12-01

    This study tests the inclusion of social support as a distinct exogenous variable in the Biobehavioral Family Model (BBFM). The BBFM is a biopsychosocial approach to health that proposes that biobehavioral reactivity (anxiety and depression) mediates the relationship between family emotional climate and disease activity. Data for this study included married, English-speaking adult participants (n = 1,321; 55% female; M age = 45.2 years) from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative epidemiological study of the frequency of mental disorders in the United States. Participants reported their demographics, marital functioning, social support from friends and relatives, anxiety and depression (biobehavioral reactivity), number of chronic health conditions, and number of prescription medications. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the items used in the measures of negative marital interactions, social support, and biobehavioral reactivity, as well as the use of negative marital interactions, friends' social support, and relatives' social support as distinct factors in the model. Structural equation modeling indicated a good fit of the data to the hypothesized model (χ(2)  = 846.04, p = .000, SRMR = .039, CFI = .924, TLI = .914, RMSEA = .043). Negative marital interactions predicted biobehavioral reactivity (β = .38, p < .001), as did relatives' social support, inversely (β = -.16, p < .001). Biobehavioral reactivity predicted disease activity (β = .40, p < .001) and was demonstrated to be a significant mediator through tests of indirect effects. Findings are consistent with previous tests of the BBFM with adult samples, and suggest the important addition of family social support as a predicting factor in the model.

  6. Importance of social support in preventing alcohol-exposed pregnancies with American Indian communities.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jessica D; Jensen, Jamie

    2015-02-01

    Recent research concludes that prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) must occur with preconceptional women, either by reducing alcohol consumption in women at-risk or planning pregnancy or preventing pregnancy in women drinking at risky levels. One AEP prevention program currently underway with non-pregnant American Indian women is the Oglala Sioux Tribe (OST) Changing High-risk alcohOl use and Increasing Contraception Effectiveness Study (CHOICES) Program. The OST CHOICES Program shows promise in lowering the AEP risk in American Indian women, and it is a natural next step to evaluate the potential impact that social support can have on further encouraging behavioral changes. Focus groups with community members and key informant interviews with health and social service professionals were completed. To uncover and interpret interrelated themes, a conventional content analysis methodology was used. Eight focus groups were held with 58 American Indian participants, including adult women of child-bearing age, elder women, and adult men. Key informant interviews were completed with 25 health and social service professionals. Based on input from the focus groups and key informant interviews, several subthemes regarding social support in the prevention of AEP stood out, including the role of family (especially elders), the impact community can have, and the important function of culture. In this study, we highlighted the important influence that social support can have on AEP prevention, especially among the American Indian population, where social support has cultural and historical significance. PMID:24974087

  7. Importance of social support in preventing alcohol-exposed pregnancies with American Indian communities.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jessica D; Jensen, Jamie

    2015-02-01

    Recent research concludes that prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) must occur with preconceptional women, either by reducing alcohol consumption in women at-risk or planning pregnancy or preventing pregnancy in women drinking at risky levels. One AEP prevention program currently underway with non-pregnant American Indian women is the Oglala Sioux Tribe (OST) Changing High-risk alcohOl use and Increasing Contraception Effectiveness Study (CHOICES) Program. The OST CHOICES Program shows promise in lowering the AEP risk in American Indian women, and it is a natural next step to evaluate the potential impact that social support can have on further encouraging behavioral changes. Focus groups with community members and key informant interviews with health and social service professionals were completed. To uncover and interpret interrelated themes, a conventional content analysis methodology was used. Eight focus groups were held with 58 American Indian participants, including adult women of child-bearing age, elder women, and adult men. Key informant interviews were completed with 25 health and social service professionals. Based on input from the focus groups and key informant interviews, several subthemes regarding social support in the prevention of AEP stood out, including the role of family (especially elders), the impact community can have, and the important function of culture. In this study, we highlighted the important influence that social support can have on AEP prevention, especially among the American Indian population, where social support has cultural and historical significance.

  8. Importance of Social Support in Preventing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies with American Indian Communities

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent research concludes that prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) must occur with preconceptional women, either by reducing alcohol consumption in women at-risk or planning pregnancy or preventing pregnancy in women drinking at risky levels. One AEP prevention program currently underway with non-pregnant American Indian women is the Oglala Sioux Tribe (OST) CHOICES (Changing High-risk alcohOl use and Increasing Contraception Effectiveness Study) Program. The OST CHOICES Program shows promise in lowering the AEP risk in American Indian women, and it is a natural next step to evaluate the potential impact that social support can have on further encouraging behavioral changes. Methods Focus groups with community members and key informant interviews with health and social service professionals were completed. To uncover and interpret interrelated themes, a conventional content analysis methodology was used. Results Eight focus groups were held with 58 American Indian participants, including adult women of child-bearing age, elder women, and adult men. Key informant interviews were completed with 25 health and social service professionals. Based on input from the focus groups and key informant interviews, several subthemes regarding social support in the prevention of AEP stood out, including the role of family (especially elders), the impact community can have, and the important function of culture. Conclusions In this study, we highlighted the important influence that social support can have on AEP prevention, especially among the American Indian population, where social support has cultural and historical significance. PMID:24974087

  9. Social capital and health among older adults in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about social capital and health among older adults in South Africa. This study investigates the association between social capital and several health variables, namely: self-rated health, depressive symptoms, cognitive functioning and physical inactivity, among older South Africans. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a national probability sample of 3840 individuals aged 50 years or older who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE wave 1) in 2008 in South Africa. Measures included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, cognitive functioning and physical activity. Social capital was assessed with six components, namely: marital status, social action, sociability, trust and solidarity, safety, and civic engagement. Results The social capital assessment revealed that 56% of the respondents were married or cohabiting, 45% reported low (0) social action, 42% reported medium (2–3) sociability, 43% reported high (2) trust and solidarity, 50% reported high (2–4) civic engagement and 42% reported medium (6) psychological resources. In multivariate analysis, self-reported good health was associated with younger age, having secondary education and higher social capital (being married or cohabiting, high trust and solidarity and greater psychological resources). Depressive symptoms were associated with lower social capital (not being married or cohabiting, lack of high trust and solidarity and low psychological resources). Better cognitive functioning was associated with younger age, higher educational level, greater wealth and higher social capital (being married or cohabiting, high trust and solidarity, lack of safety, higher civic engagement and greater psychological resources). Physical inactivity was associated with older age and lower social capital (lower social action, lack of safety, lower civic engagement and poorer psychological resources). Conclusions

  10. Social capital, social support, and food insecurity in food pantry users.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Surbhi; Falciglia, Grace A; Lee, Seung-Yeon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between food security, social capital, and social support among urban food pantry users in Cincinnati. In-person interviews with 53 participants were completed using the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module, Social Capital questionnaire, and Social Support questionnaire. Social capital was assessed through four subscales using a Likert scale, with a response range 1 to 4, and social support was measured by rating significant others' emotional, informational, and instrumental support as well as companionship (ranged from 0 to 4). The findings suggested that there were no significant associations among them. This may be due to a small sample size. Thus, the associations need to be examined with a larger sample. Further, a qualitative approach may be necessary to explore the contextual nature of social capital and social support related to food security.

  11. Social capital, social support, and food insecurity in food pantry users.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Surbhi; Falciglia, Grace A; Lee, Seung-Yeon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between food security, social capital, and social support among urban food pantry users in Cincinnati. In-person interviews with 53 participants were completed using the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module, Social Capital questionnaire, and Social Support questionnaire. Social capital was assessed through four subscales using a Likert scale, with a response range 1 to 4, and social support was measured by rating significant others' emotional, informational, and instrumental support as well as companionship (ranged from 0 to 4). The findings suggested that there were no significant associations among them. This may be due to a small sample size. Thus, the associations need to be examined with a larger sample. Further, a qualitative approach may be necessary to explore the contextual nature of social capital and social support related to food security. PMID:25357271

  12. Social support and life satisfaction among gay men in Spain.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Fuentes, Juan Manuel; Hombrados-Mendieta, María Isabel; García-Leiva, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1960s, social support has been a topic of interest and study among social psychologists and other professionals investigating social issues. In spite of this growing interest by the scientific community, there are few studies on social support in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community, and even fewer on the impact of social support on life satisfaction. In this regard, in Spain, there are very few psychosocial studies on homosexual groups. In the present study, the authors analyze social support data and life satisfaction in a sample of 220 gay residents of Málaga and Sevilla. The results show that friends are the most important source of overall social support, and that, in the family, sisters provide the most support and contribute to increased life satisfaction. On the other hand, social support had an effect on the level of life satisfaction, although the results indicate that factors associated with homosexual identity are the best predictors of life satisfaction. The implications of these results are discussed as well as potential future research. PMID:22335420

  13. Positive Social Support, Negative Social Exchanges, and Suicidal Behavior in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Jameson K.; Barton, Alison L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Risk for suicide is often higher among college students, compared to same-age noncollegiate peers, and may be exacerbated by quality of social support and interactions. The authors examined the independent contributions of positive social support and negative social exchanges to suicide ideation and attempts in college students.…

  14. Adverse Childhood Experiences, Support, and the Perception of Ability to Work in Adults with Disability

    PubMed Central

    Eslinger, Jessica G.; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Scaccia, Jamie; Lai, Betty S.; Lewis, Catrin; Alisic, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and support on self-reported work inability of adults reporting disability. Participants Adults (ages 18–64) who participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in 2009 or 2010 and who reported having a disability (n = 13,009). Design and Main Outcome Measures The study used a retrospective cohort design with work inability as the main outcome. ACE categories included abuse (sexual, physical, emotional) and family dysfunction (domestic violence, incarceration, mental illness, substance abuse, divorce). Support included functional (perceived emotional/social support) and structural (living with another adult) support. Logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders (age, sex and race) and to evaluate whether there was an independent effect of ACEs on work inability after adding other important predictors (support, education, health) to the model. Results ACEs were highly prevalent with almost 75% of the sample reporting at least one ACE category and over 25% having a high ACE burden (4 or more categories). ACEs were strongly associated with functional support. Participants experiencing a high ACE burden had a higher adjusted odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval] of 1.9 [1.5–2.4] of work inability (reference: zero ACEs). Good functional support (adjusted OR 0.52 [0.42–0.63]) and structural support (adjusted OR 0.48 [0.41–0.56]) were protective against work inability. After adding education and health to the model, ACEs no longer appeared to have an independent effect. Structural support remained highly protective, but functional support only appeared to be protective in those with good physical health. Conclusions ACEs are highly prevalent in working-age US adults with a disability, particularly young adults. ACEs are associated with decreased support, lower educational attainment and worse adult health. Health care providers are encouraged to screen

  15. Factors Related to Social Support in Neurological and Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Kamenov, Kaloyan; Cabello, Maria; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Cieza, Alarcos; Sabariego, Carla; Raggi, Alberto; Anczewska, Marta; Pitkänen, Tuuli; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Despite the huge body of research on social support, literature has been primarily focused on its beneficial role for both physical and mental health. It is still unclear why people with mental and neurological disorders experience low levels of social support. The main objective of this study was to explore what are the strongest factors related to social support and how do they interact with each other in neuropsychiatric disorders. The study used cross-sectional data from 722 persons suffering from dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, and substance use disorders. Multiple linear regressions showed that disability was the strongest factor for social support. Extraversion and agreeableness were significant personality variables, but when the interaction terms between personality traits and disability were included, disability remained the only significant variable. Moreover, level of disability mediated the relationship between personality (extraversion and agreeableness) and level of social support. Moderation analysis revealed that people that had mental disorders experienced lower levels of support when being highly disabled compared to people with neurological disorders. Unlike previous literature, focused on increasing social support as the origin of improving disability, this study suggested that interventions improving day-to-day functioning or maladaptive personality styles might also have an effect on the way people perceive social support. Future longitudinal research, however, is warranted to explore causality. PMID:26900847

  16. Factors Related to Social Support in Neurological and Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Kamenov, Kaloyan; Cabello, Maria; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Cieza, Alarcos; Sabariego, Carla; Raggi, Alberto; Anczewska, Marta; Pitkänen, Tuuli; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Despite the huge body of research on social support, literature has been primarily focused on its beneficial role for both physical and mental health. It is still unclear why people with mental and neurological disorders experience low levels of social support. The main objective of this study was to explore what are the strongest factors related to social support and how do they interact with each other in neuropsychiatric disorders. The study used cross-sectional data from 722 persons suffering from dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, and substance use disorders. Multiple linear regressions showed that disability was the strongest factor for social support. Extraversion and agreeableness were significant personality variables, but when the interaction terms between personality traits and disability were included, disability remained the only significant variable. Moreover, level of disability mediated the relationship between personality (extraversion and agreeableness) and level of social support. Moderation analysis revealed that people that had mental disorders experienced lower levels of support when being highly disabled compared to people with neurological disorders. Unlike previous literature, focused on increasing social support as the origin of improving disability, this study suggested that interventions improving day-to-day functioning or maladaptive personality styles might also have an effect on the way people perceive social support. Future longitudinal research, however, is warranted to explore causality.

  17. Locations that Support Social Activity Participation of the Aging Population

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Pauline; Kemperman, Astrid; de Kleijn, Boy; Borgers, Aloys

    2015-01-01

    Social activities are an important aspect of health and quality of life of the aging population. They are key elements in the prevention of loneliness. In order to create living environments that stimulate older adults to engage in social activities, more insight is needed in the social activity patterns of the aging population. This study therefore analyzes the heterogeneity in older adults’ preferences for different social activity location types and the relationship between these preferences and personal and mobility characteristics. This is done using a latent class multinomial logit model based on two-day diary data collected in 2014 in Noord-Limburg in the Netherlands among 213 respondents aged 65 or over. The results show that three latent classes can be identified among the respondents who recorded social activities in the diary: a group that mainly socializes at home, a group that mainly socializes at a community center and a group that is more likely to socialize at public ‘third’ places. The respondents who did not record any interactions during the two days, are considered as a separate segment. Relationships between segment membership and personal and mobility characteristics were tested using cross-tabulations with chi-square tests and analyses of variance. The results suggest that both personal and mobility characteristics play an important role in social activity patterns of older adults. PMID:26343690

  18. Loneliness, Stress, and Social Support in Young Adulthood: Does the Source of Support Matter?

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih-Yuan Steven; Goldstein, Sara E

    2016-03-01

    Social support protects individuals against adversity throughout the lifespan, and is especially salient during times of intense social change, such as during the transition to adulthood. Focusing on three relationship-specific sources of social support (family, friends, and romantic partners), the current study examined the stress-buffering function of social support against loneliness and whether the association between social support and loneliness with stress held constant would vary by its source. The role of gender in these associations was also considered. The sample consisted of 636 ethnically diverse college youth (age range 18-25; 80 % female). The results suggest that the stress-buffering role of social support against loneliness varies by its source. Only support from friends buffered the association between stress and loneliness. Further, when stress was held constant, the association between social support and loneliness differed by the sources, in that support from friends or romantic partners (but not from family) was negatively associated with loneliness. Regarding gender differences, the adverse impact of lower levels of familial or friends' support on loneliness was greater in females than in males. This research advances our understanding of social support among college-aged youth; implications of the findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  19. Older Adult Inmates: The Challenge for Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Cindy; van Wormer, Katherine; Chadha, Janice; Jaggers, Jeremiah W.

    2009-01-01

    Older adult inmates have grown both in proportion and in number due to the confluence of a number of factors. This aging of the prison population has created a host of policy and practice issues that encompass justice considerations, cost containment issues, and biopsychosocial care needs. The older prisoner's physical, social, and psychological…

  20. Adolescents' and Emerging Adults' Social Networking Online: Homophily or Diversity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Elizabeth; Richards, Lacey

    2011-01-01

    More than half of all online American adolescents and emerging adults have created personal profiles for social networking on the Internet. Does homophily in their offline friendships extend online? Drawing mainly on research of face-to-face friendship, we collected data from the public spaces, called "walls," of 129 young Americans ages 16 to 19…

  1. Screening for ADHD in an Adult Social Phobia Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortberg, Ewa; Tilfors, Kerstin; Bejerot, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Recent studies have suggested a link between a primary anxiety disorder and ADHD. Method: A total of 39 participants with a primary diagnosis of social phobia were compared with 178 patients with ADHD and 88 patients with other psychiatric disorders on measures for childhood and adult ADHD (the Wender Utah Rating Scale and the Adult…

  2. Theme with Variations: Social Policy, Community Care and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Changes in British social policy regarding community health care has implications for local education agency (LEA) providers of adult continuing education. LEAs will either have a role in providing staff training and other learning opportunities, will be forced to provide cheaper forms of community care, or will be ignored altogether. (SK)

  3. Legitimacy and Social Class in Catalan Language Education for Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frekko, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Adult students of Catalan are worthy of study because they reveal complexities underlying taken-for-granted assumptions about Catalan speakers and Castilian speakers. Far from fitting into neat bundles aligning language of origin, social class, and national orientation, the students in this study exemplify the breakdown of boundaries traditionally…

  4. Compassion fatigue and the adult protective services social worker.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, Dara Bergel

    2009-04-01

    Compassion fatigue is a relatively new term that describes the symptoms that are experienced by social workers and other helping professionals who work with clients experiencing trauma. This article defines the concept of compassion fatigue and relates compassion fatigue to Adult Protective Services (APS) social workers. It is proposed that APS social workers may be susceptible to the deleterious effects of compassion fatigue due to the nature of their work and environment. Suggestions for avoidance of compassion fatigue are also discussed, including self-care strategies and the need for continuing education regarding this phenomenon.

  5. Access to Technology in Transnational Social Fields: Simultaneity and Digital Literacy Socialization of Adult Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nogueron-Liu, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Some studies of technology use by immigrants have explored the role of digital media in their maintenance of affiliations with their nations of origin. However, the potential for transnational social networks to serve as "resources" that facilitate digital literacy socialization for adult immigrant learners remains unexplored. In this study, I…

  6. Social care networks and older LGBT adults: challenges for the future.

    PubMed

    Brennan-Ing, Mark; Seidel, Liz; Larson, Britta; Karpiak, Stephen E

    2014-01-01

    Research on service needs among older adults rarely addresses the special circumstances of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals, such as their reliance on friend-centered social networks or the experience of discrimination from service providers. Limited data suggests that older LGBT adults underutilize health and social services that are important in maintaining independence and quality of life. This study explored the social care networks of this population using a mixed-methods approach. Data were obtained from 210 LGBT older adults. The average age was 60 years, and 71% were men, 24% were women, and 5% were transgender or intersex. One-third was Black, and 62% were Caucasian. Quantitative assessments found high levels of morbidity and friend-centered support networks. Need for and use of services was frequently reported. Content analysis revealed unmet needs for basic supports, including housing, economic supports, and help with entitlements. Limited opportunities for socialization were strongly expressed, particularly among older lesbians. Implications for senior programs and policies are discussed. PMID:24313252

  7. Social care networks and older LGBT adults: challenges for the future.

    PubMed

    Brennan-Ing, Mark; Seidel, Liz; Larson, Britta; Karpiak, Stephen E

    2014-01-01

    Research on service needs among older adults rarely addresses the special circumstances of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals, such as their reliance on friend-centered social networks or the experience of discrimination from service providers. Limited data suggests that older LGBT adults underutilize health and social services that are important in maintaining independence and quality of life. This study explored the social care networks of this population using a mixed-methods approach. Data were obtained from 210 LGBT older adults. The average age was 60 years, and 71% were men, 24% were women, and 5% were transgender or intersex. One-third was Black, and 62% were Caucasian. Quantitative assessments found high levels of morbidity and friend-centered support networks. Need for and use of services was frequently reported. Content analysis revealed unmet needs for basic supports, including housing, economic supports, and help with entitlements. Limited opportunities for socialization were strongly expressed, particularly among older lesbians. Implications for senior programs and policies are discussed.

  8. fMRI Study of Social Anxiety during Social Ostracism with and without Emotional Support

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Yoshiko; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Kunisato, Yoshihiko; Okada, Go; Yoshimura, Shinpei; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Yamamura, Takanao; Yoshino, Atsuo; Jinnin, Ran; Takagaki, Koki; Onoda, Keiichi; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety is characterized by an excessive fear of being embarrassed in social interactions or social performance situations. Emotional support can help to decrease or diminish social distress. Such support may play an important role at different points of social interaction. However, it is unclear how the beneficial effects of social support are represented in the brains of socially anxious individuals. To explore this, we used the same paradigm previously used to examine the effects of emotional support on social pain caused by exclusion. Undergraduates (n = 46) showing a wide range of social anxiety scores underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participating in a Cyberball game. Participants were initially included and later excluded from the game. In the latter half of the session in which participants were excluded, they were provided with supportive messages. In line with our previous work, we found that social exclusion led to increased anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity, whereas emotional support led to increased left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity. Despite validation of the paradigm, social anxiety was not associated with increased ACC activity during social exclusion, or during perceived emotional support. Instead, fear of negative evaluation as assessed by the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation (BFNE) scale showed positive associations with left DLPFC activation while receiving emotional support, compared to while being socially excluded. The more socially anxious an individual was, the greater was the left DLPFC activity increased during receipt of messages. This suggests that highly socially anxious people still have the ability to perceive social support, but that they are nevertheless susceptible to negative evaluation by others. PMID:26000902

  9. Life stress, social support, and self-esteem in an elderly population.

    PubMed

    Krause, N

    1987-12-01

    Findings in previous studies of the stress-buffering properties of social support have been erratic. This study suggests that at least part of the reason for those inconclusive findings may be that researchers are using oversimplified models of the stress process and limited statistical approaches to assess the effects. The findings in this study indicate that social support (a) helps to reduce the deleterious effects of stress on emotional disorder primarily by bolstering the self-esteem of older adults and (b) affects psychological well-being only indirectly through self-esteem. Two distinct approaches to the statistical estimation of stress-buffering effects are also examined.

