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Sample records for adult socioeconomic attainment

  1. The influence of ethnicity and adverse life experiences during adolescence on young adult socioeconomic attainment: the moderating role of education.

    PubMed

    Wickrama, K A S; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Baltimore, Diana

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has documented that adverse life experiences during adolescence, particularly for ethnic minorities, have a long-term influence on income and asset attainment and that this relationship is largely mediated by educational achievement. We extend prior research by investigating three research questions. First, we investigate the extent to which community disadvantage, family factors and race/ethnicity each exert an independent influence on young adult socioeconomic attainment. Second, we examine whether youths' educational attainment mediates these independent influences on socioeconomic attainment. Third, we test whether educational attainment ameliorates the negative influences of disadvantaged community and family conditions and race/ethnicity on socioeconomic attainment. We address these questions using multilevel modeling with longitudinal, prospective data from Waves 1 and 4 of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which has a nationally representative sample of adolescents (N = 13, 450; 53 % females). Regarding our first research question, our results indicated that African Americans, youth from disadvantaged communities, lower SES families achieve significantly lower levels of earnings, assets, and job quality during young adulthood. Second, we found that young adults' educational level only partially mediate the influences of family and race/ethnicity influences on young adults' socioeconomic attainment. Third, we found that young adults' educational level buffered the influence of early socioeconomic adversities and accentuated the positive influences of family resources. Findings highlight the importance of social context as well as educational opportunities during childhood and adolescence for economic stability in early adulthood. PMID:22528370

  2. The influence of ethnicity and adverse life experiences during adolescence on young adult socioeconomic attainment: the moderating role of education.

    PubMed

    Wickrama, K A S; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Baltimore, Diana

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has documented that adverse life experiences during adolescence, particularly for ethnic minorities, have a long-term influence on income and asset attainment and that this relationship is largely mediated by educational achievement. We extend prior research by investigating three research questions. First, we investigate the extent to which community disadvantage, family factors and race/ethnicity each exert an independent influence on young adult socioeconomic attainment. Second, we examine whether youths' educational attainment mediates these independent influences on socioeconomic attainment. Third, we test whether educational attainment ameliorates the negative influences of disadvantaged community and family conditions and race/ethnicity on socioeconomic attainment. We address these questions using multilevel modeling with longitudinal, prospective data from Waves 1 and 4 of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which has a nationally representative sample of adolescents (N = 13, 450; 53 % females). Regarding our first research question, our results indicated that African Americans, youth from disadvantaged communities, lower SES families achieve significantly lower levels of earnings, assets, and job quality during young adulthood. Second, we found that young adults' educational level only partially mediate the influences of family and race/ethnicity influences on young adults' socioeconomic attainment. Third, we found that young adults' educational level buffered the influence of early socioeconomic adversities and accentuated the positive influences of family resources. Findings highlight the importance of social context as well as educational opportunities during childhood and adolescence for economic stability in early adulthood.

  3. Socioeconomic Outcomes from Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooderham, Paul N.

    1991-01-01

    The degree to which age and gender influence completion of higher secondary education (HSE) and employment status was measured with a sample of 350 Norwegian adults. Application of a Status Attainment model revealed that post-HSE educational attainment is an important determinant of socioeconomic status for both men and women. (SK)

  4. High School Socioeconomic Segregation and Student Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palardy, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, this study examines the association between high school socioeconomic segregation and student attainment outcomes and the mechanisms that mediate those relationships. The results show that socioeconomic segregation has a strong association with high school graduation and college enrollment.…

  5. The Influence of Ethnicity and Adverse Life Experiences during Adolescence on Young Adult Socioeconomic Attainment: The Moderating Role of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Baltimore, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has documented that adverse life experiences during adolescence, particularly for ethnic minorities, have a long-term influence on income and asset attainment and that this relationship is largely mediated by educational achievement. We extend prior research by investigating three research questions. First, we investigate the…

  6. Family of Origin, Race/Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Attainment: Genotype and Intraindividual Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; O'Neal, Catherine Walker

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has mainly focused on the persistent direct influence of early life contexts on young adult socioeconomic attainment, and less is known about intraindividual processes that are responsible for this persistent influence. The present study, using genetically informed longitudinal, prospective data from a nationally representative…

  7. The Health Impact of Upward Mobility: Does Socioeconomic Attainment Make Youth More Vulnerable to Stressful Circumstances?

    PubMed

    Wickrama, Kandauda A S; O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Lee, Tae Kyoung

    2016-02-01

    Previous research has documented that adolescent stressful life experiences have a long-term detrimental influence on cardio-metabolic disease risk. While studies have focused on either the moderating or mediating effects of youth socioeconomic competence, drawing from a life course perspective, we estimate these mediating and moderating effects simultaneously within a single analytical framework. The study used a nationally representative sample of 11,271 adolescents (53 % female) over 13 years. The sample included 49 % minority youth (21 % Blacks, 16 % Hispanics, 6 % Asians, 4 % multiracial youth, and 2 % Native Americans). The analyses focused specifically on adolescents' stressful life experiences, their socioeconomic development (conceptualized as their future orientation in adolescence as well as their educational attainment and income in young adulthood), and cardio-metabolic disease risk in young adulthood (assessed by a measure of allostatic load consisting of nine regulatory bio-markers). The study findings indicated detrimental influences of stressful life experiences on both socioeconomic development and young adult cardio-metabolic disease risk and a beneficial additive influence of positive socioeconomic development on young adult cardio-metabolic health. However, there was also evidence that striving for socioeconomic attainment increased the detrimental influence of stressful life experiences on young adult cardio-metabolic health. These study findings have important implications for our understanding about youth resilience in relation to stressful life contexts and for the formulation of policies and programs for promoting youth health.

  8. The Health Impact of Upward Mobility: Does Socioeconomic Attainment Make Youth More Vulnerable to Stressful Circumstances?

    PubMed

    Wickrama, Kandauda A S; O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Lee, Tae Kyoung

    2016-02-01

    Previous research has documented that adolescent stressful life experiences have a long-term detrimental influence on cardio-metabolic disease risk. While studies have focused on either the moderating or mediating effects of youth socioeconomic competence, drawing from a life course perspective, we estimate these mediating and moderating effects simultaneously within a single analytical framework. The study used a nationally representative sample of 11,271 adolescents (53 % female) over 13 years. The sample included 49 % minority youth (21 % Blacks, 16 % Hispanics, 6 % Asians, 4 % multiracial youth, and 2 % Native Americans). The analyses focused specifically on adolescents' stressful life experiences, their socioeconomic development (conceptualized as their future orientation in adolescence as well as their educational attainment and income in young adulthood), and cardio-metabolic disease risk in young adulthood (assessed by a measure of allostatic load consisting of nine regulatory bio-markers). The study findings indicated detrimental influences of stressful life experiences on both socioeconomic development and young adult cardio-metabolic disease risk and a beneficial additive influence of positive socioeconomic development on young adult cardio-metabolic health. However, there was also evidence that striving for socioeconomic attainment increased the detrimental influence of stressful life experiences on young adult cardio-metabolic health. These study findings have important implications for our understanding about youth resilience in relation to stressful life contexts and for the formulation of policies and programs for promoting youth health. PMID:26684790

  9. Continuity and Discontinuity of Depressed Mood from Late Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Mediating and Stabilizing Roles of Young Adults' Socioeconomic Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Rand D.; Lorenz, Federick O.; Martin, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Using prospective, longitudinal data from 467 youth over a 13-year period (late adolescence and young adulthood), the present study investigates three research questions: (1) to what extent do elevations in depressed mood continue (homotypic continuity) from adolescence to young adulthood, (2) to what extent do young adults' socioeconomic…

  10. Health selection and the process of social stratification: the effect of childhood health on socioeconomic attainment.

    PubMed

    Haas, Steven A

    2006-12-01

    This study investigates whether childhood health acts as a mechanism through which socioeconomic status is transferred across generations. The study uses data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to track siblings and to estimate fixed-effects models that account for unobserved heterogeneity at the family level. The results demonstrate that disadvantaged social background is associated with poor childhood health. Subsequently, poor health in childhood has significant, direct, and large adverse effects on educational attainment and wealth accumulation. In addition, childhood health appears to have indirect effects on occupational standing, earnings, and wealth via educational attainment and adult health status. The results further show that socioeconomic health gradients are best understood as being embedded within larger processes of social stratification.

  11. The Fiscal Consequences of Adult Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatiwada, Ishwar; McLaughlin, Joseph; Sum, Andrew; Palma, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    This research monograph prepared for the National Commission on Adult Literacy is primarily designed to describe and analyze the net annual fiscal contributions (tax payments minus cash and in-kind transfers and institutionalization costs) of U.S. adults (ages 16-64) by their educational attainment in recent years. The report begins with an…

  12. The relationship between lifetime health trajectories and socioeconomic attainment in middle age.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dohoon; Jackson, Margot

    2015-11-01

    A large literature demonstrates the direct and indirect influence of health on socioeconomic attainment, and reveals the ways in which health and socioeconomic background simultaneously and dynamically affect opportunities for attainment and mobility. Despite an increasing understanding of the effects of health on social processes, research to date remains limited in its conceptualization and measurement of the temporal dimensions of health, especially in the presence of socioeconomic circumstances that covary with health over time. Guided by life course theory, we use data from the British National Child Development Study, an ongoing panel study of a cohort born in 1958, to examine the association between lifetime health trajectories and socioeconomic attainment in middle age. We apply finite mixture modeling to identify distinct trajectories of health that simultaneously account for timing, duration and stability. Moreover, we employ propensity score weighting models to account for the presence of time-varying socioeconomic factors in estimating the impact of health trajectories. We find that, when poor health is limited to the childhood years, the disadvantage in socioeconomic attainment relative to being continuously healthy is either insignificant or largely explained by time-varying socioeconomic confounders. The socioeconomic impact of continuously deteriorating health over the life course is more persistent, however. Our results suggest that accounting for the timing, duration and stability of poor health throughout both childhood and adulthood is important for understanding how health works to produce social stratification. In addition, the findings highlight the importance of distinguishing between confounding and mediating effects of time-varying socioeconomic circumstances. PMID:26463537

  13. Intelligence, Socioeconomic Background, Emotional Capacity, and Level of Education as Predictors of Attained Socioeconomic Position in a Cohort of Swedish Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorjonen, Kimmo; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Lundin, Andreas; Falkstedt, Daniel; Melin, Bo

    2012-01-01

    The question whether a person's attained socioeconomic position is mainly due to hers/his intelligence, socioeconomic background, or level of education, has sparked some controversy. In the present study, the effects of these three variables, as well as emotional capacity, on attained occupational position and on income were analyzed with…

  14. The Effects of Community Colleges: Aid or Hindrance to Socioeconomic Attainment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Kevin

    Focusing on the controversy over whether community colleges aid or hinder their students' socioeconomic attainment, this paper aims to definitively determine the effects of these institutions and to explore how they produce those effects. The first section critically synthesizes research comparing the community college and other postsecondary…

  15. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Adult Obesity Prevalence in South Africa: A Decomposition Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alaba, Olufunke; Chola, Lumbwe

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in obesity in low and middle income countries. However, there is limited research in these countries showing the prevalence and determinants of obesity. In this study, we examine the socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among South African adults. We use nationally representative data from the South Africa National Income Dynamic Survey of 2008 to: (1) construct an asset index using multiple correspondence analyses (MCA) as a proxy for socioeconomic status; (2) estimate concentration indices (CI) to measure socioeconomic inequalities in obesity; and (3) perform a decomposition analysis to determine the factors that contribute to socioeconomic related inequalities. Consistent with other studies, we find that women are more obese than men. The findings show that obesity inequalities exist in South Africa. Rich men are more likely to be obese than their poorer counterparts with a concentration index of 0.27. Women on the other hand have similar obesity patterns, regardless of socioeconomic status with CI of 0.07. The results of the decomposition analysis suggest that asset index contributes positively and highly to socio-economic inequality in obesity among females; physical exercise contributes negatively to the socio-economic inequality. In the case of males, educational attainment and asset index contributed more to socio-economic inequalities in obesity. Our findings suggest that focusing on economically well-off men and all women across socioeconomic status is one way to address the obesity problem in South Africa. PMID:24662998

  16. Pathways from childhood abuse and other adversities to adult health risks: The role of adult socioeconomic conditions.

    PubMed

    Font, Sarah A; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including child abuse, have been linked with poor health outcomes in adulthood. The mechanisms that explain these relations are less understood. This study assesses whether associations of ACEs and health risks are mediated by adult socioeconomic conditions, and whether these pathways are different for maltreatment than for other types of adversities. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2012 survey (N=29,229), we employ structural equation modeling to (1) estimate associations of the number and type of ACEs with five health risks-depression, obesity, tobacco use, binge drinking, and self-reported sub-optimal health; and (2) assess whether adult socioeconomic conditions-marriage, divorce and separation, educational attainment, income and insurance status-mediate those associations. Findings suggest both direct and indirect associations between ACEs and health risks. At high numbers of ACEs, 15-20% of the association between number of ACEs and adult health risks was attributable to socioeconomic conditions. Associations of three ACEs (exposure to domestic violence, parental divorce, and residing with a person who was incarcerated) with health risks were nearly entirely explained by socioeconomic conditions in adulthood. However, child physical, emotional, and sexual abuse were significantly associated with several adult health risks, beyond the effects of other adversities, and socioeconomic conditions explained only a small portion of these associations. These findings suggest that the pathways to poor adult health differ by types of ACEs, and that childhood abuse is more likely than other adversities to have a direct impact.

  17. Cumulative childhood adversity, educational attainment, and active life expectancy among U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Montez, Jennifer Karas; Hayward, Mark D

    2014-04-01

    Studies of the early-life origins of adult physical functioning and mortality have found that childhood health and socioeconomic context are important predictors, often irrespective of adult experiences. However, these studies have generally assessed functioning and mortality as distinct processes and used cross-sectional prevalence estimates that neglect the interplay of disability incidence, recovery, and mortality. Here, we examine whether early-life disadvantages both shorten lives and increase the number and fraction of years lived with functional impairment. We also examine the degree to which educational attainment mediates and moderates the health consequences of early-life disadvantages. Using the 1998-2008 Health and Retirement Study, we examine these questions for non-Hispanic whites and blacks aged 50-100 years using multistate life tables. Within levels of educational attainment, adults from disadvantaged childhoods lived fewer total and active years, and spent a greater portion of life impaired compared with adults from advantaged childhoods. Higher levels of education did not ameliorate the health consequences of disadvantaged childhoods. However, because education had a larger impact on health than did childhood socioeconomic context, adults from disadvantaged childhoods who achieved high education levels often had total and active life expectancies that were similar to or better than those of adults from advantaged childhoods who achieved low education levels.

  18. Lower Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status Associated with Reduced Diversity of the Colonic Microbiota in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gregory E; Engen, Phillip A; Gillevet, Patrick M; Shaikh, Maliha; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Forsyth, Christopher B; Mutlu, Ece; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, there are persistent and widening socioeconomic gaps in morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases. Although most disparities research focuses on person-level socioeconomic-status, mounting evidence suggest that chronic diseases also pattern by the demographic characteristics of neighborhoods. Yet the biological mechanisms underlying these associations are poorly understood. There is increasing recognition that chronic diseases share common pathogenic features, some of which involve alterations in the composition, diversity, and functioning of the gut microbiota. This study examined whether socioeconomic-status was associated with alpha-diversity of the colonic microbiota. Forty-four healthy adults underwent un-prepped sigmoidoscopy, during which mucosal biopsies and fecal samples were collected. Subjects' zip codes were geocoded, and census data was used to form a composite indicator of neighborhood socioeconomic-status, reflecting household income, educational attainment, employment status, and home value. In unadjusted analyses, neighborhood socioeconomic-status explained 12-18 percent of the variability in alpha-diversity of colonic microbiota. The direction of these associations was positive, meaning that as neighborhood socioeconomic-status increased, so did alpha-diversity of both the colonic sigmoid mucosa and fecal microbiota. The strength of these associations persisted when models were expanded to include covariates reflecting potential demographic (age, gender, race/ethnicity) and lifestyle (adiposity, alcohol use, smoking) confounds. In these models neighborhood socioeconomic-status continued to explain 11-22 percent of the variability in diversity indicators. Further analyses suggested these patterns reflected socioeconomic variations in evenness, but not richness, of microbial communities residing in the sigmoid. We also found indications that residence in neighborhoods of higher socioeconomic-status was associated with a

  19. Lower Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status Associated with Reduced Diversity of the Colonic Microbiota in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Gregory E.; Engen, Phillip A.; Gillevet, Patrick M.; Shaikh, Maliha; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Mutlu, Ece; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, there are persistent and widening socioeconomic gaps in morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases. Although most disparities research focuses on person-level socioeconomic-status, mounting evidence suggest that chronic diseases also pattern by the demographic characteristics of neighborhoods. Yet the biological mechanisms underlying these associations are poorly understood. There is increasing recognition that chronic diseases share common pathogenic features, some of which involve alterations in the composition, diversity, and functioning of the gut microbiota. This study examined whether socioeconomic-status was associated with alpha-diversity of the colonic microbiota. Forty-four healthy adults underwent un-prepped sigmoidoscopy, during which mucosal biopsies and fecal samples were collected. Subjects’ zip codes were geocoded, and census data was used to form a composite indicator of neighborhood socioeconomic-status, reflecting household income, educational attainment, employment status, and home value. In unadjusted analyses, neighborhood socioeconomic-status explained 12–18 percent of the variability in alpha-diversity of colonic microbiota. The direction of these associations was positive, meaning that as neighborhood socioeconomic-status increased, so did alpha-diversity of both the colonic sigmoid mucosa and fecal microbiota. The strength of these associations persisted when models were expanded to include covariates reflecting potential demographic (age, gender, race/ethnicity) and lifestyle (adiposity, alcohol use, smoking) confounds. In these models neighborhood socioeconomic-status continued to explain 11–22 percent of the variability in diversity indicators. Further analyses suggested these patterns reflected socioeconomic variations in evenness, but not richness, of microbial communities residing in the sigmoid. We also found indications that residence in neighborhoods of higher socioeconomic-status was associated with

  20. Enduring links from childhood mathematics and reading achievement to adult socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Stuart J; Bates, Timothy C

    2013-07-01

    Understanding the determinants of socioeconomic status (SES) is an important economic and social goal. Several major influences on SES are known, yet much of the variance in SES remains unexplained. In a large, population-representative sample from the United Kingdom, we tested the effects of mathematics and reading achievement at age 7 on attained SES by age 42. Mathematics and reading ability both had substantial positive associations with adult SES, above and beyond the effects of SES at birth, and with other important factors, such as intelligence. Achievement in mathematics and reading was also significantly associated with intelligence scores, academic motivation, and duration of education. These findings suggest effects of improved early mathematics and reading on SES attainment across the life span.

  1. Socioeconomic Status and Physical Activity in Chinese Adults: A Report from a Community-Based Survey in Jiaxing, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mingling; Wu, Yikang; Narimatsu, Hiroto; Li, Xueqing; Wang, Chunmei; Luo, Jianyong; Zhao, Genming; Chen, Zhongwen; Xu, Wanghong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study examines the associations of socioeconomic status (SES) with intensity of different types of physical activity (PA) in Chinese adults, aimed at outlining and projecting socioeconomic disparities in PA among the population undergoing a rapid nutrition transition. Methods A community-based survey was conducted among 3,567 residents aged 30–65 years old in Jiaxing, China, in 2010. SES and PA were assessed by a structured questionnaire. SES was assessed as socioeconomic index (SEI) score based on self-reported educational attainment, household income and occupation. Metabolic equivalents (METs) were calculated for each subject to quantify the total amount of PA from occupation, exercise, transportation and housework. Results Intensity of overall PA in this population was 165 MET-hours/week, in which energy expenditure in occupational PA accounted for 82%. Both types and intensity of PA were significantly different by SES: middle SES groups had higher intensity of occupational activities; lower SES subjects engaged in more household work; whereas higher SES subjects were more likely to exercise, more active during commuting and had longer sedentary time. All the three components of SES, education attainment, income and occupation, contributed to socioeconomic disparities in PA in this population. Conclusions Our results suggest an overall insufficiency and socioeconomic inequalities in PA among Chinese adults in Jiaxing, a typical city experiencing a rapid urbanization in China. There is an urgent need to promote leisure-time activities in this population. PMID:26177205

  2. Child and adolescent labor, socioeconomic status, and reduced adult height.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Rosa Amélia; Santana, Vilma Sousa

    2010-01-01

    This population-based cross-sectional study of 3262 individuals aged 18 to 65 years from Aracaju, Brazil investigates the effects of child/adolescent labor (CAL) experience on adult height, considering gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and skin color. We hypothesized that the younger children are at their first job, the greater the negative effects will be on their later growth as adults. Child/adolescent laborers reported having paid jobs before 14 years of age. Among males in the low and medium SES strata, CAL experience was negatively associated with adult height independent of skin color; among females, this inverse association was observed for those in the low and high SES strata. Among males in the low and medium SES strata, there was a linear inverse relation between age at first job and adult height. CAL could reduce height in adulthood, suggesting a need for programs that reduce the impact of CAL on future physical development.

  3. Socioeconomic Costs of Overweight and Obesity in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jae Heon; Cho, Young Gyu; Song, Hye Ryoung; Kim, Kyung A

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity in a sample of Korean adults aged 20 yr and older in 2005. The socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity include direct costs (inpatient care, outpatient care and medication) and indirect costs (loss of productivity due to premature deaths and inpatient care, time costs, traffic costs and nursing fees). Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, ischemic heart disease, stroke, colon cancer and osteoarthritis were selected as obesity-related diseases. The population attributable fraction (PAF) of obesity was calculated from national representative data of Korea such as the National Health Insurance Corporation (NHIC) cohort data and the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data. Direct costs of overweight and obesity were estimated at approximately U$1,081 million equivalent (men: U$497 million, women: U$584 million) and indirect costs were estimated at approximately U$706 million (men: U$527 million, women: U$178 million). The estimated total socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity were approximately U$1,787 million (men: U$1,081 million, women: U$706 million). These total costs represented about 0.22% of the gross domestic product (GDP) and 3.7% of the national health care expenditures in 2005. We found the socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity in Korean adults aged 20 yr and older are substantial. In order to control the socioeconomic burden attributable to overweight and obesity, effective national strategies for prevention and management of obesity should be established and implemented. PMID:22147988

  4. Unevenly distributed: a systematic review of the health literature about socioeconomic inequalities in adult obesity in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a growing literature documenting socioeconomic inequalities in obesity risk among adults in the UK, with poorer groups suffering higher risk. Methods In this systematic review, we summarize and appraise the extant peer-reviewed literature about socioeconomic inequalities in adult obesity risk in the UK published between 1980 and 2010. Only studies featuring empirical assessments of relations between socioeconomic indicators and measures of obesity among adults in the UK were included. Results A total of 35 articles met inclusion criteria, and were reviewed here. Conclusion Socioeconomic indicators of low socioeconomic position (SEP), including occupational social class of the head-of-household at birth and during childhood, earlier adulthood occupational social class, contemporaneous occupational social class, educational attainment, and area-level deprivation were generally inversely associated with adult obesity risk in the UK. Measures of SEP were more predictive of obesity among women than among men. We outline important methodological limitations to the literature and recommend avenues for future research. PMID:22230643

  5. The Socioeconomic Impact of Hearing Loss in US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Emmett, Susan D.; Francis, Howard W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the associations between hearing loss and educational attainment, income, and unemployment/underemployment in US adults. Study design National cross-sectional survey. Setting Ambulatory examination centers. Patients Adults aged 20-69 years who participated in the 1999-2002 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) audiometric evaluation and income questionnaire (n = 3379). Intervention(s) Pure tone audiometry, with hearing loss defined by World Health Organization criteria of bilateral pure tone average >25 decibels (0.5,1,2,4 kHz). Main outcome measure(s) Low educational attainment, defined as not completing high school; low income, defined as family income less than $20,000/year, and unemployment or underemployment, defined as not having a job or working less than 35 hours per week. Results Individuals with hearing loss had 3.21 times higher odds of low educational attainment (95% CI: 2.20-4.68) compared to normal-hearing individuals. Controlling for education, age, sex, and race, individuals with hearing loss had 1.58 times higher odds of low income (95% CI: 1.16-2.15) and 1.98 times higher odds of being unemployed or underemployed (95% CI: 1.38-2.85) compared to normal-hearing individuals. Conclusions Hearing loss is associated with low educational attainment in US adults. Even after controlling for education and important demographic factors, hearing loss is independently associated with economic hardship, including both low income and unemployment/underemployment. The societal impact of hearing loss is profound in this nationally representative study and should be further evaluated with longitudinal cohorts. PMID:25158616

  6. Childhood socioeconomic status and race are associated with adult sleep.

    PubMed

    Tomfohr, Lianne M; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Dimsdale, Joel E

    2010-01-01

    Race and current socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with sleep. Parental education, a commonly studied component of childhood SES, is predictive of adult health outcomes; yet, its impact on adult sleep remains unclear. In this study, the sleep of 128 Black and White adults was investigated. Participants with lower childhood SES (assessed via parental education) spent more time in Stage 2 sleep and less time in slow-wave sleep (SWS) than those with higher childhood SES. In addition, women from low childhood SES backgrounds took longer to fall asleep than women from high SES backgrounds. Black participants spent less time in SWS than their White counterparts, and an Age × Race interaction was detected in the prediction of subjective sleep quality. Results were not mediated via current SES or health practices.

  7. Socio-Economic Determinants of the Need for Dental Care in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Trohel, Gilda; Bertaud-Gounot, Valérie; Soler, Marion; Chauvin, Pierre; Grimaud, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral health has improved in France. However, there are still inequalities related to the socio-economic status. Objectives The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of dental care needs in an adult population and to identify the demographic, socio-economic and behavioral variables that may explain variations in this parameter. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of the French SIRS cohort (n = 2,997 adults from the Paris region; 2010 data) was carried out to determine the prevalence of self-reported dental care needs relative to demographic, socio-economic and behavioral variables. A logistic regression model was used to identify the variables that were most strongly associated with the level of need. Results In 2010, the prevalence of the need for dental care in the SIRS cohort was 35.0% (95% CI [32.3–37.8]). It was lower in people with higher education levels (31.3% [27.9–34.6]), without immigrant background (31.3% [28.0–34.6]) and with comprehensive health insurance (social security + complementary health cover; 32.8% [30.2–35.4]). It decreased as the socio-economic status increased, but without following a strict linear change. It was also lower among individuals who had a dental check-up visit in the previous two years. In multivariate analyses, the socioeconomic variables most strongly associated with the need for dental care were: educational attainment (OR = 1.21 [1.02–1.44]), income level (OR = 1.66 [1.92–2.12]) and national origin (OR = 1.53 [1.26–1.86]). Conclusion These results confirm that the prevalence of dental care needs is higher among adults with low socio-economic status. Education level, income level and also national origin were more strongly associated with the need for dental care than insurance cover level. PMID:27441841

  8. Childhood socioeconomic status amplifies genetic effects on adult intelligence.

    PubMed

    Bates, Timothy C; Lewis, Gary J; Weiss, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    Studies of intelligence in children reveal significantly higher heritability among groups with high socioeconomic status (SES) than among groups with low SES. These interaction effects, however, have not been examined in adults, when between-families environmental effects are reduced. Using 1,702 adult twins (aged 24-84) for whom intelligence assessment data were available, we tested for interactions between childhood SES and genetic effects, between-families environmental effects, and unique environmental effects. Higher SES was associated with higher mean intelligence scores. Moreover, the magnitude of genetic influences on intelligence was proportional to SES. By contrast, environmental influences were constant. These results suggest that rather than setting lower and upper bounds on intelligence, genes multiply environmental inputs that support intellectual growth. This mechanism implies that increasing SES may raise average intelligence but also magnifies individual differences in intelligence.

  9. The Impact of Socio-Economic Status on Participation and Attainment in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen; See, Beng Huat

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we combine the findings from two recent studies relating to participation and attainment in school science --a re-analysis of existing official data for England and a review of wider international research evidence in the literature relevant to the UK. Although the secondary data are drawn mainly from England, the comprehensiveness…

  10. Health Selection and the Process of Social Stratification: The Effect of Childhood Health on Socioeconomic Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Steven A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates whether childhood health acts as a mechanism through which socioeconomic status is transferred across generations. The study uses data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to track siblings and to estimate fixed-effects models that account for unobserved heterogeneity at the family level. The results demonstrate that…

  11. The Implications of Adult Identity for Educational and Work Attainment in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Janel E.; Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Elder, Glen H., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relation of young adult identities (ages 18-22 years), reflecting subjective age and psychosocial maturity, to educational and career attainment in young adulthood (ages 25-29 years). Add Health data show that having an older subjective age alone does not curtail attainment; the critical issue is the level of…

  12. Socioeconomic Disparity in Inpatient Mortality Following Traumatic Injury in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mays T.; Hui, Xuan; Hashmi, Zain G.; Dhiman, Nitasha; Scott, Valerie K.; Efron, David; Schneider, Eric B.; Haider, Adil H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior studies have demonstrated that race and insurance status predict inpatient trauma mortality, but have been limited by their inability to adjust for direct measures of socioeconomic status (SES) and comorbidities. Our study aims to identify whether a relationship exists between SES and inpatient trauma mortality, after adjusting for known confounders. Methods Trauma patients aged 18–65 years with Injury Severity Scores (ISS) ≥ 9 were identified using the 2003–2009 Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Median household income (MHI) by zip code, available by quartiles, was used to measure SES. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to determine odds of inpatient mortality by MHI quartile, adjusting for ISS, type of injury, comorbidities, and patient demographics. Results 267,621 patients met inclusion criteria. Patients in lower wealth quartiles had significantly higher unadjusted inpatient mortality compared with the wealthiest quartile. Adjusted odds of death were also higher compared with the wealthiest quartile for Q1 (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.06–1.20), Q2 (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02–1.17), and Q3 (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.04–1.19). Conclusions Median household income predicts inpatient mortality after adult trauma, even after adjusting for race, insurance status, and comorbidities. Efforts to mitigate trauma disparities should address SES as an independent predictor of outcomes. PMID:23972652

  13. Diet quality in older age: the influence of childhood and adult socio-economic circumstances.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Janice L; Ramsay, Sheena E; Whincup, Peter H; Morris, Richard W; Lennon, Lucy T; Wannamethee, S Goya

    2015-05-14

    Socio-economic gradients in diet quality are well established. However, the influence of material socio-economic conditions particularly in childhood, and the use of multiple disaggregated socio-economic measures on diet quality have been little studied in the elderly. In the present study, we examined childhood and adult socio-economic measures, and social relationships, as determinants of diet quality cross-sectionally in 4252 older British men (aged 60-79 years). A FFQ provided data on daily fruit and vegetable consumption and the Elderly Dietary Index (EDI), with higher scores indicating better diet quality. Adult and childhood socio-economic measures included occupation/father's occupation, education and household amenities, which combined to create composite scores. Social relationships included social contact, living arrangements and marital status. Both childhood and adult socio-economic factors were independently associated with diet quality. Compared with non-manual social class, men of childhood manual social class were less likely to consume fruit and vegetables daily (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.66, 0.97), as were men of adult manual social class (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.54, 0.79), and less likely to be in the top EDI quartile (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.61, 0.88), similar to men of adult manual social class (OR 0.66, 95 % CI 0.55, 0.79). Diet quality decreased with increasing adverse adult socio-economic scores; however, the association with adverse childhood socio-economic scores diminished with adult social class adjustment. A combined adverse childhood and adulthood socio-economic score was associated with poor diet quality. Diet quality was most favourable in married men and those not living alone, but was not associated with social contact. Diet quality in older men is influenced by childhood and adulthood socio-economic factors, marital status and living arrangements.

  14. Child Maltreatment and Adult Socioeconomic Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zielinski, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Little empirical research has examined the impact that child maltreatment may have on victims' long-term socioeconomic well-being. The current study sought to address this gap by exploring the relationship between childhood experiences of abuse and neglect and several indicators of socioeconomic well-being in adulthood. Method: Data…

  15. The Effects of Individual Characteristics, Socioeconomic Status, and Political Engagement on the Attainment of Student Leadership Roles in Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ching-Ling; Bao, Wei

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the effects of individual characteristics, socioeconomic status, and political engagement among Chinese university students with respect to their attainment of student leadership roles. The study investigated 10,930 students from elite Chinese universities. The results showed that female and only-child students were more likely…

  16. The Attainment of Conservation of Mass, Weight, and Volume in Minimally Educated Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Avis J. Ruthven

    The purpose was to determine whether different levels of education, race, and sex affect the degree of conservation of mass, weight, and volume attained by minimally educated adults. Subjects were 30 white and 30 black females and 30 white and 30 black males enrolled in Adult Basic Education classes, with 40 subjects each at grade levels 0-3, 4-6,…

  17. General Education Development (GED®) Credential Attainment, Externalizing Disorders, and Substance Use Disorders in Disconnected Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Andrea; Kong, Grace; Pope, Alice

    2014-01-01

    There are many benefits for emerging adults, both financial and personal, in obtaining a General Education Development (GED®) credential (Ou, 2008). However, little is known about the correlates of GED® credential attainment in "disconnected" emerging adults attending GED® programs. Our goal was to examine whether externalizing…

  18. Socio-economic status and body mass index in low-income Mexican adults

    PubMed Central

    Fernald, Lia

    2007-01-01

    The study reported here explored the associations of body mass index (BMI), socio-economic status (SES), and beverage consumption in a very low income population. A house-to-house survey was conducted in 2003 of 12,873 Mexican adults. The sample was designed to be representative of the poorest communities in seven of Mexico’s thirty-one states. Greater educational attainment was significantly associated with higher BMI and a greater prevalence of overweight (25≤BMI<30) and obesity (30≤BMI) in men and women. The combined prevalence of overweight and obesity was over 70% in women over the median age of 35.4 years old with at least some primary education compared with a prevalence of 45% in women below the median age with no education. BMI was positively correlated with five of the six SES variables in both sexes: education, occupation, quality of housing conditions, household assets, and subjective social status. BMI and household income were significantly correlated in women but not in men. In the model including all SES variables, education, occupation, housing conditions and household assets all contributed independently and significantly to BMI, and household income and subjective social status did not. Increased consumption of alcoholic and carbonated sugar beverages was associated with higher SES and higher BMI in men and women. Thus, in spite of the narrow range of socio-economic variability in this population, the increased consumption of high calorie beverages may explain the positive relationship between SES and BMI. The positive associations between SES and BMI in this low-income, rural population are likely to be related to the changing patterns of food availability, food composition, consumption patterns and cultural factors. Contextually sensitive population-level interventions are critically needed to address obesity and overweight in poor populations, particularly in older women. PMID:17368895

  19. The implications of adult identity for educational and work attainment in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Benson, Janel E; Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Elder, Glen H

    2012-11-01

    This study investigates the relation of young adult identities (ages 18-22 years), reflecting subjective age and psychosocial maturity, to educational and career attainment in young adulthood (ages 25-29 years). Add Health data show that having an older subjective age alone does not curtail attainment; the critical issue is the level of psychosocial maturity that accompanies subjective age. Those with older subjective ages and low psychosocial maturation have the lowest attainment at ages 25-29 years, while those with older subjective ages and high psychosocial maturation show considerable progress toward work-related attainment. For those with younger subjective ages, a lower level of psychosocial maturity is not as detrimental to attainment. PMID:22103305

  20. Educational attainment and adult literacy: A descriptive account of 31 Sub-Saharan Africa countries

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Greenaway, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Background More than 60 years ago the international community declared literacy a basic human right. Recognition of its intrinsic value and evidence of its social and economic benefits have motivated an expansive international effort to estimate the percentage of adults that can read, especially in low-income countries where educational opportunities are limited. Population data on adults' educational attainment is commonly used to approximate adult literacy rates. Though increasing evidence from school-based studies of pupils confirm literacy achievement is not universal - even at advanced grades - it remains unclear whether adults' educational attainment is reflective of their literacy. Objective This study leverages population-based data that include direct assessments of adults' literacy skills to provide a descriptive account of the proportion of adults that can read at each level of educational attainment. The study focuses on the Sub-Saharan African context, a world region where school participation has expanded rapidly in the last three decades. Because many African adults have discontinued their education at the primary level, the study focuses on basic reading skills at each level of primary school. The study focuses specifically on women, whose literacy has garnered extensive international interest. Results Demographic and Health Survey data from 31 African countries confirm that there are many instances in which women have several years of primary school but cannot read. In fact, in some countries, large proportions of African women who never went to school can read, even as some of their peers who have completed primary school cannot. The weak correlation between educational attainment and literacy is not specific to older cohorts of women, but is also observed among younger women. Conclusion The findings demonstrate that educational attainment is generally a poor proxy for literacy, highlighting the need to measure, theorize, and study literacy as

  1. Adults Engaged in Lifelong Learning in Taiwan: Analysis by Gender and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Dian-Fu; Wu, Ming-Lieh; Lin, Sung-Po

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the nature of adult engagement in lifelong learning in Taiwan. Previous studies have shown that gender and socioeconomic status (SES) are key variables related to equal access to education. Are these variables related to adults' engagement in lifelong learning in a specific country? This study analysed data from a survey of…

  2. Early-Childhood Poverty and Adult Attainment, Behavior, and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.; Kalil, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses the consequences of poverty between a child's prenatal year and 5th birthday for several adult achievement, health, and behavior outcomes, measured as late as age 37. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1,589) and controlling for economic conditions in middle childhood and adolescence, as well as demographic…

  3. Adolescents' Cognitive "Habitus", Learning Environments, Affective Outcomes of Schooling, and Young Adults' Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marjoribanks, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    A moderation-mediation model was constructed to examine relationships among adolescents' cognitive "habitus" (their cognitive dispositions), learning environments, affective outcomes of schooling, and young adults' educational attainment. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal survey of Australian youth (4,171 females, 3,718 males). The…

  4. Childhood (Mis)Fortune, Educational Attainment, and Adult Health: Contingent Benefits of a College Degree?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Markus H.; Wilkinson, Lindsay R.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2013-01-01

    College-educated adults are healthier than other people in the United States, but selection bias complicates our understanding of how education influences health. This article focuses on the possibility that the health benefits of college may vary according to childhood (mis)fortune and people's propensity to attain a college degree in the first…

  5. The Indirect Influence of Educational Attainment on Loneliness among Unmarried Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Alex J.; Martin, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This investigation examined the indirect influence of past educational attainment on current feelings of loneliness across a sample of unmarried older adults. Participants in this study included 227 community-dwelling individuals, age 65 to 94, who were never-married, divorced, or widowed. The developmental adaptation model (Martin & Martin, 2002)…

  6. Examining the Racial Crossover in Mortality between African American and White Older Adults: A Multilevel Survival Analysis of Race, Individual Socioeconomic Status, and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Context.

    PubMed

    Yao, Li; Robert, Stephanie A

    2011-01-01

    We examine whether individual and neighborhood socioeconomic context contributes to black/white disparities in mortality among USA older adults. Using national longitudinal data from the Americans' Changing Lives study, along with census tract information for each respondent, we conduct multilevel survival analyses. Results show that black older adults are disadvantaged in mortality in younger old age, but older black adults have lower mortality risk than whites after about age 80. Both individual SES and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage contribute to the mortality risk of older adults but do not completely explain race differences in mortality. The racial mortality crossover persists even after controlling for multilevel SES, suggesting that black older adults experience selective survival at very old ages. Addressing the individual and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage of blacks is necessary to reduce mortality disparities that culminate in older adulthood.

  7. Socioeconomic Disparities in Emerging Adult Weight and Weight Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanKim, Nicole A.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore weight, weight behaviors, and tobacco and alcohol use among emerging adults by parental education and financial strain. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of 2010 survey data from an urban Minnesota public 4-year university and 2-year community college (n=1201). Results: Low parental education was associated with lower…

  8. The Influence of Gender, Race, and Socioeconomic Status on Ability Change in Young Adults. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawis, Rene V.; Sung, Yong H.

    The Ball Aptitude Battery (BAB) is a multiple ability test battery of specific work skills for use in career counseling. This study reports on ability changes by gender, race, and socioeconomic status in a BAB retest of 112 young adults four years after their initial testing. The sample consisted of 68 females and 44 males; 15 Blacks, 21…

  9. Socioeconomic Risk Factors for Asthma in Chilean Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Corvalán, Camila; Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia; Rona, Roberto J.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We studied the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and asthma symptoms, severity of asthma, atopy, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) to methacholine. Methods. We studied 1232 men and women born between 1974 and 1978 in a semirural area of Chile. We assessed asthma symptoms with a standardized questionnaire, atopy with a skin-prick test to 8 allergens, and BHR to methacholine with the tidal breathing method. SES was derived from several indicators: education, occupation, completion of a welfare form, belongings, housing, number of siblings, and overcrowding. Results. Those with fewer belongings had more asthma symptoms. Those who had higher education and those who owned cars had fewer asthma symptoms and BHR. Overcrowding was negatively related to atopy, atopy with asthma symptoms, and BHR. Higher education and noncompletion of a welfare form were risk factors for atopy. Conclusion. The strength and direction of the association between asthma and SES depended on what definition of asthma was analyzed. Asthma symptoms were more common among poor people. There was some support for the hygiene hypothesis, as overcrowding was associated with less wheezing with atopy, less atopy, and less BHR. PMID:15985644

  10. Socioeconomic Determinants of Adult Mortality in Namibia Using an Event History Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kandjimbi, Alina; Nickanor, Ndeyapo; Kazembe, Lawrence N

    2014-01-01

    Adult mortality remains a neglected public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa, with most policy instruments concentrated on child and maternal health. In developed countries, adult mortality is negatively associated with socioeconomic factors. A similar pattern is expected in developing countries, but has not been extensively demonstrated, because of dearth of data. Understanding the hazard and factors associated with adult mortality is crucial for informing policies and for implementation of interventions aimed at improving adult survival. This paper applied a geo-additive survival model to elucidate effects of socioeconomic factors on adult mortality in Namibia, controlling for spatial frailties. Results show a clear disadvantage for adults in rural areas, for those not married and from poor households or in female-headed households. The hazard of adult mortality was highly variable with a 1.5-fold difference between areas, with highest hazard recorded in north eastern, central west and southern west parts of the country. The analysis emphasizes that, for Namibia to achieve its national development goals, targeted interventions should be aimed at poor-resourced adults, particularly in high-risk areas. PMID:26208512

  11. Trades-Related Post-Secondary Educational Attainment among Immigrant and Canadian-Born Young Adults in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hira-Friesen, Parvinder Kaur; Haan, Michael; Krahn, Harvey

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines trades-related and university educational attainment (by age 25) of immigrant and Canadian-born Alberta youth while controlling for gender, family socio-economic status, high school grades, and parental encouragement regarding higher education. Data from the longitudinal Alberta School-Work Transitions Study (1996-2003) reveal…

  12. Clinical and socioeconomic impact of seasonal and pandemic influenza in adults and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, Roberto; Amicizia, Daniela; Lai, Piero Luigi; Panatto, Donatella

    2012-01-01

    Influenza epidemics and pandemics carry a heavy socioeconomic burden. Hospitalization and treatment are more often necessary in high-risk patients, such as the elderly. However, the impact of influenza is not negligible even in adults, mainly because of lost productivity. The World Health Organization estimates that seasonal influenza causes 250,000-500,000 deaths worldwide each year; however, mortality may be very high in pandemic periods. Many estimates of the costs of seasonal influenza have been made in various socioeconomic contexts. For instance, among the adult population in Italy, a cost of €940.39 per case has been estimated. In the US, the average annual influenza burden in 18-49-y-old adults without underlying medical conditions is judged to include approximately 32,000 hospitalizations and 680 deaths. Estimating the influenza burden is a useful aid to determining the best influenza vaccination strategy and preventive and clinical treatments.

  13. Socioeconomic and behavioral risk factors for mortality in a national 19-year prospective study of U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Lantz, Paula M; Golberstein, Ezra; House, James S; Morenoff, Jeffrey

    2010-05-01

    Many demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral risk factors predict mortality in the United States. However, very few population-based longitudinal studies are able to investigate simultaneously the impact of a variety of social factors on mortality. We investigated the degree to which demographic characteristics, socioeconomic variables and major health risk factors were associated with mortality in a nationally-representative sample of 3617 U.S. adults from 1986 to 2005, using data from the 4 waves of the Americans' Changing Lives study. Cox proportional hazard models with time-varying covariates were employed to predict all-cause mortality verified through the National Death Index and death certificate review. The results revealed that low educational attainment was not associated with mortality when income and health risk behaviors were included in the model. The association of low income with mortality remained after controlling for major behavioral risks. Compared to those in the "normal" weight category, neither overweight nor obesity was significantly associated with the risk of mortality. Among adults age 55 and older at baseline, the risk of mortality was actually reduced for those were overweight (hazard rate ratio = 0.83) and those who were obese (hazard rate ratio = 0.68), controlling for other health risk behaviors and health status. Having a low level of physical activity was a significant risk factor for mortality (hazard rate ratio = 1.58). The results from this national longitudinal study underscore the need for health policies and clinical interventions focusing on the social and behavioral determinants of health, with a particular focus on income security, smoking prevention/cessation, and physical activity.

  14. Polygenic scores associated with educational attainment in adults predict educational achievement and ADHD symptoms in children.

    PubMed

    de Zeeuw, Eveline L; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Glasner, Tina J; Bartels, M; Ehli, Erik A; Davies, Gareth E; Hudziak, James J; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; de Geus, Eco J C; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2014-09-01

    The American Psychiatric Association estimates that 3 to 7 per cent of all school aged children are diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Even after correcting for general cognitive ability, numerous studies report a negative association between ADHD and educational achievement. With polygenic scores we examined whether genetic variants that have a positive influence on educational attainment have a protective effect against ADHD. The effect sizes from a large GWA meta-analysis of educational attainment in adults were used to calculate polygenic scores in an independent sample of 12-year-old children from the Netherlands Twin Register. Linear mixed models showed that the polygenic scores significantly predicted educational achievement, school performance, ADHD symptoms and attention problems in children. These results confirm the genetic overlap between ADHD and educational achievement, indicating that one way to gain insight into genetic variants responsible for variation in ADHD is to include data on educational achievement, which are available at a larger scale.

  15. A Systematic Review of Socioeconomic Indicators and Dental Caries in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Simone M.; Martins, Carolina C.; Bonfim, Maria de Lourdes C.; Zina, Lívia G.; Paiva, Saul M.; Pordeus, Isabela A.; Abreu, Mauro H. N. G.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that socioeconomic factors may be associated with an increased risk of dental caries. To provide better evidence of the association between dental caries in adults and socioeconomic indicators, we evaluated the relation between these two conditions in a thorough review of the literature. Seven databases were systematically searched: Pubmed, Cochrane, Web of Science, Bireme, Controlled Trials, Clinical Trials and the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. No restrictions were placed on the language or year of publication. The search yielded 41 studies for systematic review. Two independent reviewers screened the studies for inclusion, extracted data and evaluated quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. The following socioeconomic indicators were found: educational level, income, occupation, socio-economic status and the community index. These indicators were significantly associated with a greater occurrence of dental caries: the subject’s education, subject’s income, subject’s occupation and the Gini coefficient. A high degree of heterogeneity was found among the methods. Quality varied across studies. The criteria employed for socioeconomic indicators and dental caries should be standardized in future studies. The scientific evidence reveals that educational level, income, occupation and the Gini coefficient are associated with dental caries. PMID:23202762

  16. Childhood socioeconomic position and adult leisure-time physical activity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Elhakeem, Ahmed; Cooper, Rachel; Bann, David; Hardy, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Regular leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) benefits health and is thought to be less prevalent in lower socioeconomic groups. Evidence suggests that childhood socioeconomic circumstances can impact on adult health and behaviour however, it is unclear if this includes an influence on adult LTPA. This review tested the hypothesis that a lower childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) is associated with less frequent LTPA during adulthood. Studies were located through a systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus and by searching reference lists. Eligible studies were English-language publications testing the association between any indicator of childhood SEP and an LTPA outcome measured during adulthood. Forty-five papers from 36 studies, most of which were European, were included. In most samples, childhood SEP and LTPA were self-reported in midlife. Twenty-two studies found evidence to support the review's hypothesis and thirteen studies found no association. Accounting for own adult SEP partly attenuated associations. There was more evidence of an association in British compared with Scandinavian cohorts and in women compared with men. Results did not vary by childhood SEP indicator or age at assessment of LTPA. This review found evidence of an association between less advantaged childhood SEP and less frequent LTPA during adulthood. Understanding how associations vary by gender and place could provide insights into underlying pathways.

  17. Childhood socioeconomic position and adult leisure-time physical activity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Elhakeem, Ahmed; Cooper, Rachel; Bann, David; Hardy, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Regular leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) benefits health and is thought to be less prevalent in lower socioeconomic groups. Evidence suggests that childhood socioeconomic circumstances can impact on adult health and behaviour however, it is unclear if this includes an influence on adult LTPA. This review tested the hypothesis that a lower childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) is associated with less frequent LTPA during adulthood. Studies were located through a systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus and by searching reference lists. Eligible studies were English-language publications testing the association between any indicator of childhood SEP and an LTPA outcome measured during adulthood. Forty-five papers from 36 studies, most of which were European, were included. In most samples, childhood SEP and LTPA were self-reported in midlife. Twenty-two studies found evidence to support the review's hypothesis and thirteen studies found no association. Accounting for own adult SEP partly attenuated associations. There was more evidence of an association in British compared with Scandinavian cohorts and in women compared with men. Results did not vary by childhood SEP indicator or age at assessment of LTPA. This review found evidence of an association between less advantaged childhood SEP and less frequent LTPA during adulthood. Understanding how associations vary by gender and place could provide insights into underlying pathways. PMID:26138985

  18. Sex Differences in the Association of Childhood Socioeconomic Status with Adult Blood Pressure Change: The CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Cohen, Sheldon; Matthews, Karen A.; Jacobs, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine sex differences in the relation of childhood socioeconomic status (CSES) to systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure trajectories during 15-years spanning young (30 ± 3 years) and middle (45±3 years) adulthood, independent of adult SES. Method 4077 adult participants reported father’s and mother’s educational attainments at study enrollment (Year 0), and own educational attainment at enrollment and at all follow-up exams. Resting BP also was measured at all exams. Data from exam Years 5 (when participant mean age=30± 3 years), 7, 10, 15, and 20 are examined here. Associations of own adult [Year 5], mother’s, and father’s educations with 15-year BP trajectories were examined in separate multilevel models. Fully controlled models included time-invariant covariates (age, sex, race, recruitment center), and time-varying covariates that were measured at each exam (marital status, body mass, cholesterol, oral contraceptives/hormones, antihypertensives). Parental education analyses controlled for own education. Results When examined without covariates, higher education -- own (SBP γ=−0.03, DBP γ= −0.03), mother’s (SBP γ= −0.02, DBP γ= −0.02), and father’s (SBP γ= −0.02, DBP γ= −0.01) -- were associated with attenuated 15-year increases in BP (p<0.001). Associations of own (but not either parent’s) education with BP trajectories remained independent of standard controls. Sex moderated the apparent null effects of parental education, such that higher parental education–especially mother’s, predicted attenuated BP trajectories independent of standard covariates among women (SBP γ= −.02, p=.02; DBP γ= −.01, p=0.04) but not men (SBP γ=0.02, p=0.06; DBP γ=0.005, p=0.47; p-interaction SBP<0.001, p-interaction DBP=0.01). Conclusion CSES may influence women’s health independent of their own adult status. PMID:22822232

  19. Association between children’s experience of socioeconomic disadvantage and adult health: a life-course study

    PubMed Central

    Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom; Milne, Barry J.; Thomson, W Murray; Taylor, Alan; Sears, Malcolm R.; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Research into social inequalities in health has tended to focus on low socioeconomic status in adulthood. We aimed to test the hypothesis that children’s experience of socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with a wide range of health risk factors and outcomes in adult life. Methods We studied an unselected cohort of 1000 children (born in New Zealand during 1972–73) who had been assessed at birth and ages 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, and 15 years. At age 26 years, we assessed these individuals for health outcomes including body-mass index, waist:hip ratio, blood pressure, cardiorespiratory fitness, dental caries, plaque scores, gingival bleeding, periodontal disease, major depression, and tobacco and alcohol dependence, and tested for associations between these variables and childhood and adult socioeconomic status. Findings Compared with those from high socioeconomic status backgrounds, children who grew up in low socioeconomic status families had poorer cardiovascular health. Significant differences were also found on all dental health measures, with a threefold increase in adult periodontal disease (31·1% vs 11·9%) and caries level (32·2% vs 9·9%) in low versus high childhood socioeconomic status groups. Substance abuse resulting in clinical dependence was related in a similar way to childhood socioeconomic status (eg, 21·5% vs 12·1% for adult alcohol dependence). The longitudinal associations could not be attributed to life-course continuity of low socioeconomic status, and upward mobility did not mitigate or reverse the adverse effects of low childhood socioeconomic status on adult health. Interpretation Protecting children against the effects of socioeconomic adversity could reduce the burden of disease experienced by adults. These findings provide strong impetus for policy makers, practitioners, and researchers to direct energy and resources towards childhood as a way of improving population health. PMID:12457787

  20. Socioeconomic aspects of the circumstances and consequences of car crashes among young adults.

    PubMed

    Hasselberg, Marie; Vaez, Marjan; Laflamme, Lucie

    2005-01-01

    The study examines whether there are socioeconomic differences between young adult car drivers involved in road-traffic crashes with regard to crash-injury severity and crash circumstances. Differences in social patterning based on socioeconomic position (SEP) of origin and of destination, and also the effect of gender, are considered. Subjects born in 1970-1972 were extracted from the Swedish Population and Housing Census of 1985 (n = 329,716). Individual records from the 1985 census were linked to road-traffic data for the period 1988-2000 on the basis of a search for each subject's first police-registered road-traffic crash as a car driver (n = 12,502). Information on household socioeconomic group was taken from the census of 1985, and data on completed education at age 28-30 were gathered from Sweden's Register of Education. Two categories of crash severity were analysed (minor/no injury and severe/fatal injury), and also five crash circumstances (based on a classification of five crash descriptors). Both crash severity and crash circumstances are unequally distributed across social groups among young adult drivers. Social patterning is more pronounced for severe injuries/fatalities, and is consistently so across crash circumstances depending on SEP of destination, particularly for males. Socioeconomic differences are more pronounced for crash circumstances characterised as front-on and overtaking collisions and for single-vehicle crashes (43% of total crashes). In conclusion,the excess risk of young drivers from lower socioeconomic groups is consistent over crash severity but more pronounced as severity increases and for certain crash circumstances. PMID:15587501

  1. Childhood socioeconomic deprivation, but not current mood, is associated with behavioural disinhibition in adults.

    PubMed

    Paál, Tünde; Carpenter, Thomas; Nettle, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence to suggest that impulsivity is predicted by socioeconomic background, with people from more deprived backgrounds tending to be more impulsive, and by current mood, with poorer mood associated with greater impulsivity. However, impulsivity is not a unitary construct, and previous research in this area has focused on measures of 'waiting' impulsivity rather than behavioural disinhibition. We administered a standard measure of behavioural disinhibition, the stop-signal task, to 58 adult participants from a community sample. We had measured socioeconomic background using participant postcode at age 16, and assigned participants to receive either a neutral or a negative mood induction. We found no effects of mood on behavioural disinhibition, but we found a significant effect of socioeconomic background. Participants who had lived in more deprived postcodes at age 16 showed longer stop-signal reaction times, and hence greater behavioural disinhibition. The pattern was independent of participant age and overall reaction time. Though caution is required inferring causality from correlation, it is possible that that experiencing socioeconomic deprivation in childhood and adolescence may lead to greater behavioural disinhibition in adulthood. PMID:26020014

  2. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, perceived neighborhood factors, and cortisol responses to induced stress among healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Barrington, Wendy E; Stafford, Mai; Hamer, Mark; Beresford, Shirley A A; Koepsell, Thomas; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Associations between measures of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and health have been identified, yet work is needed to uncover explanatory mechanisms. One hypothesized pathway is through stress, yet the few studies that have evaluated associations between characteristics of deprived neighborhoods and biomarkers of stress are mixed. This study evaluated whether objectively measured neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and individual perceived neighborhood characteristics (i.e. social control and fear of crime) impacted cortisol responses to an induced stressor among older healthy adults. Data from Heart Scan, a sub-study of the Whitehall II cohort, were used to generate multilevel piecewise growth-curve models of cortisol trajectories after a laboratory stressor accounting for neighborhood and demographic characteristics. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was significantly associated with individual perceptions of social control and fear of crime in the neighborhood while an association with blunted cortisol reactivity was only evidence among women. Social control was significantly associated with greater cortisol reactivity and mediation between neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and cortisol reactivity was suggested among women. These findings support a gender-dependent role of neighborhood in stress process models of health. PMID:24603009

  3. Gender differences in the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and depressive symptoms in older adults.

    PubMed

    Back, Joung Hwan; Lee, Yunhwan

    2011-01-01

    With rapid population aging, increasing attention is given to the mental health of older people. This study examined the association between SES and depressive symptoms in older adults. The study population consisted of a representative community sample of 4165 persons aged 65 and older from Wave 1 of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale was used to measure the extent of depressive symptoms. Socioeconomic indicators included education, household income, and net worth. Analyses were conducted by gender, using multiple linear regression analysis, to identify independent effects of socioeconomic variables on depressive symptoms, controlling for demographics and health-related variables. There was an inverse association between higher levels of socioeconomic factors and depressive symptoms in the study population. A clear difference in the association between depressive symptoms and socioeconomic factors by gender was observed. In the multivariate analysis, wealth was significantly associated with depressive symptoms in men, whereas education and income was so in women. Gender disparities in depressive symptoms across social gradients suggest the need for gender-sensitive investments in health and social services for the disadvantaged segments of the older population.

