Science.gov

Sample records for adult socioeconomic position

  1. Childhood socioeconomic position and adult leisure-time physical activity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Elhakeem, Ahmed; Cooper, Rachel; Bann, David; Hardy, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Regular leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) benefits health and is thought to be less prevalent in lower socioeconomic groups. Evidence suggests that childhood socioeconomic circumstances can impact on adult health and behaviour however, it is unclear if this includes an influence on adult LTPA. This review tested the hypothesis that a lower childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) is associated with less frequent LTPA during adulthood. Studies were located through a systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus and by searching reference lists. Eligible studies were English-language publications testing the association between any indicator of childhood SEP and an LTPA outcome measured during adulthood. Forty-five papers from 36 studies, most of which were European, were included. In most samples, childhood SEP and LTPA were self-reported in midlife. Twenty-two studies found evidence to support the review's hypothesis and thirteen studies found no association. Accounting for own adult SEP partly attenuated associations. There was more evidence of an association in British compared with Scandinavian cohorts and in women compared with men. Results did not vary by childhood SEP indicator or age at assessment of LTPA. This review found evidence of an association between less advantaged childhood SEP and less frequent LTPA during adulthood. Understanding how associations vary by gender and place could provide insights into underlying pathways.

  2. Childhood socioeconomic position and adult leisure-time physical activity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Elhakeem, Ahmed; Cooper, Rachel; Bann, David; Hardy, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Regular leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) benefits health and is thought to be less prevalent in lower socioeconomic groups. Evidence suggests that childhood socioeconomic circumstances can impact on adult health and behaviour however, it is unclear if this includes an influence on adult LTPA. This review tested the hypothesis that a lower childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) is associated with less frequent LTPA during adulthood. Studies were located through a systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus and by searching reference lists. Eligible studies were English-language publications testing the association between any indicator of childhood SEP and an LTPA outcome measured during adulthood. Forty-five papers from 36 studies, most of which were European, were included. In most samples, childhood SEP and LTPA were self-reported in midlife. Twenty-two studies found evidence to support the review's hypothesis and thirteen studies found no association. Accounting for own adult SEP partly attenuated associations. There was more evidence of an association in British compared with Scandinavian cohorts and in women compared with men. Results did not vary by childhood SEP indicator or age at assessment of LTPA. This review found evidence of an association between less advantaged childhood SEP and less frequent LTPA during adulthood. Understanding how associations vary by gender and place could provide insights into underlying pathways. PMID:26138985

  3. Socioeconomic Position Is Positively Associated With Blood Pressure Dipping Among African-American Adults: The Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Hickson, DeMarc A; Diez Roux, Ana V; Wyatt, Sharon B; Gebreab, Samson Y; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Sarpong, Daniel F; Taylor, Herman A; Wofford, Marion R

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Blunted nocturnal blood pressure (NBP) dipping is a significant predictor of cardiovascular events. Lower socioeconomic position (SEP) may be an important predictor of NBP dipping, especially in African Americans (AA). However, the determinants of NBP dipping are not fully understood. METHODS The cross-sectional associations of individual and neighborhood SEP with NBP dipping, assessed by 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring, were examined among 837 AA adults (Mean age: 59.2 ± 10.7 years; 69.2% women), after adjustment for age, sex, hypertension status, body mass index (BMI), health behaviors, office, and 24-h systolic BP (SBP). RESULTS The mean hourly SBP was consistently lower among participants in the highest category of individual income compared to those in the lowest category, and these differences were most pronounced during sleeping hours. The odds of NBP dipping (defined as >10% decline in the mean asleep SBP compared to the mean awake SBP) increased by 31% (95% confidence interval: 13–53%) and 18% (95% confidence interval: 0–39%) for each s.d. increase in income and years of education, respectively, after multivariable adjustment. CONCLUSIONS NBP dipping is patterned by income and education in AA adults even after accounting for known risk factors. These results suggest that low SEP is a risk factor for insufficient NBP dipping in AA. PMID:21654853

  4. Association of an adult obesity, blood pressure adulthood socio-economic position

    PubMed Central

    Siadat, Zahra Dana; Abdoli, AminReza; Shahsanaee, Armindokht

    2012-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to investigate an effect of childhood and adulthood socio-economic position on selected cardiovascular risk factors including obesity, blood pressure level and smoking behavior. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study performed on 479 individuals, randomly selected by random clustered sampling from men and women aged 30-50 years, living in Esfahan. Their demographic characteristics, education, occupation and smoking behavior were questioned. Their weight, height and blood pressure were also measured, and their BMI (Body Mass Index) was calculated. The data were analyzed by SPSS 19 software. Results: In men, the odds ratio for ever smoking to never smoking at higher levels of education in comparison with the lower levels was 6.08 (2.65-14.11). For manual occupation to non-manual occupation, it was 3.55 (1.88-6.68). The odds ratio for obesity and overweight vs no overweight, for manual occupation to non-manual occupation was 3.12 (1.81-5.40) in men and for father's occupation it was 2.03 (1.10-3.74). In women, their education with the odds ratio of 2.11 (1.17-3.82) and father's occupation with the odds ratio of 6.63 (3.50-12.58) altered their chance of being obese or overweight. Also, in women, the mean systolic blood pressure was significantly lower at higher educational levels and in those whose fathers’ occupation were manual but lower in manual workers. Conclusion: The current socio-economic position in individuals is associated with an obesity and smoking behavior, particularly in men. Childhood socio-economic position increases the chance of an obesity and higher blood pressure, particularly in women. PMID:23267372

  5. Socioeconomic Position and Health-Seeking Behavior for Hearing Loss Among Older Adults in England

    PubMed Central

    Grundy, Emily; Ploubidis, George B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine whether socioeconomic position (SEP) is associated with progression in the health-seeking process for hearing loss. Method. Logistic regression of data from a cross-sectional survey representative of noninstitutionalized, 50 years and older population of England (ELSA wave 2, 2004). Using self-reported hearing difficulty as starting point, we examined the association between SEP and health-seeking behaviors in 6 stages leading to hearing aid acquisition and use. Results. Higher SEP was associated with lower odds of self-reported hearing difficulty, adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83–0.91, p < .001). There was marginal negative association between higher SEP and receiving hearing aid recommendation (adjusted OR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.78–0.99, p = .05). SEP was not associated with any other stage of health-seeking behavior. Discussion. Among the noninstitutionalized older population of England, SEP-related inequalities exist in the prevalence of self-reported hearing loss. However, SEP is not strongly associated with progression in the remaining stages of health-seeking process during and after an individual’s contact with the health system. PMID:24663332

  6. Area-Based Socioeconomic Position and Adult Glioma: A Hierarchical Analysis of Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Data

    PubMed Central

    Plascak, Jesse J.; Fisher, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Glioma rates vary by demographic factors and geo-political boundaries and this variation suggests higher glioma rates in groups of higher socioeconomic position. The primary goal of this analysis is to investigate the relationship between glioma and county socioeconomic position using U.S. Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data. Methods Cases were individuals 25+ years diagnosed with glioma between 2000 and 2006 and residing within the SEER-17 catchment area. County-, sex-, race-, age-specific rates were created in order to investigate individual-level associations (population data from U.S. Census 2000). A Bayesian hierarchical Poisson spatial conditionally autoregressive (CAR) model was utilized to simultaneously estimate individual- and county-level associations while controlling for county spatial dependence. Results Those residing in counties of the second, third, and fourth highest quartiles of socioeconomic position have glioma incidence rates that are 1.10 (95% CI: 1.02,1.19), 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02,1.20), 1.14 (95% CI: 1.05,1.23) times that of the first quartile, respectively. A CAR model properly controlled for error spatial dependence. Investigated lag times suggest year 2000 census data yields superior model fit. Conclusion Demographically adjusted rates of glioma are elevated in counties of higher socioeconomic position. More well-grounded theory concerning the glioma-socioeconomic position association along with socioeconomic data collected at multiple levels is recommended for future studies investigating this relationship. PMID:23585860

  7. Socioeconomic Outcomes from Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooderham, Paul N.

    1991-01-01

    The degree to which age and gender influence completion of higher secondary education (HSE) and employment status was measured with a sample of 350 Norwegian adults. Application of a Status Attainment model revealed that post-HSE educational attainment is an important determinant of socioeconomic status for both men and women. (SK)

  8. Association of Socioeconomic Position and Demographic Characteristics with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Healthcare Access among Adults Living in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia.

    PubMed

    Hosey, G M; Samo, M; Gregg, E W; Barker, L; Padden, D; Bibb, S G

    2014-01-01

    Background. The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing in low-to-middle income countries. We examined how socioeconomic and demographic characteristics may be associated with CVD risk factors and healthcare access in such countries. Methods. We extracted data from the World Health Organization's STEPwise approach to surveillance 2002 cross-sectional dataset from Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). We used these data to estimate associations for socioeconomic position (education, income, and employment) and demographics (age, sex, and urban/rural) with CVD risk factors and with healthcare access, among a sample of 1638 adults (25-64 years). Results. In general, we found significantly higher proportions of daily tobacco use among men than women and respondents reporting primary-level education (<9 years) than among those with postsecondary education (>12 years). Results also revealed significant positive associations between paid employment and waist circumference and systolic blood pressure. Healthcare access did not differ significantly by socioeconomic position. Women reported significantly higher mean waist circumference than men. Conclusion. Our results suggest that socioeconomic position and demographic characteristics impact CVD risk factors and healthcare access in FSM. This understanding may help decision-makers tailor population-level policies and programs. The 2002 Pohnpei data provides a baseline; subsequent population health surveillance data might define trends.

  9. Association of Socioeconomic Position and Demographic Characteristics with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Healthcare Access among Adults Living in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia

    PubMed Central

    Hosey, G. M.; Samo, M.; Gregg, E. W.; Barker, L.; Padden, D.; Bibb, S. G.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing in low-to-middle income countries. We examined how socioeconomic and demographic characteristics may be associated with CVD risk factors and healthcare access in such countries. Methods. We extracted data from the World Health Organization's STEPwise approach to surveillance 2002 cross-sectional dataset from Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). We used these data to estimate associations for socioeconomic position (education, income, and employment) and demographics (age, sex, and urban/rural) with CVD risk factors and with healthcare access, among a sample of 1638 adults (25–64 years). Results. In general, we found significantly higher proportions of daily tobacco use among men than women and respondents reporting primary-level education (<9 years) than among those with postsecondary education (>12 years). Results also revealed significant positive associations between paid employment and waist circumference and systolic blood pressure. Healthcare access did not differ significantly by socioeconomic position. Women reported significantly higher mean waist circumference than men. Conclusion. Our results suggest that socioeconomic position and demographic characteristics impact CVD risk factors and healthcare access in FSM. This understanding may help decision-makers tailor population-level policies and programs. The 2002 Pohnpei data provides a baseline; subsequent population health surveillance data might define trends. PMID:26464859

  10. Temporal Variation and Association of Aflatoxin B₁ Albumin-Adduct Levels with Socio-Economic and Food Consumption Factors in HIV Positive Adults.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Pauline E; Akinyemiju, Tomi F; Jha, Megha; Aban, Inmaculada; Gonzalez-Falero, Andrea; Joseph, Dnika

    2015-12-01

    The association between aflatoxin exposure and alteration in immune responses observed in humans suggest that aflatoxin could suppress the immune system and work synergistically with HIV to increase disease severity and progression to AIDS. No longitudinal study has been conducted to assess exposure to aflatoxin (AF) among HIV positive individuals. We examined temporal variation in AFB₁ albumin adducts (AF-ALB) in HIV positive Ghanaians, and assessed the association with socioeconomic and food consumption factors. We collected socioeconomic and food consumption data for 307 HIV positive antiretroviral naive adults and examined AF-ALB levels at recruitment (baseline) and at six (follow-up 1) and 12 (follow-up 2) months post-recruitment, by age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES) and food consumption patterns. Generalized linear models were used to examine the influence of socioeconomic and food consumption factors on changes in AF-ALB levels over the study period, adjusting for other covariates. AF-ALB levels (pg/mg albumin) were lower at baseline (mean AF-ALB: 14.9, SD: 15.9), higher at six months (mean AF-ALB: 23.3, SD: 26.6), and lower at 12 months (mean AF-ALB: 15.3, SD: 15.4). Participants with the lowest SES had the highest AF-ALB levels at baseline and follow up-2 compared with those with higher SES. Participants who bought less than 20% of their food and who stored maize for less than two months had lower AF-ALB levels. In the adjusted models, there was a statistically significant association between follow up time and season (dry or rainy season) on AF-ALB levels over time (p = 0.04). Asymptomatic HIV-positive Ghanaians had high plasma AF-ALB levels that varied according to season, socioeconomic status, and food consumption patterns. Steps need to be taken to ensure the safety and security of the food supply for the population, but in particular for the most vulnerable groups such as HIV positive people.

  11. Temporal Variation and Association of Aflatoxin B1 Albumin-Adduct Levels with Socio-Economic and Food Consumption Factors in HIV Positive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, Pauline E.; Akinyemiju, Tomi F.; Jha, Megha; Aban, Inmaculada; Gonzalez-Falero, Andrea; Joseph, Dnika

    2015-01-01

    The association between aflatoxin exposure and alteration in immune responses observed in humans suggest that aflatoxin could suppress the immune system and work synergistically with HIV to increase disease severity and progression to AIDS. No longitudinal study has been conducted to assess exposure to aflatoxin (AF) among HIV positive individuals. We examined temporal variation in AFB1 albumin adducts (AF-ALB) in HIV positive Ghanaians, and assessed the association with socioeconomic and food consumption factors. We collected socioeconomic and food consumption data for 307 HIV positive antiretroviral naive adults and examined AF-ALB levels at recruitment (baseline) and at six (follow-up 1) and 12 (follow-up 2) months post-recruitment, by age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES) and food consumption patterns. Generalized linear models were used to examine the influence of socioeconomic and food consumption factors on changes in AF-ALB levels over the study period, adjusting for other covariates. AF-ALB levels (pg/mg albumin) were lower at baseline (mean AF-ALB: 14.9, SD: 15.9), higher at six months (mean AF-ALB: 23.3, SD: 26.6), and lower at 12 months (mean AF-ALB: 15.3, SD: 15.4). Participants with the lowest SES had the highest AF-ALB levels at baseline and follow up-2 compared with those with higher SES. Participants who bought less than 20% of their food and who stored maize for less than two months had lower AF-ALB levels. In the adjusted models, there was a statistically significant association between follow up time and season (dry or rainy season) on AF-ALB levels over time (p = 0.04). Asymptomatic HIV-positive Ghanaians had high plasma AF-ALB levels that varied according to season, socioeconomic status, and food consumption patterns. Steps need to be taken to ensure the safety and security of the food supply for the population, but in particular for the most vulnerable groups such as HIV positive people. PMID:26633502

  12. Temporal Variation and Association of Aflatoxin B₁ Albumin-Adduct Levels with Socio-Economic and Food Consumption Factors in HIV Positive Adults.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Pauline E; Akinyemiju, Tomi F; Jha, Megha; Aban, Inmaculada; Gonzalez-Falero, Andrea; Joseph, Dnika

    2015-12-01

    The association between aflatoxin exposure and alteration in immune responses observed in humans suggest that aflatoxin could suppress the immune system and work synergistically with HIV to increase disease severity and progression to AIDS. No longitudinal study has been conducted to assess exposure to aflatoxin (AF) among HIV positive individuals. We examined temporal variation in AFB₁ albumin adducts (AF-ALB) in HIV positive Ghanaians, and assessed the association with socioeconomic and food consumption factors. We collected socioeconomic and food consumption data for 307 HIV positive antiretroviral naive adults and examined AF-ALB levels at recruitment (baseline) and at six (follow-up 1) and 12 (follow-up 2) months post-recruitment, by age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES) and food consumption patterns. Generalized linear models were used to examine the influence of socioeconomic and food consumption factors on changes in AF-ALB levels over the study period, adjusting for other covariates. AF-ALB levels (pg/mg albumin) were lower at baseline (mean AF-ALB: 14.9, SD: 15.9), higher at six months (mean AF-ALB: 23.3, SD: 26.6), and lower at 12 months (mean AF-ALB: 15.3, SD: 15.4). Participants with the lowest SES had the highest AF-ALB levels at baseline and follow up-2 compared with those with higher SES. Participants who bought less than 20% of their food and who stored maize for less than two months had lower AF-ALB levels. In the adjusted models, there was a statistically significant association between follow up time and season (dry or rainy season) on AF-ALB levels over time (p = 0.04). Asymptomatic HIV-positive Ghanaians had high plasma AF-ALB levels that varied according to season, socioeconomic status, and food consumption patterns. Steps need to be taken to ensure the safety and security of the food supply for the population, but in particular for the most vulnerable groups such as HIV positive people. PMID:26633502

  13. Neurobiological Pathways Linking Socioeconomic Position and Health

    PubMed Central

    Gianaros, Peter J.; Manuck, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    Across individuals, risk for poor health varies inversely with socioeconomic position (SEP). The pathways by which SEP affects health have been viewed from many epidemiological perspectives. Central to these perspectives is the notion that socioeconomic health disparities arise from an interplay between nested, recursive, and cumulative environmental, social, familial, psychological, behavioral, and physiological processes that unfold over the life span. Epidemiological perspectives on socioeconomic health disparities, however, have not yet formally integrated emerging findings from neuropharmacological, molecular genetic, and neuroimaging studies demonstrating that indicators of SEP relate to patterns of brain neurotransmission, brain morphology, and brain functionality implicated in the etiology of chronic medical conditions and psychological disorders. Here, we survey these emerging findings and consider how future neurobiological studies in this area can enhance our understanding of the pathways by which different dimensions of SEP become embodied by the brain to influence health throughout life. PMID:20498294

  14. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Adult Obesity Prevalence in South Africa: A Decomposition Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alaba, Olufunke; Chola, Lumbwe

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in obesity in low and middle income countries. However, there is limited research in these countries showing the prevalence and determinants of obesity. In this study, we examine the socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among South African adults. We use nationally representative data from the South Africa National Income Dynamic Survey of 2008 to: (1) construct an asset index using multiple correspondence analyses (MCA) as a proxy for socioeconomic status; (2) estimate concentration indices (CI) to measure socioeconomic inequalities in obesity; and (3) perform a decomposition analysis to determine the factors that contribute to socioeconomic related inequalities. Consistent with other studies, we find that women are more obese than men. The findings show that obesity inequalities exist in South Africa. Rich men are more likely to be obese than their poorer counterparts with a concentration index of 0.27. Women on the other hand have similar obesity patterns, regardless of socioeconomic status with CI of 0.07. The results of the decomposition analysis suggest that asset index contributes positively and highly to socio-economic inequality in obesity among females; physical exercise contributes negatively to the socio-economic inequality. In the case of males, educational attainment and asset index contributed more to socio-economic inequalities in obesity. Our findings suggest that focusing on economically well-off men and all women across socioeconomic status is one way to address the obesity problem in South Africa. PMID:24662998

  15. Socio-Economic Position and Higher Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sealey, Tim N.

    2011-01-01

    The proportion of students enrolled at university from the lowest quartile of socio-economic position has remained static at around 15% for at least the past 15 years (DEEWR, "Transforming Australia's higher education system," 2009). This paper argues that the apparent lack of progress towards equity of access has been exacerbated due to how…

  16. Life Course Socioeconomic Position and C-Reactive Protein: Mediating Role of Health-Risk Behaviors and Metabolic Alterations. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Camelo, Lidyane V.; Giatti, Luana; Neves, Jorge Alexandre Barbosa; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Benseñor, Isabela M.; Chor, Dóra; Griep, Rosane Härter; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Kawachi, Ichiro; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation has been postulated to be one mediating mechanism explaining the association between low socioeconomic position (SEP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We sought to examine the association between life course SEP and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in adulthood, and to evaluate the extent to which health-risk behaviors and metabolic alterations mediate this association. Additionally, we explored the possible modifying influence of gender. Methods and Findings Our analytical sample comprised 13,371 participants from ELSA-Brasil baseline, a multicenter prospective cohort study of civil servants. SEP during childhood, young adulthood, and adulthood were considered. The potential mediators between life course SEP and CRP included clusters of health-risk behaviors (smoking, low leisure time physical activity, excessive alcohol consumption), and metabolic alterations (obesity, hypertension, low HDL, hypertriglyceridemia, and diabetes). Linear regression models were performed and structural equation modeling was used to evaluate mediation. Although lower childhood SEP was associated with higher levels of CRP in adult life, this association was not independent of adulthood SEP. However, CRP increased linearly with increasing number of unfavorable social circumstances during the life course (p trend <0.001). The metabolic alterations were the most important mediator between cumulative SEP and CRP. This mediation path accounted for 49.5% of the total effect of cumulative SEP on CRP among women, but only 20.2% among men. In consequence, the portion of the total effect of cumulative SEP on CRP that was mediated by risk behaviors and metabolic alterations was higher among women (55.4%) than among men (36.8%). Conclusions Cumulative SEP across life span was associated with elevated systemic inflammation in adulthood. Although health-risk behaviors and metabolic alterations were important mediators of this association, a sizable fraction of this

  17. Associations between childhood socioeconomic position and adulthood obesity.

    PubMed

    Senese, Laura C; Almeida, Nisha D; Fath, Anne Kittler; Smith, Brendan T; Loucks, Eric B

    2009-01-01

    Childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) is inversely associated with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Obesity in adulthood may be a biologic mechanism. Objectives were to systematically review literature published between 1998 and 2008 that examined associations of childhood SEP with adulthood obesity. Five databases (Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science) were searched for studies from any country, in any language. Forty-eight publications based on 30 studies were identified. In age-adjusted analyses, inverse associations were found between childhood SEP and adulthood obesity in 70% (14 of 20) of studies in females and 27% (4 of 15) in males. In studies of females showing inverse associations between childhood SEP and adulthood obesity, typical effect sizes in age-adjusted analyses for the difference in body mass index between the highest and lowest SEP were 1.0-2.0 kg/m(2); for males, effect sizes were typically 0.2-0.5 kg/m(2). Analyses adjusted for age and adult SEP showed inverse associations in 47% (8 of 17) of studies in females and 14% (2 of 14) of studies in males. When other covariates were additionally adjusted for, inverse associations were found in 4 of 12 studies in females and 2 of 8 studies in males; effect sizes were typically reduced compared with analyses adjusted for age only. In summary, the findings suggest that childhood SEP is inversely related to adulthood obesity in females and not associated in males after adjustment for age. Adulthood SEP and other obesity risk factors may be the mechanisms responsible for the observed associations between childhood SEP and adulthood obesity.