  10. Spirituality, Social Support, and Survival in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Spinale, Joann; Cohen, Scott D.; Khetpal, Prashant; Peterson, Rolf A.; Clougherty, Brenna; Puchalski, Christina M.; Patel, Samir S.; Kimmel, Paul L.

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives: No studies have evaluated the relationship among spirituality, social support, and survival in patients with ESRD. This study assessed whether spirituality was an independent predictor of survival in dialysis patients with ESRD after controlling for age, diabetes, albumin, and social support. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: A total of 166 patients who had ESRD and were treated with hemodialysis completed questionnaires on psychosocial variables, quality of life, and religious and spiritual beliefs. The religious variables were categorized into three scores on a 0 to 20 scale (low to high levels): Spirituality, religious involvement, and religion as coping. Social support was assessed using the Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support. Analyses were also performed including and excluding patients with HIV infection. Religious variables were categorized on the basis of means, medians, and tertiles. Results: In analyses that used religious variables, only the responses on the spirituality scale split at the mean were associated with survival. The association of other religious variables with survival did not reach significance. Social support correlated with spirituality, religion as coping, and religious involvement measures. Only social support and age were associated with survival when controlling for diabetes, albumin concentration, HIV infection, and spirituality. Conclusions: These data suggest that the effects of spirituality may be mediated by social support. Larger, multicenter, prospective studies that use well-validated tools to measure religiosity and spirituality are needed to determine whether there is an independent association of spirituality variables with survival in patients with ESRD. PMID:18922991

  11. Social vulnerability from a social ecology perspective: a cohort study of older adults from the National Population Health Survey of Canada

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous social factors, generally studied in isolation, have been associated with older adults’ health. Even so, older people’s social circumstances are complex and an approach which embraces this complexity is desirable. Here we investigate many social factors in relation to one another and to survival among older adults using a social ecology perspective to measure social vulnerability among older adults. Methods 2740 adults aged 65 and older were followed for ten years in the Canadian National Population Health Survey (NPHS). Twenty-three individual-level social variables were drawn from the 1994 NPHS and five Enumeration Area (EA)-level variables were abstracted from the 1996 Canadian Census using postal code linkage. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to identify dimensions of social vulnerability. All social variables were summed to create a social vulnerability index which was studied in relation to ten-year mortality. Results The PCA was limited by low variance (47%) explained by emergent factors. Seven dimensions of social vulnerability emerged in the most robust, yet limited, model: social support, engagement, living situation, self-esteem, sense of control, relations with others and contextual socio-economic status. These dimensions showed complex inter-relationships and were situated within a social ecology framework, considering spheres of influence from the individual through to group, neighbourhood and broader societal levels. Adjusting for age, sex, and frailty, increasing social vulnerability measured using the cumulative social vulnerability index was associated with increased risk of mortality over ten years in a Cox regression model (HR 1.04, 95% CI:1.01-1.07, p = 0.01). Conclusions Social vulnerability has important independent influence on older adults’ health though relationships between contributing variables are complex and do not lend themselves well to fragmentation into a small number of discrete factors. A

  12. Social Isolation and Social Support as Correlates of Television Viewing Motivations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Seth; Gorr, Mary Beth

    1988-01-01

    Explores relationships between motivations for television viewing, including shyness, loneliness, self-esteem, and three measures of social support. Suggests viewing motivations are related to needs arising from two distinct sources: social compensation and mood management. (MS)

  13. Social support, perceptions of attractiveness, weight, and the CPI in socially anxious males and females.

    PubMed

    Haemmerlie, F M; Montgomery, R L; Melchers, J

    1988-05-01

    To see how socially anxious people function in a number of domains, Watson and Friend's (1969) Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SAD) was administered to 101 undergraduates along with the California Personality Inventory (CPI) and the Psychosocial Support Inventory (PSI), a measure of social support. Additionally, a perceived attractiveness measure and various measures related to being overweight were taken. SAD scores correlated significantly in a negative direction with 13 of the 18 CPI scales, and those with high SAD scores had poorer social support networks. High SAD scores also were related to the perception of being overweight, but not to perceived physical attractiveness or to actually being overweight. Gender differences showed that females had more intimate social interactions and that socially anxious females relied more on their family for social support than did other people. Overall, the results suggested that the socially anxious person may have deficits in a variety of personal and interpersonal domains.

  14. Social capital, social participation and life satisfaction among Chilean older adults

    PubMed Central

    Ponce, María Soledad Herrera; Rosas, Raúl Pedro Elgueta; Lorca, María Beatriz Fernández

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine factors associated with social participation and their relationship with self-perceived well-being in older adults. METHODS This study was based on data obtained from the National Socioeconomic Characterization (CASEN) Survey conducted in Chile, in 2011, on a probability sample of households. We examined information of 31,428 older adults living in these households. Descriptive and explanatory analyses were performed using linear and multivariate logistic regression models. We assessed the respondents’ participation in different types of associations: egotropic, sociotropic, and religious. RESULTS Social participation increased with advancing age and then declined after the age of 80. The main finding of this study was that family social capital is a major determinant of social participation of older adults. Their involvement was associated with high levels of self-perceived subjective well-being. We identified four settings as sources of social participation: home-based; rural community-based; social policy programs; and religious. Older adults were significantly more likely to participate when other members of the household were also involved in social activities evidencing an intergenerational transmission of social participation. Rural communities, especially territorial associations, were the most favorable setting for participation. There has been a steady increase in the rates of involvement of older adults in social groups in Chile, especially after retirement. Religiosity remains a major determinant of associativism. The proportion of participation was higher among older women than men but these proportions equaled after the age of 80. CONCLUSIONS Self-perceived subjective well-being is not only dependent upon objective factors such as health and income, but is also dependent upon active participation in social life, measured as participation in associations, though its effects are moderate. PMID:25372164

  15. Psychometric properties of an innovative self-report measure: The Social Anxiety Questionnaire for Adults

    PubMed Central

    Caballo, Vicente E.; Arias, Benito; Salazar, Isabel C.; Irurtia, María Jesús; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the psychometric properties of a new measure of social anxiety, the Social Anxiety Questionnaire for adults (SAQ), composed of 30 items that were developed based on participants from 16 Latin American countries, Spain, and Portugal. Two groups of participants were included in the study: a non-clinical group involving 18,133 persons and a clinical group comprising 334 patients with a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder (social phobia). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 5-factor structure of the questionnaire. The factors were labeled: 1) Interactions with strangers, 2) Speaking in public/talking with people in authority, 3) Interactions with the opposite sex, 4) Criticism and embarrassment, and 5) Assertive expression of annoyance, disgust or displeasure. Psychometric evidence supported the internal consistency, convergent validity, and measurement invariance of the SAQ. To facilitate clinical applications, a ROC analysis identified cut scores for men and women for each factor and for the global score. PMID:25774643

  16. Psychometric properties of an innovative self-report measure: The Social Anxiety Questionnaire for adults.

    PubMed

    Caballo, Vicente E; Arias, Benito; Salazar, Isabel C; Irurtia, María Jesús; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2015-09-01

    This article presents the psychometric properties of a new measure of social anxiety, the Social Anxiety Questionnaire for adults (SAQ), composed of 30 items that were developed based on participants from 16 Latin American countries, Spain, and Portugal. Two groups of participants were included in the study: a nonclinical group involving 18,133 persons and a clinical group comprising 334 patients with a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder (social phobia). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 5-factor structure of the questionnaire. The factors were labeled as follows: (1) Interactions with strangers, (2) Speaking in public/talking with people in authority, (3) Interactions with the opposite sex, (4) Criticism and embarrassment, and (5) Assertive expression of annoyance, disgust, or displeasure. Psychometric evidence supported the internal consistency, convergent validity, and measurement invariance of the SAQ. To facilitate clinical applications, a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis identified cut scores for men and women for each factor and for the global score.

  17. Exploring the use of social network analysis to measure social integration among older adults in assisted living.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Katherine M; Bettger, Janet Prvu; Hampton, Keith; Kohler, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    Social integration is measured by a variety of social network indicators each with limitations in its ability to produce a complete picture of the variety and scope of interactions of older adults receiving long-term services and supports. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the feasibility of collecting sociocentric (whole network) data among older adults in one assisted living neighborhood. The sociocentric approach is required to conduct social network analysis. Applying social network analysis is an innovative way to measure different facets of social integration among residents. Sociocentric data are presented for 12 residents. Network visualization or sociograms are used to illustrate the level of social integration among residents and between residents and staff. Measures of network centrality are reported to illustrate the number of personal connections and cohesion. The use of resident photographs helped residents with cognitive impairment to nominate individuals with whom they interacted. The sociocentric approach to data collection is feasible and allows researchers to measure levels and different aspects of social integration in assisted living environments. Residents with mild to moderate cognitive impairment were able to participate with the aid of resident and staff photographs. This approach is sensitive to capturing routine day-to-day interactions between residents and assisted living staff members that are often not reported in person-centered networks. This study contributes to the foundation for larger more representative studies of entire assisted living organizations that could in the future inform interventions aimed at improving social integration and cohesion among recipients of long-term services and supports.

  18. Novice ESOL Teachers' Perceptions of Social Support Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannan, Debi; Bleistein, Tasha

    2012-01-01

    As new teachers navigate the challenging first years of work, they need positive support providers (Villani, 2002). The impact of support providers on novice educators' beliefs about teaching efficacy previously went unexplored. This study examined novice English to speakers of other languages (ESOL) teachers' perceptions of social support and…

  19. Social Support for Chamorro Breast Cancer Survivors on Guam

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Lilli Ann; Natividad, Lisalinda; Chung, William; Haddock, Robert L.; Wenzel, Lari; Hubbell, F. Allan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the types of social support used by Chamorro (indigenous) breast cancer survivors on Guam. Methods We assessed social support use among 25 self-reported Chamorro women with a diagnosis of breast cancer through interviews and construction of genograms and ecomaps -pictorial displays of the women's family relationships, medical history, and their social networks. Results The mean age of the participants was 54.5 years. The average number of years since the diagnosis of breast cancer was 7.8 years. Respondents indicated that the nuclear family was the most important form of social support (34.2%). Indeed, nuclear family and other types of informal systems were the most common type of social support used by the women (60.2%). Formal support services, clubs, and organizations were reported by 17.9% of participants while spiritual and/or religious resources were reported by 21.9% of them. Conclusion These Chamorro breast cancer survivors depended largely on family for social support. Support from family, although informal, should be recognized as a pivotal factor in recovery and survivorship. Future directions could incorporate formal and informal mechanisms to utilize this natural support resource. PMID:25866489

  20. Online social support received by patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Yli-Uotila, Tiina; Rantanen, Anja; Suominen, Tarja

    2014-03-01

    Patient education in the public healthcare system does not necessarily meet the needs of patients with cancer. Because of this, they may turn to the Internet, or they are guided to electronic sources of social support. The purposes of this study were to describe what kind of social support patients with cancer receive from the Internet and its meaning for them. The data were collected using an online survey that consisted of open-ended questions based on a theory of online social support. The data were analyzed using an inductive content analysis. Online social support consisted of three categories: disease-related information from reliable sources, supportive interaction enhancing positive emotions, and practical tips for daily life with cancer. Three major categories related to the meaning of online social support were identified: peers helping make life easier, empowerment, and inadequate support. The findings can be utilized in tailoring educational interventions for patients with cancer. In the future, the long-lasting effects of online social support need to be examined. PMID:24335490

  1. Low perceived social support predicts later depression but not social phobia in middle adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Väänänen, Juha-Matti; Marttunen, Mauri; Helminen, Mika; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2014-01-01

    Social phobia and depression are common and highly comorbid disorders in adolescence. There is a lack of studies on possible psychosocial shared risk factors for these disorders. The current study examined if low social support is a shared risk factor for both disorders among adolescent girls and boys. This study is a part of the Adolescent Mental Health Cohort Study's two-year follow-up. We studied cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of perceived social support with social phobia, depression, and comorbid social phobia and depression among girls and boys. The study sample consisted of 2070 15-year-old adolescents at baseline. Depression was measured by the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory, social phobia by the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN), and perceived social support by the Perceived Social Support Scale-Revised (PSSS-R). Girls reported higher scores on the PSSS-R than boys in total scores and in friend and significant other subscales. Cross-sectional PSSS-R scores were lower among adolescents with social phobia, depression, and comorbid disorder than among those without these disorders. Low PSSS-R total score and significant other subscale were risk factors for depression among both genders, and low support from friends among girls only. Low perceived social support from any source was not a risk factor for social phobia or comorbid social phobia and depression. As conclusion of the study, low perceived social support was a risk factor for depression, but not a shared risk factor for depression and social phobia. Interventions enhancing perceived social support should be an important issue in treatment of depression. PMID:25750832

  2. Social support in the workplace: nurse leader implications.

    PubMed

    Shirey, Maria R

    2004-01-01

    The state of the science as it relates to the stress-mediating role of social support in the health care work environment is explored. The ability to build a nursing leadership workforce is dependent upon a type of social support mechanism that mediates the inherent stress that comes along with managerial positions. Independent of the inevitable work-related stress associated with the nurse manager role, social support provided to current and aspiring nurse leaders is assumed to assist with coping and thriving in the work environment.

  3. Core dimensions of personality broadly account for the link from perceived social support to symptoms of depression and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Gary J; Bates, Timothy C; Posthuma, Danielle; Polderman, Tinca J C

    2014-08-01

    Specific personality traits and poor social support are risk factors for anxiety and depression. Little work, however, has considered the effects of social support and personality on these aspects of psychopathology simultaneously. We examined whether perceived social support mediates the effects of core personality domains on symptoms of anxiety and depression. Measures of personality (based on the Five-Factor Model [FFM]), perceived social support, and symptoms of depression and anxiety were collected in a large Dutch adult population-based sample (n = 555), and, except for depression symptoms, in an independent U.S. adult population-based sample (n = 511). Path modeling was used to test the effects of FFM traits on symptoms of depression and anxiety, with and without the mediation of perceived social support. Social support showed no link to symptoms of anxiety and only modest links to symptoms of depression when controlling for the FFM traits. Neuroticism had the strongest effect on symptoms of both depression and anxiety, with Extraversion also showing links to symptoms of depression. Social support has limited influence on symptoms of depression, and no effects on anxiety, over and above the effects of personality. Links between social support and anxiety/depression may largely reflect influences of Neuroticism and Extraversion.

  4. Social Support and Survival in Young Women with Breast Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Ann F.; Stewart, Susan L.; Wild, Robert C.; Bloom, Joan R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose While previous evidence has shown increased likelihood for survival in cancer patients who have social support, little is known about changes in social support during illness and their impact on survival. This study examines the relationship between social support and survival among women diagnosed with breast carcinoma, specifically assessing the effect of network size and changes in social contact post-diagnosis. Methods A population-based sample of 584 women was followed for up to 12.5 years (median follow-up =10.3 years). The mean age at diagnosis was 44 years, 81% were married, and 29% were racial/ethnic minorities. Cox regression analysis was used to estimate survival as a function of social support (changes in social contact and the size of social support), disease severity, treatment, health status, and socio-demographic factors. Results Fifty-four-percent of the women had local and 44% had regional stage disease. About 53% underwent mastectomy, 68% received chemotherapy, and 55% had radiation. Regression results showed that disease stage, estrogen receptor status, and mastectomy were associated with greater risk of dying. Although network size was not related to survival, increased contact with friends/family post-diagnosis was associated with lower risk of death, with a hazard ratio of 0.31 (95% CI, 0.17-0.57). Conclusion Findings from this study have identified an important aspect of a woman’s social network that impacts survival. An increase in the amount of social contact, representing greater social support, may increase the likelihood of the women’s survival by enhancing their coping skills, providing emotional support, and expanding opportunities for information-sharing. PMID:20967848

  5. The Influence of Source of Social Support and Size of Social Network on All-Cause Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Becofsky, Katie M.; Shook, Robin P.; Sui, Xuemei; Wilcox, Sara; Lavie, Carl J.; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between relative, friend, and partner support, as well as size and source of weekly social network, on mortality risk in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS). Patients and Methods In a mail-back survey completed between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 1990, adult ACLS participants (n=12,709) answered questions regarding whether they received social support from relatives, friends, and spouse/partner (yes or no for each), and the number of friends and relatives they had contact with at least once per week. Participants were followed until December 31, 2003 or death. Cox proportional hazard regression evaluated the strength of the associations, controlling for covariates. Results Participants (25% women) averaged 53.0 years at baseline. During a median 13.5 years of follow-up, 1,139 deaths occurred. Receiving social support from relatives reduced mortality risk 19% (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68–0.95). Receiving spousal/partner support also reduced mortality risk 19% (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.66-.99). Receiving social support from friends was not associated with mortality risk (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.75–1.09), however, participants reporting social contact with 6 or 7 friends on a weekly basis had a 24% lower mortality risk than those in contact with ≤ 1 friend (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.58–0.98). Contact with 2–5 or ≥8 friends was not associated with mortality risk, nor was number of weekly relative contacts. Conclusions Receiving social support from one’s spouse/partner and relatives and maintaining weekly social interaction with 6–7 friends reduced mortality risk. Such data may inform interventions to improve long-term survival. PMID:26055526

  6. Perceived social support, self-efficacy, and adjustment to abortion.

    PubMed

    Major, B; Cozzarelli, C; Sciacchitano, A M; Cooper, M L; Testa, M; Mueller, P M

    1990-09-01

    Prior to their having a 1st trimester abortion, women's perceptions of social support from their partner, family, and friends and self-efficacy for coping were assessed. Depression, mood, physical complaints, and anticipation of negative consequences were measured after the 30-min recovery period. As predicted, perceived social support enhanced adjustment indirectly through its effects on self-efficacy. Women who perceived high support from their family, friends, and partners had higher self-efficacy for coping. Higher self-efficacy, in turn, predicted better adjustment on the psychological measures but not on the physical complaint measure. No direct path between social support and adjustment was observed. In addition, women who told close others of their abortion but perceived them as less than completely supportive had poorer postabortion psychological adjustment than either women who did not tell or women who told and perceived complete support.

  7. Social support and functioning in a patient with spinal cord injury: the role of social skills.

    PubMed

    Müller, Rachel; Rauch, Alexandra; Cieza, Alarcos; Geyh, Szilvia

    2013-09-01

    This study reports on a patient with spinal cord injury (SCI) in whom the interaction between social skills and social support seems to influence functioning. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was used as a reference framework. Qualitative (i.e. observation, structured, and open interviews with the patient and health professionals) and quantitative data (i.e. spinal cord independence measure, medical records) were collected. Content analysis of the interviews was carried out to identify aspects of social skills and social support. An ICF-based documentation tool (i.e. ICF Assessment Sheet) was used to structure information about the level of functioning of body functions and structures, activity and participation, and environmental and personal factors of a 57-year-old man with incomplete paraplegia during first rehabilitation. The patient presented a variety of effective social skills (i.e. assertiveness, goal direction). However, the adaptation of skills, such as asking for help social problem-solving, sensitivity, and expressivity in social relations, became necessary to acquire. The patient received different types of social support (i.e. emotional, informational, and instrumental) from different sources (e.g. family and friends). The qualitative interviews provided indications for an interaction between social skills and social support. The impact of social skills and social support on functioning is discussed. Social skills can mobilize social support and enhance functioning. However, better understanding of social skills, social support, and their interaction in relation to functioning in SCI is required to develop targeted and effective interventions to strengthen psychosocial resources for the enhancement of functioning in patients with SCI. PMID:23337323

  8. Gender differences in social support in persons with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Burkert, Silke; Kendel, Friederike; Kiep, Henriette; Holtkamp, Martin; Gaus, Verena

    2015-05-01

    The present study focused on social support as a key feature of the enhancement and maintenance of mental health. So far, literature on gender differences in social support and its effects on the experience of stress in individuals with epilepsy is scarce. We hypothesized that in individuals with epilepsy, social support buffers detrimental effects of stressors (e.g., unpredictable occurrence of seizures) on mental health. Additionally, we explored the role of gender in this process. In 299 individuals with epilepsy, data from validated questionnaires on seizures in the last 3months, perceived support, social network size, and depressive symptoms were analyzed. Women reported higher depressive symptoms (t=2.51, p<.01) and higher perceived support (t=2.50, p<.01) than men. Women and men did not differ in social network size (t=-0.46, p=64), nor in experiencing seizures (χ(2)=0.07, p=.82). Regression analyses revealed no buffer effects. Perceived support was negatively associated with depressive symptoms (B=-0.49, p<.001, 95% CI [-0.67; -0.32]). With regard to depressive symptoms, social integration was slightly more beneficial for women (Bcond.=-0.06, p<.001; 95% CI [-0.09; -0.03]) than for men (Bcond.=-0.02, p=.09; 95% CI [-0.04; 0.01]). Findings present perceived support and social integration as general health resources in individuals with epilepsy regardless of previously experienced seizures. They also encourage further research on gender-specific effects in individuals with epilepsy and move towards recommendations for practitioners and gender-specific interventions. Future aims will be to enhance social integration in order to support adjustment to the chronic condition of epilepsy and to improve individuals' confidence in support interactions. PMID:25847429

  9. Gender differences in social support in persons with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Burkert, Silke; Kendel, Friederike; Kiep, Henriette; Holtkamp, Martin; Gaus, Verena

    2015-05-01

    The present study focused on social support as a key feature of the enhancement and maintenance of mental health. So far, literature on gender differences in social support and its effects on the experience of stress in individuals with epilepsy is scarce. We hypothesized that in individuals with epilepsy, social support buffers detrimental effects of stressors (e.g., unpredictable occurrence of seizures) on mental health. Additionally, we explored the role of gender in this process. In 299 individuals with epilepsy, data from validated questionnaires on seizures in the last 3months, perceived support, social network size, and depressive symptoms were analyzed. Women reported higher depressive symptoms (t=2.51, p<.01) and higher perceived support (t=2.50, p<.01) than men. Women and men did not differ in social network size (t=-0.46, p=64), nor in experiencing seizures (χ(2)=0.07, p=.82). Regression analyses revealed no buffer effects. Perceived support was negatively associated with depressive symptoms (B=-0.49, p<.001, 95% CI [-0.67; -0.32]). With regard to depressive symptoms, social integration was slightly more beneficial for women (Bcond.=-0.06, p<.001; 95% CI [-0.09; -0.03]) than for men (Bcond.=-0.02, p=.09; 95% CI [-0.04; 0.01]). Findings present perceived support and social integration as general health resources in individuals with epilepsy regardless of previously experienced seizures. They also encourage further research on gender-specific effects in individuals with epilepsy and move towards recommendations for practitioners and gender-specific interventions. Future aims will be to enhance social integration in order to support adjustment to the chronic condition of epilepsy and to improve individuals' confidence in support interactions.