  4. Childhood socioeconomic deprivation, but not current mood, is associated with behavioural disinhibition in adults

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence to suggest that impulsivity is predicted by socioeconomic background, with people from more deprived backgrounds tending to be more impulsive, and by current mood, with poorer mood associated with greater impulsivity. However, impulsivity is not a unitary construct, and previous research in this area has focused on measures of ‘waiting’ impulsivity rather than behavioural disinhibition. We administered a standard measure of behavioural disinhibition, the stop-signal task, to 58 adult participants from a community sample. We had measured socioeconomic background using participant postcode at age 16, and assigned participants to receive either a neutral or a negative mood induction. We found no effects of mood on behavioural disinhibition, but we found a significant effect of socioeconomic background. Participants who had lived in more deprived postcodes at age 16 showed longer stop-signal reaction times, and hence greater behavioural disinhibition. The pattern was independent of participant age and overall reaction time. Though caution is required inferring causality from correlation, it is possible that that experiencing socioeconomic deprivation in childhood and adolescence may lead to greater behavioural disinhibition in adulthood. PMID:26020014

  5. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, perceived neighborhood factors, and cortisol responses to induced stress among healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Barrington, Wendy E; Stafford, Mai; Hamer, Mark; Beresford, Shirley A A; Koepsell, Thomas; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Associations between measures of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and health have been identified, yet work is needed to uncover explanatory mechanisms. One hypothesized pathway is through stress, yet the few studies that have evaluated associations between characteristics of deprived neighborhoods and biomarkers of stress are mixed. This study evaluated whether objectively measured neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and individual perceived neighborhood characteristics (i.e. social control and fear of crime) impacted cortisol responses to an induced stressor among older healthy adults. Data from Heart Scan, a sub-study of the Whitehall II cohort, were used to generate multilevel piecewise growth-curve models of cortisol trajectories after a laboratory stressor accounting for neighborhood and demographic characteristics. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was significantly associated with individual perceptions of social control and fear of crime in the neighborhood while an association with blunted cortisol reactivity was only evidence among women. Social control was significantly associated with greater cortisol reactivity and mediation between neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and cortisol reactivity was suggested among women. These findings support a gender-dependent role of neighborhood in stress process models of health.

  6. The socioeconomic inequality in traffic-related disability among Chinese adults: the application of concentration index.

    PubMed

    Chen, He; Du, Wei; Li, Ning; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2013-06-01

    Traffic crashes have become the fifth leading cause of burden of diseases and injuries in China. More importantly, it may further aggravate the degree of health inequality among Chinese population, which is still under-investigated. Based on a nationally representative data, we calculated the concentration index (CI) to measure the socioeconomic inequality in traffic-related disability (TRD), and decomposed CI into potential sources of the inequality. Results show that more than 1.5 million Chinese adults were disabled by traffic crashes and the adults with financial disadvantage bear disproportionately heavier burden of TRD. Besides, strategies of reducing income inequality and protecting the safety of poor road users, are of great importance. Residence appears to counteract the socioeconomic inequality in TRD, however, it does not necessarily come to an optimistic conclusion. In addition to the worrying income gap between rural and urban areas, other possible mechanisms, e.g. the low level of post-crash medical resources in rural area, need further studies. China is one of the developing countries undergoing fast motorization and our findings could provide other countries in similar context with some insights about how to maintain socioeconomic equality in road safety.

  7. “I’ll Give You the World”: Socioeconomic Differences in Parental Support of Adult Children

    PubMed Central

    Fingerman, Karen L.; Kim, Kyungmin; Davis, Eden M.; Furstenberg, Frank F.; Birditt, Kira S.; Zarit, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that parents with higher socioeconomic status provide more resources to their children during childhood and adolescence. The authors asked whether similar effects associated with parental socioeconomic position are extended to adult children. Middle-aged parents (N = 633) from the Family Exchanges Study reported support they provided to their grown children and coresidence with grown children (N = 1,384). Parents with higher income provided more emotional and material support to the average children. Grown children of parents with less education were more likely to coreside with them. Parental resources (e.g., being married) and demands (e.g., family size) explained these patterns. Of interest is that lower income parents provided more total support to all children (except total financial support). Lower income families may experience a double jeopardy; each grown child receives less support on average, but parents exert greater efforts providing more total support to all their children. PMID:26339102

  8. Aging expectations are associated with physical activity and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Shilpa; Al-Sahab, Ban; Manson, James; Tamim, Hala

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether aging expectations (AE) are associated with physical activity participation and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status (SES). A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 170 older adults (mean age 70.9 years) was conducted. Data on AE, physical activity, and health were collected using the 12 item Expectations Regarding Aging instrument, the Healthy Physical Activity Participation Questionnaire, and the Short Form-36, respectively. Adjusted linear regression models showed significant associations between AE and social functioning, energy/vitality, mental health, and self-rated general health, as well as physical activity. These results suggest that AE may help to better explain the established association between low SES, low physical activity uptake, and poor health outcomes among older adults.

  9. Income Inequality, Socioeconomic Deprivation and Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Manrique-Espinoza, Betty Soledad; Bojorquez-Chapela, Ietza; Salinas-Rodríguez, Aarón

    2014-01-01

    Objective Depression is the second most common mental disorder in older adults (OA) worldwide. The ways in which depression is influenced by the social determinants of health – specifically, by socioeconomic deprivation, income inequality and social capital - have been analyzed with only partially conclusive results thus far. The objective of our study was to estimate the association of income inequality and socioeconomic deprivation at the locality, municipal and state levels with the prevalence of depressive symptoms among OA in Mexico. Methods Cross-sectional study based on a nationally representative sample of 8,874 OA aged 60 and over. We applied the brief seven-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) to determine the presence of depressive symptoms. Additionally, to select the principal context variables, we used the Deprivation Index of the National Population Council of Mexico at the locality, municipal and state levels, and the Gini Index at the municipal and state levels. Finally, we estimated the association of income inequality and socioeconomic deprivation with the presence of depressive symptoms using a multilevel logistic regression model. Results Socioeconomic deprivation at the locality (OR = 1.28; p<0.10) and municipal levels (OR = 1.16; p<0.01) correlated significantly with the presence of depressive symptoms, while income inequality did not. Conclusions The results of our study confirm that the social determinants of health are relevant to the mental health of OA. Further research is required, however, to identify which are the specific socioeconomic deprivation components at the locality and municipal levels that correlate with depression in this population group. PMID:25250620

  10. Socioeconomic status, body size and physical activity of adults on Rarotonga, the Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, S J

    2001-01-01

    Much of the secular trend toward increased body size among populations in the Pacific Region has been attributed to the processes of economic modernization and socioeconomic change. The primary objective of the present analysis was to examine the relationships between socioeconomic factors and stature, weight, body mass index and physical activity level of adult Cook Islanders living a largely modernized lifestyle in the Pacific Region. In a cross-sectional study of physical activity, body size and socioeconomic status, a volunteer sample of 345 Cook Islanders aged 20-65 years was obtained from the total adult population of Rarotonga, and measured at six out-patient clinics. Stature, weight, body mass index (BMI), physical activity level and age were calculated by sex and occupational category, years of education, island of birth and number of years lived on Rarotonga, respectively, using SPSSPC for Windows. Stepwise multiple regression was used to examine the relationships between stature, weight, BMI, PALweekday (a measure of physical activity level), age and non-linear functions of age, and the socioeconomic variables. These analyses indicate that the secular trend in stature is a function of the relative level of modernization on Rarotonga relative to other Cook Islands, and with level of education. These factors associate differently among males and females, the secular trend among males appearing to be a general phenomenon in response to lifestyle change associated with life on Rarotonga, while among females the trend is a function of lifestyle change associated with education and independent of island of origin. The trend toward increasing body fatness is also different for males and females. Weight declines with age for both men and women, in a linear way for the males, but in a non-linear fashion for the females. Body weight is also greater among those males in more skilled and professional occupations than among those with less-skilled professions. For

  11. Unemployment and substance use problems among young adults: Does childhood low socioeconomic status exacerbate the effect?

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Hill, Karl G; Hartigan, Lacey A; Boden, Joseph M; Guttmannova, Katarina; Kosterman, Rick; Bailey, Jennifer A; Catalano, Richard F

    2015-10-01

    The current study tested whether unemployment predicted young adults' heavy episodic drinking, cigarette smoking, and cannabis use after taking into account individual development in substance use. Furthermore, building on the life course perspective, this study examined whether the link between unemployment and substance use among young adults differed for those who experienced low childhood SES compared to those who did not. Data for the present study came from the Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP), a panel study examining a broad range of developmental outcomes from ages 10 to 33. A life history calendar (LHC) was administered to assess substance use and unemployment status during young adulthood. Covariates included baseline symptoms of psychopathology, baseline substance use, gender, ethnicity, and adult educational attainment. Results suggest that unemployment is associated with young adults' heavy episodic drinking and possibly cigarette use, but not cannabis use. Moreover, for all three substances, the detrimental impact of unemployment on substance use seems to be exacerbated among young adults who spent their childhood and adolescence in a lower SES household. Public health efforts that provide other viable and affordable options to cope with unemployment among young adults from low SES backgrounds are needed to address this disproportionate concentration of adverse impacts of unemployment on behavioral health. PMID:26342911

  12. Unemployment and substance use problems among young adults: Does childhood low socioeconomic status exacerbate the effect?

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Hill, Karl G; Hartigan, Lacey A; Boden, Joseph M; Guttmannova, Katarina; Kosterman, Rick; Bailey, Jennifer A; Catalano, Richard F

    2015-10-01

    The current study tested whether unemployment predicted young adults' heavy episodic drinking, cigarette smoking, and cannabis use after taking into account individual development in substance use. Furthermore, building on the life course perspective, this study examined whether the link between unemployment and substance use among young adults differed for those who experienced low childhood SES compared to those who did not. Data for the present study came from the Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP), a panel study examining a broad range of developmental outcomes from ages 10 to 33. A life history calendar (LHC) was administered to assess substance use and unemployment status during young adulthood. Covariates included baseline symptoms of psychopathology, baseline substance use, gender, ethnicity, and adult educational attainment. Results suggest that unemployment is associated with young adults' heavy episodic drinking and possibly cigarette use, but not cannabis use. Moreover, for all three substances, the detrimental impact of unemployment on substance use seems to be exacerbated among young adults who spent their childhood and adolescence in a lower SES household. Public health efforts that provide other viable and affordable options to cope with unemployment among young adults from low SES backgrounds are needed to address this disproportionate concentration of adverse impacts of unemployment on behavioral health.

  13. Ambitions fulfilled? The effects of intrinsic and extrinsic goal attainment on older adults' ego-integrity and death attitudes.

    PubMed

    Van Hiel, Alain; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2009-01-01

    The present research examined the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic goal attainment on older adults' ego-integrity, psychological well-being, and death attitudes. Hypotheses were derived from Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000; Vansteenkiste, Ryan, & Deci, in press). Study 1 (N = 202, Mean age = 68.2 years) indicated that, after controlling for extrinsic goal attainment, intrinsic goal attainment contributed positively to subjective well-being and ego-integrity and negatively to despair, whereas extrinsic goal attainment was unrelated to psychological health and contributed positively to despair. Study 2 (N = 213, Mean age = 75.2 years) replicated and extended these results, showing that intrinsic goal attainment contributed to the acceptance of one's own death, lower ill-being, and less death anxiety, whereas extrinsic goal attainment was negatively associated with death acceptance. It is argued that the attainment of intrinsic goals is related to better psychological health, because intrinsic goals are more conducive to the satisfaction of basic psychological needs.

  14. The Changing Relationship Between Family Size and Educational Attainment Over the Course of Socioeconomic Development: Evidence From Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    MARALANI, VIDA

    2008-01-01

    Many studies from developed countries show a negative correlation between family size and children’s schooling, while results from developing countries show this association ranging from positive to neutral to negative, depending on the context. The body of evidence suggests that this relationship changes as a society develops, but this theory has been difficult to assess because the existing evidence requires comparisons across countries with different social structures and at different levels of development. The world’s fourth most populous nation in 2007, Indonesia has developed rapidly in recent decades. This context provides the opportunity to study these relationships within the same rapidly developing setting to see if and how these associations change. Results show that in urban areas, the association between family size and children’s schooling was positive for older cohorts but negative for more recent cohorts. Models using instrumental variables to address the potential endogeneity of fertility confirm these results. In contrast, rural areas show no significant association between family size and children’s schooling for any cohort. These findings show how the relationship between family size and children’s schooling can differ within the same country and change over time as contextual factors evolve with socioeconomic development. PMID:18939668

  15. Unemployment and substance use problems among young adults: Does childhood low socioeconomic status exacerbate the effect?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Hill, Karl G.; Hartigan, Lacey. A.; Boden, Joseph; Guttmannova, Katarina; Kosterman, Rick; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    The current study tested whether unemployment predicted young adults’ heavy episodic drinking, cigarette smoking, and cannabis use after taking into account individual development in substance use. Furthermore, building on the life course perspective, this study examined whether the link between unemployment and substance use among young adults differed for those who experienced low childhood SES compared to those who did not. Data for the present study came from the Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP), a panel study examining a broad range of developmental outcomes from ages 10 to 33. A life history calendar (LHC) was administered to assess substance use and unemployment status during young adulthood. Covariates included baseline symptoms of psychopathology, baseline substance use, gender, ethnicity, and adult educational attainment. Results suggest that unemployment is associated with young adults’ heavy episodic drinking and possibly cigarette use, but not cannabis use. Moreover, for all three substances, the detrimental impact of unemployment on substance use seems to be exacerbated among young adults who spent their childhood and adolescence in a lower SES household. Public health efforts that provide other viable and affordable options to cope with unemployment among young adults from low SES backgrounds are needed to address this disproportionate concentration of adverse impacts of unemployment on behavioral health. PMID:26342911

  16. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status, Race, and Mortality in Young Adult Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Estrella, Michelle M.; Crews, Deidra C.; Appel, Lawrence J.; Anderson, Cheryl A.M.; Ephraim, Patti L.; Cook, Courtney; Boulware, L. Ebony

    2014-01-01

    Young blacks receiving dialysis have an increased risk of death compared with whites in the United States. Factors influencing this disparity among the young adult dialysis population have not been well explored. Our study examined the relation of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and racial differences in mortality in United States young adults receiving dialysis. We merged US Renal Data System patient-level data from 11,027 black and white patients ages 18–30 years old initiating dialysis between 2006 and 2009 with US Census data to obtain neighborhood poverty information for each patient. We defined low SES neighborhoods as those neighborhoods in US Census zip codes with ≥20% of residents living below the federal poverty level and quantified race differences in mortality risk by level of neighborhood SES. Among patients residing in low SES neighborhoods, blacks had greater mortality than whites after adjusting for baseline demographics, clinical characteristics, rurality, and access to care factors. This difference in mortality between blacks and whites was significantly attenuated in higher SES neighborhoods. In the United States, survival between young adult blacks and whites receiving dialysis differs by neighborhood SES. Additional studies are needed to identify modifiable factors contributing to the greater mortality among young adult black dialysis patients residing in low SES neighborhoods. PMID:24925723

  17. Twin-based study of the complex interplay between childhood maltreatment, socioeconomic status and adult memory.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Ximena; Alemany, Silvia; Fatjó-Vilas, Mar; González-Ortega, Itxaso; González-Pinto, Ana; Cuesta, Manuel J; Fañanás, Lourdes

    2013-08-01

    Childhood maltreatment and low socioeconomic status (SES) are considered stressful environmental events with lasting detrimental effects on adult mental health and associated cognitive performance, such as memory. However, the association between childhood maltreatment and low SES remains unclear, probably due to design limitations and putative confounding factors. Particular concerns have been raised on genetic influences, as genetic background may modulate the effects of environmental stressors. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of childhood maltreatment on adult memory in low- and high-SES subjects, free of confounding due to other environmental and genetic influences. A monozygotic twin design based on 188 healthy adult subjects (94 twin pairs) from the general population was conducted. This design based on genetically identical individuals allowed disentangling the unique environmental effects of childhood maltreatment on memory, which was explored in low and high SES. Results showed that the unique environmental effects of childhood maltreatment were only evident in the high-SES group (β = -0.22; SE = 0.08; p < 0.01; 95 % CI = -0.375 to -0.066). By contrast, no evidence for this effect could be detected in the more stressful low-SES group. These results suggest that enriched environments may provide a more stable context where early stressful experiences can influence cognitive processes. This study provides preliminary support for the inclusion of environmental enrichment in studies addressing the impact of childhood maltreatment on adult cognition and psychiatric disorders.

  18. Twin-based study of the complex interplay between childhood maltreatment, socioeconomic status and adult memory.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Ximena; Alemany, Silvia; Fatjó-Vilas, Mar; González-Ortega, Itxaso; González-Pinto, Ana; Cuesta, Manuel J; Fañanás, Lourdes

    2013-08-01

    Childhood maltreatment and low socioeconomic status (SES) are considered stressful environmental events with lasting detrimental effects on adult mental health and associated cognitive performance, such as memory. However, the association between childhood maltreatment and low SES remains unclear, probably due to design limitations and putative confounding factors. Particular concerns have been raised on genetic influences, as genetic background may modulate the effects of environmental stressors. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of childhood maltreatment on adult memory in low- and high-SES subjects, free of confounding due to other environmental and genetic influences. A monozygotic twin design based on 188 healthy adult subjects (94 twin pairs) from the general population was conducted. This design based on genetically identical individuals allowed disentangling the unique environmental effects of childhood maltreatment on memory, which was explored in low and high SES. Results showed that the unique environmental effects of childhood maltreatment were only evident in the high-SES group (β = -0.22; SE = 0.08; p < 0.01; 95 % CI = -0.375 to -0.066). By contrast, no evidence for this effect could be detected in the more stressful low-SES group. These results suggest that enriched environments may provide a more stable context where early stressful experiences can influence cognitive processes. This study provides preliminary support for the inclusion of environmental enrichment in studies addressing the impact of childhood maltreatment on adult cognition and psychiatric disorders. PMID:23188190

  19. Neighborhood socioeconomic status, race, and mortality in young adult dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Johns, Tanya S; Estrella, Michelle M; Crews, Deidra C; Appel, Lawrence J; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Ephraim, Patti L; Cook, Courtney; Boulware, L Ebony

    2014-11-01

    Young blacks receiving dialysis have an increased risk of death compared with whites in the United States. Factors influencing this disparity among the young adult dialysis population have not been well explored. Our study examined the relation of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and racial differences in mortality in United States young adults receiving dialysis. We merged US Renal Data System patient-level data from 11,027 black and white patients ages 18-30 years old initiating dialysis between 2006 and 2009 with US Census data to obtain neighborhood poverty information for each patient. We defined low SES neighborhoods as those neighborhoods in U.S. Census zip codes with ≥20% of residents living below the federal poverty level and quantified race differences in mortality risk by level of neighborhood SES. Among patients residing in low SES neighborhoods, blacks had greater mortality than whites after adjusting for baseline demographics, clinical characteristics, rurality, and access to care factors. This difference in mortality between blacks and whites was significantly attenuated in higher SES neighborhoods. In the United States, survival between young adult blacks and whites receiving dialysis differs by neighborhood SES. Additional studies are needed to identify modifiable factors contributing to the greater mortality among young adult black dialysis patients residing in low SES neighborhoods.

  20. Ambitions Fulfilled? The Effects of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Goal Attainment on Older Adults' Ego-Integrity and Death Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hiel, Alain; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2009-01-01

    The present research examined the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic goal attainment on older adults' ego-integrity, psychological well-being, and death attitudes. Hypotheses were derived from Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000; Vansteenkiste, Ryan, & Deci, in press). Study 1 (N = 202, Mean age = 68.2 years) indicated that, after…

  1. Reading Disability and Adult Attained Education and Income: Evidence from a 30-Year Longitudinal Study of a Population-Based Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Margaret J.; Speirs, Katherine E.; Shenassa, Edmond D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the impact of childhood reading disability (RD) on adult educational attainment and income. Participants' (N = 1,344) RD was assessed at age 7, and adult educational attainment and income were assessed in midlife using categorical variables. Participants with RD at age 7 were 74% (95% CI: 0.18, 0.37) less likely to attain…

  2. Adverse socioeconomic conditions in childhood and cause specific adult mortality: prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, George Davey; Hart, Carole; Blane, David; Hole, David

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between social circumstances in childhood and mortality from various causes of death in adulthood. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: 27 workplaces in the west of Scotland. Subjects: 5645 men aged 35-64 years at the time of examination. Main outcome measures: Death from various causes. Results: Men whose fathers had manual occupations when they were children were more likely as adults to have manual jobs and be living in deprived areas. Gradients in mortality from coronary heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, stomach cancer, and respiratory disease were seen (all P<0.05), generally increasing from men whose fathers had professional and managerial occupations (social class I and II) to those whose fathers had semiskilled and unskilled manual occupations (social class IV and V). Relative rates of mortality adjusted for age for men with fathers in manual versus non-manual occupations were 1.52 (95% confidence interval 1.24 to 1.87) for coronary heart disease, 1.83 (1.13 to 2.94) for stroke, 1.65 (1.12 to 2.43) for lung cancer, 2.06 (0.93 to 4.57) for stomach cancer, and 2.01 (1.17 to 3.48) for respiratory disease. Mortality from other cancers and accidental and violent death showed no association with fathers’ social class. Adjustment for adult socioeconomic circumstances and risk factors did not alter results for mortality from stroke and stomach cancer, attenuated the increased risk of coronary heart disease and respiratory disease, and essentially eliminated the association with lung cancer. Conclusions: Adverse socioeconomic circumstances in childhood have a specific influence on mortality from stroke and stomach cancer in adulthood, which is not due to the continuity of social disadvantage throughout life. Deprivation in childhood influences risk of mortality from coronary heart disease and respiratory disease in adulthood, although an additive influence of adulthood circumstances is seen in these cases

  3. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Psychological Distress among Urban Adults: The Moderating Role of Neighborhood Social Cohesion

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, Özcan; Van Lenthe, Frank J.; Prins, Rick G.; Voorham, Toon A. J. J.; Burdorf, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Background Various studies have reported socioeconomic inequalities in mental health among urban residents. This study aimed at investigating whether neighborhood social cohesion influences the associations between socio-economic factors and psychological distress. Methods Cross-sectional questionnaire study on a random sample of 18,173 residents aged 16 years and older from 211 neighborhoods in the four largest cities in the Netherlands. Psychological distress was the dependent variable (scale range 10–50). Neighborhood social cohesion was measured by five statements and aggregated to the neighborhood level using ecometrics methodology. Multilevel linear regression analyses were used to investigate cross-level interactions, adjusted for neighborhood deprivation, between individual characteristics and social cohesion with psychological distress. Results The mean level of psychological distress among urban residents was 17.2. Recipients of disability, social assistance or unemployment benefits reported higher psychological distress (β = 5.6, 95%CI 5.2 to 5.9) than those in paid employment. Persons with some or great financial difficulties reported higher psychological distress (β = 3.4, 95%CI 3.2 to 3.6) than those with little or no financial problems. Socio-demographic factors were also associated with psychological distress, albeit with much lower influence. Living in a neighborhood with high social cohesion instead of low social cohesion was associated with a lower psychological distress of 22% among recipients of disability, social assistance or unemployment benefits and of 13% among citizens with financial difficulties. Conclusions Residing in socially cohesive neighborhoods may reduce the influence of lack of paid employment and financial difficulties on psychological distress among urban adults. Urban policies aimed at improving neighborhood social cohesion may contribute to decreasing socio-economic inequalities in mental health. PMID:27280601

  4. Genetic variation associated with differential educational attainment in adults has anticipated associations with school performance in children.

    PubMed

    Ward, Mary E; McMahon, George; St Pourcain, Beate; Evans, David M; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Benjamin, Daniel J; Koellinger, Philipp D; Cesarini, David; Davey Smith, George; Timpson, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association study results have yielded evidence for the association of common genetic variants with crude measures of completed educational attainment in adults. Whilst informative, these results do not inform as to the mechanism of these effects or their presence at earlier ages and where educational performance is more routinely and more precisely assessed. Single nucleotide polymorphisms exhibiting genome-wide significant associations with adult educational attainment were combined to derive an unweighted allele score in 5,979 and 6,145 young participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children with key stage 3 national curriculum test results (SATS results) available at age 13 to 14 years in English and mathematics respectively. Standardised (z-scored) results for English and mathematics showed an expected relationship with sex, with girls exhibiting an advantage over boys in English (0.433 SD (95%CI 0.395, 0.470), p<10(-10)) with more similar results (though in the opposite direction) in mathematics (0.042 SD (95%CI 0.004, 0.080), p = 0.030). Each additional adult educational attainment increasing allele was associated with 0.041 SD (95%CI 0.020, 0.063), p = 1.79×10(-04) and 0.028 SD (95%CI 0.007, 0.050), p = 0.01 increases in standardised SATS score for English and mathematics respectively. Educational attainment is a complex multifactorial behavioural trait which has not had heritable contributions to it fully characterised. We were able to apply the results from a large study of adult educational attainment to a study of child exam performance marking events in the process of learning rather than realised adult end product. Our results support evidence for common, small genetic contributions to educational attainment, but also emphasise the likely lifecourse nature of this genetic effect. Results here also, by an alternative route, suggest that existing methods for child examination are able to recognise early life

  5. Age and Socioeconomic Gradients of Health of Indian Adults: An Assessment of Self-Reported and Biological Measures of Health.

    PubMed

    Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Uttamacharya; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes overall socioeconomic gradients and the age patterns of socioeconomic gradients of health of Indian adults for multiple health indicators encompassing the multiple aspects of health. Cross-sectional data on 11,230 Indians aged 18 years and older from the WHO-SAGE India Wave 1, 2007 were analyzed. Multivariate logit models were estimated to examine effects of socioeconomic status (education and household wealth) and age on four health domains: self-rated health, self-reported functioning, chronic diseases, and biological health measures. Results show that socioeconomic status (SES) was negatively associated with prevalence of each health measure but with considerable heterogeneity across age groups. Results for hypertension and COPD were inconclusive. SES effects are significant while adjusting for background characteristics and health risk factors. The age patterns of SES gradient of health depict divergence with age, however, no conclusive age pattern emerged for biological markers. Overall, results in this paper dispelled the conclusion of negative SES-health association found in some previous Indian studies and reinforced the hypothesis of positive association of SES with health for Indian adults. Higher prevalence of negative health outcomes and SES disparities of health outcomes among older age-groups highlight need for inclusive and focused health care interventions for older adults across socioeconomic spectrum. PMID:26895999

  6. Age and Socioeconomic Gradients of Health of Indian Adults: An Assessment of Self-Reported and Biological Measures of Health.

    PubMed

    Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Uttamacharya; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes overall socioeconomic gradients and the age patterns of socioeconomic gradients of health of Indian adults for multiple health indicators encompassing the multiple aspects of health. Cross-sectional data on 11,230 Indians aged 18 years and older from the WHO-SAGE India Wave 1, 2007 were analyzed. Multivariate logit models were estimated to examine effects of socioeconomic status (education and household wealth) and age on four health domains: self-rated health, self-reported functioning, chronic diseases, and biological health measures. Results show that socioeconomic status (SES) was negatively associated with prevalence of each health measure but with considerable heterogeneity across age groups. Results for hypertension and COPD were inconclusive. SES effects are significant while adjusting for background characteristics and health risk factors. The age patterns of SES gradient of health depict divergence with age, however, no conclusive age pattern emerged for biological markers. Overall, results in this paper dispelled the conclusion of negative SES-health association found in some previous Indian studies and reinforced the hypothesis of positive association of SES with health for Indian adults. Higher prevalence of negative health outcomes and SES disparities of health outcomes among older age-groups highlight need for inclusive and focused health care interventions for older adults across socioeconomic spectrum.

  7. Unemployment and substance use in young adults: does educational attainment modify the association?

    PubMed

    Melchior, Maria; Chollet, Aude; Elidemir, Gulizar; Galéra, Cédric; Younès, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    We studied whether patterns of substance use in relation to unemployment vary depending on educational level. Data come from 1,126 community-based young adults in France (18-35 years of age in 2011) and their parents (TEMPO and GAZEL studies). Tobacco use (≥1 cigarette/day, 22.5% prevalence), nicotine dependence (Fagerström test ≥2, 7.1% prevalence), alcohol use (≥2 units/week, 25.3% prevalence), alcohol abuse (WHO AUDIT ≥7 in women and ≥8 in men, 10.8% prevalence), cannabis use (≥1 time, 16.5% prevalence), and cannabis abuse (CAST ≥2, 5.0% prevalence) were assessed by interview. We conducted logistic regression analyses controlled for inverse probability weights of unemployment, calculated based on demographics, negative life events, health, and juvenile and parental characteristics. Compared to participants who were always employed, those who were unemployed and had no higher education were more likely to smoke tobacco (OR: 2.76, 95% CI: 1.86-4.10), to be nicotine dependent (OR: 5.70, 95% CI: 3.03-10.73), to use cannabis (OR: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.42-3.64), and to abuse cannabis (OR: 3.38, 95% CI: 1.63-7.04). Those who were unemployed and had higher education were especially likely to abuse alcohol (OR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.16-3.09). Increases in unemployment may impact population levels of substance use, particularly in young adults with low educational attainment. PMID:25472491

  8. Socioeconomics and Major Disabilities: Characteristics of Working-Age Adults in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Kiregu, Joshua; Murindahabi, Nathalie K.; Tumusiime, David; Thomson, Dana R.; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L.; Ahayo, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Background Disability affects approximately 15% of the world’s population, and has adverse socio-economic effects, especially for the poor. In Rwanda, there are a number of government compensation programs that support the poor, but not specifically persons with disability (PWDs). This study investigates the relationship between poverty and government compensation on disability among working-age adults in Rwanda. Methods This was a secondary analysis of 35,114 adults aged 16 to 65 interviewed in the 2010/2011 Rwanda Household Wealth and Living Conditions survey, a national cross-sectional two-stage cluster survey, stratified by district. This study estimated self-reported major disability, and used chi-square tests to estimate associations (p<0.1) with income, government compensation, occupation type, participation in public works programs, and household poverty status. Non-collinear economic variables were included in a multivariate logistic regression, along with socio-demographic confounders that modified the relationship between any economic predictor and the outcome by 10% or more. All analyses adjusted for sampling weights, stratification, and clustering of households. Results Over 4% of working-age adults reported having a major disability and the most prevalent types of disability in order were physical, mental, and then sensory disability. In bivariate analysis, annual income, occupation type, and poverty status were associated with major disability (p<0.001 for all). Occupation type was dropped because it was collinear with income. Age, education, and urban/rural residence were confounders. In the multivariate analysis, adults in all income groups had about half the odds of disability compared to adults with no income (Rwf1-120,000 OR = 0.57; Rwf120,000–250,000 OR = 0.61; Rwf250,000–1,000,000 OR = 0.59; Rwf1,000,000+ OR = 0.66; p<0.05 for all), and non-poor adults had 0.77 the odds of disability compared to poor adults (p = 0.001). Conclusion Given

  9. Socioeconomic inequalities in occupational, leisure-time, and transport related physical activity among European adults: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study systematically reviewed the evidence pertaining to socioeconomic inequalities in different domains of physical activity (PA) by European region. Methods Studies conducted between January 2000 and December 2010 were identified by a systematic search in Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, Psychinfo, Sportdiscus, Sociological Abstracts, and Social Service Abstracts. English-language peer-reviewed studies undertaken in the general population of adults (18–65 years) were classified by domain of PA (total, leisure-time including sport, occupational, active transport), indicator of socioeconomic position (education, income, occupation), and European region. Distributions of reported positive, negative, and null associations were evaluated. Results A total of 131 studies met the inclusion criteria. Most studies were conducted in Scandinavia (n = 47). Leisure-time PA was the most frequently studied PA outcome (n = 112). Considerable differences in the direction of inequalities were seen for the different domains of PA. Most studies reported that those with high socioeconomic position were more physically active during leisure-time compared to those with low socioeconomic position (68% positive associations for total leisure-time PA, 76% for vigorous leisure-time PA). Occupational PA was more prevalent among the lower socioeconomic groups (63% negative associations). Socioeconomic differences in total PA and active transport PA did not show a consistent pattern (40% and 38% positive associations respectively). Some inequalities differed by European region or socioeconomic indicator, however these differences were not very pronounced. Conclusions The direction of socioeconomic inequalities in PA in Europe differed considerably by domain of PA. The contradictory results for total PA may partly be explained by contrasting socioeconomic patterns for leisure-time PA and occupational PA. PMID:22992350

  10. The impact of childhood sickness on adult socioeconomic outcomes: Evidence from late 19th century America

    PubMed Central

    Warren, John Robert; Knies, Laurie; Haas, Steven; Hernandez, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    We use family fixed-effects models to estimate the impact of childhood health on adult literacy, labor force outcomes, and marital status among pairs of white brothers observed as children in the 1880 U.S. Census and then as adults in the 1900–1930 Censuses. Given our focus on the 19th century, we observed a wider array of infectious, chronic, and traumatic health problems than is observed using data that are more recent; our results thus provide some insights into circumstances in modern developing countries where similar health problems are more frequently observed. Compared to their healthy siblings, sick brothers were less likely to be located (and thus more likely to be dead) 20–50 years after their 1880 enumeration. Sick brothers were also less likely to be literate, to have ever been married, and to have reported an occupation. However, among those with occupations, sick and healthy brothers tended to do similar kinds of work. We discuss the implications of our results for research on the impact of childhood health on socioeconomic outcomes in developed and developing countries. PMID:22809795

  11. The association among neighborhood socioeconomic status, race and chronic pain in black and white older adults.

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Molly; Hart-Johnson, Tamera; Green, Carmen R.

    2007-01-01

    The association among race, neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES), and chronic pain has not been well examined in older people. Clinical data was obtained from older adults (>50 years old) presenting to a tertiary care pain center. The relative roles of race and neighborhood SES on the chronic pain experienced in older black and white adults were assessed. Older blacks experienced more affective pain, pain-related disability and mood disorder symptoms than older whites. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed previously hypothesized factors for the McGill Pain Questionnaire pain dimensions and the Pain Disability Index. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses also identified factors in the Brief Symptom Inventory and neighborhood SES. Structural equation modeling showed black race was associated with lower neighborhood SES and also with increased affective pain, obligatory disability and mood disorders mediationally through neighborhood SES. It was indirectly associated with increased sensory and miscellaneous pain, and voluntary disability through low neighborhood SES. Racial interaction examination showed that neighborhood SES had the same relationship to outcomes by race. We found increasing neighborhood SES is associated with decreasing negative chronic pain outcomes for older blacks and whites. Our data provide evidence that both race and neighborhood SES are important factors to consider when examining the chronic pain experience among older Americans. PMID:17987920

  12. The Contribution of Adolescent Effortful Control to Early Adult Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Hiatt Racer, Kristina; Fosco, Gregory M.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Effortful control has been proposed as a set of neurocognitive competencies that is relevant to self-regulation and educational attainment (Posner & Rothbart, 2007). This study tested the hypothesis that a multiagent report of adolescents' effortful control (age 17) would be predictive of academic persistence and educational attainment (age…

  13. Socioeconomic status and obesity in adult populations of developing countries: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Carlos A.; Moura, Erly C.; Conde, Wolney L.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2004-01-01

    A landmark review of studies published prior to 1989 on socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity supported the view that obesity in the developing world would be essentially a disease of the socioeconomic elite. The present review, on studies conducted in adult populations from developing countries, published between 1989 and 2003, shows a different scenario for the relationship between SES and obesity. Although more studies are necessary to clarify the exact nature of this relationship, particularly among men, three main conclusions emerge from the studies reviewed: 1. Obesity in the developing world can no longer be considered solely a disease of groups with higher SES. 2. The burden of obesity in each developing country tends to shift towards the groups with lower SES as the country's gross national product (GNP) increases. 3. The shift of obesity towards women with low SES apparently occurs at an earlier stage of economic development than it does for men. The crossover to higher rates of obesity among women of low SES is found at a GNP per capita of about US$ 2500, the mid-point value for lower-middle-income economies. The results of this review reinforce the urgent need to: include obesity prevention as a relevant topic on the public health agenda in developing countries; improve the access of all social classes in these countries to reliable information on the determinants and consequences of obesity; and design and implement consistent public actions on the physical, economic, and sociocultural environment that make healthier choices concerning diet and physical activity feasible for all. A significant step in this direction was taken with the approval of the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health by the World Health Assembly in May 2004. PMID:15654409

  14. The effects of socioeconomic status and short stature on overweight, obesity and the risk of metabolic complications in adults

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Alejandro Estrada; Rueda, Juan Diego Gomez; Aguirre, Cristina Carreño; López, Lorena Patricia Mancilla

    2013-01-01

    Objective: to observe the relationship between socioeconomic status, height and nutritional problems related to obesity, overweight and risk of metabolic complications in men and women of Medellin (Colombia). Methods: cross-sectional study with a sample of 5556 adults between 18 and 69 years of age. We assessed weight, height and waist circumference. Socioeconomic variables were evaluated by family income, socioeconomic stratum and academic level achieved. Results: we found that in men and women the height reached in adulthood is associated with socioeconomic conditions as measured by the socioeconomic strata and family income. In women, height, age, and socioeconomic strata are associated with obesity, overweight and risk of obesity, and risk of metabolic complications. Conclusion: These results are not only from individual unhealthy habits, such as eating patterns based on high density foods combined with low energy expenditure, but also from the cumulative effect of food deprivation throughout life. Therefore, policies intended to prevent them should take a preventive approach that begins before birth and continues during childhood and adulthood. PMID:24892612

  15. Adolescent Family Experiences and Educational Attainment during Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melby, Janet N.; Conger, Rand D.; Fang, Shu-Ann; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Katherine J.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the degree to which a family investment model would help account for the association between family of origin socioeconomic characteristics and the later educational attainment of 451 young adults (age 26) from 2-parent families. Parents' educational level, occupational prestige, and family income in 1989…

  16. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Mental Health of Adult Population: Serbian National Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Santric-Milicevic, Milena; Jankovic, Janko; Trajkovic, Goran; Terzic-Supic, Zorica; Babic, Uros; Petrovic, Marija

    2016-01-01

    Background: The global burden of mental disorders is rising. In Serbia, anxiety is the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years. Serbia has no mental health survey at the population level. The information on prevalence of mental disorders and related socioeconomic inequalities are valuable for mental care improvement. Aims: To explore the prevalence of mental health disorders and socioeconomic inequalities in mental health of adult Serbian population, and to explore whether age years and employment status interact with mental health in urban and rural settlements. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: This study is an additional analysis of Serbian Health Survey 2006 that was carried out with standardized household questionnaires at the representative sample of 7673 randomly selected households – 15563 adults. The response rate was 93%. A multivariate logistic regression modeling highlighted the predictors of the 5 item Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5), and of chronic anxiety or depression within eight independent variables (age, gender, type of settlement, marital status and self-perceived health, education, employment status and Wealth Index). The significance level in descriptive statistics, chi square analysis and bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions was set at p<0.05. Results: Chronic anxiety or depression was seen in 4.9% of the respondents, and poor MHI-5 in 47% of respondents. Low education (Odds Ratios 1.32; 95% confidence intervals=1.16–1.51), unemployment (1.36; 1.18–1.56), single status (1.34; 1.23–1.45), and Wealth Index middle class (1.20; 1.08–1.32) or poor (1.33; 1.21–1.47) were significantly related with poor MHI-5. Unemployed persons in urban settlements had higher odds for poormMHI-5 than unemployed in rural areas (0.73; 0.59–0.89). Single (1.50; 1.26–1.78), unemployed (1.39; 1.07–1.80) and inactive respondents (1.42; 1.10–1.83) had a higher odds of chronic anxiety or depression than married

  17. Symptoms and socio-economic impact of ependymoma on adult patients: results of the Adult Ependymoma Outcomes Project 2.

    PubMed

    Walbert, Tobias; Mendoza, Tito R; Vera-Bolaños, Elizabeth; Acquaye, Alvina; Gilbert, Mark R; Armstrong, Terri S

    2015-01-01

    Ependymoma is a rare central nervous system tumor of adults. Reports of patient symptoms, interference patterns and costs encountered by patients and families are limited. Adult ependymoma patients completed the online Ependymoma Outcomes Questionnaire II. The survey assesses disease and functional status as well as socio-economic factors. Descriptive statistics were used to report disease characteristics as well as economic and social impact. Independent samples t test was used to test if differences exist between high- and low-income groups in terms of symptom severity. Correlations were calculated between symptoms and cost estimates. 86 international patients participated (male = 50 %). The economic analysis focused on 78 respondents from the US. 48 % were employed and 55 % earned ≥$60,000. Tumors were located in the brain (44 %), spine (44 %) or both (12 %). Spine patients compared to brain patients reported significantly worse pain (4.4 versus 2.2, p < .003), numbness (5.3 versus 2.2, p < .001), fatigue (5.1 versus 3.6, p < .03), changes in bowel patterns (3.8 versus 1.4, p < .003) and weakness (4.2 versus 2.1, p < .006). Brain patients compared with spine patients had increased lack of appetite (.4 versus 2, p < .014). Patients with lower income (≤$59,999) had more problems concentrating (p < .024) and worse cognitive module severity scores (p < .024). Estimated average monthly out-of-pocket spending was $168 for medical co-pays and $59 for prescription medication. Patients with ependymoma are highly affected by their symptoms. Spinal patients report higher severity of symptoms. Patients in the lower income group report significantly higher severity of cognitive symptoms independent of disease site.

  18. Adult cognitive ability and socioeconomic status as mediators of the effects of childhood disadvantage on salivary cortisol in aging adults

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Carol E.; Spoon, Kelly; Thompson, Wesley; Hauger, Richard L.; Hellhammer, Dirk H.; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Lupien, Sonia; Lyons, Michael J.; McCaffery, Jeanne; McKenzie, Ruth; Mendoza, Sally P.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Ramundo, Ana; Shahroudi, Afrand; Kremen, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this longitudinal study we investigate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. Two mechanisms by which early life stress may affect later pathophysiology are through its influence on cognitive functioning or later socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage. We predicted that individual differences in young adult cognitive ability and midlife SES would mediate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife cortisol. On each of three nonconsecutive days, participants provided five salivary cortisol samples corresponding to their diurnal rhythm (N = 727 men; mean age 55, SD = 2.6). We calculated three measures of cortisol regulation (area-under-the curve cortisol reflecting total daytime cortisol output; cortisol-awakening-response; and wake-to-bed slope), averaging scores for each measure across multiple days. Childhood disadvantage combined four dichotomous indicators used previously by Rutter (1985): father low SES; mother education less than 12th grade; major family disruption/separation before age 18; and large family size (more than 5 siblings). The two mediators were a measure of general cognitive ability assessed at age 20 and highest achieved midlife SES. Men from more disadvantaged childhoods were significantly more likely to have dysregulated cortisol at midlife, with higher daytime cortisol levels decades after their childhood experience. Effects of childhood disadvantage were both direct and indirect. Cognitive ability and adult SES, however, only partially mediated the associations between early life stress and midlife cortisol. Specific indirect effects accounted for 33.8% of the total effect of childhood disadvantage [β = 0.12 (0.05; 0.18)] on total daytime cortisol. Associations remained significant after accounting for ethnicity, smoking status, and self-reported depressive symptoms. PMID:23684478

  19. Symptoms and socio-economic impact of ependymoma on adult patients: results of the Adult Ependymoma Outcomes Project 2.

    PubMed

    Walbert, Tobias; Mendoza, Tito R; Vera-Bolaños, Elizabeth; Acquaye, Alvina; Gilbert, Mark R; Armstrong, Terri S

    2015-01-01

    Ependymoma is a rare central nervous system tumor of adults. Reports of patient symptoms, interference patterns and costs encountered by patients and families are limited. Adult ependymoma patients completed the online Ependymoma Outcomes Questionnaire II. The survey assesses disease and functional status as well as socio-economic factors. Descriptive statistics were used to report disease characteristics as well as economic and social impact. Independent samples t test was used to test if differences exist between high- and low-income groups in terms of symptom severity. Correlations were calculated between symptoms and cost estimates. 86 international patients participated (male = 50 %). The economic analysis focused on 78 respondents from the US. 48 % were employed and 55 % earned ≥$60,000. Tumors were located in the brain (44 %), spine (44 %) or both (12 %). Spine patients compared to brain patients reported significantly worse pain (4.4 versus 2.2, p < .003), numbness (5.3 versus 2.2, p < .001), fatigue (5.1 versus 3.6, p < .03), changes in bowel patterns (3.8 versus 1.4, p < .003) and weakness (4.2 versus 2.1, p < .006). Brain patients compared with spine patients had increased lack of appetite (.4 versus 2, p < .014). Patients with lower income (≤$59,999) had more problems concentrating (p < .024) and worse cognitive module severity scores (p < .024). Estimated average monthly out-of-pocket spending was $168 for medical co-pays and $59 for prescription medication. Patients with ependymoma are highly affected by their symptoms. Spinal patients report higher severity of symptoms. Patients in the lower income group report significantly higher severity of cognitive symptoms independent of disease site. PMID:25359395

  20. Socioeconomic and demographic factors are associated with dietary patterns in a cohort of young Brazilian adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to identify the main dietary patterns among young adults and to investigate the association of socioeconomic and demographic factors, and social mobility with dietary patterns. Methods Data from the fourth follow-up of the 1978/79 Ribeirão Preto birth cohort study, Brazil, were used. A total of 2,061 young adults, whose mothers gave sociodemographic information at birth in 1978–79, provided sociodemographic and dietary data through a validated food frequency questionnaire in 2002–2004, when they were aged 23–25 years. Those whose caloric intake was outside of the ±3 standard deviation range were excluded, leaving 2,034 individuals. The dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis followed by varimax orthogonal rotation. Poisson regression with robust estimation of variance was used to derive prevalence ratios (PR). Results Four dietary patterns were identified: healthy, traditional Brazilian, energy-dense and bar. In the adjusted analysis, individuals with higher schooling (≥12 years) in adult life (PR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.07-2.14) showed greater adherence whilst men (PR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.68-0.93) had lower adherence to the healthy pattern. The highest adherence to the traditional Brazilian pattern was found for men (PR = 2.39, 95% CI: 2.04-2.80), mullatos (PR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.21-1.64), households with ≥2 members, and for those with children (PR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.07-1.55) while individuals with higher schooling in adulthood (≥12 years) (PR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.34-0.65), higher family income in adulthood (≥20 MW) (PR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.33-0.99) and higher family income at birth (≥6.1 MW) showed lower adherence. The bar pattern was positively associated with male sex (PR = 2.96, 95% CI: 2.47-3.55) and low schooling (≤8 years). The energy-dense pattern was not associated with any of the variables investigated. Social mobility was associated with the

  1. ADOLESCENTS’ SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AND ACADEMIC ATTAINMENT*

    PubMed Central

    Frisco, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    High school students today have high ambitions but do not always make choices that maximize their likelihood of educational success. This is the motivation for investigating relationships between high school sexual behavior and two important academic attainment milestones: earning a high school diploma and enrollment in distinct postsecondary programs. Analysis of data from 7,915 National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988–1994 participants indicates that timing of sexual initiation, contraceptive nonuse, and parenthood all predict female and male students’ academic attainment. Furthermore, sexual behavior has more ramifications as attainment milestones become more competitive. These findings point to the importance of considering how students’ choices across multiple life domains influence academic attainment, an important predictor of adult socioeconomic opportunity. PMID:23745012

  2. Socioeconomic status and glycemic control in adult patients with type 2 diabetes: a mediation analysis

    PubMed Central

    Houle, Janie; Lauzier-Jobin, François; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Meunier, Sophie; Coulombe, Simon; Côté, José; Lespérance, François; Chiasson, Jean-Louis; Bherer, Louis; Lambert, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to examine the contribution of health behaviors (self-management and coping), quality of care, and individual characteristics (depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, illness representations) as mediators in the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and glycemic control. Methods A sample of 295 adult patients with type 2 diabetes was recruited at the end of a diabetes education course. Glycemic control was evaluated through glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Living in poverty and education level were used as indicators of SES. Results Bootstrapping analysis showed that the significant effects of poverty and education level on HbA1c were mediated by avoidance coping and depressive symptoms. The representation that diabetes is unpredictable significantly mediated the relationship between living in poverty and HbA1c, while healthy diet mediated the relationship between education level and HbA1c. Conclusions To improve glycemic control among patients with low SES, professionals should regularly screen for depression, offering treatment when needed, and pay attention to patients' illness representations and coping strategies for handling stress related to their chronic disease. They should also support patients in improving their self-management skills for a healthy diet. PMID:27239316

  3. Socioeconomic Indicators Are Independently Associated with Nutrient Intake in French Adults: A DEDIPAC Study

    PubMed Central

    Si Hassen, Wendy; Castetbon, Katia; Cardon, Philippe; Enaux, Christophe; Nicolaou, Mary; Lien, Nanna; Terragni, Laura; Holdsworth, Michelle; Stronks, Karien; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Studies have suggested differential associations of specific indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP) with nutrient intake and a cumulative effect of these indicators on diet. We investigated the independent association of SEP indicators (education, income, occupation) with nutrient intake and their effect modification. This cross-sectional analysis included 91,900 French adults from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Nutrient intake was estimated using three 24-h records. We investigated associations between the three SEP factors and nutrient intake using sex-stratified analysis of covariance, adjusted for age and energy intake, and associations between income and nutrient intake stratified by education and occupation. Low educated participants had higher protein and cholesterol intakes and lower fibre, vitamin C and beta-carotene intakes. Low income individuals had higher complex carbohydrate intakes, and lower magnesium, potassium, folate and vitamin C intakes. Intakes of vitamin D and alcohol were lower in low occupation individuals. Higher income was associated with higher intakes of fibre, protein, magnesium, potassium, beta-carotene, and folate among low educated persons only, highlighting effect modification. Lower SEP, particularly low education, was associated with lower intakes of nutrients required for a healthy diet. Each SEP indicator was associated with specific differences in nutrient intake suggesting that they underpin different social processes. PMID:26978393

  4. Socioeconomic Indicators Are Independently Associated with Nutrient Intake in French Adults: A DEDIPAC Study.

    PubMed

    Si Hassen, Wendy; Castetbon, Katia; Cardon, Philippe; Enaux, Christophe; Nicolaou, Mary; Lien, Nanna; Terragni, Laura; Holdsworth, Michelle; Stronks, Karien; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2016-03-01

    Studies have suggested differential associations of specific indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP) with nutrient intake and a cumulative effect of these indicators on diet. We investigated the independent association of SEP indicators (education, income, occupation) with nutrient intake and their effect modification. This cross-sectional analysis included 91,900 French adults from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Nutrient intake was estimated using three 24-h records. We investigated associations between the three SEP factors and nutrient intake using sex-stratified analysis of covariance, adjusted for age and energy intake, and associations between income and nutrient intake stratified by education and occupation. Low educated participants had higher protein and cholesterol intakes and lower fibre, vitamin C and beta-carotene intakes. Low income individuals had higher complex carbohydrate intakes, and lower magnesium, potassium, folate and vitamin C intakes. Intakes of vitamin D and alcohol were lower in low occupation individuals. Higher income was associated with higher intakes of fibre, protein, magnesium, potassium, beta-carotene, and folate among low educated persons only, highlighting effect modification. Lower SEP, particularly low education, was associated with lower intakes of nutrients required for a healthy diet. Each SEP indicator was associated with specific differences in nutrient intake suggesting that they underpin different social processes. PMID:26978393

  5. The use and evaluation of self-regulation techniques can predict health goal attainment in adults: an explorative study

    PubMed Central

    De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Verloigne, Maite; Crombez, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Background. Self-regulation tools are not always used optimally, and implementation intention plans often lack quality. Therefore, this study explored participants’ use and evaluation of self-regulation techniques and their impact on goal attainment. Methods. Data were obtained from 452 adults in a proof of concept (POC) intervention of ‘MyPlan’, an eHealth intervention using self-regulation techniques to promote three healthy behaviours (physical activity (PA), fruit intake, or vegetable intake). Participants applied self-regulation techniques to a self-selected health behaviour, and evaluated the self-regulation techniques. The quality of implementation intentions was rated by the authors as a function of instrumentality (instrumental and non-instrumental) and specificity (non-specific and medium to highly specific). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to predict goal attainment. Results. Goal attainment was significantly predicted by the motivational value of the personal advice (OR:1.86), by the specificity of the implementation intentions (OR:3.5), by the motivational value of the action plan (OR:1.86), and by making a new action plan at follow-up (OR:4.10). Interaction-effects with behaviour showed that the specificity score of the implementation intention plans (OR:4.59), the motivational value of the personal advice (OR:2.38), selecting hindering factors and solutions(OR:2.00) and making a new action plan at follow-up (OR:7.54) were predictive of goal attainment only for fruit or vegetable intake. Also, when participants in the fruit and vegetable group made more than three plans, they were more likely to attain their goal (OR:1.73), whereas the reverse was the case in the PA group (OR:0.34). Discussion. The chance that adults reach fruit and vegetable goals can be increased by including motivating personal advice, self-formulated action plans, and instructions/strategies to make specific implementation intentions into eHealth interventions

  6. The use and evaluation of self-regulation techniques can predict health goal attainment in adults: an explorative study.

    PubMed

    Plaete, Jolien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Verloigne, Maite; Crombez, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Background. Self-regulation tools are not always used optimally, and implementation intention plans often lack quality. Therefore, this study explored participants' use and evaluation of self-regulation techniques and their impact on goal attainment. Methods. Data were obtained from 452 adults in a proof of concept (POC) intervention of 'MyPlan', an eHealth intervention using self-regulation techniques to promote three healthy behaviours (physical activity (PA), fruit intake, or vegetable intake). Participants applied self-regulation techniques to a self-selected health behaviour, and evaluated the self-regulation techniques. The quality of implementation intentions was rated by the authors as a function of instrumentality (instrumental and non-instrumental) and specificity (non-specific and medium to highly specific). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to predict goal attainment. Results. Goal attainment was significantly predicted by the motivational value of the personal advice (OR:1.86), by the specificity of the implementation intentions (OR:3.5), by the motivational value of the action plan (OR:1.86), and by making a new action plan at follow-up (OR:4.10). Interaction-effects with behaviour showed that the specificity score of the implementation intention plans (OR:4.59), the motivational value of the personal advice (OR:2.38), selecting hindering factors and solutions(OR:2.00) and making a new action plan at follow-up (OR:7.54) were predictive of goal attainment only for fruit or vegetable intake. Also, when participants in the fruit and vegetable group made more than three plans, they were more likely to attain their goal (OR:1.73), whereas the reverse was the case in the PA group (OR:0.34). Discussion. The chance that adults reach fruit and vegetable goals can be increased by including motivating personal advice, self-formulated action plans, and instructions/strategies to make specific implementation intentions into eHealth interventions. To

  7. The use and evaluation of self-regulation techniques can predict health goal attainment in adults: an explorative study.

    PubMed

    Plaete, Jolien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Verloigne, Maite; Crombez, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Background. Self-regulation tools are not always used optimally, and implementation intention plans often lack quality. Therefore, this study explored participants' use and evaluation of self-regulation techniques and their impact on goal attainment. Methods. Data were obtained from 452 adults in a proof of concept (POC) intervention of 'MyPlan', an eHealth intervention using self-regulation techniques to promote three healthy behaviours (physical activity (PA), fruit intake, or vegetable intake). Participants applied self-regulation techniques to a self-selected health behaviour, and evaluated the self-regulation techniques. The quality of implementation intentions was rated by the authors as a function of instrumentality (instrumental and non-instrumental) and specificity (non-specific and medium to highly specific). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to predict goal attainment. Results. Goal attainment was significantly predicted by the motivational value of the personal advice (OR:1.86), by the specificity of the implementation intentions (OR:3.5), by the motivational value of the action plan (OR:1.86), and by making a new action plan at follow-up (OR:4.10). Interaction-effects with behaviour showed that the specificity score of the implementation intention plans (OR:4.59), the motivational value of the personal advice (OR:2.38), selecting hindering factors and solutions(OR:2.00) and making a new action plan at follow-up (OR:7.54) were predictive of goal attainment only for fruit or vegetable intake. Also, when participants in the fruit and vegetable group made more than three plans, they were more likely to attain their goal (OR:1.73), whereas the reverse was the case in the PA group (OR:0.34). Discussion. The chance that adults reach fruit and vegetable goals can be increased by including motivating personal advice, self-formulated action plans, and instructions/strategies to make specific implementation intentions into eHealth interventions. To

  8. Does the timing of attainment of maturity influence sexual size dimorphism and adult sex ratio in turtles?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Gibbons, J. Whitfield; Agha, Mickey

    2014-01-01

    The attainment of sexual maturity has been shown to affect measures of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and adult sex ratios in several groups of vertebrates. Using data for turtles, we tested the model that sex ratios are expected to be male-biased when females are larger than males and female-biased when males are larger than females because of the relationship of each with the attainment of maturity. Our model is based on the premise that the earlier-maturing sex remains smaller, on average throughout life, and predominates numerically unless the sexes are strongly affected by differential mortality, differential emigration, and immigration, or biased primary sex ratios. Based on data for 24 species in seven families, SSD and sex ratios were significantly negatively correlated for most analyses, even after the effect of phylogenetic bias was removed. The analyses provide support for the model that SSD and adult sex ratios are correlated in turtles as a result of simultaneous correlation of each with sexual differences in attainment of maturity (bimaturism). Environmental sex determination provides a possible mechanism for the phenomenon in turtles and some other organisms.

  9. Education and health among U.S. working-age adults: a detailed portrait across the full educational attainment spectrum.

    PubMed

    Zajacova, Anna; Hummer, Robert A; Rogers, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    This article presents detailed estimates of relative and absolute health inequalities among U.S. working-age adults by educational attainment, including six postsecondary schooling levels. We also estimate the impact of several sets of mediating variables on the education-health gradient. Data from the 1997-2009 National Health Interview Survey (N = 178,103) show remarkable health differentials. For example, high school graduates have 3.5 times the odds of reporting "worse" health than do adults with professional or doctoral degrees. The probability of fair or poor health in mid-adulthood is less than 5 percent for adults with the highest levels of education but over 20 percent for adults without a high school diploma. The probability of reporting excellent health in the mid-forties is below 25 percent among high school graduates but over 50 percent for those adults who have professional degrees. These health differences characterize all the demographic subgroups examined in this study. Our results show that economic indicators and health behaviors explain about 40 percent of the education-health relationship. In the United States, adults with the highest educational degrees enjoy a wide array of benefits, including much more favorable self-rated health, compared to their less-educated counterparts.

  10. Adolescents' Occupational and Educational Aspirations and Expectations: Links to High School Activities and Adult Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, Sarah J.; Crockett, Lisa J.