  18. Socioeconomic position and participation in colorectal cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Frederiksen, B L; Jørgensen, T; Brasso, K; Holten, I; Osler, M

    2010-01-01

    Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening with faecal occult blood test (FOBT) has the potential to reduce the incidence and mortality of CRC. Screening uptake is known to be inferior in people with low socioeconomic position (SEP) when compared with those with high position; however, the results of most previous studies have limited value because they are based on recall or area-based measures of socioeconomic position, and might thus be subject to selective participation and misclassification. In this study we investigated differences in CRC screening participation using register-based individual information on education, employment, and income to encompass different but related aspects of socioeconomic stratification. Also, the impact of ethnicity and cohabiting status was analysed. Methods: A feasibility study on CRC screening was conducted in two Danish counties in 2005 and 2006. Screening consisted of a self-administered FOBT kit mailed to 177 114 inhabitants aged 50–74 years. Information on individual socioeconomic status was obtained from Statistics Denmark. Results: A total of 85 374 (48%) of the invited returned the FOBT kits. Participation was significantly higher in women than in men (OR=1.58 (1.55–1.61)), when all socioeconomic and demographic variables were included in the statistical model. Participation also increased with increasing level of education, with OR=1.38 (1.33–1.43) in those with a higher education compared with short education. Also, participation increased with increasing income levels, with OR=1.94 (1.87–2.01) in the highest vs lowest quintile. Individuals with a disability pension, the unemployed and self-employed people were significantly less likely to participate (OR=0.77 (0.74–0.80), OR=0.83 (0.80–0.87), and OR=0.85 (0.81–0.89), respectively). Non-western immigrants were less likely to participate (OR=0.62 (0.59–0.66)) in a model controlling for age, sex, and county; however, this difference might be

  19. Socioeconomic position in childhood and cancer in adulthood: a rapid-review

    PubMed Central

    Vohra, Jyotsna; Marmot, Michael G; Bauld, Linda; Hiatt, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Background The relationship of childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) to adult cancer has been inconsistent in the literature and there has been no review summarising the current evidence focused solely on cancer outcomes. Methods and results We performed a rapid review of the literature, which identified 22 publications from 13 studies, primarily in the UK and northern European countries that specifically analysed individual measures of SEP in childhood and cancer outcomes in adulthood. Most of these studies adjusted for adult SEP as a critical mediator of the relationship of interest. Conclusions Results confirm that childhood socioeconomic circumstances have a strong influence on stomach cancer and are likely to contribute, along with adult circumstances, to lung cancer through cumulative exposure to smoking. There was also some evidence of increased risk of colorectal, liver, cervical and pancreatic cancers with lower childhood SEP in large studies, but small numbers of cancer deaths made these estimates imprecise. Gaps in knowledge and potential policy implications are presented. PMID:26715591

  20. Lower Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status Associated with Reduced Diversity of the Colonic Microbiota in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gregory E; Engen, Phillip A; Gillevet, Patrick M; Shaikh, Maliha; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Forsyth, Christopher B; Mutlu, Ece; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, there are persistent and widening socioeconomic gaps in morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases. Although most disparities research focuses on person-level socioeconomic-status, mounting evidence suggest that chronic diseases also pattern by the demographic characteristics of neighborhoods. Yet the biological mechanisms underlying these associations are poorly understood. There is increasing recognition that chronic diseases share common pathogenic features, some of which involve alterations in the composition, diversity, and functioning of the gut microbiota. This study examined whether socioeconomic-status was associated with alpha-diversity of the colonic microbiota. Forty-four healthy adults underwent un-prepped sigmoidoscopy, during which mucosal biopsies and fecal samples were collected. Subjects' zip codes were geocoded, and census data was used to form a composite indicator of neighborhood socioeconomic-status, reflecting household income, educational attainment, employment status, and home value. In unadjusted analyses, neighborhood socioeconomic-status explained 12-18 percent of the variability in alpha-diversity of colonic microbiota. The direction of these associations was positive, meaning that as neighborhood socioeconomic-status increased, so did alpha-diversity of both the colonic sigmoid mucosa and fecal microbiota. The strength of these associations persisted when models were expanded to include covariates reflecting potential demographic (age, gender, race/ethnicity) and lifestyle (adiposity, alcohol use, smoking) confounds. In these models neighborhood socioeconomic-status continued to explain 11-22 percent of the variability in diversity indicators. Further analyses suggested these patterns reflected socioeconomic variations in evenness, but not richness, of microbial communities residing in the sigmoid. We also found indications that residence in neighborhoods of higher socioeconomic-status was associated with a

  1. Lower Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status Associated with Reduced Diversity of the Colonic Microbiota in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Gregory E.; Engen, Phillip A.; Gillevet, Patrick M.; Shaikh, Maliha; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Mutlu, Ece; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, there are persistent and widening socioeconomic gaps in morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases. Although most disparities research focuses on person-level socioeconomic-status, mounting evidence suggest that chronic diseases also pattern by the demographic characteristics of neighborhoods. Yet the biological mechanisms underlying these associations are poorly understood. There is increasing recognition that chronic diseases share common pathogenic features, some of which involve alterations in the composition, diversity, and functioning of the gut microbiota. This study examined whether socioeconomic-status was associated with alpha-diversity of the colonic microbiota. Forty-four healthy adults underwent un-prepped sigmoidoscopy, during which mucosal biopsies and fecal samples were collected. Subjects’ zip codes were geocoded, and census data was used to form a composite indicator of neighborhood socioeconomic-status, reflecting household income, educational attainment, employment status, and home value. In unadjusted analyses, neighborhood socioeconomic-status explained 12–18 percent of the variability in alpha-diversity of colonic microbiota. The direction of these associations was positive, meaning that as neighborhood socioeconomic-status increased, so did alpha-diversity of both the colonic sigmoid mucosa and fecal microbiota. The strength of these associations persisted when models were expanded to include covariates reflecting potential demographic (age, gender, race/ethnicity) and lifestyle (adiposity, alcohol use, smoking) confounds. In these models neighborhood socioeconomic-status continued to explain 11–22 percent of the variability in diversity indicators. Further analyses suggested these patterns reflected socioeconomic variations in evenness, but not richness, of microbial communities residing in the sigmoid. We also found indications that residence in neighborhoods of higher socioeconomic-status was associated with

  2. Child and adolescent labor, socioeconomic status, and reduced adult height.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Rosa Amélia; Santana, Vilma Sousa

    2010-01-01

    This population-based cross-sectional study of 3262 individuals aged 18 to 65 years from Aracaju, Brazil investigates the effects of child/adolescent labor (CAL) experience on adult height, considering gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and skin color. We hypothesized that the younger children are at their first job, the greater the negative effects will be on their later growth as adults. Child/adolescent laborers reported having paid jobs before 14 years of age. Among males in the low and medium SES strata, CAL experience was negatively associated with adult height independent of skin color; among females, this inverse association was observed for those in the low and high SES strata. Among males in the low and medium SES strata, there was a linear inverse relation between age at first job and adult height. CAL could reduce height in adulthood, suggesting a need for programs that reduce the impact of CAL on future physical development.

  3. Socioeconomic Costs of Overweight and Obesity in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jae Heon; Cho, Young Gyu; Song, Hye Ryoung; Kim, Kyung A

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity in a sample of Korean adults aged 20 yr and older in 2005. The socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity include direct costs (inpatient care, outpatient care and medication) and indirect costs (loss of productivity due to premature deaths and inpatient care, time costs, traffic costs and nursing fees). Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, ischemic heart disease, stroke, colon cancer and osteoarthritis were selected as obesity-related diseases. The population attributable fraction (PAF) of obesity was calculated from national representative data of Korea such as the National Health Insurance Corporation (NHIC) cohort data and the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data. Direct costs of overweight and obesity were estimated at approximately U$1,081 million equivalent (men: U$497 million, women: U$584 million) and indirect costs were estimated at approximately U$706 million (men: U$527 million, women: U$178 million). The estimated total socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity were approximately U$1,787 million (men: U$1,081 million, women: U$706 million). These total costs represented about 0.22% of the gross domestic product (GDP) and 3.7% of the national health care expenditures in 2005. We found the socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity in Korean adults aged 20 yr and older are substantial. In order to control the socioeconomic burden attributable to overweight and obesity, effective national strategies for prevention and management of obesity should be established and implemented. PMID:22147988

  4. Childhood socioeconomic status and race are associated with adult sleep.

    PubMed

    Tomfohr, Lianne M; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Dimsdale, Joel E

    2010-01-01

    Race and current socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with sleep. Parental education, a commonly studied component of childhood SES, is predictive of adult health outcomes; yet, its impact on adult sleep remains unclear. In this study, the sleep of 128 Black and White adults was investigated. Participants with lower childhood SES (assessed via parental education) spent more time in Stage 2 sleep and less time in slow-wave sleep (SWS) than those with higher childhood SES. In addition, women from low childhood SES backgrounds took longer to fall asleep than women from high SES backgrounds. Black participants spent less time in SWS than their White counterparts, and an Age × Race interaction was detected in the prediction of subjective sleep quality. Results were not mediated via current SES or health practices.

  5. Neighborhood socioeconomic position and tuberculosis transmission: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Current understanding of tuberculosis (TB) genotype clustering in the US is based on individual risk factors. This study sought to identify whether area-based socioeconomic status (SES) was associated with genotypic clustering among culture-confirmed TB cases. Methods A retrospective cohort analysis was performed on data collected on persons with incident TB in King County, Washington, 2004–2008. Multilevel models were used to identify the relationship between area-level SES at the block group level and clustering utilizing a socioeconomic position index (SEP). Results Of 519 patients with a known genotyping result and block group, 212 (41%) of isolates clustered genotypically. Analyses suggested an association between lower area-based SES and increased recent TB transmission, particularly among US-born populations. Models in which community characteristics were measured at the block group level demonstrated that lower area-based SEP was positively associated with genotypic clustering after controlling for individual covariates. However, the trend in higher clustering odds with lower SEP index quartile diminished when additional block-group covariates. Conclusions Results stress the need for TB control interventions that take area-based measures into account, with particular focus on poor neighborhoods. Interventions based on area-based characteristics, such as improving case finding strategies, utilizing location-based screening and addressing social inequalities, could reduce recent rates of transmission. PMID:24767197

  6. Issues to Consider When Measuring and Applying Socioeconomic Position Quantitatively in Immigrant Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Signe Smith; Hempler, Nana Folmann; Krasnik, Allan

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between migration and health is complex, yet, immigrant-related inequalities in health are largely influenced by socioeconomic position. Drawing upon previous findings, this paper discusses issues to consider when measuring and applying socioeconomic position in quantitative immigrant health research. When measuring socioeconomic position, it is important to be aware of four aspects: (1) there is a lack of clarity about how socioeconomic position should be measured; (2) different types of socioeconomic position may be relevant to immigrants compared with the native-born population; (3) choices of measures of socioeconomic position in quantitative analyses often rely on data availability; and (4) different measures of socioeconomic position have different effects in population groups. Therefore, caution should be used in the collection, presentation, analyses, and interpretation of data and researchers need to display their proposed conceptual models and data limitations as well as apply different approaches for analyses. PMID:24287857

  7. Childhood socioeconomic status amplifies genetic effects on adult intelligence.

    PubMed

    Bates, Timothy C; Lewis, Gary J; Weiss, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    Studies of intelligence in children reveal significantly higher heritability among groups with high socioeconomic status (SES) than among groups with low SES. These interaction effects, however, have not been examined in adults, when between-families environmental effects are reduced. Using 1,702 adult twins (aged 24-84) for whom intelligence assessment data were available, we tested for interactions between childhood SES and genetic effects, between-families environmental effects, and unique environmental effects. Higher SES was associated with higher mean intelligence scores. Moreover, the magnitude of genetic influences on intelligence was proportional to SES. By contrast, environmental influences were constant. These results suggest that rather than setting lower and upper bounds on intelligence, genes multiply environmental inputs that support intellectual growth. This mechanism implies that increasing SES may raise average intelligence but also magnifies individual differences in intelligence.

  8. Authoritarian parenting attitudes and social origin: The multigenerational relationship of socioeconomic position to childrearing values.

    PubMed

    Friedson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Support for authoritarian approaches to parenting, including corporal punishment, is known to be elevated among individuals with low current levels of socioeconomic attainment. The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine whether authoritarian parenting dispositions are related to disadvantages in one's social background, in addition to one's present socioeconomic standing; and (2) to distinguish, in this regard, between support for spanking and other authoritarian parenting dispositions. Ordered logit models, applied to General Social Survey data concerning a nationally representative sample of US adults, are used to examine relationships of authoritarian parenting dispositions to the socioeconomic positions that respondents currently occupy and in which they were raised. It is found that support for spanking (N=10,725) and valuing of obedience (N=10,043) are inversely related to the socioeconomic status (SES) of one's family of origin, and that these associations are robust to controls for one's current SES. A disadvantaged family background is found to increase support for spanking most among those with high current SES. Strong associations (robust to controls for SES indicators) are additionally found between African-American racial identity and support for authoritarian parenting. Prior research indicates that authoritarian parenting practices such as spanking may be harmful to children. Thus, if the parenting attitudes analyzed here translate into parenting practices, then this study's findings may point to a mechanism for the intergenerational transmission of disadvantages. PMID:26585215

  9. IQ and alcohol-related morbidity and mortality among Swedish men and women: the importance of socioeconomic position

    PubMed Central

    Sjölund, Sara; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric; Allebeck, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Aims To investigate the association between intelligence in childhood and later risk of alcohol-related disease and death by examining (1) the mediating effect of social position as an adult and (2) gender as a possible moderator. Design Cohort study. Setting and participants 21 809 Swedish men and women, born in 1948 and 1953, from the Swedish “Evaluation Through Follow-up” database were followed until 2006/2007. Measurements IQ was measured in school at the age of 13 and alcohol-related disease and death (International Classification of Disease codes) were followed from 1971 and onwards. Findings We found an increased crude HR of 1.23 (95% CI 1.18 to 1.29) for every decrease in group of IQ test results for alcohol-related admissions and 1.14 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.24) for alcohol-related death. Social position as an adult was found to mediate both outcomes. Gender was not found to moderate the association. However, adjusting for socioeconomic position lowered the risk more among men than among women. Conclusions There was an inverse, graded association between IQ and alcohol-related disease and death, which at least partially was mediated by social position as an adult. For alcohol-related death, complete mediation by socioeconomic position as an adult was found. Gender does not moderate this association. The role of socioeconomic position may differ between the genders. PMID:26163557

  10. Life Course Socioeconomic Position and Mid-Late Life Cognitive Function in Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate whether the positive relation between socioeconomic position (SEP) across the life course and later life cognitive function observed in Western populations exists in former communist countries with apparently smaller income inequalities. Method. Structural equation modeling analysis of cross-sectional data on 30,846 participants aged 45–78 years in four Central and Eastern European centers: Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland), Kaunas (Lithuania), and six Czech towns from the HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe) study. SEP was measured using self-reported childhood (maternal education, household amenities), adult (education), and older adult (current material circumstances) indicators. Latent variable for cognition was constructed from word recall, animal naming, and letter search. Results. Associations between SEP measures over the life course and cognition were similar across study centers. Education had the strongest direct association with cognition, followed by current material circumstances. Indirect path from education to cognition, mediated by current SEP, was small. Direct path from mother’s education to cognition was significant but modest, and partially mediated by later SEP measures, particularly education. Discussion. In these Eastern European populations, late life cognition reflected life course socioeconomic trajectories similarly to findings in Western countries. PMID:24598045

  11. Socioeconomic inequalities in occupational, leisure-time, and transport related physical activity among European adults: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study systematically reviewed the evidence pertaining to socioeconomic inequalities in different domains of physical activity (PA) by European region. Methods Studies conducted between January 2000 and December 2010 were identified by a systematic search in Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, Psychinfo, Sportdiscus, Sociological Abstracts, and Social Service Abstracts. English-language peer-reviewed studies undertaken in the general population of adults (18–65 years) were classified by domain of PA (total, leisure-time including sport, occupational, active transport), indicator of socioeconomic position (education, income, occupation), and European region. Distributions of reported positive, negative, and null associations were evaluated. Results A total of 131 studies met the inclusion criteria. Most studies were conducted in Scandinavia (n = 47). Leisure-time PA was the most frequently studied PA outcome (n = 112). Considerable differences in the direction of inequalities were seen for the different domains of PA. Most studies reported that those with high socioeconomic position were more physically active during leisure-time compared to those with low socioeconomic position (68% positive associations for total leisure-time PA, 76% for vigorous leisure-time PA). Occupational PA was more prevalent among the lower socioeconomic groups (63% negative associations). Socioeconomic differences in total PA and active transport PA did not show a consistent pattern (40% and 38% positive associations respectively). Some inequalities differed by European region or socioeconomic indicator, however these differences were not very pronounced. Conclusions The direction of socioeconomic inequalities in PA in Europe differed considerably by domain of PA. The contradictory results for total PA may partly be explained by contrasting socioeconomic patterns for leisure-time PA and occupational PA. PMID:22992350

  12. Socioeconomic aspects of the circumstances and consequences of car crashes among young adults.

    PubMed

    Hasselberg, Marie; Vaez, Marjan; Laflamme, Lucie

    2005-01-01

    The study examines whether there are socioeconomic differences between young adult car drivers involved in road-traffic crashes with regard to crash-injury severity and crash circumstances. Differences in social patterning based on socioeconomic position (SEP) of origin and of destination, and also the effect of gender, are considered. Subjects born in 1970-1972 were extracted from the Swedish Population and Housing Census of 1985 (n = 329,716). Individual records from the 1985 census were linked to road-traffic data for the period 1988-2000 on the basis of a search for each subject's first police-registered road-traffic crash as a car driver (n = 12,502). Information on household socioeconomic group was taken from the census of 1985, and data on completed education at age 28-30 were gathered from Sweden's Register of Education. Two categories of crash severity were analysed (minor/no injury and severe/fatal injury), and also five crash circumstances (based on a classification of five crash descriptors). Both crash severity and crash circumstances are unequally distributed across social groups among young adult drivers. Social patterning is more pronounced for severe injuries/fatalities, and is consistently so across crash circumstances depending on SEP of destination, particularly for males. Socioeconomic differences are more pronounced for crash circumstances characterised as front-on and overtaking collisions and for single-vehicle crashes (43% of total crashes). In conclusion,the excess risk of young drivers from lower socioeconomic groups is consistent over crash severity but more pronounced as severity increases and for certain crash circumstances. PMID:15587501

  13. The influence of neighbourhood formality status and socio-economic position on self-rated health among adult men and women: a multilevel, cross sectional, population study from Aleppo, Syria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is substantial evidence from high income countries that neighbourhoods have an influence on health independent of individual characteristics. However, neighbourhood characteristics are rarely taken into account in the analysis of urban health studies from developing countries. Informal urban neighbourhoods are home to about half of the population in Aleppo, the second largest city in Syria (population>2.5 million). This study aimed to examine the influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES) and formality status on self-rated health (SRH) of adult men and women residing in formal and informal urban neighbourhoods in Aleppo. Methods The study used data from 2038 survey respondents to the Aleppo Household Survey, 2004 (age 18–65 years, 54.8% women, response rate 86%). Respondents were nested in 45 neighbourhoods. Five individual-level SES measures, namely education, employment, car ownership, item ownership and household density, were aggregated to the level of neighbourhood. Multilevel regression models were used to investigate associations. Results We did not find evidence of important SRH variation between neighbourhoods. Neighbourhood average of household item ownership was associated with a greater likelihood of reporting excellent SRH in women; odds ratio (OR) for an increase of one item on average was 2.3 (95% CI 1.3-4.4 (versus poor SRH)) and 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.5 (versus normal SRH)), adjusted for individual characteristics and neighbourhood formality. After controlling for individual and neighbourhood SES measures, women living in informal neighbourhoods were less likely to report poor SRH than women living in formal neighbourhoods (OR= 0.4; 95% CI (0.2- 0.8) (versus poor SRH) and OR=0.5; 95%; CI (0.3-0.9) (versus normal SRH). Conclusions Findings support evidence from high income countries that certain characteristic of neighbourhoods affect men and women in different ways. Further research from similar urban settings in

  14. Children's and adolescents' sedentary behaviour in relation to socioeconomic position

    PubMed Central

    Coombs, Ngaire; Shelton, Nicola; Rowlands, Alex; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Background Sedentary behaviour is an emerging cardiometabolic risk factor in young people. Little is known about how socioeconomic position (SEP) and sedentary behaviour are associated in children and adolescents. This study examines associations between SEP and sedentary behaviour in school-age children and adolescents. Methods The core sample comprised 3822 Health Survey for England 2008 participants aged 5–15 years with complete information on SEP (household income, head of household occupational social class and area deprivation) and self-reported sedentary time (television viewing and other sitting during non-school times). Accelerometer-measured total sedentary time was measured in a subsample (N=587). We examined multivariable associations between SEP (including a composite SEP score) and sedentary time using generalised linear models, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, physical activity, accelerometer wear time and mutually adjusting for the other SEP indicators. Results Participants in the highest SEP category spent 16 min/day less (95% CI 6 to 25, p=0.003) watching TV than participants in the lowest SEP category; yet they spent 7 (2 to 16, p=0.010) and 17 (5 to 29, p<0.000) min/day more in non-TV sitting and total (accelerometry-measured) sedentary time, respectively. Associations across individual SEP components varied in strength. Area deprivation was not associated with sedentary time. Conclusions Low SEP is linked with higher television times but with lower total (accelerometer-measured) sedentary time, and non-TV sitting during non-school time in children and adolescents. Associations between sedentary time and SEP differ by type of sedentary behaviour. TV viewing is not a good proxy for total sedentary time in children. PMID:23851152

  15. “I’ll Give You the World”: Socioeconomic Differences in Parental Support of Adult Children

    PubMed Central

    Fingerman, Karen L.; Kim, Kyungmin; Davis, Eden M.; Furstenberg, Frank F.; Birditt, Kira S.; Zarit, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that parents with higher socioeconomic status provide more resources to their children during childhood and adolescence. The authors asked whether similar effects associated with parental socioeconomic position are extended to adult children. Middle-aged parents (N = 633) from the Family Exchanges Study reported support they provided to their grown children and coresidence with grown children (N = 1,384). Parents with higher income provided more emotional and material support to the average children. Grown children of parents with less education were more likely to coreside with them. Parental resources (e.g., being married) and demands (e.g., family size) explained these patterns. Of interest is that lower income parents provided more total support to all children (except total financial support). Lower income families may experience a double jeopardy; each grown child receives less support on average, but parents exert greater efforts providing more total support to all their children. PMID:26339102

  16. A Review of the Relationship Between Socioeconomic Position and the Early-Life Predictors of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Adrian J; Spence, Alison C; Laws, Rachel; Hesketh, Kylie D; Lioret, Sandrine; Campbell, Karen J

    2015-09-01

    A range of important early-life predictors of later obesity have been identified. Children of lower socioeconomic position (SEP) have a steeper weight gain trajectory from birth with a strong socioeconomic gradient in child and adult obesity prevalence. An assessment of the association between SEP and the early-life predictors of obesity has been lacking. The review involved a two-stage process: Part 1, using previously published systematic reviews, we developed a list of the potentially modifiable determinants of obesity observable in the pre-natal, peri-natal or post-natal (pre-school) periods; and part 2, conducting a literature review of evidence for socioeconomic patterning in the determinants identified in part 1. Strong evidence was found for an inverse relationship between SEP and (1) pre-natal risk factors (pre-pregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI), diabetes and pre-pregnancy diet), (2) antenatal/peri natal risk factors (smoking during pregnancy and low birth weight) and (3) early-life nutrition (including breastfeeding initiation and duration, early introduction of solids, maternal and infant diet quality, and some aspects of the home food environment), and television viewing in young children. Less strong evidence (because of a lack of studies for some factors) was found for paternal BMI, maternal weight gain during pregnancy, child sleep duration, high birth weight and lack of physical activity in young children. A strong socioeconomic gradient exists for the majority of the early-life predictors of obesity suggesting that the die is cast very early in life (even pre-conception). Lifestyle interventions targeting disadvantaged women at or before child-bearing age may therefore be particularly important in reducing inequality. Given the likely challenges of reaching this target population, it may be that during pregnancy and their child's early years are more feasible windows for engagement. PMID:26627493

  17. A Review of the Relationship Between Socioeconomic Position and the Early-Life Predictors of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Adrian J; Spence, Alison C; Laws, Rachel; Hesketh, Kylie D; Lioret, Sandrine; Campbell, Karen J

    2015-09-01

    A range of important early-life predictors of later obesity have been identified. Children of lower socioeconomic position (SEP) have a steeper weight gain trajectory from birth with a strong socioeconomic gradient in child and adult obesity prevalence. An assessment of the association between SEP and the early-life predictors of obesity has been lacking. The review involved a two-stage process: Part 1, using previously published systematic reviews, we developed a list of the potentially modifiable determinants of obesity observable in the pre-natal, peri-natal or post-natal (pre-school) periods; and part 2, conducting a literature review of evidence for socioeconomic patterning in the determinants identified in part 1. Strong evidence was found for an inverse relationship between SEP and (1) pre-natal risk factors (pre-pregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI), diabetes and pre-pregnancy diet), (2) antenatal/peri natal risk factors (smoking during pregnancy and low birth weight) and (3) early-life nutrition (including breastfeeding initiation and duration, early introduction of solids, maternal and infant diet quality, and some aspects of the home food environment), and television viewing in young children. Less strong evidence (because of a lack of studies for some factors) was found for paternal BMI, maternal weight gain during pregnancy, child sleep duration, high birth weight and lack of physical activity in young children. A strong socioeconomic gradient exists for the majority of the early-life predictors of obesity suggesting that the die is cast very early in life (even pre-conception). Lifestyle interventions targeting disadvantaged women at or before child-bearing age may therefore be particularly important in reducing inequality. Given the likely challenges of reaching this target population, it may be that during pregnancy and their child's early years are more feasible windows for engagement.