  10. Clarifying the links between social support and health: Culture, stress, and neuroticism matter

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jiyoung; Kitayama, Shinobu; Karasawa, Mayumi; Curhan, Katherine; Markus, Hazel R; Kawakami, Norito; Miyamoto, Yuri; Love, Gayle D; Coe, Christopher L; Ryff, Carol D

    2012-01-01

    Although it is commonly assumed that social support positively predicts health, the empirical evidence has been inconsistent. We argue that three moderating factors must be considered: (1) support-approving norms (cultural context); (2) support-requiring situations (stressful events); and (3) support-accepting personal style (low neuroticism). Our large-scale cross-cultural survey of Japanese and US adults found significant associations between perceived support and health. The association was more strongly evident among Japanese (from a support-approving cultural context) who reported high life stress (in a support-requiring situation). Moreover, the link between support and health was especially pronounced if these Japanese were low in neuroticism. PMID:22419414

  11. Social Support and the Perception of Geographical Slant.

    PubMed

    Schnall, Simone; Harber, Kent D; Stefanucci, Jeanine K; Proffitt, Dennis R

    2008-09-01

    The visual perception of geographical slant is influenced by physiological resources, such as physical fitness, age, and being physically refreshed. In two studies we tested whether a psychosocial resource, social support, can also affect the visual perception of slants. Participants accompanied by a friend estimated a hill to be less steep when compared to participants who were alone (Study 1). Similarly, participants who thought of a supportive friend during an imagery task saw a hill as less steep than participants who either thought of a neutral person or a disliked person (Study 2). In both studies, the effects of social relationships on visual perception appear to be mediated by relationship quality (i.e., relationship duration, interpersonal closeness, warmth). Artifacts such as mood, social desirability, and social facilitation did not account for these effects. This research demonstrates that an interpersonal phenomenon, social support, can influence visual perception. PMID:22389520

  12. Social Support and the Perception of Geographical Slant

    PubMed Central

    Schnall, Simone; Harber, Kent D.; Stefanucci, Jeanine K.; Proffitt, Dennis R.

    2012-01-01

    The visual perception of geographical slant is influenced by physiological resources, such as physical fitness, age, and being physically refreshed. In two studies we tested whether a psychosocial resource, social support, can also affect the visual perception of slants. Participants accompanied by a friend estimated a hill to be less steep when compared to participants who were alone (Study 1). Similarly, participants who thought of a supportive friend during an imagery task saw a hill as less steep than participants who either thought of a neutral person or a disliked person (Study 2). In both studies, the effects of social relationships on visual perception appear to be mediated by relationship quality (i.e., relationship duration, interpersonal closeness, warmth). Artifacts such as mood, social desirability, and social facilitation did not account for these effects. This research demonstrates that an interpersonal phenomenon, social support, can influence visual perception. PMID:22389520

  13. Social Support and the Perception of Geographical Slant.

    PubMed

    Schnall, Simone; Harber, Kent D; Stefanucci, Jeanine K; Proffitt, Dennis R

    2008-09-01

    The visual perception of geographical slant is influenced by physiological resources, such as physical fitness, age, and being physically refreshed. In two studies we tested whether a psychosocial resource, social support, can also affect the visual perception of slants. Participants accompanied by a friend estimated a hill to be less steep when compared to participants who were alone (Study 1). Similarly, participants who thought of a supportive friend during an imagery task saw a hill as less steep than participants who either thought of a neutral person or a disliked person (Study 2). In both studies, the effects of social relationships on visual perception appear to be mediated by relationship quality (i.e., relationship duration, interpersonal closeness, warmth). Artifacts such as mood, social desirability, and social facilitation did not account for these effects. This research demonstrates that an interpersonal phenomenon, social support, can influence visual perception.

  14. Social Support Can Buffer against Stress and Shape Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2015-01-01

    Social support from close relationship partners is an important resource for coping with stress, particularly during childhood. We discuss ethical challenges associated with studying stress and its social buffering in the laboratory, as well as emerging evidence regarding two potential neural substrates for the social buffering of stress: hypothalamic oxytocin activity and activation of areas in the prefrontal cortex associated with effective self-regulation. We also address the role of early-life social experiences in shaping brain development, as well as recommendations for practice and policy that would advance the ethical treatment of children and reduce social inequalities in early-life experiences and opportunities–e.g., investing in programs that prevent child maltreatment and facilitating access to high-quality child care for economically disadvantaged families. We also debate the ethical implications of using oxytocin nasal sprays to simulate the stress-reducing properties of social support and advise waiting for more evidence before recommending their use. PMID:26478822

  15. Life Course Status and Exchanges of Support between Young Adults and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucx, Freek; van Wel, Frits; Knijn, Trudie

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated intergenerational support exchanges in relation to young adults' life course status. In a sample of 2,022 young adults (ages 18-34 years) in The Netherlands, single young adults reported receiving more advice from parents than married young adults, and those with children of their own received more practical support.…

  16. Athlete social support, negative social interactions and psychological health across a competitive sport season.

    PubMed

    DeFreese, J D; Smith, Alan L

    2014-12-01

    Social support and negative social interactions have implications for athlete psychological health, with potential to influence the links of stress-related experiences with burnout and well-being over time. Using a longitudinal design, perceived social support and negative social interactions were examined as potential moderators of the temporal stress-burnout and burnout-well-being relationships. American collegiate athletes (N = 465) completed reliable and valid online assessments of study variables at four time points during the competitive season. After controlling for dispositional and conceptually important variables, social support and negative social interactions did not moderate the stress-burnout or burnout-well-being relationships, respectively, but did simultaneously contribute to burnout and well-being across the competitive season. The results showcase the importance of sport-related social perceptions to athlete psychological outcomes over time and inform development of socially driven interventions to improve the psychological health of competitive athletes.

  17. Transitional Support for Adults with Severe Mental Illness: Critical Time Intervention and Its Roots in Assertive Community Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Daniel B.

    2014-01-01

    Professional social workers and other mental health providers have for many years been involved in delivering treatment and support services focused on the needs of adults with severe mental illnesses living in the community. While some models have evolved largely through practice experience, others have developed through research paradigms in…

  18. Finnish and Russian Teachers Supporting the Development of Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Väyrynen, Sai; Kesälahti, Essi; Pynninen, Tanja; Siivola, Jenny; Flotskaya, Natalia; Bulanova, Svetlana; Volskaya, Olga; Usova, Zoya; Kuzmicheva, Tatyana; Afonkina, Yulia

    2016-01-01

    We argue that a key aspect of inclusive pedagogy is the interaction between the learners, their teachers and the environment. For effective interaction, learners need to develop social competence. This study explores how teachers support the development of the key social skills in schools in Finland and in Russia. The data were collected by…

  19. The heterogeneity of socially isolated older adults: a social isolation typology.

    PubMed

    Machielse, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Recent statistics show a growing number of older adults who are living alone and are socially isolated. It is against this background that, in recent years, many interventions have been developed to address social isolation among the elderly. Evaluative studies show that most interventions are hardly effective, though. An important reason for this is the heterogeneity of the socially isolated. This article offers insight into this heterogeneity by presenting a typology with different profiles of socially isolated older adults and the intervention implications of this typology. The typology is derived from an extensive qualitative study on socially isolated elderly individuals in the Netherlands. The typology imposes some degree of order to a diversity of circumstances, ambitions, and possibilities of the socially isolated elderly, thereby deepening the understanding of the heterogeneity of this population. The definition of social isolation used in this study starts from a societal angle of incidence, namely the current policy context of Western European welfare states, in which governments emphasize the importance of independence and self-reliance of their citizens. Developed from that perspective, the typology provides a theoretical basis for applying interventions aimed at increasing self-reliance of social isolated elderly. This perspective on social isolation also has consequences for the way in which the effectiveness of interventions to alleviate social isolation is assessed.

  20. Support and Control among "Friends" and "Special Friends": Peer Groups' Social Resources as Emotional and Moral Performances amidst Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korkiamaki, Riikka

    2011-01-01

    Children are often regarded as being supported and controlled by adults, rather than their peer groups. In contrast, drawing on research carried out in Finland, this article considers peers as a resource. Using mainly a 14-year-old's oral narratives, it is shown how the spatial and social context enables and inhibits children's mutual support and…

  1. Is social support universally adaptive in diabetes? A correlational study in an Arabic-speaking population with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sukkarieh-Haraty, Ola; Howard, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between diabetes self-care, diabetes-specific emotional distress, and social support and glycemic control (hemoglobin A1C levels: HbA1c) among a sample of Lebanese adults with type 2 diabetes. A descriptive correlational design was adapted with descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regressions for analyses. A convenience sample of 140 adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes was recruited from 2 diabetes clinics in Greater Beirut. Participants were asked to complete 4 questionnaires in Arabic. Significant associations (P < .05) were found between following a general diet for more than 3.5 days per week and higher social support and HbA1c levels of 7% or more. Social support was positively associated with HbA1c levels such that participants with uncontrolled glycemic levels, as evidenced by higher values for HbA1c, received more support from their social network.

  2. Immigrant and refugee social networks: determinants and consequences of social support among women newcomers to Canada.

    PubMed

    Hynie, Michaela; Crooks, Valorie A; Barragan, Jackeline

    2011-12-01

    Recent immigrants and refugees (newcomers) vary on many dimensions but do share similar challenges. Newcomers must rebuild social networks to obtain needed social support but often face social exclusion because of their race, language, religion, or immigrant status. In addition, most have limited access to personal, social, and community resources. Effects of situational and personal variables on the benefits and limitations associated with the social networks of female newcomers were explored through interviews and focus groups with 87 women from 7 communities. Using thematic analysis, the authors identify 5 sources of informal support across all 7 communities, which were almost exclusively limited to co-ethnic relationships, and the types of support, limitations, and reciprocity within each. Perceived support was strongest from family and close friends and, when support from close relationships was unavailable, from primary care providers. The results suggest that co-ethnic peer support networks may be overwhelmed in newcomer communities because of their limited size and resources.

  3. Social Workers' Attitudes toward Older Adults: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Donna; Chonody, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Ageist attitudes toward older adults have been recognized as barriers to recruiting and training competent social workers. This article provides a systematic review of the literature that focused on social workers' and social work students' attitudes toward older adults and working with older adults. The authors sought empirical studies…

  4. On the significance of adult play: what does social play tell us about adult horse welfare?

    PubMed

    Hausberger, Martine; Fureix, Carole; Bourjade, Marie; Wessel-Robert, Sabine; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick

    2012-04-01

    Play remains a mystery and adult play even more so. More typical of young stages in healthy individuals, it occurs rarely at adult stages but then more often in captive/domestic animals, which can imply spatial, social and/or feeding deprivations or restrictions that are challenging to welfare, than in animals living in natural conditions. Here, we tested the hypothesis that adult play may reflect altered welfare states and chronic stress in horses, in which, as in several species, play rarely occurs at adult stages in natural conditions. We observed the behaviour (in particular, social play) of riding school horses during occasional outings in a paddock and measured several stress indicators when these horses were in their individual home boxes. Our results revealed that (1) the number of horses and rates of adult play appeared very high compared to field report data and (2) most stress indicators measured differed between 'players' and 'non-players', revealing that most 'playful' animals were suffering from more chronic stress than 'non-playful' horses. Frequency of play behaviour correlated with a score of chronic stress. This first discovery of a relationship between adult play and altered welfare opens new lines of research that certainly deserves comparative studies in a variety of species.

  5. On the significance of adult play: what does social play tell us about adult horse welfare?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausberger, Martine; Fureix, Carole; Bourjade, Marie; Wessel-Robert, Sabine; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick

    2012-04-01

    Play remains a mystery and adult play even more so. More typical of young stages in healthy individuals, it occurs rarely at adult stages but then more often in captive/domestic animals, which can imply spatial, social and/or feeding deprivations or restrictions that are challenging to welfare, than in animals living in natural conditions. Here, we tested the hypothesis that adult play may reflect altered welfare states and chronic stress in horses, in which, as in several species, play rarely occurs at adult stages in natural conditions. We observed the behaviour (in particular, social play) of riding school horses during occasional outings in a paddock and measured several stress indicators when these horses were in their individual home boxes. Our results revealed that (1) the number of horses and rates of adult play appeared very high compared to field report data and (2) most stress indicators measured differed between `players' and `non-players', revealing that most `playful' animals were suffering from more chronic stress than `non-playful' horses. Frequency of play behaviour correlated with a score of chronic stress. This first discovery of a relationship between adult play and altered welfare opens new lines of research that certainly deserves comparative studies in a variety of species.

  6. Social Support and Employee Well-Being: The Conditioning Effect of Perceived Patterns of Supportive Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Bamberger, Peter A.; Bacharach, Samuel B.

    2014-01-01

    Seeking to explain divergent empirical findings regarding the direct effect of social support on well-being, the authors posit that the pattern of supportive exchange (i.e., reciprocal, under-, or over-reciprocating) determines the impact of receiving support on well-being. Findings generated on the basis of longitudinal data collected from a sample of older blue-collar workers support the authors’ predictions, indicating that receiving emotional support is associated with enhanced well-being when the pattern of supportive exchange is perceived by an individual as being reciprocal (support received equals support given), with this association being weaker when the exchange of support is perceived as being under-reciprocating (support given exceeds support received). Moreover, receiving support was found to adversely affect well-being when the pattern of exchange was perceived as being over-reciprocating (support received exceeds support given). Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21362616

  7. Social cognition is not associated with cognitive reserve in older adults.

    PubMed

    Lavrencic, Louise M; Kurylowicz, Lisa; Valenzuela, Michael J; Churches, Owen F; Keage, Hannah A D

    2016-01-01

    Social and general cognitive abilities decline in late life. Those with high cognitive reserve display better general cognitive performance in old age; however, it is unknown whether this is also the case for social cognition. A total of 115 healthy older adults, aged 60-85 years (m = 44, f = 71) were assessed using The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT-R; social cognition), the Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire (LEQ; cognitive reserve), and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI-II; general cognitive ability). The LEQ did not predict performance on any TASIT-R subtest: Emotion Evaluation Test (β = -.097, p = .325), Social Inference - Minimal (β = -.004, p = .972), or Social Inference - Enriched (β = -.016, p = .878). Sensitivity analyses using two alternative cognitive reserve measures, years of education and the National Adult Reading Test, supported these effects. Cognitive reserve was strongly related to WASI-II performance. Unlike general cognitive ability, social cognition appears unaffected by cognitive reserve. Findings contribute to the emerging understanding that cognitive reserve differentially affects individual cognitive domains, which has implications for the theoretical understanding of cognitive reserve and its brain correlates. Cognitive measures unbiased by cognitive reserve may serve as best indicators of brain health, free of compensatory mechanisms. PMID:25989367

  8. Social cognition is not associated with cognitive reserve in older adults.

    PubMed

    Lavrencic, Louise M; Kurylowicz, Lisa; Valenzuela, Michael J; Churches, Owen F; Keage, Hannah A D

    2016-01-01

    Social and general cognitive abilities decline in late life. Those with high cognitive reserve display better general cognitive performance in old age; however, it is unknown whether this is also the case for social cognition. A total of 115 healthy older adults, aged 60-85 years (m = 44, f = 71) were assessed using The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT-R; social cognition), the Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire (LEQ; cognitive reserve), and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI-II; general cognitive ability). The LEQ did not predict performance on any TASIT-R subtest: Emotion Evaluation Test (β = -.097, p = .325), Social Inference - Minimal (β = -.004, p = .972), or Social Inference - Enriched (β = -.016, p = .878). Sensitivity analyses using two alternative cognitive reserve measures, years of education and the National Adult Reading Test, supported these effects. Cognitive reserve was strongly related to WASI-II performance. Unlike general cognitive ability, social cognition appears unaffected by cognitive reserve. Findings contribute to the emerging understanding that cognitive reserve differentially affects individual cognitive domains, which has implications for the theoretical understanding of cognitive reserve and its brain correlates. Cognitive measures unbiased by cognitive reserve may serve as best indicators of brain health, free of compensatory mechanisms.

  9. Health Blogging and Social Support: A 3-Year Panel Study.

    PubMed

    Keating, David M; Rains, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    The reported study explored the implications of informal computer-mediated social support for the well-being of individuals coping with illness over the course of 3 years. A panel study was conducted in which respondents--bloggers writing about their experiences living with a health condition--reported on their perceptions of social support and well-being during 2010 and again during 2013. Among respondents who completed both questionnaires (n = 49), increases in support availability from family and friends were related to improvements in bloggers' health self-efficacy as well as improvements in bloggers' loneliness, particularly among those who also experienced increased support availability from blog readers. Increased blog reader support availability was associated with improvements in bloggers' health-related uncertainty. Among respondents who completed the initial questionnaire (N = 121), a survival analysis showed that neither support available from family and friends nor support from blog readers predicted continued health blogging over the 3-year period.

  10. Is Social Capital a Determinant of Oral Health among Older Adults? Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Rouxel, Patrick; Tsakos, Georgios; Demakakos, Panayotes; Zaninotto, Paola; Chandola, Tarani; Watt, Richard Geddie

    2015-01-01

    There are a number of studies linking social capital to oral health among older adults, although the evidence base mainly relies on cross-sectional study designs. The possibility of reverse causality is seldom discussed, even though oral health problems could potentially lead to lower social participation. Furthermore, few studies clearly distinguish between the effects of different dimensions of social capital on oral health. The objective of the study was to examine the longitudinal associations between individual social capital and oral health among older adults. We analyzed longitudinal data from the 3rd and 5th waves of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Structural social capital was operationalized using measures of social participation, and volunteering. Number of close ties and perceived emotional support comprised the functional dimension of social capital. Oral health measures were having no natural teeth (edentate vs. dentate), self-rated oral health and oral health-related quality of life. Time-lag and autoregressive models were used to explore the longitudinal associations between social capital and oral health. We imputed all missing data, using multivariate imputation by chained equations. We found evidence of bi-directional longitudinal associations between self-rated oral health, volunteering and functional social capital. Functional social capital was a strong predictor of change in oral health-related quality of life - the adjusted odds ratio of reporting poor oral health-related quality of life was 1.75 (1.33-2.30) for older adults with low vs. high social support. However in the reverse direction, poor oral health-related quality of life was not associated with changes in social capital. This suggests that oral health may not be a determinant of social capital. In conclusion, social capital may be a determinant of subjective oral health among older adults rather than edentulousness, despite many cross-sectional studies on the

  11. 20 CFR 663.800 - What are supportive services for adults and dislocated workers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are supportive services for adults and..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ADULT AND DISLOCATED WORKER ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Supportive Services § 663.800 What are supportive services for adults and dislocated...

  12. 20 CFR 663.800 - What are supportive services for adults and dislocated workers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What are supportive services for adults and..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ADULT AND DISLOCATED WORKER ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Supportive Services § 663.800 What are supportive services for adults and dislocated...

  13. 20 CFR 663.800 - What are supportive services for adults and dislocated workers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are supportive services for adults and..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ADULT AND DISLOCATED WORKER ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Supportive Services § 663.800 What are supportive services for adults and dislocated...

  14. 20 CFR 663.800 - What are supportive services for adults and dislocated workers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are supportive services for adults and..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ADULT AND DISLOCATED WORKER ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Supportive Services § 663.800 What are supportive services for adults and dislocated workers?...