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored adolescents' future-oriented cognitions, current activities, and later educational attainment using data from 317 adolescents (55% female; mean age = 14.98 years, SD = 0.85) followed into early adulthood. Aspirations and expectations regarding work and education showed modest stability from year to year.…

  11. Protective Connections and Educational Attainment among Young Adults with Childhood-Onset Chronic Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, Gary; Haydon, Abigail A.; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Halpern, Carolyn T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Youth with childhood-onset chronic illness (COCI) are at risk of poor educational attainment. Specific protective factors that promote college graduation in this population have not been studied previously. In this study, we examine the role protective factors during adolescence play in promoting college graduation among young adults…

  12. Level of Educational Attainment Among Deaf Adults Who Attended Bilingual-Bicultural Programs.

    PubMed

    Dammeyer, Jesper; Marschark, Marc

    2016-10-01

    In Scandinavia and some other countries, a bilingual-bicultural approach to deaf education was celebrated in national programs from the mid-1980s until the broad popularity of cochlear implantation in middle 2000s created a shift back to an emphasis on spoken language for many deaf children. At the same time, only a few studies evaluated the long-term outcomes of bilingual-bicultural education, and several of their findings have raised questions about benefits of the approach. This study examined the level of educational attainment of 408 deaf individuals who attended primary school either before or during the period of bilingual-bicultural education in Denmark, both relative to a comparable hearing cohort. Beyond group comparisons, three logistic regression models were created to evaluate the prediction of educational attainment by a number of relevant variables. Compared to the hearing population, the deaf population had a significantly lower level of educational attainment both before and after the introduction of bilingual-bicultural education. Signed language and spoken language abilities, the kind of school attended, degree of hearing loss, parental hearing loss, and gender were found significantly to explain levels of educational attainment in the deaf population. PMID:27235699

  13. Exploratory Investigation of Drivers of Attainment in Ethnic Minority Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frumkin, Lara A.; Koutsoubou, Maria

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that ethnic minority learners in further education in England either under-achieve or are under-represented because they face various inhibitors connected to their ethnicity. Motivators may be in place, however, which increase attainment specifically for some ethnic groups. This exploratory study intends to examine what works and…

  14. Level of Educational Attainment Among Deaf Adults Who Attended Bilingual-Bicultural Programs.

    PubMed

    Dammeyer, Jesper; Marschark, Marc

    2016-10-01

    In Scandinavia and some other countries, a bilingual-bicultural approach to deaf education was celebrated in national programs from the mid-1980s until the broad popularity of cochlear implantation in middle 2000s created a shift back to an emphasis on spoken language for many deaf children. At the same time, only a few studies evaluated the long-term outcomes of bilingual-bicultural education, and several of their findings have raised questions about benefits of the approach. This study examined the level of educational attainment of 408 deaf individuals who attended primary school either before or during the period of bilingual-bicultural education in Denmark, both relative to a comparable hearing cohort. Beyond group comparisons, three logistic regression models were created to evaluate the prediction of educational attainment by a number of relevant variables. Compared to the hearing population, the deaf population had a significantly lower level of educational attainment both before and after the introduction of bilingual-bicultural education. Signed language and spoken language abilities, the kind of school attended, degree of hearing loss, parental hearing loss, and gender were found significantly to explain levels of educational attainment in the deaf population.

  15. Gender Differences in Young Latino Adults' Status Attainment: Understanding Bilingualism in the Familial Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Sampson Lee; Cobas, Jose A.

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that bilingualism among Latinos in the United States may not necessarily result in negative status attainment consequences. Such studies have typically overlooked gender differences in the consequences of bilingualism. Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (N=866 females; 737 males), we…

  16. The Contribution of Adolescent Effortful Control to Early Adult Educational Attainment

    PubMed Central

    Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Racer, Kristina Hiatt; Fosco, Gregory M.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Effortful control has been proposed as a set of neurocognitive competencies that is relevant to self-regulation and educational attainment (Posner & Rothbart, 2007). This study tested the hypothesis that a multiagent report of adolescents’ effortful control (age 17) would be predictive of academic persistence and educational attainment (age 23–25), after controlling for other established predictors (family factors, problem behavior, grade point average, and substance use). Participants were 997 students recruited in 6th grade from 3 urban public middle schools (53% males; 42.4% European American; 29.2% African American). Consistent with the hypothesis, the unique association of effortful control with future educational attainment was comparable in strength to that of parental education and students’ past grade point average, suggesting that effortful control contributes to this outcome above and beyond well-established predictors. Path coefficients were equivalent across gender and ethnicity (European Americans and African Americans). Effortful control appears to be a core feature of the self-regulatory competencies associated with achievement of educational success in early adulthood. These findings suggest that the promotion of self-regulation in general and effortful control in particular may be an important focus not only for resilience to stress and avoidance of problem behavior, but also for growth in academic competence. PMID:25308996

  17. The Contribution of Adolescent Effortful Control to Early Adult Educational Attainment.

    PubMed

    Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Racer, Kristina Hiatt; Fosco, Gregory M; Dishion, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Effortful control has been proposed as a set of neurocognitive competencies that is relevant to self-regulation and educational attainment (Posner & Rothbart, 2007). This study tested the hypothesis that a multiagent report of adolescents' effortful control (age 17) would be predictive of academic persistence and educational attainment (age 23-25), after controlling for other established predictors (family factors, problem behavior, grade point average, and substance use). Participants were 997 students recruited in 6th grade from 3 urban public middle schools (53% males; 42.4% European American; 29.2% African American). Consistent with the hypothesis, the unique association of effortful control with future educational attainment was comparable in strength to that of parental education and students' past grade point average, suggesting that effortful control contributes to this outcome above and beyond well-established predictors. Path coefficients were equivalent across gender and ethnicity (European Americans and African Americans). Effortful control appears to be a core feature of the self-regulatory competencies associated with achievement of educational success in early adulthood. These findings suggest that the promotion of self-regulation in general and effortful control in particular may be an important focus not only for resilience to stress and avoidance of problem behavior, but also for growth in academic competence. PMID:25308996

  18. Adolescent family experiences and educational attainment during early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Melby, Janet N; Conger, Rand D; Fang, Shu-Ann; Wickrama, K A S; Conger, Katherine J

    2008-11-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the degree to which a family investment model would help account for the association between family of origin socioeconomic characteristics and the later educational attainment of 451 young adults (age 26) from 2-parent families. Parents' educational level, occupational prestige, and family income in 1989 each had a statistically significant direct relationship with youths' educational attainment in 2002. Consistent with the theoretical model guiding the study, parents' educational level and family income also demonstrated statistically significant indirect effects on later educational attainment through their associations with growth trajectories for supportive parenting, sibling relations, and adolescent academic engagement. Supportive parenting and sibling relations were linked to later educational attainment through their association with adolescent academic engagement. Academic engagement during adolescence was associated with educational attainment in young adulthood. These basic processes operated similarly regardless of youths' gender, target youths' age relative to a near-age sibling, gender composition of the sibling dyad, or gender of parent.

  19. Adolescent Family Experiences and Educational Attainment during Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Melby, Janet N.; Conger, Rand D.; Fang, Shu-Ann; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Katherine J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the degree to which a family investment model would help account for the association between family of origin socioeconomic characteristics and the later educational attainment of 451 young adults (age 26) from two-parent families. Parents’ educational level, occupational prestige, and family income in 1989 each had a statistically significant direct relationship with youths’ educational attainment in 2002. Consistent with the theoretical model guiding the study, parents’ educational level and family income also demonstrated statistically significant indirect effects on later educational attainment through their associations with growth trajectories for supportive parenting, sibling relations, and adolescent academic engagement. Supportive parenting and sibling relations were linked to later educational attainment through their association with adolescent academic engagement. Academic engagement during adolescence was associated with educational attainment in young adulthood. These basic processes operated similarly regardless of youths’ gender, target youths’ age relative to a near-age sibling, gender composition of the sibling dyad, or gender of parent. PMID:18999319

  20. Extra-Individual Correlates of Physical Activity Attainment in Rural Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shores, Kindal A.; West, Stephanie T.; Theriault, Daniel S.; Davison, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Challenged with a higher incidence of disease, reduced social support, and less access to physical activity facilities and services, rural older adults may find healthy active living a challenge. Despite these challenges, some rural older adults manage to achieve active lifestyles. Purpose: This study investigates the relative importance…

  1. Differential correlates of physical activity in urban and rural adults of various socioeconomic backgrounds in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Parks, S; Housemann, R; Brownson, R

    2003-01-01

    Study objectives: Few studies have analysed the rates and correlates of physical activity in economically and geographically diverse populations. Objectives were to examine: (1) urban-rural differences in physical activity by several demographic, geographical, environmental, and psychosocial variables, (2) patterns in environmental and policy factors across urban-rural setting and socioeconomic groups, (3) socioeconomic differences in physical activity across the same set of variables, and (4) possible correlations of these patterns with meeting of physical activity recommendations. Design: A cross sectional study with an over sampling of lower income adults was conducted in 1999–2000. Setting: United States. Participants: 1818 United States adults. Main results: Lower income residents were less likely than higher income residents to meet physical activity recommendations. Rural residents were least likely to meet recommendations; suburban residents were most likely to meet recommendations. Suburban, higher income residents were more than twice as likely to meet recommendations than rural, lower income residents. Significant differences across income levels and urban/rural areas were found for those reporting neighbourhood streets, parks, and malls as places to exercise; fear of injury, being in poor health, or dislike as barriers to exercise and those reporting encouragement from relatives as social support for exercise. Evidence of a positive dose-response relation emerged between number of places to exercise and likelihood to meet recommendations for physical activity. Conclusions: Both income level and urban rural status were important predictors of adults' likelihood to meet physical activity recommendations. In addition, environmental variables vary in importance across socioeconomic status and urban-rural areas. PMID:12490645

  2. Attaining baccalaureate competencies for nursing care of older adults through curriculum innovation.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Ann Marie P; Hickey, Mary T; McCabe, Donna E; Ea, Emerson

    2012-01-01

    This new curriculum promotes up-to-date, evidence-based plans of care for older adults in acute care, long-term care, and community settings. Geriatric-specific content is a curricular thread and strong focus. Students have responded positively to the many opportunities they have to learn about the unique needs of older adults in multiple settings. Fortunately, we have several geriatric nurse practitioners on faculty along. Our students observe experts who are committed to promoting safe, quality, compassionate care to older adults in action on a daily basis.

  3. A geospatial analysis of the relationship between neighbourhood socioeconomic status and adult severe injury in Greater Vancouver

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Fiona; Schuurman, Nadine; Amram, Ofer; Nathens, Avery B

    2015-01-01

    Background Every year, injuries cost the Canadian healthcare system billions of dollars and result in thousands of emergency room visits, hospitalisations and deaths. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between neighbourhood socioeconomic status (NSES) and the rates of all-cause, unintentional and intentional severe injury in Greater Vancouver adults. A second objective was to determine whether the identified associations were spatially consistent or non-stationary. Methods Severe injury cases occurring between 2001 and 2006 were identified using the British Columbia's Coroner's Service records and the British Columbia Trauma Registry, and mapped by census dissemination areas using a geographical information system. Descriptive statistics and exploratory spatial data analysis methods were used to gain a better understanding of the data sets and to explore the relationship between the rates of severe injury and two measures of NSES (social and material deprivation). Ordinary least squares and geographically weighted regression were used to model these relationships at the global and local levels. Results Inverse relationships were identified between both measures of NSES and the rates of severe injury with the strongest associations located in Greater Vancouver's most socioeconomically deprived neighbourhoods. Social deprivation was found to have a slightly stronger relationship with the rates of severe injury than material deprivation. Conclusions Results of this study suggest that policies and programmes aimed at reducing the burden of severe injury in Greater Vancouver should take into account social and material deprivation, and should target the most socioeconomically deprived neighbourhoods in Greater Vancouver. PMID:25694418

  4. The UKCAT-12 study: educational attainment, aptitude test performance, demographic and socio-economic contextual factors as predictors of first year outcome in a cross-sectional collaborative study of 12 UK medical schools

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most UK medical schools use aptitude tests during student selection, but large-scale studies of predictive validity are rare. This study assesses the United Kingdom Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT), and its four sub-scales, along with measures of educational attainment, individual and contextual socio-economic background factors, as predictors of performance in the first year of medical school training. Methods A prospective study of 4,811 students in 12 UK medical schools taking the UKCAT from 2006 to 2008 as a part of the medical school application, for whom first year medical school examination results were available in 2008 to 2010. Results UKCAT scores and educational attainment measures (General Certificate of Education (GCE): A-levels, and so on; or Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA): Scottish Highers, and so on) were significant predictors of outcome. UKCAT predicted outcome better in female students than male students, and better in mature than non-mature students. Incremental validity of UKCAT taking educational attainment into account was significant, but small. Medical school performance was also affected by sex (male students performing less well), ethnicity (non-White students performing less well), and a contextual measure of secondary schooling, students from secondary schools with greater average attainment at A-level (irrespective of public or private sector) performing less well. Multilevel modeling showed no differences between medical schools in predictive ability of the various measures. UKCAT sub-scales predicted similarly, except that Verbal Reasoning correlated positively with performance on Theory examinations, but negatively with Skills assessments. Conclusions This collaborative study in 12 medical schools shows the power of large-scale studies of medical education for answering previously unanswerable but important questions about medical student selection, education and training. UKCAT has predictive validity as a

  5. Disentangling effects of socioeconomic status on obesity: A cross-sectional study of the Spanish adult population.

    PubMed

    Merino Ventosa, María; Urbanos-Garrido, Rosa M Maria Merino Ven Gmail Com

    2016-09-01

    This paper complements previous estimations regarding socioeconomic inequalities in obesity for Spanish adults, and provides new evidence about the mechanisms through which socioeconomic status (SES) affects obesity. Microdata from the Spanish National Health Survey (SNHS) 2011-2012 are analysed. Corrected concentration indices (CCI) are calculated to measure inequality. Path analysis is employed to disentangle direct and indirect effects of SES on obesity, where dietary patterns, physical activity and sleep habits act as mediator variables. Multivariate logistic models are used to select those exogenous variables to be included in the path diagram. Men and women are analysed separately. Our results show significant pro-rich inequality in the distribution of obesity (the poorer the more obese), particularly for women (CCI=-0.070 for men, CCI=-0.079 for women). The indirect effects of SES on obesity (those transmitted via mediator variables) are quite modest (3.3% for males, 2.4% for females) due to three reasons. Firstly, dietary habits do not show a significant mediating effect. Secondly, the mediating effect of physical activity in leisure time, although significant (14% for males, 11.1% for females), is offset by that related to main activity. Finally, sleep habits contribution to total effect of SES on obesity is statistically significant but small (roughly 1%). Our results indicate that promoting physical activity in leisure time for those with a low SES, particularly for men, would contribute to prevent obesity and to reduce health inequalities. Promotion of adequate sleep habits for women with a low SES might have a similar effect. However, interventions aimed to reduce sedentarism related to main activity, although useful to prevent obesity, would amplify the obesity socioeconomic gradient. Since effects of SES are different for men and women, socioeconomic health inequalities should be addressed also from a gender perspective. PMID:27362523

  6. Disentangling effects of socioeconomic status on obesity: A cross-sectional study of the Spanish adult population.

    PubMed

    Merino Ventosa, María; Urbanos-Garrido, Rosa M Maria Merino Ven Gmail Com

    2016-09-01

    This paper complements previous estimations regarding socioeconomic inequalities in obesity for Spanish adults, and provides new evidence about the mechanisms through which socioeconomic status (SES) affects obesity. Microdata from the Spanish National Health Survey (SNHS) 2011-2012 are analysed. Corrected concentration indices (CCI) are calculated to measure inequality. Path analysis is employed to disentangle direct and indirect effects of SES on obesity, where dietary patterns, physical activity and sleep habits act as mediator variables. Multivariate logistic models are used to select those exogenous variables to be included in the path diagram. Men and women are analysed separately. Our results show significant pro-rich inequality in the distribution of obesity (the poorer the more obese), particularly for women (CCI=-0.070 for men, CCI=-0.079 for women). The indirect effects of SES on obesity (those transmitted via mediator variables) are quite modest (3.3% for males, 2.4% for females) due to three reasons. Firstly, dietary habits do not show a significant mediating effect. Secondly, the mediating effect of physical activity in leisure time, although significant (14% for males, 11.1% for females), is offset by that related to main activity. Finally, sleep habits contribution to total effect of SES on obesity is statistically significant but small (roughly 1%). Our results indicate that promoting physical activity in leisure time for those with a low SES, particularly for men, would contribute to prevent obesity and to reduce health inequalities. Promotion of adequate sleep habits for women with a low SES might have a similar effect. However, interventions aimed to reduce sedentarism related to main activity, although useful to prevent obesity, would amplify the obesity socioeconomic gradient. Since effects of SES are different for men and women, socioeconomic health inequalities should be addressed also from a gender perspective.

  7. Socioeconomic Gradients in Different Types of Tobacco Use in India: Evidence from Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2009-10.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ankur; Arora, Monika; English, Dallas R; Mathur, Manu R

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic differences in tobacco use have been reported, but there is a lack of evidence on how they vary according to types of tobacco use. This study explored socioeconomic differences associated with cigarette, bidi, smokeless tobacco (SLT), and dual use (smoking and smokeless tobacco use) in India and tested whether these differences vary by gender and residential area. Secondary analysis of Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) 2009-10 (n = 69,296) was conducted. The primary outcomes were self-reported cigarette, bidi smoking, SLT, and dual use. The main explanatory variables were wealth, education, and occupation. Associations were assessed using multinomial logistic regressions. 69,030 adults participated in the study. Positive association was observed between wealth and prevalence of cigarette smoking while inverse associations were observed for bidi smoking, SLT, and dual use after adjustment for potential confounders. Inverse associations with education were observed for all four types after adjusting for confounders. Significant interactions were observed for gender and area in the association between cigarette, bidi, and smokeless tobacco use with wealth and education. The probability of cigarette smoking was higher for wealthier individuals while the probability of bidi smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and dual use was higher for those with lesser wealth and education. PMID:26273649

  8. Socioeconomic Gradients in Different Types of Tobacco Use in India: Evidence from Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2009-10.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ankur; Arora, Monika; English, Dallas R; Mathur, Manu R

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic differences in tobacco use have been reported, but there is a lack of evidence on how they vary according to types of tobacco use. This study explored socioeconomic differences associated with cigarette, bidi, smokeless tobacco (SLT), and dual use (smoking and smokeless tobacco use) in India and tested whether these differences vary by gender and residential area. Secondary analysis of Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) 2009-10 (n = 69,296) was conducted. The primary outcomes were self-reported cigarette, bidi smoking, SLT, and dual use. The main explanatory variables were wealth, education, and occupation. Associations were assessed using multinomial logistic regressions. 69,030 adults participated in the study. Positive association was observed between wealth and prevalence of cigarette smoking while inverse associations were observed for bidi smoking, SLT, and dual use after adjustment for potential confounders. Inverse associations with education were observed for all four types after adjusting for confounders. Significant interactions were observed for gender and area in the association between cigarette, bidi, and smokeless tobacco use with wealth and education. The probability of cigarette smoking was higher for wealthier individuals while the probability of bidi smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and dual use was higher for those with lesser wealth and education.

  9. Childhood Cognitive Ability, Education, and Personality Traits Predict Attainment in Adult Occupational Prestige over 17 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Helen; Furnham, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    This study explored a longitudinal data set of nearly 5000 adults examining the effects of childhood cognitive ability (measured at age 11), parental social class (measured at birth), and personality on current occupational prestige (all measured at age 50), taking account the effects of education and the previous occupational levels (both…

  10. Age Differences and Educational Attainment across the Life Span on Three Generations of Wechsler Adult Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, A. S.; Salthouse, T. A.; Scheiber, C.; Chen, H.

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of maintenance of ability across the life span have been documented on tests of knowledge ("Gc"), as have patterns of steady decline on measures of reasoning ("Gf/Gv"), working memory ("Gsm"), and speed ("Gs"). Whether these patterns occur at the same rate for adults from different educational…

  11. Addressing the College Attainment Gap for Working Adults with Prior College Credit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Patricia; Erisman, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    One in six American adults--approximately 30-35 million individuals--were at one time enrolled in college but did not complete a degree or certificate. Higher education in the 21st century faces a series of changes with respect to college completion that require a shift in institutional culture and processes. Many colleges are responding to this…

  12. Expanding Notions of Social Reproduction: Grandparents' Educational Attainment and Grandchildren's Cognitive Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Jason L.; Ready, Douglas D.

    2011-01-01

    Inherited privilege and status remain powerful factors in the distribution of opportunity in American life. These transfers of socioeconomic resources across generations are facilitated by the links between adult educational attainment and children's cognitive skills. Our current study expands the notion of social reproduction beyond this narrow…

  13. Disparities in Debt: Parents' Socioeconomic Resources and Young Adult Student Loan Debt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Jason N.

    2014-01-01

    In an era of rising college costs and stagnant grant-based student aid, many young adults rely on their parents' resources and student loans to pay for their postsecondary education. In this study I ask how parents' income and education are linked to young adults' student loan debt. I develop and test two perspectives regarding the…

  14. Gender-dependent associations between socioeconomic status and metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study in the adult Saudi population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine the gender-dependent association of socio-economic status variables with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the adult Saudi population. Methods A total of 9164 adult Saudis (aged 18–70 years) were included in this cross-sectional study. Marital status, income, education, and occupation were used as socio-economic indicators while behavioral factor like physical exercise was also taken into account. MetS was defined using the criteria based from the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III). Results In males, the odds ratio (OR) of harboring MetS was higher in married [OR1.6 (Confidence Interval (CI) 1.1, 2.4); p < 0.03], and high income class [OR 2.3(CI 1.5, 3.5); p < 0.001] and lowest in retired and unemployed individuals [1.4(1.0, 1.9); p < 0.04, 0.61(0.45, 0.82); p < 0.001] respectively. In females, MetS was inversely related to high income [OR 0.70 (CI 0.46, 1.1); p < 0.09] and education level [OR 0.38 (CI 0.26, 0.56); p < 0.001], and was significantly higher in the unemployed class [OR 1.6 (CI 1.2, 2.2); p < 0.004]. Conclusions The prevalence of MetS is significantly high among retired, married and high-earning Saudi males while in females, high earners and high education seem to confer a protective effect against MetS. PMID:24735007

  15. Training in Influencing Skills from Neuro-Linguistic Programming (Modelled from Hypnosis and Family Therapy), in Combination with Innovative Maths Pedagogy, Raises Maths Attainment in Adult Numeracy Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, F.; Bourne, J.; Bouch, D.; Churches, R.; Dennison, J.; Evans, J.; Fowler, J.; Jeffers, A.; Prior, E.; Rhodes, L.

    2012-01-01

    Case study research suggests that NLP [neuro-linguistic programming] influencing strategies benefit teacher effectiveness. Maths pedagogy involving higher-order questioning, challenge, problem solving and collaborative working may be a way of improving attainment in adult numeracy learning, however, such strategies may be less effective if the…

  16. Association of an adult obesity, blood pressure adulthood socio-economic position

    PubMed Central

    Siadat, Zahra Dana; Abdoli, AminReza; Shahsanaee, Armindokht

    2012-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to investigate an effect of childhood and adulthood socio-economic position on selected cardiovascular risk factors including obesity, blood pressure level and smoking behavior. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study performed on 479 individuals, randomly selected by random clustered sampling from men and women aged 30-50 years, living in Esfahan. Their demographic characteristics, education, occupation and smoking behavior were questioned. Their weight, height and blood pressure were also measured, and their BMI (Body Mass Index) was calculated. The data were analyzed by SPSS 19 software. Results: In men, the odds ratio for ever smoking to never smoking at higher levels of education in comparison with the lower levels was 6.08 (2.65-14.11). For manual occupation to non-manual occupation, it was 3.55 (1.88-6.68). The odds ratio for obesity and overweight vs no overweight, for manual occupation to non-manual occupation was 3.12 (1.81-5.40) in men and for father's occupation it was 2.03 (1.10-3.74). In women, their education with the odds ratio of 2.11 (1.17-3.82) and father's occupation with the odds ratio of 6.63 (3.50-12.58) altered their chance of being obese or overweight. Also, in women, the mean systolic blood pressure was significantly lower at higher educational levels and in those whose fathers’ occupation were manual but lower in manual workers. Conclusion: The current socio-economic position in individuals is associated with an obesity and smoking behavior, particularly in men. Childhood socio-economic position increases the chance of an obesity and higher blood pressure, particularly in women. PMID:23267372

  17. Prematurity, Birth Weight, and Socioeconomic Status Are Linked to Atypical Diurnal Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activity in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Winchester, Suzy Barcelos; Sullivan, Mary C; Roberts, Mary B; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-02-01

    In a prospective, case-controlled longitudinal design, 180 preterm and fullterm infants who had been enrolled at birth participated in a comprehensive assessment battery at age 23. Of these, 149 young adults, 34 formerly full-term and 115 formerly preterm (22 healthy preterm, 48 with medical complications, 21 with neurological complications, and 24 small for gestational age) donated five saliva samples from a single day that were assayed for cortisol to assess diurnal variation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Analyses were conducted to determine whether prematurity category, birth weight, and socioeconomic status were associated with differences in HPA axis function. Pre- and perinatal circumstances associated with prematurity influenced the activity of this environmentally sensitive physiological system. Results are consistent with the theory of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease and highlight a possible mechanism for the link between prematurity and health disparities later in life. PMID:26676400

  18. Prescription Drug Use Among Adults With Chronic Conditions in South Korea: Dual Burden of Health Care Needs and Socioeconomic Vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Jung, Youn; Byeon, Jinok; Chung, Haejoo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the social determinants of prescription drug use among adults with chronic diseases by examining the associations between socioeconomic position and prescription medicine use and perceived burden for pharmaceutical expenditure, using a sample of the Korean population from the 2008 Korea Health Panel, with 4 analytic models. Controlled with health status and the type of health insurance, the probability of using prescription drugs and overall spending on drugs significantly increased with rising income level, while perceived burden for out-of-pocket payment significantly decreased. These results imply that the poor are likely to underuse prescription drugs compared with their wealthier counterparts with the same need for health care, probably due to economic barriers. PMID:26512028

  19. Prescription Drug Use Among Adults With Chronic Conditions in South Korea: Dual Burden of Health Care Needs and Socioeconomic Vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Jung, Youn; Byeon, Jinok; Chung, Haejoo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the social determinants of prescription drug use among adults with chronic diseases by examining the associations between socioeconomic position and prescription medicine use and perceived burden for pharmaceutical expenditure, using a sample of the Korean population from the 2008 Korea Health Panel, with 4 analytic models. Controlled with health status and the type of health insurance, the probability of using prescription drugs and overall spending on drugs significantly increased with rising income level, while perceived burden for out-of-pocket payment significantly decreased. These results imply that the poor are likely to underuse prescription drugs compared with their wealthier counterparts with the same need for health care, probably due to economic barriers.

  20. Socio-economic dietary inequalities in UK adults: an updated picture of key food groups and nutrients from national surveillance data.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Eva R; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-01-14

    Socio-economic differences in diet are a potential contributor to health inequalities. The present study provides an up-to-date picture of socio-economic differences in diet in the UK, focusing on the consumption of three food groups and two nutrients of public health concern: fruit and vegetables; red and processed meat; oily fish; saturated fats; non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES). We analysed data for 1491 adults (age ≥ 19 years) from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2008-2011. Socio-economic indicators were household income, occupational social class and highest educational qualification. Covariate-adjusted estimates for intakes of fruit and vegetables, red and processed meat, and both nutrients were estimated using general linear models. Covariate-adjusted OR for oily fish consumption were derived with logistic regression models. We observed consistent socio-economic gradients in the consumption of the three food groups as estimated by all the three indicators. Contrasting highest and lowest levels of each socio-economic indicator, we observed significant differences in intakes for the three food groups and NMES. Depending on the socio-economic indicator, highest socio-economic groups consumed up to 128 g/d more fruit and vegetables, 26 g/d less red and processed meat, and 2·6% points less NMES (P< 0·05 for all). Relative to lowest socio-economic groups, highest socio-economic groups were 2·4 to 4·0 times more likely to eat oily fish. No significant patterns in saturated fat consumption were apparent. In conclusion, socio-economic differences were identified in the consumption of food groups and one nutrient of public health importance. Aligning dietary intakes with public health guidance may require interventions specifically designed to reduce health inequalities.

  1. Socio-economic dietary inequalities in UK adults: an updated picture of key food groups and nutrients from national surveillance data.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Eva R; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-01-14

    Socio-economic differences in diet are a potential contributor to health inequalities. The present study provides an up-to-date picture of socio-economic differences in diet in the UK, focusing on the consumption of three food groups and two nutrients of public health concern: fruit and vegetables; red and processed meat; oily fish; saturated fats; non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES). We analysed data for 1491 adults (age ≥ 19 years) from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2008-2011. Socio-economic indicators were household income, occupational social class and highest educational qualification. Covariate-adjusted estimates for intakes of fruit and vegetables, red and processed meat, and both nutrients were estimated using general linear models. Covariate-adjusted OR for oily fish consumption were derived with logistic regression models. We observed consistent socio-economic gradients in the consumption of the three food groups as estimated by all the three indicators. Contrasting highest and lowest levels of each socio-economic indicator, we observed significant differences in intakes for the three food groups and NMES. Depending on the socio-economic indicator, highest socio-economic groups consumed up to 128 g/d more fruit and vegetables, 26 g/d less red and processed meat, and 2·6% points less NMES (P< 0·05 for all). Relative to lowest socio-economic groups, highest socio-economic groups were 2·4 to 4·0 times more likely to eat oily fish. No significant patterns in saturated fat consumption were apparent. In conclusion, socio-economic differences were identified in the consumption of food groups and one nutrient of public health importance. Aligning dietary intakes with public health guidance may require interventions specifically designed to reduce health inequalities. PMID:25399952

  2. Trends and group differences in the association between educational attainment and U.S. adult mortality: implications for understanding education's causal influence.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Mark D; Hummer, Robert A; Sasson, Isaac

    2015-02-01

    Has the shape of the association between educational attainment and U.S. adult mortality changed in recent decades? If so, is it changing consistently across demographic groups? What can changes in the shape of the association tell us about the possible mechanisms in play for improving health and lowering mortality risk over the adult life course? This paper develops the argument that societal technological change may have had profound effects on the importance of educational attainment - particularly advanced education - in the U.S. adult population for garnering health advantages and that these changes should be reflected in changes in the functional form of the association between educational attainment and mortality. We review the historical evidence on the changing functional form of the association, drawing on studies based in the United States, to assess whether these changes are consistent with our argument about the role of technological change. We also provide an updated analysis of these functional form patterns and trends, contrasting data from the early 21st Century with data from the late 20th Century. This updated evidence suggests that the shape of the association between educational attainment and U.S. adult mortality appears to be reflecting lower and lower adult mortality for very highly educated Americans compared to their low-educated counterparts in the 21st Century. We draw on this review and updated evidence to reflect on the question whether education's association with adult mortality has become increasingly causal in recent decades, why, and the potential research, policy, and global implications of these changes. PMID:25440841

  3. Trends and group differences in the association between educational attainment and U.S. adult mortality: implications for understanding education's causal influence.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Mark D; Hummer, Robert A; Sasson, Isaac

    2015-02-01

    Has the shape of the association between educational attainment and U.S. adult mortality changed in recent decades? If so, is it changing consistently across demographic groups? What can changes in the shape of the association tell us about the possible mechanisms in play for improving health and lowering mortality risk over the adult life course? This paper develops the argument that societal technological change may have had profound effects on the importance of educational attainment - particularly advanced education - in the U.S. adult population for garnering health advantages and that these changes should be reflected in changes in the functional form of the association between educational attainment and mortality. We review the historical evidence on the changing functional form of the association, drawing on studies based in the United States, to assess whether these changes are consistent with our argument about the role of technological change. We also provide an updated analysis of these functional form patterns and trends, contrasting data from the early 21st Century with data from the late 20th Century. This updated evidence suggests that the shape of the association between educational attainment and U.S. adult mortality appears to be reflecting lower and lower adult mortality for very highly educated Americans compared to their low-educated counterparts in the 21st Century. We draw on this review and updated evidence to reflect on the question whether education's association with adult mortality has become increasingly causal in recent decades, why, and the potential research, policy, and global implications of these changes.

  4. Long-Range Socioeconomic and Marital Consequences of Adolescent Marriage in Three Cohorts of Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teti, Douglas M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Studied long-term consequences of adolescent marriage in three age cohorts of males. Found that Black and White males who married as adolescents completed less education, earned less, held lower-status occupations, and experienced more marital disruption than did peers who married as adults. (Author/NB)

  5. Local Modelling Techniques for Assessing Micro-Level Impacts of Risk Factors in Complex Data: Understanding Health and Socioeconomic Inequalities in Childhood Educational Attainments

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shang-Ming; Lyons, Ronan A.; Bodger, Owen G.; John, Ann; Brunt, Huw; Jones, Kerina; Gravenor, Mike B.; Brophy, Sinead

    2014-01-01

    Although inequalities in health and socioeconomic status have an important influence on childhood educational performance, the interactions between these multiple factors relating to variation in educational outcomes at micro-level is unknown, and how to evaluate the many possible interactions of these factors is not well established. This paper aims to examine multi-dimensional deprivation factors and their impact on childhood educational outcomes at micro-level, focusing on geographic areas having widely different disparity patterns, in which each area is characterised by six deprivation domains (Income, Health, Geographical Access to Services, Housing, Physical Environment, and Community Safety). Traditional health statistical studies tend to use one global model to describe the whole population for macro-analysis. In this paper, we combine linked educational and deprivation data across small areas (median population of 1500), then use a local modelling technique, the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy system, to predict area educational outcomes at ages 7 and 11. We define two new metrics, “Micro-impact of Domain” and “Contribution of Domain”, to quantify the variations of local impacts of multidimensional factors on educational outcomes across small areas. The two metrics highlight differing priorities. Our study reveals complex multi-way interactions between the deprivation domains, which could not be provided by traditional health statistical methods based on single global model. We demonstrate that although Income has an expected central role, all domains contribute, and in some areas Health, Environment, Access to Services, Housing and Community Safety each could be the dominant factor. Thus the relative importance of health and socioeconomic factors varies considerably for different areas, depending on the levels of each of the other factors, and therefore each component of deprivation must be considered as part of a wider system. Childhood educational

  6. Local modelling techniques for assessing micro-level impacts of risk factors in complex data: understanding health and socioeconomic inequalities in childhood educational attainments.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shang-Ming; Lyons, Ronan A; Bodger, Owen G; John, Ann; Brunt, Huw; Jones, Kerina; Gravenor, Mike B; Brophy, Sinead

    2014-01-01

    Although inequalities in health and socioeconomic status have an important influence on childhood educational performance, the interactions between these multiple factors relating to variation in educational outcomes at micro-level is unknown, and how to evaluate the many possible interactions of these factors is not well established. This paper aims to examine multi-dimensional deprivation factors and their impact on childhood educational outcomes at micro-level, focusing on geographic areas having widely different disparity patterns, in which each area is characterised by six deprivation domains (Income, Health, Geographical Access to Services, Housing, Physical Environment, and Community Safety). Traditional health statistical studies tend to use one global model to describe the whole population for macro-analysis. In this paper, we combine linked educational and deprivation data across small areas (median population of 1500), then use a local modelling technique, the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy system, to predict area educational outcomes at ages 7 and 11. We define two new metrics, "Micro-impact of Domain" and "Contribution of Domain", to quantify the variations of local impacts of multidimensional factors on educational outcomes across small areas. The two metrics highlight differing priorities. Our study reveals complex multi-way interactions between the deprivation domains, which could not be provided by traditional health statistical methods based on single global model. We demonstrate that although Income has an expected central role, all domains contribute, and in some areas Health, Environment, Access to Services, Housing and Community Safety each could be the dominant factor. Thus the relative importance of health and socioeconomic factors varies considerably for different areas, depending on the levels of each of the other factors, and therefore each component of deprivation must be considered as part of a wider system. Childhood educational achievement could

  7. Reach and Effectiveness of an Integrated Community-Based Intervention on Physical Activity and Healthy Eating of Older Adults in a Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luten, Karla A.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Dijkstra, Arie; de Winter, Andrea F.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the reach and effectiveness of an integrated community-based intervention designed to promote physical activity and healthy eating among older adults in a socioeconomically disadvantaged community in the Netherlands. The intervention was evaluated with a controlled pre-post quasi-experimental design, with 430…

  8. Knowledge of Food Production Methods Informs Attitudes toward Food but Not Food Choice in Adults Residing in Socioeconomically Deprived Rural Areas within the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Maria; Kearney, John; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Understand food choice, from the perspective of people residing in socioeconomically deprived rural neighborhoods. Methods: Focus groups (n = 7) were undertaken within a community setting involving 42 adults (2 males and 40 females) recruited through voluntary action groups. Data were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and content…

  9. The Mediating Effects of Lifestyle Factors on the Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Self-Rated Health among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhyun

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about how different lifestyle factors mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health among middle-aged and older adults in Korea. Using data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, this study examined the direct effects of SES on self-rated health and how lifestyle factors mediate the relationships…

  10. Socioeconomic Position and Health-Seeking Behavior for Hearing Loss Among Older Adults in England

    PubMed Central

    Grundy, Emily; Ploubidis, George B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine whether socioeconomic position (SEP) is associated with progression in the health-seeking process for hearing loss. Method. Logistic regression of data from a cross-sectional survey representative of noninstitutionalized, 50 years and older population of England (ELSA wave 2, 2004). Using self-reported hearing difficulty as starting point, we examined the association between SEP and health-seeking behaviors in 6 stages leading to hearing aid acquisition and use. Results. Higher SEP was associated with lower odds of self-reported hearing difficulty, adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83–0.91, p < .001). There was marginal negative association between higher SEP and receiving hearing aid recommendation (adjusted OR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.78–0.99, p = .05). SEP was not associated with any other stage of health-seeking behavior. Discussion. Among the noninstitutionalized older population of England, SEP-related inequalities exist in the prevalence of self-reported hearing loss. However, SEP is not strongly associated with progression in the remaining stages of health-seeking process during and after an individual’s contact with the health system. PMID:24663332

  11. Socioeconomic Inequality in Disability Among Adults: A Multicountry Study Using the World Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad R.; Stewart Williams, Jennifer A.; Gautam, Jeny; Posarac, Aleksandra; Officer, Alana; Verdes, Emese; Kostanjsek, Nenad

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We compared national prevalence and wealth-related inequality in disability across a large number of countries from all income groups. Methods. Data on 218 737 respondents participating in the World Health Survey 2002–2004 were analyzed. A composite disability score (0–100) identified respondents who experienced significant disability in physical, mental, and social functioning irrespective of their underlying health condition. Disabled persons had disability composite scores above 40. Wealth was evaluated using an index of economic status in households based on ownership of selected assets. Socioeconomic inequalities were measured using the slope index of inequality and the relative index of inequality. Results. Median age-standardized disability prevalence was higher in the low- and lower middle-income countries. In all the study countries, disability was more prevalent in the poorest than in the richest wealth quintiles. Pro-rich inequality was statistically significant in 43 of 49 countries, with disability prevalence higher among populations with lower wealth. Median relative inequality was higher in the high- and upper middle-income countries. Conclusions. Integrating equity components into the monitoring of disability trends would help ensure that interventions reach and benefit populations with greatest need. PMID:23678901

  12. Socioeconomic Position Is Positively Associated With Blood Pressure Dipping Among African-American Adults: The Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Hickson, DeMarc A; Diez Roux, Ana V; Wyatt, Sharon B; Gebreab, Samson Y; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Sarpong, Daniel F; Taylor, Herman A; Wofford, Marion R

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Blunted nocturnal blood pressure (NBP) dipping is a significant predictor of cardiovascular events. Lower socioeconomic position (SEP) may be an important predictor of NBP dipping, especially in African Americans (AA). However, the determinants of NBP dipping are not fully understood. METHODS The cross-sectional associations of individual and neighborhood SEP with NBP dipping, assessed by 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring, were examined among 837 AA adults (Mean age: 59.2 ± 10.7 years; 69.2% women), after adjustment for age, sex, hypertension status, body mass index (BMI), health behaviors, office, and 24-h systolic BP (SBP). RESULTS The mean hourly SBP was consistently lower among participants in the highest category of individual income compared to those in the lowest category, and these differences were most pronounced during sleeping hours. The odds of NBP dipping (defined as >10% decline in the mean asleep SBP compared to the mean awake SBP) increased by 31% (95% confidence interval: 13–53%) and 18% (95% confidence interval: 0–39%) for each s.d. increase in income and years of education, respectively, after multivariable adjustment. CONCLUSIONS NBP dipping is patterned by income and education in AA adults even after accounting for known risk factors. These results suggest that low SEP is a risk factor for insufficient NBP dipping in AA. PMID:21654853

  13. Association between weight perception and socioeconomic status among adults in the Seychelles

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the association between weight perception and socioeconomic status (SES) in sub-Saharan Africa, and none made this association based on education, occupation and income simultaneously. Methods Based on a population-based survey (n = 1255) in the Seychelles, weight and height were measured and self-perception of one's own body weight, education, occupation, and income were assessed by a questionnaire. Individuals were considered to have appropriate weight perception when their self-perceived weight matched their actual body weight. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 35% and 28%, respectively. Multivariate analysis among overweight/obese persons showed that appropriate weight perception was directly associated with actual weight, education, occupation and income, and that it was more frequent among women than among men. In a model using all three SES indicators together, only education (OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.3-4.8) and occupation (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.2-4.5) were independently associated with appropriate perception of being overweight. The OR reached 6.9 [95% CI: 3.4-14.1] when comparing the highest vs. lowest categories of SES based on a score including all SES indicators and 6.1 [95% CI: 3.0-12.1] for a score based on education and occupation. Conclusions Appropriately perceiving one's weight as too high was associated with different SES indicators, female sex and being actually overweight. These findings suggest means and targets for clinical and population-based interventions for weight control. Further studies should examine whether these differences in weight perception underlie differences in cognitive skills, healthy weight norms, or body size ideals. PMID:20696072

  14. How do socio-economic status, perceived economic barriers and nutritional benefits affect quality of dietary intake among US adults?

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, May A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Socio-economic factors may affect diet quality, perhaps differentially across gender and ethnicity. The mechanism of this association is still largely unknown. Objectives We examined the independent effects of socio-economic status (SES), perceived barrier of food price (PBFP), and perceived benefit of diet quality (PBDQ) on diet quality indicators and indices (DQIj,k), across gender and ethnicity. Additionally, we estimated the mediation proportion of the effect of SES on DQIj,k through PBFP and PBDQ. Methods Data from two cross-sectional surveys, the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) and Diet and Health Knowledge Survey (DHKS) 1994–96 were used. Our sample consisted of 4,356 US adults aged 20–65 years. With principal components analysis, SES (an index) was measured using household income per capita and education, and PBDQ was measured using an 11-item scale. PBFP was defined as the ratio of importance of food price score relative to nutrition. DQIj,k were assessed by a set of indicators and two indices including the Healthy Eating Index. Results The associations between SES, PBFP, PBDQ, and DQIj,k varied significantly across gender and ethnic groups. PBFP acted as a mediator in the association between SES and selected DQIj indicators, namely energy, fat intake, sodium, and simple sugar consumption (mediation proportion>10%), but not PBDQ. Conclusions SES, PBFP and PBDQ all affect dietary intake, and vary by ethnicity and gender. Positive effect of SES on DQIj,k may be mediated by PBFP but not PBDQ which is an independent protective factor. Nutrition education is important to promote healthy eating. PMID:17342164

  15. Socioeconomic Considerations and Shared-Care Models of Cancer Care for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Dale, William; Chow, Selina; Sajid, Saleha

    2016-02-01

    Older adults with cancer require a geriatrics approach to treatment. Such an approach targets appropriate treatments based on physiologic, not chronologic, age. Patients older than 65 years of age constitute the largest group of patients with cancer, making them the most expensive group of patients with cancer, especially with the advent of expensive new treatments with minimal impact on overall survival. Geriatric assessment, combined with targeted inventions, can optimize the value propositions in caring for older patients with cancer. Over the past 20 years, geriatric oncology care models have emerged applying these care principles in clinical practice.

  16. Socioeconomic Considerations and Shared-Care Models of Cancer Care for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Dale, William; Chow, Selina; Sajid, Saleha

    2016-02-01

    Older adults with cancer require a geriatrics approach to treatment. Such an approach targets appropriate treatments based on physiologic, not chronologic, age. Patients older than 65 years of age constitute the largest group of patients with cancer, making them the most expensive group of patients with cancer, especially with the advent of expensive new treatments with minimal impact on overall survival. Geriatric assessment, combined with targeted inventions, can optimize the value propositions in caring for older patients with cancer. Over the past 20 years, geriatric oncology care models have emerged applying these care principles in clinical practice. PMID:26614859

  17. Adiposity and stroke among older adults of low socioeconomic status: the Chicago Stroke Study.

    PubMed Central

    DiPietro, L; Ostfeld, A M; Rosner, G L

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that overall and truncal adiposity increase the risk of stroke independent of their association with cardiovascular disease risk factors and other preexisting illnesses. METHODS. Analyses were conducted of longitudinal data from a poor, biracial cohort of noninstitutionalized adults 65 to 74 years of age who participated in the Chicago Stroke Study from 1965 to 1970. RESULTS. Ponderal index (cm/kg1/3) and chest skinfold were significantly associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum cholesterol and triglycerides, plasma glucose, and smoking. Ponderal index was also associated with diabetes and risk of stroke. After potential confounders were controlled, the following variables showed significant independent associations with risk of stroke: Black race, female gender, and age 70+; hypertensive heart disease; and diabetes. Neither adiposity variable was associated with risk of stroke in the presence of these powerful predictors. CONCLUSIONS. Control of hypertension and diabetes continues to be important among older adults. Since excess adiposity seems to influence risk of stroke through its association with these disorders and other cardiovascular disease risk factors, control of weight and fat remains an important concern as well. PMID:8279605

  18. Stressors May Compromise Medication Adherence among Adults with Diabetes and Low Socioeconomic Status

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, Chandra Y.; Mayberry, Lindsay S.; Wagner, Julie A.; Welch, Garry W.

    2014-01-01

    Studies examining the impact of stressors on diabetes self-care have been limited by focusing on a single stressor or have been largely qualitative. Therefore, we assessed the stressors experienced by a high-risk population with type 2 diabetes, and tested whether having more stressors was associated with less adherence to multiple self-care behaviors. Participants were recruited from a Federally Qualified Health Center and 192 completed a stressors checklist. Experiencing more stressors was associated with less adherence to diet recommendations and medications among participants who were trying to be adherent, but was not associated with adherence to other self-care behaviors. Because having more stressors was also associated with more depressive symptoms, we further adjusted for depressive symptoms; stressors remained associated with less adherence to medications, but not to diet recommendations. For adults engaged in adherence, experiencing numerous chronic stressors presents barriers to adherence that are distinct from associated depressive symptoms. PMID:24569697

  19. Micronutrient intakes among children and adults in Greece: the role of age, sex and socio-economic status.

    PubMed

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Mavrogianni, Christina; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Cécile

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to report the usual nutrient intakes of sixteen micronutrients by schoolchildren, adults and the elderly in Greece and to further explore the role of age, sex and socio-economic status (SES) on meeting the recommended nutrient intakes. Dietary intake, demographic and SES data from three existing studies conducted in Greece (in 9-13-year-old children; 40-60-year-old adults; and 50-75-year-old women) were collected. The prevalence of study participants with inadequate micronutrient intakes were assessed using the estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-point method. Regarding sex and age differences, the highest prevalences of inadequate nutrient intakes occurred in post-menopausal women. In both sexes and all age groups, the prevalence of vitamin D intake below EAR reached 100%. Furthermore, nutrient intakes of 75% or more below EAR were found for vitamin E in all age groups, folate in women and for calcium and magnesium in post-menopausal women (p < 0.05). Regarding SES differences, the prevalences of inadequate calcium and vitamin C intakes were higher for children and postmenopausal women of lower SES compared to their higher SES counterparts (p < 0.05). The current study reported the highest prevalences of inadequate intakes for both sexes and all age and SES groups for calcium, folate and vitamins D and E. These findings could provide guidance to public health policy makers in terms of updating current dietary guidelines and fortifying foods to meet the needs of all population subgroups. PMID:25285410

  20. A systematic review of the effectiveness of individual, community and societal-level interventions at reducing socio-economic inequalities in obesity among adults

    PubMed Central

    Hillier-Brown, F C; Bambra, C L; Cairns, J-M; Kasim, A; Moore, H J; Summerbell, C D

    2014-01-01

    Background: Socioeconomic inequalities in obesity are well established in high-income countries. There is a lack of evidence of the types of intervention that are effective in reducing these inequalities among adults. Objectives: To systematically review studies of the effectiveness of individual, community and societal interventions in reducing socio-economic inequalities in obesity among adults. Methods: Nine electronic databases were searched from start date to October 2012 along with website and grey literature searches. The review examined the best available international evidence (both experimental and observational) of interventions at an individual, community and societal level that might reduce inequalities in obesity among adults (aged 18 years or over) in any setting and country. Studies were included if they reported a body fatness-related outcome and if they included a measure of socio-economic status. Data extraction and quality appraisal were conducted using established mechanisms and narrative synthesis was conducted. Results: The ‘best available' international evidence was provided by 20 studies. At the individual level, there was evidence of the effectiveness of primary care delivered tailored weight loss programmes among deprived groups. Community based behavioural weight loss interventions and community diet clubs (including workplace ones) also had some evidence of effectiveness—at least in the short term. Societal level evaluations were few, low quality and inconclusive. Further, there was little evidence of long term effectiveness, and few studies of men or outside the USA. However, there was no evidence to suggest that interventions increase inequalities. Conclusions: The best available international evidence suggests that some individual and community-based interventions may be effective in reducing socio-economic inequalities in obesity among adults in the short term. Further research is required particularly of more complex, multi

  1. Student Progress and Goal Attainment Report: Adult School Programs in California. Program Year July 1, 2006, to June 30, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    The 285 adult schools in California enrolled 1,206,864 adult learners supported through state apportionment funds in program year 2006-07. This report presents the results of data collected by the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (CASAS) from all learners enrolled in California adult schools. The report analysis was prepared by…

  2. Effects of socio-economic and behavioural characteristics in explaining central obesity--a study on adult Asian Indians in Calcutta, India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arnab

    2006-06-01

    The present cross-sectional study on adult Asian Indians in Calcutta, India was undertaken to look into the effects of socio-economic and behavioural characteristics in explaining waist-hip ratio (WHR). A total of 500 apparently healthy individuals (300 men and 200 women) were subjects in the study. A random sampling procedure using local voter's registration list was followed to select the subjects. Only one adult (> or = 30 years) from each household was considered as participant. A total of 24 items, 14 socio-economic and 10 behavioural characters were considered. For socio-economic characters, a number of items namely employment status, types of occupation, education status, nature of housing and marital status were taken into consideration. Smoking status, physical exercise by means of outdoor activity, drinking habits and diets on the other hand were considered as behavioural characters. Information on socio-economic and behavioural characteristics was collected using an open-ended schedule specifically designed in this regard. Anthropometric measures namely height, weight and circumference of waist and hip were obtained from participants using standard techniques. The median WHR for men and women was 0.94 and 0.90 respectively. Analysis of variance revealed significant sex difference for all anthropometric measures. It was observed that more women were leading sedentary (outdoor activity not housework was considered) life than men (85.4% vs. 75.4%). Furthermore, women were predominantly nonsmokers (98.8%) whereas 40.2% men were smokers as against 51.4% ex-smokers (those who have quitted smoking during past two years). Multiple regression analysis (adjusted for age and sex) of WHR by socio-economic and behavioural characters revealed that occupation, housing, marital status, smoking condition, physical exercise, drinking habits and diets pattern cumulatively explains 75% (R2=0.75) of total variation of WHR in the study population.

  3. Socioeconomic differences in the benefits of structured physical activity compared with health education on the prevention of major mobility disability in older adults: the LIFE study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haiying; Bonell, Chris; Glynn, Nancy W; Fielding, Roger A; Manini, Todd; King, Abby C; Pahor, Marco; Mihalko, Shannon L; Gill, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence is lacking on whether health-benefiting community-based interventions differ in their effectiveness according to socioeconomic characteristics. We evaluated whether the benefit of a structured physical activity intervention on reducing mobility disability in older adults differs by education or income. Methods The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study was a multicentre, randomised trial that compared a structured physical activity programme with a health education programme on the incidence of mobility disability among at-risk community-living older adults (aged 70–89 years; average follow-up of 2.6 years). Education (≤ high school (0–12 years), college (13–17 years) or postgraduate) and annual household income were self-reported (<$24 999, $25 000 to $49 999 and ≥$50 000). The risk of disability (objectively defined as loss of ability to walk 400 m) was compared between the 2 treatment groups using Cox regression, separately by socioeconomic group. Socioeconomic group×intervention interaction terms were tested. Results The effect of reducing the incidence of mobility disability was larger for those with postgraduate education (0.72, 0.51 to 1.03; N=411) compared with lower education (high school or less (0.93, 0.70 to 1.24; N=536). However, the education group×intervention interaction term was not statistically significant (p=0.54). Findings were in the same direction yet less pronounced when household income was used as the socioeconomic indicator. Conclusions In the largest and longest running trial of physical activity amongst at-risk older adults, intervention effect sizes were largest among those with higher education or income, yet tests of statistical interactions were non-significant, likely due to inadequate power. Trial registration number NCT01072500. PMID:27060177

  4. Association of Socioeconomic Position and Demographic Characteristics with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Healthcare Access among Adults Living in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia.

    PubMed

    Hosey, G M; Samo, M; Gregg, E W; Barker, L; Padden, D; Bibb, S G

    2014-01-01

    Background. The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing in low-to-middle income countries. We examined how socioeconomic and demographic characteristics may be associated with CVD risk factors and healthcare access in such countries. Methods. We extracted data from the World Health Organization's STEPwise approach to surveillance 2002 cross-sectional dataset from Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). We used these data to estimate associations for socioeconomic position (education, income, and employment) and demographics (age, sex, and urban/rural) with CVD risk factors and with healthcare access, among a sample of 1638 adults (25-64 years). Results. In general, we found significantly higher proportions of daily tobacco use among men than women and respondents reporting primary-level education (<9 years) than among those with postsecondary education (>12 years). Results also revealed significant positive associations between paid employment and waist circumference and systolic blood pressure. Healthcare access did not differ significantly by socioeconomic position. Women reported significantly higher mean waist circumference than men. Conclusion. Our results suggest that socioeconomic position and demographic characteristics impact CVD risk factors and healthcare access in FSM. This understanding may help decision-makers tailor population-level policies and programs. The 2002 Pohnpei data provides a baseline; subsequent population health surveillance data might define trends.

  5. Association of Socioeconomic Position and Demographic Characteristics with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Healthcare Access among Adults Living in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia

    PubMed Central

    Hosey, G. M.; Samo, M.; Gregg, E. W.; Barker, L.; Padden, D.; Bibb, S. G.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing in low-to-middle income countries. We examined how socioeconomic and demographic characteristics may be associated with CVD risk factors and healthcare access in such countries. Methods. We extracted data from the World Health Organization's STEPwise approach to surveillance 2002 cross-sectional dataset from Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). We used these data to estimate associations for socioeconomic position (education, income, and employment) and demographics (age, sex, and urban/rural) with CVD risk factors and with healthcare access, among a sample of 1638 adults (25–64 years). Results. In general, we found significantly higher proportions of daily tobacco use among men than women and respondents reporting primary-level education (<9 years) than among those with postsecondary education (>12 years). Results also revealed significant positive associations between paid employment and waist circumference and systolic blood pressure. Healthcare access did not differ significantly by socioeconomic position. Women reported significantly higher mean waist circumference than men. Conclusion. Our results suggest that socioeconomic position and demographic characteristics impact CVD risk factors and healthcare access in FSM. This understanding may help decision-makers tailor population-level policies and programs. The 2002 Pohnpei data provides a baseline; subsequent population health surveillance data might define trends. PMID:26464859

  6. Getting Bigger, Quicker? Gendered Socioeconomic Trajectories in Body Mass Index across the Adult Lifecourse: A Longitudinal Study of 21,403 Australians.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaoqi; Wilson, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Do socioeconomic inequities in body mass index (BMI) widen across the adult lifecourse? BMI data for 29,104 male and 32,454 female person-years aged 15 years and older (21,403 persons in total) were extracted from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia between 2006 and 2012. Multilevel linear regression was used to examine age and gender specific trajectories in BMI by quintiles of neighborhood socioeconomic circumstance. Models were adjusted for probable sources of confounding, including couple status, number of children resident, if somebody in the household had been pregnant in the last 12 months, the highest level of education achieved, the average household gross income, and the percentage of time in the last year spent unemployed. Approximately 9.6% of BMI variation was observed between neighborhoods. High neighborhood disadvantage was associated with 2.09 kg/m2 heavier BMI (95%CI 1.82, 2.36). At age 15-24y, socioeconomic inequity in BMI was already evident among men and women especially (22.6 kg/m2 among women in the most affluent areas compared with 25.4 kg/m2 among the most disadvantaged). Among women only, the socioeconomic gap widened from 2.8 kg/m2 at age 15-24y to 3.2 kg/m2 by age 35-44y. Geographical factors may contribute to more rapid weight gain among women living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:26496435

  7. Area-Based Socioeconomic Position and Adult Glioma: A Hierarchical Analysis of Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Data

    PubMed Central

    Plascak, Jesse J.; Fisher, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Glioma rates vary by demographic factors and geo-political boundaries and this variation suggests higher glioma rates in groups of higher socioeconomic position. The primary goal of this analysis is to investigate the relationship between glioma and county socioeconomic position using U.S. Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data. Methods Cases were individuals 25+ years diagnosed with glioma between 2000 and 2006 and residing within the SEER-17 catchment area. County-, sex-, race-, age-specific rates were created in order to investigate individual-level associations (population data from U.S. Census 2000). A Bayesian hierarchical Poisson spatial conditionally autoregressive (CAR) model was utilized to simultaneously estimate individual- and county-level associations while controlling for county spatial dependence. Results Those residing in counties of the second, third, and fourth highest quartiles of socioeconomic position have glioma incidence rates that are 1.10 (95% CI: 1.02,1.19), 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02,1.20), 1.14 (95% CI: 1.05,1.23) times that of the first quartile, respectively. A CAR model properly controlled for error spatial dependence. Investigated lag times suggest year 2000 census data yields superior model fit. Conclusion Demographically adjusted rates of glioma are elevated in counties of higher socioeconomic position. More well-grounded theory concerning the glioma-socioeconomic position association along with socioeconomic data collected at multiple levels is recommended for future studies investigating this relationship. PMID:23585860

  8. A Tale of Two City Blocks: Differences in Immature and Adult Mosquito Abundances between Socioeconomically Different Urban Blocks in Baltimore (Maryland, USA)

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Brian; Leisnham, Paul T.; LaDeau, Shannon L.