  18. Does the importance of dietary costs for fruit and vegetable intake vary by socioeconomic position?

    PubMed

    Mackenbach, Joreintje D; Brage, Soren; Forouhi, Nita G; Griffin, Simon J; Wareham, Nicholas J; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-11-14

    Evidence suggests that diets meeting recommendations for fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake are more costly. Dietary costs may be a greater constraint on the diet quality of people of lower socioeconomic position (SEP). The aim of this study was to examine whether dietary costs are more strongly associated with F&V intake in lower-SEP groups than in higher-SEP groups. Data on individual participants' education and income were available from a population-based, cross-sectional study of 10 020 British adults. F&V intake and dietary costs (GBP/d) were derived from a semi-quantitative FFQ. Dietary cost estimates were based on UK food prices. General linear models were used to assess associations between SEP, quartiles of dietary costs and F&V intake. Effect modification of SEP gradients by dietary costs was examined with interaction terms. Analysis demonstrated that individuals with lowest quartile dietary costs, low income and low education consumed less F&V than individuals with higher dietary costs, high income and high education. Significant interaction between SEP and dietary costs indicated that the association between dietary costs and F&V intake was stronger for less-educated and lower-income groups. That is, socioeconomic differences in F&V intake were magnified among individuals who consumed lowest-cost diets. Such amplification of socioeconomic inequalities in diet among those consuming low-cost diets indicates the need to address food costs in strategies to promote healthy diets. In addition, the absence of socioeconomic inequalities for individuals with high dietary costs suggests that high dietary costs can compensate for lack of other material, or psychosocial resources.

  19. The influence of ethnicity and adverse life experiences during adolescence on young adult socioeconomic attainment: the moderating role of education.

    PubMed

    Wickrama, K A S; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Baltimore, Diana

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has documented that adverse life experiences during adolescence, particularly for ethnic minorities, have a long-term influence on income and asset attainment and that this relationship is largely mediated by educational achievement. We extend prior research by investigating three research questions. First, we investigate the extent to which community disadvantage, family factors and race/ethnicity each exert an independent influence on young adult socioeconomic attainment. Second, we examine whether youths' educational attainment mediates these independent influences on socioeconomic attainment. Third, we test whether educational attainment ameliorates the negative influences of disadvantaged community and family conditions and race/ethnicity on socioeconomic attainment. We address these questions using multilevel modeling with longitudinal, prospective data from Waves 1 and 4 of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which has a nationally representative sample of adolescents (N = 13, 450; 53 % females). Regarding our first research question, our results indicated that African Americans, youth from disadvantaged communities, lower SES families achieve significantly lower levels of earnings, assets, and job quality during young adulthood. Second, we found that young adults' educational level only partially mediate the influences of family and race/ethnicity influences on young adults' socioeconomic attainment. Third, we found that young adults' educational level buffered the influence of early socioeconomic adversities and accentuated the positive influences of family resources. Findings highlight the importance of social context as well as educational opportunities during childhood and adolescence for economic stability in early adulthood. PMID:22528370

  20. The influence of ethnicity and adverse life experiences during adolescence on young adult socioeconomic attainment: the moderating role of education.

    PubMed

    Wickrama, K A S; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Baltimore, Diana

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has documented that adverse life experiences during adolescence, particularly for ethnic minorities, have a long-term influence on income and asset attainment and that this relationship is largely mediated by educational achievement. We extend prior research by investigating three research questions. First, we investigate the extent to which community disadvantage, family factors and race/ethnicity each exert an independent influence on young adult socioeconomic attainment. Second, we examine whether youths' educational attainment mediates these independent influences on socioeconomic attainment. Third, we test whether educational attainment ameliorates the negative influences of disadvantaged community and family conditions and race/ethnicity on socioeconomic attainment. We address these questions using multilevel modeling with longitudinal, prospective data from Waves 1 and 4 of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which has a nationally representative sample of adolescents (N = 13, 450; 53 % females). Regarding our first research question, our results indicated that African Americans, youth from disadvantaged communities, lower SES families achieve significantly lower levels of earnings, assets, and job quality during young adulthood. Second, we found that young adults' educational level only partially mediate the influences of family and race/ethnicity influences on young adults' socioeconomic attainment. Third, we found that young adults' educational level buffered the influence of early socioeconomic adversities and accentuated the positive influences of family resources. Findings highlight the importance of social context as well as educational opportunities during childhood and adolescence for economic stability in early adulthood.

  1. Unevenly distributed: a systematic review of the health literature about socioeconomic inequalities in adult obesity in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a growing literature documenting socioeconomic inequalities in obesity risk among adults in the UK, with poorer groups suffering higher risk. Methods In this systematic review, we summarize and appraise the extant peer-reviewed literature about socioeconomic inequalities in adult obesity risk in the UK published between 1980 and 2010. Only studies featuring empirical assessments of relations between socioeconomic indicators and measures of obesity among adults in the UK were included. Results A total of 35 articles met inclusion criteria, and were reviewed here. Conclusion Socioeconomic indicators of low socioeconomic position (SEP), including occupational social class of the head-of-household at birth and during childhood, earlier adulthood occupational social class, contemporaneous occupational social class, educational attainment, and area-level deprivation were generally inversely associated with adult obesity risk in the UK. Measures of SEP were more predictive of obesity among women than among men. We outline important methodological limitations to the literature and recommend avenues for future research. PMID:22230643

  2. Associations between socioeconomic position and asthma: findings from a historical cohort.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sumaiya; Henderson, John; Jeffreys, Mona; Davey Smith, George; Galobardes, Bruna

    2012-08-01

    Understanding the association between asthma and socioeconomic position (SEP) is key to identify preventable exposures to prevent inequalities and lessen overall disease burden. We aim to assess the variation in asthma across SEP groups in a historical cohort before the rise in asthma prevalence. Male students participating in a health survey at Glasgow University from 1948 to 1968 (n = 11,274) completed medical history of bronchitis, asthma, hay fever, eczema/urticaria, and reported father's occupation. A subsample responded to postal follow-up in adulthood (n = 4,101) that collected data on respiratory diseases, early life and adult SEP. Lower father's occupational class was associated with higher odds of asthma only (asthma without eczema/urticaria or hay fever) (trend adjusted multinomial odds ratio (aMOR) = 1.23, 95 % CI 1.03-1.47) but with lower odds of asthma with atopy (asthma with eczema/urticaria or hay fever) (trend aMOR = 0.66, 95 % CI 0.52-0.83) and atopy alone (trend aMOR = 0.84, 95 % CI 0.75-0.93). Household amenities (<3), in early life was associated with higher odds of adult-onset asthma (onset > 30 years) (OR = 1.48, 95 % CI 1.07-2.05) though this association attenuated after adjusting for age. Adult SEP (household crowding, occupation, income and car ownership) was not associated with adult-onset asthma. Lower father's occupational class in early life was associated with higher odds of asthma alone but lower odds of asthma with atopy in a cohort that preceded the 1960s rise in asthma prevalence. Different environmental exposures and/or disease awareness may explain this opposed socioeconomic patterning, but it is important to highlight that such patterning was already present before rises in the prevalence of asthma and atopy. PMID:22696048

  3. Socioeconomic Disparity in Inpatient Mortality Following Traumatic Injury in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mays T.; Hui, Xuan; Hashmi, Zain G.; Dhiman, Nitasha; Scott, Valerie K.; Efron, David; Schneider, Eric B.; Haider, Adil H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior studies have demonstrated that race and insurance status predict inpatient trauma mortality, but have been limited by their inability to adjust for direct measures of socioeconomic status (SES) and comorbidities. Our study aims to identify whether a relationship exists between SES and inpatient trauma mortality, after adjusting for known confounders. Methods Trauma patients aged 18–65 years with Injury Severity Scores (ISS) ≥ 9 were identified using the 2003–2009 Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Median household income (MHI) by zip code, available by quartiles, was used to measure SES. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to determine odds of inpatient mortality by MHI quartile, adjusting for ISS, type of injury, comorbidities, and patient demographics. Results 267,621 patients met inclusion criteria. Patients in lower wealth quartiles had significantly higher unadjusted inpatient mortality compared with the wealthiest quartile. Adjusted odds of death were also higher compared with the wealthiest quartile for Q1 (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.06–1.20), Q2 (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02–1.17), and Q3 (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.04–1.19). Conclusions Median household income predicts inpatient mortality after adult trauma, even after adjusting for race, insurance status, and comorbidities. Efforts to mitigate trauma disparities should address SES as an independent predictor of outcomes. PMID:23972652

  4. Diet quality in older age: the influence of childhood and adult socio-economic circumstances.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Janice L; Ramsay, Sheena E; Whincup, Peter H; Morris, Richard W; Lennon, Lucy T; Wannamethee, S Goya

    2015-05-14

    Socio-economic gradients in diet quality are well established. However, the influence of material socio-economic conditions particularly in childhood, and the use of multiple disaggregated socio-economic measures on diet quality have been little studied in the elderly. In the present study, we examined childhood and adult socio-economic measures, and social relationships, as determinants of diet quality cross-sectionally in 4252 older British men (aged 60-79 years). A FFQ provided data on daily fruit and vegetable consumption and the Elderly Dietary Index (EDI), with higher scores indicating better diet quality. Adult and childhood socio-economic measures included occupation/father's occupation, education and household amenities, which combined to create composite scores. Social relationships included social contact, living arrangements and marital status. Both childhood and adult socio-economic factors were independently associated with diet quality. Compared with non-manual social class, men of childhood manual social class were less likely to consume fruit and vegetables daily (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.66, 0.97), as were men of adult manual social class (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.54, 0.79), and less likely to be in the top EDI quartile (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.61, 0.88), similar to men of adult manual social class (OR 0.66, 95 % CI 0.55, 0.79). Diet quality decreased with increasing adverse adult socio-economic scores; however, the association with adverse childhood socio-economic scores diminished with adult social class adjustment. A combined adverse childhood and adulthood socio-economic score was associated with poor diet quality. Diet quality was most favourable in married men and those not living alone, but was not associated with social contact. Diet quality in older men is influenced by childhood and adulthood socio-economic factors, marital status and living arrangements.

  5. Learning to live with complexity: ethnicity, socioeconomic position, and health in Britain and the United States.

    PubMed

    Smith, G D

    2000-11-01

    The relation between ethnicity, socioeconomic position, and health is complex, has changed over time, and differs between countries. In the United States there is a long tradition of treating ethnic group membership simply as a socioeconomic measure, and differentials in health status between African Americans and groups of European origin have been considered purely socioeconomic. A contrary position sees the differences as either "cultural" or due to inherent "racial" differences. Although conventional socioeconomic indicators statistically explain much of the health difference between African Americans and Americans of European origin, they do not tell the full story. Incommensurate measures of socioeconomic position across ethnic groups clearly contribute to this difference. Additional factors, such as the extent of racism, are also likely to be important. The interaction of ethnicity, social position, and health in Britain is similarly complex. Studies that inadequately account for socioeconomic circumstances when examining ethnic-group differences in health can reify ethnicity (and its supposed correlates); however, the reductionist attribution of all ethnic differences in health to socioeconomic factors is untenable. The only productive way forward is through studies that recognize the contingency of the relations between socioeconomic position, ethnicity, and particular health outcomes.

  6. Child Maltreatment and Adult Socioeconomic Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zielinski, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Little empirical research has examined the impact that child maltreatment may have on victims' long-term socioeconomic well-being. The current study sought to address this gap by exploring the relationship between childhood experiences of abuse and neglect and several indicators of socioeconomic well-being in adulthood. Method: Data…

  7. Age and Socioeconomic Gradients of Health of Indian Adults: An Assessment of Self-Reported and Biological Measures of Health.

    PubMed

    Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Uttamacharya; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes overall socioeconomic gradients and the age patterns of socioeconomic gradients of health of Indian adults for multiple health indicators encompassing the multiple aspects of health. Cross-sectional data on 11,230 Indians aged 18 years and older from the WHO-SAGE India Wave 1, 2007 were analyzed. Multivariate logit models were estimated to examine effects of socioeconomic status (education and household wealth) and age on four health domains: self-rated health, self-reported functioning, chronic diseases, and biological health measures. Results show that socioeconomic status (SES) was negatively associated with prevalence of each health measure but with considerable heterogeneity across age groups. Results for hypertension and COPD were inconclusive. SES effects are significant while adjusting for background characteristics and health risk factors. The age patterns of SES gradient of health depict divergence with age, however, no conclusive age pattern emerged for biological markers. Overall, results in this paper dispelled the conclusion of negative SES-health association found in some previous Indian studies and reinforced the hypothesis of positive association of SES with health for Indian adults. Higher prevalence of negative health outcomes and SES disparities of health outcomes among older age-groups highlight need for inclusive and focused health care interventions for older adults across socioeconomic spectrum. PMID:26895999

  8. Age and Socioeconomic Gradients of Health of Indian Adults: An Assessment of Self-Reported and Biological Measures of Health.

    PubMed

    Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Uttamacharya; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes overall socioeconomic gradients and the age patterns of socioeconomic gradients of health of Indian adults for multiple health indicators encompassing the multiple aspects of health. Cross-sectional data on 11,230 Indians aged 18 years and older from the WHO-SAGE India Wave 1, 2007 were analyzed. Multivariate logit models were estimated to examine effects of socioeconomic status (education and household wealth) and age on four health domains: self-rated health, self-reported functioning, chronic diseases, and biological health measures. Results show that socioeconomic status (SES) was negatively associated with prevalence of each health measure but with considerable heterogeneity across age groups. Results for hypertension and COPD were inconclusive. SES effects are significant while adjusting for background characteristics and health risk factors. The age patterns of SES gradient of health depict divergence with age, however, no conclusive age pattern emerged for biological markers. Overall, results in this paper dispelled the conclusion of negative SES-health association found in some previous Indian studies and reinforced the hypothesis of positive association of SES with health for Indian adults. Higher prevalence of negative health outcomes and SES disparities of health outcomes among older age-groups highlight need for inclusive and focused health care interventions for older adults across socioeconomic spectrum.

  9. A Systematic Review of the Relationship between Socio-Economic Position and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gidlow, Christopher; Johnston, Lynne Halley; Crone, Diane; Ellis, Naomi; James, David

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present review was to examine epidemiological evidence to determine if there is strong evidence of a positive gradient of increasing physical activity across the socio-economic strata, and how relationships are affected by socio-economic measurement. Design: Systematic review. Method: A search of major databases was…

  10. Socioeconomic position, health behaviors, and C-reactive protein: A moderated-mediation analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kershaw, Kiarri N.; Mezuk, Briana; Abdou, Cleopatra M.; Rafferty, Jane A.; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We sought to understand the link between low SEP and cardiovascular disease (CVD) by examining the association between SEP, health-related coping behaviors, and C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker and independent risk factor for CVD in a US sample of adults. Design We used a multiple mediation model to evaluate how these behaviors work in concert to influence CRP levels and whether these relationships were moderated by gender and race/ethnicity. Main outcome measures CRP levels were divided into two categories: elevated CRP (3.1–10.0 mg/L) and normal CRP (≤ 3.0 mg/L). Results Both poverty and low educational attainment were associated with elevated CRP, and these associations were primarily explained through higher levels of smoking and lower levels of exercise. In the education model, poor diet also emerged as a significant mediator. These behaviors accounted for 87.9% of the total effect of education on CRP and 55.8% the total effect of poverty on CRP. We also found significant moderation of these mediated effects by gender and race/ethnicity. Conclusion These findings demonstrate the influence of socioeconomically-patterned environmental constraints on individual-level health behaviors. Specifically, reducing socioeconomic inequalities may have positive effects on CVD disparities through reducing cigarette smoking and increasing vigorous exercise. PMID:20496985

  11. Socioeconomic Position and Health: The Differential Effects of Education versus Income on the Onset versus Progression of Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herd, Pamela; Goesling, Brian; House, James S.

    2007-01-01

    This article seeks to elucidate the relationship between socioeconomic position and health by showing how different facets of socioeconomic position (education and income) affect different stages (onset vs. progression) of health problems. The biomedical literature has generally treated socioeconomic position as a unitary construct. Likewise, the…

  12. Associations between socioeconomic position and correlates of sedentary behaviour among youth: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gebremariam, M K; Altenburg, T M; Lakerveld, J; Andersen, L F; Stronks, K; Chinapaw, M J; Lien, N

    2015-11-01

    Existing research evidence indicates that children and adolescents of parents with a low socioeconomic position spend more time on sedentary behaviour than their counterparts. However, the mechanisms driving these differences remain poorly understood. The main aim of this systematic review was to summarize the evidence regarding the association between socioeconomic position and correlates of sedentary behaviour among youth (0-18 years) from developed countries. The literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO. A total of 37 studies were included. All but three studies examined screen-based sedentary behaviours only. Methodological quality ranged from low to moderate. Education was the most commonly used indicator of socioeconomic position, followed by income. Socioeconomic position was inversely related to the presence of a TV in the child's bedroom, parental modelling for TV viewing, parental co-viewing and eating meals in front of the TV. We found no/indeterminate evidence for an association between socioeconomic position and rules and regulations about screen time. The findings suggest possible factors that could be targeted in future intervention studies to decrease screen-based sedentary behaviour in lower socioeconomic groups in particular.

  13. Intelligence, Socioeconomic Background, Emotional Capacity, and Level of Education as Predictors of Attained Socioeconomic Position in a Cohort of Swedish Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorjonen, Kimmo; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Lundin, Andreas; Falkstedt, Daniel; Melin, Bo

    2012-01-01

    The question whether a person's attained socioeconomic position is mainly due to hers/his intelligence, socioeconomic background, or level of education, has sparked some controversy. In the present study, the effects of these three variables, as well as emotional capacity, on attained occupational position and on income were analyzed with…

  14. Adults Engaged in Lifelong Learning in Taiwan: Analysis by Gender and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Dian-Fu; Wu, Ming-Lieh; Lin, Sung-Po

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the nature of adult engagement in lifelong learning in Taiwan. Previous studies have shown that gender and socioeconomic status (SES) are key variables related to equal access to education. Are these variables related to adults' engagement in lifelong learning in a specific country? This study analysed data from a survey of…

  15. Enduring links from childhood mathematics and reading achievement to adult socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Stuart J; Bates, Timothy C

    2013-07-01

    Understanding the determinants of socioeconomic status (SES) is an important economic and social goal. Several major influences on SES are known, yet much of the variance in SES remains unexplained. In a large, population-representative sample from the United Kingdom, we tested the effects of mathematics and reading achievement at age 7 on attained SES by age 42. Mathematics and reading ability both had substantial positive associations with adult SES, above and beyond the effects of SES at birth, and with other important factors, such as intelligence. Achievement in mathematics and reading was also significantly associated with intelligence scores, academic motivation, and duration of education. These findings suggest effects of improved early mathematics and reading on SES attainment across the life span.

  16. Pathways from childhood abuse and other adversities to adult health risks: The role of adult socioeconomic conditions.

    PubMed

    Font, Sarah A; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including child abuse, have been linked with poor health outcomes in adulthood. The mechanisms that explain these relations are less understood. This study assesses whether associations of ACEs and health risks are mediated by adult socioeconomic conditions, and whether these pathways are different for maltreatment than for other types of adversities. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2012 survey (N=29,229), we employ structural equation modeling to (1) estimate associations of the number and type of ACEs with five health risks-depression, obesity, tobacco use, binge drinking, and self-reported sub-optimal health; and (2) assess whether adult socioeconomic conditions-marriage, divorce and separation, educational attainment, income and insurance status-mediate those associations. Findings suggest both direct and indirect associations between ACEs and health risks. At high numbers of ACEs, 15-20% of the association between number of ACEs and adult health risks was attributable to socioeconomic conditions. Associations of three ACEs (exposure to domestic violence, parental divorce, and residing with a person who was incarcerated) with health risks were nearly entirely explained by socioeconomic conditions in adulthood. However, child physical, emotional, and sexual abuse were significantly associated with several adult health risks, beyond the effects of other adversities, and socioeconomic conditions explained only a small portion of these associations. These findings suggest that the pathways to poor adult health differ by types of ACEs, and that childhood abuse is more likely than other adversities to have a direct impact.

  17. The dynamics of household dissolution and change in socio-economic position: A survival model in a rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sartorius, Kurt; Sartorius, Benn KD; Collinson, Mark A; Tollman, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates household dissolution and changes in asset wealth (socio-economic position) in a rural South African community containing settled refugees. Survival analysis applied to a longitudinal dataset indicated that the covariates increasing the risk of forced household dissolution were a reduction in socio-economic position (asset wealth), adult deaths and the permanent outmigration of more than 40% of the household. Conversely, the risk of dissolution was reduced by bigger households, state grants and older household heads. Significant spatial clusters of former refugee villages also showed a higher risk of dissolution after 20 years of permanent residence. A discussion of the dynamics of dissolution showed how an outflow/inflow of household assets (socio-economic position) was precipitated by each of the selected covariates. The paper shows how an understanding of the dynamics of forced household dissolution, combined with the use of geo-spatial mapping, can inform inter-disciplinary policy in a rural community. PMID:25937697

  18. Longitudinal Models of Socio-Economic Status: Impact on Positive Parenting Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azad, Gazi; Blacher, Jan; Marcoulides, George

    2014-01-01

    Parenting research is frequently conducted without a thorough examination of socio-economic characteristics. In this study, longitudinal observations of positive parenting were conducted across six time points. Participants were 219 mothers of children with and without developmental delays. Mothers' positive parenting increased during early…

  19. Socio-economic status and body mass index in low-income Mexican adults

    PubMed Central

    Fernald, Lia

    2007-01-01

    The study reported here explored the associations of body mass index (BMI), socio-economic status (SES), and beverage consumption in a very low income population. A house-to-house survey was conducted in 2003 of 12,873 Mexican adults. The sample was designed to be representative of the poorest communities in seven of Mexico’s thirty-one states. Greater educational attainment was significantly associated with higher BMI and a greater prevalence of overweight (25≤BMI<30) and obesity (30≤BMI) in men and women. The combined prevalence of overweight and obesity was over 70% in women over the median age of 35.4 years old with at least some primary education compared with a prevalence of 45% in women below the median age with no education. BMI was positively correlated with five of the six SES variables in both sexes: education, occupation, quality of housing conditions, household assets, and subjective social status. BMI and household income were significantly correlated in women but not in men. In the model including all SES variables, education, occupation, housing conditions and household assets all contributed independently and significantly to BMI, and household income and subjective social status did not. Increased consumption of alcoholic and carbonated sugar beverages was associated with higher SES and higher BMI in men and women. Thus, in spite of the narrow range of socio-economic variability in this population, the increased consumption of high calorie beverages may explain the positive relationship between SES and BMI. The positive associations between SES and BMI in this low-income, rural population are likely to be related to the changing patterns of food availability, food composition, consumption patterns and cultural factors. Contextually sensitive population-level interventions are critically needed to address obesity and overweight in poor populations, particularly in older women. PMID:17368895

  20. Examining the Racial Crossover in Mortality between African American and White Older Adults: A Multilevel Survival Analysis of Race, Individual Socioeconomic Status, and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Context.