  15. Social Competence, Social Support, and Academic Achievement in Minority, Low-Income, Urban Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Maurice J.; Haynes, Norris M.

    2008-01-01

    Despite living in disadvantaged urban communities experiencing social and economic hardships, many children emerge with positive outcomes. Social-emotional competence and social support were hypothesized to have strong influences on academic trajectories during the critical period of academic skill acquisition. Participants were 282 third-grade…

  16. Burnout in Social Workers Treating Children as Related to Demographic Characteristics, Work Environment, and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamama, Liat

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sense of burnout among 126 social workers who directly treat children and adolescents within the human service professions. Burnout was investigated in relation to social workers' demographic characteristics (age, family status, education, and seniority at work), extrinsic and intrinsic work conditions, and social support by…

  17. Social Support and Social Network Ties among the Homeless in a Downtown Atlanta Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitzes, Donald C.; Crimmins, Timothy J.; Yarbrough, Johanna; Parker, Josie

    2011-01-01

    This study applies a typology of social support with 3 categories of social networks to investigate social ties and their benefits for homeless people. Data were derived from a 2-year long series of participant observations of homeless or precariously housed people who came regularly to a downtown Atlanta public park. The findings are as follows:…

  18. Ego Identity, Social Anxiety, Social Support, and Self-Concealment in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potoczniak, Daniel J.; Aldea, Mirela A.; DeBlaere, Cirleen

    2007-01-01

    This study examined a model in which the relationship between social anxiety and two dimensions of ego identity (commitment and exploration) was expected to be mediated by social support and self-concealment for a sample of lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals (N=347). Statistically significant paths were found from social anxiety to social…

  19. MOBILITY, DISABILITY, AND SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT IN OLDER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Andrea L.; Taylor, Jennifer A.; Tabb, Loni Philip; Michael, Yvonne L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine cross-sectional associations between mobility with or without disability and social engagement in a community-based sample of older adults Methods Social engagement of participants (n=676) was outside the home (participation in organizations and use of senior centers) and in home (talking by phone and use of internet). Logistic or proportional odds models evaluated the association between social engagement and position in the disablement process (no mobility limitations, mobility limitations/no disability, and mobility limitations/disability). Results Low mobility was associated with lower level of social engagement of all forms (OR=0.59, CI: 0.41–0.85 for organizations; OR=0.67, CI: 0.42–1.06 for senior center; OR=0.47, CI: 0.32–0.70 for phone; OR=0.38, CI: 0.23–0.65 for internet). For social engagement outside the home, odds of engagement were further reduced for individuals with disability. Discussion Low mobility is associated with low social engagement even in the absence of disability; associations with disability differed by type of social engagement. PMID:23548944

  20. Long-term correlated change between personality traits and perceived social support in middle adulthood.

    PubMed

    Allemand, Mathias; Schaffhuser, Kathrin; Martin, Mike

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated long-term correlated change between personality traits and perceived social support in middle adulthood. Two measurement occasions with an 8-year time interval from the Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study on Adult Development (ILSE) were used. The sample consisted of 346 middle-aged adults (46-50 years at T1). Four different types of perceived social support were assessed. Personality traits were assessed with the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Longitudinal measurement invariance (MI) was established for both measures. The mean rank-order stabilities were .79 and .62 for personality traits and for perceived social support, respectively. The results demonstrated a mean-level increase for neuroticism and a decrease for extraversion and significant change variances for all constructs. The results of latent change models showed significant initial level correlations and correlated changes between personality traits and social support, implying that changes in these constructs show commonality. The results can expand our current thinking about correlated change in personality.

  1. Social capital and social support on the web: the case of an internet mother site.

    PubMed

    Drentea, Patricia; Moren-Cross, Jennifer L

    2005-11-01

    Do virtual communities in cyberspace foster social capital and social support? Using participant observation and discourse analysis, we examine a mothering board on a parent's website and investigate whether social capital was present, and if so, how it was developed and used. We find three main types of communication emerge from our analysis: emotional support, instrumental support--both formal and informal, and community building/protection, all of which contribute to the creation and maintenance of social capital. Additionally, using sampling with replacement, we created a final data set of 180 mothers and report descriptive statistics to identify characteristics of those on the board. PMID:16313523

  2. Classroom Social Capital: Development of a Measure of Instrumental Social Support within Academic Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shecter, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Many universities implement programs and interventions to increase students' perceived instrumental social support within the classroom setting, yet to date, no measures exist to adequately assess such perceptions. In response to this need, the current research developed an operational definition of instrumental classroom social support and also…

  3. An Examination of the Social Networks and Social Isolation in Older and Younger Adults Living with HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emlet, Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined social networks and social isolation in older (50 years or more) and younger (ages 20 to 39) adults with HIV/AIDS. The author conducted interviews with 88 individuals living with HIV/AIDS in the Pacific Northwest. Both groups' social networks had similar patterns; however, older adults were more likely to live alone. More than…

  4. Protective Effects of Social Support Content and Support Source on Depression and Its Prevalence 6 Months after Wenchuan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Guo, Suran; Tian, Donghua; Wang, Xiaohua; Xiao, Yun; He, Huan; Qu, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xiulan

    2015-12-01

    A magnitude 8.0 earthquake struck China's southwestern Sichuan province on 12 May 2008. The reported rates of depression symptoms across studies were not consistent, and its protective factors were unknown. This study collected data from Wenchuan earthquake survivors to estimate the prevalence of depression and explore the protective effects of social support and support source on depression. A randomized sampling cross-sectional survey based on community was conducted in January 2009, in Mianzhu and Anxian counties, and 633 survivors were entered into the study. The Chinese edition of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the Social Support Rating Scale were used to investigate depression and social support. The prevalence of probable depression in adults 6 months after the Wenchuan earthquake was 22.9% (145/633). Total social support, subjective support, support use and support from family members, neighbours and organizations negatively predicted depression. According to the results, depression was common 6 months after this major disaster. Total social support, subjective support, support use and support from family members, neighbours and organizations were all protective factors for depression after a major disaster.

  5. Adult Social Roles and Alcohol Use among American Indians

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Kaylin M.; Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David

    2014-01-01

    American Indians are disproportionately burdened by alcohol-related problems. Yet, research exploring predictors of alcohol use among American Indians has been limited by cross-sectional designs and reservation-based samples. Guided by a life course developmental perspective, the current study used a subsample of American Indians (n=927) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to explore alcohol use (current drinking, usual number of drinks, and binge drinking) among this population. We examined whether adult social roles (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, parenthood, college enrollment, full-time work) were linked to the rise and fall of alcohol use. Multi-level models demonstrated that adult social roles were linked to alcohol use at the within- and between-person levels. Becoming a parent was linked to a lower likelihood of being a current drinker, fewer alcoholic drinks, and less frequent binge drinking. Transitioning to full-time work was associated with a higher likelihood of being a current drinker and more frequent binge drinking. Results point to the importance of exploring within-group trajectories of alcohol use and highlight the protective and risky nature of adult social roles among American Indians. PMID:24857795

  6. Effects of Social Support on Professors' Work Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Christin; Chung-Yan, Greg A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how various types of workplace social support from different support sources interact with occupational stressors to predict the psychological well-being of university professors. Design/method/approach: A total of 99 full-time professors participated via an online or paper questionnaire. Findings:…

  7. Designing and Evaluating Social Support Interventions: New Dimensions for Consideration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Roger E.

    As research on social support and informal helping has increased, there have been more calls for consultation efforts that might strengthen informal helping networks. Many support-oriented consultation interventions attempt to bolster informal helping systems by modifying informal caregivers' attitudes toward their helping role, building their…

  8. Working towards a Processual Definition of Social Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waltman, Patricia Amason

    A study examined socially supportive messages to determine what situational constraints affect the types of support persons perceive as demanded by the situation. Data were gathered from 77 students enrolled in communication classes at a small private southwestern university. Subjects, provided with descriptions of four hypothetical situations…

  9. A Guide to Youth Mentoring: Providing Effective Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Pat; Brady, Bernadine

    2011-01-01

    Youth mentoring can be an effective way of supporting troubled youth, helping them sustain positive mental health, cope with stress, and lead successful lives through adolescence and into adulthood. This book is a comprehensive guide to youth mentoring programmes, illustrating how, if managed well, they can increase the social support available to…

  10. Ethnic Variations in Social Support Networks and Child Rearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPhee, David; And Others

    Comparing Ute Mountain Indians, Hispanics, and Anglos within several communities, this study examined: (1) ethnic differences in the structure and function of parents' support networks; and (2) the relation of social support to parental feelings of competence and parenting behaviors. From 4 sites in Colorado, 484 parents or guardians of 2- to…

  11. Social Support and Physical Health: The Importance of Belonging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Cara J.; Hannum, James W.; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2005-01-01

    Social support is a multifaceted construct recognized as a significant predictor of physical health. In this study, the authors examined several support domains simultaneously in a sample of 247 college students to determine their unique prediction of physical health perceptions and physical symptoms. They also examined gender differences across…

  12. Teacher Burnout and Self-Efficacy in Eliciting Social Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouwers, Andre; Evers, Will J. G.; Tomic, Welko

    This study examined the relationship between perceived lack of social support, perceived self-efficacy in eliciting support at the workplace, and the three successive burnout symptoms (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment) in a sample of 277 Dutch secondary school teachers. The study hypothesized that teachers'…

  13. Social support networks among diverse sexual minority populations.

    PubMed

    Frost, David M; Meyer, Ilan H; Schwartz, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    This article reports a study of the function and composition of social support networks among diverse lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) men and women (n = 396) in comparison to their heterosexual peers (n = 128). Data were collected using a structured social support network matrix in a community sample recruited in New York City. Our findings show that gay and bisexual men may rely on "chosen families" more than lesbian and bisexual women. Both heterosexuals and LGBs relied less on family and more on other people (e.g., friends, coworkers) for everyday social support (e.g., recreational and social activities, talking about problems). Providers of everyday social support were most often of the same sexual orientation and race/ethnicity as participants. In seeking major support (e.g., borrowing large sums of money), heterosexual men and women along with lesbian and bisexual women relied primarily on their families, but gay and bisexual men relied primarily on other LGB individuals. Racial/ethnic minority LGBs relied on LGB similar others at the same rate as did White LGBs but, notably, racial/ethnic minority LGBs reported receiving fewer dimensions of support.

  14. Social network types and functional dependency in older adults in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Social networks play a key role in caring for older adults. A better understanding of the characteristics of different social networks types (TSNs) in a given community provides useful information for designing policies to care for this age group. Therefore this study has three objectives: 1) To derive the TSNs among older adults affiliated with the Mexican Institute of Social Security; 2) To describe the main characteristics of the older adults in each TSN, including the instrumental and economic support they receive and their satisfaction with the network; 3) To determine the association between functional dependency and the type of social network. Methods Secondary data analysis of the 2006 Survey of Autonomy and Dependency (N = 3,348). The TSNs were identified using the structural approach and cluster analysis. The association between functional dependency and the TSNs was evaluated with Poisson regression with robust variance analysis in which socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and medical history covariates were included. Results We identified five TSNs: diverse with community participation (12.1%), diverse without community participation (44.3%); widowed (32.0%); nonfriends-restricted (7.6%); nonfamily-restricted (4.0%). Older adults belonging to widowed and restricted networks showed a higher proportion of dependency, negative self-rated health and depression. Older adults with functional dependency more likely belonged to a widowed network (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.5; 95%CI: 1.1-2.1). Conclusion The derived TSNs were similar to those described in developed countries. However, we identified the existence of a diverse network without community participation and a widowed network that have not been previously described. These TSNs and restricted networks represent a potential unmet need of social security affiliates. PMID:20187973

  15. Social support and depressed mood in isolated and confined environments.

    PubMed

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Johnson, Jeffrey C; Boster, James S

    2004-05-01

    The influence of isolation and confinement on social support and depressed mood was examined in a study of 235 men and women who spent a year at McMurdo Station in Antarctica, and a study of 77 men and women who spent a year at the Amundson-Scott South Pole Station. Although availability of support remained unchanged, there was a significant decrease in reported satisfaction with support obtained, as well as a significant increase in depressed mood. Satisfaction with support was inversely associated with depressed mood at the beginning and end of isolation and confinement. At the end of winter, this association varied by source of support. High levels of tension-anxiety, depression and anger preceded an increase in advice seeking, but high levels of advice seeking also preceded an increase in tension-anxiety and depression. Results suggest a significant erosion of social support under conditions of prolonged isolation and confinement, leading to an increase in depressed mood.

  16. Social support and depressed mood in isolated and confined environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Johnson, Jeffrey C.; Boster, James S.

    2004-05-01

    The influence of isolation and confinement on social support and depressed mood was examined in a study of 235 men and women who spent a year at McMurdo Station in Antarctica, and a study of 77 men and women who spent a year at the Amundson-Scott South Pole Station. Although availability of support remained unchanged, there was a significant decrease in reported satisfaction with support obtained, as well as a significant increase in depressed mood. Satisfaction with support was inversely associated with depressed mood at the beginning and end of isolation and confinement. At the end of winter, this association varied by source of support. High levels of tension-anxiety, depression and anger preceded an increase in advice seeking, but high levels of advice seeking also preceded an increase in tension-anxiety and depression. Results suggest a significant erosion of social support under conditions of prolonged isolation and confinement, leading to an increase in depressed mood.

  17. Drawing to remember: external support of older adults' eyewitness performance.

    PubMed

    Dando, Coral J

    2013-01-01

    Although healthy aging is accompanied by a general decline in memory functioning, environmental support at retrieval can improve older adults' (+65 years) episodic remembering. Despite those over the age of 65 years representing a growing proportion of the population, few environmental retrieval support methods have been empirically evaluated for use with older witnesses and victims of crime. Here, the efficacy of a novel retrieval technique, the Sketch Mental Reinstatement of Context, is compared with a standard Mental Reinstatement of Context and a no support control (Control). Fifty-one participants witnessed an unexpected live event, and 48 hours later were interviewed using one of three aforementioned techniques. In line with predictions emanating from cognitive theories of aging and the environmental support hypothesis, participants in the Sketch Mental Reinstatement of Context condition recalled significantly more correct information and fewer inaccurate items. The Sketch Mental Reinstatement of Context technique appears to scaffold memory retrieval in an age-appropriate manner during a post-event interview, possibly by encouraging more effortful retrieval and reducing dual-task load. As such, this procedure offers an effective alternative to current approaches, adding to the toolbox of techniques available to forensic and other interviewers.

  18. Loneliness, depression, social support, and quality of life in older chronically ill Appalachians.

    PubMed

    Theeke, Laurie A; Goins, R Turner; Moore, Julia; Campbell, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This study's purpose was to describe loneliness and to examine the relationships between loneliness, depression, social support, and QOL in chronically ill, older Appalachians. In-person interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 60 older, chronically ill, community-dwelling, and rural adults. Those with dementia or active grief were excluded. The UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell, Peplau, & Cutrona, 1985), Geriatric Depression Scale (Shiekh & Yesavage, 1986), Katz ADL scale (Katz, Down, & Cash, 1970), MOS Social Support Scale (Sherbourne & Stewart, 1991), and a visual analog scale for Quality of Life (Spitzer et al., 1981) scale were used. Diagnoses were obtained through chart reviews. SPSS was used for data analyses. The majority of the 65% female sample (M age = 75 years) were married and impoverished. Participants' number of chronic illnesses averaged more than 3. Over 88% of participants reported at least 1 area of functional impairment. Loneliness was prevalent with UCLA loneliness scores indicating moderate to high loneliness, ranging from 39 to 62 (possible scores were 20-80). Higher loneliness scores correlated with depression, lower Qol, and lower social support, particularly lower emotional support. This study provides evidence that loneliness is a significant problem for older chronically ill Appalachian adults and that it may be related to low emotional support. Further, it provides evidence that this population may be significantly lonely and may not self-identify as lonely. Screening for loneliness and designing interventions that target the emotional aspects of loneliness could be important in this population.

  19. Examining the Definition and Assessment of Social Support: A Resource for Individuals and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Betty D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes social support as a significant resource for individuals and family members encountering stress. Presents a definition of social support and an instrument, the Social Support Inventory, to measure two dimensions of social support: kind of support, such as emotional, esteem, network, appraisal and altruistic; and source of support, such…

  20. U.S. adults' pornography viewing and support for abortion: a three-wave panel study.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Robert S; Wright, Paul J; McKinley, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Pornography consumption may affect judgments on a wide range of sexual and reproductive topics. The present study hypothesized that the consistent images projected in pornography affect sexual scripts related to abortion judgments. National, three-wave longitudinal data gathered from U.S. adults were employed to examine associations between earlier pornography consumption and subsequent support for abortion. The findings suggested that prior pornography consumption may lead to later support for abortion. This study provides additional evidence of pornography's socializing impact, particularly for the older White segment of the population, and adds to knowledge about what environmental factors influence judgments about abortion. Mechanisms that may explain how pornography viewing shapes support for abortion are discussed.

  1. Network social capital, social participation, and physical inactivity in an urban adult population.

    PubMed

    Legh-Jones, Hannah; Moore, Spencer

    2012-05-01

    Research on individual social capital and physical activity has tended to focus on the association among physical activity, generalized trust, and social participation. Less is known about the association between network social capital, i.e., the resources accessed through one's social connections, and physical inactivity. Using formal network measures of social capital, this study examined which specific dimension of network capital (i.e. diversity, reach and range) was associated with physical inactivity, and whether network social capital mediated the association between physical inactivity and social participation. Data came from the 2008 Montreal (Canada) Neighbourhood Networks and Healthy Aging survey, in which 2707 adults 25 years and older in 300 Montreal neighbourhoods were surveyed. Physical activity was self-reported using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). IPAQ guidelines provided the basis for the physical inactivity cutoff. Network social capital was measured with a position generator instrument. Multilevel logistic methods were used to examine the association between physical inactivity and individual social capital dimensions, while adjusting for socio-demographic and -economic factors. Higher network diversity was associated with a decreased likelihood of physical inactivity. Consistent with previous findings, individuals who did not participate in any formal associations were more likely to be physically inactive compared to those with high levels of participation. Network diversity mediated the association between physical inactivity and participation. Generalized trust and the network components of reach and range were not shown associated with physical inactivity. Findings highlight the importance of social participation and network social capital and the added value of network measures in the study of social capital and physical inactivity. Population-based programs targeting physical inactivity among adults might

  2. To Shape the Future: Towards a Framework for Adult Education Social Policy Research and Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, B. Allan

    1993-01-01

    Compares three social policy models (market, progressive-liberal-welfare, social redistribution); links them to adult education models (vocational-behaviorist, liberal-humanist-progressive, liberatory/social reconstruction) and to sociological theories (structural functionalism and conflict theory). (SK)

  3. Communication Inequalities and Public Health Implications of Adult Social Networking Site Use in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kontos, Emily Z.; Emmons, Karen M.; Puleo, Elaine; Viswanath, K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Social media, and specifically social networking sites (SNS), are emerging as an important platform for communication and health information exchange. Yet, despite the increase in popularity and use, only a limited number of empirical studies document which segments of the adult population are and are not using social networking sites and with what, if any, affect on health. Methods The purpose of this study is to identify potential communication inequalities in social networking site use among a representative sample of US adults and to examine the association between SNS-use and psychological well-being. We analyzed data from the National Cancer Institute’s 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Results Thirty-five percent of online adults reported SNS-use within the past 12 months, and; there were no significant differences in SNS-use by race/ethnicity or socio-economic position. Younger age (p=.00) was the most significant predictor of SNS-use while being married (p=.02) and having a history of cancer (p=.02) were associated with a decreased odds of SNS-use. Social networking site use was significantly associated with a 0.80 (p=.00) increment in psychological distress score after controlling for other factors. Conclusion The absence of inequalities in adult SNS-use across race/ethnicity and class offers some support for the continued use of social media to promote public health efforts; however, issues such as the persisting Digital Divide and potential deleterious effects of SNS-use on psychological well-being need to be addressed. PMID:21154095

  4. Social Relationships, Leisure Activity, and Health in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Po-Ju; Wray, Linda; Lin, Yeqiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although the link between enhanced social relationships and better health has generally been well established, few studies have examined the role of leisure activity in this link. This study examined how leisure influences the link between social relationships and health in older age. Methods Using data from the 2006 and 2010 waves of the nationally representative U.S. Health and Retirement Study and structural equation modelling analyses, we examined data on 2,965 older participants to determine if leisure activities mediated the link between social relationships and health in 2010, controlling for race, education level, and health in 2006. Results The results demonstrated that leisure activities mediate the link between social relationships and health in these age groups. Perceptions of positive social relationships were associated with greater involvement in leisure activities, and greater involvement in leisure activities was associated with better health in older age. Discussion & Conclusions The contribution of leisure to health in these age groups is receiving increasing attention, and the results of this study add to the literature on this topic, by identifying the mediating effect of leisure activity on the link between social relationships and health. Future studies aimed at increasing leisure activity may contribute to improved health outcomes in older adults. PMID:24884905

  5. Social support communication in unplanned pregnancy: support types, messages, sources, and timing.

    PubMed

    Gray, Jennifer B

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy is a time of uncertainty and stress for many women, and these aspects are compounded for those facing unplanned pregnancies. Social support communication is considered a vital part of healthy outcomes in pregnancy but is largely unexplored in the unplanned pregnancy context, particularly for college-aged young women. The present study aimed to identify various dimensions of social support in unplanned pregnancy for this population, including support types desired and enacted, sources of support, support types helpful in various stages of this health experience, and message strategies used in helpful support communication. Results of an online semi-structured survey exploring message content and these other elements were analyzed through qualitative and quantitative content analysis as well as statistical analysis. Nurturing support, specifically network support, was found to be most desired in this health context, and the message strategies found in the most helpful support messages differed according to support type. Source and timing of support were also factors in the most helpful types of support in this context. Implications of these results will be discussed in terms of future research in social support in the unplanned pregnancy context.