    2014-01-01

    Infrastructure degradation in many post-industrial cities has increased the availability of potential mosquito habitats, including container habitats that support infestations of invasive disease-vectors. This study is unique in examining both immature and adult mosquito abundance across the fine-scale variability in socio-economic condition that occurs block-to-block in many cities. We hypothesized that abundant garbage associated with infrastructure degradation would support greater mosquito production but instead, found more mosquito larvae and host-seeking adults (86%) in parcels across the higher socio-economic, low-decay block. Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens were 5.61 (p < 0.001) and 4.60 (p = 0.001) times more abundant, respectively. Most discarded (garbage) containers were dry during peak mosquito production, which occurred during the 5th hottest July on record. Containers associated with human residence were more likely to hold water and contain immature mosquitoes. We propose that mosquito production switches from rain-fed unmanaged containers early in the season to container habitats that are purposefully shaded or watered by mid-season. This study suggests that residents living in higher socioeconomic areas with low urban decay may be at greater risk of mosquito-borne disease during peak mosquito production when local container habitats are effectively decoupled from environmental constraints. PMID:24651396

  9. Social consequences of early socioeconomic adversity and youth BMI trajectories: gender and race/ethnicity differences.

    PubMed

    Bae, Dayoung; Wickrama, K A S; O'Neal, Catherine Walker

    2014-08-01

    The present study investigated the mediating effects of adolescent BMI trajectories on socioeconomic continuity over the early life course using a nationally representative sample of 11,075 respondents. This study considered both the initial severity as well as change over time in BMI as psycho-physiological mediators. Consistent with the life course pathway model and the cumulative advantage and disadvantage principle, the results suggested that early socioeconomic adversity is associated with youth BMI trajectories over time, which in turn, impair young adult socioeconomic attainment. The results also revealed important gender and racial/ethnic differences in the hypothesized associations. These findings elucidate how early adversity exerts an enduring long-term influence on social attainment in young adulthood. Further, the findings suggest that effective obesity intervention and prevention programs should focus not only on the severity of obesity but also on growth in BMI over the early years.

  10. Attractiveness Compensates for Low Status Background in the Prediction of Educational Attainment

    PubMed Central

    Bauldry, Shawn; Shanahan, Michael J.; Russo, Rosemary; Roberts, Brent W.; Damian, Rodica

    2016-01-01

    Background People who are perceived as good looking or as having a pleasant personality enjoy many advantages, including higher educational attainment. This study examines (1) whether associations between physical/personality attractiveness and educational attainment vary by parental socioeconomic resources and (2) whether parental socioeconomic resources predict these forms of attractiveness. Based on the theory of resource substitution with structural amplification, we hypothesized that both types of attractiveness would have a stronger association with educational attainment for people from disadvantaged backgrounds (resource substitution), but also that people from disadvantaged backgrounds would be less likely to be perceived as attractive (amplification). Methods This study draws on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health—including repeated interviewer ratings of respondents’ attractiveness—and trait-state structural equation models to examine the moderation (substitution) and mediation (amplification) of physical and personality attractiveness in the link between parental socioeconomic resources and educational attainment. Results Both perceived personality and physical attractiveness have stronger associations with educational attainment for people from families with lower levels of parental education (substitution). Further, parental education and income are associated with both dimensions of perceived attractiveness, and personality attractiveness is positively associated with educational attainment (amplification). Results do not differ by sex and race/ethnicity. Further, associations between perceived attractiveness and educational attainment remain after accounting for unmeasured family-level confounders using a sibling fixed-effects model. Conclusions Perceived attractiveness, particularly personality attractiveness, is a more important psychosocial resource for educational attainment for people from disadvantaged

  11. Early emotional and behavioral difficulties and adult educational attainment: an 18-year follow-up of the TEMPO study.

    PubMed

    Zbar, Ariella; Surkan, Pamela J; Fombonne, Eric; Melchior, Maria

    2016-10-01

    Children who experience behavioral difficulties often have short and long-term school problems. However, the relationship between emotional difficulties and later academic achievement has not been thoroughly examined. Using data from the French TEMPO study (n = 666, follow-up 1991, 1999, 2009, mean age = 10.5, sd = 4.9 at baseline), we studied associations between internalizing and externalizing symptoms in: (a) childhood and (b) adolescence and educational attainment by young adulthood (< vs. ≥ high school degree), accounting for participants' age, sex, juvenile academic difficulties, and family income. High levels of childhood (but not adolescent) internalizing and externalizing symptoms were associated with low educational attainment; however, in multivariate models only the association with childhood internalizing symptoms remained statistically significant (OR = 1.75, 95 % CI 1.00-3.02). Supporting children with internalizing problems early on could help improve their long-term educational attainment.

  12. Recurrent Education and Socioeconomic Success: A Theoretical and Longitudinal Analysis. Master's Degree Studies from the Institute of International Education No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuijnman, Albert

    Data from the Malmo (Sweden) longitudinal study were examined for the effects of continuing adult educational attainment and formal schooling on subsequent socioeconomic achievement over the life span of the individual worker. The results suggest that acquired level of formal schooling directly influences occupational success and earnings in the…

  13. Relationship between socioeconomic status and asthma: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hancox, R; Milne, B; Taylor, D; Greene, J; Cowan, J; Flannery, E; Herbison, G; McLachlan, C; Poulton, R; Sears, M

    2004-01-01

    Background: There is conflicting information about the relationship between asthma and socioeconomic status, with different studies reporting no, positive, or inverse associations. Most of these studies have been cross sectional in design and have relied on subjective markers of asthma such as symptoms of wheeze. Many have been unable to control adequately for potential confounding factors. Methods: We report a prospective cohort study of approximately 1000 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972–3. This sample has been assessed regularly throughout childhood and into adulthood, with detailed information collected on asthma symptoms, lung function, airway responsiveness, and atopy. The prevalence of these in relation to measures of socioeconomic status were analysed with and without controls for potential confounding influences including parental history of asthma, smoking, breast feeding, and birth order using cross sectional time series models. Results: No consistent association was found between childhood or adult socioeconomic status and asthma prevalence, lung function, or airway responsiveness at any age. Having asthma made no difference to educational attainment or socioeconomic status by age 26. There were trends to increased atopy in children from higher socioeconomic status families consistent with previous reports. Conclusions: Socioeconomic status in childhood had no significant impact on the prevalence of asthma in this New Zealand born cohort. Generalisation of these results to other societies should be done with caution, but our results suggest that the previously reported associations may be due to confounding. PMID:15115861

  14. Consumption and expenditure on food prepared away from home among Mexican adults in 2006

    PubMed Central

    Langellier, Brent A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to describe food expenditure and consumption of foods prepared away from home among Mexican adults. Methods Data were from 45,241 adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006, a nationally-representative, cross-sectional survey of Mexican households. Descriptive statistics and multivariable linear and logistic regression were used to assess the relationship between location of residence, educational attainment, socioeconomic status and the following: 1) expenditure on all food and at restaurants, and 2) frequency of consumption of comida corrida/restaurant food and street food. Results Food expenditure and consumption of food prepared away from home were positively associated with socioeconomic status, educational attainment, and urban vs. rural residence (p<0.001 for all relationships in bivariate analyses). Conclusions Consumption of food prepared outside of the home may be an important part of the diet among urban Mexican adults and those with high socioeconomic status and educational attainment. PMID:25629274

  15. Stuttering Severity and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brian, Sue; Jones, Mark; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross; Onslow, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between self-reported stuttering severity ratings and educational attainment. Method: Participants were 147 adults seeking treatment for stuttering. At pretreatment assessment, each participant reported the highest educational level they had attained and rated their typical and worst stuttering…

  16. Inequality and Educational Attainment: Evidence from Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papay, John P.; Murnane, Richard J.; Willett, John B.

    2013-01-01

    In the past thirty years educational attainments in the United States have stagnated, particularly for low-income Americans. As a result, income-related gaps in educational attainments have grown. These gaps are important because education has historically been the key mechanism for intergenerational socio-economic mobility in the U.S. While the…

  17. Parenting, Socioeconomic Status Risk, and Later Young Adult Health: Exploration of Opposing Indirect Effects via DNA Methylation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Steven R. H.; Lei, Man-Kit; Brody, Gene H.; Kim, Sangjin; Barton, Allen W.; Dogan, Meesha V.; Philibert, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    A sample of 398 African American youth, residing in rural counties with high poverty and unemployment, were followed from ages 11 to 19. Protective parenting was associated with better health, whereas elevated socioeconomic status (SES) risk was associated with poorer health at age 19. Genome-wide epigenetic variation assessed in young adulthood…

  18. The Relation Between Adolescent Social Competence and Young Adult Delinquency and Educational Attainment Among At-Risk Youth: The Mediating Role of Peer Delinquency

    PubMed Central

    Stepp, Stephanie D; Pardini, Dustin A; Loeber, Rolf; Morris, Nancy A

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined trajectories of adolescent social competence as a resilience factor among at-risk youth. To examine potential mechanisms of this resilience process, we investigated the putative mediating effect of peer delinquency on the relation between adolescent social competence and young adult delinquency seriousness and educational attainment. Method Participants (n = 257) were screened to be at risk for antisocial behaviour at age 13 years. Data were derived from an ongoing longitudinal study of the development of antisocial and delinquent behaviour among inner-city boys, the Pittsburgh Youth Study. We used data collected from participants when aged 13 years until they were aged 25.5 years for our study. Results Results indicated that boys with high levels of social competence decreased their involvement with deviant peers throughout adolescence, which, in turn, predicted less serious forms of delinquency in early adulthood. Social competence had a direct effect on educational attainment in early adulthood, as boys who developed social competencies in adolescence went further in school irrespective of their involvement with delinquent peers. Conclusions Results suggest that promoting the development of social competencies and reducing involvement with delinquent peers will protect at-risk youth from engaging in serious delinquency in early adulthood while increasing their educational success. PMID:21878156

  19. Temporal Variation and Association of Aflatoxin B₁ Albumin-Adduct Levels with Socio-Economic and Food Consumption Factors in HIV Positive Adults.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Pauline E; Akinyemiju, Tomi F; Jha, Megha; Aban, Inmaculada; Gonzalez-Falero, Andrea; Joseph, Dnika

    2015-12-01

    The association between aflatoxin exposure and alteration in immune responses observed in humans suggest that aflatoxin could suppress the immune system and work synergistically with HIV to increase disease severity and progression to AIDS. No longitudinal study has been conducted to assess exposure to aflatoxin (AF) among HIV positive individuals. We examined temporal variation in AFB₁ albumin adducts (AF-ALB) in HIV positive Ghanaians, and assessed the association with socioeconomic and food consumption factors. We collected socioeconomic and food consumption data for 307 HIV positive antiretroviral naive adults and examined AF-ALB levels at recruitment (baseline) and at six (follow-up 1) and 12 (follow-up 2) months post-recruitment, by age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES) and food consumption patterns. Generalized linear models were used to examine the influence of socioeconomic and food consumption factors on changes in AF-ALB levels over the study period, adjusting for other covariates. AF-ALB levels (pg/mg albumin) were lower at baseline (mean AF-ALB: 14.9, SD: 15.9), higher at six months (mean AF-ALB: 23.3, SD: 26.6), and lower at 12 months (mean AF-ALB: 15.3, SD: 15.4). Participants with the lowest SES had the highest AF-ALB levels at baseline and follow up-2 compared with those with higher SES. Participants who bought less than 20% of their food and who stored maize for less than two months had lower AF-ALB levels. In the adjusted models, there was a statistically significant association between follow up time and season (dry or rainy season) on AF-ALB levels over time (p = 0.04). Asymptomatic HIV-positive Ghanaians had high plasma AF-ALB levels that varied according to season, socioeconomic status, and food consumption patterns. Steps need to be taken to ensure the safety and security of the food supply for the population, but in particular for the most vulnerable groups such as HIV positive people.

  20. Temporal Variation and Association of Aflatoxin B1 Albumin-Adduct Levels with Socio-Economic and Food Consumption Factors in HIV Positive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, Pauline E.; Akinyemiju, Tomi F.; Jha, Megha; Aban, Inmaculada; Gonzalez-Falero, Andrea; Joseph, Dnika

    2015-01-01

    The association between aflatoxin exposure and alteration in immune responses observed in humans suggest that aflatoxin could suppress the immune system and work synergistically with HIV to increase disease severity and progression to AIDS. No longitudinal study has been conducted to assess exposure to aflatoxin (AF) among HIV positive individuals. We examined temporal variation in AFB1 albumin adducts (AF-ALB) in HIV positive Ghanaians, and assessed the association with socioeconomic and food consumption factors. We collected socioeconomic and food consumption data for 307 HIV positive antiretroviral naive adults and examined AF-ALB levels at recruitment (baseline) and at six (follow-up 1) and 12 (follow-up 2) months post-recruitment, by age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES) and food consumption patterns. Generalized linear models were used to examine the influence of socioeconomic and food consumption factors on changes in AF-ALB levels over the study period, adjusting for other covariates. AF-ALB levels (pg/mg albumin) were lower at baseline (mean AF-ALB: 14.9, SD: 15.9), higher at six months (mean AF-ALB: 23.3, SD: 26.6), and lower at 12 months (mean AF-ALB: 15.3, SD: 15.4). Participants with the lowest SES had the highest AF-ALB levels at baseline and follow up-2 compared with those with higher SES. Participants who bought less than 20% of their food and who stored maize for less than two months had lower AF-ALB levels. In the adjusted models, there was a statistically significant association between follow up time and season (dry or rainy season) on AF-ALB levels over time (p = 0.04). Asymptomatic HIV-positive Ghanaians had high plasma AF-ALB levels that varied according to season, socioeconomic status, and food consumption patterns. Steps need to be taken to ensure the safety and security of the food supply for the population, but in particular for the most vulnerable groups such as HIV positive people. PMID:26633502

  1. Temporal Variation and Association of Aflatoxin B₁ Albumin-Adduct Levels with Socio-Economic and Food Consumption Factors in HIV Positive Adults.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Pauline E; Akinyemiju, Tomi F; Jha, Megha; Aban, Inmaculada; Gonzalez-Falero, Andrea; Joseph, Dnika

    2015-12-01

    The association between aflatoxin exposure and alteration in immune responses observed in humans suggest that aflatoxin could suppress the immune system and work synergistically with HIV to increase disease severity and progression to AIDS. No longitudinal study has been conducted to assess exposure to aflatoxin (AF) among HIV positive individuals. We examined temporal variation in AFB₁ albumin adducts (AF-ALB) in HIV positive Ghanaians, and assessed the association with socioeconomic and food consumption factors. We collected socioeconomic and food consumption data for 307 HIV positive antiretroviral naive adults and examined AF-ALB levels at recruitment (baseline) and at six (follow-up 1) and 12 (follow-up 2) months post-recruitment, by age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES) and food consumption patterns. Generalized linear models were used to examine the influence of socioeconomic and food consumption factors on changes in AF-ALB levels over the study period, adjusting for other covariates. AF-ALB levels (pg/mg albumin) were lower at baseline (mean AF-ALB: 14.9, SD: 15.9), higher at six months (mean AF-ALB: 23.3, SD: 26.6), and lower at 12 months (mean AF-ALB: 15.3, SD: 15.4). Participants with the lowest SES had the highest AF-ALB levels at baseline and follow up-2 compared with those with higher SES. Participants who bought less than 20% of their food and who stored maize for less than two months had lower AF-ALB levels. In the adjusted models, there was a statistically significant association between follow up time and season (dry or rainy season) on AF-ALB levels over time (p = 0.04). Asymptomatic HIV-positive Ghanaians had high plasma AF-ALB levels that varied according to season, socioeconomic status, and food consumption patterns. Steps need to be taken to ensure the safety and security of the food supply for the population, but in particular for the most vulnerable groups such as HIV positive people. PMID:26633502

  2. Tackling inequalities in obesity: a protocol for a systematic review of the effectiveness of public health interventions at reducing socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in obesity and associated risk factors for obesity are widening throughout developed countries worldwide. Tackling obesity is high on the public health agenda both in the United Kingdom and internationally. However, what works in terms of interventions that are able to reduce inequalities in obesity is lacking. Methods/Design The review will examine public health interventions at the individual, community and societal level that might reduce inequalities in obesity among adults aged 18 years and over, in any setting and in any country. The following electronic databases will be searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Social Science Citation Index, ASSIA, IBSS, Sociological Abstracts, and the NHS Economic Evaluation Database. Database searches will be supplemented with website and gray literature searches. No studies will be excluded based on language, country or publication date. Randomized and non-randomized controlled trials, prospective and retrospective cohort studies (with/without control groups) and prospective repeat cross-sectional studies (with/without control groups) that have a primary outcome that is a proxy for body fatness and have examined differential effects with regard to socioeconomic status (education, income, occupation, social class, deprivation, poverty) or where the intervention has been targeted specifically at disadvantaged groups or deprived areas will be included. Study inclusion, data extraction and quality appraisal will be conducted by two reviewers. Meta-analysis and narrative synthesis will be conducted. The main analysis will examine the effects of 1) individual, 2) community and 3) societal level public health interventions on socioeconomic inequalities in adult obesity. Interventions will be characterized by their level of action and their approach to tackling inequalities. Contextual information on how such public health interventions are organized, implemented and delivered will also

  3. Social Activities, Socioeconomic Factors, and Overweight Status Among Middle-Aged and Older Korean Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Christine; Oh, In-Hwan; Kwon, Young Dae

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between social activities and overweight among middle-aged and older adults. This study used data from the 2008 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging which included a total of 8157 adults. We divided body mass index into 2 groups: normal weight and overweight. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the association between social activities and overweight. For males, frequency of meetings with neighbors (1-3 times a week) was associated with being less overweight. Middle-aged adults who met with neighbors 1 to 3 times a week were less likely being overweight than those with once a year meeting frequency. On the contrary, social activity participation is related with high risk of overweight especially in the female and older adults. Our results suggest that social activity participation and social support needs to be taken into consideration when dealing with being overweight.

  4. Socioeconomic Disparities in the Prevalence of Blepharoptosis in the South Korean Adult Population Based on a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Rha, Eun Young; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yongkyu; Yoo, Gyeol

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and the prevalence of blepharoptosis in a representative South Korean population. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on data obtained in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012. In total, 17,178 Korean adults (7,261 men and 9,917 women) aged 19 years or older were enrolled. Blepharoptosis was defined as a marginal reflex distance 1 (MDR 1) lower than 2 mm. Household income and education level were used as indicators of SES. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the relationship between SES and the prevalence of blepharoptosis. Results Household income was inversely associated with the prevalence of blepharoptosis in women [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was 1.894 (1.336, 2.685)], and educational level was inversely associated with blepharoptosis in both men and women [aORs and 95% CIs were 1.572 (1.113, 2.219) and 1.973 (1.153, 3.376), respectively]. After adjusting for household income and educational level, low SES was associated with a high prevalence of blepharoptosis in women only. Conclusions Socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of blepharoptosis were found among women. Indeed, future research using a prospective design to determine the causal relationship between SES and blepharoptosis may identify SES as a risk factor for this condition. PMID:26727468

  5. [Obesity and overweight in adult Xukuru of Ororubá Indians, Pernambuco State, Brazil: magnitude and associated socioeconomic and demographic factors].

    PubMed

    Fávaro, Thatiana Regina; Santos, Ricardo Ventura; Cunha, Geraldo Marcelo da; Leite, Iuri da Costa; Coimbra Jr, Carlos E A

    2015-08-01

    This cross-sectional study focused on the epidemiology of overweight and obesity and the association with demographic and socioeconomic variables in a sample of 794 Xukuru of Ororubá adults 19-59 years of age, from an indigenous reserve in Pesqueira County, Pernambuco State, Brazil. Descriptive analyses and multivariate logistic regression were carried out, using cut-off points of BMI > 24.99kg/m2 for overweight and > 29.99kg/m2 for obesity. Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were higher in women (52.2% and 21%, respectively) than in men (44.1% and 7.5%, respectively). Female sex and age (> 30 years) were associated with both outcomes in the multivariate regression. For obesity, the following variable showed statistically significant associations: socioeconomic status and the interaction between male gender and per capita income. As in other indigenous populations in Brazil, the study's findings suggest that the Xukuru are experiencing a rapid nutritional transition.

  6. The relationship of area-level sociodemographic characteristics, household composition and individual-level socioeconomic status on walking behavior among adults.

    PubMed

    Hearst, Mary O; Sirard, John R; Forsyth, Ann; Parker, Emily D; Klein, Elizabeth G; Green, Christine G; Lytle, Leslie A

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the contextual factors associated with why adults walk is important for those interested in increasing walking as a mode of transportation and leisure. This paper investigates the relationships between neighborhood-level sociodemographic context, individual level sociodemographic characteristics and walking for leisure and transport. Data from two community-based studies of adults (n=550) were used to determine the association between the area-sociodemographic environment (ASDE), calculated from U.S. Census variables, and individual-level SES as potential correlates of walking behavior. Descriptive statistics, mean comparisons and Pearson's correlations coefficients were used to assess bivariate relationships. Generalized estimating equations were used to model the relationship between ASDE, as quartiles, and walking behavior. Adjusted models suggest adults engage in more minutes of walking for transportation and less walking for leisure in the most disadvantaged compared to the least disadvantaged neighborhoods but adding individual level demographics and SES eliminated the significant results. However, when models were stratified for free or reduced cost lunch, of those with children who qualified for free or reduced lunch, those who lived in the wealthiest neighborhoods engaged in 10.7 minutes less of total walking per day compared to those living in the most challenged neighborhoods (p<0.001). Strategies to increase walking for transportation or leisure need to take account of individual level socioeconomic factors in addition to area-level measures. PMID:23729994

  7. Reciprocity in relationships: socio-economic and health influences on intergenerational exchanges between Third Age parents and their adult children in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Grundy, Emily

    2005-06-01

    In this paper data from a nationally representative British longitudinal study are used to analyse exchanges of support between Third Age parents (aged 55-75) and their adult children. Results show that between two thirds and three quarters of parents in this age group were involved in some sort of exchange relationship with at least one of their children. Generally, more Third Age parents were providers than recipients of help, but there was a strong reciprocal element to intergenerational exchange with, for example, married parents who provided support to at least one child being twice as likely as those who did not to receive support from a child, after allowance for a range of relevant parental and child characteristics. Parental characteristics associated with higher probability of providing help included higher income, home ownership and being married or widowed rather than divorced. Higher income and home ownership were, however, negatively associated with odds of receiving help from a child, again after adjustment for other co-variates, suggesting socio-economic differences in the balance of support exchanges. Children seem responsive to parental needs in that receipt of help from a child was positively associated with older parental age and with parental disability. The paper shows that in Britain, as in the USA, the balance of intergenerational exchanges involving Third Age adults is downward rather than upward, in contravention of depictions of older adults as 'burdens' on younger generations. Current demographic and social changes are, it is argued, likely to increase support demands from adult children to Third Age parents in coming decades. PMID:15926906

  8. Socioeconomic conditions across life related to multiple measures of the endocrine system in older adults: Longitudinal findings from a British birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Bann, David; Hardy, Rebecca; Cooper, Rachel; Lashen, Hany; Keevil, Brian; Wu, Frederick C.W.; Holly, Jeff M.P.; Ong, Ken K.; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Kuh, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about how socioeconomic position (SEP) across life impacts on different axes of the endocrine system which are thought to underlie the ageing process and its adverse consequences. We examined how indicators of SEP across life related to multiple markers of the endocrine system in late midlife, and hypothesized that lower SEP across life would be associated with an adverse hormone profile across multiple axes. Methods Data were from a British cohort study of 875 men and 905 women followed since their birth in March 1946 with circulating free testosterone and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) measured at both 53 and 60–64 years, and evening cortisol at 60–64 years. Indicators of SEP were ascertained prospectively across life—paternal occupational class at 4, highest educational attainment at 26, household occupational class at 53, and household income at 60–64 years. Associations between SEP and hormones were investigated using multiple regression and logistic regression models. Results Lower SEP was associated with lower free testosterone among men, higher free testosterone among women, and lower IGF-I and higher evening cortisol in both sexes. For example, the mean standardised difference in IGF-I comparing the lowest with the highest educational attainment at 26 years (slope index of inequality) was −0.4 in men (95% CI -0.7 to −0.2) and −0.4 in women (−0.6 to −0.2). Associations with each hormone differed by SEP indicator used and sex, and were particularly pronounced when using a composite adverse hormone score. For example, the odds of having 1 additional adverse hormone concentration in the lowest compared with highest education level were 3.7 (95% CI: 2.1, 6.3) among men, and 1.6 (1.0, 2.7) among women (P (sex interaction) = 0.02). We found no evidence that SEP was related to apparent age-related declines in free testosterone or IGF-I. Conclusions Lower SEP was associated with an adverse hormone profile

  9. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic patterns of chronic non-communicable disease among the older adult population in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Minicuci, Nadia; Biritwum, Richard B.; Mensah, George; Yawson, Alfred E.; Naidoo, Nirmala; Chatterji, Somnath; Kowal, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background In Ghana, the older adult population is projected to increase from 5.3% of the total population in 2015 to 8.9% by 2050. National and local governments will need information about non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in this population in order to allocate health system resources and respond to the health needs of older adults. Design The 2007/08 Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 in Ghana used face-to-face interviews in a nationally representative sample of persons aged 50-plus years. Individual respondents were asked about their overall health, diagnosis of 10 chronic non-communicable conditions, and common health risk factors. A number of anthropometric and health measurements were also taken in all respondents, including height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, and blood pressure (BP). Results This paper includes 4,724 adults aged 50-plus years. The highest prevalence of self-reported chronic conditions was for hypertension [14.2% (95% CI 12.8–15.6)] and osteoarthritis [13.8%, (95% CI 11.7–15.9)]. The figure for hypertension reached 51.1% (95% CI 48.9–53.4) when based on BP measurement. The prevalence of current smokers was 8.1% (95% CI 7.0–9.2), while 2.0 (95% CI 1.5–2.5) were infrequent/frequent heavy drinkers, 67.9% (95% CI 65.2–70.5) consume insufficient fruits and vegetables, and 25.7% (95% CI 23.1–28.3) had a low level of physical activity. Almost 10% (95% CI 8.3–11.1) of adults were obese and 77.6% (95% CI 76.0–79.2) had a high-risk waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Risks from tobacco and alcohol consumption continued into older age, while insufficient fruit and vegetable intake, low physical activity and obesity increased with increasing age. The patterns of risk factors varied by income quintile, with higher prevalence of obesity and low physical activity in wealthier respondents, and higher prevalence of insufficient fruit and vegetable intake and smoking in lower-income respondents. The multivariate analysis

  10. Social capital, socioeconomic status, and health-related quality of life among older adults in Bogotá (Colombia)

    PubMed Central

    Lucumi, Diana; Gomez, Luiz Fernando; Brownson, Ross C.; Parra, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between levels of cognitive social capital and health related quality of life (HRQOL). A multilevel, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2007 in Bogotá Colombia. A total of 1,907 older adults completed the Spanish version of the SF-8 in order to assess HRQOL. Cognitive dimension of social capital was assessed. Hierarchical linear regressions were conducted to determine the associations between social capital variables and HRQOL. Only 20% to 25% of the population reported trust in others and shared values. Ninety three percent reported that people in their neighborhood would try to take advantage of them if given a chance. Higher social capital indicators were positively associated with the mental and physical dimension of HRQOL. Results from this study support evidence on the disintegration of the Colombian society, which may be influenced by high levels of social inequality. PMID:25370712

  11. Prevalence of pregnancy experiences and contraceptive knowledge among single adults in a low socio-economic suburban community in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of pregnancy experience and its association with contraceptive knowledge among single adults in a low socio-economic suburban community in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012 among the Kerinchi suburban community. Of the total 3,716 individuals surveyed, young single adults between 18 and 35 years old were questioned with regard to their experience with unplanned pregnancy before marriage. Contraceptive knowledge was assessed by a series of questions on identification of method types and the affectivity of condoms for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. Results A total of 226 female and 257 male participants completed the survey. In total, eight female (3.5%) participants reported experience with an unplanned pregnancy before marriage, and five male (1.9 %) participants had the experience of impregnating their partners. The participants had a mean total score of 3.15 (SD = 1.55) for contraceptive knowledge out of a possible maximum score of five. Female participants who had experienced an unplanned pregnancy had a significantly lower contraceptive knowledge score (2.10 ± 1.48) than who had never experienced pregnancy (3.30 ± 1.35), p<0.05. Likewise, male participants who had experienced impregnating their partners had a significantly lower contraceptive knowledge score (1.60 ± 1.50) than those who did not have such experience (3.02 ± 1.59), p<0.05. Conclusion The results showed evidence of premarital unplanned pregnancy among this suburban community. The low level of contraceptive knowledge found in this study indicates the need for educational strategies designed to improve contraceptive knowledge. PMID:25438066

  12. Socioeconomic Status and Other Related Factors of Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in the South Korean Adult Population Based on a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu-Chong; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Jin Yong; Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Byoung-Duck; Shin, Koh-Eun; Lee, Anna; Ko, Byung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the association between seasonal influenza vaccination in South Korea and socioeconomic status (SES) as well as other potential related factors. Methods The study was based on data obtained in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2011. Education level and household income were used as indicators for SES. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate SES and other demographic variables as related factors for influenza vaccination, the primary outcome. Results Higher household income was positively associated with higher vaccine uptake in the younger (19–49 years) group [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–2.23], whereas the low-income and low-education group had increased vaccination coverage than the middle-income and middle-education group in the older (≥ 50 years) group (aOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.09–1.69). Current smokers tend to be unvaccinated in all age groups. Among individuals aged ≥ 50, older age, mild to moderate alcohol consumption, regular exercise, and having co-morbidities were positively associated with vaccination, while those who self-reported their health status as good were less likely to be vaccinated. Conclusions The relationship between SES and seasonal influenza vaccination coverage differed between the age groups throughout the adult South Korean population. Public health policies need to address these inequalities. PMID:25646847

  13. Equality in Educational Policy and the Heritability of Educational Attainment.

    PubMed

    Colodro-Conde, Lucía; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Tornero-Gómez, María J; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Ordoñana, Juan R

    2015-01-01

    Secular variation in the heritability of educational attainment are proposed to be due to the implementation of more egalitarian educational policies leading to increased equality in educational opportunities in the second part of the 20th century. The action of effect is hypothesized to be a decrease of shared environmental (e.g., family socioeconomic status or parents' education) influences on educational attainment, giving more room for genetic differences between individuals to impact on the variation of the trait. However, this hypothesis has not yet found consistent evidence. Support for this effect relies mainly on comparisons between countries adopting different educational systems or between different time periods within a country reflecting changes in general policy. Using a population-based sample of 1271 pairs of adult twins, we analyzed the effect of the introduction of a specific educational policy in Spain in 1970. The shared-environmental variance decreased, leading to an increase in heritability in the post-reform cohort (44 vs. 67%) for males. Unstandardized estimates of genetic variance were of a similar magnitude (.56 vs. .57) between cohorts, while shared environmental variance decreased from .56 to .04. Heritability remained in the same range for women (40 vs. 34%). Our results support the role of educational policy in affecting the relative weight of genetic and environmental factors on educational attainment, such that increasing equality in educational opportunities increases heritability estimates by reducing variation of non-genetic familial origin.

  14. Equality in Educational Policy and the Heritability of Educational Attainment.

    PubMed

    Colodro-Conde, Lucía; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Tornero-Gómez, María J; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Ordoñana, Juan R

    2015-01-01

    Secular variation in the heritability of educational attainment are proposed to be due to the implementation of more egalitarian educational policies leading to increased equality in educational opportunities in the second part of the 20th century. The action of effect is hypothesized to be a decrease of shared environmental (e.g., family socioeconomic status or parents' education) influences on educational attainment, giving more room for genetic differences between individuals to impact on the variation of the trait. However, this hypothesis has not yet found consistent evidence. Support for this effect relies mainly on comparisons between countries adopting different educational systems or between different time periods within a country reflecting changes in general policy. Using a population-based sample of 1271 pairs of adult twins, we analyzed the effect of the introduction of a specific educational policy in Spain in 1970. The shared-environmental variance decreased, leading to an increase in heritability in the post-reform cohort (44 vs. 67%) for males. Unstandardized estimates of genetic variance were of a similar magnitude (.56 vs. .57) between cohorts, while shared environmental variance decreased from .56 to .04. Heritability remained in the same range for women (40 vs. 34%). Our results support the role of educational policy in affecting the relative weight of genetic and environmental factors on educational attainment, such that increasing equality in educational opportunities increases heritability estimates by reducing variation of non-genetic familial origin. PMID:26618539

  15. Equality in Educational Policy and the Heritability of Educational Attainment

    PubMed Central

    Colodro-Conde, Lucía; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Tornero-Gómez, María J.; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F.; Ordoñana, Juan R.

    2015-01-01

    Secular variation in the heritability of educational attainment are proposed to be due to the implementation of more egalitarian educational policies leading to increased equality in educational opportunities in the second part of the 20th century. The action of effect is hypothesized to be a decrease of shared environmental (e.g., family socioeconomic status or parents’ education) influences on educational attainment, giving more room for genetic differences between individuals to impact on the variation of the trait. However, this hypothesis has not yet found consistent evidence. Support for this effect relies mainly on comparisons between countries adopting different educational systems or between different time periods within a country reflecting changes in general policy. Using a population-based sample of 1271 pairs of adult twins, we analyzed the effect of the introduction of a specific educational policy in Spain in 1970. The shared-environmental variance decreased, leading to an increase in heritability in the post-reform cohort (44 vs. 67%) for males. Unstandardized estimates of genetic variance were of a similar magnitude (.56 vs. .57) between cohorts, while shared environmental variance decreased from .56 to .04. Heritability remained in the same range for women (40 vs. 34%). Our results support the role of educational policy in affecting the relative weight of genetic and environmental factors on educational attainment, such that increasing equality in educational opportunities increases heritability estimates by reducing variation of non-genetic familial origin. PMID:26618539

  16. Association of socioeconomic status change between infancy and adolescence, and blood pressure, in South African young adults: Birth to Twenty Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Adair, Linda S; Pisa, Pedro T; Griffiths, Paula L; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2016-01-01

    Objective Social epidemiology models suggest that socioeconomic status (SES) mobility across the life course affects blood pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between SES change between infancy and adolescence, and blood pressure, in young adults, and the impact of early growth on this relationship. Setting Data for this study were obtained from a ‘Birth to Twenty’ cohort in Soweto, Johannesburg, in South Africa. Participants The study included 838 Black participants aged 18 years who had household SES measures in infancy and at adolescence, anthropometry at 0, 2, 4 and 18 years of age and blood pressure at the age of 18 years. Methods We computed SES change using asset-based household SES in infancy and during adolescence as an exposure variable, and blood pressure and hypertension status as outcomes. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were used to investigate the associations between SES change from infancy to adolescence, and age, height and sex-specific blood pressure and hypertension prevalence after adjusting for confounders. Results Compared to a persistent low SES, an upward SES change from low to high SES tertile between infancy and adolescence was significantly associated with lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) at the age of 18 years (β=−4.85; 95% CI −8.22 to −1.48; p<0.01; r2=0.1804) after adjusting for SES in infancy, small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and weight gain. Associations between SES change and SBP were partly explained by weight gain between birth and the age of 18 years. There was no association between SES mobility and diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure or hypertension status. Conclusions Our study confirms that upward SES change has a protective effect on SBP by the time participants reach young adulthood. Socioeconomic policies and interventions that address inequality may have the potential to reduce cardiovascular disease burden related to BP in later life. PMID

  17. Educational Attainment: Analysis by Immigrant Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiswick, Barry R.; DebBurman, Noyna

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of the largely ignored issue of the determinants of the educational attainment of adults by immigrant generation. Using current population survey (CPS) data, differences in educational attainment are analyzed by immigrant generation (first, second, and higher order generations), and among…

  18. Socioeconomic gradients in cardiovascular risk in Canadian children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Y.; de Groh, M.; Bancej, C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors show clear socioeconomic gradients in Canadian adults. Whether socioeconomic gradients in cardiovascular risk emerge in childhood remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether there are socioeconomic gradients in physiological markers of CVD risk in Canadian children and adolescents. Methods: Using combined cross-sectional data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey 2007–2011, we examined the following cardiovascular risk markers: overweight (including obesity), aerobic fitness score (AFS), blood pressure (BP), blood lipids (total as well as HDL and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides), glucose metabolism and C-reactive protein (CRP) by sex in 2149 children (ages 6–11 years) and 2073 adolescents (ages 12–17 years). Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to identify patterns in cardiovascular risk across strata of household income adequacy and parental educational attainment, adjusting for age and ethnicity, and stratified by age group and sex. Results: Young boys showed markedly higher prevalence of obesity than young girls (prevalence of 18.5%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.6–21.5 vs. 7.7%, 95% CI: 5.2–10.3). However, negative SES gradients in adiposity risk were seen in young and adolescent girls rather than boys. Young and adolescent boys were more physically fit than girls (mean AFS of 541, 95% CI: 534–546 vs. 501, 95% CI: 498–505 in children; 522, 95% CI: 514–529 vs. 460, 95% CI: 454–466 in adolescents; p < .001). Although a positive income gradient in AFS was observed in both boys and girls, statistical significance was reached only in girls (p  = .006). A negative gradient of parental education in BP was observed in young children. While we observed substantial sex differences in systolic BP, total and HDL cholesterol, fasting glucose and CRP in adolescents, sex-specific socioeconomic gradients were only observed

  19. Gender, race and socioeconomic influence on diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Olmos, R.D.; de Figueiredo, R.C.; Aquino, E.M.; Lotufo, P.A.; Bensenor, I.M.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid diseases are common, and use of levothyroxine is increasing worldwide. We investigated the influence of gender, race and socioeconomic status on the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders using data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a multicenter cohort study of civil servants (35-74 years of age) from six Brazilian cities. Diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction was by thyrotropin (TSH), and free thyroxine (FT4) if TSH was altered, and the use of specific medications. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed using overt hyperthyroidism/hypothyroidism and levothyroxine use as dependent variables and sociodemographic characteristics as independent variables. The frequencies of overt hyper- and hypothyroidism were 0.7 and 7.4%, respectively. Using whites as the reference ethnicity, brown, and black race were protective for overt hypothyroidism (OR=0.76, 95%CI=0.64-0.89, and OR=0.53, 95%CI=0.43-0.67, respectively, and black race was associated with overt hyperthyroidism (OR=1.82, 95%CI=1.06-3.11). Frequency of hypothyroidism treatment was higher in women, browns, highly educated participants and those with high net family incomes. After multivariate adjustment, levothyroxine use was associated with female gender (OR=6.06, 95%CI=3.19-11.49) and high net family income (OR=3.23, 95%CI=1.02-10.23). Frequency of hyperthyroidism treatment was higher in older than in younger individuals. Sociodemographic factors strongly influenced the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders, including the use of levothyroxine. PMID:26108100

  20. Gender, race and socioeconomic influence on diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Olmos, R D; Figueiredo, R C de; Aquino, E M; Lotufo, P A; Bensenor, I M

    2015-08-01

    Thyroid diseases are common, and use of levothyroxine is increasing worldwide. We investigated the influence of gender, race and socioeconomic status on the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders using data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a multicenter cohort study of civil servants (35-74 years of age) from six Brazilian cities. Diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction was by thyrotropin (TSH), and free thyroxine (FT4) if TSH was altered, and the use of specific medications. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed using overt hyperthyroidism/hypothyroidism and levothyroxine use as dependent variables and sociodemographic characteristics as independent variables. The frequencies of overt hyper- and hypothyroidism were 0.7 and 7.4%, respectively. Using whites as the reference ethnicity, brown, and black race were protective for overt hypothyroidism (OR=0.76, 95%CI=0.64-0.89, and OR=0.53, 95%CI=0.43-0.67, respectively, and black race was associated with overt hyperthyroidism (OR=1.82, 95%CI=1.06-3.11). Frequency of hypothyroidism treatment was higher in women, browns, highly educated participants and those with high net family incomes. After multivariate adjustment, levothyroxine use was associated with female gender (OR=6.06, 95%CI=3.19-11.49) and high net family income (OR=3.23, 95%CI=1.02-10.23). Frequency of hyperthyroidism treatment was higher in older than in younger individuals. Sociodemographic factors strongly influenced the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders, including the use of levothyroxine.

  1. Socio-economic, demographic, lifestyle and health characteristics associated with consumption of fatty-sweetened and fatty-salted foods in middle-aged French adults.

    PubMed

    Méjean, Caroline; Macouillard, Pauline; Castetbon, Katia; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Hercberg, Serge

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have specifically focused on characteristics associated with consumption of combined fatty-salted and fatty-sweetened foods, whereas their identification could be useful for defining effective public health measures. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between demographic, socio-economic, lifestyle and health characteristics and consumption of these types of food in a general sample of French adults. Dietary intake was assessed using a minimum of six 24 h dietary records collected over a 2-year period in 6240 subjects aged 35-60 years who participated in the Supplémentation en VItamines Minéraux et AntioXydants cohort study. Associations of individual characteristics with high and intermediate consumption of fatty-sweetened and fatty-salted foods were assessed using multivariate polytomic logistic regression models. Risk of moderate or high consumption of fatty-salted foods decreased with increasing age. Current smokers, drinkers, individuals with overweight and with hypertension were more likely to consume moderate or high amounts of such foods. Risk of moderate or high consumption of fatty-sweetened foods decreased with increasing age. Women, individuals living as a couple, moderate drinkers and persons with low or medium physical activity level were more likely to consume moderate or high amounts of such foods. Lower educated subjects, current smokers, heavy drinkers and individuals with severe hypertriacylglycerolaemia were less likely to have moderate or high consumption. Consumption of fatty-sweetened and fatty-salted foods varied according to demographic, lifestyle and health characteristics. Common unhealthy behaviours such as smoking, low physical activity and alcohol drinking, associated with high consumption of these food groups, may help to effectively target public health efforts. PMID:20946706

  2. Effects of Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status on Body Composition in an Admixed, Multiethnic Population in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Daniel E.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Dubanoski, Joan P.; Murai, Amy Stone; Hillier, Teresa A.

    2009-01-01

    This study determined ethnic differences in anthropometric measures of a sample of adults in Hawaii, examining the effects of differing degrees of ethnic admixing and socioeconomic status (SES) on the measures. Adults who had attended elementary school in Hawaii underwent anthropometric measurements and answered questionnaires about their educational attainment, income, age, cultural identity, ethnic ancestry, and health. Individuals reporting Asian American cultural identity had significantly lower mean body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) than others, while those with Hawaiian/Pacific Islander cultural identity had significantly higher BMI and WC. Educational attainment, but not reported family income and age, was significantly related to BMI and WC, and differences in educational attainment accounted for the increased mean BMI and WC in Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders, but did not account for the lower mean BMI and WC among Asian Americans. Higher percentage of Asian ancestry was significantly correlated with lower BMI and WC, whereas higher percentage of Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ancestry was significantly correlated with increased BMI and WC. Differences in education accounted for the significantly increased BMI in participants with a higher percentage of Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ancestry, but did not entirely account for the lower BMI in individuals with a higher percentage of Asian American ancestry. These results suggest that the high rate of obesity and its sequelae seen in Pacific Islanders may be more a result of socioeconomic status and lifestyle than of genetic propensity, while the lower rates of obesity observed in Asian American populations are less directly influenced by socioeconomic factors. PMID:19213005

  3. High alcohol consumption in middle aged adults is associated with poorer cognitive performance only in the low socioeconomic group. Results from the GAZEL cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sabia, Séverine; Guéguen, Alice; Berr, Claudine; Berkman, Lisa; Ankri, Joël; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2010-01-01

    Aims To examine the association of alcohol consumption over 10 years with cognitive performance in different socioeconomic groups. Design Prospective cohort study, the French GAZEL study. Setting France. Participants Employees of France’s national electricity and gas company. Measurements Alcohol intake was assessed annually, beginning in 1992, using questions on frequency and quantity of alcoholic beverages consumed in a week; used to define mean consumption and trajectory of alcohol intake over 10 years. Cognitive performance among participants aged ≥55 years (N=4073) was assessed in 2002–2004 using the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), a measure of psychomotor speed, attention and reasoning. Occupational position at age 35 and education were used as the markers of socioeconomic position. Findings All analyses were stratified by socioeconomic position. In the low occupational group, participants consuming a mean of more than 21 drinks per week had 2.1 points lower (95% CI: −3.9, −0.3) DSST score compared to those consuming 4–14 drinks per week. In participants with primary school education, the corresponding difference was 3.6 points (95% CI: −7.1,−0.0). No association between alcohol consumption and cognitive performance was observed in the intermediate and high socioeconomic groups, defined using either occupation or education. Analysis of trajectories of alcohol consumption showed that in the low socioeconomic groups large increase or decrease in alcohol consumption was associated with lower cognitive scores compared to stable consumption. Conclusions Our results suggest that high alcohol consumption is associated with poorer cognitive performance only in the low socioeconomic group, possibly due to greater cognitive reserve in the higher socioeconomic groups. PMID:20840170

  4. Use of new guidance to profile 'equivalent minutes' of aerobic physical activity for adults in England reveals gender, geographical, and socio-economic inequalities in meeting public health guidance: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David; Townsend, Nick; Foster, Charlie

    2016-12-01

    English physical activity guidance now recognises a double weighting of vigorous over moderate activity; 1 min of vigorous activity is the same as two 'equivalent' minutes of moderate activity. In addition, concerns of over-estimation of occupational PA led to newly applied measurement methods for this domain. Vigorous activity is associated with higher socio-economic position and occupational PA has the opposite association, so these changes may increase inequalities. We profiled adults' total and domain-specific 'equivalent minutes' of weekly PA in England 2012, and investigated inequalities in PA participation, accounting for the new weighting of vigorous PA, and new measurements of occupational PA. Nationally representative cross-sectional survey data on the self-reported PA of 8158 adults was used to produce a profile of the domain and duration of weekly 'equivalent minutes' of PA. Vigorous PA was double-weighted compared to moderate PA, and the percentage contribution from each PA domain quantified, stratified by gender and activity status and split by socio-demographic variables. Women, older adults, and adults without qualifications, from deprived areas, with worse employment conditions, or living in the North of England were significantly less likely to meet MVPA guidance. Type of activity was also socially patterned, particularly sport participation, which contributed a higher percentage of PA in adults of higher socioeconomic status. For active men, sporting activity was the most prevalent domain, and sports and walking for active women. In England, there are important socio-demographic differences in how adults participate in PA, and in percentage meeting public health guidance. PMID:27413661

  5. Literacy Gaps by Educational Attainment: A Cross-National Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyunjoon; Kyei, Pearl

    2011-01-01

    Existing cross-national research on educational attainment does not fully address whether the same level of educational attainment generates the same level of literacy skills in different countries. We analyze literacy skills data for young adults from 19 countries in the 1994-1998 International Adult Literacy Survey and find that in all…

  6. A repeated cross-sectional study of socio-economic inequities in dietary sodium consumption among Canadian adults: implications for national sodium reduction strategies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In many countries including Canada, excess consumption of dietary sodium is common, and this has adverse implications for population health. Socio-economic inequities in sodium consumption seem likely, but research is limited. Knowledge of socio-economic inequities in sodium consumption is important for informing population-level sodium reduction strategies, to ensure that they are both impactful and equitable. Methods We examined the association between socio-economic indicators (income and education) and sodium, using two outcome variables: 1) sodium consumption in mg/day, and 2) reported use of table salt, in two national surveys: the 1970/72 Nutrition Canada Survey and the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2. This permitted us to explore whether there were any changes in socio-economic patterning in dietary sodium during a time period characterized by modest, information-based national sodium reduction efforts, as well as to provide baseline information against which to examine the impact (equitable or not) of future sodium reduction strategies in Canada. Results There was no evidence of a socio-economic inequity in sodium consumption (mg/day) in 2004. In fact findings pointed to a positive association in women, whereby women of higher education consumed more sodium than women of lower education in 2004. For men, income was positively associated with reported use of table salt in 1970/72, but negatively associated in 2004. Conclusions An emerging inequity in reported use of table salt among men could reflect the modest, information-based sodium reduction efforts that were implemented during the time frame considered. However, for sodium consumption in mg/day, we found no evidence of a contemporary inequity, and in fact observed the opposite effect among women. Our findings could reflect data limitations, or they could signal that sodium differs from some other nutrients in terms of its socio-economic patterning, perhaps reflecting very

  7. Parental educational attainment and sense of control in mid- and late-adulthood.

    PubMed

    Ward, Michael M

    2013-07-01

    Sense of control is greater among children who grow up in households of higher socioeconomic status. It is unclear if this childhood advantage persists throughout life or if schooling and adulthood experiences override any early childhood advantage. Using data from 2 nationally representative samples of primarily middle-aged (National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States, or MIDUS), and older adults (Health and Retirement Study, or HRS), I tested if personal mastery and perceived constraints in adulthood were associated with the educational attainment of the participant's father or mother, adjusting for participant's education level, income, and other demographic characteristics. In both samples, personal mastery was not associated with either parent's education level, but perceived constraints had a graded inverse association with mother's education level. These results indicate that childhood experiences continue to be associated with perceived constraints, even in later life, and may not be completely overridden by adult experiences.

  8. Socioeconomic pathways to depressive symptoms in adulthood: evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979.

    PubMed

    Quesnel-Vallée, Amélie; Taylor, Miles

    2012-03-01

    The existence of a direct effect of early socioeconomic position (SEP) on adult mental health outcomes net of adult SEP is still debated. This question demands the explicit modeling of pathways linking early SEP to adult SEP and mental health. In light of this background, we pursue two objectives in this study. First, we examine whether depressive symptoms in adulthood can be fit in a trajectory featuring both an intercept, or baseline range of depressive symptoms that varied between individuals, and a slope describing the average evolution of depressive symptoms over the years. Second, we estimate the direct and indirect pathways linking early SEP, respondents' education and adult household income, with a particular focus on whether early SEP retains a significant direct effect on the trajectory of depressive symptoms once adult SEP is entered into the pathway model. Drawing from 29 years of cohort data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, a survey that has been following a national probability sample of American civilian and military youth (Zagorsky and White, 1999), we used structural equation models to estimate the pathways between parents' education, respondent's education, and latent growth curves of household income and depressive symptoms. We found that the effect of parents' education was entirely mediated by respondent's education. In turn, the effect of respondent's education was largely mediated by household income. In conclusion, our findings showed that the socioeconomic attainment process that is rooted in parents' education and leads to respondent's education and then to household income is a crucial pathway for adult mental health. These results suggest that increasing educational opportunities may be an effective policy to break the intergenerational transmission of low socioeconomic status and poor mental health.

  9. Authoritarian parenting attitudes and social origin: The multigenerational relationship of socioeconomic position to childrearing values.

    PubMed

    Friedson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Support for authoritarian approaches to parenting, including corporal punishment, is known to be elevated among individuals with low current levels of socioeconomic attainment. The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine whether authoritarian parenting dispositions are related to disadvantages in one's social background, in addition to one's present socioeconomic standing; and (2) to distinguish, in this regard, between support for spanking and other authoritarian parenting dispositions. Ordered logit models, applied to General Social Survey data concerning a nationally representative sample of US adults, are used to examine relationships of authoritarian parenting dispositions to the socioeconomic positions that respondents currently occupy and in which they were raised. It is found that support for spanking (N=10,725) and valuing of obedience (N=10,043) are inversely related to the socioeconomic status (SES) of one's family of origin, and that these associations are robust to controls for one's current SES. A disadvantaged family background is found to increase support for spanking most among those with high current SES. Strong associations (robust to controls for SES indicators) are additionally found between African-American racial identity and support for authoritarian parenting. Prior research indicates that authoritarian parenting practices such as spanking may be harmful to children. Thus, if the parenting attitudes analyzed here translate into parenting practices, then this study's findings may point to a mechanism for the intergenerational transmission of disadvantages. PMID:26585215

  10. Cross-Country Differences in the Additive Effects of Socioeconomics, Health Behaviors and Medical Comorbidities on Disability among Older Adults with Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Patients with heart disease experience limited activities of daily living (ADL). This is a cross-country comparison of the additive effects of Socioeconomics, health behaviors, and the number of medical comorbidities on disability among patients with heart disease. Methods: The current study used a cross-sectional design. Data came from the Research on Early Life and Aging Trends and Effects (RELATE). The current analysis utilized data on elderly individuals (age ≥60 y) from 13 countries. The outcome was any ADL limitation (i.e. bathing, dressing, using toilet, transferring, lifting heavy things, shopping, and eating meals). Socioeconomics (i.e. age, gender, education, and income), health behaviors (i.e. exercise, smoking, and drinking), and number of chronic medical conditions (i.e. hypertension, respiratory, arthritis, stroke, and diabetes) were entered into country-specific logistic regressions, considering at least one limitation in ADL as the main outcome. Results: Number of comorbid medical conditions and age were positively associated with disability in 85% of the countries. Physical activity and drinking were linked to disability in 54%and 31% of countries, respectively. Higher education and income were associated with lower disability in 31% and 23% of the countries, respectively. Female gender was associated with higher disability only in 15% of the countries. Smoking was not associated with disability, while the effects of socioeconomics, drinking, exercise, and medical comorbidities were controlled. Conclusion: Determinants of disability depend on the country; accordingly, locally designed health promotion interventions may be superior to the universal interventions for patients with heart disease. Medical comorbidities, however, should be universally diagnosed and treated. PMID:26157460

  11. Associations of Socioeconomic Status and Processed Food Intake with Serum Phosphorus in Community-Living Adults: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M.; Katz, Ronit; Peralta, Carmen A.; de Boer, Ian H.; Siscovick, David; Wolf, Myles; Roux, Ana Diez; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Ix, Joachim H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Higher serum phosphorus concentrations are associated with cardiovascular disease events and mortality. Low socioeconomic status is linked with higher serum phosphorus, but the reasons are unclear. Poor individuals disproportionately consume inexpensive processed foods commonly enriched with phosphorus-based food preservatives. Accordingly, we hypothesized that excess intake of these foods accounts for a relationship between lower socioeconomic status and higher serum phosphorus. Design Cross-sectional analysis. Setting and Participants We examined a random cohort of 2,664 participants with available phosphorus measurements in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a community-based sample of individuals free of clinically apparent cardiovascular disease from across the United States. Predictor Variables Socioeconomic status, the intake of foods commonly enriched with phosphorus additives (processed meats, sodas) and frequency of fast food consumption. Outcomes Fasting morning serum phosphorus concentrations. Results In unadjusted analyses, lower income and lower educational achievement categories were associated with modestly higher serum phosphorus (by 0.02 to 0.10 mg/dL, P < 0.05 for all). These associations were attenuated in models adjusted for demographic and clinical factors, almost entirely due to adjustment for female gender. There were no statistically significant associations of processed meat intake or frequency of fast-food consumption with serum phosphorus in multivariable-adjusted analyses. In contrast, each serving per day higher soda intake was associated with 0.02 mg/dl lower serum phosphorus (95% confidence interval, −0.04, −0.01). Conclusions Greater intake of foods commonly enriched with phosphorus additives was not associated with higher serum phosphorus in a community-living sample with largely preserved kidney function. These results suggest that excess intake of processed and fast foods may not impact fasting serum

  12. Differential association of socio-economic status with gender- and age-defined suicidal ideation among adult and elderly individuals in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Hahm, Myung-Il; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2013-11-30

    South Korea has the highest suicide rate among countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), with a rising trend that contrasts with the trend in most other OECD countries. This study assessed differential associations of socio-demographic factors with suicidal ideation in South Korea. We used five waves of data from the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Study subjects included 5803 men and women aged >25 years. We analysed weighted percentages with consideration of the complex survey sample design and unequal weights. Surveylogistic regressions were applied. Protective effects against suicidal ideation were found for higher household income, higher educational attainment, and being married. Functional limitations and depressive symptoms were risk factors for suicidal ideation. However, these significant factors may exert different effects on vulnerability for suicidal ideation among different genders and age groups. Thus, household income was mainly protective for women and subjects aged 25-44 years, and educational attainment was protective for individuals aged >65 years. Our findings suggest the need for extended social protection policies for the less privileged population and special strategies for different groups.

  13. Tourette syndrome and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Aldred, Mark; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2015-09-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by multiple motor and vocal tics. Co-morbid behavioural problems are common and include obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder, depression and anxiety. Both tics and behavioural symptoms tend to have a chronic course and can affect patients' health-related quality of life; however, little is known about the relationship between TS, social status and occupation. We conducted an exploratory study on a clinical sample of 137 adult patients with TS to investigate the association between the core features of TS (both tic severity ratings and behavioural co-morbidities) and socioeconomic class. Both clinician- and patient-reported tic severity ratings were significantly higher amongst unemployed patients, compared to patients in the highest socioeconomic class (P = 0.004 and P < 0.001, respectively). There were no significant differences in socioeconomic class distribution between patients with TS and co-morbid behavioural problems ('TS plus', n = 88) and patients with uncomplicated TS ('pure TS', n = 49) (P = 0.205). Our findings suggest that higher tic severity can have far-reaching consequences on patients' life, as it appears to be selectively associated with unemployment and lower socioeconomic status. These observations prompt further research into the complex relationship between TS and social status.

  14. College Attainment: Throwing a Complete Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Stan; Soo, David

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. once had the world's highest percentage of adults with a college degree, but has now dropped to 10th, according to the OECD. In an attempt to reverse this slide, a number of policymakers and foundations have sought to make increased degree attainment a national priority. President Obama has articulated the goal that America will regain…

  15. Status Attainment Through Marriage: The Experience of Rural Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Philip N.

    The literature suggested that marriage provides alternative occupational achievement for women who opt by choice or by circumstance to attain socioeconomic position through their husbands' occupations, and that an advantageous social contact setting is crucial for access to promising mates so that a woman's personal attributes can be beneficial…

  16. Does Grading Affect Educational Attainment? A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klapp, Alli

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how grading in primary school affected students' achievement measured by grades in 7th, 8th and 9th Grade and educational attainment in upper secondary school (12th Grade), and how the effect varied as a function of students' cognitive ability, gender and socio-economic status. The data derived from the…

  17. Educational Attainment: Analysis by Immigrant Generation. IZA Discussion Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiswick, Barry R.; DebBurman, Noyna

    This paper presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of the largely ignored issue of the determinants of the educational attainment of adults by immigrant generation. Using Current Population Survey (CPS) data, differences in educational attainment are analyzed by immigrant generation (first, second, and higher order generations), and among…

  18. The Role of Adult Literacy & Numeracy in Lifelong Learning and Socio-Economic Well-Being: ALNARC National Research Program, June 2001-June 2002. Feature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Sue

    2002-01-01

    An Adult Literacy and Numeracy Australian Research Consortium (ALNARC) program comprised four projects designed to integrate new research with analysis of past practices and provision. Preliminary themes were the perception of a "policy void" in regard to literacy and numeracy skills; professional development's tie to workplace practice and…

  19. Childhood income volatility and adult outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Bradley L

    2014-10-01

    Using data linked across generations in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, I estimate the relationship between exposure to volatile income during childhood and a set of socioeconomic outcomes in adulthood. The empirical framework is an augmented intergenerational income mobility model that includes controls for income volatility. I measure income volatility at the family level in two ways: (1) instability as measured by squared deviations around a family-specific mean; and (2) instability as percentage changes of 25 % or more. Volatility enters the model both separately and interacted with income level. I find that family income volatility during childhood has a modest negative association with educational attainment. Volatility has a smaller descriptive role in explaining intergenerational outcomes relative to permanent income. Across the income distribution, the negative association between volatility exposure and educational attainment is largest for young adults from moderate-income families.