    PubMed

    Yao, Li; Robert, Stephanie A

    2011-01-01

    We examine whether individual and neighborhood socioeconomic context contributes to black/white disparities in mortality among USA older adults. Using national longitudinal data from the Americans' Changing Lives study, along with census tract information for each respondent, we conduct multilevel survival analyses. Results show that black older adults are disadvantaged in mortality in younger old age, but older black adults have lower mortality risk than whites after about age 80. Both individual SES and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage contribute to the mortality risk of older adults but do not completely explain race differences in mortality. The racial mortality crossover persists even after controlling for multilevel SES, suggesting that black older adults experience selective survival at very old ages. Addressing the individual and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage of blacks is necessary to reduce mortality disparities that culminate in older adulthood.

  1. Socioeconomic Disparities in Emerging Adult Weight and Weight Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanKim, Nicole A.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore weight, weight behaviors, and tobacco and alcohol use among emerging adults by parental education and financial strain. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of 2010 survey data from an urban Minnesota public 4-year university and 2-year community college (n=1201). Results: Low parental education was associated with lower…

  2. Race, life course socioeconomic position, racial discrimination, depressive symptoms and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Darrell L; Puterman, Eli; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Matthews, Karen A; Adler, Nancy E

    2013-11-01

    Greater levels of socioeconomic position (SEP) are generally associated with better health. However results from previous studies vary across race/ethnicity and health outcomes. Further, the majority of previous studies do not account for the effects of life course SEP on health nor the effects of racial discrimination, which could moderate the effects of SEP on health. Using data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, we examined the relationship between a life course SEP measure on depressive symptoms and self-rated health. A life course SEP was constructed for each participant, using a framework that included parental education and occupation along with respondents' highest level of education and occupation. Interaction terms were created between life course SEP and racial discrimination to determine whether the association between SEP and health was moderated by experiences of racial discrimination. Analyses revealed that higher levels of life course SEP were inversely related to depressive symptoms. Greater life course SEP was positively associated with favorable self-rated health. Racial discrimination was associated with more depressive symptoms and poorer self-rated health. Analyses indicated a significant interaction between life course SEP and racial discrimination on depressive symptoms in the full sample. This suggested that for respondents with greater levels of SEP, racial discrimination was associated with reports of more depressive symptoms. Future research efforts should be made to examine whether individuals' perceptions and experiences of racial discrimination at the interpersonal and structural levels limits their ability to acquire human capital as well as their advancement in education and occupational status.

  3. Adolescent Diet and Time Use Clusters and Associations with Overweight and Obesity and Socioeconomic Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrar, Katia; Golley, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Risk factors for adolescent overweight and obesity include low levels of physical activity, high levels of sedentary behavior, low fruit and vegetable intake, and low socioeconomic position (SEP). To date, the vast majority of research investigating associations between lifestyle behaviors and weight status analyze dietary and time use factors…

  4. Contribution of Socioeconomic Position to Health Inequalities of British Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Eric; Hatton, Chris

    2007-01-01

    We examined the contribution of socioeconomic position to the health and mental health status of children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities in a sample of 10,438 British children. Intellectual disability was a significant risk factor for poorer general health, OR = 4.5, emotional disorders, OR = 2.0, and conduct disorders, OR = 7.7.…

  5. Socioeconomic Position Predicts Specialty Mental Health Service Use Independent of Clinical Severity: The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amone-P'Olak, Kennedy; Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Burger, Huibert

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate associations between different indices of family socioeconomic position (SEP) and the use of specialty mental health services (SMHS) and whether the associations exist after adjusting for severity of mental problems. Method: Using data from a large longitudinal study of adolescents (N = 2,149; mean age = 13.6 years [SD =…

  6. The Influence of Gender, Race, and Socioeconomic Status on Ability Change in Young Adults. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawis, Rene V.; Sung, Yong H.

    The Ball Aptitude Battery (BAB) is a multiple ability test battery of specific work skills for use in career counseling. This study reports on ability changes by gender, race, and socioeconomic status in a BAB retest of 112 young adults four years after their initial testing. The sample consisted of 68 females and 44 males; 15 Blacks, 21…

  7. Socioeconomic Risk Factors for Asthma in Chilean Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Corvalán, Camila; Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia; Rona, Roberto J.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We studied the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and asthma symptoms, severity of asthma, atopy, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) to methacholine. Methods. We studied 1232 men and women born between 1974 and 1978 in a semirural area of Chile. We assessed asthma symptoms with a standardized questionnaire, atopy with a skin-prick test to 8 allergens, and BHR to methacholine with the tidal breathing method. SES was derived from several indicators: education, occupation, completion of a welfare form, belongings, housing, number of siblings, and overcrowding. Results. Those with fewer belongings had more asthma symptoms. Those who had higher education and those who owned cars had fewer asthma symptoms and BHR. Overcrowding was negatively related to atopy, atopy with asthma symptoms, and BHR. Higher education and noncompletion of a welfare form were risk factors for atopy. Conclusion. The strength and direction of the association between asthma and SES depended on what definition of asthma was analyzed. Asthma symptoms were more common among poor people. There was some support for the hygiene hypothesis, as overcrowding was associated with less wheezing with atopy, less atopy, and less BHR. PMID:15985644

  8. The Socioeconomic Impact of Hearing Loss in US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Emmett, Susan D.; Francis, Howard W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the associations between hearing loss and educational attainment, income, and unemployment/underemployment in US adults. Study design National cross-sectional survey. Setting Ambulatory examination centers. Patients Adults aged 20-69 years who participated in the 1999-2002 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) audiometric evaluation and income questionnaire (n = 3379). Intervention(s) Pure tone audiometry, with hearing loss defined by World Health Organization criteria of bilateral pure tone average >25 decibels (0.5,1,2,4 kHz). Main outcome measure(s) Low educational attainment, defined as not completing high school; low income, defined as family income less than $20,000/year, and unemployment or underemployment, defined as not having a job or working less than 35 hours per week. Results Individuals with hearing loss had 3.21 times higher odds of low educational attainment (95% CI: 2.20-4.68) compared to normal-hearing individuals. Controlling for education, age, sex, and race, individuals with hearing loss had 1.58 times higher odds of low income (95% CI: 1.16-2.15) and 1.98 times higher odds of being unemployed or underemployed (95% CI: 1.38-2.85) compared to normal-hearing individuals. Conclusions Hearing loss is associated with low educational attainment in US adults. Even after controlling for education and important demographic factors, hearing loss is independently associated with economic hardship, including both low income and unemployment/underemployment. The societal impact of hearing loss is profound in this nationally representative study and should be further evaluated with longitudinal cohorts. PMID:25158616

  9. [Socioeconomic position and duration of disability benefit due to work-related musculoskeletal disorders].

    PubMed

    Souza, Norma Suely Souto; Santana, Vilma Sousa

    2012-02-01

    This study estimated the effect of socioeconomic position on the duration of disability benefits due to musculoskeletal disorders affecting the neck and/or upper limbs. A cohort study including 563 insured workers from the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, registered in the General Social Security System and who received temporary disability benefits due to musculoskeletal disorders affecting the neck and/or upper limbs, was performed in 2008 using data from the National Social Security Institute. The results show that among union member workers with high psychosocial demands at work, those with low socioeconomic status are almost twice as likely to receive benefit for a shorter period of time compared to those with a higher socioeconomic position (RR = 1.89; 95%CI: 1.25-2.87). These results reveal an inequitable situation or unnecessary use of insurance for workers with a higher socioeconomic position. Future research aimed at elucidating the differences in the use of benefits are needed so that social insurance system managers may take the appropriate steps to resolve this issue. PMID:22331158

  10. [Socioeconomic position and duration of disability benefit due to work-related musculoskeletal disorders].

    PubMed

    Souza, Norma Suely Souto; Santana, Vilma Sousa

    2012-02-01

    This study estimated the effect of socioeconomic position on the duration of disability benefits due to musculoskeletal disorders affecting the neck and/or upper limbs. A cohort study including 563 insured workers from the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, registered in the General Social Security System and who received temporary disability benefits due to musculoskeletal disorders affecting the neck and/or upper limbs, was performed in 2008 using data from the National Social Security Institute. The results show that among union member workers with high psychosocial demands at work, those with low socioeconomic status are almost twice as likely to receive benefit for a shorter period of time compared to those with a higher socioeconomic position (RR = 1.89; 95%CI: 1.25-2.87). These results reveal an inequitable situation or unnecessary use of insurance for workers with a higher socioeconomic position. Future research aimed at elucidating the differences in the use of benefits are needed so that social insurance system managers may take the appropriate steps to resolve this issue.

  11. Socioeconomic Determinants of Adult Mortality in Namibia Using an Event History Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kandjimbi, Alina; Nickanor, Ndeyapo; Kazembe, Lawrence N

    2014-01-01

    Adult mortality remains a neglected public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa, with most policy instruments concentrated on child and maternal health. In developed countries, adult mortality is negatively associated with socioeconomic factors. A similar pattern is expected in developing countries, but has not been extensively demonstrated, because of dearth of data. Understanding the hazard and factors associated with adult mortality is crucial for informing policies and for implementation of interventions aimed at improving adult survival. This paper applied a geo-additive survival model to elucidate effects of socioeconomic factors on adult mortality in Namibia, controlling for spatial frailties. Results show a clear disadvantage for adults in rural areas, for those not married and from poor households or in female-headed households. The hazard of adult mortality was highly variable with a 1.5-fold difference between areas, with highest hazard recorded in north eastern, central west and southern west parts of the country. The analysis emphasizes that, for Namibia to achieve its national development goals, targeted interventions should be aimed at poor-resourced adults, particularly in high-risk areas. PMID:26208512

  12. Clinical and socioeconomic impact of seasonal and pandemic influenza in adults and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, Roberto; Amicizia, Daniela; Lai, Piero Luigi; Panatto, Donatella

    2012-01-01

    Influenza epidemics and pandemics carry a heavy socioeconomic burden. Hospitalization and treatment are more often necessary in high-risk patients, such as the elderly. However, the impact of influenza is not negligible even in adults, mainly because of lost productivity. The World Health Organization estimates that seasonal influenza causes 250,000-500,000 deaths worldwide each year; however, mortality may be very high in pandemic periods. Many estimates of the costs of seasonal influenza have been made in various socioeconomic contexts. For instance, among the adult population in Italy, a cost of €940.39 per case has been estimated. In the US, the average annual influenza burden in 18-49-y-old adults without underlying medical conditions is judged to include approximately 32,000 hospitalizations and 680 deaths. Estimating the influenza burden is a useful aid to determining the best influenza vaccination strategy and preventive and clinical treatments.

  13. Moderating effects of media exposure on associations between socioeconomic position and cancer worry.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo; Chan, Carina Ka Yee; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2014-01-01

    Reducing fear of cancer is significant in developing cancer screening interventions, but the levels of fear may vary depending on the degrees of media exposure as well as individuals' socioeconomic positions (SEP). However, few studies have examined how the SEP influences the fear of cancer under the moderating process of general and specific forms of media exposure. We investigated the moderating effect of media exposure on the relationship between SEP and the level of fear of cancer by assuming that cancer knowledge is a covariate between those two. In particular, this study examined how exposure to both general and specific media changes the series of processes from SEP to fear of cancer. We conducted path analyses with three types of media--television, radio and the Internet--using data from a health communication survey of 613 adults in Massachusetts in the United States. We found that SEP influences cancer knowledge directly and fear of cancer indirectly, as moderated by the level of media exposure. Health-specific exposure, however, had a more consistent effect than general media exposure in lowering the fear of cancer by increasing knowledge about cancer. A higher level of health-specific exposure and greater amount of cancer knowledge lessened the fear of cancer. In addition, the more people were exposed to health information on television and the Internet, the lower the level of fear of cancer as a result. These findings indicate a relationship between SEP and fear of cancer, as moderated by the level and type of media exposure. Furthermore, the findings suggest that for early detection or cancer prevention strategies, health communication approaches through mass media need to be considered. PMID:25081712

  14. Moderating Effects of Media Exposure between Socioeconomic Position and Cancer Worry

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    Reducing fear of cancer is significant in developing cancer screening interventions, but the levels of fear may vary depending on the degrees of media exposure as well as individuals’ socioeconomic positions (SEP). However, few studies have examined how the SEP influences the fear of cancer under the moderating process of general and specific forms of media exposure. We investigated the moderating effect of media exposure on the relationship between SEP and the level of fear of cancer by assuming that cancer knowledge is a covariate between those two. In particular, this study examined how exposure to both general and specific media changes the series of processes from SEP to fear of cancer. We conducted path analyses with three types of media—television, radio and the Internet—using data from a health communication survey of 613 adults in Massachusetts in the United States. We found that SEP influences cancer knowledge directly and fear of cancer indirectly, as moderated by the levels of media exposure. Health-specific exposure, however, had a more consistent effect than general media exposure in lowering the fear of cancer by increasing knowledge about cancer. A higher level of health-specific exposure and greater amount of cancer knowledge lessened the fear of cancer. In addition, the more people were exposed to health information on television and the Internet, the lower the level of fear of cancer was a result. These findings indicate a relationship between SEP and fear of cancer, as moderated by the levels and types of media exposure. Furthermore, the findings suggest that for early detection or cancer prevention strategies, health communication approaches through mass media need to be considered. PMID:25081712

  15. Life Stressors as Mediators of the Relation between Socioeconomic Position and Mental Health Problems in Early Adolescence: The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amone-P'Olak, Kennedy; Ormel, Johan; Huisman, Martijn; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Burger, Huibert

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Life stressors and family socioeconomic position have often been associated with mental health status. The aim of the present study is to contribute to the understanding of the pathways from low socioeconomic position and life stressors to mental problems. Method: In a cross-sectional analysis using data from a longitudinal study of…

  16. Socioeconomic Indicators Are Independently Associated with Nutrient Intake in French Adults: A DEDIPAC Study

    PubMed Central

    Si Hassen, Wendy; Castetbon, Katia; Cardon, Philippe; Enaux, Christophe; Nicolaou, Mary; Lien, Nanna; Terragni, Laura; Holdsworth, Michelle; Stronks, Karien; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Studies have suggested differential associations of specific indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP) with nutrient intake and a cumulative effect of these indicators on diet. We investigated the independent association of SEP indicators (education, income, occupation) with nutrient intake and their effect modification. This cross-sectional analysis included 91,900 French adults from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Nutrient intake was estimated using three 24-h records. We investigated associations between the three SEP factors and nutrient intake using sex-stratified analysis of covariance, adjusted for age and energy intake, and associations between income and nutrient intake stratified by education and occupation. Low educated participants had higher protein and cholesterol intakes and lower fibre, vitamin C and beta-carotene intakes. Low income individuals had higher complex carbohydrate intakes, and lower magnesium, potassium, folate and vitamin C intakes. Intakes of vitamin D and alcohol were lower in low occupation individuals. Higher income was associated with higher intakes of fibre, protein, magnesium, potassium, beta-carotene, and folate among low educated persons only, highlighting effect modification. Lower SEP, particularly low education, was associated with lower intakes of nutrients required for a healthy diet. Each SEP indicator was associated with specific differences in nutrient intake suggesting that they underpin different social processes. PMID:26978393

  17. Socioeconomic Indicators Are Independently Associated with Nutrient Intake in French Adults: A DEDIPAC Study.

    PubMed

    Si Hassen, Wendy; Castetbon, Katia; Cardon, Philippe; Enaux, Christophe; Nicolaou, Mary; Lien, Nanna; Terragni, Laura; Holdsworth, Michelle; Stronks, Karien; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2016-03-01

    Studies have suggested differential associations of specific indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP) with nutrient intake and a cumulative effect of these indicators on diet. We investigated the independent association of SEP indicators (education, income, occupation) with nutrient intake and their effect modification. This cross-sectional analysis included 91,900 French adults from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Nutrient intake was estimated using three 24-h records. We investigated associations between the three SEP factors and nutrient intake using sex-stratified analysis of covariance, adjusted for age and energy intake, and associations between income and nutrient intake stratified by education and occupation. Low educated participants had higher protein and cholesterol intakes and lower fibre, vitamin C and beta-carotene intakes. Low income individuals had higher complex carbohydrate intakes, and lower magnesium, potassium, folate and vitamin C intakes. Intakes of vitamin D and alcohol were lower in low occupation individuals. Higher income was associated with higher intakes of fibre, protein, magnesium, potassium, beta-carotene, and folate among low educated persons only, highlighting effect modification. Lower SEP, particularly low education, was associated with lower intakes of nutrients required for a healthy diet. Each SEP indicator was associated with specific differences in nutrient intake suggesting that they underpin different social processes. PMID:26978393

  18. A Systematic Review of Socioeconomic Indicators and Dental Caries in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Simone M.; Martins, Carolina C.; Bonfim, Maria de Lourdes C.; Zina, Lívia G.; Paiva, Saul M.; Pordeus, Isabela A.; Abreu, Mauro H. N. G.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that socioeconomic factors may be associated with an increased risk of dental caries. To provide better evidence of the association between dental caries in adults and socioeconomic indicators, we evaluated the relation between these two conditions in a thorough review of the literature. Seven databases were systematically searched: Pubmed, Cochrane, Web of Science, Bireme, Controlled Trials, Clinical Trials and the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. No restrictions were placed on the language or year of publication. The search yielded 41 studies for systematic review. Two independent reviewers screened the studies for inclusion, extracted data and evaluated quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. The following socioeconomic indicators were found: educational level, income, occupation, socio-economic status and the community index. These indicators were significantly associated with a greater occurrence of dental caries: the subject’s education, subject’s income, subject’s occupation and the Gini coefficient. A high degree of heterogeneity was found among the methods. Quality varied across studies. The criteria employed for socioeconomic indicators and dental caries should be standardized in future studies. The scientific evidence reveals that educational level, income, occupation and the Gini coefficient are associated with dental caries. PMID:23202762

  19. Measuring the habitat as an indicator of socioeconomic position: methodology and its association with hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Galobardes, B; Morabia, A

    2003-01-01

    Study objectives: (1) to develop an indicator of socioeconomic position based on the social standing of the habitat (SSH), that is, the residential building, its immediate surroundings, and local neighbourhood; (2) to assess the relation of SSH to two usual markers of socioeconomic position (education and occupation) and a known, socially determined health outcome (hypertension). Design: Population survey measuring SSH, detailed educational and occupational histories, and blood pressure. The SSH is a standardised assessment of the external and internal aspects of someone's building (or house), and of the characteristics of its immediate surroundings and local neighbourhood. Setting: A sample of participants to the Bus Santé survey between 1993 and 1998, in Geneva, Switzerland. Participants: 588 men and women, aged 35 to 74. Main results: The SSH index was highly reproducible (κ=0.8). Concordance of SSH with education or occupation was good for people of either high or low socioeconomic position, but not for those with medium education and/or occupation. There was a higher prevalence of hypertension in the lowest compared with the highest groups, defined on the basis of education or occupation, but the SSH was the only indicator that showed a higher prevalence of hypertension among people in the middle of the social spectrum. Conclusions: People of medium education or occupation are heterogeneous with respect to their habitat. Those living in habitats of medium social standing may be most affected by hypertension but this association could not be revealed on the basis of education and occupation alone. The habitat seems to capture different aspects of the socioeconomic position compared with the usual indicators of social class. PMID:12646538

  20. Socioeconomic and demographic factors are associated with dietary patterns in a cohort of young Brazilian adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to identify the main dietary patterns among young adults and to investigate the association of socioeconomic and demographic factors, and social mobility with dietary patterns. Methods Data from the fourth follow-up of the 1978/79 Ribeirão Preto birth cohort study, Brazil, were used. A total of 2,061 young adults, whose mothers gave sociodemographic information at birth in 1978–79, provided sociodemographic and dietary data through a validated food frequency questionnaire in 2002–2004, when they were aged 23–25 years. Those whose caloric intake was outside of the ±3 standard deviation range were excluded, leaving 2,034 individuals. The dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis followed by varimax orthogonal rotation. Poisson regression with robust estimation of variance was used to derive prevalence ratios (PR). Results Four dietary patterns were identified: healthy, traditional Brazilian, energy-dense and bar. In the adjusted analysis, individuals with higher schooling (≥12 years) in adult life (PR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.07-2.14) showed greater adherence whilst men (PR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.68-0.93) had lower adherence to the healthy pattern. The highest adherence to the traditional Brazilian pattern was found for men (PR = 2.39, 95% CI: 2.04-2.80), mullatos (PR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.21-1.64), households with ≥2 members, and for those with children (PR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.07-1.55) while individuals with higher schooling in adulthood (≥12 years) (PR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.34-0.65), higher family income in adulthood (≥20 MW) (PR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.33-0.99) and higher family income at birth (≥6.1 MW) showed lower adherence. The bar pattern was positively associated with male sex (PR = 2.96, 95% CI: 2.47-3.55) and low schooling (≤8 years). The energy-dense pattern was not associated with any of the variables investigated. Social mobility was associated with the

  1. Differential correlates of physical activity in urban and rural adults of various socioeconomic backgrounds in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Parks, S; Housemann, R; Brownson, R

    2003-01-01

    Study objectives: Few studies have analysed the rates and correlates of physical activity in economically and geographically diverse populations. Objectives were to examine: (1) urban-rural differences in physical activity by several demographic, geographical, environmental, and psychosocial variables, (2) patterns in environmental and policy factors across urban-rural setting and socioeconomic groups, (3) socioeconomic differences in physical activity across the same set of variables, and (4) possible correlations of these patterns with meeting of physical activity recommendations. Design: A cross sectional study with an over sampling of lower income adults was conducted in 1999–2000. Setting: United States. Participants: 1818 United States adults. Main results: Lower income residents were less likely than higher income residents to meet physical activity recommendations. Rural residents were least likely to meet recommendations; suburban residents were most likely to meet recommendations. Suburban, higher income residents were more than twice as likely to meet recommendations than rural, lower income residents. Significant differences across income levels and urban/rural areas were found for those reporting neighbourhood streets, parks, and malls as places to exercise; fear of injury, being in poor health, or dislike as barriers to exercise and those reporting encouragement from relatives as social support for exercise. Evidence of a positive dose-response relation emerged between number of places to exercise and likelihood to meet recommendations for physical activity. Conclusions: Both income level and urban rural status were important predictors of adults' likelihood to meet physical activity recommendations. In addition, environmental variables vary in importance across socioeconomic status and urban-rural areas. PMID:12490645

  2. Association between children’s experience of socioeconomic disadvantage and adult health: a life-course study

    PubMed Central

    Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom; Milne, Barry J.; Thomson, W Murray; Taylor, Alan; Sears, Malcolm R.; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Research into social inequalities in health has tended to focus on low socioeconomic status in adulthood. We aimed to test the hypothesis that children’s experience of socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with a wide range of health risk factors and outcomes in adult life. Methods We studied an unselected cohort of 1000 children (born in New Zealand during 1972–73) who had been assessed at birth and ages 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, and 15 years. At age 26 years, we assessed these individuals for health outcomes including body-mass index, waist:hip ratio, blood pressure, cardiorespiratory fitness, dental caries, plaque scores, gingival bleeding, periodontal disease, major depression, and tobacco and alcohol dependence, and tested for associations between these variables and childhood and adult socioeconomic status. Findings Compared with those from high socioeconomic status backgrounds, children who grew up in low socioeconomic status families had poorer cardiovascular health. Significant differences were also found on all dental health measures, with a threefold increase in adult periodontal disease (31·1% vs 11·9%) and caries level (32·2% vs 9·9%) in low versus high childhood socioeconomic status groups. Substance abuse resulting in clinical dependence was related in a similar way to childhood socioeconomic status (eg, 21·5% vs 12·1% for adult alcohol dependence). The longitudinal associations could not be attributed to life-course continuity of low socioeconomic status, and upward mobility did not mitigate or reverse the adverse effects of low childhood socioeconomic status on adult health. Interpretation Protecting children against the effects of socioeconomic adversity could reduce the burden of disease experienced by adults. These findings provide strong impetus for policy makers, practitioners, and researchers to direct energy and resources towards childhood as a way of improving population health. PMID:12457787

  3. The impact of socioeconomic position on sport participation among South Australian youth.

    PubMed

    Dollman, James; Lewis, Nicole R

    2010-05-01

    Organised sport among youth makes a substantial contribution to daily energy expenditure. This study investigated socioeconomic gradients in sport participation and predictors of participation. A representative sample of young South Australians (10-15 y; n=1737) was surveyed on organised sport participation in the previous 12 months, and predictors derived from the Children's Physical Activity Correlates scale and a parent survey. Four constructs were derived: 'is it worth it?' (perceived outcomes); 'am I able?' (perceived competency); 'reinforcing' (parental support); and 'enabling' (perceived barriers, from the parent survey). Socioeconomic position (SEP) was operationalized by an area-level indicator, the Socioeconomic Indicator for Advantage (SEIFA), split into tertiles. Sport participation was higher among high (highest SEIFA tertile) compared with low (lowest SEIFA tertile) SEP children. All predictors except 'am I able?' were positively associated with sport participation among boys and girls. Of these predictors, the 'enabling' construct varied by SEP among both boys and girls, with high SEP children reporting fewer barriers to participation. High SEP girls reported higher scores on 'reinforcing' and 'is it worth it?' than their low SEP counterparts. Low SEP girls reported lower levels of both instrumental and affective support from parents to play sport. There are distinct SEP gradients in sport participation, as well as its psychosocial and environmental predictors among South Australian youth. Low SEP girls are the most disadvantaged in terms of parental support to participate in sport. Interventions targeting this vulnerable group are urgently required.