  6. Does loneliness mediate the relation between social support and cognitive functioning in later life?

    PubMed

    Ellwardt, Lea; Aartsen, Marja; Deeg, Dorly; Steverink, Nardi

    2013-12-01

    Research in gerontology has demonstrated mixed effects of social support on cognitive decline and dementia: Social support has been shown to be protective in some studies, but not in others. Moreover, little is known about the underlying mechanisms between social support and cognitive functioning. We investigate one of the possible mechanisms, and argue that subjective appraisals rather than received amounts of social support affect cognitive functioning. Loneliness is seen as an unpleasant experience that occurs when a person's network of relationships is felt to be deficient in some important way. As such, loneliness describes the extent to which someone's needs are not being met and thus provides a subjective assessment of support quality. We expect that receiving instrumental and emotional support reduces loneliness, which in turn preserves cognitive functioning. Data are from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) and include 2255 Dutch participants aged 55-85 over a period of six years. Respondents were measured every three years. Cognitive functioning was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Coding Task, and the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. The analytical approach comprised latent growth mediation models. Frequent emotional support related to reduced feelings of loneliness and better cognitive functioning. Increases in emotional support also directly enhanced cognitive performance. The protective effect of emotional support was strongest amongst adults aged 65 years and older. Increase in instrumental support did not buffer cognitive decline, instead there were indications for faster decline. After ruling out the possibility of reversed causation, we conclude that emotional support relationships are a more powerful protector of cognitive decline than instrumental support relationships.

  7. Community aging initiatives and social capital: developing theories of change in the context of NORC Supportive Service Programs.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Emily A

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to develop theory on how Naturally Occurring Retirement Communities (NORC) Supportive Service Programs potentially transform social relationships within communities to promote aging in place. Data were analyzed from semi-structured in-depth interviews with 10 lead agencies representing 15 NORC programs in New Jersey. Results indicated that professionals seek to infuse capital within three domains of relationships: lead agency staff's relationships with older adults, formal service providers' relationships with each other, and older adults' relationships with each other. This social capital potentially enhances the amount of community-based services and supports within a residential area, as well as their accessibility, appropriateness, responsiveness, and coherence. PMID:24652956

  8. Mapping Engagement in Twitter-Based Support Networks for Adult Smoking Cessation.

    PubMed

    Lakon, Cynthia M; Pechmann, Cornelia; Wang, Cheng; Pan, Li; Delucchi, Kevin; Prochaska, Judith J

    2016-08-01

    We examined engagement in novel quit-smoking private social support networks on Twitter, January 2012 to April 2014. We mapped communication patterns within 8 networks of adult smokers (n = 160) with network ties defined by participants' tweets over 3 time intervals, and examined tie reciprocity, tie strength, in-degree centrality (popularity), 3-person triangles, 4-person cliques, network density, and abstinence status. On average, more than 50% of ties were reciprocated in most networks and most ties were between abstainers and nonabstainers. Tweets formed into more aggregated patterns especially early in the study. Across networks, 35.00% (7 days after the quit date), 49.38% (30 days), and 46.88% (60 days) abstained from smoking. We demonstrated that abstainers and nonabstainers engaged with one another in dyads and small groups. This study preliminarily suggests potential for Twitter as a platform for adult smoking-cessation interventions. PMID:27310342

  9. Occupational stress and social support in naval personnel

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, A.A.; Chikkanna, C.B.; Rote, M.S.; Singh, R.J.; Bhanot, G.; Pillai, Anil; Pisharody, R.R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Data show that naval personnel have a high incidence of stress related disorders. A high prevalence of occupational stress was seen in a previous survey carried out on Indian Naval personnel. However, the role of social support in reducing occupational stress was not studied. To study occupational stress in Indian Naval personnel and to study the effect of social support on occupational stress. Methods 5077 naval personnel were surveyed using study questionnaires which included Occupational Stress Inventory, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-12 item version as a measure of psychological health. The data was statistically analysed using chi square test and other non-parametric tests. Results High occupational stress was seen in personnel serving afloat (66.47%) as compared to those serving ashore (51.55%) and on submarines (53.72%). Among personnel serving afloat, occupational stress was highest among Junior Sailors as compared to Senior Sailors and Officers. Occupational stress was linked to poor psychological health as measured by the GHQ and younger age. Perceived social support was effective in reducing occupational stress in Officers and Senior Sailors but not in Junior Sailors where paradoxically it seemed to lead to greater occupational stress. Conclusions High occupational stress was seen in more than half the service personnel studied. Occupational stress is mitigated by social support in Officers and Senior Sailors but not in Junior Sailors. PMID:24532905

  10. Improving the Neighborhood Environment for Urban Older Adults: Social Context and Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Arlesia; Rooks, Ronica; Kruger, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: By 2030, older adults will account for 20% of the U.S. population. Over 80% of older adults live in urban areas. This study examines associations between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) among urban older adults. Methods: We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ living in a deindustrialized Midwestern city who answered questions on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. The relationship between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) was analyzed using regression and GIS models. Neighborhood variables included social support and participation, perceived racism and crime. Additional models included actual crime indices to compare differences between perceived and actual crime. Results: Seniors who have poor SRH are 21% more likely to report fear of crime than seniors with excellent SRH (p = 0.01). Additional analyses revealed Black seniors are 7% less likely to participate in social activities (p = 0.005) and 4% more likely to report experiencing racism (p < 0.001). Discussion: Given the increasing numbers of older adults living in urban neighborhoods, studies such as this one are important for well-being among seniors. Mitigating environmental influences in the neighborhood which are associated with poor SRH may allow urban older adults to maintain health and reduce disability. PMID:26703659

  11. Impaired adult myelination in the prefrontal cortex of socially isolated mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Dietz, Karen; DeLoyht, Jacqueline M; Pedre, Xiomara; Kelkar, Dipti; Kaur, Jasbir; Vialou, Vincent; Lobo, Mary Kay; Dietz, David M; Nestler, Eric J; Dupree, Jeffrey; Casaccia, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Protracted social isolation of adult mice induced behavioral, transcriptional and ultrastructural changes in oligodendrocytes of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and impaired adult myelination. Social re-integration was sufficient to normalize behavioral and transcriptional changes. Short periods of isolation affected chromatin and myelin, but did not induce behavioral changes. Thus, myelinating oligodendrocytes in the adult PFC respond to social interaction with chromatin changes, suggesting that myelination acts as a form of adult plasticity. PMID:23143512

  12. [Social support and health: standpoints from the social and human sciences].

    PubMed

    Canesqui, Ana Maria; Barsaglini, Reni Aparecida

    2012-05-01

    This article analyses the themes and conceptual-theoretical approaches of the social support in the literature from important international journals about social sciences and medicine, and in from 1983 to 2005 are analyzed. 259 international and 57 national abstracts was reading for the identification and computing the relations of the social support with health/disease/care. A deeper conceptual analysis about social support and the theories of social science were reported in an intentional sample of 56 international and 18 national texts. The international literature is based on the social psychology, in the several trends of the sociology and of the political science and less in the anthropology. The national literature dialogues less with the psychosocial theories and more with the sociological and anthropological theories. In this latter literature the social support approaches are concerned with social network theories; reciprocity, exchanges and cultural values. It is concluded that different trends guide the conceptual-theoretical analyses of the social support, being the international literature older, wider, more diversified and empirical, but with scarce anthropological production. The national literature is more reflexive them empirical.

  13. Online and Offline Social Networks: Use of Social Networking Sites by Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Reich, Stephanie M.; Waechter, Natalia; Espinoza, Guadalupe

    2008-01-01

    Social networking sites (e.g., MySpace and Facebook) are popular online communication forms among adolescents and emerging adults. Yet little is known about young people's activities on these sites and how their networks of "friends" relate to their other online (e.g., instant messaging) and offline networks. In this study, college students…

  14. The Roles of Different Sources of Social Support on Emotional Well-Being among Chinese Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haifeng; Ji, Yang; Chen, Tianyong

    2014-01-01

    Background Social support has been widely known as a protective factor for the emotional well-being (EWB) of older adults, but less studies have investigated the roles of different sources of social support (i.e., family and friend support) on different facets of EWB (i.e., positive affect and negative affect) simultaneously. Methodology and Findings In this study, the associations between family/friend support and positive/negative affect were investigated in a sample of 700 Chinese elderly. The EWB and social support were measured with a 12-item affective wordlist (Kahneman et al., 2004) and a self-prepared questionnaire. The results showed that (1) the order of contact frequency and mutual support followed a hierarchical order from spouse, children, to friends; (2) zero-order correlations of both family support and friend support were associated with more positive affect and less negative affect; and when compared with the relative role of family and friend support, (3) spouse (children if spouse is not available) support had greater contribution on decreasing negative affect, while friend support had greater influence on increasing positive affect, even after controlling the demographic, self-rated health and life events variables. Conclusion Family and friend support play different roles on the two facets of EWB of the elderly. These results were better explained in light of the task specificity model rather than the hierarchical compensatory model. Moreover, positive affect may be enhanced by friend support (based on personal interests and selectable) rather than family support (bonded by kinship and not selectable), which added evidences to the socioemotional selectivity theory. PMID:24594546

  15. Paternal signature in kin recognition cues of a social insect: concealed in juveniles, revealed in adults

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Janine W. Y.; Meunier, Joël; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Kin recognition is a key mechanism to direct social behaviours towards related individuals or avoid inbreeding depression. In insects, recognition is generally mediated by cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) compounds, which are partly inherited from parents. However, in social insects, potential nepotistic conflicts between group members from different patrilines are predicted to select against the expression of patriline-specific signatures in CHC profiles. Whereas this key prediction in the evolution of insect signalling received empirical support in eusocial insects, it remains unclear whether it can be generalized beyond eusociality to less-derived forms of social life. Here, we addressed this issue by manipulating the number of fathers siring clutches tended by females of the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, analysing the CHC profiles of the resulting juvenile and adult offspring, and using discriminant analysis to estimate the information content of CHC with respect to the maternal and paternal origin of individuals. As predicted, if paternally inherited cues are concealed during family life, increases in mating number had no effect on information content of CHC profiles among earwig juveniles, but significantly decreased the one among adult offspring. We suggest that age-dependent expression of patriline-specific cues evolved to limit the risks of nepotism as family-living juveniles and favour sibling-mating avoidance as group-living adults. These results highlight the role of parental care and social life in the evolution of chemical communication and recognition cues. PMID:25165768

  16. Paternal signature in kin recognition cues of a social insect: concealed in juveniles, revealed in adults.

    PubMed

    Wong, Janine W Y; Meunier, Joël; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-10-22

    Kin recognition is a key mechanism to direct social behaviours towards related individuals or avoid inbreeding depression. In insects, recognition is generally mediated by cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) compounds, which are partly inherited from parents. However, in social insects, potential nepotistic conflicts between group members from different patrilines are predicted to select against the expression of patriline-specific signatures in CHC profiles. Whereas this key prediction in the evolution of insect signalling received empirical support in eusocial insects, it remains unclear whether it can be generalized beyond eusociality to less-derived forms of social life. Here, we addressed this issue by manipulating the number of fathers siring clutches tended by females of the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, analysing the CHC profiles of the resulting juvenile and adult offspring, and using discriminant analysis to estimate the information content of CHC with respect to the maternal and paternal origin of individuals. As predicted, if paternally inherited cues are concealed during family life, increases in mating number had no effect on information content of CHC profiles among earwig juveniles, but significantly decreased the one among adult offspring. We suggest that age-dependent expression of patriline-specific cues evolved to limit the risks of nepotism as family-living juveniles and favour sibling-mating avoidance as group-living adults. These results highlight the role of parental care and social life in the evolution of chemical communication and recognition cues.

  17. Community-based theater and adults with psychiatric disabilities: social activism, performance and community engagement.

    PubMed

    Faigin, David A; Stein, Catherine H

    2015-03-01

    The present study is an in-depth qualitative inquiry with an established theater troupe composed of adults living with psychiatric disabilities known as The Stars of Light. A grounded theory methodology is used to describe dimensions of social activism and characteristics of theater as a medium of engagement at the individual, setting/troupe, and community levels of analysis. Analysis of a broad scope of interview data, performance content, community contacts, and historical data from the troupe's 19-year history led to the identification of eight emergent theoretical concepts formulated from 17 supporting associated themes. The theoretical concepts characterize the impacts of community-based theater in the lives of participants, and theater troupe processes that contribute to community education and positive social change for adults living with psychiatric disabilities. Advantages, limitations, and future directions for research and action in community-based theater settings are discussed within the context of present research findings.

  18. Community-based theater and adults with psychiatric disabilities: social activism, performance and community engagement.

    PubMed

    Faigin, David A; Stein, Catherine H

    2015-03-01

    The present study is an in-depth qualitative inquiry with an established theater troupe composed of adults living with psychiatric disabilities known as The Stars of Light. A grounded theory methodology is used to describe dimensions of social activism and characteristics of theater as a medium of engagement at the individual, setting/troupe, and community levels of analysis. Analysis of a broad scope of interview data, performance content, community contacts, and historical data from the troupe's 19-year history led to the identification of eight emergent theoretical concepts formulated from 17 supporting associated themes. The theoretical concepts characterize the impacts of community-based theater in the lives of participants, and theater troupe processes that contribute to community education and positive social change for adults living with psychiatric disabilities. Advantages, limitations, and future directions for research and action in community-based theater settings are discussed within the context of present research findings. PMID:25520209

  19. Social stressors, social support, and mental health among Haitian migrants in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Bonnie N; Keys, Hunter M; Foster, Jennifer; Kohrt, Brandon A

    2015-08-01

    This mixed-method study explored the social world of Haitian migrants, examining forms of social support and social stress, as well as their relationship to mental health. Among six Haitian migrant communities in the Cibao Valley of the Dominican Republic, a community-based survey (n = 127) was conducted to assess migration experiences, current stressors, mental health, and functioning. In addition, to explore perceptions and experiences of migration, social interactions, and mental health, the study drew upon in-depth interviews and free-listing activities among Haitian migrants, as well as cognitive interviews with select survey participants. Depressive, anxiety, and mental distress survey scores were associated with 1) negative social interactions (including interrogation or deportation, perceived mistreatment by Dominicans, and overcrowding) and 2) lack of social support, including migrating alone. Mental distress scores were higher among women, and being married was associated with higher anxiety scores, potentially reflecting unmet social expectations. In qualitative data, participants emphasized a lack of social support, often referred to as tèt ansanm (literally meaning "heads together" in Haitian Creole or Kreyòl and roughly defined as solidarity or reciprocal social collaboration). The authors of the study propose that the practice of tèt ansanm-also termed konbit, and, in the Dominican Republic, convite-could be used as a means of facilitating positive-contact events among Haitians and Dominicans. These interactions could help counteract social stress and build social capital in settings similar to those of the study.

  20. Social Branding to Decrease Smoking Among Young Adults in Bars

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youn Ok; Hong, Juliette; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated a Social Branding antitobacco intervention for “hipster” young adults that was implemented between 2008 and 2011 in San Diego, California. Methods. We conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys of random samples of young adults going to bars at baseline and over a 3-year follow-up. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate changes in daily smoking, nondaily smoking, and binge drinking, controlling for demographic characteristics, alcohol use, advertising receptivity, trend sensitivity, and tobacco-related attitudes. Results. During the intervention, current (past 30 day) smoking decreased from 57% (baseline) to 48% (at follow-up 3; P = .002), and daily smoking decreased from 22% to 15% (P < .001). There were significant interactions between hipster affiliation and alcohol use on smoking. Among hipster binge drinkers, the odds of daily smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30, 0.63) and nondaily smoking (OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.42, 0.77) decreased significantly at follow-up 3. Binge drinking also decreased significantly at follow-up 3 (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.53, 0.78). Conclusions. Social Branding campaigns are a promising strategy to decrease smoking in young adult bar patrons. PMID:24524502

  1. Psychometric Characteristics of the Duke Social Support Index in a Young Rural Chinese Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jia, Cunxian; Zhang, Jie

    2012-01-01

    The study is aimed to examine the psychometric characteristics of the Duke Social Support Scale (DSSI) in young rural Chinese individuals (379 suicides, 411 controls) aged 15-34 years. Social support was measured by 23-item DSSI, which included Social Interaction Scale, Subjective Social Support, and Instrumental Social Support. DSSI had high…

  2. Supporting Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Parents Through Social Media.

    PubMed

    Dzubaty, Dolores R

    2016-01-01

    Parents of infants in the neonatal intensive care unit may often find themselves seeking healthcare information from online and social media sources. Social media applications are available to healthcare consumers and their families, as well as healthcare providers, in a variety of formats. Information that parents gather on their own, and information that is explained by providers, is then used when parents make healthcare decisions regarding their infants. Parents also seek support from peers and family while making healthcare decisions. The combination of knowledge obtained and social support given may empower the parent to feel more confident in their decision making. Healthcare professionals can guide parents to credible resources. The exchange of information between providers and parents can occur using a variety of communication methods. Misperceptions can be corrected, support given, open sharing of information occurs, and parent empowerment may result. PMID:27465452

  3. The Impact of Social Deprivation on Paranoia, Hallucinations, Mania and Depression: The Role of Discrimination Social Support, Stress and Trust

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, Sophie; Taylor, Peter; Shevlin, Mark; Bentall, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    The negative implications of living in a socially unequal society are now well documented. However, there is poor understanding of the pathways from specific environmental risk to symptoms. Here we examine the associations between social deprivation, depression, and psychotic symptoms using the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, a cross-sectional dataset including 7,353 individuals. In addition we looked at the mediating role of stress, discrimination, trust and lack of social support. We found that the participants' neighbourhood index of multiple deprivation (IMD) significantly predicted psychosis and depression. On inspection of specific psychotic symptoms, IMD predicted paranoia, but not hallucinations or hypomania. Stress and trust partially mediated the relationship between IMD and paranoid ideation. Stress, trust and a lack of social support fully mediated the relationship between IMD and depression. Future research should focus on the role deprivation and social inequalities plays in specific manifestations of psychopathology and investigate mechanisms to explain those associations that occur. Targeting the mediating mechanisms through appropriate psychological intervention may go some way to dampen the negative consequences of living in an unjust society; ameliorating economic injustice may improve population mental health. PMID:25162703

  4. The impact of social deprivation on paranoia, hallucinations, mania and depression: the role of discrimination social support, stress and trust.

    PubMed

    Wickham, Sophie; Taylor, Peter; Shevlin, Mark; Bentall, Richard P

    2014-01-01

    The negative implications of living in a socially unequal society are now well documented. However, there is poor understanding of the pathways from specific environmental risk to symptoms. Here we examine the associations between social deprivation, depression, and psychotic symptoms using the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, a cross-sectional dataset including 7,353 individuals. In addition we looked at the mediating role of stress, discrimination, trust and lack of social support. We found that the participants' neighbourhood index of multiple deprivation (IMD) significantly predicted psychosis and depression. On inspection of specific psychotic symptoms, IMD predicted paranoia, but not hallucinations or hypomania. Stress and trust partially mediated the relationship between IMD and paranoid ideation. Stress, trust and a lack of social support fully mediated the relationship between IMD and depression. Future research should focus on the role deprivation and social inequalities plays in specific manifestations of psychopathology and investigate mechanisms to explain those associations that occur. Targeting the mediating mechanisms through appropriate psychological intervention may go some way to dampen the negative consequences of living in an unjust society; ameliorating economic injustice may improve population mental health.

  5. Impact of the Protection and Advocacy Subscale on the Factorial Validity of the Supports Intensity Scale-Adult Version.

    PubMed

    Shogren, Karrie A; Seo, Hyojeong; Wehmeyer, Michael L; Thompson, James R; Little, Todd D

    2016-01-01

    The Supports Intensity Scale-Adult Version is a standardized assessment of support needs. This study examined the factorial validity of the standardized portion of the scale, finding that the six-factor model (Home Living, Community Living, Lifelong Learning, Employment, Health and Safety, Social Activities) demonstrated good fit, and that the inclusion of the Protection and Advocacy Scale did not affect fit and contributed unique information. Age and gender impacted intensity of support needs, with those of transition age and in late adulthood having the highest intensities. Gender also impacted support needs, but in fewer instances. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:26701074

  6. Stress, Social Support and Problem Drinking among Women in Poverty

    PubMed Central

    Mulia, Nina; Schmidt, Laura; Bond, Jason; Jacobs, Laurie; Korcha, Rachael

    2009-01-01

    Aims Prior studies find that stress contributes to problem drinking while social support can buffer its effects. However, these studies are largely confined to middle class and general populations. We extend what is known by examining how the unique stressors and forms of social support experienced by women in poverty impact alcohol problems over a 4-year time period. Design and Participants This prospective study used GEE transition modeling and 4 annual waves of survey data from 392 American mothers receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in a large Northern California county. Measurements We examined the effects of neighborhood disorder, stressful life events and economic hardship on psychological distress and problem drinking over time, and whether social support moderated these relationships for women in poverty. Findings Neighborhood disorder and stressful life events significantly increased the risk for problem drinking, largely through their effect on psychological distress. We found little evidence, however, that social support buffers poor women from the effects of these stressors. Conclusions Women in poverty are exposed to severe, chronic stressors within their communities and immediate social networks which increase vulnerability to psychological distress and problem drinking. The finding that social support does not buffer stress among these women may reflect their high level of exposure to stressors, as well as the hardships and scarce resources within their networks. If the “private safety net” of the social network fails to provide a strong buffer, more effective environmental interventions that reduce exposure to stressors may be needed to prevent alcohol problems in poor women’s lives. PMID:18855817

  7. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is functionally important for stress-induced social avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Lagace, Diane C.; Donovan, Michael H.; DeCarolis, Nathan A.; Farnbauch, Laure A.; Malhotra, Shveta; Berton, Olivier; Nestler, Eric J.; Krishnan, Vaishnav; Eisch, Amelia J.