  20. Socio-Economic Status and Reproduction among Adults Born with an Oral Cleft: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Sivertsen, Åse; Ariansen, Anja Maria Steinsland; Filip, Charles; Vindenes, Halvard A.; Feragen, Kristin B.; Moster, Dag; Lie, Rolv Terje; Haaland, Øystein A.

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been reported that people born with orofacial clefts do worse in life than their peers regarding a range of social markers, such as academic achievement and reproduction. We have compared otherwise healthy individuals with and without clefts, to investigate if these differences are due to the cleft or other background factors. Materials and Methods In a retrospective national cohort study, based on compulsory registers with data collected prospectively, we included everybody born in Norway between 1967 and 1992 (1490279 individuals, 2584 with clefts). This cohort was followed until the year 2010, when the youngest individuals were 18 years old. In order to ensure that the individuals were not affected by unknown syndromes or diseases, we excluded all individuals with any chronic medical condition, or who had other birth defects than clefts, hydroceles and dislocated hips. Individuals with oral clefts who were included in the study are said to have isolated clefts. Results Isolated cleft patients are similar to the general population regarding education, income and social class. Isolated cleft patients have lower fertility than the background population, but considering only married couples this difference in fertility disappeared. Conclusions An oral cleft did not appear to affect future socioeconomic status or chances of becoming a parent for children born in Norway. An exception was males with cleft lip and palate, but differences were small. PMID:27631472

  1. [Body mass index and its relationship to nutritional and socioeconomic variables: a linear regression approach to a Brazilian adult sub-population].

    PubMed

    Leite de Vasconcellos, M T; Portela, M C

    2001-01-01

    This paper focuses on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and family energy intake, occupational energy expenditure, per capita family expenditure, sex, age, and left arm circumference for a group of Brazilian adults randomly selected among those interviewed for a survey on food consumption and family budgets, called the National Family Expenditure Survey. The authors discuss linear regression methodological issues related to treatment of outliers and influential cases, multicollinearity, model specification, heteroscedasticity, as well as the use of two-level variables derived from samples with complex design. The results indicate that the model is not affected by outliers and that there are no significant specification errors. They also show a significant linear relationship between BMI and the variables listed above. Although the hypothesis tests indicate significant heteroscedasticity, its corrections did not significantly change the model's parameters, probably due to the sample size (14,000 adults), making hypothesis tests more rigorous than desired. PMID:11784903

  2. Educational attainment and transitions in functional status among older Taiwanese.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Z; Liu, X; Hermalin, A; Chuang, Y L

    1998-08-01

    Despite considerable research examining the influence of socioeconomic status on health, few studies have considered this relationship as it pertains to older adults in non-Western societies. We attempt to ascertain the influence of education on changes in physical functioning in a rapidly developing country. Data come from the 1989 Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan and a follow-up interview in 1993 (N = 4,049, age = 60+). Individuals are conceptualized to be in a state of functional independence or functional limitation at the time of origin, based on their ability to perform three physical functioning tasks. The outcome at the follow-up interview is categorized as functionally independent, limited, or dead, allowing for six probabilities, one from each state of origin to each outcome. These are calculated using a multinomial logit model, controlling for other factors often thought to be associated with health transitions. High levels of educational attainment result in a decreased incidence of functional limitation for those originating in a state of independence. Contrary to expectations, however, education has little influence on those who originate functionally limited. Thus, higher education plays a substantial role in primary prevention of morbidity, delaying the onset of disability, but other factors are more important once limitations begin. We speculate on the reasons behind these findings, including that the results may be culturally dependent.

  3. The Role of Socioeconomic Factors in the Prediction of Persistence in Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dika, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    While research literature suggests that socioeconomic factors play a role in predicting educational attainment, very little research has been done to examine these relationships using data from Puerto Rico. A logistic regression approach was adopted to investigate the extent to which family and school socioeconomic factors predict retention from…

  4. Socioeconomic Gains of Asian Americans, Blacks, and Hispanics: 1960-1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschman, Charles; Wong, Morrison G.

    1984-01-01

    Socioeconomic inequality between five minority populations--Blacks, Hispanics, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipinos--and the majority population are analyzed. In general, Asian Americans approach socioeconomic parity with whites because of their overachievement in educational attainment. There has been a marked decline in the direct negative effect of…

  5. The aftermath of public housing relocations: relationships between changes in local socioeconomic conditions and depressive symptoms in a cohort of adult relocaters.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Hannah L F; Hunter-Jones, Josalin; Kelley, Mary E; Karnes, Conny; Haley, Danielle F; Ross, Zev; Rothenberg, Richard; Bonney, Loida E

    2014-04-01

    USA is experiencing a paradigm shift in public housing policy: while policies used to place people who qualified for housing assistance into spatially concentrated housing complexes, they now seek to geographically disperse them, often to voucher-subsidized rental units in the private market. Programs that relocate residents from public housing complexes tend to move them to neighborhoods that are less impoverished and less violent. To date, studies have reached conflicting findings about the relationship between public housing relocations and depression among adult relocaters. The present longitudinal multilevel analysis tests the hypothesis that pre-/postrelocation improvements in local economic conditions, social disorder, and perceived community violence are associated with declines in depressive symptoms in a cohort of African-American adults; active substance misusers were oversampled. We tested this hypothesis in a cohort of 172 adults who were living in one of seven public housing complexes scheduled for relocation and demolition in Atlanta, GA; by design, 20% were dependent on substances and 50% misused substances but were not dependent. Baseline data captured prerelocation characteristics of participants; of the seven census tracts where they lived, three waves of postrelocation data were gathered approximately every 9 months thereafter. Surveys were administered at each wave to assess depressive symptoms measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), perceived community violence, and other individual-level covariates. Participants' home addresses were geocoded to census tracts at each wave, and administrative data sources were used to characterize tract-level economic disadvantage and social disorder. Hypotheses were tested using multilevel models. Between waves 1 and 2, participants experienced significant improvements in reported depressive symptoms and perceived community violence and in tract-level economic disadvantage

  6. Trends in Life Expectancy and Lifespan Variation by Educational Attainment: United States, 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Sasson, Isaac

    2016-04-01

    The educational gradient in life expectancy is well documented in the United States and in other low-mortality countries. Highly educated Americans, on average, live longer than their low-educated counterparts, who have recently seen declines in adult life expectancy. However, limiting the discussion on lifespan inequality to mean differences alone overlooks other dimensions of inequality and particularly disparities in lifespan variation. The latter represents a unique form of inequality, with higher variation translating into greater uncertainty in the time of death from an individual standpoint, and higher group heterogeneity from a population perspective. Using data from the National Vital Statistics System from 1990 to 2010, this is the first study to document trends in both life expectancy and S25--the standard deviation of age at death above 25--by educational attainment. Among low-educated whites, adult life expectancy declined by 3.1 years for women and by 0.6 years for men. At the same time, S25 increased by about 1.5 years among high school-educated whites of both genders, becoming an increasingly important component of total lifespan inequality. By contrast, college-educated whites benefited from rising life expectancy and record low variation in age at death, consistent with the shifting mortality scenario. Among blacks, adult life expectancy increased, and S25 plateaued or declined in nearly all educational attainment groups, although blacks generally lagged behind whites of the same gender on both measures. Documenting trends in lifespan variation can therefore improve our understanding of lifespan inequality and point to diverging trajectories in adult mortality across socioeconomic strata.

  7. Socioeconomic marriage differentials in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Heard, Genevieve

    2011-01-01

    While marriage rates are relatively stable among better-educated men and women, they are rapidly declining among those with low educational attainment. This development has been recognized in the US as a new socioeconomic pattern of marriage. This article uses census data to show that socioeconomic marriage differentials are also increasing in Australia and New Zealand. These differentials have previously been noted independently of each other and of the international picture. In synthesizing the antipodean data, the article documents the new socioeconomic marriage pattern as an international phenomenon. This article further considers the extent to which the available explanations for the new marriage pattern fit the antipodean setting. In general, the factors identified as important in the North American setting are applicable to both Australia and New Zealand. In particular, the poor marriage prospects of men with low educational attainment appear to be common to these post-industrial economies with minimalist welfare states.

  8. Socioeconomic differences in overweight and weight-related behaviors across adolescence and young adulthood: 10-year longitudinal findings from Project EAT.

    PubMed

    Watts, Allison W; Mason, Susan M; Loth, Katie; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-06-01

    Reducing socioeconomic disparities in weight-related health is a public health priority. The purpose of this paper was to examine 10-year longitudinal patterns in overweight and weight-related behaviors from adolescence to young adulthood as a function of family-level socioeconomic status (SES) and educational attainment. Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults) followed a diverse sample of 2287 adolescents from 1999 to 2009. Mixed-effects regression tested longitudinal trends in overweight, fast food, breakfast skipping, physical inactivity, and screen use by family-level SES. The influence of subsequent educational attainment in young adulthood was examined. Results revealed that the prevalence of overweight increased significantly from adolescence to young adulthood with the greatest change seen in those from low SES (mean change=30.7%, 95% CI=25.6%-35.9%) as compared to high SES families (mean change=21.7%, 95% CI=18.2%-25.1%). Behavioral changes from adolescence to young adulthood also differed by SES background; the prevalence of frequent fast food intake (≥3times/week) increased most dramatically in those from low SES (mean change=6%, 95% CI=0.5%-11%) as compared to high SES families (mean change=-1.2%, 95% CI=-5.2%-2.9%). Overall trends suggest that a higher educational attainment mitigates the negative impacts of a low SES background. These findings suggest that continued effort is needed to ensure that public health strategies addressing obesity and related behaviors reach adolescents and young adults from low SES backgrounds and do not contribute to widening socioeconomic gaps in weight-related health.

  9. Long-term effects of adolescent smoking on depression and socioeconomic status in adulthood in an urban African American cohort.

    PubMed

    Strong, Carol; Juon, Hee-Soon; Ensminger, Margaret E

    2014-06-01

    Despite known adverse causal effects of cigarette smoking on mental health, findings for the effects of adolescent cigarette smoking on later depression and socioeconomic status remain inconclusive. Previous studies have had shorter follow-up periods and did not have a representative portion of the African American population. Using an analytical method that matches adolescent smokers with nonsmokers on childhood and background variables, this study aims to provide evidence on the effects of adolescent regular smoking on adult depression and socioeconomic status. Our longitudinal study is from the Woodlawn Study that followed 1,242 African Americans in Chicago from 1966-1967 (at age 6-7) through 2002-2003 (at age 42-43). We used a propensity score matching method to find a regular and a non-regular adolescent smoking group with similar childhood socioeconomic and family background and first grade academic and behavioral performance. We compared the matched samples to assess the longitudinal effects of adolescent smoking on adult outcomes. Comparing the matched 199 adolescent regular smokers and 199 non-regular smokers, we found statistical support for the effects of adolescent cigarette smoking on later educational attainment (OR, 2.13; 95 % CI, 1.34, 3.39) and long-term unemployment (OR, 1.74; 95 % CI, 1.11, 2.75), but did not find support for the effects on adulthood major depressive disorders. With a community population of urban African Americans followed for 40 years, our study contributes to the understanding of the relationships between adolescent smoking and later educational attainment and employment.

  10. Educational attainment and obesity: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Alison K.; Rai, Manisha; Rehkopf, David H.; Abrams, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background Although previous systematic reviews considered the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity, almost 200 peer-reviewed articles have been published since the last review on that topic, and this paper focuses specifically on education, which has different implications. Methods The authors systematically review the peer-reviewed literature from around the world considering the association between educational attainment and obesity. Databases from public health and medicine, education, psychology, economics, and other social sciences were searched, and articles published in English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish were included. Results This paper includes 289 articles that report on 410 populations in 91 countries. The relationship between educational attainment and obesity was modified by both gender and the country's economic development level: an inverse association was more common in studies of higher-income countries and a positive association was more common in lower-income countries, with stronger social patterning among women. Relatively few studies reported on lower-income countries, controlled for a comprehensive set of potential confounding variables, and/or attempted to assess causality through the use of quasi-experimental designs. Conclusions Future research should address these gaps to understand if the relationship between educational attainment and obesity may be causal, thus supporting education policy as a tool for obesity prevention. PMID:23889851

  11. Effects of parental socio-economic conditions on facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Huber, Susanne; Fieder, Martin

    2014-12-30

    Socio-economic conditions during early life are known to affect later life outcomes such as health or social success. We investigated whether family socio-economic background may also affect facial attractiveness. We used the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (n = 8434) to analyze the association between an individual's parental socio-economic background (in terms of father's highest education and parental income) and that individual's facial attractiveness (estimated by rating of high school yearbook photographs when subjects were between 17 and 20 years old), controlling for subjects' sex, year of birth, and father's age at subjects' birth. Subjects' facial attractiveness increased with increasing father's highest educational attainment as well as increasing parental income, with the latter effect being stronger for female subjects as well. We conclude that early socio-economic conditions predict, to some extent, facial attractiveness in young adulthood.

  12. Attained growth status of selected groups of Israeli children.

    PubMed

    Nichaman, M Z; Reshef, A

    1978-05-01

    Analyses of available growth data from different groups of Israeli children revealed wide differences in attained growth in groups of children whose parents immigrated from different countries. By means of analyses of variance, it was shown that these differences in growth are most likely due to differences in the socioeconomic level of the family, rather than being related to parental country of origin. The data also suggest that nutrition problems among Israeli children, although not very severe, reflect a moderate degree of maldistribution of available food resources in different socioeconomic and cultural subgroups. The data also support the applicability and usefulness of a reference population data base drawn from children in the United States, in evaluating the attained growth status of children in different population groups.

  13. A Widening Gap? Changes in Multiple Lifestyle Risk Behaviours by Socioeconomic Status in New South Wales, Australia, 2002–2012

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ding; Do, Anna; Schmidt, Heather-Marie; Bauman, Adrian E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in health outcomes have increased over the past few decades in some countries. However, the trends in inequalities related to multiple health risk behaviours have been infrequently reported. In this study, we examined the trends in individual health risk behaviours and a summary lifestyle risk index in New South Wales, Australia, and whether the absolute and relative inequalities in risk behaviours by socioeconomic positions have changed over time. Methods Using data from the annual New South Wales Adult Population Health Survey during the period of 2002–2012, we examined four individual risk behaviours (smoking, higher than recommended alcohol consumption, insufficient fruit and vegetable intake, and insufficient physical activity) and a combined lifestyle risk indicator. Socioeconomic inequalities were assessed based on educational attainment and postal area-level index of relative socio-economic disadvantage (IRSD), and were presented as prevalence difference for absolute inequalities and prevalence ratio for relative inequalities. Trend tests and survey logistic regression models examined whether the degree of absolute and relative inequalities between the most and least disadvantaged subgroups have changed over time. Results The prevalence of all individual risk behaviours and the summary lifestyle risk indicator declined from 2002 to 2012. Particularly, the prevalence of physical inactivity and smoking decreased from 52.6% and 22% in 2002 to 43.8% and 17.1% in 2012 (p for trend<0.001). However, a significant trend was observed for increasing absolute and relative inequalities in smoking, insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption, and the summary lifestyle risk indicator. Conclusions The overall improvement in health behaviours in New South Wales, Australia, co-occurred with a widening socioeconomic gap. Implications Governments should address health inequalities through risk factor surveillance and combined

  14. Tackling the Remaining Attainment Gap between Students with and without Immigrant Background: An Investigation into the Equivalence of SES Constructs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenkeit, Jenny; Caro, Daniel H.; Strand, Steve

    2015-01-01

    In England, students with immigrant background exhibit lower educational attainment than those without immigrant background. Family socioeconomic status (SES) helps explain differences in educational attainment, but a gap remains that differs in size for students with different immigrant backgrounds. While the explanatory repertoire for the…

  15. [Health status of people with a migrant background and impact of socio-economic factors: First results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    PubMed

    Rommel, Alexander; Saß, A C; Born, S; Ellert, U

    2015-06-01

    People with a migrant background (PMB) have specific health-related risk factors and resources compared to the non-migrant population (NMP). The analysis focuses on the relationship between migrant background and health and health-related behavior. Moreover, the study analyses whether socio-economic status (SES) contributes to the explanation of differences between PMB and the NMP. The research is based on the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1) (2008-2012, n = 8151). The population for cross-sectional analyses contains 1107 PMB (weighted 19.8 %). The research question is addressed on the basis of nine exemplary health outcomes. All analyses are gender specific and make a distinction between first and second generation PMB. Logistic regression is calculated adjusting for age and SES. The results reveal clear gender-specific patterns: For women, differences are statistically significant mainly for first generation PMB. Compared to the NMP their self-assessed health status is lower, they are less physically active, consume less alcohol, feel less informed about cancer screening programs and make less use of preventive health services. However, daily smoking is more prevalent in second generation women. For men, differences are statistically significant for first and second generation PMB. Men with a migrant background show more symptoms of depression, consume less alcohol and feel less informed about cancer screening programs. After adjusting for SES the impact of migrant background on health status and health-related behavior largely remains stable. The study shows that the DEGS1 data offers valuable results and new insights into the health status of people with a migrant background. The use of this data for further research requires a differentiated approach to the concept of migrant background and a careful interpretation of results.

  16. Life Course Socioeconomic Position and C-Reactive Protein: Mediating Role of Health-Risk Behaviors and Metabolic Alterations. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Camelo, Lidyane V.; Giatti, Luana; Neves, Jorge Alexandre Barbosa; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Benseñor, Isabela M.; Chor, Dóra; Griep, Rosane Härter; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Kawachi, Ichiro; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation has been postulated to be one mediating mechanism explaining the association between low socioeconomic position (SEP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We sought to examine the association between life course SEP and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in adulthood, and to evaluate the extent to which health-risk behaviors and metabolic alterations mediate this association. Additionally, we explored the possible modifying influence of gender. Methods and Findings Our analytical sample comprised 13,371 participants from ELSA-Brasil baseline, a multicenter prospective cohort study of civil servants. SEP during childhood, young adulthood, and adulthood were considered. The potential mediators between life course SEP and CRP included clusters of health-risk behaviors (smoking, low leisure time physical activity, excessive alcohol consumption), and metabolic alterations (obesity, hypertension, low HDL, hypertriglyceridemia, and diabetes). Linear regression models were performed and structural equation modeling was used to evaluate mediation. Although lower childhood SEP was associated with higher levels of CRP in adult life, this association was not independent of adulthood SEP. However, CRP increased linearly with increasing number of unfavorable social circumstances during the life course (p trend <0.001). The metabolic alterations were the most important mediator between cumulative SEP and CRP. This mediation path accounted for 49.5% of the total effect of cumulative SEP on CRP among women, but only 20.2% among men. In consequence, the portion of the total effect of cumulative SEP on CRP that was mediated by risk behaviors and metabolic alterations was higher among women (55.4%) than among men (36.8%). Conclusions Cumulative SEP across life span was associated with elevated systemic inflammation in adulthood. Although health-risk behaviors and metabolic alterations were important mediators of this association, a sizable fraction of this

  17. [Health status of people with a migrant background and impact of socio-economic factors: First results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    PubMed

    Rommel, Alexander; Saß, A C; Born, S; Ellert, U

    2015-06-01

    People with a migrant background (PMB) have specific health-related risk factors and resources compared to the non-migrant population (NMP). The analysis focuses on the relationship between migrant background and health and health-related behavior. Moreover, the study analyses whether socio-economic status (SES) contributes to the explanation of differences between PMB and the NMP. The research is based on the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1) (2008-2012, n = 8151). The population for cross-sectional analyses contains 1107 PMB (weighted 19.8 %). The research question is addressed on the basis of nine exemplary health outcomes. All analyses are gender specific and make a distinction between first and second generation PMB. Logistic regression is calculated adjusting for age and SES. The results reveal clear gender-specific patterns: For women, differences are statistically significant mainly for first generation PMB. Compared to the NMP their self-assessed health status is lower, they are less physically active, consume less alcohol, feel less informed about cancer screening programs and make less use of preventive health services. However, daily smoking is more prevalent in second generation women. For men, differences are statistically significant for first and second generation PMB. Men with a migrant background show more symptoms of depression, consume less alcohol and feel less informed about cancer screening programs. After adjusting for SES the impact of migrant background on health status and health-related behavior largely remains stable. The study shows that the DEGS1 data offers valuable results and new insights into the health status of people with a migrant background. The use of this data for further research requires a differentiated approach to the concept of migrant background and a careful interpretation of results. PMID:25824135

  18. Socioeconomic position, health behaviors, and C-reactive protein: A moderated-mediation analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kershaw, Kiarri N.; Mezuk, Briana; Abdou, Cleopatra M.; Rafferty, Jane A.; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We sought to understand the link between low SEP and cardiovascular disease (CVD) by examining the association between SEP, health-related coping behaviors, and C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker and independent risk factor for CVD in a US sample of adults. Design We used a multiple mediation model to evaluate how these behaviors work in concert to influence CRP levels and whether these relationships were moderated by gender and race/ethnicity. Main outcome measures CRP levels were divided into two categories: elevated CRP (3.1–10.0 mg/L) and normal CRP (≤ 3.0 mg/L). Results Both poverty and low educational attainment were associated with elevated CRP, and these associations were primarily explained through higher levels of smoking and lower levels of exercise. In the education model, poor diet also emerged as a significant mediator. These behaviors accounted for 87.9% of the total effect of education on CRP and 55.8% the total effect of poverty on CRP. We also found significant moderation of these mediated effects by gender and race/ethnicity. Conclusion These findings demonstrate the influence of socioeconomically-patterned environmental constraints on individual-level health behaviors. Specifically, reducing socioeconomic inequalities may have positive effects on CVD disparities through reducing cigarette smoking and increasing vigorous exercise. PMID:20496985

  19. Ozone attainment: A different perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, W.B. )

    1988-01-01

    Recent attention on the ozone non-attainment issue has been focused on Washington. Both Congress and the EPA have made efforts at addressing the post-1987 crisis in the many non-attainment areas. In contrast to the political activity, this paper presents some interesting technical perspectives on ozone attainment for many areas of the U.S.. Issues such as transport, climate and natural ozone sources are discussed in the context of exceedance frequency for several geographical areas of the country.

  20. The influence of neighbourhood formality status and socio-economic position on self-rated health among adult men and women: a multilevel, cross sectional, population study from Aleppo, Syria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is substantial evidence from high income countries that neighbourhoods have an influence on health independent of individual characteristics. However, neighbourhood characteristics are rarely taken into account in the analysis of urban health studies from developing countries. Informal urban neighbourhoods are home to about half of the population in Aleppo, the second largest city in Syria (population>2.5 million). This study aimed to examine the influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES) and formality status on self-rated health (SRH) of adult men and women residing in formal and informal urban neighbourhoods in Aleppo. Methods The study used data from 2038 survey respondents to the Aleppo Household Survey, 2004 (age 18–65 years, 54.8% women, response rate 86%). Respondents were nested in 45 neighbourhoods. Five individual-level SES measures, namely education, employment, car ownership, item ownership and household density, were aggregated to the level of neighbourhood. Multilevel regression models were used to investigate associations. Results We did not find evidence of important SRH variation between neighbourhoods. Neighbourhood average of household item ownership was associated with a greater likelihood of reporting excellent SRH in women; odds ratio (OR) for an increase of one item on average was 2.3 (95% CI 1.3-4.4 (versus poor SRH)) and 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.5 (versus normal SRH)), adjusted for individual characteristics and neighbourhood formality. After controlling for individual and neighbourhood SES measures, women living in informal neighbourhoods were less likely to report poor SRH than women living in formal neighbourhoods (OR= 0.4; 95% CI (0.2- 0.8) (versus poor SRH) and OR=0.5; 95%; CI (0.3-0.9) (versus normal SRH). Conclusions Findings support evidence from high income countries that certain characteristic of neighbourhoods affect men and women in different ways. Further research from similar urban settings in

  1. The role of common genetic variation in educational attainment and income: evidence from the National Child Development Study.

    PubMed

    Davies, Neil M; Hemani, Gibran; Timpson, Nic J; Windmeijer, Frank; Davey Smith, George

    2015-11-12

    We investigated the role of common genetic variation in educational attainment and household income. We used data from 5,458 participants of the National Child Development Study to estimate: 1) the associations of rs9320913, rs11584700 and rs4851266 and socioeconomic position and educational phenotypes; and 2) the univariate chip-heritability of each phenotype, and the genetic correlation between each phenotype and educational attainment at age 16. The three SNPs were associated with most measures of educational attainment. Common genetic variation contributed to 6 of 14 socioeconomic background phenotypes, and 17 of 29 educational phenotypes. We found evidence of genetic correlations between educational attainment at age 16 and 4 of 14 social background and 8 of 28 educational phenotypes. This suggests common genetic variation contributes both to differences in educational attainment and its relationship with other phenotypes. However, we remain cautious that cryptic population structure, assortative mating, and dynastic effects may influence these associations.

  2. Socioeconomic trends in radiology.

    PubMed

    Barneveld Binkhuysen, F H

    1998-01-01

    For radiology the socioeconomic environment is a topic of increasing importance. In addition to the well-known important scientific developments in radiology such as interventional MRI, several other major trends can be recognized: (1) changes in the delivery of health care, in which all kinds of managed care are developing and will influence the practice of radiology, and (2) the process of computerization and digitization. The socioeconomic environment of radiology will be transformed by the developments in managed care, teleradiology and the integration of information systems. If radiologists want to manage future radiology departments they must have an understanding of the changes in the fields of economics and politics that are taking place and that will increasingly influence radiology. Some important and recognizable aspects of these changes will be described here. PMID:9477292

  3. The Attainment of Individuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, T. R.

    A commonly held assumption is that students should enter college with values and attitudes shared by their parents and, following 4 years of preparation, leave as adults with identical values and attitudes. It is becoming evident that today's students have chosen to depart from these expectations, since growing numbers of them are entering college…

  4. Postfamine stature and socioeconomic status in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Young, Kristin; Relethford, John H; Crawford, Michael H

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has documented socioeconomic stratification of secular trend in height in historical populations. Using data from 4,900 males and 1,430 females born between 1840 and 1910 collected as part of the Harvard Anthropological Survey of Ireland (1934-1936), this study examined the secular changes in postfamine Ireland using several socioeconomic variables, including: occupation, migration, education, siblings, birthplace, and occupation of father and mother's father. Correlations were also calculated between height and various historical economic indices. Significant differences in the height of Irish males were found by occupation, education, and socioeconomic status of father and maternal grandfather. Males employed in agriculture, or whose fathers or grandfathers were so employed, were significantly taller than other males. For the smaller female sample, only occupation and grandfather's socioeconomic status had a significant impact on height. An inverse correlation was also found between the British Cost of Living Index (BCL) and male heights. Our results suggest that availability of resources plays an important role in the overall nutritional status reflected in terminal adult height.

  5. Education Leaders Applaud ATTAIN Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about Achievement Through Technology and Innovation (ATTAIN) Act, a bill introduced by Senators Bingaman (D-NM), Burr (R-NC), and Murray (D-WA) and applauded by a coalition of education and industry groups. The proposed ATTAIN Act is similar to its companion in the House (HR 2449), and builds upon the Enhancing Education Through…

  6. Gender Differences and High Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinklin, Teresa

    2003-01-01

    Examines factors related to high attainment (using data from Scottish School Leavers Survey) and asks whether these differ for males and females. Establishes a strong relationship between social advantage/high attainment within genders. Found girls took school more seriously than males, supporting theories girls and boys experience different peer…

  7. Income Sustainability through Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Ronald H.; McChesney, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the sustainability of income, as it relates to educational attainment, from the two recent decades, which includes three significant economic downturns. The data was analyzed to determine trends in the wealth gap, parsed by educational attainment and gender. Utilizing the data from 1991 through 2010, predictions in changes in…

  8. Health Shocks and Children's School Attainments in Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Ang; Yao, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Using a long panel dataset of Chinese farm households covering the period of 1987-2002, this paper studies how major health shocks happening to household adults affect children's school attainments. We find that primary school-age children are the most vulnerable to health shocks, with their chances to enter middle school dropping by 9.9…

  9. Education and Occupational Attainment from Generation to Generation: The Case of Zaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukweso, Mwenene; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Study conducted to ascertain relationship between education and occupational attainment in Zaire included specific Zaire historical/cultural factors. Sample included persons who matured in preindependence (N=208) and postindependence (N=494) periods. Variables were socioeconomic background, tribe, religion, urban experience, type of school,…

  10. Obesity and Skill Attainment in Early Childhood. NBER Working Paper No. 13997

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawley, John; Spiess, C. Katharina

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the association between obesity and skill attainment in early childhood (aged 2-4 years). Data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study are used to estimate models of developmental functioning in four critical areas (verbal skills, activities of daily living, motor skills, and social skills) as a function of various…

  11. The Impact of Participation in Sports on Educational Attainment--New Evidence from Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeifer, Christian; Corneliszen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the impact of exercising sports during childhood and adolescence on educational attainment. The theoretical framework is based on models of allocation of time and educational productivity. Using the rich information from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP), we apply generalized ordered probit models to estimate the effect of…

  12. Hispanic American Degree Attainment and the Effects of Critical Events and Support Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the critical events and support systems that have contributed to the attainment of an academic doctorate by Hispanics and to discern the similarities that existed in their parental educational level, socioeconomic status, and cultural background. The study will furthermore seek to identify major obstacles…

  13. Social Status, Cognitive Ability, and Educational Attainment as Predictors of Liberal Social Attitudes and Political Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoon, Ingrid; Cheng, Helen; Gale, Catharine R.; Batty, G. David; Deary, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the prospective associations between family socio-economic background, childhood intelligence ("g") at age 11, educational and occupational attainment, and social attitudes at age 33 in a large (N = 8804), representative sample of the British population born in 1958. Structural equation Modeling identified a latent trait of "liberal…

  14. Diverging Trends in Cause-Specific Mortality and Life Years Lost by Educational Attainment: Evidence from United States Vital Statistics Data, 1990-2010

    PubMed Central

    Sasson, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Background Life expectancy at birth in the United States will likely surpass 80 years in the coming decade. Yet recent studies suggest that longevity gains are unevenly shared across age and socioeconomic groups. First, mortality in midlife has risen among non-Hispanic whites. Second, low-educated whites have suffered stalls (men) or declines (women) in adult life expectancy, which is significantly lower than among their college-educated counterparts. Estimating the number of life years lost or gained by age and cause of death, broken down by educational attainment, is crucial in identifying vulnerable populations. Methods and Findings Using U.S. vital statistics data from 1990 to 2010, this study decomposes the change in life expectancy at age 25 by age and cause of death across educational attainment groups, broken down by race and gender. The findings reveal that mortality in midlife increased for white women (and to a lesser extent men) with 12 or fewer years of schooling, accounting for most of the stalls or declines in adult life expectancy observed in those groups. Among blacks, mortality declined in nearly all age and educational attainment groups. Although an educational gradient was found across multiple causes of death, between 60 and 80 percent of the gap in adult life expectancy was explained by cardiovascular diseases, smoking-related diseases, and external causes of death. Furthermore, the number of life years lost to smoking-related, external, and other causes of death increased among low- and high school-educated whites, explaining recent stalls or declines in longevity. Conclusions Large segments of the American population—particularly low- and high school-educated whites under age 55—are diverging from their college-educated counterparts and losing additional years of life to smoking-related diseases and external causes of death. If this trend continues, old-age mortality may also increase for these birth cohorts in the coming decades. PMID

  15. Early Life Adversity and Adult Biological Risk Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Esther M.; Karlamangla, Arun S.; Gruenewald, Tara; Koretz, Brandon; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether there is a relationship between early life adversity (ELA) and biological parameters known to predict health risks and to examine the extent to which circumstances in midlife mediate this relationship. Methods We analyzed data on 1,180 respondents from the biomarker subsample of the second wave of the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study. ELA assessments were based on childhood socioeconomic disadvantage (i.e. on welfare, perceived low income, less-educated parents) and other stressors (e.g., parental death, parental divorce, and parental physical abuse). The outcome variable was cumulative allostatic load (AL), a marker of biological risk. We also incorporate information on adult circumstances, including: education, social relationships, and health behaviors. Results Childhood socioeconomic adversity was associated with increased AL (B=0.094, SE=0.041) and physical abuse (B=0.263, SE=0.091), with non-significant associations for parental divorce and death. Adult education mediated the relationship between socioeconomic ELA and cumulative allostatic load to the point of non-significance, with this factor alone explaining nearly 40% of the relationship. The association between childhood physical abuse and AL remained even after adjusting for adult educational attainments, social relationships, and health behaviors. These associations were most pronounced for secondary stress systems, including inflammation, cardiovascular function, and lipid metabolism. Conclusions The physiological consequences of early life socioeconomic adversity are attenuated by achieving high levels of schooling later on. The adverse consequences of childhood physical abuse, on the other hand, persist in multivariable adjusted analysis. PMID:25650548

  16. Educational Attainment and HIV/AIDS Prevalence: A Cross-Country Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakhanpal, Manisha; Ram, Rati

    2008-01-01

    Using data for a large cross-country sample, a reasonable model is estimated to judge the effect of adult educational attainment on prevalence of HIV. Three main points are noted. First, there is an indication of a significantly negative effect of educational attainment on HIV prevalence. Second, magnitude of the impact appears sizable. Third, a…

  17. Social Mobility or Social Reproduction? A Case Study of the Attainment Patterns of Students According to Their Social Background and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Matthew; Collins, Gemma; Butt, Graham

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores levels of achievement amongst boys who attended a selective school in Birmingham, UK through consideration of their attainment, social background and ethnicity. It seeks to answer three main questions. Firstly, to what extent does academic attainment vary between students from different socio-economic groups and ethnic…

  18. Student Progress and Goal Attainment Report: Federally-Funded ABE Programs in California, 1998-99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Dennis; Van Heertum, Rich; Evans, Andrew; Cloney, Matthew; Ochoa, Glen; Rickard, Pat; Coogan, Lori; Merry, Teri; Miller, Jennifer

    The report presents the Adult Basic Education (ABE) 321/326 California learning progress and goal attainment data for fiscal year 1998-99. Chapter 1 introduces an overview of adult basic education in California and contains information about ABE 321/326 federal programs and the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System (CASES). It discusses…

  19. EDUCATIONAL AND WORK STRATEGIES FROM ADOLESCENCE TO EARLY ADULTHOOD: CONSEQUENCES FOR EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

    PubMed Central

    Staff, Jeremy; Mortimer, Jeylan T.

    2006-01-01

    Whereas sociologists have long recognized that adolescence marks the start of the socioeconomic career, the importance of this period has been attributed to school performance, aspirations, and significant others’ influence that support educational attainment to a greater or lesser degree. The underlying premise of this study is that adolescent work is an expression of instrumental action with consequences for socioeconomic attainment. Using data from the Youth Development Study, we find that part-time work during high school is linked with patterns of schooling and working that persist during the succeeding years and are more or less conducive to the receipt of a BA/BS degree. Moderate work coupled with school appears to especially facilitate the educational attainment of low promise youth. PMID:17468782

  20. Evaluating Area-Based Socioeconomic Status Indicators for Monitoring Disparities within Health Care Systems: Results from a Primary Care Network

    PubMed Central

    Berkowitz, Seth A; Traore, Carine Y; Singer, Daniel E; Atlas, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine which area-based socioeconomic status (SES) indicator is best suited to monitor health care disparities from a delivery system perspective. Data Sources/Study Setting 142,659 adults seen in a primary care network from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2011. Study Design Cross-sectional, comparing associations between area-based SES indicators and patient outcomes. Data Collection Address data were geocoded to construct area-based SES indicators at block group (BG), census tract (CT), and ZIP code (ZIP) levels. Data on health outcomes were abstracted from electronic records. Relative indices of inequality (RIIs) were calculated to quantify disparities detected by area-based SES indicators and compared to RIIs from self-reported educational attainment. Principal Findings ZIP indicators had less missing data than BG or CT indicators (p < .0001). Area-based SES indicators were strongly associated with self-report educational attainment (p < .0001). ZIP, BG, and CT indicators all detected expected SES gradients in health outcomes similarly. Single-item, cut point defined indicators performed as well as multidimensional indices and quantile indicators. Conclusions Area-based SES indicators detected health outcome differences well and may be useful for monitoring disparities within health care systems. Our preferred indicator was ZIP-level median household income or percent poverty, using cut points. PMID:25219917

  1. Trajectories of health-related quality of life by socio-economic status in a nationally representative Canadian cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Nancy A; Garner, Rochelle; Bernier, Julie; Feeny, David H; Kaplan, Mark S; McFarland, Bentson; Orpana, Heather M; Oderkirk, Jillian

    2013-01-01

    Background Mortality and morbidity have been shown to follow a ‘social gradient’ in Canada and many other countries around the world. Comparatively little, however, is known about whether ageing amplifies, diminishes or sustains socio-economic inequalities in health. Methods Growth curve analysis of seven cycles of the Canadian National Population Health Survey (n=13 682) for adults aged 20 and older at baseline (1994/95). The outcome of interest is the Health Utilities Index Mark 3, a measure of health-related quality of life (HRQL). Models include the deceased so as not to present overly optimistic HRQL values. Socio-economic position is measured separately by household-size-adjusted income and highest level of education attained. Results HRQL is consistently highest for the most affluent and the most highly educated men and women, and is lower, in turn, for middle and lower income and education groups. HRQL declines with age for both men and women. The rate of the decline in HRQL, however, was related neither to income nor to education for men, suggesting stability in the social gradient in HRQL over time for men. There was a sharper decline in HRQL for upper-middle and highest-income groups for women than for the poorest women. Conclusion HRQL is graded by both income and education in Canadian men and women. The grading of HRQL by social position appears to be ‘set’ in early adulthood and is stable through mid- and later life. PMID:21441176

  2. Socioeconomic Situations of the Elderly within the Context of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahab, Elias Olukorede

    2011-01-01

    It is still unknown how the MDGs have impacted the socioeconomic situations of the elderly in Nigeria. This has become essential to appraise the attainability of the MDGs in Nigeria. Quantitative data were collected through an individual-based questionnaire. Multistage sampling was employed to select local government areas, enumeration areas, and…

  3. The "Collateral Impact" of Pupil Behaviour and Geographically Concentrated Socio-Economic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Alex Hugh

    2010-01-01

    Schools in areas of concentrated disadvantage tend to have below-average attainment, but there is no consensus on why. Mental and behavioural disorders in children are correlated with socio-economic disadvantage. This paper puts forward the hypothesis that the first phenomenon can at least partly be accounted for by the second phenomenon through…

  4. Racial Stratification and Socioeconomic Change in the American North and South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Dennis P.; Featherman, David L.

    1977-01-01

    Recent change in the life-cycle processes of educational, occupational, and earnings attainments is analyzed among black men native to the South, those native to the North, and black male migrants from the South to the North. It is concluded that changes in the last decade have supported the development of more distinct socioeconomic strata.…

  5. Sociopolitical Development and Vocational Expectations among Lower Socioeconomic Status Adolescents of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diemer, Matthew A.; Hsieh, Chueh-an

    2008-01-01

    The well-documented aspiration-expectation gap refers to lower socioeconomic status (SES) adolescents of color expecting to attain occupations with lower pay and status than the occupations to which they aspire. Sociopolitical inequity, such as structural racism and asymmetrical access to resources, may explain this gap. This article examines the…

  6. Talking about Class: Honest Conversations about Socioeconomic Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanek, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    As independent schools move to a greater emphasis on 21st-century skills and global education, it becomes imperative that curriculum address one of society's greatest challenges: the recognition of socioeconomic difference and its impact on every aspect of people's lives. With an increasingly diverse student and adult population, ensuring…

  7. Stable Postdivorce Family Structures during Late Adolescence and Socioeconomic Consequences in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yongmin; Li, Yuanzhang

    2008-01-01

    Using four waves of panel data from 6,954 American young adults in the National Education Longitudinal Study, we compare the long-term socioeconomic consequences of growing up in two types of divorced families. Our findings show that the negative socioeconomic consequences of growing up in unstable postdivorce families are at least twice as large…

  8. 40 CFR 51.1004 - Attainment dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...(a)(2)(A) of the Act, the attainment date for an area designated nonattainment for the PM2.5 NAAQS... PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the standard, the requirements for such area to submit attainment..., contingency measures, and other planning SIPs related to attainment of the PM2.5 NAAQS shall be...

  9. Understanding the influence of educational attainment on kidney health and opportunities for improved care.

    PubMed

    Green, Jamie A; Cavanaugh, Kerri L

    2015-01-01

    Educational attainment is an important but often overlooked contributor to health outcomes in patients with kidney disease. Those with lower levels of education have an increased risk of ESRD, complications of peritoneal dialysis, worse transplant outcomes, and mortality. Mediators of these associations are poorly understood but involve a complex interplay between health knowledge, behaviors, and socioeconomic and psychosocial factors. Interventions targeting these aspects of care have the potential to reduce disparities related to educational attainment; however, few programs have been described that specifically address this issue. Future research efforts should not only systematically assess level of educational attainment but also report the differential impact of interventions across educational strata. In addition, routine measurement of health literacy may be useful to identify high-risk patients independent of years of schooling. A better understanding of the influence of educational attainment on kidney health provides an opportunity to improve the care and outcomes of vulnerable patients with kidney disease.

  10. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Neighborhood Attainments in the Transition to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Swisher, Raymond R.; Kuhl, Danielle C.; Chavez, Jorge M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines racial and ethnic differences in locational attainments in the transition to adulthood, using longitudinal data about neighborhoods of youth in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. It examines place stratification and life course models of locational attainment during the 1990s, a period during which neighborhood poverty rates were declining for many groups. The analysis reveals durable inequalities in neighborhood poverty from adolescence to young adulthood, particularly for blacks and Hispanic origin subgroups. Family socioeconomic status and emerging educational attainments are associated with decreases in neighborhood poverty, with blacks receiving a stronger return from educational attainments than whites. Despite the benefits of education, racial and ethnic minorities remain more likely to live in considerably more disadvantaged neighborhoods in young adulthood than whites. PMID:24839313

  11. Understanding the influence of educational attainment on kidney health and opportunities for improved care.

    PubMed

    Green, Jamie A; Cavanaugh, Kerri L

    2015-01-01

    Educational attainment is an important but often overlooked contributor to health outcomes in patients with kidney disease. Those with lower levels of education have an increased risk of ESRD, complications of peritoneal dialysis, worse transplant outcomes, and mortality. Mediators of these associations are poorly understood but involve a complex interplay between health knowledge, behaviors, and socioeconomic and psychosocial factors. Interventions targeting these aspects of care have the potential to reduce disparities related to educational attainment; however, few programs have been described that specifically address this issue. Future research efforts should not only systematically assess level of educational attainment but also report the differential impact of interventions across educational strata. In addition, routine measurement of health literacy may be useful to identify high-risk patients independent of years of schooling. A better understanding of the influence of educational attainment on kidney health provides an opportunity to improve the care and outcomes of vulnerable patients with kidney disease. PMID:25573509

  12. Guidance for state attainment plans

    SciTech Connect

    Strait, R.

    1994-06-01

    Title I of the Clean Air act Amendments of 1990 significantly changed requirements for regulatory agencies to prepare state implementation plans that demonstrate attainment of the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards. State agencies now are required to submit plans that show how they will meet the standards by their attainment date. EPA has published a series of guidance documents to assist states in preparing their plans. In addition, the agency is developing software to assist states in projecting emissions and tracking reductions. This article summarizes the guidance documents and software program.

  13. Forecasting civil conflict along the shared socioeconomic pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegre, Håvard; Buhaug, Halvard; Calvin, Katherine V.; Nordkvelle, Jonas; Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Gilmore, Elisabeth

    2016-05-01

    Climate change and armed civil conflict are both linked to socioeconomic development, although conditions that facilitate peace may not necessarily facilitate mitigation and adaptation to climate change. While economic growth lowers the risk of conflict, it is generally associated with increased greenhouse gas emissions and costs of climate mitigation policies. This study investigates the links between growth, climate change, and conflict by simulating future civil conflict using new scenario data for five alternative socioeconomic pathways with different mitigation and adaptation assumptions, known as the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). We develop a statistical model of the historical effect of key socioeconomic variables on country-specific conflict incidence, 1960-2013. We then forecast the annual incidence of conflict, 2014-2100, along the five SSPs. We find that SSPs with high investments in broad societal development are associated with the largest reduction in conflict risk. This is most pronounced for the least developed countries—poverty alleviation and human capital investments in poor countries are much more effective instruments to attain global peace and stability than further improvements to wealthier economies. Moreover, the SSP that describes a sustainability pathway, which poses the lowest climate change challenges, is as conducive to global peace as the conventional development pathway.

  14. Forecasting civil conflict along the shared socioeconomic pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegre, Håvard; Buhaug, Halvard; Calvin, Katherine V.; Nordkvelle, Jonas; Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Gilmore, Elisabeth

    2016-05-01

    Climate change and armed civil conflict are both linked to socioeconomic development, although conditions that facilitate peace may not necessarily facilitate mitigation and adaptation to climate change. While economic growth lowers the risk of conflict, it is generally associated with increased greenhouse gas emissions and costs of climate mitigation policies. This study investigates the links between growth, climate change, and conflict by simulating future civil conflict using new scenario data for five alternative socioeconomic pathways with different mitigation and adaptation assumptions, known as the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). We develop a statistical model of the historical effect of key socioeconomic variables on country-specific conflict incidence, 1960–2013. We then forecast the annual incidence of conflict, 2014–2100, along the five SSPs. We find that SSPs with high investments in broad societal development are associated with the largest reduction in conflict risk. This is most pronounced for the least developed countries—poverty alleviation and human capital investments in poor countries are much more effective instruments to attain global peace and stability than further improvements to wealthier economies. Moreover, the SSP that describes a sustainability pathway, which poses the lowest climate change challenges, is as conducive to global peace as the conventional development pathway.

  15. Socioeconomic status and health in the Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Kagamimori, Sadanobu; Gaina, Alexandru; Nasermoaddeli, Ali

    2009-06-01

    There is growing interest in the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on health. Individual SES has been shown to be closely related to mortality, morbidity, health-related behavior and access to health care services in Western countries. Whether the same set of social determinants accounts for higher rates of mortality or morbidity in Japan is questionable, because over the past decade the magnitude of the social stratification within the society has increased due to economic and social circumstances. SES must be interpreted within the economic, social, demographic and cultural contexts of a specific country. In this report we discuss the impact of individuals' socioeconomic position on health in Japan with regard to educational attainment, occupational gradient/class, income level, and unemployment. This review is based mainly on papers indexed in Medline/PubMed between 1990 and 2007. We find that socioeconomic differences in mortality, morbidity and risk factors are not uniformly small in Japan. The majority of papers investigate the relationship between education, occupational class and health, but low income and unemployment are not examined sufficiently in Japan. The results also indicate that different socioeconomic contexts and inequality contribute to the mortality, morbidity, and biological and behavioral risk factors in Japan, although the pattern and direction of the relationships may not necessarily be the same in terms of size, pattern, distribution, magnitude and impact as in Western countries. In particular, the association between higher occupational status and lower mortality, as well as higher educational attainment and either mortality or morbidity, is not as strongly expressed among the Japanese. Japan is still one of the healthiest and most egalitarian nations in the world, and social inequalities within the population are less expressed. However, the magnitude of the social stratification has started to increase, and this is an alarming

  16. Educational Attainment: Understanding the Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandy; Cunningham, Alisa; Tanenbaum, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    The level of educational attainment in the United States is a central focus of public policy. The Obama administration, some states, large national foundations, and other organizations have set near-term goals to increase the number of Americans with college degrees. Achieving these goals is likely to involve a combination of increasing…

  17. University Students: Attainment and Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendry, L. B.; Douglass, L.

    1975-01-01

    The extent to which 230 university students following a one-year psychology course were 'active' (i.e., competitively or recreationally involved) in sport or 'non-participant' was compared with their scores on measures of personality, attitude, social class, sex, previous school involvement in sport, and attainment in university course work.…

  18. Socioeconomic development in Sichuan.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G

    1997-10-01

    This article discusses the socioeconomic development in Sichuan province in south-central China. The gross domestic product of Sichuan province was 298.5 billion yuan in 1996, which is the 8th highest level in the country. Sichuan accounts for 30% of the total economic output in West China. Grain output accounts for 7.3%, oil bearing seed output accounts for 6.4%, and meat output accounts for 12% of the national total. This province accounts for 5.6% of the national gross output value of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, and fishery, which is the 6th largest proportion in the nation. In 1996, total industrial output was valued at 234.6 billion yuan. Sichuan also has considerable commerce, trade, culture, and education. In 1996, Sichuan had 42 universities and colleges with enrollments of 131,00 students and 6615 postgraduates. The province had 215 secondary vocational schools with an enrollment of 21,700 trainees. 4506 secondary schools had an enrollment of 2.766 million students. 48,911 primary schools had an enrollment of 7.8 million students. In 1996, Sichuan had 13,963 health units with 189,000 beds and 246,000 health and medical workers, of whom 123,000 were doctors and 60,000 were nurses. The population aged over 60 years numbered 8.55 million persons, or 10.2% of provincial total population. It is expected that the number of elderly will reach 9.32 million by the year 2000. There are about 3861 homes and institutions of welfare for the aged, 40 apartment complexes for the elderly, over 700 hospitals and clinics serving the elderly, and 430 schools or universities for the aged.

  19. Population Pharmacokinetics of Isavuconazole from Phase 1 and Phase 3 (SECURE) Trials in Adults and Target Attainment in Patients with Invasive Infections Due to Aspergillus and Other Filamentous Fungi.

    PubMed

    Desai, Amit; Kovanda, Laura; Kowalski, Donna; Lu, Qiaoyang; Townsend, Robert; Bonate, Peter L

    2016-09-01

    Isavuconazole, the active moiety of the water-soluble prodrug isavuconazonium sulfate, is a triazole antifungal agent used for the treatment of invasive fungal infections. The objective of this analysis was to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model to identify covariates that affect isavuconazole pharmacokinetics and to determine the probability of target attainment (PTA) for invasive aspergillosis patients. Data from nine phase 1 studies and one phase 3 clinical trial (SECURE) were pooled to develop the PPK model (NONMEM, version 7.2). Stepwise covariate modeling was performed in Perl-speaks-NONMEM, version 3.7.6. The area under the curve (AUC) at steady state was calculated for 5,000 patients by using Monte Carlo simulations. The PTA using the estimated pharmacodynamic (PD) target value (total AUC/MIC ratio) estimated from in vivo PD studies of invasive aspergillosis over a range of MIC values was calculated using simulated patient AUC values. A two-compartment model with a Weibull absorption function and a first-order elimination process adequately described plasma isavuconazole concentrations. The mean estimate for isavuconazole clearance was 2.360 liters/h (percent coefficient of variation [%CV], 34%), and the mean AUC from 0 to 24 h (AUC0-24) was ∼100 mg·h/liter. Clearance was approximately 36% lower in Asians than in Caucasians. The PTA calculated over a range of MIC values by use of the nonneutropenic murine efficacy index corresponding to 90% survival indicated that adequate isavuconazole exposures were achieved in >90% of simulated patients to treat infections with MICs up to and including 1 mg/liter according to European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing methodology and in >90% of simulated patients for infections with MICs up to and including 0.5 mg/liter according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methodology. The highest MIC result for PTA was the same for Caucasian and Asian patients. PMID:27381396

  20. Population Pharmacokinetics of Isavuconazole from Phase 1 and Phase 3 (SECURE) Trials in Adults and Target Attainment in Patients with Invasive Infections Due to Aspergillus and Other Filamentous Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Kovanda, Laura; Kowalski, Donna; Lu, Qiaoyang; Townsend, Robert; Bonate, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    Isavuconazole, the active moiety of the water-soluble prodrug isavuconazonium sulfate, is a triazole antifungal agent used for the treatment of invasive fungal infections. The objective of this analysis was to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model to identify covariates that affect isavuconazole pharmacokinetics and to determine the probability of target attainment (PTA) for invasive aspergillosis patients. Data from nine phase 1 studies and one phase 3 clinical trial (SECURE) were pooled to develop the PPK model (NONMEM, version 7.2). Stepwise covariate modeling was performed in Perl-speaks-NONMEM, version 3.7.6. The area under the curve (AUC) at steady state was calculated for 5,000 patients by using Monte Carlo simulations. The PTA using the estimated pharmacodynamic (PD) target value (total AUC/MIC ratio) estimated from in vivo PD studies of invasive aspergillosis over a range of MIC values was calculated using simulated patient AUC values. A two-compartment model with a Weibull absorption function and a first-order elimination process adequately described plasma isavuconazole concentrations. The mean estimate for isavuconazole clearance was 2.360 liters/h (percent coefficient of variation [%CV], 34%), and the mean AUC from 0 to 24 h (AUC0–24) was ∼100 mg·h/liter. Clearance was approximately 36% lower in Asians than in Caucasians. The PTA calculated over a range of MIC values by use of the nonneutropenic murine efficacy index corresponding to 90% survival indicated that adequate isavuconazole exposures were achieved in >90% of simulated patients to treat infections with MICs up to and including 1 mg/liter according to European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing methodology and in >90% of simulated patients for infections with MICs up to and including 0.5 mg/liter according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methodology. The highest MIC result for PTA was the same for Caucasian and Asian patients. PMID:27381396

  1. Socioeconomic Status, IQ, and Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffitt, Terrie E.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Results from two Danish prospective longitudinal studies are presented to support the view that IQ bears a causal relationship to delinquency that is independent of the effects of socioeconomic status (SES). (CL)

  2. Clues of subjective social status among young adults.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, François; Roos, J Micah; Combs, R M

    2015-07-01

    We investigate determinants of subjective social status (SSS) as measured by respondents placing themselves on a ten-rung ladder from least to most "money", "education" and "respected job", in a large sample of young adults. The most potent clues of SSS are proximate in the life course, reflecting educational attainment and current socioeconomic and job situation, rather than distal characteristics such as family background, although relatively distal High school GPA has a lingering effect. Additional analyses reveal that College selectivity has a substantial impact on SSS, net of other variables in the model; Currently married does not significantly contribute to SSS, but contrary to some expectations Number of children significantly lowers SSS. We find no evidence of greater "status borrowing" by women as associations of SSS with shared household characteristics (Household income, Household assets, Home ownership) do not differ by gender. Our findings for these young adults support the conclusion of earlier research that SSS reflects a "cognitive averaging" of standard dimensions of socioeconomic status. PMID:26004468

  3. Education and mortality among older adults in China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ye; Zhang, Zhenmei; Gu, Danan

    2015-02-01

    This study examines the relationship between education and mortality, its underlying mechanisms, and its gender and age variations among older adults in China, using data from the 2002 to 2011 waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. There is an inverse relationship between education and mortality risk. The relationship is explained in full by each of the three mechanisms: other socioeconomic attainments, social relationships and activities, and health status, and partially by physical exercise. In addition, primary education has a stronger effect on mortality for men than for women and the effect of education is stronger for the young old than for the oldest old. These findings underscore the importance of national and subpopulation contexts in understanding the relationship between education and mortality.

  4. Learning for Life: The Role of Adult Literacy and Numeracy in Lifelong Learning and Socio-Economic Well-Being. Executive Summary of the ALNARC National Research Program, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Sue; Searle, Jean; Falk, Ian; Johnston, Betty; Ovens, Carolyn; Riddell, Christine

    In 2001-2002, the Adult Literacy and Numeracy Australian Research Consortium conducted 26 national investigations with findings in the following areas: (1) population competence; (2) linking literacy and numeracy into training; (3) professional support for educators and trainers; and (4) policy and systemic issues. All the projects were intended…

  5. A Longitudinal Investigation of African American and Hispanic Adolescents' Educational and Occupational Expectations and Corresponding Attainment in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Zena R.; Anton-Stang, Hilary M.; Monaghan, Patricia L.; Roberts, Kimberly J.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents' expectations about school and work may be key antecedents of adult attainment and this relationship may vary by specific racial, ethnic, and gender groups. This article examines how educational and occupational expectations change in adolescence and how expectations predict corresponding attainment in adulthood. Participants included…

  6. Pursuing Post-Secondary Education in the Host Country and the Occupational Attainment of Highly Educated Immigrants to Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamuti-Trache, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the occupational attainment of highly educated adult immigrants by employing a secondary analysis of three waves of the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada that provide data on immigrant arrivals in 2000-2001. Occupational attainment is described in terms of matching immigrants' pre-migration occupation with the main…

  7. The Pivotal Role of Education in the Association between Ability and Social Class Attainment: A Look across Three Generations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Brett, Caroline E.; Deary, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have established that family social background and individual mental ability and educational attainment contribute to adult social class attainment. We propose that social class of origin acts as ballast, restraining otherwise meritocratic social class movement, and that education is the primary means through which social class…

  8. 40 CFR 51.1004 - Attainment dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Attainment dates. 51.1004 Section 51....5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1004 Attainment dates. (a) Consistent with section 172(a)(2)(A) of the Act, the attainment date for an area designated nonattainment for the PM2.5...

  9. 40 CFR 51.1004 - Attainment dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Attainment dates. 51.1004 Section 51....5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1004 Attainment dates. (a) Consistent with section 172(a)(2)(A) of the Act, the attainment date for an area designated nonattainment for the PM2.5...

  10. Socioeconomic Status, Family Processes, and Individual Development

    PubMed Central

    Conger, Rand D.; Conger, Katherine J.; Martin, Monica J.

    2010-01-01

    Research during the past decade shows that social class or socioeconomic status (SES) is related to satisfaction and stability in romantic unions, the quality of parent-child relationships, and a range of developmental outcomes for adults and children. This review focuses on evidence regarding potential mechanisms proposed to account for these associations. Research findings reported during the past decade demonstrate support for an interactionist model of the relationship between SES and family life, which incorporates assumptions from both the social causation and social selection perspectives. The review concludes with recommendations for future research on SES, family processes and individual development in terms of important theoretical and methodological issues yet to be addressed. PMID:20676350

  11. Inflammatory Pathways Link Socioeconomic Inequalities to White Matter Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Gianaros, Peter J.; Marsland, Anna L.; Sheu, Lei K.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Verstynen, Timothy D.