  4. Socio-Economic Determinants of the Need for Dental Care in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Trohel, Gilda; Bertaud-Gounot, Valérie; Soler, Marion; Chauvin, Pierre; Grimaud, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral health has improved in France. However, there are still inequalities related to the socio-economic status. Objectives The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of dental care needs in an adult population and to identify the demographic, socio-economic and behavioral variables that may explain variations in this parameter. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of the French SIRS cohort (n = 2,997 adults from the Paris region; 2010 data) was carried out to determine the prevalence of self-reported dental care needs relative to demographic, socio-economic and behavioral variables. A logistic regression model was used to identify the variables that were most strongly associated with the level of need. Results In 2010, the prevalence of the need for dental care in the SIRS cohort was 35.0% (95% CI [32.3–37.8]). It was lower in people with higher education levels (31.3% [27.9–34.6]), without immigrant background (31.3% [28.0–34.6]) and with comprehensive health insurance (social security + complementary health cover; 32.8% [30.2–35.4]). It decreased as the socio-economic status increased, but without following a strict linear change. It was also lower among individuals who had a dental check-up visit in the previous two years. In multivariate analyses, the socioeconomic variables most strongly associated with the need for dental care were: educational attainment (OR = 1.21 [1.02–1.44]), income level (OR = 1.66 [1.92–2.12]) and national origin (OR = 1.53 [1.26–1.86]). Conclusion These results confirm that the prevalence of dental care needs is higher among adults with low socio-economic status. Education level, income level and also national origin were more strongly associated with the need for dental care than insurance cover level. PMID:27441841

  5. Childhood socioeconomic deprivation, but not current mood, is associated with behavioural disinhibition in adults.

    PubMed

    Paál, Tünde; Carpenter, Thomas; Nettle, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence to suggest that impulsivity is predicted by socioeconomic background, with people from more deprived backgrounds tending to be more impulsive, and by current mood, with poorer mood associated with greater impulsivity. However, impulsivity is not a unitary construct, and previous research in this area has focused on measures of 'waiting' impulsivity rather than behavioural disinhibition. We administered a standard measure of behavioural disinhibition, the stop-signal task, to 58 adult participants from a community sample. We had measured socioeconomic background using participant postcode at age 16, and assigned participants to receive either a neutral or a negative mood induction. We found no effects of mood on behavioural disinhibition, but we found a significant effect of socioeconomic background. Participants who had lived in more deprived postcodes at age 16 showed longer stop-signal reaction times, and hence greater behavioural disinhibition. The pattern was independent of participant age and overall reaction time. Though caution is required inferring causality from correlation, it is possible that that experiencing socioeconomic deprivation in childhood and adolescence may lead to greater behavioural disinhibition in adulthood. PMID:26020014

  6. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, perceived neighborhood factors, and cortisol responses to induced stress among healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Barrington, Wendy E; Stafford, Mai; Hamer, Mark; Beresford, Shirley A A; Koepsell, Thomas; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Associations between measures of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and health have been identified, yet work is needed to uncover explanatory mechanisms. One hypothesized pathway is through stress, yet the few studies that have evaluated associations between characteristics of deprived neighborhoods and biomarkers of stress are mixed. This study evaluated whether objectively measured neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and individual perceived neighborhood characteristics (i.e. social control and fear of crime) impacted cortisol responses to an induced stressor among older healthy adults. Data from Heart Scan, a sub-study of the Whitehall II cohort, were used to generate multilevel piecewise growth-curve models of cortisol trajectories after a laboratory stressor accounting for neighborhood and demographic characteristics. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was significantly associated with individual perceptions of social control and fear of crime in the neighborhood while an association with blunted cortisol reactivity was only evidence among women. Social control was significantly associated with greater cortisol reactivity and mediation between neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and cortisol reactivity was suggested among women. These findings support a gender-dependent role of neighborhood in stress process models of health. PMID:24603009

  7. Gender differences in the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and depressive symptoms in older adults.

    PubMed

    Back, Joung Hwan; Lee, Yunhwan

    2011-01-01

    With rapid population aging, increasing attention is given to the mental health of older people. This study examined the association between SES and depressive symptoms in older adults. The study population consisted of a representative community sample of 4165 persons aged 65 and older from Wave 1 of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale was used to measure the extent of depressive symptoms. Socioeconomic indicators included education, household income, and net worth. Analyses were conducted by gender, using multiple linear regression analysis, to identify independent effects of socioeconomic variables on depressive symptoms, controlling for demographics and health-related variables. There was an inverse association between higher levels of socioeconomic factors and depressive symptoms in the study population. A clear difference in the association between depressive symptoms and socioeconomic factors by gender was observed. In the multivariate analysis, wealth was significantly associated with depressive symptoms in men, whereas education and income was so in women. Gender disparities in depressive symptoms across social gradients suggest the need for gender-sensitive investments in health and social services for the disadvantaged segments of the older population.

  8. Childhood socioeconomic deprivation, but not current mood, is associated with behavioural disinhibition in adults

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence to suggest that impulsivity is predicted by socioeconomic background, with people from more deprived backgrounds tending to be more impulsive, and by current mood, with poorer mood associated with greater impulsivity. However, impulsivity is not a unitary construct, and previous research in this area has focused on measures of ‘waiting’ impulsivity rather than behavioural disinhibition. We administered a standard measure of behavioural disinhibition, the stop-signal task, to 58 adult participants from a community sample. We had measured socioeconomic background using participant postcode at age 16, and assigned participants to receive either a neutral or a negative mood induction. We found no effects of mood on behavioural disinhibition, but we found a significant effect of socioeconomic background. Participants who had lived in more deprived postcodes at age 16 showed longer stop-signal reaction times, and hence greater behavioural disinhibition. The pattern was independent of participant age and overall reaction time. Though caution is required inferring causality from correlation, it is possible that that experiencing socioeconomic deprivation in childhood and adolescence may lead to greater behavioural disinhibition in adulthood. PMID:26020014

  9. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, perceived neighborhood factors, and cortisol responses to induced stress among healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Barrington, Wendy E; Stafford, Mai; Hamer, Mark; Beresford, Shirley A A; Koepsell, Thomas; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Associations between measures of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and health have been identified, yet work is needed to uncover explanatory mechanisms. One hypothesized pathway is through stress, yet the few studies that have evaluated associations between characteristics of deprived neighborhoods and biomarkers of stress are mixed. This study evaluated whether objectively measured neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and individual perceived neighborhood characteristics (i.e. social control and fear of crime) impacted cortisol responses to an induced stressor among older healthy adults. Data from Heart Scan, a sub-study of the Whitehall II cohort, were used to generate multilevel piecewise growth-curve models of cortisol trajectories after a laboratory stressor accounting for neighborhood and demographic characteristics. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was significantly associated with individual perceptions of social control and fear of crime in the neighborhood while an association with blunted cortisol reactivity was only evidence among women. Social control was significantly associated with greater cortisol reactivity and mediation between neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and cortisol reactivity was suggested among women. These findings support a gender-dependent role of neighborhood in stress process models of health.

  10. Are benefits conferred with greater socioeconomic position undermined by racial discrimination among African American men?

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Darrell L.; Bullard, Kai M.; Neighbors, Harold W.; Geronimus, Arline T.; Yang, Juan; Jackson, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Background conventional wisdom suggests that increased socioeconomic resources should be related to better health. Considering the body of evidence demonstrating the significant association between racial discrimination and depression, we examined whether exposure to racial discrimination could attenuate the positive effects of increased levels of socioeconomic position (SEP) among African Americans. Specifically, this paper investigated the joint interactive effects of SEP and racial discrimination on the odds of depression among African Americans. Methods racial discrimination was measured using two measures, major and everyday discrimination. Study objectives were achieved using data from the National Survey of American Life, which included a nationally representative sample of African Americans (n =3570). Logistic regression models were used to estimate the effects of SEP and racial discrimination on the odds of depression. Results reports of racial discrimination were associated with increased risk of depression among American African men who possessed greater levels of education and income. Among African American men, significant, positive interactions were observed between education and experiences of major discrimination, which were associated with greater odds of depression (P = 0.02). Additionally, there were positive interactions between income and both measures of racial discrimination (income x everyday discrimination, P = 0.013; income x major discrimination, P = 0.02), which were associated with increased odds of depression (P = 0.02). Conclusions it is possible that experiences of racial discrimination could, in part, diminish the effects of increased SEP among African American men. PMID:22707995

  11. The socioeconomic inequality in traffic-related disability among Chinese adults: the application of concentration index.

    PubMed

    Chen, He; Du, Wei; Li, Ning; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2013-06-01

    Traffic crashes have become the fifth leading cause of burden of diseases and injuries in China. More importantly, it may further aggravate the degree of health inequality among Chinese population, which is still under-investigated. Based on a nationally representative data, we calculated the concentration index (CI) to measure the socioeconomic inequality in traffic-related disability (TRD), and decomposed CI into potential sources of the inequality. Results show that more than 1.5 million Chinese adults were disabled by traffic crashes and the adults with financial disadvantage bear disproportionately heavier burden of TRD. Besides, strategies of reducing income inequality and protecting the safety of poor road users, are of great importance. Residence appears to counteract the socioeconomic inequality in TRD, however, it does not necessarily come to an optimistic conclusion. In addition to the worrying income gap between rural and urban areas, other possible mechanisms, e.g. the low level of post-crash medical resources in rural area, need further studies. China is one of the developing countries undergoing fast motorization and our findings could provide other countries in similar context with some insights about how to maintain socioeconomic equality in road safety.

  12. Socioeconomic Gradients in Different Types of Tobacco Use in India: Evidence from Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2009-10.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ankur; Arora, Monika; English, Dallas R; Mathur, Manu R

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic differences in tobacco use have been reported, but there is a lack of evidence on how they vary according to types of tobacco use. This study explored socioeconomic differences associated with cigarette, bidi, smokeless tobacco (SLT), and dual use (smoking and smokeless tobacco use) in India and tested whether these differences vary by gender and residential area. Secondary analysis of Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) 2009-10 (n = 69,296) was conducted. The primary outcomes were self-reported cigarette, bidi smoking, SLT, and dual use. The main explanatory variables were wealth, education, and occupation. Associations were assessed using multinomial logistic regressions. 69,030 adults participated in the study. Positive association was observed between wealth and prevalence of cigarette smoking while inverse associations were observed for bidi smoking, SLT, and dual use after adjustment for potential confounders. Inverse associations with education were observed for all four types after adjusting for confounders. Significant interactions were observed for gender and area in the association between cigarette, bidi, and smokeless tobacco use with wealth and education. The probability of cigarette smoking was higher for wealthier individuals while the probability of bidi smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and dual use was higher for those with lesser wealth and education. PMID:26273649

  13. Socioeconomic Gradients in Different Types of Tobacco Use in India: Evidence from Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2009-10.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ankur; Arora, Monika; English, Dallas R; Mathur, Manu R

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic differences in tobacco use have been reported, but there is a lack of evidence on how they vary according to types of tobacco use. This study explored socioeconomic differences associated with cigarette, bidi, smokeless tobacco (SLT), and dual use (smoking and smokeless tobacco use) in India and tested whether these differences vary by gender and residential area. Secondary analysis of Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) 2009-10 (n = 69,296) was conducted. The primary outcomes were self-reported cigarette, bidi smoking, SLT, and dual use. The main explanatory variables were wealth, education, and occupation. Associations were assessed using multinomial logistic regressions. 69,030 adults participated in the study. Positive association was observed between wealth and prevalence of cigarette smoking while inverse associations were observed for bidi smoking, SLT, and dual use after adjustment for potential confounders. Inverse associations with education were observed for all four types after adjusting for confounders. Significant interactions were observed for gender and area in the association between cigarette, bidi, and smokeless tobacco use with wealth and education. The probability of cigarette smoking was higher for wealthier individuals while the probability of bidi smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and dual use was higher for those with lesser wealth and education.

  14. Aging expectations are associated with physical activity and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Shilpa; Al-Sahab, Ban; Manson, James; Tamim, Hala

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether aging expectations (AE) are associated with physical activity participation and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status (SES). A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 170 older adults (mean age 70.9 years) was conducted. Data on AE, physical activity, and health were collected using the 12 item Expectations Regarding Aging instrument, the Healthy Physical Activity Participation Questionnaire, and the Short Form-36, respectively. Adjusted linear regression models showed significant associations between AE and social functioning, energy/vitality, mental health, and self-rated general health, as well as physical activity. These results suggest that AE may help to better explain the established association between low SES, low physical activity uptake, and poor health outcomes among older adults.

  15. Income Inequality, Socioeconomic Deprivation and Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Manrique-Espinoza, Betty Soledad; Bojorquez-Chapela, Ietza; Salinas-Rodríguez, Aarón

    2014-01-01

    Objective Depression is the second most common mental disorder in older adults (OA) worldwide. The ways in which depression is influenced by the social determinants of health – specifically, by socioeconomic deprivation, income inequality and social capital - have been analyzed with only partially conclusive results thus far. The objective of our study was to estimate the association of income inequality and socioeconomic deprivation at the locality, municipal and state levels with the prevalence of depressive symptoms among OA in Mexico. Methods Cross-sectional study based on a nationally representative sample of 8,874 OA aged 60 and over. We applied the brief seven-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) to determine the presence of depressive symptoms. Additionally, to select the principal context variables, we used the Deprivation Index of the National Population Council of Mexico at the locality, municipal and state levels, and the Gini Index at the municipal and state levels. Finally, we estimated the association of income inequality and socioeconomic deprivation with the presence of depressive symptoms using a multilevel logistic regression model. Results Socioeconomic deprivation at the locality (OR = 1.28; p<0.10) and municipal levels (OR = 1.16; p<0.01) correlated significantly with the presence of depressive symptoms, while income inequality did not. Conclusions The results of our study confirm that the social determinants of health are relevant to the mental health of OA. Further research is required, however, to identify which are the specific socioeconomic deprivation components at the locality and municipal levels that correlate with depression in this population group. PMID:25250620

  16. Does Perceived Physical Attractiveness in Adolescence Predict Better Socioeconomic Position in Adulthood? Evidence from 20 Years of Follow Up in a Population Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Benzeval, Michaela; Green, Michael J.; Macintyre, Sally

    2013-01-01

    There is believed to be a ‘beauty premium’ in key life outcomes: it is thought that people perceived to be more physically attractive have better educational outcomes, higher-status jobs, higher wages, and are more likely to marry. Evidence for these beliefs, however, is generally based on photographs in hypothetical experiments or studies of very specific population subgroups (such as college students). The extent to which physical attractiveness might have a lasting effect on such outcomes in ‘real life’ situations across the whole population is less well known. Using longitudinal data from a general population cohort of people in the West of Scotland, this paper investigated the association between physical attractiveness at age 15 and key socioeconomic outcomes approximately 20 years later. People assessed as more physically attractive at age 15 had higher socioeconomic positions at age 36– in terms of their employment status, housing tenure and income - and they were more likely to be married; even after adjusting for parental socioeconomic background, their own intelligence, health and self esteem, education and other adult socioeconomic outcomes. For education the association was significant for women but not for men. Understanding why attractiveness is strongly associated with long-term socioeconomic outcomes, after such extensive confounders have been considered, is important. PMID:23717520

  17. Does perceived physical attractiveness in adolescence predict better socioeconomic position in adulthood? Evidence from 20 years of follow up in a population cohort study.

    PubMed

    Benzeval, Michaela; Green, Michael J; Macintyre, Sally

    2013-01-01

    There is believed to be a 'beauty premium' in key life outcomes: it is thought that people perceived to be more physically attractive have better educational outcomes, higher-status jobs, higher wages, and are more likely to marry. Evidence for these beliefs, however, is generally based on photographs in hypothetical experiments or studies of very specific population subgroups (such as college students). The extent to which physical attractiveness might have a lasting effect on such outcomes in 'real life' situations across the whole population is less well known. Using longitudinal data from a general population cohort of people in the West of Scotland, this paper investigated the association between physical attractiveness at age 15 and key socioeconomic outcomes approximately 20 years later. People assessed as more physically attractive at age 15 had higher socioeconomic positions at age 36- in terms of their employment status, housing tenure and income - and they were more likely to be married; even after adjusting for parental socioeconomic background, their own intelligence, health and self esteem, education and other adult socioeconomic outcomes. For education the association was significant for women but not for men. Understanding why attractiveness is strongly associated with long-term socioeconomic outcomes, after such extensive confounders have been considered, is important.

  18. Socioeconomic status, body size and physical activity of adults on Rarotonga, the Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, S J

    2001-01-01

    Much of the secular trend toward increased body size among populations in the Pacific Region has been attributed to the processes of economic modernization and socioeconomic change. The primary objective of the present analysis was to examine the relationships between socioeconomic factors and stature, weight, body mass index and physical activity level of adult Cook Islanders living a largely modernized lifestyle in the Pacific Region. In a cross-sectional study of physical activity, body size and socioeconomic status, a volunteer sample of 345 Cook Islanders aged 20-65 years was obtained from the total adult population of Rarotonga, and measured at six out-patient clinics. Stature, weight, body mass index (BMI), physical activity level and age were calculated by sex and occupational category, years of education, island of birth and number of years lived on Rarotonga, respectively, using SPSSPC for Windows. Stepwise multiple regression was used to examine the relationships between stature, weight, BMI, PALweekday (a measure of physical activity level), age and non-linear functions of age, and the socioeconomic variables. These analyses indicate that the secular trend in stature is a function of the relative level of modernization on Rarotonga relative to other Cook Islands, and with level of education. These factors associate differently among males and females, the secular trend among males appearing to be a general phenomenon in response to lifestyle change associated with life on Rarotonga, while among females the trend is a function of lifestyle change associated with education and independent of island of origin. The trend toward increasing body fatness is also different for males and females. Weight declines with age for both men and women, in a linear way for the males, but in a non-linear fashion for the females. Body weight is also greater among those males in more skilled and professional occupations than among those with less-skilled professions. For

  19. Parental socioeconomic position and development of overweight in adolescence: longitudinal study of Danish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An inverse social gradient in overweight among adolescents has been shown in developed countries, but few studies have examined whether weight gain and the development of overweight differs among adolescents from different socioeconomic groups in a longitudinal study. The objective was to identify the possible association between parental socioeconomic position, weight change and the risk of developing overweight among adolescents between the ages 15 to 21. Methods Prospective cohort study conducted in Denmark with baseline examination in 1996 and follow-up questionnaire in 2003 with a mean follow-up time of 6.4 years. A sample of 1,656 adolescents participated in both baseline (mean age 14.8) and follow-up (mean age 21.3). Of these, 1,402 had a body mass index (BMI = weight/height2kg/m2) corresponding to a value below 25 at baseline when adjusted for age and gender according to guidelines from International Obesity Taskforce, and were at risk of developing overweight during the study period. The exposure was parental occupational status. The main outcome measures were change in BMI and development of overweight (from BMI < 25 to BMI > = 25). Results Average BMI increased from 21.3 to 22.7 for girls and from 20.6 to 23.6 in boys during follow-up. An inverse social gradient in overweight was seen for girls at baseline and follow-up and for boys at follow-up. In the full population there was a tendency to an inverse social gradient in the overall increase in BMI for girls, but not for boys. A total of 13.4% developed overweight during the follow-up period. Girls of lower parental socioeconomic position had a higher risk of developing overweight (OR's between 4.72; CI 1.31 to 17.04 and 2.03; CI 1.10-3.74) when compared to girls of high parental socioeconomic position. A tendency for an inverse social gradient in the development of overweight for boys was seen, but it did not meet the significance criteria Conclusions The levels of overweight and obesity

  20. Prescription Drug Use Among Adults With Chronic Conditions in South Korea: Dual Burden of Health Care Needs and Socioeconomic Vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Jung, Youn; Byeon, Jinok; Chung, Haejoo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the social determinants of prescription drug use among adults with chronic diseases by examining the associations between socioeconomic position and prescription medicine use and perceived burden for pharmaceutical expenditure, using a sample of the Korean population from the 2008 Korea Health Panel, with 4 analytic models. Controlled with health status and the type of health insurance, the probability of using prescription drugs and overall spending on drugs significantly increased with rising income level, while perceived burden for out-of-pocket payment significantly decreased. These results imply that the poor are likely to underuse prescription drugs compared with their wealthier counterparts with the same need for health care, probably due to economic barriers. PMID:26512028

  1. Prescription Drug Use Among Adults With Chronic Conditions in South Korea: Dual Burden of Health Care Needs and Socioeconomic Vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Jung, Youn; Byeon, Jinok; Chung, Haejoo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the social determinants of prescription drug use among adults with chronic diseases by examining the associations between socioeconomic position and prescription medicine use and perceived burden for pharmaceutical expenditure, using a sample of the Korean population from the 2008 Korea Health Panel, with 4 analytic models. Controlled with health status and the type of health insurance, the probability of using prescription drugs and overall spending on drugs significantly increased with rising income level, while perceived burden for out-of-pocket payment significantly decreased. These results imply that the poor are likely to underuse prescription drugs compared with their wealthier counterparts with the same need for health care, probably due to economic barriers.