    2010-01-01

    The long-term response to chronic stress is variable, with some individuals developing maladaptive functioning, although other “resilient” individuals do not. Stress reduces neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus subgranular zone (SGZ), but it is unknown if stress-induced changes in neurogenesis contribute to individual vulnerability. Using a chronic social defeat stress model, we explored whether the susceptibility to stress-induced social avoidance was related to changes in SGZ proliferation and neurogenesis. Immediately after social defeat, stress-exposed mice (irrespective of whether they displayed social avoidance) had fewer proliferating SGZ cells labeled with the S-phase marker BrdU. The decrease was transient, because BrdU cell numbers were normalized 24 h later. The survival of BrdU cells labeled before defeat stress was also not altered. However, 4 weeks later, mice that displayed social avoidance had more surviving dentate gyrus neurons. Thus, dentate gyrus neurogenesis is increased after social defeat stress selectively in mice that display persistent social avoidance. Supporting a functional role for adult-generated dentate gyrus neurons, ablation of neurogenesis via cranial ray irradiation robustly inhibited social avoidance. These data show that the time window after cessation of stress is a critical period for the establishment of persistent cellular and behavioral responses to stress and that a compensatory enhancement in neurogenesis is related to the long-term individual differences in maladaptive responses to stress. PMID:20176946

  8. Spirituality and support: a descriptive analysis of online social support for depression.

    PubMed

    Keating, David M

    2013-09-01

    This study examined supportive messages in spiritual and non-spiritual online support groups for depression. Both social support and religiosity have been associated with reduced depressive symptomology. Proportions of three types of support (i.e., informational, emotional, and network) were considered; messages were further delineated as being either religious or non-religious in nature. Messages (N=2,674) from two Christian and two unaffiliated online groups were analyzed. Results indicated that Christian groups communicated more informational support and General groups communicated more network support. Christian groups communicated more religious messages. This and future research is valuable to practitioners and clergy aiding depressed individuals and to the literature on social support and religion.

  9. Enhancing social support at the workplace: assessing the effects of the caregiver support program.

    PubMed

    Heaney, C A

    1991-01-01

    Although the health-enhancing effects of social support have been well documented, little is known about how to increase the flow of social support among network members. This article describes and evaluates the Caregiver Support Program, a worksite program that attempts to improve the quality of work relationships among house managers and direct care staff who work in group homes for the developmentally disabled. The program incorporates three strategies for increasing social support: (1) adding a new person or group of persons to the employee's social network, (2) enhancing existing relationships by improving the focal employee's skills for maintaining strong networks and mobilizing support, and (3) enhancing existing relationships by training members of the employee's social network in ways to be more supportive. The Caregiver Support Program was evaluated in a randomized field trial. Results indicate that the program was effective in improving the relationships between direct care staff participants and their house managers. However, other work relationships remained unaffected. The relationship between direct care staff and their house managers was the only work relationship for which both members of the interpersonal dyad participated in the program. The implications of these findings for health education practice and future research are discussed. PMID:1757269

  10. Does hugging provide stress-buffering social support? A study of susceptibility to upper respiratory infection and illness.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Sheldon; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Turner, Ronald B; Doyle, William J

    2015-02-01

    Perceived social support has been hypothesized to protect against the pathogenic effects of stress. How such protection might be conferred, however, is not well understood. Using a sample of 404 healthy adults, we examined the roles of perceived social support and received hugs in buffering against interpersonal stress-induced susceptibility to infectious disease. Perceived support was assessed by questionnaire, and daily interpersonal conflict and receipt of hugs were assessed by telephone interviews on 14 consecutive evenings. Subsequently, participants were exposed to a virus that causes a common cold and were monitored in quarantine to assess infection and illness signs. Perceived support protected against the rise in infection risk associated with increasing frequency of conflict. A similar stress-buffering effect emerged for hugging, which explained 32% of the attenuating effect of support. Among infected participants, greater perceived support and more-frequent hugs each predicted less-severe illness signs. These data suggest that hugging may effectively convey social support. PMID:25526910

  11. Does hugging provide stress-buffering social support? A study of susceptibility to upper respiratory infection and illness.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Sheldon; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Turner, Ronald B; Doyle, William J

    2015-02-01

    Perceived social support has been hypothesized to protect against the pathogenic effects of stress. How such protection might be conferred, however, is not well understood. Using a sample of 404 healthy adults, we examined the roles of perceived social support and received hugs in buffering against interpersonal stress-induced susceptibility to infectious disease. Perceived support was assessed by questionnaire, and daily interpersonal conflict and receipt of hugs were assessed by telephone interviews on 14 consecutive evenings. Subsequently, participants were exposed to a virus that causes a common cold and were monitored in quarantine to assess infection and illness signs. Perceived support protected against the rise in infection risk associated with increasing frequency of conflict. A similar stress-buffering effect emerged for hugging, which explained 32% of the attenuating effect of support. Among infected participants, greater perceived support and more-frequent hugs each predicted less-severe illness signs. These data suggest that hugging may effectively convey social support.

  12. Complex interplay between health and successful aging: role of perceived stress, resilience, and social support.

    PubMed

    Moore, Raeanne C; Eyler, Lisa T; Mausbach, Brent T; Zlatar, Zvinka Z; Thompson, Wesley K; Peavy, Guerry; Fazeli, Pariya L; Jeste, Dilip V

    2015-06-01

    Psychological and psychosocial resources, including resilience and social support, have traditionally been studied in the context of the stress paradigm and, more recently, in the context of successful aging. This study used moderated mediation analyses to examine the role of perceived stress in the relationships between physical and mental health functioning and self-rated successful aging (SRSA) and whether differences between people in level of resilience and social support changes the role of perceived stress in these relationships. A cross-sectional study of 1,006 older adults (mean age: 77 years) completed scales addressing SRSA, physical and mental health functioning, perceived stress, resilience, and social support. Results indicated that the strength of relationships between both physical and mental health functioning and SRSA were reduced after accounting for variation in level of perceived stress. The role of perceived stress in the association between mental health functioning and SRSA was found to be stronger among participants with the highest levels of resilience, and the influence of perceived stress on the degree of relationship between physical health functioning and SRSA was stronger among those with greatest social support. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce perceived stress may help break the link between disability and poor well-being in older adults. The findings further suggest that the impact of such interventions might differ depending on psychological resources (i.e., resilience) for mental health disabilities and external resources (i.e., social support) for those with physical health problems. The complex interplay of these factors should be taken into account in clinical settings.

  13. Motives of cancer patients for using the Internet to seek social support.

    PubMed

    Yli-Uotila, T; Rantanen, A; Suominen, T

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe why Finnish cancer patients choose the internet as a source of social support. The data were collected in May 2010, using an online questionnaire with open-ended questions, through four discussion forums on the websites of the non-profit Cancer Society of Finland. Seventy-four adult patients with cancer participated. The data were analysed using inductive content analysis. The mean age of the participants was 53 years and they were predominantly women. The most common cancer was breast cancer and more than three quarters of the participants had suffered from cancer for less than 5 years. The initial stimuli to use the internet as a source of social support were the ease of communication and access to information as well as the need for emotional and informational support. The actual motives that drove the use of the internet as a source of social support were the requirements for information and peer support, internet technology, a lack of support outside the internet and the negative experiences caused by the illness. The fact that there is an enormous need for information as well as for emotional support and that cancer treatment in Finland is concentrated in major hospitals, to which cancer patients may travel a considerable distance, suggests that nurses should learn to make more frequent virtual contact with their patients. PMID:23320398

  14. Effects of buprenorphine on responses to social stimuli in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Bershad, Anya K; Seiden, Jacob A; de Wit, Harriet

    2016-01-01

    In addition to its classical role in mediating responses to pain, the opioid system is strongly implicated in the regulation of social behavior. In young laboratory animals, low doses of opioid analgesic drugs reduce responses to isolation distress and increase play behavior. However, little is known about how opioid drugs affect responses to social stimuli in humans. Here we examined the effects of buprenorphine, a mu-opioid partial agonist and kappa-antagonist, on three dimensions of social processing: (i) responses to simulated social rejection, (ii) attention to emotional facial expressions, and (iii) emotional responses to images with and without social content. Healthy adults (N=36) attended two sessions during which they received either placebo or 0.2mg sublingual buprenorphine in randomized order, under double-blind conditions. Ninety minutes after drug administration, they completed three behavioral tasks: (i) a virtual ball-toss game in which they were first included and then excluded by the other players; (ii) an attention task in which they were shown pairs of faces (one emotional and one neutral), while the direction of their gazes was recorded using electrooculography, and (iii) a picture-viewing task, in which they rated standardized images with and without social content. During the ball-toss game, buprenorphine decreased perceived social rejection. During the attention task, the drug reduced initial attention to fearful facial expressions, without influencing attention to angry, happy, or sad faces. Finally, during the picture-viewing task, buprenorphine increased ratings of positivity of images with social content without affecting ratings of nonsocial images. These results suggest that even at low doses, opioid analgesic drugs reduce responses to some types of negative social stimuli while enhancing positive responses to social stimuli. This provides further support for the role of the opioid system in mediating responses to social rejection and

  15. Effects of buprenorphine on responses to social stimuli in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Bershad, Anya K; Seiden, Jacob A; de Wit, Harriet

    2016-01-01

    In addition to its classical role in mediating responses to pain, the opioid system is strongly implicated in the regulation of social behavior. In young laboratory animals, low doses of opioid analgesic drugs reduce responses to isolation distress and increase play behavior. However, little is known about how opioid drugs affect responses to social stimuli in humans. Here we examined the effects of buprenorphine, a mu-opioid partial agonist and kappa-antagonist, on three dimensions of social processing: (i) responses to simulated social rejection, (ii) attention to emotional facial expressions, and (iii) emotional responses to images with and without social content. Healthy adults (N=36) attended two sessions during which they received either placebo or 0.2mg sublingual buprenorphine in randomized order, under double-blind conditions. Ninety minutes after drug administration, they completed three behavioral tasks: (i) a virtual ball-toss game in which they were first included and then excluded by the other players; (ii) an attention task in which they were shown pairs of faces (one emotional and one neutral), while the direction of their gazes was recorded using electrooculography, and (iii) a picture-viewing task, in which they rated standardized images with and without social content. During the ball-toss game, buprenorphine decreased perceived social rejection. During the attention task, the drug reduced initial attention to fearful facial expressions, without influencing attention to angry, happy, or sad faces. Finally, during the picture-viewing task, buprenorphine increased ratings of positivity of images with social content without affecting ratings of nonsocial images. These results suggest that even at low doses, opioid analgesic drugs reduce responses to some types of negative social stimuli while enhancing positive responses to social stimuli. This provides further support for the role of the opioid system in mediating responses to social rejection and

  16. Social relationships and health: the relative roles of family functioning and social support.

    PubMed

    Franks, P; Campbell, T L; Shields, C G

    1992-04-01

    The associations between social relationships and health have been examined using two major research traditions. Using a social epidemiological approach, much research has shown the beneficial effect of social supports on health and health behaviors. Family interaction research, which has grown out of a more clinical tradition, has shown the complex effects of family functioning on health, particularly mental health. No studies have examined the relative power of these two approaches in explicating the connections between social relationships and health. We hypothesized that social relationships (social support and family functioning) would exert direct and indirect (through depressive symptoms) effects on health behaviors. We also hypothesized that the effects of social relationships on health would be more powerfully explicated by family functioning than by social support. We mailed a pilot survey to a random sample of patients attending a family practice center, including questions on depressive symptoms, cardiovascular health behaviors, demographics, social support using the ISEL scale, and family functioning using the FEICS scale. FEICS is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess family emotional involvement and criticism, the media elements of family expressed emotion. Eighty-three useable responses were obtained. Regression analyses and structural modelling showed both direct and indirect statistically significant paths from social relationships to health behaviors. Family criticism was directly associated (standardized coefficient = 0.29) with depressive symptoms, and family emotional involvement was directly associated with both depressive symptoms (coefficient = 0.35) and healthy cardiovascular behaviors (coefficient = 0.32). The results support the primacy of family functioning factors in understanding the associations among social relationships, mental health, and health behaviors. The contrasting relationships between emotional involvement and

  17. Social cohesion, social support, and health among Latinos in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mulvaney-Day, Norah E; Alegría, Margarita; Sribney, William

    2007-01-01

    The role of individual versus community level social connections in promoting health is an important factor to consider when addressing Latino health. This analysis examines the relationships between social support, social cohesion, and health in a sample of Latinos in the United States. Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Study, the analysis uses ordered logistic regression to explore the relationships of family support, friend support, family cultural conflict, and neighborhood social cohesion with self-rated physical and mental health, taking into account language proficiency and use, nativity, and sociodemographic variables. Family support, friend support, and neighborhood social cohesion were positively related to self-rated physical and mental health, and family cultural conflict was negatively related when controlled only for sex and age. After controlling for education, income, and other demographic measures, only family support was found to have a weak association with self-rated physical health; however, the relationship seemed to be mediated by language. In contrast, family support and family cultural conflict were strongly associated with self-rated mental health, after controlling for language, education, income, and other demographic measures. The study did not find neighborhood social cohesion to be significantly related to either self-rated physical or mental health, after accounting for the effects of the other social connection variables. Language of interview did not explain the highly significant effects of language proficiency and use. Social connections are important for health and mental health, but language and other sociodemographic factors seem to be related to how Latinos establish these social linkages. Further investigation into the role of language in the development and maintenance of social connections may help unravel the mechanisms by which they promote or decrease health.

  18. Communication inequalities and public health implications of adult social networking site use in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kontos, Emily Z; Emmons, Karen M; Puleo, Elaine; Viswanath, K

    2010-01-01

    Social media, and specifically social networking sites (SNSs), are emerging as an important platform for communication and health information exchange. Yet, despite the increase in popularity and use, only a limited number of empirical studies document which segments of the adult population are and are not using social networking sites and with what, if any, affect on health. The purpose of this study is to identify potential communication inequalities in social networking site use among a representative sample of U.S. adults and to examine the association between SNS use and psychological well-being. We analyzed data from the National Cancer Institute's 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Thirty-five percent of online adults reported SNS use within the past 12 months, and there were no significant differences in SNS use by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic position. Younger age (p = .00) was the most significant predictor of SNS use, while being married (p = .02) and having a history of cancer (p = .02) were associated with a decreased odds of SNS use. SNS use was significantly associated with a 0.80 (p = .00) increment in psychological distress score after controlling for other factors. The absence of inequalities in adult SNS use across race/ethnicity and class offers some support for the continued use of social media to promote public health efforts; however, issues such as the persisting digital divide and potential deleterious effects of SNS use on psychological well-being need to be addressed. PMID:21154095

  19. Social support reduces resting cardiovascular function in women.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Brian M; Howard, Siobhan

    2009-10-01

    Social support is believed to benefit cardiovascular health in part by buffering recipients from life stress. Classically, this has been investigated by exploring the relationship between support and cardiovascular reactivity to laboratory stress. Such research customarily emphasizes stress responses and downplays the relevance of resting cardiovascular levels. However, it is now appreciated that resting cardiovascular function is associated with disease risk independently of reactivity. Moreover, such mechanisms are known to be relevant to female members of the population, despite the fact that much previous research has focused on males. Reactivity research rests on the assumption that stress promotes gradual hypertension over time. As such, it is important to establish the relationship between psychosocial factors and resting blood pressure. In a cross-sectional biopsychosocial screening study, we examined resting cardiovascular levels in 211 healthy non-smoking women, using regression to assess associations with psychometric indices of social support (namely, perceived network size and perceived satisfaction with support) while controlling for a range of potential biometric and psychometric confounds. Overall, social support was found to be associated with reduced resting cardiovascular function independently of, and to a greater extent than, biometric variables, anxiety, and depression. Benchmarking these effects against the differences in cardiovascular function between the present sample and a group of 92 similarly aged males revealed that social support accounted for as much variance as gender, which is widely assumed to be an important biomedical determinant of blood pressure. Such findings corroborate assertions that social support influences disease risk in ways that involve direct psychosomatic mechanisms.

  20. Alcohol and Other Drug Use in Middle School: The Interplay of Gender, Peer Victimization, and Supportive Social Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Wormington, Stephanie V.; Anderson, Kristen G.; Tomlinson, Kristin L.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the impact of supportive social relationships (i.e., teacher support, adult support, school relatedness) and peer victimization on middle school students’ substance use. Over 3,000 middle school students reported on alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use, supportive social relationships, and instances in which they were the victim of aggressive behavior. Mixed-effects logit regression analyses revealed complementary patterns of results across types of substances. Students who perceived high levels of social support were less likely to report alcohol and drug use initiation, particularly at low levels of peer victimization. Gender moderated the negative effect of peer victimization, with highly victimized boys most likely to report alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. Results indicated a complex interplay of social influences and moderating variables in predicting early onset alcohol and other drug use, one that researchers should consider when studying adolescents’ decisions to use alcohol and other drugs. PMID:26294803

  1. Maternal Depressive Symptomatology, Social Support, and Language Development of Bilingual Preschoolers From Low-Income Households

    PubMed Central

    Bitetti, Dana; Hammer, Carol Scheffner

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the impact of maternal depressive symptomatology and social support on the English and Spanish language growth of young bilingual children from low-income backgrounds. It was hypothesized that maternal depression would slow children's development in both languages but that social support would buffer the negative effect. Method Longitudinal data were collected from 83 mothers of Puerto Rican descent and their children who were attending Head Start preschool for 2 years. The effects of maternal depressive symptomatology and social support from family and friends on receptive vocabulary and oral comprehension development in both languages were examined. Results Growth curve modeling revealed that maternal depressive symptomatology negatively affected Spanish receptive vocabulary development only. Maternal depression did not affect children's English receptive vocabulary or their oral comprehension in either language. Social support was not related to maternal depressive symptomatology or child language. Conclusions These findings suggest that maternal depression is 1 risk factor that contributes to less robust primary language development of bilingual children from low-income households. Speech-language pathologists must (a) increase their awareness of maternal depression in order to provide families with appropriate mental health referrals and (b) consider their roles as supportive adults for children whose mothers may be depressed. PMID:25863774

  2. Childhood poverty, early motherhood and adult social exclusion.

    PubMed

    Hobcraft, J; Kiernan, K

    2001-09-01

    Childhood poverty and early parenthood are both high on the current political agenda. The key new issue that this research addresses is the relative importance of childhood poverty and of early motherhood as correlates of outcomes later in life. How far are the 'effects' of early motherhood on later outcomes due to childhood precursors, especially experience of childhood poverty? Subsidiary questions relate to the magnitude of these associations, the particular levels of childhood poverty that prove most critical, and whether, as often assumed, only teenage mothers are subsequently disadvantaged, or are those who have their first birth in their early twenties similarly disadvantaged? The source of data for this study is the National Child Development Study. We examine outcomes at age 33 for several domains of adult social exclusion: welfare, socio-economic, physical health, emotional well-being and demographic behaviour. We control for a wide range of childhood factors: poverty; social class of origin and of father; mother's and father's school leaving age; family structure; housing tenure; mother's and father's interest in education; personality attributes; performance on educational tests; and contact with the police by age 16. There are clear associations for the adult outcomes with age at first birth, even after controlling for childhood poverty and the other childhood background factors. Moreover, we demonstrate that the widest gulf in adult outcomes occurs for those who enter motherhood early (before age 23), though further reinforced by teenage motherhood for most adult outcomes. We also show that any experience of childhood poverty is clearly associated with adverse outcomes in adulthood, with reinforcement for higher levels of childhood poverty for a few outcomes. PMID:11578006

  3. Social burden and lifestyle in adults with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Zomer, A Carla; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P; van der Velde, Enno T; Sieswerda, Gert-Jan T; Wajon, Elly M C; Plomp, Koos; van Bergen, Paul F M; Verheugt, Carianne L; Krivka, Eva; de Vries, Cees J; Lok, Dirk J A; Grobbee, Diederick E; Mulder, Barbara J M

    2012-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate how the presence and severity of congenital heart disease (CHD) influence social life and lifestyle in adult patients. A random sample (n = 1,496) from the CONgenital CORvitia (n = 11,047), the Dutch national registry of adult patients with CHD, completed a questionnaire on educational attainment, employment and marital statuses, and lifestyle (response 76%). The Utrecht Health Project provided a large reference group (n = 6,810) of unaffected subjects. Logistic regression models were used for subgroup analyses and to adjust for age, gender, and socioeconomic status where appropriate. Of all patients 51.5% were men (median age 39 years, interquartile range 29 to 51) with mild (46%), moderate (44%), and severe (10%) CHD. Young (<40-year-old) patients with CHD were more likely to have achieved a lower education (adjusted odds ratios [ORs] 1.6 for men and 1.9 for women, p <0.05 for the 2 comparisons), significantly more often unemployed (adjusted ORs 5.9 and 2.0 for men and women, respectively), and less likely to be in a relationship compared to the reference group (adjusted ORs 8.5 for men and 4.5 for women). These poorer outcomes were seen in all severity groups. Overall, the CHD population smoked less (adjusted OR 0.5, p <0.05), had more sports participation (adjusted OR 1.2, p <0.05), and had less obesity (adjusted OR 0.7, p <0.05) than the reference group. In conclusion, there was a substantial social disadvantage in adult patients with CHD, which was seen in all severity groups and primarily in young men. In contrast, adults with CHD had healthier lifestyles compared to the reference group. PMID:22444325

  4. The Association Between Higher Social Support and Lower Depressive Symptoms Among Aging Services Clients is Attenuated at Higher Levels of Functional Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Yan, Li; Podgorski, Carol A.; Conwell, Yeates

    2015-01-01

    Objective Adults seeking services from the Aging Services Provider Network (ASPN) are at risk for depression. ASPN clients also have high prevalence of both functional impairments and social morbidities. Study of the relationships between these factors may inform the development of interventions for depression in this service setting. Methods We interviewed 373 older adults accessing ASPN services and assessed depression symptom severity, functional impairment (instrumental activities of daily living and activities of daily living), and social support. Results Lower social support and greater functional impairment were associated with greater depressive symptoms. At a high level of functional impairment, the inverse associations between indices of social support and depressive symptoms were attenuated. Conclusions Results suggest that older adults with more severe functional impairment may benefit somewhat less from increased social support with respect to depression symptom severity. PMID:25663607

  5. A Study of Childhood Social Competence, Adult Premorbid Competence, and Psychiatric Outcome in Three Schizophrenic Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewine, R. J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    School and hospital records were used to examine childhood social competence, adult premorbid competence, and psychiatric outcome in adult schizoaffective, paranoid, and undifferentiated schizophrenics. A significant difference existed in childhood interpersonal competence and adult social competence among the subtypes. Results reflect…

  6. Social and Economic Transformations: Contributions to the Professionalization of Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Larry G.