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic disadvantage confers risk for aspects of ill health that may be mediated by systemic inflammatory influences on the integrity of distributed brain networks. Following this hypothesis, we tested whether socioeconomic disadvantage related to the structural integrity of white matter tracts connecting brain regions of distributed networks, and whether such a relationship would be mediated by anthropometric, behavioral, and molecular risk factors associated with systemic inflammation. Otherwise healthy adults (N= 155, aged 30–50 years, 78 men) completed protocols assessing multilevel indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP), anthropometric and behavioral measures of adiposity and cigarette smoking, circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), and white matter integrity by diffusion tensor imaging. Mediation modeling was used to test associations between SEP indicators and measures of white matter tract integrity, as well as indirect mediating paths. Measures of tract integrity followed a socioeconomic gradient: individuals completing more schooling, earning higher incomes, and residing in advantaged neighborhoods exhibited increases in white matter fractional anisotropy and decreases in radial diffusivity, relative to disadvantaged individuals. Moreover, analysis of indirect paths showed that adiposity, cigarette smoking, and CRP partially mediated these effects. Socioeconomic inequalities may relate to diverse health disparities via inflammatory pathways impacting the structural integrity of brain networks. PMID:22772650

  12. Inflammatory pathways link socioeconomic inequalities to white matter architecture.

    PubMed

    Gianaros, Peter J; Marsland, Anna L; Sheu, Lei K; Erickson, Kirk I; Verstynen, Timothy D

    2013-09-01

    Socioeconomic disadvantage confers risk for aspects of ill health that may be mediated by systemic inflammatory influences on the integrity of distributed brain networks. Following this hypothesis, we tested whether socioeconomic disadvantage related to the structural integrity of white matter tracts connecting brain regions of distributed networks, and whether such a relationship would be mediated by anthropometric, behavioral, and molecular risk factors associated with systemic inflammation. Otherwise healthy adults (N= 155, aged 30-50 years, 78 men) completed protocols assessing multilevel indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP), anthropometric and behavioral measures of adiposity and cigarette smoking, circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), and white matter integrity by diffusion tensor imaging. Mediation modeling was used to test associations between SEP indicators and measures of white matter tract integrity, as well as indirect mediating paths. Measures of tract integrity followed a socioeconomic gradient: individuals completing more schooling, earning higher incomes, and residing in advantaged neighborhoods exhibited increases in white matter fractional anisotropy and decreases in radial diffusivity, relative to disadvantaged individuals. Moreover, analysis of indirect paths showed that adiposity, cigarette smoking, and CRP partially mediated these effects. Socioeconomic inequalities may relate to diverse health disparities via inflammatory pathways impacting the structural integrity of brain networks. PMID:22772650

  13. Intelligence and socioeconomic position in childhood in relation to frailty and cumulative allostatic load in later life: the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Catharine R; Booth, Tom; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2016-01-01

    Background Information on childhood determinants of frailty or allostatic load in later life is sparse. We investigated whether lower intelligence and greater socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood increased the risk of frailty and higher allostatic load, and explored the mediating roles of adult socioeconomic position, educational attainment and health behaviours. Methods Participants were 876 members of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 whose intelligence was assessed at age 11. At age 70, frailty was assessed using the Fried criteria. Measurements were made of fibrinogen, triglyceride, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, albumin, glycated haemoglobin, C reactive protein, body mass index and blood pressure, from which an allostatic load score was calculated. Results In sex-adjusted analyses, lower intelligence and lower social class in childhood were associated with an increased risk of frailty: relative risks (95% CIs) were 1.57 (1.21 to 2.03) for a SD decrease in intelligence and 1.48 (1.12 to 1.96) for a category decrease in social class. In the fully adjusted model, both associations ceased to be significant: relative risks were 1.13 (0.83 to 1.54) and 1.19 (0.86 to 1.61), respectively. Educational attainment had a significant mediating effect. Lower childhood intelligence in childhood, but not social class, was associated with higher allostatic load. The sex-adjusted coefficient for allostatic load for a SD decrease in intelligence was 0.10 (0.07 to 0.14). In the fully adjusted model, this association was attenuated but remained significant (0.05 (0.01 to 0.09)). Conclusions Further research will need to investigate the mechanisms whereby lower childhood intelligence is linked to higher allostatic load in later life. PMID:26700299

  14. The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status and CV Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Quispe, Renato; Benziger, Catherine P.; Bazo-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Howe, Laura D.; Checkley, William; Gilman, Robert H.; Smeeth, Liam; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J. Jaime; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Casas, Juan P.; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Huicho, Luis; Málaga, Germán; Miranda, J. Jaime; Montori, Víctor M.; Smeeth, Liam; Checkley, William; Diette, Gregory B.; Gilman, Robert H.; Huicho, Luis; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Rivera, María; Wise, Robert A.; Checkley, William; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Miranda, J. Jaime; Sacksteder, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Background Variations in the distribution of cardiovascular disease and risk factors by socioeconomic status (SES) have been described in affluent societies, yet a better understanding of these patterns is needed for most low- and middle-income countries. Objective This study sought to describe the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and SES using monthly family income, educational attainment, and assets index, in 4 Peruvian sites. Methods Baseline data from an age- and sex-stratified random sample of participants, ages ≥35 years, from 4 Peruvian sites (CRONICAS Cohort Study, 2010) were used. The SES indicators considered were monthly family income (n = 3,220), educational attainment (n = 3,598), and assets index (n = 3,601). Behavioral risk factors included current tobacco use, alcohol drinking, physical activity, daily intake of fruits and vegetables, and no control of salt intake. Cardiometabolic risk factors included obesity, elevated waist circumference, hypertension, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high triglyceride levels. Results In the overall population, 41.6% reported a monthly family income socioeconomic indicators: for example, higher income and higher scores on an asset index were associated with greater risk of obesity, whereas higher levels of education were associated with lower risk of obesity. In contrast, higher SES according to all 3 indicators was associated with higher levels of triglycerides. Conclusions The association between SES and cardiometabolic risk factors varies depending on the SES indicator used. These results highlight the need to contextualize risk factors by socioeconomic groups in Latin American settings. PMID:27102029

  15. The Effect of Schooling Abroad on the Socioeconomic and Language Patterns of First Generation Hispanics and East Asians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, David E.

    The relationship between schooling in the English language abroad and the subsequent acculturation and attainments of Hispanic and Asian immigrants to the United States was investigated. Data were obtained from the 1976 Survey of Income and Education. For the analysis, educational background factors were related to socioeconomic and language…

  16. A Phenomenological Study of the Factors Leading Low Socioeconomic Status Urban Students to Enroll in a University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultheis, Luke D.

    2013-01-01

    Low socioeconomic urban students do not attend universities at a rate proportional to other populations. This perpetuates a cycle of recurrence and diminished potential benefits associated with degree attainment. The commonly ascribed Theory of Student Choice (Hossler, Braxton & Coopersmith, 1989) does not apply to this population. The purpose…

  17. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Toro, Felipe; Verdejo, Hugo E; Castro, Pablo F

    2015-10-01

    Prevalence and incidence of chronic heart failure (CHF) has increased during the past decades. Beyond its impact on mortality rates, CHF severely impairs quality of life, particularly with the elderly and vulnerable population. Several studies have shown that CHF takes its toll mostly on the uneducated, low-income population, who exhibit impaired access to health care systems, less knowledge regarding its pathology and poorer self-care behaviors. This review summarizes the available evidence linking socioeconomic inequalities and CHF, focusing on the modifiable factors that may explain the impaired health outcomes in socioeconomically deprived populations. PMID:26462090

  18. Socioeconomic inequality in voting participation and self-rated health.

    PubMed Central

    Blakely, T A; Kennedy, B P; Kawachi, I

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study tested the hypothesis that disparities in political participation across socioeconomic status affect health. Specifically, the association of voting inequality at the state level with individual self-rated health was examined. METHODS: A multilevel study of 279,066 respondents to the Current Population Survey (CPS) was conducted. State-level inequality in voting turnout by socioeconomic status (family income and educational attainment) was derived from November CPS data for 1990, 1992, 1994, and 1996. RESULTS: Individuals living in the states with the highest voting inequality had an odds ratio of fair/poor self-rated health of 1.43 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22, 1.68) compared with individuals living in the states with the lowest voting inequality. This odds ratio decreased to 1.34 (95% CI = 1.14, 1.56) when state income inequality was added and to 1.27 (95% CI = 1.10, 1.45) when state median income was included. The deleterious effect of low individual household income on self-rated health was most pronounced among states with the greatest voting and income inequality. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic inequality in political participation (as measured by voter turnout) is associated with poor self-rated health, independently of both income inequality and state median household income. PMID:11189832

  19. Understanding a Pacific Islander Young Adult Perspective on Access to Higher Education.

    PubMed

    Tran, Jacqueline H; Wong, Michelle; Wright, Erin Kahunawaika'ala; Fa'avae, Joe; Cheri, Ashley; Wat, Eric; Camacho, Keith L; Foo, Mary Anne

    2010-01-01

    The Pacific Islander (PI) community suffers disproportionately from illnesses and diseases, including diabetes, heart disease and cancer. While there are tremendous health needs within the PI community, there are few health care providers from the community that exist to help address these particular needs. Many efforts have focused on health care workforce diversity to reduce and eliminate health disparities, but few have examined the issues faced in the health care work force pipeline. Understanding educational attainment among PI young adults is pivotal in speaking to a diverse health care workforce where health disparities among Pacific Islanders (PIs) may be addressed. This paper provides an in-depth, qualitative assessment of the various environmental, structural, socio-economic, and social challenges that prevent PIs from attaining higher education; it also discusses the various needs of PI young adults as they relate to psychosocial support, retention and recruitment, and health career knowledge and access. This paper represents a local, Southern California, assessment of PI young adults regarding educational access barriers. We examine how these barriers impact efforts to address health disparities and look at opportunities for health and health-related professionals to reduce and care for the high burden of illnesses and diseases in PI communities. PMID:24948880

  20. Socioeconomic Status and Childhood Asthma in Urban Minority Youths. The GALA II and SAGE II Studies

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sam S.; Nguyen, Elizabeth A.; Martin, Melissa; Roth, Lindsey A.; Galanter, Joshua; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Eng, Celeste; Davis, Adam; Meade, Kelley; LeNoir, Michael A.; Avila, Pedro C.; Farber, Harold J.; Serebrisky, Denise; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Kumar, Rajesh; Williams, L. Keoki; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Thyne, Shannon; Sen, Saunak; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R.; Borrell, Luisa N.; Burchard, Esteban G.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: The burden of asthma is highest among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations; however, its impact is differentially distributed among racial and ethnic groups. Objectives: To assess the collective effect of maternal educational attainment, annual household income, and insurance type on childhood asthma among minority, urban youth. Methods: We included Mexican American (n = 485), other Latino (n = 217), and African American (n = 1,141) children (aged 8–21 yr) with and without asthma from the San Francisco Bay Area. An index was derived from maternal educational attainment, annual household income, and insurance type to assess the collective effect of socioeconomic status on predicting asthma. Logistic regression stratified by racial and ethnic group was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). We further examined whether acculturation explained the socioeconomic-asthma association in our Latino population. Measurements and Main Results: In the adjusted analyses, African American children had 23% greater odds of asthma with each decrease in the socioeconomic index (aOR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.09–1.38). Conversely, Mexican American children have 17% reduced odds of asthma with each decrease in the socioeconomic index (aOR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.72–0.96) and this relationship was not fully explained by acculturation. This association was not observed in the other Latino group. Conclusions: Socioeconomic status plays an important role in predicting asthma, but has different effects depending on race and ethnicity. Further steps are necessary to better understand the risk factors through which socioeconomic status could operate in these populations to prevent asthma. PMID:24050698

  1. Socio-economic correlates of contraceptive knowledge among women in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Salleh, N M; Peng, T N; Arshat, H

    1986-12-01

    Knowledge about contraception was examined in relation to selected socioeconomic variables. A total of 2567 currently married women aged 15-49 years residing in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya were interviewed. The majority of the women knew of at least 1 contraceptive method. An index termed Contraceptive Knowledge Score (CKS) was used to measure the level of knowledge about contraception. The CKS achieved differed significantly by age, area of residence and ethnic group. The other socioeconomic variables significantly associated with CKS are schooling, occupation, income, childhood residence and age at marriage. These relationships persisted even after adjusting for differences in age, ethnicity and area of residence. Overall the CKS attained have a wide range and there is no significant difference of the mean CKS attained, between users and non-users of contraceptives.

  2. Socioeconomic Determinants of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomul, Ekber; Savasci, Havva Sebile

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between academic achievement and the socioeconomic characteristics of elementary school 7th grade students in Burdur. The population of the study are 7th grade students who had education at elementary schools in Burdur in the 2007-2008 academic year. Two staged sampling was chosen as suitable for the…

  3. Understanding the Educational Attainment of Sexual Minority Women and Men*

    PubMed Central

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Everett, Bethany

    2015-01-01

    National studies have not analyzed sexual identity disparities in high school completion, college enrollment, or college completion in the United States. Using Add Health data, we document the relationship between adult sexual orientation and each of these outcomes. Many sexual minority respondents experienced disadvantages in adolescent academic achievement, school experiences, and social environments. This translates into educational attainment in complex, gendered ways. We find that the socially privileged completely heterosexual identity predicts higher educational attainment for women, while for men it is often a liability. Mostly heterosexual and gay identities are educationally beneficial for men but not women. There are college completion disparities between gay and mostly heterosexual women and their completely heterosexual counterparts. Bisexual respondents, especially women, have particularly problematic outcomes. Adolescent experiences, attitudes, and social contexts explain some of these differences. From adolescence through college, sexual minority groups, but especially females, need intervention to reduce substantial educational disparities. PMID:26257457

  4. Socioeconomic Status Modifies the Seasonal Effect on Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Cois, Annibale; Ehrlich, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Seasonal variations in blood pressure have been consistently reported. However, uncertainty remains about the size of the seasonal effect in different regions, and about factors that explain the differences observed across and within populations. Using data from a national panel study, we investigated seasonal variations in blood pressure in the South African adult population, and whether these variations differed across socioeconomic strata. We estimated age-specific seasonal effects on blood pressure using a multilevel structural equation model, with repeated measurements nested within subjects. Effect modification by socioeconomic status was assessed by repeating the analyses in the subpopulations defined by levels of education, household income per capita, and type of housing. In men and women, season had a statistically significant effect on blood pressure, with higher levels in winter and lower levels in summer. For systolic blood pressure, the magnitude of the seasonal effect was 4.25/4.21 mmHg (women/men) and was higher in the older age groups. For diastolic blood pressure, the effect size was 4.00/4.01 mmHg, with no evident age trend. Seasonal effects were higher among subjects in the lowest socioeconomic classes than in the highest, with differences between 2.4 and 7.7 mmHg, depending on gender, whether systolic or diastolic blood pressure, and socioeconomic status indicator. In the South African adult population, blood pressure shows seasonal variation modified by age and socioeconomic status. These variations have epidemiological, clinical, and public health implications, including the prospect of population level intervention to reduce elevated risk of cold weather cardiovascular morbidity. PMID:26334893

  5. The Interplay between socioeconomic inequalities and clinical oral health.

    PubMed

    Steele, J; Shen, J; Tsakos, G; Fuller, E; Morris, S; Watt, R; Guarnizo-Herreño, C; Wildman, J

    2015-01-01

    Oral health inequalities associated with socioeconomic status are widely observed but may depend on the way that both oral health and socioeconomic status are measured. Our aim was to investigate inequalities using diverse indicators of oral health and 4 socioeconomic determinants, in the context of age and cohort. Multiple linear or logistic regressions were estimated for 7 oral health measures representing very different outcomes (2 caries prevalence measures, decayed/missing/filled teeth, 6-mm pockets, number of teeth, anterior spaces, and excellent oral health) against 4 socioeconomic measures (income, education, Index of Multiple Deprivation, and occupational social class) for adults aged ≥21 y in the 2009 UK Adult Dental Health Survey data set. Confounders were adjusted and marginal effects calculated. The results showed highly variable relationships for the different combinations of variables and that age group was critical, with different relationships at different ages. There were significant income inequalities in caries prevalence in the youngest age group, marginal effects of 0.10 to 0.18, representing a 10- to 18-percentage point increase in the probability of caries between the wealthiest and every other quintile, but there was not a clear gradient across the quintiles. With number of teeth as an outcome, there were significant income gradients after adjustment in older groups, up to 4.5 teeth (95% confidence interval, 2.2-6.8) between richest and poorest but none for the younger groups. For periodontal disease, income inequalities were mediated by other socioeconomic variables and smoking, while for anterior spaces, the relationships were age dependent and complex. In conclusion, oral health inequalities manifest in different ways in different age groups, representing age and cohort effects. Income sometimes has an independent relationship, but education and area of residence are also contributory. Appropriate choices of measures in relation to age

  6. The Interplay between socioeconomic inequalities and clinical oral health.

    PubMed

    Steele, J; Shen, J; Tsakos, G; Fuller, E; Morris, S; Watt, R; Guarnizo-Herreño, C; Wildman, J

    2015-01-01

    Oral health inequalities associated with socioeconomic status are widely observed but may depend on the way that both oral health and socioeconomic status are measured. Our aim was to investigate inequalities using diverse indicators of oral health and 4 socioeconomic determinants, in the context of age and cohort. Multiple linear or logistic regressions were estimated for 7 oral health measures representing very different outcomes (2 caries prevalence measures, decayed/missing/filled teeth, 6-mm pockets, number of teeth, anterior spaces, and excellent oral health) against 4 socioeconomic measures (income, education, Index of Multiple Deprivation, and occupational social class) for adults aged ≥21 y in the 2009 UK Adult Dental Health Survey data set. Confounders were adjusted and marginal effects calculated. The results showed highly variable relationships for the different combinations of variables and that age group was critical, with different relationships at different ages. There were significant income inequalities in caries prevalence in the youngest age group, marginal effects of 0.10 to 0.18, representing a 10- to 18-percentage point increase in the probability of caries between the wealthiest and every other quintile, but there was not a clear gradient across the quintiles. With number of teeth as an outcome, there were significant income gradients after adjustment in older groups, up to 4.5 teeth (95% confidence interval, 2.2-6.8) between richest and poorest but none for the younger groups. For periodontal disease, income inequalities were mediated by other socioeconomic variables and smoking, while for anterior spaces, the relationships were age dependent and complex. In conclusion, oral health inequalities manifest in different ways in different age groups, representing age and cohort effects. Income sometimes has an independent relationship, but education and area of residence are also contributory. Appropriate choices of measures in relation to age

  7. Measures of Socioeconomic Status: Alternatives and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Charles, W.; Parcel, Toby L.

    1981-01-01

    Criticizes impressionistic or outdated measures of socioeconomic status, recommends the Duncan Socioeconomic Index and the Siegel Prestige Scale, and describes a strategy for measuring household or family SES when household composition and characteristics vary. (Author/DB)

  8. Socio-economic determinants of life expectancy in Nigeria (1980 - 2011).

    PubMed

    Sede, Peter I; Ohemeng, Williams

    2015-01-01

    Attainment of 70 years life expectancy by 2020 is one of the millennium development goals in Nigeria. This study examined the socio-economic determinants of life expectancy in Nigeria using data from 1980-2011. Judging from the endogeneity feature of the variables, A VAR and VECM frameworks were employed. Socio-economic features were proxy by secondary school enrolment, government expenditure on health, per capita income, unemployment rate and the Naira foreign exchange rate. It was found that, the conventional socio-economic variables such as per capita income, education and government expenditure on health considered to be highly effective in determining life expectancy of developing countries are not significant in the case of Nigeria. The study however suggests that, life expectancy in Nigeria could be improved if attention is given to quality of government health expenditure, unemployment and measures to halt the depreciation of the Nigerian Naira against major foreign currency. PMID:25853000

  9. Does social status predict adult smoking and obesity? Results from the 2000 Mexican National Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Buttenheim, A.M.; Wong, R.; Goldman, N.; Pebley, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is generally associated with better health, but recent evidence suggests that this ‘social gradient’ in health is far from universal. This study examines whether social gradients in smoking and obesity in Mexico—a country in the midst of rapid socioeconomic change—conform to or diverge from results for richer countries. Using a nationally-representative sample of 39 129 Mexican adults, we calculate the odds of smoking and of being obese by educational attainment and by household wealth. We conclude that socioeconomic determinants of smoking and obesity in Mexico are complex, with some flat gradients and some strong positive or negative gradients. Higher social status (education and assets) is associated with more smoking and less obesity for urban women. Higher status rural women also smoke more, but obesity for these women has a non-linear relationship to education. For urban men, higher asset levels (but not education) are associated with obesity, whereas education is protective of smoking. Higher status rural men with more assets are more likely to smoke and be obese. As household wealth, education, and urbanisation continue to increase in Mexico, these patterns suggest potential targets for public health intervention now and in the future. PMID:19367478

  10. The Relationship between Type D Personality and Suicidality in Low-Income, Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Dae Hyun; Kim, Seog Ju; Lee, Jong-Ha; Kim, Pyo-Min; Park, Doo-Heum; Ryu, Seung Ho; Yu, Jaehak

    2015-01-01

    Objective Low-income adults are considered to be a group at high risk for suicide. We sought to examine the effect of type D personality and other socio-demographic factors on suicidality in low-income, middle-aged Koreans. Methods In total, 306 low-income, middle-aged Koreans [age: 49.16±5.24 (40-59) years, 156 males, 150 females] were enrolled from the Korean National Basic Livelihood Security System. Socio-demographic data, including employment status, income, health, marital status, and educational attainment, were gathered. Beck's 19-item Scale for Suicidal Ideation (SSI) was applied to evaluate suicidality, and the DS14 was used to assess type D personality. Results Unemployment (p<0.01) and absence of spouse (p=0.03) predicted higher SSI scores independent of other socioeconomic factors. All type D personality scores [i.e., negative affectivity (NA), social inhibition (SI), and total score] predicted higher SSI scores independent of all socioeconomic factors (all, p<0.001). Subjects with type D personality had higher SSI scores (p<0.001), and the association between suicidality and socio-demographic factors (employment or physical health) could be found only in subjects without type D personality. Conclusion Type D personality was a risk factor for suicide in low-income Koreans, independently from socio-economic factors. In addition, the socio-demographic factors were less prominently associated with suicidality in those with type D personality. PMID:25670941

  11. Socioeconomic inequalities in youth smoking in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Sandhi Maria; de Figueiredo, Roberta Carvalho; Giatti, Luana

    2013-01-01

    Objective The contribution of smoking to socioeconomic inequalities in health is increasing worldwide, including in Brazil. Youth smoking may play an important role in the increasing social inequalities related to smoking. This study investigates social determinants of smoking among 15-year-old to 19-year-old individuals. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting The study uses data of 3536 participants aged 15–19 years of age of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) and the National Household Sample Survey (Pesquisa Nacional por Amostragem de Domicilio, PNAD) obtained from household interviews. Smoking was defined as currently smoking tobacco products, regardless of frequency. Household socioeconomic indicators included per capita income, the educational level and sex of the head of the household, the presence of smoking restrictions and the number of smokers (excluding adolescents). Adolescent social factors included years of delaying school and social status (full-time student, working, and neither working nor studying). The hierarchical logistic regression analysis considered the effect of the complex sampling design. Results From 3536 participants, 6.2% were smokers (95% CI 5.4 to 7.1). More men than women had the habit of smoking (7.2%; 5.9 to 8.6 vs 3.6%; 2.7 to 4.6). The likelihood of smoking was significantly greater for men and older teens. There was an upward trend in the OR of smoking according to the number of smokers in the house. Adolescents living in households with no smoking restrictions had a greater likelihood of being smokers. OR of smoking rose as the number of years of delaying school increased, being about three times greater among adolescents who were working and five times greater among those who were neither studying nor working. Conclusions Results demonstrate that socioeconomic inequality in smoking is established at younger ages and that school delay as well as school abandonment may contribute to increased smoking

  12. Educational attainment of Norwegian men: influence of parental and early individual characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Petter; Gravseth, Hans M; Bjerkedal, Tor

    2009-11-01

    The life course perspective in social inequalities in health research has resulted in an increased interest in status attainment processes. Adult status is commonly measured as occupational class, income level or educational attainment, and the latter was applied in this study. The study objective was to estimate the relative contribution of parental and early individual characteristics on educational attainment. The study population comprised all males born in Norway in 1967-1971, and alive at age 28 years (n=160,914). Data on social and biological variables were compiled from birth onwards in several national registers. Information on educational attainment at age 28 years was derived from Statistics Norway. Mean years of education was 12.62 years (SD 2.24). Educational attainment was strongly associated with general ability score at age 18 years and parental educational attainment. Parental income had more limited influence; all other early factors had only marginal effect. Path analysis results suggest that the direct effect of general ability was of the same size as the combined direct and indirect effect of parental education and income. The results suggest that status attainment in this young male population is mainly dependent on general ability and parental education level.

  13. Expressed racial identity and hypertension in a telephone survey sample from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada: do socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress explain the relatively high risk of hypertension for Black Canadians?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Canadian research on racial health inequalities that foregrounds socially constructed racial identities and social factors which can explain consequent racial health inequalities is rare. This paper adopts a social typology of salient racial identities in contemporary Canada, empirically documents consequent racial inequalities in hypertension in an original survey dataset from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada, and then attempts to explain the inequalities in hypertension with information on socioeconomic status, perceived experiences with institutionalized and interpersonal discrimination, and psychosocial stress. Methods Telephone interviews were conducted in 2009 with 706 randomly selected adults living in the City of Toronto and 838 randomly selected adults living in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression modeling were used to examine relationships between racial identity, hypertension, socio-demographic factors, socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress. Results The Black Canadians in the sample were the most likely to report major and routine discriminatory experiences and were the least educated and the poorest. Black respondents were significantly more likely than Asian, South Asian and White respondents to report hypertension controlling for age, immigrant status and city of residence. Of the explanatory factors examined in this study, only educational attainment explained some of the relative risk of hypertension for Black respondents. Most of the risk remained unexplained in the models. Conclusions Consistent with previous Canadian research, socioeconomic status explained a small portion of the relatively high risk of hypertension documented for the Black respondents. Perceived experiences of discrimination both major and routine and self-reported psychosocial stress did not explain these racial inequalities in hypertension. Conducting subgroup analyses by gender

  14. Can personality traits and intelligence compensate for background disadvantage? Predicting status attainment in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Damian, Rodica Ioana; Su, Rong; Shanahan, Michael; Trautwein, Ulrich; Roberts, Brent W

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the interplay of family background and individual differences, such as personality traits and intelligence (measured in a large U.S. representative sample of high school students; N = 81,000) in predicting educational attainment, annual income, and occupational prestige 11 years later. Specifically, we tested whether individual differences followed 1 of 3 patterns in relation to parental socioeconomic status (SES) when predicting attained status: (a) the independent effects hypothesis (i.e., individual differences predict attainments independent of parental SES level), (b) the resource substitution hypothesis (i.e., individual differences are stronger predictors of attainments at lower levels of parental SES), and (c) the Matthew effect hypothesis (i.e., "the rich get richer"; individual differences are stronger predictors of attainments at higher levels of parental SES). We found that personality traits and intelligence in adolescence predicted later attained status above and beyond parental SES. A standard deviation increase in individual differences translated to up to 8 additional months of education, $4,233 annually, and more prestigious occupations. Furthermore, although we did find some evidence for both the resource substitution and the Matthew effect hypotheses, the most robust pattern across all models supported the independent effects hypothesis. Intelligence was the exception, the interaction models being more robust. Finally, we found that although personality traits may help compensate for background disadvantage to a small extent, they do not usually lead to a "full catch-up" effect, unlike intelligence. This was the first longitudinal study of status attainment to test interactive models of individual differences and background factors.

  15. Teaching Students to Attain Annual Transition Goals Using the Take Action Goal Attainment Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jodie D.; Martin, James E.; Osmani, Kimberly J.

    2014-01-01

    This study used the Take Action goal attainment lesson package and assistive technology to teach nine high school students with mild to moderate disabilities to attain annual transition goals. The Take Action lessons increased students' goal attainment knowledge, and this knowledge generalized to improved Plan Organizers, and slightly…

  16. How Economic Segregation Affects Children's Educational Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Susan E.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics combined with census data found that an increase in income inequality among census tracts in the same state had little effect on overall educational attainment but exacerbated inequality of attainment between high-income and low-income children. Within-tract inequality had little effect on…

  17. Complete to Compete: Improving Postsecondary Attainment among Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Linda; Reindl, Travis; Bearer-Friend, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. labor market is increasingly demanding a more educated workforce. Of the 48 million job openings projected for the next eight years, 63 percent will require some postsecondary education. For many of these job openings, workers will need at least a high school diploma but not necessarily a four-year degree. To successfully increase the…

  18. Sex, Urban/Rural and Minority Differences in Educational Attainment in Soviet and Post-Soviet Tajikistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitsel, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the educational attainment of Tajikistani adults born between 1947 and 1989. Adults in the oldest cohorts completed school during the educational expansion of the Soviet period and the youngest cohorts completed their education in the post-Soviet period, which was marked by educational contraction. To date, there is not a clear…

  19. Socio-demographic correlates of leisure time physical activity among Portuguese adults.

    PubMed

    Marques, Adilson; Martins, João; Sarmento, Hugo; Ramos, Madalena; Diniz, José; Costa, Francisco Carreiro da

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to identify socio-demographic correlates of leisure time physical activity among Portuguese adults. Subjects aged 31-60 years (1,076 males, 1,383 females) were categorized into two groups according to recommended physical activities ranging from ≥ 10 or < 10 MET.hours.week-1. Leisure time physical activity data was self-reported, including activities, duration of each session and frequency. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were applied to the results. Among men, having a high socioeconomic status (OR = 1.89; 95%CI: 1.30-2.76; p = 0.001) was associated with attaining the recommended level of physical activity. For women, middle education levels were associated with physical activity (OR = 1.36; 95%CI: 1.01-1.85). Moreover, middle socioeconomic status (OR = 1.45; 95%CI: 0.80-1.91; p = 0.009) was also positively associated with meeting physical activities recommendations in the unadjusted analysis. Men and women had different patterns of socio-demographic correlates. An intervention designed to improve the levels of physical activity among Portuguese adults may take these correlates into account.

  20. Preventable hospitalizations and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Blustein, J; Hanson, K; Shea, S

    1998-01-01

    "Preventable" hospitalizations have been proposed as indicators of poor health plan performance. In this study of elderly Medicare beneficiaries, however, we found that preventable hospitalizations are also more common among elders of lower socioeconomic status (SES). The relationship persisted even when an up-to-date severity-of-illness adjustment system was used. To the extent that indicators of health plan "performance" reflect enrollees' characteristics, plans will be rewarded for marketing their services to wealthier, healthier, and better-educated patients. Further work is needed to clarify issues of accountability for preventable hospitalizations and other putative indices of health plan performance. PMID:9558796

  1. A study of suicide and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Ying, Yung-Hsiang; Chang, Koyin

    2009-04-01

    The topic of suicide has long been an important socioeconomic issue studied in many countries. Suicides inject an atmosphere of unrest into society, and media attention furthers that social uneasiness. From the viewpoint of economics and management, suicide is a waste of human resource: it decreases the labor force in society and deteriorates human capital. This paper provides a series of analyses of suicide rate based on theoretical reasoning and empirical approaches. Aggregate data from G7 countries are obtained and stacked into panel data for analysis. Data are collected for different age groups. Even though suicide issues have been extensively discussed in the past, newly developed econometric tools are applied to her. Beyond previously recognized relationships between economic factors and suicide rates findings include that unemployment strikes men more than women in terms of psychological pressure: for middle age or older women, unemployment may even be positive for the entire family; and female labor force participation exerts pressure on male counterparts and increases its suicide rate. As a result, a low income family with an unemployed man and an employed woman is at high risk for adult male suicide.

  2. Geometry attained by pressurized membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palisoc, Arthur; Veal, Gordon; Cassapakis, Constantine; Greschik, Gyula; Mikulas, Martin

    1998-08-01

    shape accuracies of less than 1 mm RMS have been attained on ground measurements.

  3. Socioeconomic Risk Moderates the Link between Household Chaos and Maternal Executive Function

    PubMed Central

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chen, Nan; Wang, Zhe; Bell, Martha Ann

    2012-01-01

    We examined the link between household chaos (i.e., noise, clutter, disarray, lack of routines) and maternal executive function (i.e., effortful regulation of attention and memory), and whether it varied as a function of socioeconomic risk (i.e., single parenthood, lower mother and father educational attainment, housing situation, and father unemployment). We hypothesized that: 1) higher levels of household chaos would be linked with poorer maternal executive function, even when controlling for other measures of cognitive functioning (e.g., verbal ability), and 2) this link would be strongest in the most socioeconomically distressed or lowest-socioeconomic status households. The diverse sample included 153 mothers from urban and rural areas who completed a questionnaire and a battery of cognitive executive function tasks and a verbal ability task in the laboratory. Results were mixed for hypothesis 1, and consistent with hypothesis 2. Two-thirds of the variance overlapped between household chaos and maternal executive function, but only in families with high levels of socioeconomic risk. This pattern was not found for chaos and maternal verbal ability, suggesting that the potentially deleterious effects of household chaos may be specific to maternal executive function. The findings implicate household chaos as a powerful statistical predictor of maternal executive function in socioeconomically distressed contexts. PMID:22563703

  4. Measuring Socioeconomic Differences in Use of Health Care Services by Wealth Versus by Income

    PubMed Central

    Allin, Sara; Masseria, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the extent of socioeconomic differences in use of health care services based on wealth (i.e., accumulated assets) as the socioeconomic ranking variable with the extent of differences based on income to explore the sensitivity of the estimates of equity to the choice of the socioeconomic indicator. Methods. We used data from the Health and Retirement Study in the United States and the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe to estimate levels of income- and wealth-related disparity in use of physician and dental services among adults 50 or older in 12 countries. Results. We found socioeconomic differences in use of physician services after standardizing for need in about half of the countries studied. No consistent pattern in levels of disparity measured by wealth versus those measured by income was found. However, the rich were significantly more likely to use dental services in all countries. Wealth-related differences in dental service use were consistently higher than were income-related differences. Conclusions. We found some support for wealth as a more sensitive indicator of socioeconomic status among older adults than was income. Wealth may thus allow more accurate measurements of socioeconomic differences in use of health care services for this population. PMID:19150899

  5. 40 CFR 52.577 - Determination of attainment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-2010, EPA determined that the Atlanta, Georgia, 1997 8-hour ozone nonattainment Area attained the 1997... attainment date, whether the Area attained the standard. EPA also determined that the Atlanta, Georgia,...

  6. 40 CFR 52.577 - Determination of attainment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-2010, EPA determined that the Atlanta, Georgia, 1997 8-hour ozone nonattainment Area attained the 1997... attainment date, whether the Area attained the standard. EPA also determined that the Atlanta, Georgia,...

  7. Enhancing the Quantitative Representation of Socioeconomic Conditions in the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs) using the International Futures Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothman, D. S.; Siraj, A.; Hughes, B.

    2013-12-01

    The international research community is currently in the process of developing new scenarios for climate change research. One component of these scenarios are the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs), which describe a set of possible future socioeconomic conditions. These are presented in narrative storylines with associated quantitative drivers. The core quantitative drivers include total population, average GDP per capita, educational attainment, and urbanization at the global, regional, and national levels. At the same time there have been calls, particularly by the IAV community, for the SSPs to include additional quantitative information on other key social factors, such as income inequality, governance, health, and access to key infrastructures, which are discussed in the narratives. The International Futures system (IFs), based at the Pardee Center at the University of Denver, is able to provide forecasts of many of these indicators. IFs cannot use the SSP drivers as exogenous inputs, but we are able to create development pathways that closely reproduce the core quantitative drivers defined by the different SSPs, as well as incorporating assumptions on other key driving factors described in the qualitative narratives. In this paper, we present forecasts for additional quantitative indicators based upon the implementation of the SSP development pathways in IFs. These results will be of value to many researchers.

  8. Associations of Educational Attainment, Occupation, Social Class and Major Depressive Disorder among Han Chinese Women

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feihu; Li, Yajuan; Wang, Junhui; Flint, Jonathan; Gao, Jingfang; Li, Youhui; Tao, Ming; Zhang, Kerang; Wang, Xumei; Gao, Chengge; Yang, Lijun; Li, Kan; Shi, Shenxun; Wang, Gang; Liu, Lanfen; Zhang, Jinbei; Du, Bo; Jiang, Guoqing; Shen, Jianhua; Zhang, Zhen; Liang, Wei; Sun, Jing; Hu, Jian; Liu, Tiebang; Wang, Xueyi; Miao, Guodong; Meng, Huaqing; Li, Yi; Hu, Chunmei; Li, Yi; Huang, Guoping; Li, Gongying; Ha, Baowei; Deng, Hong; Mei, Qiyi; Zhong, Hui; Gao, Shugui; Sang, Hong; Zhang, Yutang; Fang, Xiang; Yu, Fengyu; Yang, Donglin; Liu, Tieqiao; Chen, Yunchun; Hong, Xiaohong; Wu, Wenyuan; Chen, Guibing; Cai, Min; Song, Yan; Pan, Jiyang; Dong, Jicheng; Pan, Runde; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Zhenming; Liu, Zhengrong; Gu, Danhua; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Qiwen; Li, Yihan; Chen, Yiping; Kendler, Kenneth S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is higher in those with low levels of educational attainment, the unemployed and those with low social status. However the extent to which these factors cause MDD is unclear. Most of the available data comes from studies in developed countries, and these findings may not extrapolate to developing countries. Examining the relationship between MDD and socio economic status in China is likely to add to the debate because of the radical economic and social changes occurring in China over the last 30 years. Principal findings We report results from 3,639 Chinese women with recurrent MDD and 3,800 controls. Highly significant odds ratios (ORs) were observed between MDD and full time employment (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.25–0.46, logP = 78), social status (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.77–0.87, logP = 13.3) and education attainment (OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.86–0.90, logP = 6.8). We found a monotonic relationship between increasing age and increasing levels of educational attainment. Those with only primary school education have significantly more episodes of MDD (mean 6.5, P-value = 0.009) and have a clinically more severe disorder, while those with higher educational attainment are likely to manifest more comorbid anxiety disorders. Conclusions In China lower socioeconomic position is associated with increased rates of MDD, as it is elsewhere in the world. Significantly more episodes of MDD occur among those with lower educational attainment (rather than longer episodes of disease), consistent with the hypothesis that the lower socioeconomic position increases the likelihood of developing MDD. The phenomenology of MDD varies according to the degree of educational attainment: higher educational attainment not only appears to protect against MDD but alters its presentation, to a more anxious phenotype. PMID:24497966

  9. Adult Literacy Then and Now: An ALO's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Gretta

    2004-01-01

    It would be easy to forget at this point, given that Adult Literacy has attained a status and respectability within the Adult Education sector previously undreamt of, that it was once a movement, campaigning on a platform of human rights. This article discusses adult literacy's past and present from the perspective of the Adult Literacy…

  10. Socioeconomic determinants of health. The contribution of nutrition to inequalities in health.

    PubMed Central

    James, W. P.; Nelson, M.; Ralph, A.; Leather, S.

    1997-01-01

    Social class differences in health are seen at all ages, with lower socioeconomic groups having greater incidence of premature and low birthweight babies, heart disease, stroke, and some cancers in adults. Risk factors including lack of breast feeding, smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension, and poor diet are clustered in the lower socioeconomic groups. The diet of the lower socioeconomic groups provides cheap energy from foods such as meat products, full cream milk, fats, sugars, preserves, potatoes, and cereals but has little intake of vegetables, fruit, and wholewheat bread. This type of diet is lower in essential nutrients such as calcium, iron, magnesium, folate, and vitamin C than that of the higher socioeconomic groups. New nutritional knowledge on the protective role of antioxidants and other dietary factors suggests that there is scope for enormous health gain if a diet rich in vegetables, fruit, unrefined cereal, fish, and small quantities of quality vegetable oils could be more accessible to poor people. PMID:9183207

  11. Basic Attainment Processes: A Replication and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Karl L.; Eckland, Bruce

    1975-01-01

    This paper represents the preliminary analysis of a longitudinal data set well-suited for the study of educational and occupational attainment processes. The Blau and Duncan basic model is used. (Author/RM)

  12. Converging on the optimal attainment of requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, M. S.; Menzies, T.

    2002-01-01

    Planning for the optimal attainment of requirements is an important early lifecycle activity. However, such planning is difficult when dealing with competing requirements, limited resources, and the incompleteness of information available at requirements time.

  13. Early School Adjustment and Educational Attainment

    PubMed Central

    Magnuson, Katherine; Duncan, Greg; Lee, Kenneth T.H.; Metzger, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Although school attainment is a cumulative process combining mastery of both academic and behavioral skills, most studies have offered only a piecemeal view of the associations between middle childhood capacities and subsequent schooling outcomes. Using a 20-year longitudinal dataset, this study estimates the association between children’s academic skills, anti-social behaviors and attention problems, all averaged across middle childhood, and their long-term educational outcomes. After adjusting for family and individual background measures, we find that high average levels of math and reading achievement, and low average levels of anti-social behavior problems, are positively associated with later attainment. Associations between attention problems and attainment are small. Associations are attenuated somewhat when sibling differences in these skills and behaviors are related to sibling differences in attainment outcomes. PMID:27563151

  14. The Outcome of Breast Cancer Is Associated with National Human Development Index and Health System Attainment

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Wei; Pan, Tao; Ye, Juan; Zhang, Suzhan

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a worldwide threat to female health with patient outcomes varying widely. The exact correlation between global outcomes of breast cancer and the national socioeconomic status is still undetermined. Mortality-to-incidence ratio (MIR) of breast cancer was calculated with the contemporary age standardized incidence and mortality rates for countries with data available at GLOBOCAN 2012 database. The MIR matched national human development indexes (HDIs) and health system attainments were respectively obtained from Human Development Report and World Health Report. Correlation analysis, regression analysis, and Tukey-Kramer post hoc test were used to explore the effects of HDI and health system attainment on breast cancer MIR. Our results demonstrated that breast cancer MIR was inversely correlated with national HDI (r = -.950; P < .001) and health system attainment (r = -.898; P < .001). Countries with very high HDI had significantly lower MIRs than those with high, medium and low HDI (P < .001). Liner regression model by ordinary least squares also indicated negative effects of both HDI (adjusted R2 = .903, standardize β = -.699, P < .001) and health system attainment (adjusted R2 =. 805, standardized β = -.009; P < .001), with greater effects in developing countries identified by quantile regression analysis. It is noteworthy that significant health care disparities exist among countries in accordance with the discrepancy of HDI. Policies should be made in less developed countries, which are more likely to obtain worse outcomes in female breast cancer, that in order to improve their comprehensive economic strength and optimize their health system performance. PMID:27391077

  15. The Ability to Conserve Quantity of Liquid and Its Relationship to Socio-Economic Background, Intelligence, and Achievement Among Selected Fourth Grade Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozarth, James Oliver

    Studied were the relationships between children's attainment of the concept of conservation of liquid and certain student characteristics. Student factors investigated were socio-economic background (high and low), status levels (conservers and non-conservers), verbal and non-verbal achievement, and science achievement. Classification of subjects…

  16. Genetic and Environmental Overlap Between Childhood Maltreatment and Adult Physical Health.

    PubMed

    South, Susan C; Schafer, Markus H; Ferraro, Kenneth F

    2015-10-01

    Past research demonstrates a phenotypic relationship between childhood maltreatment and adult health problems. Explanations of this association usually point to either: (a) a direct causal link, whereby exposure to early stress disrupts biological functioning during sensitive periods of development; or (b) an indirect effect operating through socioeconomic attainment, poor health behaviors, or some other pathway leading from childhood to adulthood. The current study examined whether the association between childhood maltreatment and adult health reflects genetic or environmental mediation. Using a large sample of adult American twins, we separately estimated univariate biometric models of child maltreatment and adult physical health, followed by a bivariate biometric model to estimate genetic and environmental correlations between the two variables. We found that a summary count of chronic health conditions shared non-trivial genetic overlap with childhood maltreatment. Our results have implications for understanding the relationship between maltreatment and health as one of active interplay rather than a simple cause and effect model that views maltreatment as an exogenous shock. PMID:26379062

  17. Socioeconomic inequalities in health after age 50: Are health risk behaviors to blame?

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Benjamin A.; McGeever, Kelly; Grubert, Elizabeth; Agahi, Neda; Fors, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that socioeconomic inequalities in health extend into the elderly population, even within the most highly developed welfare states. One potential explanation for socioeconomic inequalities in health focuses on the role of health behaviors, but little is known about the degree to which health behaviors account for health inequalities among older adults, in particular. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (N=19,245), this study examined the degree to which four behavioral risk factors – smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, and heavy drinking – are associated with socioeconomic position among adults aged 51 and older, and whether these behaviors mediate socioeconomic differences in mortality, and the onset of disability among those who were disability-free at baseline, over a 10-year period from 1998–2008. Results indicate that the odds of both smoking and physical inactivity are higher among persons with lower wealth, with similar stratification in obesity, but primarily among women. The odds of heavy drinking decrease at lower levels of wealth. Significant socioeconomic inequalities in mortality and disability onset are apparent among older men and women; however, the role that health behaviors play in accounting for these inequalities differs by age and gender. For example, these health behaviors account for between 23–45% of the mortality disparities among men and middle aged women, but only about 5% of the disparities found among women over 65 years. Meanwhile, these health behaviors appear to account for about 33% of the disparities in disability onset found among women survivors, and about 9–14% among men survivors. These findings suggest that within the U.S. elderly population, behavioral risks such as smoking and physical inactivity contribute moderately to maintaining socioeconomic inequalities in health. As such, promoting healthier lifestyles among the socioeconomically disadvantaged older adults should help

  18. Dietary Patterns and Socioeconomic Status in the Very Old: The Newcastle 85+ Study

    PubMed Central

    Granic, Antoneta; Davies, Karen; Adamson, Ashley; Kirkwood, Thomas; Hill, Tom R.; Siervo, Mario; Mathers, John C.; Jagger, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary patterns (DP) are associated with health outcomes in younger adults but there is a lack of evidence in the very old (aged 85+) on DP and their association with sociodemographic factors, lifestyle, health and functioning measures. Higher socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked with healthier DP but it is not known whether these associations are sustained in the very old. Objective We aimed to (a) characterise DP in the very old and (b) assess the relationships between three SES indicators (education, occupational class and area-deprivation index [IMD]) and DP. Methods Complete dietary data at baseline (2006/07) for 793 participants in the Newcastle 85+ Study were established through 24-hr multiple pass recall. We used Two-Step clustering and 30 food groups to derive DP, and multinomial logistic regression models to assess the association with SES. Results We identified three distinct DP (characterised as ‘High Red Meat’, ‘Low Meat’, and ‘High Butter’) that varied with key sociodemographic, health and functioning measures. ‘Low Meat’ participants were more advantaged (i.e. higher education and occupational class, and lived in more affluent areas in owned homes), were least disabled, cognitively impaired, and depressed, and were more physically active than those in the other DP. After adjusting for other lifestyle factors, cognitive status and BMI, lower educational attainment remained a significant predictor of ‘High Red Meat’ and ‘High Butter’ membership compared with ‘Low Meat’ (‘High Red Meat’: OR [95% CI] for 0–9 and 10–11 years of education vs. ≥12 years: 5.28 [2.85–9.79], p<0.001 and 3.27 [1.65–6.51], p = 0.001, respectively; ‘High Butter’: 3.32 [1.89–5.82], p<0.001 and 2.83 [1.52–5.28], p = 0.001). Conclusions In this cohort of very old adults, we detected a favourable DP (‘Low Meat’), which was associated with better health and functioning and higher SES. PMID:26488497

  19. Socioeconomic Disparities in Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Pampel, Fred C.; Krueger, Patrick M.; Denney, Justin T.

    2011-01-01

    The inverse relationships between socioeconomic status (SES) and unhealthy behaviors such as tobacco use, physical inactivity, and poor nutrition have been well demonstrated empirically but encompass diverse underlying causal mechanisms. These mechanisms have special theoretical importance because disparities in health behaviors, unlike disparities in many other components of health, involve something more than the ability to use income to purchase good health. Based on a review of broad literatures in sociology, economics, and public health, we classify explanations of higher smoking, lower exercise, poorer diet, and excess weight among low-SES persons into nine broad groups that specify related but conceptually distinct mechanisms. The lack of clear support for any one explanation suggests that the literature on SES disparities in health and health behaviors can do more to design studies that better test for the importance of the varied mechanisms. PMID:21909182

  20. Long-Term Socioeconomic Impact of Child Abuse and Neglect: Implications for Public Policy. Policy Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zielinski, David S.

    2005-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect greatly influence victims' long-term wellbeing. Until recently, however, little was known about how such experiences affect victims' later socioeconomic status. Current research has examined the long-term impact of child abuse and neglect on adult employment, income, and reliance on public assistance, as well as the reasons…

  1. Intellectual Disabilities and Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health: An Overview of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Hilary

    2005-01-01

    Background: There is an enduring association between socioeconomic position and health, both over time and across major causes of death. Children and adults with intellectual disabilities are disproportionately represented among the poorer and less healthy sections of the population. But research on health inequalities, and on the broader societal…

  2. Intergenerational effects of parental substance-related convictions and adult drug treatment court participation on children’s school performance

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, Elizabeth J.; Sloan, Frank A.; Evans, Kelly E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined the intergenerational effects of parental conviction of a substance-related charge on children’s academic performance and, conditional on a conviction, whether completion of an adult drug treatment court (DTC) program was associated with improved school performance. Method State administrative data from North Carolina courts, birth records, and school records were linked for 2005–12. Math and reading end-of-grade test scores and absenteeism were examined for 5 groups of children, those with parents who: were not convicted on any criminal charge, were convicted on a substance-related charge and not referred by a court to a DTC, were referred to a DTC but did not enroll, enrolled in a DTC but did not complete, and completed a DTC program. Results Accounting for demographic and socioeconomic factors, the school performance of children whose parents were convicted of a substance-related offense was worse than that of children whose parents were not convicted on any charge. These differences were statistically significant but substantially reduced after controlling for socioeconomic characteristics, e.g., mother’s educational attainment. We found no evidence that parent participation in an adult DTC program led to improved school performance of their children. Conclusion While the children of convicted parents fared worse on average, much—but not all—of this difference was attributed to socioeconomic factors, with the result that parental conviction remained a risk factor for poorer school performance. Even though adult DTCs have been shown to have other benefits, we could detect no intergenerational benefit in improved school performance of their children. PMID:26460705

  3. Intergenerational effects of parental substance-related convictions and adult drug treatment court participation on children's school performance.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Elizabeth J; Sloan, Frank A; Eldred, Lindsey M; Evans, Kelly E

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the intergenerational effects of parental conviction of a substance-related charge on children's academic performance and, conditional on a conviction, whether completion of an adult drug treatment court (DTC) program was associated with improved school performance. State administrative data from North Carolina courts, birth records, and school records were linked for 2005-2012. Math and reading end-of-grade test scores and absenteeism were examined for 5 groups of children, those with parents who: were not convicted on any criminal charge, were convicted on a substance-related charge and not referred by a court to a DTC, were referred to a DTC but did not enroll, enrolled in a DTC but did not complete, and completed a DTC program. Accounting for demographic and socioeconomic factors, the school performance of children whose parents were convicted of a substance-related offense was worse than that of children whose parents were not convicted on any charge. These differences were statistically significant but substantially reduced after controlling for socioeconomic characteristics; for example, mother's educational attainment. We found no evidence that parent participation in an adult DTC program led to improved school performance of their children. While the children of convicted parents fared worse on average, much--but not all--of this difference was attributed to socioeconomic factors, with the result that parental conviction remained a risk factor for poorer school performance. Even though adult DTCs have been shown to have other benefits, we could detect no intergenerational benefit in improved school performance of their children. PMID:26460705

  4. Community College Attendance and Socioeconomic Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sueuk; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study, 1988 (NELS: 88), this paper documents differences in the socioeconomic plans of students in two-year and four-year colleges. We found attendance at a two-year college led to a modest but statistically significant disadvantage in socioeconomic plans. However, the impact of attending a…

  5. Socioeconomic Status and Childhood Leukemia Incidence in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Martin; Kuehni, Claudia E.; Spoerri, Adrian; Schmidlin, Kurt; Gumy-Pause, Fabienne; Brazzola, Pierluigi; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Zwahlen, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) discrepancies exist for child and adult cancer morbidity and are a major public health concern. In this Swiss population-based matched case–control study on the etiology of childhood leukemia, we selected the cases from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry diagnosed since 1991 and the controls randomly from census. We assigned eight controls per case from the 1990 and 2000 census and matched them by the year of birth and gender. SES information for both cases and controls was obtained from census records by probabilistic record linkage. We investigated the association of SES with childhood leukemia in Switzerland, and explored whether it varied with different definitions of socioeconomic status (parental education, living condition, area-based SES), time period, and age. In conditional logistic regression analyses of 565 leukemia cases and 4433 controls, we found no consistent evidence for an association between SES and childhood leukemia. The odds ratio comparing the highest with the lowest SES category ranged from 0.95 (95% CI: 0.71–1.26; Ptrend = 0.73) for paternal education to 1.37 (1.00–1.89; Ptrend = 0.064) for maternal education. No effect modification was found for time period and age at diagnosis. Based on this population-based study, which avoided participation and reporting bias, we assume the potential association of socioeconomic status and childhood leukemia if existing to be small. This study did not find evidence that socioeconomic status, of Switzerland or comparable countries, is a relevant risk factor or strong confounder in etiological investigations on childhood leukemia. PMID:26175964

  6. Increasing socioeconomic disparities in adolescent obesity.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Carl B; Snellman, Kaisa; Putnam, Robert D

    2014-01-28

    Recent reports suggest that the rapid growth in youth obesity seen in the 1980s and 1990s has plateaued. We examine changes in obesity among US adolescents aged 12-17 y by socioeconomic background using data from two nationally representative health surveys, the 1988-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys and the 2003-2011 National Survey of Children's Health. Although the overall obesity prevalence stabilized, this trend masks a growing socioeconomic gradient: The prevalence of obesity among high-socioeconomic status adolescents has decreased in recent years, whereas the prevalence of obesity among their low-socioeconomic status peers has continued to increase. Additional analyses suggest that socioeconomic differences in the levels of physical activity, as well as differences in calorie intake, may have contributed to the growing obesity gradient.

  7. Socioeconomic assessment: issues, status, and plans

    SciTech Connect

    Boryczka, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    Numerous public meetings and hearings have been held in Texas, Mississippi, Louisiana and Utah on the issue of siting a nuclear waste repository in salt. Citizens in these potential site areas have raised many questions about how this facility will affect their quality of life. Questions about population and economic changes have been of particular concern. In developing a socioeconomic program, these issues and others have been an integral part of Battelle's socioeconomic studies. The three elements of Battelle's socioeconomic program are comprised of three elements: impact assessment, impact mitigation and community development, and impact monitoring. In addition, our approach to assessing socioeconomic impacts for the environmental assessment (EA) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 are described. Since the EA analysis will address many of the issues raised in the site areas, these concerns will be elaborated on. Finally, various techniques for managing socioeconomic impacts will be presented. 6 references, 1 figure.

  8. Socioeconomic Status and Depressive Syndrome: The Role of Inter- and Intra-generational Mobility, Government Assistance, and Work Environment*

    PubMed Central

    EATON, WILLIAM W.; MUNTANER, CARLES; BOVASSO, GREGORY; SMITH, COREY

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the hypothesis that depressive syndrome is associated with socioeconomic status, using longitudinal data from the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Followup. Socioeconomic measures include those used in most studies of status attainment, as well as measures of financial dependence, non-job income, and work environment. Analyses include inter-and intra- generational mobility, and replicate the basic aspects of the status attainment process, as well as psychiatric epidemiologic findings regarding gender, family history of depression, life events, and depressive syndrome. But the involvement of depressive syndrome in the process of status attainment, either as cause or consequence, is small and not statistically significant. There are strong effects of financial dependence and work environment on depressive syndrome. The findings shed doubt on the utility of the causation/selection/drift model for depression, to the extent it is based on linear relationships and socioeconomic rank at the macro level, while lending credibility to social-psychologically oriented theories of work environment, poverty, and depression. PMID:11668774

  9. Predictors of attainment in rhythmic sportive gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Hume, P A; Hopkins, W G; Robinson, D M; Robinson, S M; Hollings, S C

    1993-12-01

    Correlates of attainment in rhythmic sportive gymnastics (RSG) were investigated in a cross-sectional study of 106 female gymnasts aged 7-27 years. Physical attributes were obtained by anthropometry and from tests of flexibility, leg power, maximum oxygen uptake and visuo-motor proficiency. Training and psychological measures were derived from self-administered questionnaires that included the Leadership Scale for Sport, Psychological Skills Inventory for Sport, General Health Questionnaire, Sport Competition Anxiety Test, and several questions on sport motivation and enjoyment. Attainment was expressed as competition grade level and mean performance score in 4 competitions. The best correlates of attainment were cumulative and current training time (r = 0.84-0.53). Age, lean body mass and composite measures of flexibility, leg power and visuo-motor proficiency were also significant correlates of attainment (r = 0.69-0.29), as were coach democratic and coach social behaviours (r = 0.41-0.28). The significant positive psychometric correlates of attainment were mental preparation, motivation by creativity, and several dimensions of enjoyment (r = 0.35-0.26); significant negative correlates were recent anxiety-depression and enjoyment of training (r = -0.34-(-)0.32). No previous study has identified the relative contributions of such a comprehensive range of physical, psychological and training measures to performance of a sport.