  2. Measuring socioeconomic status/position in studies of racial/ethnic disparities: maternal and infant health.

    PubMed Central

    Braveman, P.; Cubbin, C.; Marchi, K.; Egerter, S.; Chavez, G.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Theoretical and empiric considerations raise concerns about how socioeconomic status/position (abbreviated here as SES) is often measured in health research. The authors aimed to guide the use of two common socioeconomic indicators, education and income, in studies of racial/ethnic disparities in low birthweight, delayed prenatal care, unintended pregnancy, and breastfeeding intention. METHODS: Data from a statewide postpartum survey in California (N = 10,055) were linked to birth certificates. Overall and by race/ethnicity, the authors examined: (a) correlations among several measures of education and income; (b) associations between each SES measure and health indicator; and (c) racial/ethnic disparities in the health indicators "adjusting" for different SES measures. RESULTS: Education-income correlations were moderate and varied by race/ethnicity. Racial/ethnic associations with the health indicators varied by SES measure, how SES was specified, and by health indicator. CONCLUSIONS: Conclusions about the role of race/ethnicity could vary with how SES is measured. Education is not an acceptable proxy for income in studies of ethnically diverse populations of childbearing women. SES measures generally should be outcome- and population-specific, and chosen on explicit conceptual grounds; researchers should test multiple theoretically appropriate measures and consider how conclusions might vary with how SES is measured. Researchers should recognize the difficulty of measuring SES and interpret findings accordingly. PMID:12042609

  3. A life-course approach to measuring socioeconomic position in population health surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Chittleborough, C R; Baum, F E; Taylor, A W; Hiller, J E

    2006-11-01

    Measuring socioeconomic position (SEP) in population chronic disease and risk factor surveillance systems is essential for monitoring socioeconomic inequalities in health over time. Life-course measures are an innovative way to supplement other SEP indicators in surveillance systems. A literature review examined the indicators of early-life SEP that could potentially be used in population health surveillance systems. The criteria of validity, relevance, reliability and deconstruction were used to determine the value of potential indicators. Early-life SEP indicators used in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies included education level, income, occupation, living conditions, family structure and residential mobility. Indicators of early-life SEP should be used in routine population health surveillance to monitor trends in the health and SEP of populations over time, and to analyse long-term effects of policies on the changing health of populations. However, these indicators need to be feasible to measure retrospectively, and relevant to the historical, geographical and sociocultural context in which the surveillance system is operating. PMID:17053288

  4. Mortality Differentials by Immigrant Groups in Sweden: The Contribution of Socioeconomic Position

    PubMed Central

    Fritzell, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We studied mortality differentials between specific groups of foreign-born immigrants in Sweden and whether socioeconomic position (SEP) could account for such differences. Methods. We conducted a follow-up study of 1 997 666 men and 1 964 965 women ages 30 to 65 years based on data from national Swedish total population registers. We examined mortality risks in the 12 largest immigrant groups in Sweden between 1998 and 2006 using Cox regression. We also investigated deaths from all causes, circulatory disease, neoplasms, and external causes. Results. We found higher all-cause mortality among many immigrant categories, although some groups had lower mortality. When studying cause-specific mortality, we found the largest differentials in deaths from circulatory disease, whereas disparities in mortality from neoplasms were smaller. SEP, especially income and occupational class, accounted for most of the mortality differentials by country of birth. Conclusions. Our findings stressed that different aspects of SEP were not interchangeable in relation to immigrant health. Although policies aimed at improving immigrants’ socioeconomic conditions might be beneficial for health and longevity, our findings indicated that such policies might have varying effects depending on the specific country of origin and cause of death. PMID:24524505

  5. The Impact of Lifecourse Socioeconomic Position on Cardiovascular Disease Events in African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Gebreab, Samson Y; Diez Roux, Ana V; Brenner, Allison B; Hickson, DeMarc A; Sims, Mario; Subramanyam, Malavika; Griswold, Michael E; Wyatt, Sharon B; James, Sherman A

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the impact of lifecourse socioeconomic position (SEP) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among African Americans. Methods and Results We used data from the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) to examine the associations of multiple measures of lifecourse SEP with CVD events in a large cohort of African Americans. During a median of 7.2-year follow-up, 362 new or recurrent CVD events occurred in a sample of 5301 participants aged 21 to 94. Childhood SEP was assessed by using mother’s education, parental home ownership, and childhood amenities. Adult SEP was assessed by using education, income, wealth, and public assistance. Adult SEP was more consistently associated with CVD risk in women than in men: age-adjusted hazard ratios for low versus high income (95% CIs), 2.46 (1.19 to 5.09) in women and 1.50 (0.87 to 2.58) in men, P for interaction=0.1244, and hazard ratio for low versus high wealth, 2.14 (1.39 to 3.29) in women and 1.06 (0.62 to 1.81) in men, P for interaction=0.0224. After simultaneous adjustment for all adult SEP measures, wealth remained a significant predictor of CVD events in women (HR=1.73 [1.04, 2.85] for low versus high). Education and public assistance were less consistently associated with CVD. Adult SEP was a stronger predictor of CVD events in younger than in older participants (HR for high versus low summary adult SEP score 3.28 [1.43, 7.53] for participants ≤50 years, and 1.90 (1.36 to 2.66) for participants >50 years, P for interaction 0.0846). Childhood SEP was not associated with CVD risk in women or men. Conclusions Adult SEP is an important predictor of CVD events in African American women and in younger African Americans. Childhood SEP was not associated with CVD events in this population. PMID:26019130

  6. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status, Race, and Mortality in Young Adult Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Estrella, Michelle M.; Crews, Deidra C.; Appel, Lawrence J.; Anderson, Cheryl A.M.; Ephraim, Patti L.; Cook, Courtney; Boulware, L. Ebony

    2014-01-01

    Young blacks receiving dialysis have an increased risk of death compared with whites in the United States. Factors influencing this disparity among the young adult dialysis population have not been well explored. Our study examined the relation of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and racial differences in mortality in United States young adults receiving dialysis. We merged US Renal Data System patient-level data from 11,027 black and white patients ages 18–30 years old initiating dialysis between 2006 and 2009 with US Census data to obtain neighborhood poverty information for each patient. We defined low SES neighborhoods as those neighborhoods in US Census zip codes with ≥20% of residents living below the federal poverty level and quantified race differences in mortality risk by level of neighborhood SES. Among patients residing in low SES neighborhoods, blacks had greater mortality than whites after adjusting for baseline demographics, clinical characteristics, rurality, and access to care factors. This difference in mortality between blacks and whites was significantly attenuated in higher SES neighborhoods. In the United States, survival between young adult blacks and whites receiving dialysis differs by neighborhood SES. Additional studies are needed to identify modifiable factors contributing to the greater mortality among young adult black dialysis patients residing in low SES neighborhoods. PMID:24925723

  7. Twin-based study of the complex interplay between childhood maltreatment, socioeconomic status and adult memory.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Ximena; Alemany, Silvia; Fatjó-Vilas, Mar; González-Ortega, Itxaso; González-Pinto, Ana; Cuesta, Manuel J; Fañanás, Lourdes

    2013-08-01

    Childhood maltreatment and low socioeconomic status (SES) are considered stressful environmental events with lasting detrimental effects on adult mental health and associated cognitive performance, such as memory. However, the association between childhood maltreatment and low SES remains unclear, probably due to design limitations and putative confounding factors. Particular concerns have been raised on genetic influences, as genetic background may modulate the effects of environmental stressors. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of childhood maltreatment on adult memory in low- and high-SES subjects, free of confounding due to other environmental and genetic influences. A monozygotic twin design based on 188 healthy adult subjects (94 twin pairs) from the general population was conducted. This design based on genetically identical individuals allowed disentangling the unique environmental effects of childhood maltreatment on memory, which was explored in low and high SES. Results showed that the unique environmental effects of childhood maltreatment were only evident in the high-SES group (β = -0.22; SE = 0.08; p < 0.01; 95 % CI = -0.375 to -0.066). By contrast, no evidence for this effect could be detected in the more stressful low-SES group. These results suggest that enriched environments may provide a more stable context where early stressful experiences can influence cognitive processes. This study provides preliminary support for the inclusion of environmental enrichment in studies addressing the impact of childhood maltreatment on adult cognition and psychiatric disorders.

  8. Twin-based study of the complex interplay between childhood maltreatment, socioeconomic status and adult memory.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Ximena; Alemany, Silvia; Fatjó-Vilas, Mar; González-Ortega, Itxaso; González-Pinto, Ana; Cuesta, Manuel J; Fañanás, Lourdes

    2013-08-01

    Childhood maltreatment and low socioeconomic status (SES) are considered stressful environmental events with lasting detrimental effects on adult mental health and associated cognitive performance, such as memory. However, the association between childhood maltreatment and low SES remains unclear, probably due to design limitations and putative confounding factors. Particular concerns have been raised on genetic influences, as genetic background may modulate the effects of environmental stressors. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of childhood maltreatment on adult memory in low- and high-SES subjects, free of confounding due to other environmental and genetic influences. A monozygotic twin design based on 188 healthy adult subjects (94 twin pairs) from the general population was conducted. This design based on genetically identical individuals allowed disentangling the unique environmental effects of childhood maltreatment on memory, which was explored in low and high SES. Results showed that the unique environmental effects of childhood maltreatment were only evident in the high-SES group (β = -0.22; SE = 0.08; p < 0.01; 95 % CI = -0.375 to -0.066). By contrast, no evidence for this effect could be detected in the more stressful low-SES group. These results suggest that enriched environments may provide a more stable context where early stressful experiences can influence cognitive processes. This study provides preliminary support for the inclusion of environmental enrichment in studies addressing the impact of childhood maltreatment on adult cognition and psychiatric disorders. PMID:23188190

  9. Neighborhood socioeconomic status, race, and mortality in young adult dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Johns, Tanya S; Estrella, Michelle M; Crews, Deidra C; Appel, Lawrence J; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Ephraim, Patti L; Cook, Courtney; Boulware, L Ebony

    2014-11-01

    Young blacks receiving dialysis have an increased risk of death compared with whites in the United States. Factors influencing this disparity among the young adult dialysis population have not been well explored. Our study examined the relation of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and racial differences in mortality in United States young adults receiving dialysis. We merged US Renal Data System patient-level data from 11,027 black and white patients ages 18-30 years old initiating dialysis between 2006 and 2009 with US Census data to obtain neighborhood poverty information for each patient. We defined low SES neighborhoods as those neighborhoods in U.S. Census zip codes with ≥20% of residents living below the federal poverty level and quantified race differences in mortality risk by level of neighborhood SES. Among patients residing in low SES neighborhoods, blacks had greater mortality than whites after adjusting for baseline demographics, clinical characteristics, rurality, and access to care factors. This difference in mortality between blacks and whites was significantly attenuated in higher SES neighborhoods. In the United States, survival between young adult blacks and whites receiving dialysis differs by neighborhood SES. Additional studies are needed to identify modifiable factors contributing to the greater mortality among young adult black dialysis patients residing in low SES neighborhoods.

  10. The social context of smoking: A qualitative study comparing smokers of high versus low socioeconomic position

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The reductions in smoking prevalence in a number of industrialised countries are accompanied by a strong social gap and associated health inequality. Groups such as the World Health Organisation emphasise the importance of exploring potential causal factors for smoking such as socio-economic context & position. There has been little effort to compare the social context of smoking for smokers of high versus lower socio-economic position (SEP) to consider how tobacco control efforts might reduce smoking-related health inequality. Method Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants for eight focus groups. The groups were segregated by age, gender and SEP. Samples were selected from suburbs within the Sydney metropolitan area defined as either high or low SEP based on the Socio Economic Index for Areas. Emergent themes were analysed according to Poland's six dimensions of the social context of smoking. Differences according to SEP, age group and gender were explored. Results While there was commonality in social experiences for smokers across groups, some important aspects of the social context of smoking varied. Smokers of high SEP appeared to be aware of particular social pressures not to smoke on five of the six social context dimensions (power, body, identity, consumption and place). Not only were some of those pressures absent for low SEP participants, there were additional influences within the social context which were pro-smoking. Conclusions In order to narrow the health inequality gap associated with smoking, it is important to take account of the more pro-smoking social context experienced by low SEP smokers. Suggestions are made regarding social marketing campaigns, support for quit assistance and approaches to the regulation of smoking which may assist in minimising smoking-related health inequality. PMID:20420707

  11. Adverse socioeconomic conditions in childhood and cause specific adult mortality: prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, George Davey; Hart, Carole; Blane, David; Hole, David

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between social circumstances in childhood and mortality from various causes of death in adulthood. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: 27 workplaces in the west of Scotland. Subjects: 5645 men aged 35-64 years at the time of examination. Main outcome measures: Death from various causes. Results: Men whose fathers had manual occupations when they were children were more likely as adults to have manual jobs and be living in deprived areas. Gradients in mortality from coronary heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, stomach cancer, and respiratory disease were seen (all P<0.05), generally increasing from men whose fathers had professional and managerial occupations (social class I and II) to those whose fathers had semiskilled and unskilled manual occupations (social class IV and V). Relative rates of mortality adjusted for age for men with fathers in manual versus non-manual occupations were 1.52 (95% confidence interval 1.24 to 1.87) for coronary heart disease, 1.83 (1.13 to 2.94) for stroke, 1.65 (1.12 to 2.43) for lung cancer, 2.06 (0.93 to 4.57) for stomach cancer, and 2.01 (1.17 to 3.48) for respiratory disease. Mortality from other cancers and accidental and violent death showed no association with fathers’ social class. Adjustment for adult socioeconomic circumstances and risk factors did not alter results for mortality from stroke and stomach cancer, attenuated the increased risk of coronary heart disease and respiratory disease, and essentially eliminated the association with lung cancer. Conclusions: Adverse socioeconomic circumstances in childhood have a specific influence on mortality from stroke and stomach cancer in adulthood, which is not due to the continuity of social disadvantage throughout life. Deprivation in childhood influences risk of mortality from coronary heart disease and respiratory disease in adulthood, although an additive influence of adulthood circumstances is seen in these cases

  12. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Psychological Distress among Urban Adults: The Moderating Role of Neighborhood Social Cohesion

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, Özcan; Van Lenthe, Frank J.; Prins, Rick G.; Voorham, Toon A. J. J.; Burdorf, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Background Various studies have reported socioeconomic inequalities in mental health among urban residents. This study aimed at investigating whether neighborhood social cohesion influences the associations between socio-economic factors and psychological distress. Methods Cross-sectional questionnaire study on a random sample of 18,173 residents aged 16 years and older from 211 neighborhoods in the four largest cities in the Netherlands. Psychological distress was the dependent variable (scale range 10–50). Neighborhood social cohesion was measured by five statements and aggregated to the neighborhood level using ecometrics methodology. Multilevel linear regression analyses were used to investigate cross-level interactions, adjusted for neighborhood deprivation, between individual characteristics and social cohesion with psychological distress. Results The mean level of psychological distress among urban residents was 17.2. Recipients of disability, social assistance or unemployment benefits reported higher psychological distress (β = 5.6, 95%CI 5.2 to 5.9) than those in paid employment. Persons with some or great financial difficulties reported higher psychological distress (β = 3.4, 95%CI 3.2 to 3.6) than those with little or no financial problems. Socio-demographic factors were also associated with psychological distress, albeit with much lower influence. Living in a neighborhood with high social cohesion instead of low social cohesion was associated with a lower psychological distress of 22% among recipients of disability, social assistance or unemployment benefits and of 13% among citizens with financial difficulties. Conclusions Residing in socially cohesive neighborhoods may reduce the influence of lack of paid employment and financial difficulties on psychological distress among urban adults. Urban policies aimed at improving neighborhood social cohesion may contribute to decreasing socio-economic inequalities in mental health. PMID:27280601

  13. Early life socioeconomic position and immune response to persistent infections among elderly Latinos.

    PubMed

    Meier, Helen C S; Haan, Mary N; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F; Simanek, Amanda M; Dowd, Jennifer B; Aiello, Allison E

    2016-10-01

    Persistent infections, such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), and Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), are common in the U.S. but their prevalence varies by socioeconomic status. It is unclear if early or later life socioeconomic position (SEP) is a more salient driver of disparities in immune control of these infections. Using data from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging, we examined whether early or later life SEP was the strongest predictor of immune control later in life by contrasting two life course models, the critical period model and the chain of risk model. Early life SEP was measured as a latent variable, derived from parental education and occupation, and food availability. Indicators for SEP in later life included education level and occupation. Individuals were categorized by immune response to each pathogen (seronegative, low, medium and high) with increasing immune response representing poorer immune control. Cumulative immune response was estimated using a latent profile analysis with higher total immune response representing poorer immune control. Structural equation models were used to examine direct, indirect and total effects of early life SEP on each infection and cumulative immune response, controlling for age and gender. The direct effect of early life SEP on immune response was not statistically significant for the infections or cumulative immune response. Higher early life SEP was associated with lower immune response for T. gondii, H. pylori and cumulative immune response through pathways mediated by later life SEP. For CMV, higher early life SEP was both directly associated and partially mediated by later life SEP. No association was found between SEP and HSV-1. Findings from this study support a chain of risk model, whereby early life SEP acts through later life SEP to affect immune response to persistent infections in older age.

  14. Early life socioeconomic position and immune response to persistent infections among elderly Latinos.

    PubMed

    Meier, Helen C S; Haan, Mary N; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F; Simanek, Amanda M; Dowd, Jennifer B; Aiello, Allison E

    2016-10-01

    Persistent infections, such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), and Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), are common in the U.S. but their prevalence varies by socioeconomic status. It is unclear if early or later life socioeconomic position (SEP) is a more salient driver of disparities in immune control of these infections. Using data from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging, we examined whether early or later life SEP was the strongest predictor of immune control later in life by contrasting two life course models, the critical period model and the chain of risk model. Early life SEP was measured as a latent variable, derived from parental education and occupation, and food availability. Indicators for SEP in later life included education level and occupation. Individuals were categorized by immune response to each pathogen (seronegative, low, medium and high) with increasing immune response representing poorer immune control. Cumulative immune response was estimated using a latent profile analysis with higher total immune response representing poorer immune control. Structural equation models were used to examine direct, indirect and total effects of early life SEP on each infection and cumulative immune response, controlling for age and gender. The direct effect of early life SEP on immune response was not statistically significant for the infections or cumulative immune response. Higher early life SEP was associated with lower immune response for T. gondii, H. pylori and cumulative immune response through pathways mediated by later life SEP. For CMV, higher early life SEP was both directly associated and partially mediated by later life SEP. No association was found between SEP and HSV-1. Findings from this study support a chain of risk model, whereby early life SEP acts through later life SEP to affect immune response to persistent infections in older age. PMID:27543684

  15. Socioeconomics and Major Disabilities: Characteristics of Working-Age Adults in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Kiregu, Joshua; Murindahabi, Nathalie K.; Tumusiime, David; Thomson, Dana R.; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L.; Ahayo, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Background Disability affects approximately 15% of the world’s population, and has adverse socio-economic effects, especially for the poor. In Rwanda, there are a number of government compensation programs that support the poor, but not specifically persons with disability (PWDs). This study investigates the relationship between poverty and government compensation on disability among working-age adults in Rwanda. Methods This was a secondary analysis of 35,114 adults aged 16 to 65 interviewed in the 2010/2011 Rwanda Household Wealth and Living Conditions survey, a national cross-sectional two-stage cluster survey, stratified by district. This study estimated self-reported major disability, and used chi-square tests to estimate associations (p<0.1) with income, government compensation, occupation type, participation in public works programs, and household poverty status. Non-collinear economic variables were included in a multivariate logistic regression, along with socio-demographic confounders that modified the relationship between any economic predictor and the outcome by 10% or more. All analyses adjusted for sampling weights, stratification, and clustering of households. Results Over 4% of working-age adults reported having a major disability and the most prevalent types of disability in order were physical, mental, and then sensory disability. In bivariate analysis, annual income, occupation type, and poverty status were associated with major disability (p<0.001 for all). Occupation type was dropped because it was collinear with income. Age, education, and urban/rural residence were confounders. In the multivariate analysis, adults in all income groups had about half the odds of disability compared to adults with no income (Rwf1-120,000 OR = 0.57; Rwf120,000–250,000 OR = 0.61; Rwf250,000–1,000,000 OR = 0.59; Rwf1,000,000+ OR = 0.66; p<0.05 for all), and non-poor adults had 0.77 the odds of disability compared to poor adults (p = 0.001). Conclusion Given

  16. The impact of childhood sickness on adult socioeconomic outcomes: Evidence from late 19th century America

    PubMed Central

    Warren, John Robert; Knies, Laurie; Haas, Steven; Hernandez, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    We use family fixed-effects models to estimate the impact of childhood health on adult literacy, labor force outcomes, and marital status among pairs of white brothers observed as children in the 1880 U.S. Census and then as adults in the 1900–1930 Censuses. Given our focus on the 19th century, we observed a wider array of infectious, chronic, and traumatic health problems than is observed using data that are more recent; our results thus provide some insights into circumstances in modern developing countries where similar health problems are more frequently observed. Compared to their healthy siblings, sick brothers were less likely to be located (and thus more likely to be dead) 20–50 years after their 1880 enumeration. Sick brothers were also less likely to be literate, to have ever been married, and to have reported an occupation. However, among those with occupations, sick and healthy brothers tended to do similar kinds of work. We discuss the implications of our results for research on the impact of childhood health on socioeconomic outcomes in developed and developing countries. PMID:22809795

  17. The association among neighborhood socioeconomic status, race and chronic pain in black and white older adults.

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Molly; Hart-Johnson, Tamera; Green, Carmen R.

    2007-01-01

    The association among race, neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES), and chronic pain has not been well examined in older people. Clinical data was obtained from older adults (>50 years old) presenting to a tertiary care pain center. The relative roles of race and neighborhood SES on the chronic pain experienced in older black and white adults were assessed. Older blacks experienced more affective pain, pain-related disability and mood disorder symptoms than older whites. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed previously hypothesized factors for the McGill Pain Questionnaire pain dimensions and the Pain Disability Index. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses also identified factors in the Brief Symptom Inventory and neighborhood SES. Structural equation modeling showed black race was associated with lower neighborhood SES and also with increased affective pain, obligatory disability and mood disorders mediationally through neighborhood SES. It was indirectly associated with increased sensory and miscellaneous pain, and voluntary disability through low neighborhood SES. Racial interaction examination showed that neighborhood SES had the same relationship to outcomes by race. We found increasing neighborhood SES is associated with decreasing negative chronic pain outcomes for older blacks and whites. Our data provide evidence that both race and neighborhood SES are important factors to consider when examining the chronic pain experience among older Americans. PMID:17987920

  18. Adolescent diet and time use clusters and associations with overweight and obesity and socioeconomic position.

    PubMed

    Ferrar, Katia; Golley, Rebecca

    2015-06-01

    Risk factors for adolescent overweight and obesity include low levels of physical activity, high levels of sedentary behavior, low fruit and vegetable intake, and low socioeconomic position (SEP). To date, the vast majority of research investigating associations between lifestyle behaviors and weight status analyze dietary and time use factors separately. Our research aimed to describe Australian youth time use and diet clusters and explore relationships with weight status and SEP (parental education and income). Cluster analysis of the National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey data from Australians aged 9 to 16 years (random sample n = 1,853) was conducted. Time use data (17 age-adjusted time use variables) and dietary data (7 age-adjusted diet variables) were collected via 24-hour recalls. Two clusters were associated with a reduced frequency of overweight and obesity (the boys' Active Sitter and girls' Healthy Academic clusters) and one with an increased frequency of overweight and obesity (the boys' Unhealthy cluster). Of these three clusters, two demonstrated associations with parental income and/or parental education level. The boys' Unhealthy cluster was associated with low SEP status (parental income and education), and the girls' Healthy Academic cluster was associated with high parental income. Not all unhealthy adolescent clusters were associated with overweight and obesity. The findings suggest sex-specific diet and activity clusters can be used to identify at-risk subgroups and inform multifaceted interventions to address overweight and obesity.