    1986-01-01

    This article addresses three questions which should help adult educators focus on the challenge of social and economic change: What are the sources of social and economic transformations? What are the role issues facing adult educators? What might be some suggestions for enhancing and expanding adult education programs so that they can…

  7. Social challenges and supports from the perspective of individuals with Asperger syndrome and other autism spectrum disabilities.

    PubMed

    Müller, Eve; Schuler, Adriana; Yates, Gregory B

    2008-03-01

    The study describes the perspectives of individuals with Asperger syndrome and other autism spectrum disabilities (ASDs) regarding social challenges and supports. Eighteen adults with ASDs were individually interviewed. They were asked to describe their experiences navigating their social worlds, and recommend effective social supports and strategies for improving social connectedness. Qualitative analyses of the interview transcripts revealed a number of common experiences including a profound sense of isolation, difficulty initiating social interactions, challenges relating to communication, longing for greater intimacy, desire to contribute to one's community, and effort to develop greater social/self-awareness. Commonly recommended social supports included external supports (e.g. activities based on shared interests, highly structured or scripted social activities, and small groups or dyads); communication supports (e.g. alternative modes of communication, explicit communication, and instruction in interpreting and using social cues); and self-initiated strategies for handling social anxiety (e.g. creative/improvisational outlets, physical activity, spiritual practice/organized religion, and time spent alone).

  8. Social support for terror-related victims: The Israeli system.

    PubMed

    Ellenberg, Eytan; Sasporte, Jacob; Bar-On, Zvia; Sfez, Rolland; Cohen, Osnat; Taragin, Mark; Ostfeld, Ishay

    2016-01-01

    Since its foundation, the State of Israel has been affected by terror violence toward its civilian population. For more than 45 years, the Israeli legislation has built a legal insurance allowing citizens casualties of such violence to benefit from specific coverage and support. The objective of this article is to describe the history, legal framework, and organization of social support for terror victims in Israel. PMID:27649753

  9. Social support for terror-related victims: The Israeli system.

    PubMed

    Ellenberg, Eytan; Sasporte, Jacob; Bar-On, Zvia; Sfez, Rolland; Cohen, Osnat; Taragin, Mark; Ostfeld, Ishay

    2016-01-01

    Since its foundation, the State of Israel has been affected by terror violence toward its civilian population. For more than 45 years, the Israeli legislation has built a legal insurance allowing citizens casualties of such violence to benefit from specific coverage and support. The objective of this article is to describe the history, legal framework, and organization of social support for terror victims in Israel.

  10. Perspectives of Adults With Epilepsy and Their Support Persons on Self-Management Support

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Elizabeth Reisinger; Barmon, Christina; McGee, Robin E.; Engelhard, George; Sterk, Claire E.; DiIorio, Colleen; Thompson, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Social support is an important mechanism for improving self-management, although little is known about its role in epilepsy self-management. We examined the type of support provided to people with epilepsy and its influence on self-management. We conducted in-depth interviews with 22 people with epilepsy and 16 support persons, representing 14 pairs and 10 unpaired individuals. We analyzed the data using principles of grounded theory. Supporters, who were mainly parents and spouses, aided people with epilepsy in every dimension of self-management. Support for self-management occurred along a continuum from person with epilepsy-led management to support person-led management. Where the pairs fell on the continuum depended on developmental stage, relationship type, and relationship dynamics. Seizure control shaped individuals' experiences with self-management and support within each group. The self-management continuum provides a new aspect that can be integrated into existing models of self-and family-management. PMID:25192759

  11. Unequal social engagement for older adults: constraints on choice.

    PubMed

    Rozanova, Julia; Keating, Norah; Eales, Jacquie

    2012-03-01

    Although some studies have confirmed positive associations between social engagement and well-being in later life, this study aimed to understand why some seniors cannot be engaged. The authors analyzed the lived experiences of 89 seniors in three rural communities in Canada, from semi-structured interviews and using the constant comparison method. Five factors make choices for social engagement in later life unequal among older adults who differ by gender, class, age, and health status. Profound engagement in care work, compulsory altruism, personal resources, objectively perceived and subjectively available engagement opportunities, and ageist barriers around paid work constrain choices for seniors who lack privilege in the context of a market economy, particularly for low-income older women. To avoid stigmatizing vulnerable older persons, societal barriers to meaningful activities must be addressed - for example, through provision of income security or by reversing inter- and intragenerational ageism in access to the labor market.

  12. Social Well-Being Among Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Echo L.; Kent, Erin E.; Trevino, Kelly M.; Parsons, Helen M.; Zebrack, Brad J.; Kirchhoff, Anne C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND A cancer diagnosis during adolescence or young adulthood may negatively influence social well-being. The existing literature concerning the social well-being of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer was reviewed to identify gaps in current research and highlight priority areas for future research. METHODS A systematic review of the scientific literature published in English from 2000 through 2014 was performed. Eligible studies included patients and survivors diagnosed between the ages of 15 to 39 years that reported on social well-being domains in the City of Hope Cancer Survivor Quality of Life Model. Each article was reviewed for relevance using a standardized template. A total of 253 potential articles were identified. After exclusions, a final sample of 26 articles identified domains of social well-being that are believed to be understudied among AYAs with cancer: 1) educational attainment, employment, and financial burden; 2) social relationships; and 3) supportive care. Articles were read in their entirety, single coded, and summarized according to domain. RESULTS AYAs with cancer report difficulties related to employment, educational attainment, and financial stability. They also report problems with the maintenance and development of peer and family relationships, intimate and marital relationships, and peer support. Supportive services are desired among AYAs. Few studies have reported results in reference to comparison samples or by cancer subtypes. CONCLUSIONS Future research studies on AYAs with cancer should prioritize the inclusion of underserved AYA populations, more heterogeneous cancer samples, and comparison groups to inform the development of supportive services. Priority areas for potential intervention include education and employment reintegration, and social support networks. PMID:26848713

  13. Breastfeeding social marketing: lessons learned from USDA's "Loving Support" campaign.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2012-10-01

    Social marketing involves the application of commercial marketing principles to advance the public good. Social marketing calls for much more than health communications campaigns. It involves four interrelated tasks: audience benefit, target behavior, essence (brand, relevance, positioning), and developing the "4Ps" (product, price, place, promotion) marketing mix. The ongoing U.S. Department of Agriculture "Loving Support Makes Breastfeeding Work" campaign was launched in 1997 based on social marketing principles to increase breastfeeding initiation rates and breastfeeding duration among Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) participants. Since then there have been improvements in breastfeeding duration in the country, and the majority of WIC women now initiate breastfeeding. Breastfeeding in public places is still not well accepted by society at large, and any and exclusive breastfeeding durations remain exceedingly low. Lessons learned from "Loving Support" and other campaigns indicate that it is important to design social marketing campaigns to target the influential societal forces (e.g., family and friends, healthcare providers, employers, formula industry, legislators) that affect women's decision and ability to breastfeed for the recommended amount of time. This will require formative research that applies the social-ecological model to different population segments, taking and identifying the right incentives to nudge more women to breastfeed for longer. Any new breastfeeding campaign needs to understand and take into account the information acquisition preferences of the target audiences. The vast majority of WIC women have mobile devices and are accessing social media. The Brazilian experience indicates that making breastfeeding the social norm can be done with a solid social marketing strategy. This is consistent with the recently released "Six Steps to Achieve Breastfeeding Goals for WIC Clinics," which identifies

  14. Breastfeeding social marketing: lessons learned from USDA's "Loving Support" campaign.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2012-10-01

    Social marketing involves the application of commercial marketing principles to advance the public good. Social marketing calls for much more than health communications campaigns. It involves four interrelated tasks: audience benefit, target behavior, essence (brand, relevance, positioning), and developing the "4Ps" (product, price, place, promotion) marketing mix. The ongoing U.S. Department of Agriculture "Loving Support Makes Breastfeeding Work" campaign was launched in 1997 based on social marketing principles to increase breastfeeding initiation rates and breastfeeding duration among Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) participants. Since then there have been improvements in breastfeeding duration in the country, and the majority of WIC women now initiate breastfeeding. Breastfeeding in public places is still not well accepted by society at large, and any and exclusive breastfeeding durations remain exceedingly low. Lessons learned from "Loving Support" and other campaigns indicate that it is important to design social marketing campaigns to target the influential societal forces (e.g., family and friends, healthcare providers, employers, formula industry, legislators) that affect women's decision and ability to breastfeed for the recommended amount of time. This will require formative research that applies the social-ecological model to different population segments, taking and identifying the right incentives to nudge more women to breastfeed for longer. Any new breastfeeding campaign needs to understand and take into account the information acquisition preferences of the target audiences. The vast majority of WIC women have mobile devices and are accessing social media. The Brazilian experience indicates that making breastfeeding the social norm can be done with a solid social marketing strategy. This is consistent with the recently released "Six Steps to Achieve Breastfeeding Goals for WIC Clinics," which identifies

  15. HIV infection duration, social support and the level of trauma symptoms in a sample of HIV-positive Polish individuals.

    PubMed

    Rzeszutek, Marcin; Oniszczenko, Włodzimierz; Żebrowska, Magdalena; Firląg-Burkacka, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the average HIV infection duration and the level of quantitatively rated post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and social support dimensions in a sample of 562 Polish HIV+ adults. Possible moderating effects of social support on the relationship between the average HIV infection duration and the level of PTSD symptoms were also analysed. The results of this study suggest that the average HIV infection duration may intensify PTSD symptoms and deteriorate the perceived availability of social support in HIV+ individuals. However, a positive relationship between HIV infection duration and the level of trauma symptoms was observed only in the group of HIV+ individuals with low perceived available social support, but not in the group of HIV-infected individuals with high perceived available social support. This research provided some new insight into the psychological and social aspects of living with HIV. In particular, our results suggest that although HIV infection duration may intensify trauma symptoms and deteriorate social support, perceived available social support may act as a buffer against HIV-related trauma symptoms.

  16. Effects of Social Supports on the Career Choice Consideration of Chinese Farmers: A Social Cognitive Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Li

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), this study explored social supports' influence on the career choice consideration of farmers during China's current process of urbanization. A questionnaire was designed based on interviews with 140 people and a pretest with a sample of 419 participants. A total of 628…

  17. Social Skills and Depressive Symptoms across Adolescence: Social Support as a Mediator in Girls versus Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Wendy; Karevold, Evalill; Roysamb, Espen; Gustavson, Kristin; Mathiesen, Kristin S.

    2013-01-01

    The current population-based study of Norwegian adolescents examined gender-specific patterns in the prospective association between social skills in early adolescence (age 12.5; n = 566) and changes in depressive symptoms from early to late adolescence (age 16.5; n = 375). Further, a potential mediation effect of social support (from peers,…

  18. Non-Suicidal Self-Injury--Does social support make a difference? An epidemiological investigation of a Danish national sample.

    PubMed

    Christoffersen, Mogens Nygaard; Møhl, Bo; DePanfilis, Diane; Vammen, Katrine Schjødt

    2015-06-01

    Teenagers and young adults who had experienced child maltreatment, being bullied in school and other serious life events have an increased risk of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI), but some individuals manage to escape serious stressful life events. The research question is: does social support make a difference? A national representative sample of 4,718 persons born in 1984 were selected for an interview about their childhood, maltreatment, serious life events and social support in order to test if social support during childhood is a statistical mediator between childhood disadvantages and NSSI. The survey obtained a 67% response rate (N=2,980). The incidence rate of NSSI among this sample was estimated at 2.7% among young adult respondents. Participants with a history of child maltreatment, being bullied in school or other traumatic life events reported a rate of NSSI 6 times greater than participants without this history (odds ratio: 6.0). The correlation between traumatic life events during adolescence and NSSI is reduced when low social support is accounted for in the statistical model (p<0.01). The results indicate that social support is a partial mediator for NSSI. The reported low self-esteem indicates the importance of treating adolescents who are engaged in NSSI with respect and dignity when they are treated in the health care system. Results further imply that increasing social support may reduce the likelihood of NSSI. PMID:25435107

  19. Non-Suicidal Self-Injury--Does social support make a difference? An epidemiological investigation of a Danish national sample.

    PubMed

    Christoffersen, Mogens Nygaard; Møhl, Bo; DePanfilis, Diane; Vammen, Katrine Schjødt

    2015-06-01

    Teenagers and young adults who had experienced child maltreatment, being bullied in school and other serious life events have an increased risk of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI), but some individuals manage to escape serious stressful life events. The research question is: does social support make a difference? A national representative sample of 4,718 persons born in 1984 were selected for an interview about their childhood, maltreatment, serious life events and social support in order to test if social support during childhood is a statistical mediator between childhood disadvantages and NSSI. The survey obtained a 67% response rate (N=2,980). The incidence rate of NSSI among this sample was estimated at 2.7% among young adult respondents. Participants with a history of child maltreatment, being bullied in school or other traumatic life events reported a rate of NSSI 6 times greater than participants without this history (odds ratio: 6.0). The correlation between traumatic life events during adolescence and NSSI is reduced when low social support is accounted for in the statistical model (p<0.01). The results indicate that social support is a partial mediator for NSSI. The reported low self-esteem indicates the importance of treating adolescents who are engaged in NSSI with respect and dignity when they are treated in the health care system. Results further imply that increasing social support may reduce the likelihood of NSSI.

  20. Reading for a Better World: Teaching for Social Responsibility with Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolk, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Teaching for social responsibility should be one of the vital aims of our schools. Young adult literature offers an authentic, meaningful, and critical way to teach for social responsibility. This article offers an overview of the different elements of social responsibility and some young adult novels and graphic novels that could be used to teach…

  1. Social Interaction with Adults with Severe Intellectual Disability: Having Fun and Hanging Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Hilary; Douglas, Jacinta; Bigby, Christine; Iacono, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social interaction is integral to social inclusion. Little is known about the nature of social interaction between adults with severe intellectual disability and those with whom they engage. Method: Participants were six adults with intellectual disability and people identified as those with whom they shared demonstrable pleasurable…

  2. The Social Inclusion of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Phenomenology of Their Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sarah A.

    2010-01-01

    Social inclusion enhances the quality of life of young adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Young adults with ID continue to face prejudice and discrimination that limit their social inclusion. They experience limited social inclusion because there are not enough appropriate activities available and they have limited opportunities to…

  3. Validation of a U.S. Adult Social Self-Efficacy Inventory in Chinese Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Jinyan; Meng, Hui; Gao, Xiangping; Lopez, Felix J.; Liu, Cong

    2010-01-01

    The authors report a series of efforts to validate a U.S. adult social self-efficacy inventory, the Perceived Social Self-Efficacy scale (PSSE), in Chinese populations. They argue that the construct underlying the PSSE scale constitutes an important component of Chinese adult social self-efficacy, which was confirmed in focus group discussions.…

  4. Exploration of Older and Younger British Adults' Performance on the Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdon, Paul; Dipper, Lucy; Cocks, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Social perception is an important skill. One assessment that is commonly used to assess social perception abilities is The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT). The only normative data available for this test are for Australian younger adults. Despite no normative data being available for British adults, the test is widely used…

  5. Blogging for Information Management, Learning, and Social Support during Internship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Samuel K. W.; Kwan, Alvin C. M.; Warning, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The functions and possibilities afforded by blogging have been suggested to be relevant to learning and information management. Its increasing use in the business and education sectors is documented, but currently its use in professional education or internship is limited. The social nature of blogging appears to support the applicability of blogs…

  6. [Spanish adaptation of a perceived Social Support Scale in sportspeople].

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Ignacio; García-Cueto, Eduardo; Suárez-Álvarez, Javier; Pérez Sánchez, Blanca

    2012-01-01

    Social support is a variable that has a great influence in the sport context. In fact, this variable not only affects the athlete's performance but it has also shown to be related to psychological disorders such as Burnout Syndrome. The aim of this paper was to illustrate the Spanish adaptation of a social support scale in the sport context. The normative group who took part in the final version of the research was composed of 397 athletes aged between 13 and 64 years old (mean= 19.23 and standard deviation= 6.67). The scale shows: adequate factorial and construct validity, acceptable fit indexes (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin= 0.785, Root Mean Square Residual= 0.078; Kelly's criterion= 0.075), a negative correlation with the dimensions of burnout and no relationship with respect to self-esteem. In addition, it also shows high reliability (a= 0.88). Furthermore, statistically significant differences have been found in relation to genders - where women require greater social support. In contrast, males tend to display a lower level of social support with team players and international athletes. Moreover, differential item functioning (DIF) was carried out to explore sex bias, however, none of the items exhibit DIF problems.

  7. The Socially Supportive Functions of Religion and Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Social support has been shown to be a significant protective factor in the lives of adolescents and has been linked to numerous health and psychological outcomes. Spirituality and religion have also been demonstrated to have similar effects on a host of outcomes. The current study further analyzed the link between these two constructs from a…

  8. Coping, family social support, and psychological symptoms among student veterans.

    PubMed

    Romero, Daniel H; Riggs, Shelley A; Ruggero, Camilo

    2015-04-01

    With rising numbers of student veterans on today's college campuses, multicultural competence in college counseling centers increasingly includes an understanding of military culture and its relation to the psychological health and functioning of student veterans. Research on interpersonal and intrapersonal factors associated with college student veterans' mental health is scarce. The current study examines the contributions of coping style and family social support on symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress in a student veteran sample. We also tested the moderating role of family social support in the relationship between coping style and psychological symptoms. Data from 136 student veterans were analyzed by using path analysis. Results revealed that avoidant coping and family social support significantly predicted depressive and anxiety symptoms. Avoidant coping also significantly predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms. In addition, findings indicated that family social support moderated the relationship between problem-focused coping and depression, as well as between avoidant coping and symptoms of anxiety and depression but not posttraumatic stress. Implications of results for college and university counselors are discussed.