  10. Social burden and lifestyle in adults with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Zomer, A Carla; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P; van der Velde, Enno T; Sieswerda, Gert-Jan T; Wajon, Elly M C; Plomp, Koos; van Bergen, Paul F M; Verheugt, Carianne L; Krivka, Eva; de Vries, Cees J; Lok, Dirk J A; Grobbee, Diederick E; Mulder, Barbara J M

    2012-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate how the presence and severity of congenital heart disease (CHD) influence social life and lifestyle in adult patients. A random sample (n = 1,496) from the CONgenital CORvitia (n = 11,047), the Dutch national registry of adult patients with CHD, completed a questionnaire on educational attainment, employment and marital statuses, and lifestyle (response 76%). The Utrecht Health Project provided a large reference group (n = 6,810) of unaffected subjects. Logistic regression models were used for subgroup analyses and to adjust for age, gender, and socioeconomic status where appropriate. Of all patients 51.5% were men (median age 39 years, interquartile range 29 to 51) with mild (46%), moderate (44%), and severe (10%) CHD. Young (<40-year-old) patients with CHD were more likely to have achieved a lower education (adjusted odds ratios [ORs] 1.6 for men and 1.9 for women, p <0.05 for the 2 comparisons), significantly more often unemployed (adjusted ORs 5.9 and 2.0 for men and women, respectively), and less likely to be in a relationship compared to the reference group (adjusted ORs 8.5 for men and 4.5 for women). These poorer outcomes were seen in all severity groups. Overall, the CHD population smoked less (adjusted OR 0.5, p <0.05), had more sports participation (adjusted OR 1.2, p <0.05), and had less obesity (adjusted OR 0.7, p <0.05) than the reference group. In conclusion, there was a substantial social disadvantage in adult patients with CHD, which was seen in all severity groups and primarily in young men. In contrast, adults with CHD had healthier lifestyles compared to the reference group. PMID:22444325

  11. Relationship Between the Remaining Years of Healthy Life Expectancy in Older Age and National Income Level, Educational Attainment, and Improved Water Quality.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong In; Kim, Gukbin

    2016-10-01

    The remaining years of healthy life expectancy (RYH) at age 65 years can be calculated as RYH (65) = healthy life expectancy-aged 65 years. This study confirms the associations between socioeconomic indicators and the RYH (65) in 148 countries. The RYH data were obtained from the World Health Organization. Significant positive correlations between RYH (65) in men and women and the socioeconomic indicators national income, education level, and improved drinking water were found. Finally, the predictors of RYH (65) in men and women were used to build a model of the RYH using higher socioeconomic indicators (R(2 )= 0.744, p < .001). Overall country-level educational attainment, national income level, and improved water quality influenced the RYH at 65 years. Therefore, policymaking to improve these country-level socioeconomic factors is expected to have latent effects on RYH in older age. PMID:27388888

  12. Relationship Between the Remaining Years of Healthy Life Expectancy in Older Age and National Income Level, Educational Attainment, and Improved Water Quality.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong In; Kim, Gukbin

    2016-10-01

    The remaining years of healthy life expectancy (RYH) at age 65 years can be calculated as RYH (65) = healthy life expectancy-aged 65 years. This study confirms the associations between socioeconomic indicators and the RYH (65) in 148 countries. The RYH data were obtained from the World Health Organization. Significant positive correlations between RYH (65) in men and women and the socioeconomic indicators national income, education level, and improved drinking water were found. Finally, the predictors of RYH (65) in men and women were used to build a model of the RYH using higher socioeconomic indicators (R(2 )= 0.744, p < .001). Overall country-level educational attainment, national income level, and improved water quality influenced the RYH at 65 years. Therefore, policymaking to improve these country-level socioeconomic factors is expected to have latent effects on RYH in older age.

  13. Effects of seismic intensity and socioeconomic status on injury and displacement after the 2007 Peru earthquake.

    PubMed

    Milch, Karen; Gorokhovich, Yuri; Doocy, Shannon

    2010-10-01

    Earthquakes are a major cause of displacement, particularly in developing countries. Models of injury and displacement can be applied to assist governments and aid organisations in effectively targeting preparedness and relief efforts. A stratified cluster survey was conducted in January 2008 to evaluate risk factors for injury and displacement following the 15 August 2007 earthquake in southern Peru. In statistical modelling, seismic intensity, distance to rupture, living conditions, and educational attainment collectively explained 54.9 per cent of the variability in displacement rates across clusters. Living conditions was a particularly significant predictor of injury and displacement, indicating a strong relationship between risk and socioeconomic status. Contrary to expectations, urban, periurban, and rural clusters did not exhibit significantly different injury and displacement rates. Proxies of socioeconomic status, particularly the living conditions index score, proved relevant in explaining displacement, likely due to unmeasured aspects of housing construction practices and building materials.

  14. Another look at the relationship between socioeconomic factors and the black-white health benefit inequality.

    PubMed

    Ohn, Jonathan; McMahon, Lauren; Carter, Tony

    2006-01-01

    This paper illustrates the black-white disparity in health benefit coverage and the socioeconomic variables-unemployment, income, and education. The health benefit disparity is strongly related to the disparity in underlying socioeconomic variables. Moreover, the time-series examination reveals that the change in white workers' health insurance coverage is largely determined by its year-to-year persistence and the labor market tightness (or the business cycle), while that of black workers is largely determined by the change in their earnings with a slight persistence. The effect of the change in annual earnings seems to dominate the effect of the labor market condition (unemployment rate) and other variables. Finally, although marginally significant, an increase in the attainment of higher education (college) has a positive effect on the black-white health benefit disparity.

  15. Life-course exposure to early socioeconomic environment, education in relation to late life cognitive function among older Mexicans and Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Al Hazzouri, Adina Zeki; Haan, Mary N; Galea, Sandro; Aiello, Allison E

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine the associations between life-course education and late-life cognitive function along with the modifying role of migration history. Methods The combined sample includes 1,789 participants from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging and 5,253 participants from the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Aged 60+ at baseline, participants were classified as Mexican residents, Mexicans-return migrants, Mexicans-immigrants to the US, and Mexicans-US-born. Cognitive function was measured using standardized z-scores of a short-term verbal recall test. Multivariate linear regression analysis was conducted. Results Participants’ z-scores were higher among those whose mother had more than elementary education (β=0.28, p<0.05). Participant’s education mediated this association. For 5-year difference in education, the cognitive z-score increased by 0.3 points for a US-born. Results were similar with father’s education. Discussion Adult educational attainment mediates the effect of childhood socioeconomic status on late-life cognition. Migration plays a role in shaping cognitive aging. PMID:21948769

  16. Left insula activation: a marker for language attainment in bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Chee, Michael W L; Soon, Chun Siong; Lee, Hwee Ling; Pallier, Christophe

    2004-10-19

    Several lines of evidence suggest the importance of phonological working memory (PWM) in language acquisition. We investigated the neural correlates of PWM in young adults who were under compelling social pressure to be bilingual. Equal bilinguals had high proficiency in English and Chinese as measured by a standardized examination, whereas unequal bilinguals were proficient in English but not Chinese. Both groups were matched on several measures of nonverbal intelligence and working memory. In-scanner behavioral results did not show between-group differences. Of the regions showing load-dependent increments in activation, the left insula showed greater activation in equal bilinguals. Unequal bilinguals showed greater task-related deactivation in the anterior medial frontal region and greater anterior cingulate activation. Although unequal bilinguals kept apace with equal bilinguals in the simple PWM task, the differential cortical activations suggest that more optimal engagement of PWM in the latter may correlate with better second-language attainment. PMID:15469927

  17. Left insula activation: A marker for language attainment in bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Michael W. L.; Soon, Chun Siong; Lee, Hwee Ling; Pallier, Christophe

    2004-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest the importance of phonological working memory (PWM) in language acquisition. We investigated the neural correlates of PWM in young adults who were under compelling social pressure to be bilingual. Equal bilinguals had high proficiency in English and Chinese as measured by a standardized examination, whereas unequal bilinguals were proficient in English but not Chinese. Both groups were matched on several measures of nonverbal intelligence and working memory. In-scanner behavioral results did not show between-group differences. Of the regions showing load-dependent increments in activation, the left insula showed greater activation in equal bilinguals. Unequal bilinguals showed greater task-related deactivation in the anterior medial frontal region and greater anterior cingulate activation. Although unequal bilinguals kept apace with equal bilinguals in the simple PWM task, the differential cortical activations suggest that more optimal engagement of PWM in the latter may correlate with better second-language attainment. PMID:15469927

  18. Left insula activation: a marker for language attainment in bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Chee, Michael W L; Soon, Chun Siong; Lee, Hwee Ling; Pallier, Christophe

    2004-10-19

    Several lines of evidence suggest the importance of phonological working memory (PWM) in language acquisition. We investigated the neural correlates of PWM in young adults who were under compelling social pressure to be bilingual. Equal bilinguals had high proficiency in English and Chinese as measured by a standardized examination, whereas unequal bilinguals were proficient in English but not Chinese. Both groups were matched on several measures of nonverbal intelligence and working memory. In-scanner behavioral results did not show between-group differences. Of the regions showing load-dependent increments in activation, the left insula showed greater activation in equal bilinguals. Unequal bilinguals showed greater task-related deactivation in the anterior medial frontal region and greater anterior cingulate activation. Although unequal bilinguals kept apace with equal bilinguals in the simple PWM task, the differential cortical activations suggest that more optimal engagement of PWM in the latter may correlate with better second-language attainment.

  19. School Choice, School Quality and Postsecondary Attainment

    PubMed Central

    Deming, David J.; Hastings, Justine S.; Kane, Thomas J.; Staiger, Douglas O.

    2015-01-01

    We study the impact of a public school choice lottery in Charlotte-Mecklenburg schools on college enrollment and degree completion. We find a significant overall increase in college attainment among lottery winners who attend their first choice school. Using rich administrative data on peers, teachers, course offerings and other inputs, we show that the impacts of choice are strongly predicted by gains on several measures of school quality. Gains in attainment are concentrated among girls. Girls respond to attending a better school with higher grades and increases in college-preparatory course-taking, while boys do not. PMID:27244675

  20. Attainability analysis in the stochastic sensitivity control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkirtseva, Irina

    2015-02-01

    For nonlinear dynamic stochastic control system, we construct a feedback regulator that stabilises an equilibrium and synthesises a required dispersion of random states around this equilibrium. Our approach is based on the stochastic sensitivity functions technique. We focus on the investigation of attainability sets for 2-D systems. A detailed parametric description of the attainability domains for various types of control inputs for stochastic Brusselator is presented. It is shown that the new regulator provides a low level of stochastic sensitivity and can suppress oscillations of large amplitude.

  1. Educational Attainment and Women’s Environmental Mastery in Midlife

    PubMed Central

    Deeg, Dorly; Kuh, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Using data from 1,184 women in the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, we estimated associations between education and Ryff’s environmental mastery scale scores at age 52. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated two subscales, here termed mastery skills and mastery accomplishments. Low education was associated with higher mastery skills. This was partly explained by childhood socioeconomic position, as mastery was lower among those with fathers in the most and least advantaged occupational classes. Education was not associated with mastery accomplishments in unadjusted models. Lower ambitions for family/home were associated with higher mastery accomplishments and may have partly suppressed as an association between education and mastery accomplishments. This study highlights childhood as well as adult correlates of mastery and adds to mounting evidence that higher mastery is not universally found among those who are more educated. PMID:27048696

  2. Socioeconomic position in childhood and cancer in adulthood: a rapid-review

    PubMed Central

    Vohra, Jyotsna; Marmot, Michael G; Bauld, Linda; Hiatt, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Background The relationship of childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) to adult cancer has been inconsistent in the literature and there has been no review summarising the current evidence focused solely on cancer outcomes. Methods and results We performed a rapid review of the literature, which identified 22 publications from 13 studies, primarily in the UK and northern European countries that specifically analysed individual measures of SEP in childhood and cancer outcomes in adulthood. Most of these studies adjusted for adult SEP as a critical mediator of the relationship of interest. Conclusions Results confirm that childhood socioeconomic circumstances have a strong influence on stomach cancer and are likely to contribute, along with adult circumstances, to lung cancer through cumulative exposure to smoking. There was also some evidence of increased risk of colorectal, liver, cervical and pancreatic cancers with lower childhood SEP in large studies, but small numbers of cancer deaths made these estimates imprecise. Gaps in knowledge and potential policy implications are presented. PMID:26715591

  3. Anxiety and depression symptomatology in adult siblings of individuals with different developmental disability diagnoses.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Linda P; Murray, Lindsay E

    2016-01-01

    Factors predicting the emotional well-being of adult siblings of those with developmental disability (DD) remain under-researched. In this study adult siblings of individuals with Down's syndrome (DS), autism (ASD), Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and those with DD but with unknown aetiology (DUA) were compared with each other and a closely-matched control group to ascertain if sibling disability type made a difference to anxiety and/or depression levels. Also considered was the interactive effect of gender, age, parental and sibling educational attainment levels, socio-economic status and birth order on anxiety and depression outcomes. With the exception of siblings of those with DS, adult siblings of those with ASD, PWS and DUA reported significantly higher levels of anxiety and depression than the control group. There were some predictive effects of the demographic variables upon anxiety and depression but none common to all disability types and no moderating effects of demographic factors were found. Consequently other solutions must be found as to why this important group of people have elevated rates of anxiety and depression in comparison to the general population. PMID:26820453

  4. Poverty, Socioeconomic Change, Institutional Anomie, and Homicide*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Weon; Pridemore, William Alex

    2006-01-01

    Objective. This study examined institutional anomie theory in the context of transitional Russia. Methods. We employed an index of negative socioeconomic change and measures of family, education, and polity to test the hypothesis that institutional strength conditions the effects of poverty and socioeconomic change on homicide rates. Results. As expected, the results of models estimated using negative binomial regression show direct positive effects of poverty and socioeconomic change and direct negative effects of family strength and polity on regional homicide rates. There was no support, however, for the hypothesis that stronger social institutions reduce the effects of poverty and socioeconomic change on violence. Conclusions. We interpret these results in the Russia-specific setting, concluding that Russia is a rich laboratory for examining the effects of social change on crime and that empirical research in other nations is important when assessing the generalizability of theories developed to explain crime and violence in the United States. PMID:16900262

  5. Poverty, Socioeconomic Change, Institutional Anomie, and Homicide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Weon; Pridemore, William Alex

    2005-12-01

    Objective. This study examined institutional anomie theory in the context of transitional Russia. Methods. We employed an index of negative socioeconomic change and measures of family, education, and polity to test the hypothesis that institutional strength conditions the effects of poverty and socioeconomic change on homicide rates. Results. As expected, the results of models estimated using negative binomial regression show direct positive effects of poverty and socioeconomic change and direct negative effects of family strength and polity on regional homicide rates. There was no support, however, for the hypothesis that stronger social institutions reduce the effects of poverty and socioeconomic change on violence. Conclusions. We interpret these results in the Russia-specific setting, concluding that Russia is a rich laboratory for examining the effects of social change on crime and that empirical research in other nations is important when assessing the generalizability of theories developed to explain crime and violence in the United States.

  6. Family allowances and fertility: socioeconomic differences.

    PubMed

    Schellekens, Jona

    2009-08-01

    This article explores socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances on fertility. Although several studies have examined the relationship between cash benefits and fertility, few studies have addressed the possible differential effects of cash benefits on families of different income or education levels. I reconstructed the birth histories of women in the past two Israeli censuses of 1983 and 1995 to study socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances up to the seventh parity. The results indicate that family allowances have a significant effect at every parity. Using female education as an indicator of socioeconomic status, I find that socioeconomic status is a significant modifier of the effect of family allowances. Family allowances seem to have a relatively large impact on more-educated women.

  7. Socioeconomic Disparities and Influenza Hospitalizations, Tennessee, USA.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Chantel; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Mitchel, Edward; Schaffner, William; Lindegren, Mary Lou

    2015-09-01

    We examined population-based surveillance data from the Tennessee Emerging Infections Program to determine whether neighborhood socioeconomic status was associated with influenza hospitalization rates. Hospitalization data collected during October 2007-April 2014 were geocoded (N = 1,743) and linked to neighborhood socioeconomic data. We calculated age-standardized annual incidence rates, relative index of inequality, and concentration curves for socioeconomic variables. Influenza hospitalizations increased with increased percentages of persons who lived in poverty, had female-headed households, lived in crowded households, and lived in population-dense areas. Influenza hospitalizations decreased with increased percentages of persons who were college educated, were employed, and had health insurance. Higher incidence of influenza hospitalization was also associated with lower neighborhood socioeconomic status when data were stratified by race. PMID:26292106

  8. Adolescents' Sexual Behavior and Academic Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisco, Michelle L.

    2008-01-01

    High school students have high ambitions but do not always make choices that maximize their likelihood of educational success. This was the motivation for investigating the relationships between high school sexual behavior and two important milestones in academic attainment: earning a high school diploma and enrolling in distinct postsecondary…

  9. Japanese vs. Caucasian Intelligence and Social Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagoshi, Craig T.

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes a series of studies from the Hawaii Family Study of Cognition on possible genetic and social environmental determinants of individual differences in and racial/ethnic differences between groups on intelligence and attainment. These studies, which focused on Japanese and Caucasian Americans, illustrate the complex, interactive, and…

  10. Does Parental Employment Affect Children's Educational Attainment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schildberg-Hoerisch, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether there exists a causal relationship between parental employment and children's educational attainment. We address potential endogeneity problems due to (i) selection of parents in the labor market by estimating a model on sibling differences and (ii) reverse causality by focusing on parents' employment when children are…

  11. Attainability analysis in stochastic controlled systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ryashko, Lev

    2015-03-10

    A control problem for stochastically forced nonlinear continuous-time systems is considered. We propose a method for construction of the regulator that provides a preassigned probabilistic distribution of random states in stochastic equilibrium. Geometric criteria of the controllability are obtained. Constructive technique for the specification of attainability sets is suggested.

  12. Birth Order, Family Size and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Haan, Monique

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth order is identified, by examining the relation…

  13. Genetic and Environmental Transactions Underlying Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J.; Iacono, William G.

    2009-01-01

    This report used a population-representative longitudinal twin study with two birth cohorts to explore the association between intelligence and education by understanding how genetic and environmental influences on intelligence moderate genetic and environmental influences on school grades and educational attainment. Nonshared environmental…

  14. Degree Attainment. Snapshot™ Report, Winter 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This Snapshot Report presents information on student degree attainment in science and engineering disciplines for 2004 and 2014. It offers data on the following: (1) Science and Engineering Degrees as Percentage of All Degrees; (2) Gender Distribution of Science and Engineering Degrees by Level; (3) Gender Distribution of Bachelor's Degrees in…

  15. Educational Attainment in the United States: 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissey, Sarah R.

    2009-01-01

    This report provides a portrait of educational attainment in the United States based on data collected in the 2007 American Community Survey (ACS) and data collected in 2008 and earlier in the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the Current Population Survey (CPS). Previous U.S. Census Bureau reports on this topic were based on…

  16. School Desegregation, Academic Attainment, and Earnings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivkin, Steven G.

    2000-01-01

    High School and Beyond longitudinal survey data were used to investigate the impact of school racial composition and quality on achievement, educational attainment, and earnings for blacks. Results support the idea that school quality improvement is likely to be much more effective than desegregation as a means of improving academic and labor…

  17. Private Schooling and the Status Attainment Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lionel S.; Wanner, Richard A.

    1979-01-01

    Examines effects of a private school education on educational, occupational, and earnings attainments. Using subsamples of respondents who attended private schools only and public schools only, the so-called private school advantage and its function in transmitting background related advantages is analyzed. (Author/DB)

  18. A Dynamic Analysis of Educational Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Mark; Polk, Kenneth

    1986-01-01

    Traces the educational attainment experiences of 245 Pacific Northwest males aged 16-31 hypothesizing a main path of educational success coinciding with Rosenbaum's tournament metaphor. Indicates that though early academic success did not ensure later success, early academic failure strongly predicted later failure, but some unsuccessful students…

  19. Differences in STEM Baccalaureate Attainment by Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koledoye, Kimberly; Joyner, Sheila; Slate, John R.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the extent to which differences were present in the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) baccalaureate attainment of Black students and of Hispanic students at 82 Texas 4-year colleges from 2008 to 2009. A custom download of data files was conducted on the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System in…

  20. The Fiscal Impacts of College Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trostel, Philip A.

    2010-01-01

    This study quantifies one part of the return to U.S. public investment in college education, namely, the fiscal benefits associated with greater college attainment. College graduates pay much more taxes than those not going to college. Government expenditures are also much less for college graduates than for those without a college education.…

  1. Geography Education for "An Attainable Global Perspective"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Phil; Pawson, Eric; Solem, Michael; Ray, Waverly

    2014-01-01

    This article considers approaches to promoting global perspectives as both cognitive and affective learning outcomes within geography education. Particular attention is paid to the work of Robert Hanvey, who proposed "An Attainable Global Perspective" in the 1970s, which explicitly ties to the content and perspectives embedded in…

  2. National Differences in Intelligence and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Richard; Mikk, Jaan

    2007-01-01

    We examine the correlations between the national IQs of Lynn and Vanhanen (Lynn, R. and Vanhanen, T. (2002). "IQ and the wealth of nations". Westport, CT: Praeger. Westport, CT: Praeger, Lynn, R. and Vanhanen, T. (2006). "IQ and global inequality". Athens, GA: Washington Summit Books.) and educational attainment scores in math and science for 10-…

  3. Ethnic Inequalities and Educational Attainment in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jao, Jui-Chang; McKeever, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine educational stratification in Taiwan against the background of an ethnically based political economy. They investigate how educational attainment is related to ethnicity and other background factors, such as parental class and education, and if these relationships changed over time as Taiwan became a more…

  4. Early School Adjustment and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnuson, Katherine; Duncan, Greg J.; Lee, Kenneth T. H.; Metzger, Molly W.

    2016-01-01

    Although school attainment is a cumulative process combining mastery of both academic and behavioral skills, most studies have offered only a piecemeal view of the associations between middle-childhood capacities and subsequent schooling outcomes. Using a 20-year longitudinal data set, this study estimates the association between children's…

  5. Attaining the First Community College Presidency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Stephanie J.; Warnick, Erika M.

    2012-01-01

    It would be unusual to read the current literature on community colleges and not find a reference to impending retirements of senior-level administrators, faculty, and staff, as well as what skills and characteristics are important for future leadership. There is limited research on attaining the first community college presidency. This study…

  6. Improving Educational Attainment: Recent Trends and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew; McPherson, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A large majority of full-time students pursuing bachelor's degrees at four-year colleges and universities in the United States attend public universities. The struggle, therefore, to improve educational attainment and reduce the marked disparities in outcomes that lead to greater inequalities of all kinds will take place mainly within our nation's…

  7. Educational Attainment. Cuyahoga County Data Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Urban Poverty and Community Development (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Educational attainment is reported separately for individuals 18-24 and those 25 and over. Many individuals in the 18-24 year old group are still acquiring their education, but it is still of interest to look at their status in 2000 and 2006-2008 to determine whether more of them have completed high school or more advanced education. The number of…

  8. 40 CFR 51.1004 - Attainment dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Attainment dates. 51.1004 Section 51.1004 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  9. Influence of Educational Attainment on Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xuemin; He, Youning

    2007-01-01

    In market economy, man is both the essential productive factor and the consuming subject. Education promotes the two aspects. As shown by investigations on the influence of educational attainment on consumption, education has great influences on people's consumption level, consumption structure, consumption modes and consumption concepts. The…

  10. Locus of Control and Status Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensman, Miriam Roza; Haller, Archibald O.

    Utilizing data derived from 277 rural, male respondents initially enrolled in Lenawee County, Michigan high schools, the Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale was employed to test the hypothesis that locus of control will have interactive rather than additive effects on the process of status attainment. Locus of control was defined as…

  11. Why Online Education Will Attain Full Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sener, John

    2010-01-01

    Online higher education has attained scale and is poised to take the next step in its growth. Although significant obstacles to a full scale adoption of online education remain, we will see full scale adoption of online higher education within the next five to ten years. Practically all higher education students will experience online education in…

  12. Potential and attainable food production and food security in different regions

    PubMed Central

    Vries, F. W. T. Penning de; Rabbinge, R.; Groot, J. J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Growing prosperity in the South is accompanied by human diets that will claim more natural resources per capita. This reality, combined with growing populations, may raise the global demand for food crops two- to four-fold within two generations. Considering the large volume of natural resources and potential crop yields, it seems that this demand can be met smoothly. However, this is a fallacy for the following reasons. (i) Geographic regions differ widely in their potential food security: policy choices for agricultural use of natural resources are limited in Asia. For example, to ensure national self-sufficiency and food security, most of the suitable land (China) and nearly all of the surface water (India) are needed. Degradation restricts options further. (ii) The attainable level of agricultural production depends also on socio-economic conditions. Extensive poverty keeps the attainable food production too low to achieve food security, even when the yield gap is wide, as in Africa. (iii) Bio-energy, non-food crops and nature compete with food crops for natural resources. Global and regional food security are attainable, but only with major efforts. Strategies to achieve alternative aims will be discussed.

  13. Motivation to Learn among Older Adults in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Dian-Fu; Lin, Sung-Po

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed the survey on adults administered by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan in 2008, and logistic regression analysis showed a close relationship between learning motivations of older adults. The finding revealed that the higher age or the lower education attainment of older adults, the lower their learning motivation. The…

  14. Thematic Review on Adult Learning: Finland. Background Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    In international comparisons, participation in adult learning in Finland is high. Work or career development is the main reason for participation. Persons starting with greater educational attainment participate in adult learning opportunities more. Roots of adult education and training (AET) lie in liberal education; those of occupational AET in…

  15. Independent roles of country of birth and socioeconomic status in the occurrence of type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is strong evidence based on previous studies that ethnicity and socioeconomic status are important determinants of diversity in the occurrence of diabetes. However, the independent roles of socioeconomic status, country of birth and lifestyle factors in the occurrence of type 2 diabetes have not been clearly identified. This study investigated the relationships between socioeconomic status, country of birth and type 2 diabetes in a large diverse sample of residents of New South Wales, Australia, and aged 45 years and over. Methods The analysis used self-reported baseline questionnaire data from 266,848 participants in the 45 and Up Study. Educational attainment, work status and income were used as indicators of socioeconomic status. Logistic regression models were built to investigate associations between socioeconomic status, country of birth and type 2 diabetes. Results The adjusted odds of type 2 diabetes were significantly higher for people born in many overseas countries, compared to Australian-born participants. Compared with participants who had a university degree or higher qualification, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for diabetes was higher in all other educational categories. Diabetes was more prevalent in people who were retired, unemployed or engaged in other types of work, compared with people who were in paid work. The prevalence of diabetes was higher in people with lower incomes. Compared with people who earned more than $50,000, the adjusted OR for diabetes was 2.05 (95% CI 1.95-2.14) for people who had an income less than $20,000 per annum. The relationships between socioeconomic factors and country of birth and diabetes were attenuated slightly when all were included in the model. Addition of smoking, obesity and physical activity to the model had marked impacts on adjusted ORs for some countries of birth, but relationships between diabetes and all measures of socioeconomic status and country of birth remained strong and

  16. Adult Education and the Postmodern Challenge. Learning beyond the Limits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usher, Robin; Bryant, Ian; Johnston, Rennie

    This book examines the relationship among theory, practice, and research in adult education. Chapter 1 analyzes key features of modernity and postmodernity to highlight significant contemporary socioeconomic and cultural changes that have an impact on adult education. Chapter 2 sketches what a contemporary adult education for citizenship might…

  17. Literacy Development and Language Expression for Adult Learners in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrotta, Clarena; Moon, Ji Yoon Christine

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides examples of transitions that learners face connected to their participation in adult education and English literacy instruction. It describes their efforts to attain relevant language expression skills.

  18. The Role of Task Persistence in Young Adolescence for Successful Educational and Occupational Attainment in Middle Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Hakan; Bergman, Lars R.

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the importance of task persistence in young adolescence for successful educational and occupational attainment in middle adulthood. Data from age 13 (N = 1,092) and adult age (age 43 for women, N = 569 and age 47 for men, N = 393) were taken from the Swedish longitudinal research program…

  19. Obesity and socioeconomic status in developing countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dinsa, GD; Goryakin, Y; Fumagalli, E; Suhrcke, M

    2012-01-01

    Summary We undertook a systematic review of studies assessing the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and measured obesity in low- and middle-income countries (defined by the World Bank as countries with per capita income up to US$12,275) among children, men and women. The evidence on the subject has grown significantly since an earlier influential review was published in 2004. We find that in low-income countries or in countries with low human development index (HDI), the association between SES and obesity appears to be positive for both men and women: the more affluent and/or those with higher educational attainment tend to be more likely to be obese. However, in middle-income countries or in countries with medium HDI, the association becomes largely mixed for men and mainly negative for women. This particular shift appears to occur at an even lower level of per capita income than suggested by an influential earlier review. By contrast, obesity in children appears to be predominantly a problem of the rich in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:22764734

  20. Socioeconomic Patterning in Tobacco Use in Argentina, 2005

    PubMed Central

    Diez Roux, Ana V.; Alazraqui, Marcio; Spinelli, Hugo; Lantz, Paula M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Globally, tobacco is the number one preventable cause of death, killing 1 in 10 adults. By 2030, 80% of all tobacco deaths will occur in developing countries. Social factors drive the adoption and cessation of smoking in high-income countries, but few studies have examined the socioeconomic patterning of smoking in developing countries. Methods: Using data from the 2005 National Survey of Risk Factors for Non-communicable Diseases in Argentina, we investigated gender-specific socioeconomic patterning of current, former, and never-smoking status; the intensity of smoking; and smokers’ readiness for cessation using multinomial logistic and ordinary least squares regression. We also investigated heterogeneity in the patterning by age. Results: Higher socioeconomic position (SEP) was associated with less smoking for men in all age groups, although the results were most pronounced for men at younger ages (odds ratio [OR] of current vs. never smoking = 0.57, 95% CI 0.51–0.63 for higher vs. lower education at ages 18–24 years). For women, higher SEP was associated with more smoking in older age groups but less smoking in younger age groups (OR = 1.51, CI 1.41–1.62 and OR = 0.86, CI 0.78–0.96 for higher vs. lower education at ages 50–64 and 18–24 years, respectively). Higher SEP was also associated with higher odds of recently quitting compared to not considering quitting for men regardless of age group but for women only in younger age groups. Discussion: The higher burden of smoking among those of lower SEP, especially in younger age groups, is a troubling pattern that is certain to impact future disparities in chronic disease outcomes unless interventions are undertaken. PMID:21622491

  1. Prevalence of fibromyalgia in a low socioeconomic status population

    PubMed Central

    Assumpção, Ana; Cavalcante, Alane B; Capela, Cristina E; Sauer, Juliana F; Chalot, Suellen D; Pereira, Carlos AB; Marques, Amélia P

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of fibromyalgia, as well as to assess the major symptoms of this syndrome in an adult, low socioeconomic status population assisted by the primary health care system in a city in Brazil. Methods We cross-sectionally sampled individuals assisted by the public primary health care system (n = 768, 35–60 years old). Participants were interviewed by phone and screened about pain. They were then invited to be clinically assessed (304 accepted). Pain was estimated using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Fibromyalgia was assessed using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), as well as screening for tender points using dolorimetry. Statistical analyses included Bayesian Statistics and the Kruskal-Wallis Anova test (significance level = 5%). Results From the phone-interview screening, we divided participants (n = 768) in three groups: No Pain (NP) (n = 185); Regional Pain (RP) (n = 388) and Widespread Pain (WP) (n = 106). Among those participating in the clinical assessments, (304 subjects), the prevalence of fibromyalgia was 4.4% (95% confidence interval [2.6%; 6.3%]). Symptoms of pain (VAS and FIQ), feeling well, job ability, fatigue, morning tiredness, stiffness, anxiety and depression were statically different among the groups. In multivariate analyses we found that individuals with FM and WP had significantly higher impairment than those with RP and NP. FM and WP were similarly disabling. Similarly, RP was no significantly different than NP. Conclusion Fibromyalgia is prevalent in the low socioeconomic status population assisted by the public primary health care system. Prevalence was similar to other studies (4.4%) in a more diverse socioeconomic population. Individuals with FM and WP have significant impact in their well being. PMID:19505321

  2. Current Trends in Adult Degree Programs: How Public Universities Respond to the Needs of Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gast, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Although many adult students turn to online degree programs due to their flexibility and convenience, a majority of prospective adult learners prefer to take classes on traditional brick-and-mortar campuses. This chapter examines how public research universities create pathways to degree attainment and boost degree completion rates among adult…

  3. 40 CFR 52.20 - Attainment dates for national standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirement is part of a control strategy designed to attain a primary standard, and (b) Within a reasonable time where the requirement is part of a control strategy designed to attain a secondary standard....

  4. Children's Reasoning about Disclosing Adult Transgressions: Effects of Maltreatment, Child Age, and Adult Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Thomas D.; Ahern, Elizabeth C.; Malloy, Lindsay C.; Quas, Jodi A.

    2010-01-01

    A total of two hundred ninety-nine 4- to 9-year-old maltreated and nonmaltreated children of comparable socioeconomic status and ethnicity judged whether children should or would disclose unspecified transgressions of adults (instigators) to other adults (recipients) in scenarios varying the identity of the instigator (stranger or parent), the…

  5. The Incorporation of Poverty into Adult Identity over Time: Implications for Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Byron A.

    2005-01-01

    For many years, poverty has dominated international headlines as a global condition. In some countries, poverty has become a chronic socioeconomic problem. This qualitative study explored the incorporation process of poverty into adult identity and assessed the nature of the learning that occurred. Destitute adults in Botswana were chosen and used…

  6. [Multiple sclerosis: socioeconomic effects and impact on quality of life].

    PubMed

    Ayuso, Guillermo Izquierdo

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that affects young adults. Survival is long, more than 35 years, and consequently the disease has a huge socioeconomic impact. The present article discusses the enormous difficulties of carrying out economic assessments in this field but also describes the advances made in research on this topic and the advantages of performing socioeconomic evaluations with increasingly sophisticated tools. We also discuss the need to quantify indirect and intangible costs to translate them into quality of life and subsequently into economic cost, expressed in euros in the case of Spain. The available data indicate that the enormous cost of the disease (1200 million euros per year) is due more to disability-related expenditure than to treatment, which-although expensive-does not represent more than 16-18% of the total expenditure (approximately 200 million euros per year). The increase represented by the cost of MS is not based on higher treatment expenditure but on an increase in the incidence and-especially-the prevalence of the disease. Above all, in the last few years, there has been a considerable rise in the percentage of patients with an indication for treatment. Reflection is therefore needed on the use of drug therapy in MS, since a saving in the most effective products seems to increase the overall cost of MS, while expenditure on these drugs represents a saving in the long-term. PMID:25732943

  7. Family structure, economic status, and educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Boggess, S

    1998-01-01

    "This study examines the effect of family structure on high school graduation by race and gender using data from the first twenty-one waves of the [U.S.] Panel Study of Income Dynamics and recently available retrospective marital histories.... The analysis tests the hypothesis that the negative effect on educational attainment often associated with living in a mother-only or stepfather family stems primarily from the reduced level of economic resources available to these households. Empirical findings indicate that living with a widowed, divorced, or separated mother has little or no effect on educational attainment once we control for economic status. However, living in a stepfather family appears to have a persistent negative effect on high school graduation rates."

  8. Attainability of Carnot efficiency with autonomous engines.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Naoto

    2015-11-01

    The maximum efficiency of autonomous engines with a finite chemical potential difference is investigated. We show that, without a particular type of singularity, autonomous engines cannot attain the Carnot efficiency. This singularity is realized in two ways: single particle transports and the thermodynamic limit. We demonstrate that both of these ways actually lead to the Carnot efficiency in concrete setups. Our results clearly illustrate that the singularity plays a crucial role in the maximum efficiency of autonomous engines.

  9. Attainability of Carnot efficiency with autonomous engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Naoto

    2015-11-01

    The maximum efficiency of autonomous engines with a finite chemical potential difference is investigated. We show that, without a particular type of singularity, autonomous engines cannot attain the Carnot efficiency. This singularity is realized in two ways: single particle transports and the thermodynamic limit. We demonstrate that both of these ways actually lead to the Carnot efficiency in concrete setups. Our results clearly illustrate that the singularity plays a crucial role in the maximum efficiency of autonomous engines.

  10. Socioeconomic Disparities and Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Delobel-Ayoub, Malika; Ehlinger, Virginie; Klapouszczak, Dana; Maffre, Thierry; Raynaud, Jean-Philippe; Delpierre, Cyrille; Arnaud, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Study of the impact of socioeconomic status on autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and severe intellectual disabilities (ID) has yielded conflicting results. Recent European studies suggested that, unlike reports from the United States, low socioeconomic status is associated with an increased risk of ASD. For intellectual disabilities, the links with socioeconomic status vary according to the severity. We wished to clarify the links between socioeconomic status and the prevalence of ASD (with or without ID) and isolated severe ID. Methods 500 children with ASD and 245 children with severe ID (IQ <50) aged 8 years, born 1995 to 2004, were recruited from a French population-based registry. Inclusions were based on clinical diagnoses reported in medical records according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision. Socioeconomic status was measured by indicators available at block census level which characterize the population of the child’s area of residence. Measures of deprivation, employment, occupation, education, immigration and family structure were used. Prevalences were compared between groups of census units defined by the tertiles of socioeconomic level in the general population. Results Prevalence of ASD with associated ID was higher in areas with the highest level of deprivation and the highest percentage of unemployed adults, persons with no diploma, immigrants and single-parent families. No association was found when using occupational class. Regarding ASD without associated ID, a higher prevalence was found in areas with the highest percentage of immigrants. No association was found for other socioeconomic indicators. The prevalence of isolated severe ID was likely to be higher in the most disadvantaged groups defined by all indicators. Conclusion The prevalence of ASD with associated ID and of severe isolated ID is more likely to be higher in areas with the highest level of deprivation. PMID:26540408

  11. Depression in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, Amy; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Gatz, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Depression is less prevalent among older adults than among younger adults but can have serious consequences. Over half of cases represent a first onset in later life. Although suicide rates in the elderly are declining, they are still higher than in younger adults and more closely associated with depression. Depressed older adults are less likely to endorse affective symptoms and more likely to display cognitive changes, somatic symptoms, and loss of interest than are younger adults. Risk factors leading to the development of late life depression likely comprise complex interactions among genetic vulnerabilities, cognitive diathesis, age-associated neurobiological changes, and stressful events. Insomnia is an often overlooked risk factor for late life depression. We suggest that a common pathway to depression in older adults, regardless of which predisposing risks are most prominent, may be curtailment of daily activities. Accompanying self-critical thinking may exacerbate and maintain a depressed state. Offsetting the increasing prevalence of certain risk factors in late life are age-related increases in psychological resilience. Other protective factors include higher education and socioeconomic status, engagement in valued activities, and religious or spiritual involvement. Treatments including behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive bibliotherapy, problem-solving therapy, brief psychodynamic therapy, and life review/reminiscence therapy are effective but too infrequently used with older adults. Preventive interventions including education for individuals with chronic illness, behavioral activation, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving skills training, group support, and life review have also received support. PMID:19327033

  12. Adolescent depression: diagnosis, treatment, and educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jason M

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, I use nationally representative longitudinal data to examine adolescent depression and educational attainment. First, I examine the individual, family, and community-level determinants of adolescent depression, diagnosis, and treatment. I find that male and minority adolescents who score high on depression scales are less likely to be diagnosed as depressed or receive treatment than female and non-Hispanic white adolescents. Additionally, I find several community-level variables to be important determinants of depression, diagnosis, and treatment. Second, I examine the importance of adolescent depression for educational attainment. Although it is uncontroversial to expect a negative relationship, most previous research uses cross-sectional data, making it difficult to adequately determine the magnitude of the effect. I find that depressive symptoms are related to educational attainment along multiple margins: dropping out of high school, college enrollment, and college type. These relationships are only found for adolescent females, and there are several interesting results across income groups. Overall, these findings suggest that further attempts to diagnose and treat adolescents with depressive symptoms are needed and that additional treatment options may be required to combat the important relationship between adolescent depression and human capital accumulation for females.

  13. Causal effects of socioeconomic status on central adiposity risks: Evidence using panel data from urban Mexico.

    PubMed

    Levasseur, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Associated with overweight, obesity and chronic diseases, the nutrition transition process reveals important socioeconomic issues in Mexico. Using panel data from the Mexican Family Life Survey, the purpose of the study is to estimate the causal effect of household socioeconomic status (SES) on nutritional outcomes among urban adults. We divide the analysis into two steps. First, using a mixed clustering procedure, we distinguish four socioeconomic classes based on income, educational and occupational dimensions: (i) a poor class; (ii) a lower-middle class; (iii) an upper-middle class; (iv) a rich class. Second, using an econometric framework adapted to our study (the Hausman-Taylor estimator), we measure the impact of belonging to these socioeconomic groups on individual anthropometric indicators, based on the body-mass index (BMI) and the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Our results make several contributions: (i) we show that a new middle class, rising out of poverty, is the most exposed to the risks of adiposity; (ii) as individuals from the upper class seem to be fatter than individuals from the upper-middle class, we can reject the assumption of an inverted U-shaped relationship between socioeconomic and anthropometric status as commonly suggested in emerging economies; (iii) the influence of SES on central adiposity appears to be particularly strong for men.

  14. Racism at the intersections: Gender and socioeconomic differences in the experience of racism among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Goodman, Melody S

    2015-09-01

    Several studies investigating the health effects of racism have reported gender and socioeconomic differences in exposures to racism, with women typically reporting lower frequencies, and individuals with greater resources reporting higher frequencies. This study used diverse measures of socioeconomic position and multiple measures and methods to assess experienced racism. Socioeconomic position included education and financial and employment status. Quantitative racism measures assessed individual experiences with day-to-day and with major lifetime incidents and perceptions of the extent to which African Americans as a group experience racism. A brief qualitative question asked respondents to describe a racist incident that stood out in recent memory. Participants comprised a probability sample of N = 144 African American adults aged 19 to 87 residing in New York City. Results suggested that women reported fewer lifetime incidents but did not differ from men on everyday racism. These differences appear to be partly because of scale content. Socioeconomic position as measured by years of education was positively associated with reported racism in the total sample but differently patterned across gender; subjective social status showed a negative association. Qualitative responses describing memorable incidents fell into 5 key categories: resources/opportunity structures, criminal profiling, racial aggression/assault, interpersonal incivilities, and stereotyping. In these narratives, men were more likely to offer accounts involving criminal profiling, and women encountered incivilities more often. The findings highlight the need for closer attention to the intersection of gender and socioeconomic factors in investigations of the health effects of racism. PMID:26460700

  15. Racism at the intersections: Gender and socioeconomic differences in the experience of racism among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Goodman, Melody S

    2015-09-01

    Several studies investigating the health effects of racism have reported gender and socioeconomic differences in exposures to racism, with women typically reporting lower frequencies, and individuals with greater resources reporting higher frequencies. This study used diverse measures of socioeconomic position and multiple measures and methods to assess experienced racism. Socioeconomic position included education and financial and employment status. Quantitative racism measures assessed individual experiences with day-to-day and with major lifetime incidents and perceptions of the extent to which African Americans as a group experience racism. A brief qualitative question asked respondents to describe a racist incident that stood out in recent memory. Participants comprised a probability sample of N = 144 African American adults aged 19 to 87 residing in New York City. Results suggested that women reported fewer lifetime incidents but did not differ from men on everyday racism. These differences appear to be partly because of scale content. Socioeconomic position as measured by years of education was positively associated with reported racism in the total sample but differently patterned across gender; subjective social status showed a negative association. Qualitative responses describing memorable incidents fell into 5 key categories: resources/opportunity structures, criminal profiling, racial aggression/assault, interpersonal incivilities, and stereotyping. In these narratives, men were more likely to offer accounts involving criminal profiling, and women encountered incivilities more often. The findings highlight the need for closer attention to the intersection of gender and socioeconomic factors in investigations of the health effects of racism.

  16. Urban Density and Pupil Attainment. CEE DP 80

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Stephen; Silva, Olmo

    2007-01-01

    We explore the association between urban density and pupil attainment using three cohorts of pupils in schooling in England. Although--as widely recognised--attainment in dense urban places is low on average, this is not because urban environments disadvantage pupils, but because the most disadvantaged pupils with low average attainments attend…

  17. Impact of Self-Regulatory Influences on Writing Course Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Barry J.; Bandura, Albert

    1994-01-01

    Using path analysis, studied the role of self-efficacy beliefs concerning academic attainment and regulation of writing, academic goals, and self-standards in writing-course attainment of 95 college freshmen. Different facets of perceived self-efficacy played a key role in writing-course attainment. (SLD)

  18. Neurobiological Pathways Linking Socioeconomic Position and Health

    PubMed Central

    Gianaros, Peter J.; Manuck, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    Across individuals, risk for poor health varies inversely with socioeconomic position (SEP). The pathways by which SEP affects health have been viewed from many epidemiological perspectives. Central to these perspectives is the notion that socioeconomic health disparities arise from an interplay between nested, recursive, and cumulative environmental, social, familial, psychological, behavioral, and physiological processes that unfold over the life span. Epidemiological perspectives on socioeconomic health disparities, however, have not yet formally integrated emerging findings from neuropharmacological, molecular genetic, and neuroimaging studies demonstrating that indicators of SEP relate to patterns of brain neurotransmission, brain morphology, and brain functionality implicated in the etiology of chronic medical conditions and psychological disorders. Here, we survey these emerging findings and consider how future neurobiological studies in this area can enhance our understanding of the pathways by which different dimensions of SEP become embodied by the brain to influence health throughout life. PMID:20498294

  19. Racial and socioeconomic factors in glomerular disease.

    PubMed

    Halevy, D; Radhakrishnan, J; Appel, G B

    2001-07-01

    The influence of racial and socioeconomic factors on the incidence, prognosis, and response to therapy of many diseases has long been noted. Although glomerular diseases comprise 10% to over 16% of the dialysis and renal transplant populations, respectively, only recently have racial and socioeconomic factors been evaluated. Several glomerular diseases are associated with a striking African-American predominance. These include idiopathic focal sclerosis, and especially its collapsing variant, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated nephropathy, and severe lupus nephritis. In many of these entities the renal disease is also more aggressive and rapidly progressive than in other populations. Recent data points to genetic-biologic as well as social and economic factors that may be responsible for these findings. Studies dealing with the therapy of glomerular lesions must be stratified for racial and social background differences to avoid bias in outcome. Whether racial and socioeconomic data should be used in treating individual patients, and how, remains an area of controversy.

  20. Family and Community Influences on Health and Socioeconomic Status: Sibling Correlations Over the Life Course*

    PubMed Central

    Mazumder, Bhashkar

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents new estimates of sibling correlations in health and socioeconomic outcomes over the life course in the U.S. Sibling correlations provide an omnibus measure of the importance of all family and community influences. I find that sibling correlations in a range of health and socioeconomic outcomes start quite high at birth and remain high over the life course. The sibling correlation in birth weight is estimated to be 0.5. Sibling correlations in test scores during childhood are as high as 0.6. Sibling correlations in adult men’s wages are also around 0.5. Decompositions provide suggestive evidence on which pathways may account for the gradients in health and SES by family background. For example, sibling correlations in cognitive skills and non-cognitive skills during childhood are lower controlling for family income. Similarly, parent education levels can account for a sizable portion of the correlation in adult health status among brothers. PMID:23412989

  1. Optimal social-networking strategy is a function of socioeconomic conditions.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Kesebir, Selin

    2012-12-01

    In the two studies reported here, we examined the relation among residential mobility, economic conditions, and optimal social-networking strategy. In study 1, a computer simulation showed that regardless of economic conditions, having a broad social network with weak friendship ties is advantageous when friends are likely to move away. By contrast, having a small social network with deep friendship ties is advantageous when the economy is unstable but friends are not likely to move away. In study 2, we examined the validity of the computer simulation using a sample of American adults. Results were consistent with the simulation: American adults living in a zip code where people are residentially stable but economically challenged were happier if they had a narrow but deep social network, whereas in other socioeconomic conditions, people were generally happier if they had a broad but shallow networking strategy. Together, our studies demonstrate that the optimal social-networking strategy varies as a function of socioeconomic conditions.

  2. ICT reuse in socio-economic enterprises

    SciTech Connect

    Ongondo, F.O.; Williams, I.D.; Dietrich, J.; Carroll, C.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We analyse ICT equipment reuse operations of socio-economic enterprises. • Most common ICT products dealt with are computers and related equipment. • In the UK in 2010, ∼143,750 appliances were reused. • Marketing and legislative difficulties are the common hurdles to reuse activities. • Socio-economic enterprises can significantly contribute to resource efficiency. - Abstract: In Europe, socio-economic enterprises such as charities, voluntary organisations and not-for-profit companies are involved in the repair, refurbishment and reuse of various products. This paper characterises and analyses the operations of socio-economic enterprises that are involved in the reuse of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment. Using findings from a survey, the paper specifically analyses the reuse activities of socio-economic enterprises in the UK from which Europe-wide conclusions are drawn. The amount of ICT products handled by the reuse organisations is quantified and potential barriers and opportunities to their operations are analysed. By-products from reuse activities are discussed and recommendations to improve reuse activities are provided. The most common ICT products dealt with by socio-economic enterprises are computers and related equipment. In the UK in 2010, an estimated 143,750 appliances were reused. However, due to limitations in data, it is difficult to compare this number to the amount of new appliances that entered the UK market or the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment generated in the same period. Difficulties in marketing products and numerous legislative requirements are the most common barriers to reuse operations. Despite various constraints, it is clear that organisations involved in reuse of ICT could contribute significantly to resource efficiency and a circular economy. It is suggested that clustering of their operations into “reuse parks” would enhance both their profile and their

  3. Integrating Remote Sensing Data with Socioeconomic Data: Sensitivity, Confidentiality, Privacy, and Intellectual Property Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downs, R. R.; Adamo, S. B.

    2014-12-01

    The integration of remote sensing data with socioeconomic data presents new opportunities for scientific discovery and analysis that can improve understanding of the environmental sustainability issues that society faces today. Such integrated data products and services can be used to study interdisciplinary issues by investigators representing various disciplines. In addition to the scientific benefits that can be attained by integrating remote sensing data with socioeconomic data, the integration of these data also present challenges that reflect the complex issues that arise when sharing and integrating different types of science data. When integrating one or more datasets that contain sensitive information, data producers need to be aware of the limitations that have been placed upon the data to protect private property, species or other inhabitants that reside on the property, or restricted information about a particular location. Similarly, confidentiality and privacy issues are a concern for data that have been collected about individual humans and families who have volunteered to serve as human research subjects or whose personal information may have been collected without their knowledge. In addition, intellectual property rights that are associated with a particular dataset may prevent integration with other data or pose constraints on the use of the resulting data products or services. These challenges will be described along with approaches that can be applied to address them when planning projects that involve the integration of remote sensing data with socioeconomic data.

  4. What is the impact of socio-economic inequalities on the use of mental health services?

    PubMed

    Amaddeo, Francesco; Jones, Julia

    2007-01-01

    Amartya Sen, who received the Nobel Prize for Economics, has demonstrated that the incidence of deprivation, in terms of capability, can be surprisingly high even in the most developed countries of the world. The study of socio-economic inequalities, in relation to the utilisation of health services, is a priority for epidemiological research. Socio-economic status (SES) has no universal definition. Within the international research literature, SES has been related to social class, social position, occupational status, educational attainment, income, wealth and standard of living. Existing research studies have shown that people from a more deprived social background, with a lower SES, are more likely to have a higher psychiatric morbidity. Many studies show that SES influences psychiatric services utilization, however the real factors linking SES and mental health services utilisation remain unclear. In this editorial we discuss what is currently known about the relationship between SES and the use of mental health services. We also make an argument for why we believe there is still much to uncover in this field, to understand fully how individuals are influenced by their personal socio-economic status, or the neighbourhood in which they live, in terms of their use of mental health services. Further research in this area will help clarify what interventions are required to provide greater equality in access to mental health services.

  5. Adding socioeconomic data to hospital readmissions calculations may produce more useful results.

    PubMed

    Nagasako, Elna M; Reidhead, Mat; Waterman, Brian; Dunagan, W Claiborne

    2014-05-01

    To better understand the degree to which risk-standardized thirty-day readmission rates may be influenced by social factors, we compared results for hospitals in Missouri under two types of models. The first type of model is currently used by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services for public reporting of condition-specific hospital readmission rates of Medicare patients. The second type of model is an "enriched" version of the first type of model with census tract-level socioeconomic data, such as poverty rate, educational attainment, and housing vacancy rate. We found that the inclusion of these factors had a pronounced effect on calculated hospital readmission rates for patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia. Specifically, the models including socioeconomic data narrowed the range of observed variation in readmission rates for the above conditions, in percentage points, from 6.5 to 1.8, 14.0 to 7.4, and 7.4 to 3.7, respectively. Interestingly, the average readmission rates for the three conditions did not change significantly between the two types of models. The results of our exploratory analysis suggest that further work to characterize and report the effects of socioeconomic factors on standardized readmission measures may assist efforts to improve care quality and deliver more equitable care on the part of hospitals, payers, and other stakeholders. PMID:24799575

  6. Gender, socioeconomic status, and self-rated health in a transitional middle-income setting: evidence from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Kelly, Matthew James; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Sleigh, Adrian C

    2011-09-01

    Poor self-rated health (SRH) correlates strongly with mortality. In developed countries, women generally report worse SRH than males. Few studies have reported on SRH in developing countries. The authors report on SRH in Thailand, a middle-income developing country.The data were derived from a large nationwide cohort of 87 134 adult Open University students (54% female, median age 29 years). The authors included questions on socioeconomic and demographic factors that could influence SRH. The Thai cohort in this study mirrors patterns found in developed countries, with females reporting more frequent "poor" or "very poor" SRH (odds ratio = 1.35; 95% confidence interval = 1.26-1.44). Cohort males had better SRH than females, but levels were more sensitive to socioeconomic status. Income and education had little influence on SRH for females. Among educated Thai adults, females rate their health to be worse than males, and unlike males, this perception is relatively unaffected by socioeconomic status.

  7. First car-to-car crashes involving young adult drivers: main patterns and their relation to car and driver characteristics.

    PubMed

    Laflamme, L; Hasselberg, M; Kullgren, A; Vaez, M

    2006-09-01

    The primary objective of the study was to examine the relationship between patterns in car-to-car crashes involving young drivers and car and driver characteristics and the research design was a national register-based prospective cohort study. Individual records in a cohort born 1970-1972 are linked to road-traffic-crash data (1988-2000). Subjects' first police-registered two-car crash leading to severe or fatal injury (n = 4875) are identified. Typical crash patterns are highlighted and associations between pattern and both car and individual socio-demographic characteristics are tested. Four crash patterns are highlighted. Male drivers and those with lower educational attainment are over-represented in all patterns. Pattern-based risk levels vary considerably according to car safety level and driver's age at time of injury and socio-economic status. Crash patterns might be considered in young adult driver education systems, bearing in mind the consistent higher risks of male drivers and of drivers with lower educational attainment. PMID:16943161

  8. Neighborhood socioeconomic status, depression, and health status in the Look AHEAD (Action for health in diabetes) study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Depression and diminished health status are common in adults with diabetes, but few studies have investigated associations with socio-economic environment. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood-level SES and health status and depression. Individual-le...

  9. The Importance of Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood for Adulthood Socioeconomic Status, Mental Health, and Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinstein, Leon; Bynner, John

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which continuities and discontinuities in cognitive performance between ages 5 and 10 predicted adult income, educational success, household worklessness, criminality, teen parenthood, smoking, and depression. Assessed were the degree of this change during middle childhood, the influence of socioeconomic status…

  10. Effects of Respondents' Socioeconomic Status and Timing and Amount of Incentive Payment on Mailed Questionnaire Response Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parthasarathy, Anuradha; And Others

    The study examined how response rate to a mailed questionnaire was influenced by the socioeconomic status (SES) of respondents (high, middle, or low); amount of payment of a monetary incentive (none, $1, or $2); and time of payment (prepaid or promised on return of the completed questionnaire). Subjects were 125 adults in Cache County, Utah at…

  11. Socioeconomic Status and Cultural Influences on Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, E.; Tian, C.

    2005-01-01

    Two studies track connections from the distal variables of socioeconomic status (SES) and culture to properties of the interactions children experience and to the rate of children's language development. The first study is an investigation of the relations among family SES, properties of maternal child-directed speech, and child vocabulary growth…

  12. A Study of Suicide and Socioeconomic Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ying, Yung-hsiang; Chang, Koyin

    2009-01-01

    The topic of suicide has long been an important socioeconomic issue studied in many countries. Suicides inject an atmosphere of unrest into society, and media attention furthers that social uneasiness. From the viewpoint of economics and management, suicide is a waste of human resource: it decreases the labor force in society and deteriorates…

  13. Socioeconomic Disparities Affect Prefrontal Function in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kishiyama, Mark M.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Jimenez, Amy M.; Perry, Lee M.; Knight, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Social inequalities have profound effects on the physical and mental health of children. Children from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds perform below children from higher SES backgrounds on tests of intelligence and academic achievement, and recent findings indicate that low SES (LSES) children are impaired on behavioral measures of…

  14. Socio-Economic Diversity and Mathematical Competences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiel, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) has proved that in Germany the impact that socio-economic background has on 15-year-old pupils' achievement is stronger than in other countries. The Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) showed that the correlation is less with 10-year-old children, but is still apparent.…

  15. Socioeconomic Heterogeneity of Mining-Dependent Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, Mark; Luloff, A. E.

    1993-01-01

    Although the socioeconomic well-being of all U.S. mining-dependent counties was slightly above the national average in 1990, disaggregation reveals substantial effects of region and mining subsector. In particular, southern and Great Lakes coal-mining counties had significantly lower high school graduation rates and higher poverty and unemployment…

  16. Socioeconomic Status, Parenting, and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H., Ed.; Bradley, Robert H., Ed.

    Noting that there is near universal agreement that children from families with higher socioeconomic status (SES) have access to more of the resources needed to support their positive development than do lower SES children, this monograph examines the myriad questions remaining regarding relations among SES, parenting, and child development from a…

  17. Modeling Socioeconomic Status Effects on Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Michael S. C.; Forrester, Neil A.; Ronald, Angelica

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is an important environmental predictor of language and cognitive development, but the causal pathways by which it operates are unclear. We used a computational model of development to explore the adequacy of manipulations of environmental information to simulate SES effects in English past-tense acquisition, in a data…

  18. College Enhancement Strategies and Socioeconomic Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolniak, Gregory C.; Wells, Ryan S.; Engberg, Mark E.; Manly, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    The study provides new information on the relationships between students' socioeconomic backgrounds, utilization of college enhancement strategies, and subsequent 4-year college enrollment. Enhancement strategies represent student behaviors used to bolster the competitiveness of a college application, such as Advanced Placement exams and a variety…

  19. Wing design with attainable thrust considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, H. W.; Shrout, B. L.; Darden, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    A CAD process that includes leading-edge thrust considerations for wings with high aerodynamic efficiencies is outlined. Rectangular grids are used for evaluation of both subsonic and supersonic pressure loadings. Account is taken of the Mach number, Re, the wing planform, the presence of camber, the airfoil geometry and the locations and forces induced by shed vortices. Optimization techniques are applied to the candidate surfaces in order to consider the attainable thrust. Inclusion of the optimization techniques permits analyses of mission-adaptive wings and various flap systems and the elimination of singularities in the flight envelope.