  19. Socioeconomic position and lower dietary moderation among Chinese immigrant women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Marilyn; Fang, Carolyn Y.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine associations of education and occupation, as indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP), with dietary intake and diet quality in a sample of Chinese immigrant women. Design Cross-sectional. Data collection included four days of dietary recalls and information on education and current occupation for participants and their spouses. Setting Philadelphia, PA, USA. Subjects 423 Chinese immigrant women recruited 10/05-4/08. Results In multivariate models, both higher education level and occupation category were significantly associated with higher energy density and intake of energy and sugar. Education was additionally associated with intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (p=0.01) and lower dietary moderation (p=0.01). With joint categorization based on both education and occupation, we observed significant trends indicating higher energy density (p=0.004) and higher intake of energy (p=0.001) and sugar (p=0.04), but less dietary moderation (p=0.02) with higher SEP. Conclusions In this sample of US Chinese immigrants, higher SEP as indicated by education level and occupation category was associated with differences in dietary intake, and with less dietary moderation. While higher SEP is typically linked to healthier diet in higher income nations, in these immigrants the association of SEP with diet follows the pattern of their country of origin – a lower-income country undergoing the nutrition transition. PMID:21806866

  20. The Relationship among Work Possible Selves, Socioeconomic Position, and the Psychological Well-Being of Individuals in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisarik, Christopher T.; Shoffner, Marie F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationships among work possible selves, socioeconomic position, gender, and psychological well-being. Participants were college students in early adulthood (N = 201), aged 20 to 35. Work possible selves, a construct based on the theory of possible selves, were examined. The results showed relationships between…

  1. Socioeconomic position, macroeconomic environment and overweight among adolescents in 35 countries

    PubMed Central

    Due, P; Damsgaard, MT; Rasmussen, M; Holstein, BE; Wardle, J; Merlo, J; Currie, C; Ahluwalia, N; Sørensen, TIA; Lynch, J

    2012-01-01

    Objective It is important to understand levels and social inequalities in childhood overweight within and between countries. This study examined prevalence and social inequality in adolescent overweight in 35 countries, and associations with macroeconomic factors. Design International cross-sectional survey in national samples of schools. Subjects A total of 11-, 13- and 15-year-olds from 35 countries in Europe and North America in 2001–2002 (N = 162 305). Measurements The main outcome measure was overweight based on self-reported height and weight (body mass index cut-points corresponding to body mass index of 25 kg/m2 at the age of 18 years). Measures included family and school affluence (within countries), and average country income and economic inequality (between countries). Results There were large variations in adolescent overweight, from 3.5% in Lithuanian girls to 31.7% in boys from Malta. Prevalence of overweight was higher among children from less affluent families in 21 of 24 Western and 5 of 10 Central European countries. However, children from more affluent families were at higher risk of overweight in Croatia, Estonia and Latvia. In Poland, Lithuania, Macedonia and Finland, girls from less affluent families were more overweight whereas the opposite was found for boys. Average country income was associated with prevalence and inequality in overweight when considering all countries together. However, economic inequality as measured by the Gini coefficient was differentially associated with prevalence and socioeconomic inequality in overweight among the 23-high income and 10-middle income countries, with a positive relationship among the high income countries and a negative association among the middle income countries. Conclusion The direction and magnitude of social inequality in adolescent overweight shows large international variation, with negative social gradients in most countries, but positive social gradients, especially for boys, in some

  2. How do socio-economic status, perceived economic barriers and nutritional benefits affect quality of dietary intake among US adults?

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, May A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Socio-economic factors may affect diet quality, perhaps differentially across gender and ethnicity. The mechanism of this association is still largely unknown. Objectives We examined the independent effects of socio-economic status (SES), perceived barrier of food price (PBFP), and perceived benefit of diet quality (PBDQ) on diet quality indicators and indices (DQIj,k), across gender and ethnicity. Additionally, we estimated the mediation proportion of the effect of SES on DQIj,k through PBFP and PBDQ. Methods Data from two cross-sectional surveys, the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) and Diet and Health Knowledge Survey (DHKS) 1994–96 were used. Our sample consisted of 4,356 US adults aged 20–65 years. With principal components analysis, SES (an index) was measured using household income per capita and education, and PBDQ was measured using an 11-item scale. PBFP was defined as the ratio of importance of food price score relative to nutrition. DQIj,k were assessed by a set of indicators and two indices including the Healthy Eating Index. Results The associations between SES, PBFP, PBDQ, and DQIj,k varied significantly across gender and ethnic groups. PBFP acted as a mediator in the association between SES and selected DQIj indicators, namely energy, fat intake, sodium, and simple sugar consumption (mediation proportion>10%), but not PBDQ. Conclusions SES, PBFP and PBDQ all affect dietary intake, and vary by ethnicity and gender. Positive effect of SES on DQIj,k may be mediated by PBFP but not PBDQ which is an independent protective factor. Nutrition education is important to promote healthy eating. PMID:17342164

  3. Socioeconomic status and obesity in adult populations of developing countries: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Carlos A.; Moura, Erly C.; Conde, Wolney L.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2004-01-01

    A landmark review of studies published prior to 1989 on socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity supported the view that obesity in the developing world would be essentially a disease of the socioeconomic elite. The present review, on studies conducted in adult populations from developing countries, published between 1989 and 2003, shows a different scenario for the relationship between SES and obesity. Although more studies are necessary to clarify the exact nature of this relationship, particularly among men, three main conclusions emerge from the studies reviewed: 1. Obesity in the developing world can no longer be considered solely a disease of groups with higher SES. 2. The burden of obesity in each developing country tends to shift towards the groups with lower SES as the country's gross national product (GNP) increases. 3. The shift of obesity towards women with low SES apparently occurs at an earlier stage of economic development than it does for men. The crossover to higher rates of obesity among women of low SES is found at a GNP per capita of about US$ 2500, the mid-point value for lower-middle-income economies. The results of this review reinforce the urgent need to: include obesity prevention as a relevant topic on the public health agenda in developing countries; improve the access of all social classes in these countries to reliable information on the determinants and consequences of obesity; and design and implement consistent public actions on the physical, economic, and sociocultural environment that make healthier choices concerning diet and physical activity feasible for all. A significant step in this direction was taken with the approval of the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health by the World Health Assembly in May 2004. PMID:15654409

  4. Socioeconomic Status and Physical Activity in Chinese Adults: A Report from a Community-Based Survey in Jiaxing, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mingling; Wu, Yikang; Narimatsu, Hiroto; Li, Xueqing; Wang, Chunmei; Luo, Jianyong; Zhao, Genming; Chen, Zhongwen; Xu, Wanghong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study examines the associations of socioeconomic status (SES) with intensity of different types of physical activity (PA) in Chinese adults, aimed at outlining and projecting socioeconomic disparities in PA among the population undergoing a rapid nutrition transition. Methods A community-based survey was conducted among 3,567 residents aged 30–65 years old in Jiaxing, China, in 2010. SES and PA were assessed by a structured questionnaire. SES was assessed as socioeconomic index (SEI) score based on self-reported educational attainment, household income and occupation. Metabolic equivalents (METs) were calculated for each subject to quantify the total amount of PA from occupation, exercise, transportation and housework. Results Intensity of overall PA in this population was 165 MET-hours/week, in which energy expenditure in occupational PA accounted for 82%. Both types and intensity of PA were significantly different by SES: middle SES groups had higher intensity of occupational activities; lower SES subjects engaged in more household work; whereas higher SES subjects were more likely to exercise, more active during commuting and had longer sedentary time. All the three components of SES, education attainment, income and occupation, contributed to socioeconomic disparities in PA in this population. Conclusions Our results suggest an overall insufficiency and socioeconomic inequalities in PA among Chinese adults in Jiaxing, a typical city experiencing a rapid urbanization in China. There is an urgent need to promote leisure-time activities in this population. PMID:26177205

  5. The effects of socioeconomic status and short stature on overweight, obesity and the risk of metabolic complications in adults

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Alejandro Estrada; Rueda, Juan Diego Gomez; Aguirre, Cristina Carreño; López, Lorena Patricia Mancilla

    2013-01-01

    Objective: to observe the relationship between socioeconomic status, height and nutritional problems related to obesity, overweight and risk of metabolic complications in men and women of Medellin (Colombia). Methods: cross-sectional study with a sample of 5556 adults between 18 and 69 years of age. We assessed weight, height and waist circumference. Socioeconomic variables were evaluated by family income, socioeconomic stratum and academic level achieved. Results: we found that in men and women the height reached in adulthood is associated with socioeconomic conditions as measured by the socioeconomic strata and family income. In women, height, age, and socioeconomic strata are associated with obesity, overweight and risk of obesity, and risk of metabolic complications. Conclusion: These results are not only from individual unhealthy habits, such as eating patterns based on high density foods combined with low energy expenditure, but also from the cumulative effect of food deprivation throughout life. Therefore, policies intended to prevent them should take a preventive approach that begins before birth and continues during childhood and adulthood. PMID:24892612

  6. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Mental Health of Adult Population: Serbian National Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Santric-Milicevic, Milena; Jankovic, Janko; Trajkovic, Goran; Terzic-Supic, Zorica; Babic, Uros; Petrovic, Marija

    2016-01-01

    Background: The global burden of mental disorders is rising. In Serbia, anxiety is the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years. Serbia has no mental health survey at the population level. The information on prevalence of mental disorders and related socioeconomic inequalities are valuable for mental care improvement. Aims: To explore the prevalence of mental health disorders and socioeconomic inequalities in mental health of adult Serbian population, and to explore whether age years and employment status interact with mental health in urban and rural settlements. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: This study is an additional analysis of Serbian Health Survey 2006 that was carried out with standardized household questionnaires at the representative sample of 7673 randomly selected households – 15563 adults. The response rate was 93%. A multivariate logistic regression modeling highlighted the predictors of the 5 item Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5), and of chronic anxiety or depression within eight independent variables (age, gender, type of settlement, marital status and self-perceived health, education, employment status and Wealth Index). The significance level in descriptive statistics, chi square analysis and bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions was set at p<0.05. Results: Chronic anxiety or depression was seen in 4.9% of the respondents, and poor MHI-5 in 47% of respondents. Low education (Odds Ratios 1.32; 95% confidence intervals=1.16–1.51), unemployment (1.36; 1.18–1.56), single status (1.34; 1.23–1.45), and Wealth Index middle class (1.20; 1.08–1.32) or poor (1.33; 1.21–1.47) were significantly related with poor MHI-5. Unemployed persons in urban settlements had higher odds for poormMHI-5 than unemployed in rural areas (0.73; 0.59–0.89). Single (1.50; 1.26–1.78), unemployed (1.39; 1.07–1.80) and inactive respondents (1.42; 1.10–1.83) had a higher odds of chronic anxiety or depression than married

  7. Audiological manifestations in HIV-positive adults

    PubMed Central

    Matas, Carla Gentile; Angrisani, Rosanna Giaffredo; Magliaro, Fernanda Cristina Leite; Segurado, Aluisio Augusto Cotrim

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the findings of behavioral hearing assessment in HIV-positive individuals who received and did not receive antiretroviral treatment. METHODS: This research was a cross-sectional study. The participants were 45 HIV-positive individuals (18 not exposed and 27 exposed to antiretroviral treatment) and 30 control-group individuals. All subjects completed an audiological evaluation through pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, and high-frequency audiometry. RESULTS: The hearing thresholds obtained by pure-tone audiometry were different between groups. The group that had received antiretroviral treatment had higher thresholds for the frequencies ranging from 250 to 3000 Hz compared with the control group and the group not exposed to treatment. In the range of frequencies from 4000 through 8000 Hz, the HIV-positive groups presented with higher thresholds than did the control group. The hearing thresholds determined by high-frequency audiometry were different between groups, with higher thresholds in the HIV-positive groups. CONCLUSION: HIV-positive individuals presented poorer results in pure-tone and high-frequency audiometry, suggesting impairment of the peripheral auditory pathway. Individuals who received antiretroviral treatment presented poorer results on both tests compared with individuals not exposed to antiretroviral treatment. PMID:25029578

  8. Low fertility increases descendant socioeconomic position but reduces long-term fitness in a modern post-industrial society

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Anna; Koupil, Ilona; Lawson, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive accounts of modern low human fertility argue that small family size maximizes the inheritance of socioeconomic resources across generations and may consequently increase long-term fitness. This study explores the long-term impacts of fertility and socioeconomic position (SEP) on multiple dimensions of descendant success in a unique Swedish cohort of 14 000 individuals born during 1915–1929. We show that low fertility and high SEP predict increased descendant socioeconomic success across four generations. Furthermore, these effects are multiplicative, with the greatest benefits of low fertility observed when SEP is high. Low fertility and high SEP do not, however, predict increased descendant reproductive success. Our results are therefore consistent with the idea that modern fertility limitation represents a strategic response to the local costs of rearing socioeconomically competitive offspring, but contradict adaptive models suggesting that it maximizes long-term fitness. This indicates a conflict in modern societies between behaviours promoting socioeconomic versus biological success. This study also makes a methodological contribution, demonstrating that the number of offspring strongly predicts long-term fitness and thereby validating use of fertility data to estimate current selective pressures in modern populations. Finally, our findings highlight that differences in fertility and SEP can have important long-term effects on the persistence of social inequalities across generations. PMID:22933371

  9. Determinants and beliefs of health information mavens among a lower-socioeconomic position and minority population

    PubMed Central

    Emmons, Karen M.; Puleo, Elaine; Viswanath, K.

    2011-01-01

    People of lower-socioeconomic position (SEP) and most racial/ethnic minorities face significant communication challenges which may negatively impact their health. Previous research has shown that these groups rely heavily on interpersonal sources to share and receive health information; however, little is known about these lay sources. The purpose of this paper is to apply the concept of a market maven to the public health sector with the aims of identifying determinants of high health information mavenism among low-SEP and racial/ethnic minority groups and to assess the information they may be sharing based on their own health beliefs. Data for this study were drawn from the baseline survey (n=325) of a US randomized control intervention study aimed at eliciting an understanding of Internet-related challenges among lower-SEP and minority individuals. Regression models were estimated to distinguish significant determinants of health information mavenism among the sample. Similarly, bivariate and logistic multivariable models were estimated to determine the association between health information mavenism and accurate health beliefs relating to diet, physical activity and smoking. The data illustrate that having a larger social network, being female and being older were important factors associated with higher mavenism scores. Additionally being a moderate consumer of general media as well as fewer years in the US and lower language acculturation were significant predictors of higher mavenism scores. Mavens were more likely than non-mavens to maintain accurate beliefs regarding diet; however, there was no distinction between physical activity and smoking beliefs between mavens and non-mavens. These results offer a unique understanding of health information mavenism which could better leverage word-of-mouth health communication efforts among lower-SEP and minority groups in order to reduce communication inequalities. Moreover, the data indicate that health information

  10. Effects of Negative and Positive Evidence on Adult Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strapp, Chehalis M.; Helmick, Augusta L.; Tonkovich, Hayley M.; Bleakney, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared negative and positive evidence in adult word learning, predicting that adults would learn more forms following negative evidence. Ninety-two native English speakers (32 men and 60 women [M[subscript age] = 20.38 years, SD = 2.80]), learned nonsense nouns and verbs provided within English frames. Later, participants produced…

  11. Adult Perceptions of Positive and Negative Infant Emotional Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolzani Dinehart, Laura H.; Messinger, Daniel S.; Acosta, Susan I.; Cassel, Tricia; Ambadar, Zara; Cohn, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    Adults' perceptions provide information about the emotional meaning of infant facial expressions. This study asks whether similar facial movements influence adult perceptions of emotional intensity in both infant positive (smile) and negative (cry face) facial expressions. Ninety-five college students rated a series of naturally occurring and…

  12. The Adult Community Education Administrator Position. A Job Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guglielmino, Lucy M.; And Others

    A research study was conducted to explore in depth the adult/community education administrator position as it exists in Florida in order to gain as much information as possible about the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to do the job well. A special focus was on the skills needed by adult/community educators to a greater extent than K-12…

  13. Symptoms and socio-economic impact of ependymoma on adult patients: results of the Adult Ependymoma Outcomes Project 2.

    PubMed

    Walbert, Tobias; Mendoza, Tito R; Vera-Bolaños, Elizabeth; Acquaye, Alvina; Gilbert, Mark R; Armstrong, Terri S

    2015-01-01

    Ependymoma is a rare central nervous system tumor of adults. Reports of patient symptoms, interference patterns and costs encountered by patients and families are limited. Adult ependymoma patients completed the online Ependymoma Outcomes Questionnaire II. The survey assesses disease and functional status as well as socio-economic factors. Descriptive statistics were used to report disease characteristics as well as economic and social impact. Independent samples t test was used to test if differences exist between high- and low-income groups in terms of symptom severity. Correlations were calculated between symptoms and cost estimates. 86 international patients participated (male = 50 %). The economic analysis focused on 78 respondents from the US. 48 % were employed and 55 % earned ≥$60,000. Tumors were located in the brain (44 %), spine (44 %) or both (12 %). Spine patients compared to brain patients reported significantly worse pain (4.4 versus 2.2, p < .003), numbness (5.3 versus 2.2, p < .001), fatigue (5.1 versus 3.6, p < .03), changes in bowel patterns (3.8 versus 1.4, p < .003) and weakness (4.2 versus 2.1, p < .006). Brain patients compared with spine patients had increased lack of appetite (.4 versus 2, p < .014). Patients with lower income (≤$59,999) had more problems concentrating (p < .024) and worse cognitive module severity scores (p < .024). Estimated average monthly out-of-pocket spending was $168 for medical co-pays and $59 for prescription medication. Patients with ependymoma are highly affected by their symptoms. Spinal patients report higher severity of symptoms. Patients in the lower income group report significantly higher severity of cognitive symptoms independent of disease site.

  14. Adult cognitive ability and socioeconomic status as mediators of the effects of childhood disadvantage on salivary cortisol in aging adults

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Carol E.; Spoon, Kelly; Thompson, Wesley; Hauger, Richard L.; Hellhammer, Dirk H.; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Lupien, Sonia; Lyons, Michael J.; McCaffery, Jeanne; McKenzie, Ruth; Mendoza, Sally P.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Ramundo, Ana; Shahroudi, Afrand; Kremen, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this longitudinal study we investigate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. Two mechanisms by which early life stress may affect later pathophysiology are through its influence on cognitive functioning or later socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage. We predicted that individual differences in young adult cognitive ability and midlife SES would mediate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife cortisol. On each of three nonconsecutive days, participants provided five salivary cortisol samples corresponding to their diurnal rhythm (N = 727 men; mean age 55, SD = 2.6). We calculated three measures of cortisol regulation (area-under-the curve cortisol reflecting total daytime cortisol output; cortisol-awakening-response; and wake-to-bed slope), averaging scores for each measure across multiple days. Childhood disadvantage combined four dichotomous indicators used previously by Rutter (1985): father low SES; mother education less than 12th grade; major family disruption/separation before age 18; and large family size (more than 5 siblings). The two mediators were a measure of general cognitive ability assessed at age 20 and highest achieved midlife SES. Men from more disadvantaged childhoods were significantly more likely to have dysregulated cortisol at midlife, with higher daytime cortisol levels decades after their childhood experience. Effects of childhood disadvantage were both direct and indirect. Cognitive ability and adult SES, however, only partially mediated the associations between early life stress and midlife cortisol. Specific indirect effects accounted for 33.8% of the total effect of childhood disadvantage [β = 0.12 (0.05; 0.18)] on total daytime cortisol. Associations remained significant after accounting for ethnicity, smoking status, and self-reported depressive symptoms. PMID:23684478

  15. Symptoms and socio-economic impact of ependymoma on adult patients: results of the Adult Ependymoma Outcomes Project 2.

    PubMed

    Walbert, Tobias; Mendoza, Tito R; Vera-Bolaños, Elizabeth; Acquaye, Alvina; Gilbert, Mark R; Armstrong, Terri S

    2015-01-01

    Ependymoma is a rare central nervous system tumor of adults. Reports of patient symptoms, interference patterns and costs encountered by patients and families are limited. Adult ependymoma patients completed the online Ependymoma Outcomes Questionnaire II. The survey assesses disease and functional status as well as socio-economic factors. Descriptive statistics were used to report disease characteristics as well as economic and social impact. Independent samples t test was used to test if differences exist between high- and low-income groups in terms of symptom severity. Correlations were calculated between symptoms and cost estimates. 86 international patients participated (male = 50 %). The economic analysis focused on 78 respondents from the US. 48 % were employed and 55 % earned ≥$60,000. Tumors were located in the brain (44 %), spine (44 %) or both (12 %). Spine patients compared to brain patients reported significantly worse pain (4.4 versus 2.2, p < .003), numbness (5.3 versus 2.2, p < .001), fatigue (5.1 versus 3.6, p < .03), changes in bowel patterns (3.8 versus 1.4, p < .003) and weakness (4.2 versus 2.1, p < .006). Brain patients compared with spine patients had increased lack of appetite (.4 versus 2, p < .014). Patients with lower income (≤$59,999) had more problems concentrating (p < .024) and worse cognitive module severity scores (p < .024). Estimated average monthly out-of-pocket spending was $168 for medical co-pays and $59 for prescription medication. Patients with ependymoma are highly affected by their symptoms. Spinal patients report higher severity of symptoms. Patients in the lower income group report significantly higher severity of cognitive symptoms independent of disease site. PMID:25359395

  16. Socioeconomic status and glycemic control in adult patients with type 2 diabetes: a mediation analysis

    PubMed Central

    Houle, Janie; Lauzier-Jobin, François; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Meunier, Sophie; Coulombe, Simon; Côté, José; Lespérance, François; Chiasson, Jean-Louis; Bherer, Louis; Lambert, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to examine the contribution of health behaviors (self-management and coping), quality of care, and individual characteristics (depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, illness representations) as mediators in the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and glycemic control. Methods A sample of 295 adult patients with type 2 diabetes was recruited at the end of a diabetes education course. Glycemic control was evaluated through glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Living in poverty and education level were used as indicators of SES. Results Bootstrapping analysis showed that the significant effects of poverty and education level on HbA1c were mediated by avoidance coping and depressive symptoms. The representation that diabetes is unpredictable significantly mediated the relationship between living in poverty and HbA1c, while healthy diet mediated the relationship between education level and HbA1c. Conclusions To improve glycemic control among patients with low SES, professionals should regularly screen for depression, offering treatment when needed, and pay attention to patients' illness representations and coping strategies for handling stress related to their chronic disease. They should also support patients in improving their self-management skills for a healthy diet. PMID:27239316

  17. Temporal Trends in Incidence of Myocardial Infarction and Ischemic Stroke by Socioeconomic Position in Sweden 1987–2010

    PubMed Central

    Malki, Ninoa; Koupil, Ilona; Eloranta, Sandra; Weibull, Caroline E.; Tiikkaja, Sanna; Ingelsson, Erik; Sparén, Pär