  9. Partner Status, Social Support, and Psychological Adjustment during Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liese, Lawrence H.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied partner status, social support, and psychological adjustment of pregnant women. Administered Brief Symptom Inventory to predominantly minority and lower-income pregnant women (N=157) categorized as married, single/partnered, or single/unpartnered. Found single/partnered women were at least risk for emotional disequilibrium and suggested…

  10. Social Services Support and Expenditure for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bebbington, Andrew; Beecham, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This article provides information about children with autism who are supported by English social services departments based on the Children in Need Survey 2001 (CIN2001). In 119 authorities, 6310 children were recorded as having a diagnosis of autism or related conditions, probably about one-quarter of all children with such diagnoses and about…

  11. Vital Defenses: Social Support Appraisals of Black Grandmothers Parenting Grandchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Michelle L.; Henderson, Tammy L.; Baugh, Eboni

    2007-01-01

    Guided by the conceptual frameworks of social support appraisal mechanisms and cultural variant perspectives, the reported experiences of 23 Black grandmothers parenting grandchildren who receive cash assistance under the current welfare program, Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), were used to integrate macro- and micro-level…

  12. Parent-Adolescent Attachment and Specificity of Perceived Social Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larose, Simon; And Others

    Research indicates that establishing a secure attachment relationship in childhood affects later perceived social support (PSS). In order to test this relationship empirically and to gather comparative information on the separate elements of PSS, two attachment questionnaires and three measures of PSS were administered to 139 white males and 320…

  13. Religiosity, Social Support, and Life Satisfaction among Elderly Korean Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jisung; Roh, Soonhee; Yeo, Younsook

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present study tested Smith's (2003. Theorizing religious effects among American adolescents. "Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42", 17-30. doi:10.1111/1468-5906.t01-1-00158) theory of religious effects to explore the relationship of religiosity, social support, and life satisfaction among elderly Korean immigrants. The…

  14. Gender, Social Support, and Coping with Work Stressors among Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korabik, Karen; And Others

    The influence of sex and gender-role orientation on social support and coping with occupational stressors was examined through interviews with 19 male and 20 female managers who were matched for job level. It was hypothesized that instrumentality would be related to problem-focused coping, whereas expressivity would be related to coping by seeking…

  15. Social Support and Feelings of Hostility among Released Inmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochstetler, Andy; DeLisi, Matt; Pratt, Travis C.

    2010-01-01

    There is broad consensus that the strains of imprisonment and unsupported release affect offenders' mental health and operate to the detriment of their chances of successful reintegration. Drawing on data from 208 male inmates, the authors examine the mediating and moderating influences of social support on the links between inmates' perceptions…

  16. Perceptions of Social Support, Empowerment and Youth Risk Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reininger, Belinda M.; Perez, Adriana; Flores, Maria I. Aguirre; Chen, Zhongxue; Rahbar, Mohammad H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association of perceived social support and community empowerment among urban middle-school students living in Matamoros, Mexico and the risk behaviors of fighting, alcohol and tobacco use, and sexual activity. Middle school students (n = 1,181) from 32 public and private Mexican schools were surveyed. Weighted multiple…

  17. Anxiety, Stress and Social Support: Prenatal Predictors of Obstetrical Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nethercut, Gail; Adler, Nancy

    The role of anxiety, stress, and social support in predicting negative obstetrical outcomes was examined in a high-risk group of pregnant women. The predictor variables were assessed with separate self-report scales, including The Sarason Life Experience Survey, the Spielberger State/Trait Inventory, and a modified version of the Lazarus and Cohen…

  18. Stress, Coping, Social Support, and Psychological Distress among MSW Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addonizio, Frank Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship among sources and levels of stress, coping patterns, sources and levels of social support, and psychological distress for MSW students. Stress is a common feeling experienced by people throughout life and it is important to understand the way they cope with their stressors. Most of the…

  19. Social Support for Exercise and Dietary Habits among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    An assessment inventory (the Friend/Peer Support-Health Eating Physical Activity Scale-FPS-HEPAS) was developed to measure social influence patterns of college student physical activity and food consumption habits. Principal components analysis of 50 items with two referent sets (friends and peers) produced two scales with common factors:…

  20. Lesbian Friendships: An Exploration of Lesbian Social Support Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degges-White, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Lesbians may face unique challenges when building friendships. The intersection of culturally sanctioned discrimination and familial rejection may intensify the role friendships play for lesbians and the development of social support networks. The author discusses existing research and qualitative findings and provides suggestions for counselors…

  1. Social Support and Occupational Stress among University Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosio, Saharay E.

    2011-01-01

    Occupational stress creates a negative impact both at the microlevel (i.e., individuals) and at the macrolevel (i.e., organization). This study investigated the role of protective factors of social support and religiosity on occupational stress among university employees. The study used data collected from participants ( N = 72) in a private…

  2. Physical Activity and Social Support in Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendonça, Gerfeson; Cheng, Luanna Alexandra; Mélo, Edilânea Nunes; de Farias, José Cazuza, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this review was to systematically synthesize the results of original studies on the association between physical activity and social support in adolescents, published until April 2011. Searches were carried out in Adolec, ERIC, Lilacs, Medline, SciELO, Scopus, SportsDiscus and Web of Science electronic databases and the reference…

  3. Additional Support Needs Reforms and Social Justice in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Stead, Joan; Weedon, Elisabet; Wright, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    New additional support-needs legislation in Scotland sought to recognise the way in which poverty, as well as individual impairment, contribute to the creation of children's difficulties in learning. As well as identifying a wider range of needs, the legislation sought to provide parents, irrespective of social background, with more powerful means…

  4. Supporting Well-Being in Retirement through Meaningful Social Roles: Systematic Review of Intervention Studies

    PubMed Central

    Heaven, Ben; Brown, Laura Je; White, Martin; Errington, Linda; Mathers, John C; Moffatt, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Context The marked demographic change toward greater proportions of older people in developed nations poses significant challenges for health and social care. Several studies have demonstrated an association between social roles in later life and positive health and well-being outcomes. After retiring from work, people may lose roles that provide purpose and social contacts. The outcomes of interventions to promote social roles in retirement have not been systematically reviewed. Methods We examined three research questions: (1) What kinds of intervention have been developed to promote social roles in retirement? (2) How much have they improved perceived roles? (3) Have these roles improved health or well-being? We included those studies that evaluated the provision of social roles; used a control or comparison group; targeted healthy retirement-transition adults who were living in the community; provided an abstract written in English; took place in a highly developed nation; and reported social role, health, or well-being outcomes. We searched eight electronic databases and combined the results with hand searches. Findings Through our searches, we identified 9,062 unique publications and eleven evaluative studies of acceptable quality, which reported seven interventions that met our inclusion criteria. These interventions varied in year of inception and scope, but only two were based outside North America. The studies rarely reported the quality or meaning of roles. Only three studies used random allocation, thus limiting inferences of causality from these studies. Interventions providing explicit roles and using supportive group structures were somewhat effective in improving one or more of the following: life satisfaction, social support and activity, physical health and activity, functional health, and cognition. Conclusions Social role interventions may improve health and well-being for people in retirement transition. Future research should improve the

  5. The Emergence of Social Play in Infancy: A Proposed Developmental Sequence of Infant-Adult Social Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaley, Kimberlee Kiehl

    A developmental sequence of adult-infant social play is proposed in this paper. Many adult interactions with infants take the form of early social play, although such play is often thought to originate with the onset of peer interaction. The sequence of five levels proposed in this work is based on, and approximately reverses, the Howes (1980)…

  6. Does Social Support Predict Pregnant Mothers’ Information Seeking Behaviors on an Educational Website?

    PubMed Central

    Guillory, Jamie; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Kim, Hyekung; Pollak, JP; Graham, Meredith; Olson, Christine; Gay, Geri

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examine how social support (perceived support and support from a spouse, or committed partner) may influence pregnant women’s information seeking behaviors on a pregnancy website. We assess information seeking behavior among participants in a trial testing the effectiveness of a web-based intervention for appropriate gestational weight gain. Methods Participants were pregnant women (N= 1,329) recruited from clinics and private practices in one county in the Northeast United States. We used logistic regression models to estimate the likelihood of viewing articles, blogs, frequently asked questions (FAQs), and resources on the website as a function of perceived social support, and support from a spouse or relationship partner. All models included socio-demographic controls (income, education, number of adults and children living at home, home Internet use, and race/ethnicity). Results Compared to single women, women who were married or in a committed relationship were more likely to information seek online by viewing articles (OR= 1.95, 95%CI [1.26–3.03]), FAQs (OR= 1.64 [1.00–2.67]), and blogs (OR=1.88 [1.24–2.85]). Women who felt loved and valued (affective support) were more likely to seek information by viewing articles on the website (OR= 1.19 [1.00–1.42]). Conclusions While the Internet provides a space for people who have less social support to access health information, findings from this study suggest that for pregnant women, women who already had social support were most likely to seek information online. This finding has important implications for designing online systems and content to encourage pregnant women with fewer support resources to engage with content. PMID:24671467

  7. Does social support predict pregnant mothers' information seeking behaviors on an educational website?

    PubMed

    Guillory, Jamie; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Kim, Hyekung; Pollak, J P; Graham, Meredith; Olson, Christine; Gay, Geri

    2014-11-01

    We examine how social support (perceived support and support from a spouse, or committed partner) may influence pregnant women's information seeking behaviors on a pregnancy website. We assess information seeking behavior among participants in a trial testing the effectiveness of a web-based intervention for appropriate gestational weight gain. Participants were pregnant women (N = 1,329) recruited from clinics and private practices in one county in the Northeast United States. We used logistic regression models to estimate the likelihood of viewing articles, blogs, frequently asked questions (FAQs), and resources on the website as a function of perceived social support, and support from a spouse or relationship partner. All models included socio-demographic controls (income, education, number of adults and children living at home, home Internet use, and race/ethnicity). Compared to single women, women who were married or in a committed relationship were more likely to information seek online by viewing articles (OR 1.95, 95 % CI [1.26-3.03]), FAQs (OR 1.64 [1.00-2.67]), and blogs (OR 1.88 [1.24-2.85]). Women who felt loved and valued (affective support) were more likely to seek information by viewing articles on the website (OR 1.19 [1.00-1.42]). While the Internet provides a space for people who have less social support to access health information, findings from this study suggest that for pregnant women, women who already had social support were most likely to seek information online. This finding has important implications for designing online systems and content to encourage pregnant women with fewer support resources to engage with content. PMID:24671467

  8. Does social support predict pregnant mothers' information seeking behaviors on an educational website?

    PubMed

    Guillory, Jamie; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Kim, Hyekung; Pollak, J P; Graham, Meredith; Olson, Christine; Gay, Geri

    2014-11-01

    We examine how social support (perceived support and support from a spouse, or committed partner) may influence pregnant women's information seeking behaviors on a pregnancy website. We assess information seeking behavior among participants in a trial testing the effectiveness of a web-based intervention for appropriate gestational weight gain. Participants were pregnant women (N = 1,329) recruited from clinics and private practices in one county in the Northeast United States. We used logistic regression models to estimate the likelihood of viewing articles, blogs, frequently asked questions (FAQs), and resources on the website as a function of perceived social support, and support from a spouse or relationship partner. All models included socio-demographic controls (income, education, number of adults and children living at home, home Internet use, and race/ethnicity). Compared to single women, women who were married or in a committed relationship were more likely to information seek online by viewing articles (OR 1.95, 95 % CI [1.26-3.03]), FAQs (OR 1.64 [1.00-2.67]), and blogs (OR 1.88 [1.24-2.85]). Women who felt loved and valued (affective support) were more likely to seek information by viewing articles on the website (OR 1.19 [1.00-1.42]). While the Internet provides a space for people who have less social support to access health information, findings from this study suggest that for pregnant women, women who already had social support were most likely to seek information online. This finding has important implications for designing online systems and content to encourage pregnant women with fewer support resources to engage with content.

  9. Social resources and disordered living conditions: evidence from a national sample of community-residing older adults.

    PubMed

    York Cornwell, Erin

    2014-07-01

    For older adults aging in the community, living conditions can promote health, enhance coping, and reduce disablement--but they can also create stress and increase risks of illness, accidents, and decline. Although socioeconomic disparities in housing likely contribute to inequalities in interior conditions, I argue that living conditions are also shaped by social resources such as coresidential relationships, social network ties, and social support. In this article, I examine the distribution of a set of risky or stressful physical and ambient living conditions including structural disrepair, clutter, lack of cleanliness, noise, and odor. Using data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), I find that low-income and African American older adults have more disordered living conditions as do those with poorer physical and mental health. In addition, older adults who have a coresident partner, more nonresidential network ties, and more sources of instrumental support are exposed to fewer risky or harmful living conditions. This suggests that living conditions are an important, though overlooked, mechanism through which household composition, social networks, and social support affect health and well-being in later life. PMID:25651314

  10. Neighborhood Influences on Perceived Social Support Among Parents: Findings from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Tendulkar, Shalini A.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Dunn, Erin C.; Buka, Stephen; Subramanian, S. V.

    2012-01-01

    Background Social support is frequently linked to positive parenting behavior. Similarly, studies increasingly show a link between neighborhood residential environment and positive parenting behavior. However, less is known about how the residential environment influences parental social support. To address this gap, we examine the relationship between neighborhood concentrated disadvantage and collective efficacy and the level and change in parental caregiver perceptions of non-familial social support. Methodology/Principal Findings The data for this study came from three data sources, the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) Study's Longitudinal Cohort Survey of caregivers and their offspring, a Community Survey of adult residents in these same neighborhoods and the 1990 Census. Social support is measured at Wave 1 and Wave 3 and neighborhood characteristics are measured at Wave 1. Multilevel linear regression models are fit. The results show that neighborhood collective efficacy is a significant (ß = .04; SE = .02; p = .03), predictor of the positive change in perceived social support over a 7 year period, however, not of the level of social support, adjusting for key compositional variables and neighborhood concentrated disadvantage. In contrast concentrated neighborhood disadvantage is not a significant predictor of either the level or change in social support. Conclusion Our finding suggests that neighborhood collective efficacy may be important for inducing the perception of support from friends in parental caregivers over time. PMID:22493683

  11. Well-Being and Institutional Care in Older Adults: Cross-Sectional and Time Effects of Provided and Received Support

    PubMed Central

    Kroemeke, Aleksandra; Gruszczynska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of provided and received support on older adults’ subjective well-being (positive affect and depression) and to examine whether being a recipient of institutional care moderates these effects. Methods Social support (provided and received), positive affect, and depressive symptoms were assessed twice (at baseline and 1 month later) for 277 older adults (age 77.39 ± 9.20 years, 67.50% women, 65% residents of an institutional care facility). Findings Two structural equation models were analyzed: cross-sectional (at baseline) and longitudinal (after 1 month). The first model revealed a significant positive relationship between providing and receiving support and positive affect, and a negative relationship between receiving support and depression. However, being a recipient of institutional care appeared to be a significant moderator in the longitudinal model. Specifically, the findings indicated effects of both providing and receiving support on positive affect but only for noninstitutionalized older adults. Discussion Although both types of support may be beneficial for older adults, their effects depend on the nature of social exchange and the dimensions of well-being. This suggests that such factors should be systematically investigated in future research. PMID:27548721

  12. Online Social Support for Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Thematic Analysis of Messages Posted to a Virtual Support Community

    PubMed Central

    Shavazi, Masoumeh Abbasi; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Shavazi, Mohammad Taghi Abbasi; Mirzaei, Masoud; Ardekani, Ali Mellat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Currently with the emergence of the Internet, patients have an opportunity to exchange social support online. However, little attention has been devoted to different dimensions of online social support exchanged in virtual support communities for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: To provide a rich insight, the aim of this qualitative study was to explore and categorize different dimensions of online social support in messages exchanged in a virtual support community for patients with MS. A total of 548 posted messages created during one year period were selected using purposive sampling to consider the maximum variation sampling. Prior-research-driven thematic analysis was then conducted. In this regard, we used the Cutruna and Suhr’s coding system. The messages that could not be categorized with the used coding system were thematically analyzed to explore new additional social support themes. Results: The results showed that various forms of social support including informational, emotional, network, esteem and tangible support were exchanged. Moreover, new additional social support themes including sharing personal experiences, sharing coping strategies and spiritual support emerged in this virtual support community. Conclusion: The wide range of online social support exchanged in the virtual support community can be regarded as a supplementary source of social support for patients with MS. Future researches can examine online social support more comprehensively considering additional social support themes emerging in the present study. PMID:27382585

  13. Mental Illness, Behavior Problems, and Social Behavior in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straccia, Claudio; Baggio, Stéphanie; Barisnikov, Koviljka

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the behavioral characteristics of adults with Down syndrome (DS) without dementia. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the psychopathology and social behavior among adults with DS compared to adults with nonspecific intellectual disability (NSID). Thirty-four adults with DS were individually matched with 34…

  14. Social cognitive correlates of young adult sport competitors' sunscreen use.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Nadine C; O'Riordan, David L; Winkler, Elisabeth; McDermott, Liane; Spathonis, Kym; Owen, Neville

    2011-02-01

    Young adults participating in outdoor sports represent a high-risk group for excessive sun exposure. The purpose of this study was to identify modifiable social cognitive correlates of sunscreen use among young adult competitors. Participants aged 18 to 30 years who competed in soccer (n = 65), surf-lifesaving (n = 63), hockey (n = 61), and tennis (n = 48) completed a sun habits survey. Almost half (n = 113) of the participants used sunscreen inadequately and 30% (n = 70) reported not using sunscreen. In fully adjusted models, social cognitive attributes significantly (p < .05) associated with inadequate sunscreen use (vs. nonuse) included skin cancer risk perceptions (OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.3, 1.0), perceived barriers to sunscreen use (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3, 0.9), and stronger personal norms for applying sunscreen (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.0, 3.2). These findings provide insight into the attributes that enable or inhibit the use of sunscreen among young competitors and as a result may be useful in informing behavior change interventions within the sporting context.

  15. Spousal support and food-related behavior change in middle-aged and older adults living with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Beverly, Elizabeth A; Miller, Carla K; Wray, Linda A

    2008-10-01

    One of the most challenging diabetes-related behavior changes is adhering to a healthful diet. Drawing on the social cognitive theory and social support literature, this qualitative study explores how spousal support influences dietary changes following a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine how aspects of the spousal relationship translate into behavior changes, specifically adherence to a healthful diet. Analyses revealed five core themes related to dietary adherence: control over food, dietary competence, commitment to support, spousal communication, and coping with diabetes. The themes can be categorized within two key social cognitive theory constructs: reinforcement and self-efficacy. Implications from the focus group data can inform the development of more effective, targeted nutrition messages and programs to provide specific knowledge and skills.

  16. Green spaces and General Health: Roles of mental health status, social support, and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Dadvand, Payam; Bartoll, Xavier; Basagaña, Xavier; Dalmau-Bueno, Albert; Martinez, David; Ambros, Albert; Cirach, Marta; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Gascon, Mireia; Borrell, Carme; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-05-01

    Green spaces are associated with improved health, but little is known about mechanisms underlying such association. We aimed to assess the association between greenness exposure and subjective general health (SGH) and to evaluate mental health status, social support, and physical activity as mediators of this association. This cross-sectional study was based on a population-based sample of 3461 adults residing in Barcelona, Spain (2011). We characterized outcome and mediators using the Health Survey of Barcelona. Objective and subjective residential proximity to green spaces and residential surrounding greenness were used to characterize greenness exposure. We followed Baron and Kenny's framework to establish the mediation roles and we further quantified the relative contribution of each mediator. Residential surrounding greenness and subjective residential proximity to green spaces were associated with better SGH. We found indications for mediation of these associations by mental health status, perceived social support, and to less extent, by physical activity. These mediators altogether could explain about half of the surrounding greenness association and one-third of the association for subjective proximity to green spaces. We observed indications that mental health and perceived social support might be more relevant for men and those younger than 65years. The results for objective residential proximity to green spaces were not conclusive. In conclusion, our observed association between SGH and greenness exposure was mediated, in part, by mental health status, enhanced social support, and physical activity. There might be age and sex variations in these mediation roles.

  17. How Does Functional Disability Affect Depressive Symptoms in Late Life? The Role of Perceived Social Support and Psychological Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yang

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the process whereby functional disability amplifies depressive symptoms through decreasing perceived social support and psychological resources. The study analyzed two waves of panel data (1986 to 1992) of a large sample of older adults from the National Institutes of Aging Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of…

  18. Who's There to Help? Assessment of Social Supports Received by Homeless and Unaccompanied Youth in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brase, Monica Kay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how urban, young adults assessed received social supports (Vaux, 1988) during homelessness in high school. According to the National Alliance to End Homelessness (2007), approximately 1 to 1.5 million youth under the age of 18 in America experience at least one incident of homelessness each…

  19. Social support in improving perinatal outcome: the Resource Mothers Program.

    PubMed

    Heins, H C; Nance, N W; Ferguson, J E

    1987-08-01

    This report studies the Resource Mothers Program, an organization that improves perinatal outcome through social support. Resource Mothers are nonprofessional women who combine warmth, parenting experience, and knowledge of their local community services to reduce the hazards associated with rural adolescent pregnancy. Each Resource Mother is assigned to a pregnant teenage primigravida and serves as part of her support system throughout pregnancy and until the infant's first birthday. We studied 565 matched pairs (case/control) of rural teenage primigravidas with single pregnancies with and without the social support of the Resource Mother. There were significantly more patients with adequate prenatal care in the program group (P less than .000001). The frequency of low birth weight infants was significantly less (P = .006), as was the small-for-gestational-age rate (P = .002). PMID:3601290

  20. Social Support, Nutrition Intake, and Physical Activity in Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Shanice; Berg, Carla J.; Thompson, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine depressive symptoms, hope, social support, and quality of life in relation to fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and physical activity (PA) among cancer survivors diagnosed within the past 4 years. Methods In 2010, participants were recruited from a southeastern US cancer center and completed a mail-based survey (response rate 22.7%) assessing these psychosocial factors, FV intake, and PA. Results Among 128 participants, 72% consumed ≥5 FV/ day; 77.8% walked for exercise ≥4 times/ week. Controlling for sociodemographics, consuming ≥5 FV/day was associated with greater significant other social support (p = .004); walking for exercise ≥4 times/week was associated with greater friend support (p = .003). Conclusions These findings can inform tertiary cancer prevention interventions. PMID:24636037