  20. Adult Books for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Considers the differences between young adult and adult books and maintains that teachers must be familiar with young adults' tastes for both. Suggests that traffic between these publishing divisions is a two-way street, with young adults reading adult books and adults reading young adult books. (TB)

  1. Educational attainment, occupational history, and stratification: determinants of later-life economic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Crystal, S; Shea, D; Krishnaswami, S

    1992-09-01

    Determinants of economic well-being among men 25-44, 45-64, and 65+ were examined using data from the 1984 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation. A path analysis explored race, education, and occupational history effects on income adjusted for annuitized assets, household composition, and underreporting of unearned income. Direct and total education effects were undiminished among elderly persons, whose income derived mainly from benefits and assets, as compared with the nonelderly subjects whose income was dominated by earnings; education explained more of the variance in adjusted income for the elderly group than for the nonelderly. While Social Security income exerts an equalizing effect across educational attainment groups, private pensions and other important retirement income sources were highly education-dependent, producing a high overall degree of stratification on early-established socioeconomic characteristics.

  2. Educational stratification by ethnicity in China: enrollment and attainment in the early reform years.

    PubMed

    Hannum, Emily

    2002-02-01

    Using evidence about educational disparities, this article demonstrates the need for attention to minority populations in studies of social stratification in China. Analyses of data from a 1992 survey of children demonstrate substantial ethnic differences in enrollment among rural 7- to 14 year olds, with rates for ethnic Chinese boys roughly double those for girls from certain ethnic groups. Multivariate analyses indicate that the ethnic gap can be attributed, in part, to compositional differences in geographic location of residence and socioeconomic background. There is no general tendency of a greater gender gap for minorities than for the ethnic Chinese, but significant differences in the gender gap emerge across individual ethnic groups. Together with evidence from census data showing that ethnic disparities in junior high school transitions increased between 1982 and 1990, these results stress the continuing significance of ethnicity as a fundamental factor that conditions status attainment opportunities in China.

  3. "Geography of suicide in Hong Kong: spatial patterning, and socioeconomic correlates and inequalities".

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia-Yueh; Chang, Shu-Sen; Lee, Esther S T; Yip, Paul S F

    2015-04-01

    Past urban research on Western nations tends to show high suicide rates in inner city and socioeconomically deprived areas. However, little is known about geographic variations in suicide in non-Western cities. We used Bayesian hierarchical models to estimate smoothed standardised mortality ratios (2005-2010) for suicide in people aged 10 years or above in each geographic unit in Hong Kong at two levels, i.e. large street block (n = 1639; median population = 1860) and small tertiary planning unit group (n = 204; median population = 14,850). We further analysed their associations with a range of area socioeconomic characteristics and a deprivation index. The "city centre" of Hong Kong, a generally non-deprived area, showed mostly below average suicide rates. However, there were high rates concentrating in some socioeconomically deprived, densely populated areas, including some inner city areas, across the city. Males had greater geographic variations in rates than females, except the elderly group. The use of smaller geographic units revealed finer detailed suicide distribution than the use of larger units, and showed that suicide rates were associated with indicators of socioeconomic deprivation (population with non-professional jobs and low median household income), and social fragmentation (proportions of unmarried adults and divorced/separated adults), but not with Gini coefficient. Sex/age groups had different associations with suicide rates. Areas in the most deprived quintile had a suicide rate more than two times higher than the least deprived. The association between suicide and deprivation was stronger in males than females and more marked in the younger populations compared to the elderly. The spatial distribution of suicide in Hong Kong showed distinct patterning and a stronger association with income compared to findings from Western countries. Suicide prevention strategies should consider tackling the marked socioeconomic gradient in suicide and high

  4. "Geography of suicide in Hong Kong: spatial patterning, and socioeconomic correlates and inequalities".

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia-Yueh; Chang, Shu-Sen; Lee, Esther S T; Yip, Paul S F

    2015-04-01

    Past urban research on Western nations tends to show high suicide rates in inner city and socioeconomically deprived areas. However, little is known about geographic variations in suicide in non-Western cities. We used Bayesian hierarchical models to estimate smoothed standardised mortality ratios (2005-2010) for suicide in people aged 10 years or above in each geographic unit in Hong Kong at two levels, i.e. large street block (n = 1639; median population = 1860) and small tertiary planning unit group (n = 204; median population = 14,850). We further analysed their associations with a range of area socioeconomic characteristics and a deprivation index. The "city centre" of Hong Kong, a generally non-deprived area, showed mostly below average suicide rates. However, there were high rates concentrating in some socioeconomically deprived, densely populated areas, including some inner city areas, across the city. Males had greater geographic variations in rates than females, except the elderly group. The use of smaller geographic units revealed finer detailed suicide distribution than the use of larger units, and showed that suicide rates were associated with indicators of socioeconomic deprivation (population with non-professional jobs and low median household income), and social fragmentation (proportions of unmarried adults and divorced/separated adults), but not with Gini coefficient. Sex/age groups had different associations with suicide rates. Areas in the most deprived quintile had a suicide rate more than two times higher than the least deprived. The association between suicide and deprivation was stronger in males than females and more marked in the younger populations compared to the elderly. The spatial distribution of suicide in Hong Kong showed distinct patterning and a stronger association with income compared to findings from Western countries. Suicide prevention strategies should consider tackling the marked socioeconomic gradient in suicide and high

  5. Socioeconomic Status Modifies the Seasonal Effect on Blood Pressure: Findings From a National Panel Study.

    PubMed

    Cois, Annibale; Ehrlich, Rodney

    2015-09-01

    Seasonal variations in blood pressure have been consistently reported. However, uncertainty remains about the size of the seasonal effect in different regions, and about factors that explain the differences observed across and within populations. Using data from a national panel study, we investigated seasonal variations in blood pressure in the South African adult population, and whether these variations differed across socioeconomic strata.We estimated age-specific seasonal effects on blood pressure using a multilevel structural equation model, with repeated measurements nested within subjects. Effect modification by socioeconomic status was assessed by repeating the analyses in the subpopulations defined by levels of education, household income per capita, and type of housing.In men and women, season had a statistically significant effect on blood pressure, with higher levels in winter and lower levels in summer. For systolic blood pressure, the magnitude of the seasonal effect was 4.25/4.21 mmHg (women/men) and was higher in the older age groups. For diastolic blood pressure, the effect size was 4.00/4.01 mmHg, with no evident age trend. Seasonal effects were higher among subjects in the lowest socioeconomic classes than in the highest, with differences between 2.4 and 7.7 mmHg, depending on gender, whether systolic or diastolic blood pressure, and socioeconomic status indicator.In the South African adult population, blood pressure shows seasonal variation modified by age and socioeconomic status. These variations have epidemiological, clinical, and public health implications, including the prospect of population level intervention to reduce elevated risk of cold weather cardiovascular morbidity.

  6. Health literacy among adults in Yazd, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Haerian, Ahmad; Moghaddam, Mohammad Hossein Baghiayni; Ehrampoush, Mohammad Hassan; Bazm, Soheila; Bahsoun, Maryam Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this survey was to assess the health literacy levels and determine the relationship between health literacy with demographic variables and the socioeconomic status Three hundred and eighty adults, 18 years and older, were randomly selected and assessed by the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) instrument in two sections of reading comprehension and numeracy. The second instrument used to detect the relationship between the demographic variables and socio-economic status and the level of health literacy of the subjects of adults in Yazd district. Three hundred and eighty adults, 18 years and older, were randomly selected and assessed by the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) instrument in two sections of reading comprehension and numeracy. The second instrument used to detect the relationship between the demographic variables and socio-economic status and the level of health literacy of the subjects. The mean score of a participant's health literacy was 73.33 ± 1.29. Fifty-four percent of the individuals had adequate health literacy and the rest of them had limited health literacy. The mean score of functional health literacy was significantly different by socio-economic status (p0.05) and the years of schooling (P = 0.00). On the basis of linear regression, in this research, the years of schooling (B0.28, p0.01) and marital status (B = 3.08, p0.05) were two predictors of health literacy. PMID:27462633

  7. The Socioeconomic status of children with epilepsy in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Chomba, Elwyn; Haworth, Alan; Atadzhanov, Masharip; Mbewe, Edward; Birbeck, Gretchen L.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Epilepsy is a highly stigmatized disorder in Zambia. Adult studies indicated that adults with epilepsy in many regions have significantly lower socioeconomic status (SES) than their peers. We conducted a case-control study of Zambian children with epilepsy (CWE) to assess the SES of CWE. 98 child pairs were recruited (n=196), mean age 10.8 yrs, 59.7% male. The comparison group’s medical conditions included asthma (54.0%), rheumatic heart disease (26.6%), type 1 diabetes (14.2%), and hypertension (5.2%). Compared to children with non-stigmatized chronic medical conditions, CWE have fewer educational opportunities, more environmental hazards, and poorer food quality and security (all p’s<0.05). These deprivations may be related to lost maternal income from mothers who deferred employment so they could remain at home to care for the child. These early deprivations have long-term implications for health and well-being. Healthcare workers and child advocates need to be aware of the circumstances facing CWE in this region. PMID:18602496

  8. Assessment of adolescents' motivation for educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Cham, Heining; Hughes, Jan N; West, Stephen G; Im, Myung Hee

    2014-06-01

    The Adolescent Motivation for Educational Attainment Questionnaire is a 32-item questionnaire (we drew 20 items from 3 subscales of the Educational Motivation Questionnaire; Murdock, 1999) that was developed to measure multiple potential dimensions of adolescents' motivation to complete high school and enroll in post-secondary education, including competence and effort beliefs; perceived value of education; and peer, teacher, and parent support for educational attainment. We assessed a multiethnic sample (N = 569) of low-achieving students who started 1st grade together in 1 urban and 2 small city school districts. Participants were assessed over 2 consecutive years (Grades 8 and 9 given prior grade retention, or Grades 9 and 10 if not retained). Exploratory factor analyses identified 4 correlated dimensions underlying the questionnaire responses. Subsequent confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a bifactor model, which includes a general factor of students' basic educational motivation, and specific factors of (a) teacher educational expectations, (b) peer aspirations, and (c) value of education. Measurement invariance of the bifactor model was established across students' gender and ethnicity (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic) and year of testing. Criterion-related validity of the general and specific factors with students' school belonging, student-teacher warmth and conflict, disciplinary practices, letter grade, conduct problems, and behavioral engagement was examined. Practical implications of the measure are discussed.

  9. Assessment of Adolescents’ Motivation for Educational Attainment

    PubMed Central

    Cham, Heining; Hughes, Jan N.; West, Stephen G.; Im, Myung Hee

    2015-01-01

    The Adolescent Motivation for Educational Attainment Questionnaire is a 32-item questionnaire (we drew 20 items from 3 subscales of the Educational Motivation Questionnaire; Murdock, 1999) that was developed to measure multiple potential dimensions of adolescents’ motivation to complete high school and enroll in post-secondary education, including competence and effort beliefs; perceived value of education; and peer, teacher, and parent support for educational attainment. We assessed a multiethnic sample (N = 569) of low-achieving students who started 1st grade together in 1 urban and 2 small city school districts. Participants were assessed over 2 consecutive years (Grades 8 and 9 given prior grade retention, or Grades 9 and 10 if not retained). Exploratory factor analyses identified 4 correlated dimensions underlying the questionnaire responses. Subsequent confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a bifactor model, which includes a general factor of students’ basic educational motivation, and specific factors of (a) teacher educational expectations, (b) peer aspirations, and (c) value of education. Measurement invariance of the bifactor model was established across students’ gender and ethnicity (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic) and year of testing. Criterion-related validity of the general and specific factors with students’ school belonging, student–teacher warmth and conflict, disciplinary practices, letter grade, conduct problems, and behavioral engagement was examined. Practical implications of the measure are discussed. PMID:24588748

  10. Effects of Individual, Spousal, and Offspring Socioeconomic Status on Mortality Among Elderly People in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lei; Martikainen, Pekka; Silventoinen, Karri

    2016-01-01

    Background The relationship between socio-economic status and health among elderly people has been well studied, but less is known about how spousal or offspring’s education affects mortality, especially in non-Western countries. We investigated these associations using a large sample of Chinese elderly. Methods The data came from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) from the years 2005 to 2011 (n = 15 355, aged 65–105 years at baseline; 5046 died in 2008, and 2224 died in 2011). Educational attainment, occupational status, and household income per capita were used as indicators of socio-economic status. Spousal and offspring’s education were added into the final models. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to study mortality risk by gender. Results Adjusted for age, highly educated males and females had, on average, 29% and 37% lower mortality risk, respectively, than those with a lower education. Particularly among men, this effect was observed among those whose children had intermediate education only. A higher household income was also associated with lower mortality risk among the elderly. Male elderly living with a well-educated spouse (HR 0.79; 95% CI, 0.64–0.99) had a lower mortality risk than those living with a low-educated spouse. Conclusions Both the socio-economic status of the individual and the educational level of a co-resident spouse or child are associated with mortality risk in elderly people. The socio-economic position of family members plays an important role in producing health inequality among elderly people. PMID:27150012

  11. Gender differences in socioeconomic returns to family migration in Malaysia: the role of family decision making versus labor market stratification.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, A

    2000-01-01

    In this article the author examines gender differences in the effect of family migration on socioeconomic attainment in Malaysia. The analysis discerns the relative importance of gender roles in household migration decisions, compared to gender stratification in the labor market. The Malaysian economy has undergone rapid industrialization and great structural changes which have opened up new economic opportunities, particularly for women. Despite the somewhat advantaged position of women compared to men in the Malaysian labor market, the author finds that men experience much greater socioeconomic gains than women from family migration. Hence indicating that family migration decisions in Malaysia, rather than optimizing family gains, compensate for the gender effect in the labor market. However, the gains of Malaysian men are more assured when they move alone. Data for the study come from the second round of the Malaysian Family Life Survey.

  12. In utero exposure to the Korean War and its long-term effects on socioeconomic and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chulhee

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to the disruptions caused by the Korean War (1950-1953) negatively affected the individual socioeconomic and health outcomes at older ages. The educational attainment, labor market performance, and other socioeconomic outcomes of the subjects of the 1951 birth cohort, who were in utero during the worst time of the war, were significantly lower in 1990 and in 2000. The results of difference-in-difference estimations suggest that the magnitude of the negative cohort effect is significantly larger for individuals who were more seriously traumatized by the war. Whereas the 1950 male birth cohort exhibited significantly higher disability and mortality rates at older age, the health outcomes of females are unaffected by the war. Different aspects of human capital (e.g., health and cognitive skills) were impaired by in utero exposure to the war, depending on the stage of pregnancy when the negative shocks were experienced.

  13. Gender differences in socioeconomic returns to family migration in Malaysia: the role of family decision making versus labor market stratification.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, A

    2000-01-01

    In this article the author examines gender differences in the effect of family migration on socioeconomic attainment in Malaysia. The analysis discerns the relative importance of gender roles in household migration decisions, compared to gender stratification in the labor market. The Malaysian economy has undergone rapid industrialization and great structural changes which have opened up new economic opportunities, particularly for women. Despite the somewhat advantaged position of women compared to men in the Malaysian labor market, the author finds that men experience much greater socioeconomic gains than women from family migration. Hence indicating that family migration decisions in Malaysia, rather than optimizing family gains, compensate for the gender effect in the labor market. However, the gains of Malaysian men are more assured when they move alone. Data for the study come from the second round of the Malaysian Family Life Survey. PMID:12296212

  14. ICT reuse in socio-economic enterprises.

    PubMed

    Ongondo, F O; Williams, I D; Dietrich, J; Carroll, C

    2013-12-01

    In Europe, socio-economic enterprises such as charities, voluntary organisations and not-for-profit companies are involved in the repair, refurbishment and reuse of various products. This paper characterises and analyses the operations of socio-economic enterprises that are involved in the reuse of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment. Using findings from a survey, the paper specifically analyses the reuse activities of socio-economic enterprises in the U.K. from which Europe-wide conclusions are drawn. The amount of ICT products handled by the reuse organisations is quantified and potential barriers and opportunities to their operations are analysed. By-products from reuse activities are discussed and recommendations to improve reuse activities are provided. The most common ICT products dealt with by socio-economic enterprises are computers and related equipment. In the U.K. in 2010, an estimated 143,750 appliances were reused. However, due to limitations in data, it is difficult to compare this number to the amount of new appliances that entered the U.K. market or the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment generated in the same period. Difficulties in marketing products and numerous legislative requirements are the most common barriers to reuse operations. Despite various constraints, it is clear that organisations involved in reuse of ICT could contribute significantly to resource efficiency and a circular economy. It is suggested that clustering of their operations into "reuse parks" would enhance both their profile and their products. Reuse parks would also improve consumer confidence in and subsequently sales of the products. Further, it is advocated that industrial networking opportunities for the exchange of by-products resulting from the organisations' activities should be investigated. The findings make two significant contributions to the current literature. One, they provide a detailed insight into the reuse operations

  15. ICT reuse in socio-economic enterprises.

    PubMed

    Ongondo, F O; Williams, I D; Dietrich, J; Carroll, C

    2013-12-01

    In Europe, socio-economic enterprises such as charities, voluntary organisations and not-for-profit companies are involved in the repair, refurbishment and reuse of various products. This paper characterises and analyses the operations of socio-economic enterprises that are involved in the reuse of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment. Using findings from a survey, the paper specifically analyses the reuse activities of socio-economic enterprises in the U.K. from which Europe-wide conclusions are drawn. The amount of ICT products handled by the reuse organisations is quantified and potential barriers and opportunities to their operations are analysed. By-products from reuse activities are discussed and recommendations to improve reuse activities are provided. The most common ICT products dealt with by socio-economic enterprises are computers and related equipment. In the U.K. in 2010, an estimated 143,750 appliances were reused. However, due to limitations in data, it is difficult to compare this number to the amount of new appliances that entered the U.K. market or the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment generated in the same period. Difficulties in marketing products and numerous legislative requirements are the most common barriers to reuse operations. Despite various constraints, it is clear that organisations involved in reuse of ICT could contribute significantly to resource efficiency and a circular economy. It is suggested that clustering of their operations into "reuse parks" would enhance both their profile and their products. Reuse parks would also improve consumer confidence in and subsequently sales of the products. Further, it is advocated that industrial networking opportunities for the exchange of by-products resulting from the organisations' activities should be investigated. The findings make two significant contributions to the current literature. One, they provide a detailed insight into the reuse operations

  16. Family socioeconomic status, family health, and changes in students' math achievement across high school: A mediational model.

    PubMed

    Barr, Ashley Brooke

    2015-09-01

    In response to recent calls to integrate understandings of socioeconomic disparities in health with understandings of socioeconomic disparities in academic achievement, this study tested a mediational model whereby family socioeconomic status predicted gains in academic achievement across high school through its impact on both student and parent health. Data on over 8000 high school students in the U.S. were obtained from wave 1 (2009-2010) and wave 2 (2012) of the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09), and structural equation modeling with latent difference scores was used to determine the role of family health problems in mediating the well-established link between family SES and gains in academic achievement. Using both static and dynamic indicators of family SES, support was found for this mediational model. Higher family SES in 9th grade reduced the probability of students and their parents experiencing a serious health problem in high school, thereby promoting growth in academic achievement. In addition, parent and student health problems mediated the effect of changes in family SES across high school on math achievement gains. Results emphasize the importance of considering the dynamic nature of SES and that both student and parent health should be considered in understanding SES-related disparities in academic achievement. This relational process provides new mechanisms for understanding the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status and the status attainment process more broadly.

  17. Variation of socioeconomic gradients in children's developmental health across advanced Capitalist societies: analysis of 22 OECD nations.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Arjumand; Kawachi, Ichiro; Berkman, Lisa; Subramanian, S V; Hertzman, Clyde

    2007-01-01

    Within societies, there is a well-established relation between socioeconomic position and a wide range of outcomes related to well-being, and this relation is known to vary in magnitude across countries. Using a large sample of nations, the authors explored whether differences in social policies explain differences in socioeconomic gradients across nations. Analyses were conducted on reading literacy in 15-year-olds, as an outcome related to cognitive development and to a host of factors that contribute to future well-being, including educational attainment and health. The results show a systematic variation in socioeconomic gradients and average scores across countries. Scores were favorable in countries with a long history of welfare state regimes, but countries where institutional change unfolded more recently and rapidly, or where welfare states are less well developed, clustered at the bottom of the rankings. Strong support was found for the "flattening up" hypothesis, which suggests that nations with higher average scores have less socioeconomic inequality in scores (or flatter gradients). Potential explanations for the observed patterns include differences between nations in the extent and distribution of income and social goods important for children's development.

  18. Understanding the relationship between socioeconomic status, smoking cessation services provided by the health system and smoking cessation behavior in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Szklo, André Salem; Thrasher, James F; Perez, Cristina; Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Fong, Geoffrey; Almeida, Liz Maria de

    2013-03-01

    Increasing the effectiveness of smoking cessation policies requires greater consideration of the cultural and socioeconomic complexities of smoking. The purpose of this paper is to explore the association between socioeconomic status and "selected midpoints" linked to smoking cessation in Brazil. Data was collected from a representative sample of urban adult smokers as part of the ITC-Brazil Survey (2009, N = 1,215). After controlling for age and gender, there were no statistically significant differences quit attempts in the last six months between individuals with different socioeconomic status. However, smokers with high socioeconomic status visited a doctor 1.54 times more often than those with low socioeconomic status (p-value = 0.017), and were also 1.65 times more likely to receive advice to quit smoking (p-value = 0.025). Our results demonstrate that disparities in health and socioeconomic status are still a major challenge for policymakers to increase the population impact of tobacco control actions worldwide.

  19. Socioeconomic and Psychosocial Predictors of Interleukin-6 in the MIDUS National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Morozink, Jennifer A.; Friedman, Elliot M.; Coe, Christopher L.; Ryff, Carol D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether psychosocial factors (i.e., depression, anxiety, and well-being) moderate educational gradients in interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels using data from the Survey of Mid-life Development in the U.S. (MIDUS). The influences of educational attainment and psychosocial factors on IL-6 in middle aged and older adults were also examined. Design Telephone interviews and mail surveys were utilized to collect educational attainment and psychosocial information from participants (N = 1028). Respondents also participated in an overnight clinic visit, during which health information and a fasting blood sample was obtained. Main Outcome Measures Serum levels of IL-6. Results . Greater educational attainment predicted lower levels of IL-6 independent of age and gender, although this effect was attenuated after taking health behaviors, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and chronic illnesses into account. Psychological well-being interacted with education to predict IL-6, such that for those with less education, higher well-being was associated with lower levels of IL-6. Conclusion The findings indicate a strong association between education and inflammation, which can be further moderated by psychosocial factors. The health benefits associated with psychological well-being were particularly evident for individuals with low educational attainment. PMID:20954777

  20. Use of the Brazilian People’s Pharmacy Program by older adults

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Vanessa Iribarrem Avena; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal; Meucci, Rodrigo Dalke; Lutz, Bárbara Heather

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence and factors associated with the use of the expanded Brazilian People’s Pharmacy Program among older adults and the reasons for not using it. METHODS In this population-based cross-sectional study conducted in the urban area of Pelotas, RS, Southern Brazil, we evaluated 1,305 older adults (aged 60 years or over) who had used medication in the last 15 days. Independent variables were socioeconomic factors, economic status, household income in minimum wages, educational attainment in years of schooling and occupational status. Demographic variables were sex, age, marital status, and self-reported skin color/race. Poisson regression was employed to analyze the factors associated with the use of the program. RESULTS The prevalence of use was 57.0% whilst the prevalence of knowledge of the program was 87.0%. In individuals aged 80 years or over, use of the program was 41.0%. As to the origin of the prescriptions used by older adults, 46.0% were from the Brazilian Unified Health System. The main reasons for not using the program were: difficulty in getting prescriptions, medication shortage, and ignorance about the medications offered and about the program. Higher age, lower income, presence of chronic diseases, and use of four or more medications were associated with use of the program. CONCLUSIONS It is necessary to expand the knowledge and use of the Brazilian People’s Pharmacy Program, especially among older adults, and to improve the dissemination of its list of medications to users and physicians. Thus it will be possible to reduce spending on long-term medications, which are especially important for this population. PMID:27143613

  1. Making a place in the metropolis: locational attainment in cities and suburbs.

    PubMed

    Logan, J R; Alba, R D; McNulty, T; Fisher, B

    1996-11-01

    What accounts for the differences in the kinds of communities within the metropolis in which members of different racial and ethnic groups live? Do socioeconomic advancement and acculturation provide greater integration with whites or access to more desirable locations for minority-group members? Are these effects the same for Asians or Hispanics as for blacks? Does suburbanization offer a step toward greater equality in the housing market, or do minorities find greater discrimination in the suburban housing market? Data from 1980 for five large metropolitan regions are used to estimate "locational-attainment models," which evaluate the effects of group members' individual attributes on two measures of the character of their living environment: the socioeconomic standing (median household income) and racial composition (proportion non-Hispanic white) of the census tract where they reside. Separate models predict these outcomes for whites, blacks, Hispanics, and Asians. Net of the effects of individuals' background characteristics, whites live in census tracts with the highest average proportion of white residents and the highest median household income. They are followed by Asians and Hispanics, and-at substantially lower levels-blacks. Large overall differences exist between city and suburban locations; yet the gap between whites and others is consistently lower in the suburbs than in the cities of these five metropolitan regions.

  2. Educational Justice and Socio-Economic Segregation in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brighouse, Harry

    2007-01-01

    Sociologists exploring educational injustice often focus on socio-economic segregation as a central measure of injustice. The comprehensive ideal, furthermore, has the idea of socio-economic integration built into it. The current paper argues that socio-economic segregation is valuable only insofar as it serves other, more fundamental values. This…

  3. Socio-Economic Characteristics in Notified Erythema Migrans Patients

    PubMed Central

    SOČAN, Maja; BLAŠKO-MARKIČ, Mateja; ERČULJ, Vanja; LAJOVIC, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Background Lyme borreliosis disease results from infection by members of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The most common clinical presentation of Lyme borreliosis is erythema migrans (EM). To gain knowledge of the epidemiological parameters and the risk factors of EM in Slovenia, a survey has been carried out in 2010. Methods A short anonymous and self-administrated questionnaire was sent to 4917 notified EM patients in 2010, aiming to collect epidemiological data and assess socio-economic determinants in patients with EM. Results Three thousand and five (61%) patients with EM returned completed questionnaires. One thousand and nine hundred twenty-nine (74%) patients noted the tick where the EM developed. The tick bite was most often located on the legs in adults and in the head/neck area in children. The time that elapsed before the tick has been removed increased significantly with age. The attached tick was most frequently overlooked in preschool children. Nearly 70% of patients believed that they contracted the infection with borrelia near home. Infection away from their permanent residence was more often the case in those with a higher level of education and in 15–49 age groups. Compared to the Slovenian general population over 14 years of age, those with a higher level of education, the unemployed and farmers were overrepresented among the EM patients. Conclusions The risk of Lyme borreliosis is widespread in Slovenia, with some areas more affected then others. Determinants of exposure to infected ticks are different, and depend on the socio-economic status and demographic characteristics. PMID:27647412

  4. Information for Innovation and Socioeconomic Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, F.; Stewart, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation reviews and extends the results of a workshop held in Florence, Italy in June 2013. This was the latest in a series of workshops on the 'Socioeconomic Benefits of Environmental Information'. The focus of this workshops included: 1. Information (Earth Observation, geospatial data, community generated data) as a driver for economic and social development, including measures of well-being that move beyond GDP as an indicator 2. Economic impact of innovations stemming from Open Data and the re-use of Public Sector Information 3. Importance of communications to reach across disciplines from scientists to citizen-scientists to end-users. Keynote addresses highlighted the state of the art, in this multi-disciplinary field and introduced the three themes above. The workshop included several panel discussions addressing key approaches to analyzing and understanding socioeconomic impacts. . This presentation extracts the key elements from the discussions and analyzes paths forward for improved impact assessments.

  5. Socio-economic inequality and HIV in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The linkage between the socio-economic inequality and HIV outcomes was analysed using data from a population-based household survey that employed multistage-stratified sampling. The goal is to help refocus attention on how HIV is linked to inequalities. Methods A socio-economic index (SEI) score, derived using Multiple Correspondence Analysis of measures of ownership of durable assets, was used to generate three SEI groups: Low (poorest), Middle, and Upper (no so poor). Distribution of HIV outcomes (i.e. HIV prevalence, access to HIV/AIDS information, level of stigma towards HIV/AIDS, perceived HIV risk and sexual behaviour) across the SEI groups, and other background characteristics was assessed using weighted data. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the covariates of the HIV outcomes across the socio-economic groups. The study sample include 14,384 adults 15 years and older. Results More women (57.5%) than men (42.3%) were found in the poor SEI [P<0.001]. HIV prevalence was highest among the poor (20.8%) followed by those in the middle (15.9%) and those in the upper SEI (4.6%) [P<0.001]. It was also highest among women compared to men (19.7% versus 11.4% respectively) and among black Africans (20.2%) compared to other races [P<0.001]. Individuals in the upper SEI reported higher frequency of HIV testing (59.3%) compared to the low SEI (47.7%) [P< 0.001]. Only 20.5% of those in poor SEI had “good access to HIV/AIDS information” compared to 79.5% in the upper SEI (P<0.001). A higher percentage of the poor had a stigmatizing attitude towards HIV/AIDS (45.6%) compared to those in the upper SEI (34.8%) [P< 0.001]. There was a high personal HIV risk perception among the poor (40.0%) and it declined significantly to 10.9% in the upper SEI. Conclusions Our findings underline the disproportionate burden of HIV disease and HIV fear among the poor and vulnerable in South Africa. The poor are further disadvantaged by lack of

  6. The role of climate and socioeconomic factors on the spatiotemporal variability of cholera in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdussalam, Auwal; Thornes, John; Leckebusch, Gregor

    2015-04-01

    Nigeria has a number of climate-sensitive infectious diseases; one of the most important of these diseases that remains a threat to public health is cholera. This study investigates the influences of both meteorological and socioeconomic factors on the spatiotemporal variability of cholera in Nigeria. A stepwise multiple regression models are used to estimate the influence of the year-to-year variations of cholera cases and deaths for individual states in the country and as well for three groups of states that are classified based on annual rainfall amount. Specifically, seasonal mean maximum and minimum temperatures and annual rainfall totals were analysed with annual aggregate count of cholera cases and deaths, taking into account of the socioeconomic factors that are potentially enhancing vulnerability such as: absolute poverty, adult literacy, access to pipe borne water and population density. Result reveals that the most important explanatory meteorological and socioeconomic variables in explaining the spatiotemporal variability of the disease are rainfall totals, seasonal mean maximum temperature, absolute poverty, and accessibility to pipe borne water. The influences of socioeconomic factors appeared to be more pronounced in the northern part of the country, and vice-versa in the case of meteorological factors. Also, cross validated models output suggests a strong possibility of disease prediction, which will help authorities to put effective control measures in place which depend on prevention, and or efficient response.

  7. Reported consumption of takeaway food and its contribution to socioeconomic inequalities in body mass index.

    PubMed

    Miura, Kyoko; Turrell, Gavin

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether takeaway food consumption mediated (explained) the association between socioeconomic position and body mass index (BMI). A postal-survey was conducted among 1500 randomly selected adults aged between 25 and 64years in Brisbane, Australia during 2009 (response rate 63.7%, N=903). BMI was calculated using self-reported weight and height. Participants reported usual takeaway food consumption, and these takeaway items were categorised into "healthy" and "less healthy" choices. Socioeconomic position was ascertained by education, household income, and occupation. The mean BMI was 27.1kg/m(2) for men and 25.7kg/m(2) for women. Among men, none of the socioeconomic measures were associated with BMI. In contrast, women with diploma/vocational education (β=2.12) and high school only (β=2.60), and those who were white-collar (β=1.55) and blue-collar employees (β=2.83) had significantly greater BMI compared with their more advantaged counterparts. However, household income was not associated with BMI. Among women, the consumption of "less healthy" takeaway food mediated BMI differences between the least and most educated, and between those employed in blue collar occupations and their higher status counterparts. Decreasing the consumption of "less healthy" takeaway options may reduce socioeconomic inequalities in overweight and obesity among women but not men.

  8. Effects of age, socioeconomic status, and menstrual cycle on pulmonary response to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Seal, E. Jr.; McDonnell, W.F.; House, D.E.

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of age, socioeconomic status, and menstrual cycle phase on the pulmonary response to ozone exposure. Three hundred seventy-two healthy white and black young adults, between the ages of 18 and 35 y, were exposed only once to 0.0, 0.12, 0.18, 0.24, 0.30, or 0.40 ppm ozone for 2.3 h. Prior to and after exposure, pulmonary function tests were obtained. Prior to exposure, each subject completed a personal and family-history questionnaire. The response to this questionnaire were used to investigate age, socioeconomic status, and menstrual cycle phase effects on pulmonary responsiveness to ozone. We concluded that the ages of subjects, within the age range studied, had an effect on responsiveness (i.e., decrements in forced expiratory volume in 1 s decreased as the subjects` ages decreased). Socioeconomic status, as reflected by education of fathers, also appeared to affect forced expiratory volume in 1-s responsiveness to ozone, with the middle socioeconomic group being the most responsive. The phase of menstrual cycle did not have an impact on individual responsiveness to ozone. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Women's preferences for vaginal antimicrobial contraceptives. II. Preferred characteristics according to women's age and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Hardy, E; de Pádua, K S; Jiménez, A L; Zaneveld, L J

    1998-10-01

    A study was carried out to identify characteristics that women would want for an idealized vaginal contraceptive, and the possible association of these characteristics with age and socioeconomic status. The study was done in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 635 women were selected by age and socioeconomic status, using the "social network" technique. Almost half were adolescents (15-19 years old) and the rest were adults (20-45 years old). Half were of low socioeconomic status and the rest of medium-high status. The data were analyzed with SPSS-PC and EPI-INFO 6.0. Logistic regression and chi 2 were used for the analysis. Despite some differences found between age and socioeconomic status in regard to the characteristics desired for the idealized method, most of the participants expressed the same preferences. The results indicate that women would like the idealized method to be a cream, rather than a suppository, with no odor or flavor, to be colorless, to be placed in the vagina with an applicator well before coitus, and to offer protection against sexually transmitted diseases including AIDS. PMID:9866006

  10. Income Inequality and Socioeconomic Gradients in Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Richard G.; Pickett, Kate E.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether the processes underlying the association between income inequality and population health are related to those responsible for the socioeconomic gradient in health and whether health disparities are smaller when income differences are narrower. Methods. We used multilevel models in a regression analysis of 10 age- and cause-specific US county mortality rates on county median household incomes and on state income inequality. We assessed whether mortality rates more closely related to county income were also more closely related to state income inequality. We also compared mortality gradients in more- and less-equal states. Results. Mortality rates more strongly associated with county income were more strongly associated with state income inequality: across all mortality rates, r= −0.81; P=.004. The effect of state income inequality on the socioeconomic gradient in health varied by cause of death, but greater equality usually benefited both wealthier and poorer counties. Conclusions. Although mortality rates with steep socioeconomic gradients were more sensitive to income distribution than were rates with flatter gradients, narrower income differences benefit people in both wealthy and poor areas and may, paradoxically, do little to reduce health disparities. PMID:17901426

  11. Strongyloidiasis: A Disease of Socioeconomic Disadvantage

    PubMed Central

    Beknazarova, Meruyert; Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2016-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a disease caused by soil transmitted helminths of the Strongyloides genus. Currently, it is predominately described as a neglected tropical disease. However, this description is misleading as it focuses on the geographical location of the disease and not the primary consideration, which is the socioeconomic conditions and poor infrastructure found within endemic regions. This classification may result in misdiagnosis and mistreatment by physicians, but more importantly, it influences how the disease is fundamentally viewed. Strongyloidiasis must be first and foremost considered as a disease of disadvantage, to ensure the correct strategies and control measures are used to prevent infection. Changing how strongyloidiasis is perceived from a geographic and clinical issue to an environmental health issue represents the first step in identifying appropriate long term control measures. This includes emphasis on environmental health controls, such as better infrastructure, sanitation and living conditions. This review explores the global prevalence of strongyloidiasis in relation to its presence in subtropical, tropical and temperate climate zones with mild and cold winters, but also explores the corresponding socioeconomic conditions of these regions. The evidence shows that strongyloidiasis is primarily determined by the socioeconomic status of the communities rather than geographic or climatic conditions. It demonstrates that strongyloidiasis should no longer be referred to as a “tropical” disease but rather a disease of disadvantage. This philosophical shift will promote the development of correct control strategies for preventing this disease of disadvantage. PMID:27213420

  12. Intergenerational and socioeconomic gradients of child obesity.

    PubMed

    Costa-Font, Joan; Gil, Joan

    2013-09-01

    Can the rise in obesity among children be attributed to the intergenerational transmission of parental influences? Does this trend affect the influence of parent's socioeconomic status on obesity? This paper documents evidence of an emerging social gradient of obesity in pre-school children resulting from a combination of both socio-economic status and less intensive childcare associated with maternal employment, when different forms of intergenerational transmission are controlled for. We also estimate and decompose income related inequalities in child obesity. We take advantage of a uniquely constructed dataset from Spain that contains records form 13,358 individuals for a time period (years 2003-2006) in which a significant spike in the growth of child obesity was observed. Our results suggest robust evidence of both socioeconomic and intergenerational gradients. Results are suggestive of a high income effect in child obesity, alongside evidence that income inequalities have doubled in just three years with a pure income effect accounting for as much as 72-66% of these income inequality estimates, even when intergenerational transmission is accounted for. Although, intergenerational transmission does not appear to be gender specific, when accounted for, mother's labour market participation only explains obesity among boys but not among girls. Hence, it appears income and parental influences are the central determinants of obesity among children.

  13. High School Physics Offerings by Socioeconomic Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    This fall we have been examining physics classes in U.S. high schools by the principal's assessment of the socioeconomic profile of each school. This month we turn our focus to the distribution of high school physics enrollment across the different types of physics offered. Not only do fewer students take physics at "worse off" schools (see the October issue), but the types of physics courses students take also differs by socioeconomic profile. About 10% of the students taking physics at "worse off" schools take AP and second-year physics; almost 20% of the students at "better off" schools take these courses. At "worse off" schools, a higher proportion of students are enrolled in conceptual courses, including Physics First and regular physics taught using a conceptual textbook. The data we have presented over the last four months suggests that differences in physics taking in high school by blacks and Hispanics are driven, in part, by underlying socioeconomic factors. Other factors, such as the availability of additional seats in physics classes and the ability of teachers to attract students to physics, also impact physics taking. It is unlikely that the racial and ethnic differences in physics taking in high school will decrease unless the underlying factors are addressed.

  14. Access and Benefits: Assistive Technology in Adult Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver-Pacuilla, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    Through access to assistive technology, adult students with learning disabilities can improve their literacy skills and goal attainment as a supplement to regular adult basic education classes. This article describes a project that investigated whether increased engagement with text-to-speech and speech-recognition software could improve…

  15. Does the use of specialist palliative care services modify the effect of socioeconomic status on place of death? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Nicolson, Donald J; Macleod, Una; Allgar, Victoria; Dalgliesh, Christopher; Johnson, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cancer patients in lower socioeconomic groups are significantly less likely to die at home and experience more barriers to access to palliative care. It is unclear whether receiving palliative care may mediate the effect of socioeconomic status on place of death. Aim: This review examines whether and how use of specialist palliative care may modify the effect of socioeconomic status on place of death. Design: A systematic review was conducted. Eligible papers were selected and the quality appraised by two independent reviewers. Data were synthesised using a narrative approach. Data sources: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Web of Knowledge were searched (1997–2013). Bibliographies were scanned and experts contacted. Papers were included if they reported the effect of both socioeconomic status and use of specialist palliative care on place of death for adult cancer patients. Results: Nine studies were included. All study subjects had received specialist palliative care. With regard to place of death, socioeconomic status was found to have (1) no effect in seven studies and (2) an effect in one study. Furthermore, one study found that the effect of socioeconomic status on place of death was only significant when patients received standard specialist palliative care. When patients received more intense care adapted to their needs, the effect of socioeconomic status on place of death was no longer seen. Conclusion: There is some evidence to suggest that use of specialist palliative care may modify the effect of socioeconomic status on place of death. PMID:26330454

  16. Adult Illiteracy: The Root of African Underdevelopment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jogwu, C. N. O.

    2010-01-01

    All African Nations belong to the category of third world underdeveloped countries of the world. UNDP Human Development Index uses factors like per capita income, health of the people, and educational attainment to classify countries. Adult literacy and gross enrolment ratios are indicators of education status. This paper uses Nigeria, a typical…

  17. Do Neighborhood Socioeconomic Deprivation and Low Social Cohesion Predict Coronary Calcification?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Liu, Kiang

    2010-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that neighborhood characteristics may influence the risk of coronary heart disease. No studies have yet explored associations of neighborhood attributes with subclinical atherosclerosis in younger adult populations. Using data on 2,974 adults (1,699 women, 1,275 men) aged 32–50 years in 2000 from the Coronary Artery Disease Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study and 2000 US Census block-group-level data, the authors estimated multivariable-adjusted associations of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and perceived neighborhood cohesion with odds of coronary artery calcification (CAC) 5 years later. Among women, the quartiles of highest neighborhood deprivation and lowest cohesion were associated with higher odds of CAC after adjustment for individual-level demographic and socioeconomic factors (for deprivation, odds ratio = 2.49, 95% confidence interval: 1.22, 5.08 (P for trend = 0.03); for cohesion, odds ratio = 1.87, 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 3.16 (P for trend = 0.02)). Associations changed only slightly after adjustment for behavioral, psychosocial, and biologic factors. Among men, neither neighborhood deprivation nor cohesion was related to CAC. However, among men in deprived neighborhoods, low cohesion predicted higher CAC odds (for interaction between neighborhood deprivation and cohesion, P = 0.03). This study provides evidence on associations of neighborhood deprivation and cohesion with CAC in younger, asymptomatic adults. Neighborhood attributes may contribute to subclinical atherosclerosis. PMID:20610467

  18. [Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases in women: association with socioeconomic and demographic variables].

    PubMed

    Jiménez, A L; Gotlieb, S L; Hardy, E; Zaneveld, L J

    2001-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have been a subject of discussion both among scientists and in the mass media, especially because of their association with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We studied the adoption of specific protective behaviors for the prevention of STDs among women, as well as the associations between these behaviors and socioeconomic and demographic variables. This was a descriptive study based on secondary data from a previous study carried out in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 635 women were selected using the social network ("snowball") technique. Subjects were classified into four groups: adolescents and adults of upper middle and lower socioeconomic status, respectively. Condoms were the STD prevention method most frequently mentioned by interviewees. A negative association was observed between having a steady partner and condom use in all the groups. The main reason mentioned for not using condoms was "having a single partner and trusting him". Among adolescents, a positive association was observed between schooling above the 8th grade and condom use, and a negative association was observed between age and condom use. Among adults, only condom use in general was also positively associated with socioeconomic status.

  19. Marriage following Adolescent Parenthood: Relationship to Adult Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Lee, Jungeun; Morrison, Diane M.; Lindhorst, Taryn

    2008-01-01

    Research suggests that adult marriages confer benefits. Does marriage following a teenage birth confer benefits similar to those observed for adults? Longitudinal data from a community sample of 235 young women who gave birth as unmarried adolescents were used to examine this question. Controlling for socioeconomic status and preexisting…

  20. Impact of socioeconomic status on municipal solid waste generation rate.

    PubMed

    Khan, D; Kumar, A; Samadder, S R

    2016-03-01

    The solid waste generation rate was expected to vary in different socioeconomic groups due to many environmental and social factors. This paper reports the assessment of solid waste generation based on different socioeconomic parameters like education, occupation, income of the family, number of family members etc. A questionnaire survey was conducted in the study area to identify the different socioeconomic groups that may affect the solid waste generation rate and composition. The average waste generated in the municipality is 0.41 kg/capita/day in which the maximum waste was found to be generated by lower middle socioeconomic group (LMSEG) with average waste generation of 0.46 kg/capita/day. Waste characterization indicated that there was no much difference in the composition of wastes among different socioeconomic groups except ash residue and plastic. Ash residue is found to increase as we move lower down the socioeconomic groups with maximum (31%) in lower socioeconomic group (LSEG). The study area is a coal based city hence application of coal and wood as fuel for cooking in the lower socioeconomic group is the reason for high amount of ash content. Plastic waste is maximum (15%) in higher socioeconomic group (HSEG) and minimum (1%) in LSEG. Food waste is a major component of generated waste in almost every socioeconomic group with maximum (38%) in case of HSEG and minimum (28%) in LSEG. This study provides new insights on the role of various socioeconomic parameters on generation of household wastes. PMID:26831564

  1. Impact of socioeconomic status on municipal solid waste generation rate.

    PubMed

    Khan, D; Kumar, A; Samadder, S R

    2016-03-01

    The solid waste generation rate was expected to vary in different socioeconomic groups due to many environmental and social factors. This paper reports the assessment of solid waste generation based on different socioeconomic parameters like education, occupation, income of the family, number of family members etc. A questionnaire survey was conducted in the study area to identify the different socioeconomic groups that may affect the solid waste generation rate and composition. The average waste generated in the municipality is 0.41 kg/capita/day in which the maximum waste was found to be generated by lower middle socioeconomic group (LMSEG) with average waste generation of 0.46 kg/capita/day. Waste characterization indicated that there was no much difference in the composition of wastes among different socioeconomic groups except ash residue and plastic. Ash residue is found to increase as we move lower down the socioeconomic groups with maximum (31%) in lower socioeconomic group (LSEG). The study area is a coal based city hence application of coal and wood as fuel for cooking in the lower socioeconomic group is the reason for high amount of ash content. Plastic waste is maximum (15%) in higher socioeconomic group (HSEG) and minimum (1%) in LSEG. Food waste is a major component of generated waste in almost every socioeconomic group with maximum (38%) in case of HSEG and minimum (28%) in LSEG. This study provides new insights on the role of various socioeconomic parameters on generation of household wastes.

  2. Sibling configuration predicts individual and descendant socioeconomic success in a modern post-industrial society.

    PubMed

    Lawson, David W; Makoli, Arijeta; Goodman, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Growing up with many siblings, at least in the context of modern post-industrial low fertility, low mortality societies, is predictive of relatively poor performance on school tests in childhood, lower levels of educational attainment, and lower income throughout adulthood. Recent studies further indicate these relationships hold across generations, so that the descendants of those who grow up with many siblings are also at an apparent socioeconomic disadvantage. In this paper we add to this literature by considering whether such relationships interact with the sex and relative age of siblings. To do this we utilise a unique Swedish multigenerational birth cohort study that provides sibling configuration data on over 10,000 individuals born in 1915-1929, plus all their direct genetic descendants to the present day. Adjusting for parental and birth characteristics, we find that the 'socioeconomic cost' of growing up in a large family is independent of both the sex of siblings and the sex of the individual. However, growing up with several older as opposed to several younger siblings is predictive of relatively poor performance on school tests and a lower likelihood of progression to tertiary education. This later-born disadvantage also holds across generations, with the children of those with many older siblings achieving lower levels of educational attainment. Despite these differences, we find that while individual and descendant income is negatively related to the number of siblings, it is not influenced by the relative age of siblings. Thus, our findings imply that the educational disadvantage of later-born children, demonstrated here and in numerous other studies, does not necessarily translate into reduced earnings in adulthood. We discuss potential explanations for this pattern of results, and consider some important directions for future research into sibling configuration and wellbeing in modern societies.

  3. Older adults' perspectives on key domains of childhood social and economic experiences and opportunities: a first step to creating a multidimensional measure

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Irene H; Stewart, Anita L; Scherzer, Teresa; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Although research has found that childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with physical and mental health in mid- and later life, most of these studies used conventional, single dimension SES measures for the childhood period such as household income or educational attainment of parents. Life course and health disparities research would benefit from identification and measurement of a variety of childhood social and economic experiences and opportunities that might affect health in later life. Design This study utilized qualitative research methods to identify key dimensions of childhood experiences related to SES. We conducted in-depth interviews with 25 adults age 55 to 80 years from diverse economic and ethnic backgrounds. Topics included home, neighborhood, school, and work experiences during early childhood and adolescence. Interviews were audio-taped and transcripts were coded to identify thematic domains. Results We identified eight thematic domains, many of which had clear subdomains: home and family circumstances, neighborhood, work and money, potential for advancement through schooling, school quality and content, discrimination, influence and support of adults, and leisure activities. These domains highlight individual characteristics and experiences and also economic and educational opportunities. Conclusion These domains of childhood social and economic circumstances add breadth and depth to conventional conceptualization of childhood SES. When the domains are translated into a measurement tool, it will allow for the possibility of classifying people along multiple dimensions, such as from a low economic circumstance with high levels of adult support. PMID:17986341

  4. Childhood social class and adult adiposity and blood-pressure trajectories 36–53 years: gender-specific results from a British birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Bjørn Heine; Murray, Emily T; Guralnik, Jack; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Background In this study, the authors investigate gender-specific effects of childhood socio-economic position (SEP) on adiposity and blood pressure at three time points in adulthood. Methods Mixed models were used to assess the association of childhood SEP with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at ages 36, 43 and 53 years in a British birth cohort. Results The adverse effect of lower childhood SEP on adiposity increased between ages 36 and 53 years in women (BMI: trend test: p=0.03) and remained stable in men, but the opposite was seen for SBP, where inequalities increased in men (p=0.01). Childhood SEP inequalities in DBP were stable with age in both men and women. Educational attainment mediated some but not all of the effects of childhood SEP on adiposity and SBP, and their rate of change; adult social class was a less important mediator. Conclusion Childhood SEP is important for adult adiposity and blood pressure across midlife, especially for BMI in women and for blood pressure in men. Thus, pathways to adult health differ for men and women, and public health policies aimed at reducing social inequalities need to start early in life and take account of gender. PMID:21098826

  5. Area-level socioeconomic context, total mortality and cause-specific mortality in Spain: Heterogeneous findings depending on the level of geographic aggregation.

    PubMed

    Regidor, Enrique; Vallejo, Fernando; Reques, Laura; Cea, Lucía; Miqueleiz, Estrella; Barrio, Gregorio

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the association between area-level socioeconomic context and mortality in Spain, using two different geographic aggregations. Nation-wide prospective study covering all persons living in Spain in 2001. Mortality was analysed in Spanish citizens by province of residence and in citizens of Madrid by neighbourhood of residence. Provinces and neighbourhoods were grouped into quartiles according to two socioeconomic indicators: percentage of the population with university education and unemployment rate. The measure of association was the rate ratio for total mortality and cause-specific mortality, by each socioeconomic indicator in two age groups, 25-64 years (adult population) and 65 years and over (elderly population). After adjustment for all individual socioeconomic variables, the rate ratio for total mortality among residents in the provinces with the worst versus best socioeconomic context was 0.92 (95% CI 0.88-0.97) when the indicator was percentage of university population and 0.89 (0.85-0.93) when it was unemployment rate in the adult population, and 1.05 (1.00-1.11) and 1.08 (1.03-1.13), respectively, in the elderly population. No significant differences in mortality were observed between adults residing in neighbourhoods with the worst versus best socioeconomic context, but in the elderly population the mortality rate ratios for the two socioeconomic indicators were 1.04 (1.01-1.07) and 1.06 (1.03-1.09), respectively. Residents in provinces with the worst socioeconomic context had the lowest mortality from cancer and external causes and the highest mortality from cardiovascular diseases, while residents in neighbourhoods with the worst socioeconomic context had the highest mortality from respiratory and digestive diseases. Further research should find out the reasons for the lower total mortality in adult population residing in the Spanish provinces with the most adverse socioeconomic context and the reasons for

  6. Jubba Environmental and Socio-economic Studies (JESS). Volume 3. Socio-economic studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The Government of the Somali Democratic Republic (GSDR), with the support of the international donor community, is prepared to launch a comprehensive program for the development of Jubba Valley. The keystone of the program is construction of a dam on the Jubba River near Baardheere. Planners have been looking toward construction of the dam, among other things, to increase agricultural output by fostering irrigation development. The objectives of the Socio-economic Baseline Study (SEBS) report are to: present a body of a new information on socio-economic life in Jubba Valley; assess the impact of development efforts on socio-economic life; recommend measures to enhance beneficial impacts and mitigate adverse ones; and propose a program to monitor the progress of those impacts and interventions.

  7. Family Socialization, Economic Self-Efficacy, and the Attainment of Financial Independence in Early Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jennifer C; Mortimer, Jeylan T

    2009-01-01

    The attainment of financial independence is a key marker of the contemporary transition to adulthood. In this study we ask, how do young adults gain the capacity to support themselves? We contend that communication about work in the family during adolescence is an important precursor of economic self-efficacy during adolescence, which is positively associated with financial independence in early adulthood. Drawing upon rich longitudinal data that span adolescence and young adulthood, we first ask whether family communication and socialization practices surrounding work and finances influence the development of ways of thinking about oneself that imply self-reliance and confidence in the economic domain (economic self-efficacy). Second, we assess whether economic self-efficacy, measured during adolescence, has a long-term influence on the transition to adulthood, status attainment, and financial independence. Our findings indicate that direct communications about work with parents foster the development of economic self-efficacy. This positive dimension of the self-concept fosters achievement during the transition to adulthood (e.g., educational achievement, employment status, and income attainment), which, in turn, heighten financial independence in early adulthood.

  8. Intraindividual neuropsychological test variability in healthy individuals with high average intelligence and educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Heyanka, Daniel J; Holster, Jessica L; Golden, Charles J

    2013-08-01

    Knowledge of patterns of neuropsychological performance among normal, healthy individuals is integral to the practice of clinical neuropsychology, because clinicians may not always account for intraindividual variability (IIV) before coming to diagnostic conclusions. The IIV was assessed among a sample of 46 healthy individuals with high average intelligence and educational attainment, utilizing a battery of neuropsychological tests, including the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale, Fourth Edition (WMS-IV). The data indicated substantial variability in neurocognitive abilities. All participants were found to demonstrate scores considered impaired by at least 2 standard deviations (SDs). Despite adjusting for outliers, no participant produced a "normal" testing profile with an intraindividual maximum discrepancy (MD) of less than 1 SD in either direction. When WAIS-IV Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) was considered, participants generally demonstrated cognitive test scores ranging from 2 SDs less than to 1.5 SDs greater than their FSIQ. Furthermore, after demographic corrections, the majority (59%) of participants demonstrated at least 1 impaired cognitive test score, as defined by being 1 to 1.5 SDs below the mean. Overall, results substantiate the need for clinicians to consider FSIQ and educational attainment in interpretation of neuropsychological testing results, given the relevant commonality of "abnormal" test scores within this population. This may ultimately reduce the likelihood of making false-positive conclusions of impairment when educational attainment and intelligence are high, thus improving diagnostic accuracy.

  9. Elite and Status Attainment Models of Inequality of Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myles, John F.; Srensen, Aage B.

    1975-01-01

    With changes in method, analysis of the process of attainment of various occupations and sub-sets of occupations such as elites can bring about the desired comparability between elite and status attainment studies of equality of opportunity. (Author/AM)

  10. Gender Differences in Educational Attainment: Influences of the Family Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mensah, Fiona K.; Kiernan, Kathleen E.

    2010-01-01

    There are gender differences in educational attainment amongst British children and there is evidence that these differences emerge early in life. In this study we investigate whether boys' and girls' early educational attainment levels are similarly related to disadvantage in the family environment. This study uses survey data from the Millennium…

  11. The Role of Goal Attainment Expectancies in Achievement Goal Pursuit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senko, Corwin; Hulleman, Chris S.

    2013-01-01

    The current studies introduce the goal attainment expectancy construct to achievement goal theory. Three studies, 2 in college classrooms and the other using a novel math task in the laboratory, converged on the same finding. For mastery-approach goals and performance-approach goals alike, the harder the goal appeared to attain, the less likely…

  12. Validation of the Goal Attainment Scale of Stabilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkin, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    Factor structure for the Goal Attainment Scale of Stabilization was evaluated using separate samples for exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Results indicated a 25-item two-factor solution. The Goal Attainment Scale of Stabilization may be useful in identifying the extent to which adolescents in crisis meet therapeutic…

  13. Pupil Mobility, Attainment and Progress in Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve; Demie, Feyisa

    2007-01-01

    This paper is the second of two articles arising from a study of the association between pupil mobility and attainment in national tests and examinations in an inner London borough. Our first article examined the association of pupil mobility with attainment and progress during primary school. It concluded that pupil mobility had little impact on…

  14. Pupil Mobility, Attainment and Progress in Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve; Demie, Feyisa

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the association between pupil mobility and educational attainment in the 2002 national end of Key Stage 2 (KS2) tests for 11-year-old pupils in an inner London education authority. The results show that pupil mobility is strongly associated with low attainment in the end of key stage tests. However, the…

  15. How Economic Segregation Affects Childrens' Educational Attainment. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Susan

    Economic segregation increased in the United States between 1970 and 1990. Three hypotheses suggest that this would affect low-income children's educational attainment. The political economy of school funding predicts that economically segregated school districts reduce the educational attainment of low-income children. Two other hypotheses…

  16. Adolescent Sexuality, Masculinity-Femininity, and Educational Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harry, Joseph

    The role of adolescent sexual behavior in educational attainment has been overlooked. Homosexual and heterosexual men were interviewed to test for a correlation between adolescent sexual activeness and educational attainment, as well as any link between childhood masculine sex roles and early sexual activity. Approximately 1,000 volunteers,…

  17. 40 CFR 51.1007 - Attainment demonstration and modeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Attainment demonstration and modeling... Implementation of PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1007 Attainment demonstration and modeling... and must include inventory data, modeling results, and emission reduction analyses on which the...

  18. Emergy Evaluation of Educational Attainment in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emergy of educational attainment in the United States was quantified over the period for which the necessary data were available, i.e., 1948 to 2006. We propose that the portion of the knowledge in educational attainment delivered by the active workforce be considered as part...

  19. Three Essays on the Economics of Higher Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, Daniel C.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines issues regarding the educational attainment of the U.S. workforce. Specifically, I investigate the impact of various factors on the growth of postsecondary educational attainment. This includes issues pertaining to improving the skill-level of the workforce at the regional or state level, as well as for the domestic…

  20. Does Being Overweight Impede Academic Attainment? A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caird, Jennifer; Kavanagh, Josephine; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Oliver, Kathryn; Oliver, Sandy; Stansfield, Claire; Thomas, James

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To examine evidence from studies exploring the relationship between childhood obesity and educational attainment. Design: A systematic review of secondary analyses and observational studies published in English after 1997 examining attainment as measured by grade point average or other validated measure, in children aged 6 to 16 years,…