    2014-01-01

    Background We analyzed temporal trends in the incidence of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke in Sweden by socioeconomic position and investigated whether social inequalities in incidence of these diseases changed over time. Materials and Methods We studied a cohort of almost three million Swedish residents born between 1932 and 1960 followed from 1987 until 2010. Incident cases of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke were identified in the Swedish National Inpatient Register and Cause of Death Register. Socioeconomic position was retrieved from the Population and Housing Censuses. Incidence rates of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke and incidence rate ratios comparing levels of socioeconomic position were estimated using flexible parametric survival models adjusted for calendar year, attained age, sex, and birth country. Results The overall incidences of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke decreased over time among men, but were stable over time among women. With regard to ischemic stroke incidence, socioeconomic inequality increased over time in the age group 55 to 59: the incidence rate ratios for low manual compared to high non-manual increased from 1.3 (95% CI: 1.2–1.4) in 1997 to 1.5 (1.4–1.7) in 2010 among men, and from 1.4 (1.3–1.6) in 1997 to 2.1 (1.8–2.5) in 2010 among women. The socioeconomic inequality in incidence of myocardial infarction was stable over time for both men and women. Conclusion There was a decrease in myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke incidence over time among men but no significant change for women. Our study highlights existing, and in some cases increasing, social inequalities in the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25170919

  18. Bullying behaviour in schools, socioeconomic position and psychiatric morbidity: a cross-sectional study in late adolescents in Greece

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bullying is quite prevalent in the school setting and has been associated with the socioeconomic position and psychiatric morbidity of the pupils. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between bullying and socioeconomic status in a sample of Greek adolescents and to examine whether this is confounded by the presence of psychiatric morbidity, including sub-threshold forms of illness. Methods 5,614 adolescents aged 16-18 years old and attending 25 senior high schools were screened and a stratified random sample of 2,427 were selected for a detailed interview. Psychiatric morbidity was assessed with a fully structured psychiatric interview, the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R), while bullying was assessed with the revised Olweus bully/victim questionnaire. The following socio-economic variables were assessed: parental educational level and employment status, financial difficulties of the family and adolescents' school performance. The associations were investigated using multinomial logit models. Results 26.4% of the pupils were involved in bullying-related behaviours at least once monthly either as victims, perpetrators or both, while more frequent involvement (at least once weekly) was reported by 4.1%. Psychiatric morbidity was associated with all types of bullying-related behaviours. No socioeconomic associations were reported for victimization. A lower school performance and unemployment of the father were significantly more likely among perpetrators, while economic inactivity of the mother was more likely in pupils who were both victims and perpetrators. These results were largely confirmed when we focused on high frequency behaviours only. In addition, being overweight increased the risk of frequent victimization. Conclusions The prevalence of bullying among Greek pupils is substantial. Perpetration was associated with some dimensions of adolescents' socioeconomic status, while victimization showed no socioeconomic

  19. Mental health inequalities in Slovenian 15-year-old adolescents explained by personal social position and family socioeconomic status

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mental health inequalities are an increasingly important global problem. This study examined the association between mental health status and certain socioeconomic indicators (personal social position and the socioeconomic status of the family) in Slovenian 15-year-old adolescents. Methods Data originate from the WHO-Collaborative cross-national ‘Health Behavior in School-aged Children’ study conducted in Slovenia in 2010 (1,815 secondary school pupils, aged 15). Mental health status was measured by: KIDSCREEN-10, the Strength and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), a life satisfaction scale, and one question about feelings of depression. Socioeconomic position was measured by the socioeconomic status of the family (Family Affluence Scale, perceived material welfare, family type, occupational status of parents) and personal social position (number of friends and the type of school). Logistic regression and a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were performed. Results Girls had 2.5-times higher odds of suffering feelings of depression (p < 0.001), 1.5-times higher odds of low life satisfaction (p = 0.008), and a greater chance of a lower quality of life and a higher SDQ score than boys (p = 0.001). The adolescents who perceived their family’s material welfare as worse had 4-times higher odds (p < 0.001) of a low life satisfaction, a greater chance of a low quality of life, and a higher SDQ score than those who perceived it as better (p < 0.001). Adolescents with no friends had lower KIDSCREEN-10 and higher SDQ scores than those who had more than three friends. Conclusions Despite the fact that Slovenia is among the EU members with the lowest rates of social inequalities, it was found that adolescents with a lower socioeconomic position have poorer mental health than those with a higher socioeconomic position. Because of the financial crisis, we can expect an increase in social inequalities and a greater impact on

  20. Disparities in Children's Blood Lead and Mercury Levels According to Community and Individual Socioeconomic Positions.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sinye; Ha, Mina; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Son, Mia; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2015-05-29

    We aimed to examine the associations between blood lead and mercury levels and individual and community level socioeconomic positions (SEPs) in school-aged children. A longitudinal cohort study was performed in 33 elementary schools in 10 cities in Korea. Among a total of 6094 children included at baseline, the final study population, 2281 children followed-up biennially, were analyzed. The geometric mean (GM) levels of blood lead were 1.73 μg/dL (range 0.02-9.26) and 1.56 μg/dL (range 0.02-6.83) for male and female children, respectively. The blood lead levels were significantly higher in males, children living in rural areas, and those with lower individual SEP. The GM levels of blood mercury were 2.07 μg/L (range 0.09-12.67) and 2.06 μg/L (range 0.03-11.74) for males and females, respectively. Increased blood mercury levels were significantly associated with urban areas, higher individual SEP, and more deprived communities. The risk of high blood lead level was significantly higher for the lower individual SEP (odds ratio (OR) 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36-3.50 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship observed after adjusting for the community SEP. The association between high blood lead levels and lower individual SEP was much stronger in the more deprived communities (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.27-6.53) than in the less deprived communities (OR 1.40, 95% CI 0.76-2.59), and showed a significant decreasing trend during the follow-up only in the less deprived communities. The risk of high blood mercury levels was higher in higher individual SEP (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.40-1.03 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship noted. Significant decreasing trends were observed during the follow-up both in the less and more deprived communities. From a public health point-of-view, community level intervention with different approaches for different metals is

  1. Positivity Effect Specific to Older Adults with Subclinical Memory Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leal, Stephanie L.; Noche, Jessica A.; Murray, Elizabeth A.; Yassa, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that older adults preferentially remember positive information ("positivity effect"), however others have reported mixed results. One potential source of conflict is that aging is not a unitary phenomenon and individual differences exist. We modified a standard neuropsychological test to vary emotional…

  2. Life course socio-economic position and quality of life in adulthood: a systematic review of life course models

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A relationship between current socio-economic position and subjective quality of life has been demonstrated, using wellbeing, life and needs satisfaction approaches. Less is known regarding the influence of different life course socio-economic trajectories on later quality of life. Several conceptual models have been proposed to help explain potential life course effects on health, including accumulation, latent, pathway and social mobility models. This systematic review aimed to assess whether evidence supported an overall relationship between life course socio-economic position and quality of life during adulthood and if so, whether there was support for one or more life course models. Methods A review protocol was developed detailing explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria, search terms, data extraction items and quality appraisal procedures. Literature searches were performed in 12 electronic databases during January 2012 and the references and citations of included articles were checked for additional relevant articles. Narrative synthesis was used to analyze extracted data and studies were categorized based on the life course model analyzed. Results Twelve studies met the eligibility criteria and used data from 10 datasets and five countries. Study quality varied and heterogeneity between studies was high. Seven studies assessed social mobility models, five assessed the latent model, two assessed the pathway model and three tested the accumulation model. Evidence indicated an overall relationship, but mixed results were found for each life course model. Some evidence was found to support the latent model among women, but not men. Social mobility models were supported in some studies, but overall evidence suggested little to no effect. Few studies addressed accumulation and pathway effects and study heterogeneity limited synthesis. Conclusions To improve potential for synthesis in this area, future research should aim to increase study

  3. Effects of Socioeconomic Status on Maternal and Child Positive Behaviors in Daily Life Among Youth With Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, Erin T.; Kane, Heidi S.; Saleh, Daniel J.; Lupro, Toni H.; Slatcher, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with poorer behavioral and emotional outcomes in children with asthma. This study investigated the associations between maternal income and education and naturalistically observed behaviors and affect during everyday parent–child interactions. Methods 53 predominantly low-income youth with asthma, aged 10–17 years, wore a naturalistic event-sampling device, the Electronically Activated Recorder, for 4 days to assess mother and child positive behaviors and affect in daily life. Results Maternal education, but not income, was positively associated with child positive behaviors, displays of mother and child positive affect, and increased maternal responsiveness. Maternal positive affect and maternal responsiveness mediated the effect of maternal education on child positive affect. Conclusions Our findings suggest that maternal education has an important influence on the socioemotional adjustment of youth with asthma and point to the importance of investigating the independent influence of socioeconomic status components on everyday parent–child interactions. PMID:25150261

  4. Socioeconomic Position and Inflammatory and Immune Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease: Applications to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Aiello, Allison E.; Kaplan, George A.

    2012-01-01

    Biomarkers are an important aspect of research linking psychosocial stress and health. This paper aims to characterize the biological pathways that may mediate the relationship between socioeconomic position (SEP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and address opportunities for further research within the Panel Study for Income Dynamics (PSID), with a focus on psychosocial stressors related to SEP. We review the literature on CVD biomarkers, including adhesion and proinflammatory molecules (IL-6, other cytokines, C-reactive proteins, fibrinogen, etc.) and microbial pathogens. The impact of socioeconomic determinants and related psychosocial stressors on CVD biomarkers mediated by behavioral and central nervous system pathways are described. We also address measurement and feasibility issues including: specimen collection methods, processing and storage procedures, laboratory error, and within-person variability. In conclusion, we suggest that PSID consider adding important assessments of specific CVD biomarkers and mediating behavioral measures, health, and medications that will ultimately address many of the gaps in the literature regarding the relationship between socioeconomic position and cardiovascular health. PMID:20183904

  5. Ethnicity, socio-economic position and gender--do they affect reported health-care seeking behaviour?

    PubMed

    Adamson, Joy; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Chaturvedi, Nish; Donovan, Jenny

    2003-09-01

    While the pursuit of equity of access to health care is a central objective of many health care systems, there is evidence that patients of ethnic minority descent, in lower socio-economic position (SEP) or of female gender are less likely than Whites, more affluent groups or men, respectively, to access secondary and tertiary medical care. However, it is unclear at which point in the chain of events leading from perception of need through attendance at primary/emergency care, to referral and receipt of secondary care, this inequality occurs. This study examined the influence of ethnicity, socio-economic position and gender on an individual's perception of the need and urgency for seeking health care. A random sample was selected from two large city General Practices in the UK who were sent postal questionnaires which included two clinical vignettes describing characters experiencing chest pain and discovering a lump in the armpit. The main outcome measure was response to the 'chest pain' and 'lump' vignettes in terms of immediate health care utilisation. The questionnaire survey (n=1350, response rate 66%) indicated that Black respondents, respondents from lower socio-economic groups and women were at least as likely to report immediate health care seeking in response to the clinical vignettes than White respondents, those from higher socio-economic groups or men. This finding was consistent across all scenarios after adjustment for interpretation of the vignette, access to health services and attitudes to health and health care. For example, those in the lowest SEP group were almost 60% more likely to report immediate care seeking in response to the lump vignette (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.08-2.33) compared to those in the highest SEP group; and Black respondents 40% more likely (OR 1.41, 95% CI 0.92-2.17). This study suggests inequalities in access to health care by ethnicity, socio-economic position and gender are not related to patients in these groups failing to self

  6. Effect of socioeconomic position on survival after childhood cancer in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Simony, Sofie B; Lund, Lasse W; Erdmann, Friederike; Andersen, Klaus K; Winther, Jeanette F; Schüz, Joachim; Johansen, Christoffer; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Dalton, Susanne O

    2016-06-01

    Background One fifth of all deaths among children in Europe are accounted for by cancer. If this is to be reduced there is a need for studies on not only biology and treatment approaches but also on how social factors influence cure rates. We investigated how various socioeconomic characteristics were associated with survival after childhood cancer. Material and methods In a nationwide cohort of 3797 children diagnosed with cancer [hematological cancer, central nervous system (CNS) tumors, non-CNS solid tumors] before age 20 between 1990 and 2009 we identified parents and siblings and obtained individual level parental socioeconomic variables and vital status through 2012 by linkage to population-based registries. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dying were estimated using multivariate Cox proportional hazard models. Results For all children with cancer combined, survival was slightly but not statistically significantly better the higher the education of the mother or the father, and with maternal income. Significantly better survival was observed when parents were living together compared to living alone and worse survival when the child had siblings compared to none. Young (<20) or older (≥40) maternal age showed non-significant associations, but based on small numbers. For hematological cancers, no significant associations were observed. For CNS tumors, better survival was seen with parents living together (HR 0.70, CI 0.51-0.97). For non-CNS solid tumors, survival was better with high education of the mother (HR 0.66, CI 0.44-0.99) compared to basic and worse for children with one (HR 1.45, CI 1.11-1.89) or two or more siblings (HR 1.29, CI 0.93-1.79) (p for trend 0.02) compared to none. Conclusion The impact of socioeconomic characteristics on childhood cancer survival, despite equal access to protocolled and free-of-charge treatment, warrants further and more direct studies of underlying mechanisms in order to target these as a means

  7. Socio-economic position and adiposity among children and their parents in the Republic of Belarus

    PubMed Central

    Lawlor, Debbie A.; Kramer, Michael S.; Smith, George Davey; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Matush, Lidia; Martin, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Socio-economic differences in the prevalence of overweight/obesity may be one factor through which health inequalities arise and may vary by the population studied. Methods: Analysing a cohort of 13 889 children born in Belarus between June 1996 and December 1997, the authors investigated associations of parental educational attainment and highest household occupation with: (i) measured body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and skinfold thicknesses at age 6.5 years and (ii) the parents’ reported BMI. Results: Overall, 10% of children, 37% of mothers and 53% of fathers were either overweight or obese. Children from non-manual households were 27% [95% confidence interval (CI): 10%, 47%] more likely to be overweight/obese (based on BMI) than those from manual households. They also had larger waist circumferences and higher percentage body fat (calculated from subscapular and triceps skinfolds). Similar associations for being overweight/obese were seen for fathers [odds ratio (OR), 1.10; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.18], but mothers from non-manual households were less likely to be overweight/obese: (OR, 0.84; 95% CI: 0.79, 0. 90). Associations of childhood and parental overweight/obesity with higher educational status of either parent were similar to those observed for non-manual households. Conclusion: We observed socio-economic differentials in overweight/obesity prevalence among children and their parents in Belarus. More affluent children and their fathers were more likely to be overweight/obese but the reverse was found for mothers. PMID:20418336

  8. A geospatial analysis of the relationship between neighbourhood socioeconomic status and adult severe injury in Greater Vancouver

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Fiona; Schuurman, Nadine; Amram, Ofer; Nathens, Avery B

    2015-01-01

    Background Every year, injuries cost the Canadian healthcare system billions of dollars and result in thousands of emergency room visits, hospitalisations and deaths. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between neighbourhood socioeconomic status (NSES) and the rates of all-cause, unintentional and intentional severe injury in Greater Vancouver adults. A second objective was to determine whether the identified associations were spatially consistent or non-stationary. Methods Severe injury cases occurring between 2001 and 2006 were identified using the British Columbia's Coroner's Service records and the British Columbia Trauma Registry, and mapped by census dissemination areas using a geographical information system. Descriptive statistics and exploratory spatial data analysis methods were used to gain a better understanding of the data sets and to explore the relationship between the rates of severe injury and two measures of NSES (social and material deprivation). Ordinary least squares and geographically weighted regression were used to model these relationships at the global and local levels. Results Inverse relationships were identified between both measures of NSES and the rates of severe injury with the strongest associations located in Greater Vancouver's most socioeconomically deprived neighbourhoods. Social deprivation was found to have a slightly stronger relationship with the rates of severe injury than material deprivation. Conclusions Results of this study suggest that policies and programmes aimed at reducing the burden of severe injury in Greater Vancouver should take into account social and material deprivation, and should target the most socioeconomically deprived neighbourhoods in Greater Vancouver. PMID:25694418

  9. The rich get richer, the poor get even: Perceived socioeconomic position influences micro-social distributions of wealth.

    PubMed

    Bratanova, Boyka; Loughnan, Steve; Klein, Olivier; Wood, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Economic inequality has a robust negative effect on a range of important societal outcomes, including health, wellbeing, and education. Yet, it remains insufficiently understood why, how, and by whom unequal systems tend to be perpetuated. In two studies we examine whether psychological mindsets adopted by the wealthy and the poor in their micro-social transactions act to perpetuate or challenge inequality. We hypothesized that occupying a wealthier socioeconomic position promotes the pursuit of self-interest and contributes to inequality maintenance; poorer socioeconomic position, on the other hand, should promote the pursuit of fairness and equality restoration. In Study 1, participants completed an ultimatum game as proposers after being primed to believe they are wealthier or poorer, offering money to either poor or wealthy responders. As expected, the wealthy pursued their self-interest and the net effect of this behavior contributes to the maintenance of inequality. Conversely, the poor pursued fairness and the net effect of this behavior challenges inequality. In Study 2, participants were responders deciding whether to accept or reject unfair distributions. Compared to the wealthier, the poorer challenged inequality by rejecting unequal offers. The links between micro-social processes and macro-societal inequality are discussed.

  10. Disentangling effects of socioeconomic status on obesity: A cross-sectional study of the Spanish adult population.

    PubMed

    Merino Ventosa, María; Urbanos-Garrido, Rosa M Maria Merino Ven Gmail Com

    2016-09-01

    This paper complements previous estimations regarding socioeconomic inequalities in obesity for Spanish adults, and provides new evidence about the mechanisms through which socioeconomic status (SES) affects obesity. Microdata from the Spanish National Health Survey (SNHS) 2011-2012 are analysed. Corrected concentration indices (CCI) are calculated to measure inequality. Path analysis is employed to disentangle direct and indirect effects of SES on obesity, where dietary patterns, physical activity and sleep habits act as mediator variables. Multivariate logistic models are used to select those exogenous variables to be included in the path diagram. Men and women are analysed separately. Our results show significant pro-rich inequality in the distribution of obesity (the poorer the more obese), particularly for women (CCI=-0.070 for men, CCI=-0.079 for women). The indirect effects of SES on obesity (those transmitted via mediator variables) are quite modest (3.3% for males, 2.4% for females) due to three reasons. Firstly, dietary habits do not show a significant mediating effect. Secondly, the mediating effect of physical activity in leisure time, although significant (14% for males, 11.1% for females), is offset by that related to main activity. Finally, sleep habits contribution to total effect of SES on obesity is statistically significant but small (roughly 1%). Our results indicate that promoting physical activity in leisure time for those with a low SES, particularly for men, would contribute to prevent obesity and to reduce health inequalities. Promotion of adequate sleep habits for women with a low SES might have a similar effect. However, interventions aimed to reduce sedentarism related to main activity, although useful to prevent obesity, would amplify the obesity socioeconomic gradient. Since effects of SES are different for men and women, socioeconomic health inequalities should be addressed also from a gender perspective. PMID:27362523

  11. Disentangling effects of socioeconomic status on obesity: A cross-sectional study of the Spanish adult population.

    PubMed

    Merino Ventosa, María; Urbanos-Garrido, Rosa M Maria Merino Ven Gmail Com

    2016-09-01

    This paper complements previous estimations regarding socioeconomic inequalities in obesity for Spanish adults, and provides new evidence about the mechanisms through which socioeconomic status (SES) affects obesity. Microdata from the Spanish National Health Survey (SNHS) 2011-2012 are analysed. Corrected concentration indices (CCI) are calculated to measure inequality. Path analysis is employed to disentangle direct and indirect effects of SES on obesity, where dietary patterns, physical activity and sleep habits act as mediator variables. Multivariate logistic models are used to select those exogenous variables to be included in the path diagram. Men and women are analysed separately. Our results show significant pro-rich inequality in the distribution of obesity (the poorer the more obese), particularly for women (CCI=-0.070 for men, CCI=-0.079 for women). The indirect effects of SES on obesity (those transmitted via mediator variables) are quite modest (3.3% for males, 2.4% for females) due to three reasons. Firstly, dietary habits do not show a significant mediating effect. Secondly, the mediating effect of physical activity in leisure time, although significant (14% for males, 11.1% for females), is offset by that related to main activity. Finally, sleep habits contribution to total effect of SES on obesity is statistically significant but small (roughly 1%). Our results indicate that promoting physical activity in leisure time for those with a low SES, particularly for men, would contribute to prevent obesity and to reduce health inequalities. Promotion of adequate sleep habits for women with a low SES might have a similar effect. However, interventions aimed to reduce sedentarism related to main activity, although useful to prevent obesity, would amplify the obesity socioeconomic gradient. Since effects of SES are different for men and women, socioeconomic health inequalities should be addressed also from a gender perspective.

  12. From potential donor to actual donation: does socioeconomic position affect living kidney donation? A systematic review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Phillippa; Tomson, Charles; Risdale, Saira; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2014-11-15

    Evidence from Europe, Australia and the United States demonstrates that socioeconomically deprived individuals with advanced chronic kidney disease are less likely to receive a living kidney transplant compared with less deprived individuals. This systematic review focuses on how socioeconomic position (SEP) may influence hypothetical and actual living kidney donors and where appropriate, summarizes the quantitative evidence.In the general population, a higher SEP appears to be associated with an increased 'hypothetical' willingness to be a living kidney donor but with marked heterogeneity in the absolute differences (I = 95.9%, P < 0.001). In a commercial setting, lower SEP motivates people to donate. Outside of this setting, there is no evidence of discordance in the SEP of donors and recipients that would suggest undisclosed financial exchange. There is evidence for a complex interaction between SEP and other variables, such as ethnicity, sex, and the national economic climate. Some evidence suggests that measures to remove financial disincentives to donation are associated with an increase in living donation rates. Future research needs to study how SEP impacts the potential donor population from willingness to donate, progression through donor assessment to actual donor nephrectomy.

  13. Disparities in Debt: Parents' Socioeconomic Resources and Young Adult Student Loan Debt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Jason N.

    2014-01-01

    In an era of rising college costs and stagnant grant-based student aid, many young adults rely on their parents' resources and student loans to pay for their postsecondary education. In this study I ask how parents' income and education are linked to young adults' student loan debt. I develop and test two perspectives regarding the…

  14. The association between life course socioeconomic position and life satisfaction in different welfare states: European comparative study of individuals in early old age

    PubMed Central

    Niedzwiedz, Claire L.; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Pell, Jill P.; Mitchell, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background: whether socioeconomic position over the life course influences the wellbeing of older people similarly in different societies is not known. Objective: to investigate the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction among individuals in early old age and the influence of the welfare state regime on the associations. Design: comparative study using data from Wave 2 and SHARELIFE, the retrospective Wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), collected during 2006–07 and 2008–09, respectively. Setting: thirteen European countries representing four welfare regimes (Southern, Scandinavian, Post-communist and Bismarckian). Subjects: a total of 17,697 individuals aged 50–75 years. Methods: slope indices of inequality (SIIs) were calculated for the association between life course socioeconomic position (measured by the number of books in childhood, education level and current wealth) and life satisfaction. Single level linear regression models stratified by welfare regime and multilevel regression models, containing interaction terms between socioeconomic position and welfare regime type, were calculated. Results: socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction were present in all welfare regimes. Educational inequalities in life satisfaction were narrowest in Scandinavian and Bismarckian regimes among both genders. Post-communist and Southern countries experienced both lower life satisfaction and larger socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction, using most measures of socioeconomic position. Current wealth was associated with large inequalities in life satisfaction across all regimes. Conclusions: Scandinavian and Bismarckian countries exhibited narrower socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction. This suggests that more generous welfare states help to produce a more equitable distribution of wellbeing among older people. PMID:24476800

  15. Gender-dependent associations between socioeconomic status and metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study in the adult Saudi population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine the gender-dependent association of socio-economic status variables with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the adult Saudi population. Methods A total of 9164 adult Saudis (aged 18–70 years) were included in this cross-sectional study. Marital status, income, education, and occupation were used as socio-economic indicators while behavioral factor like physical exercise was also taken into account. MetS was defined using the criteria based from the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III). Results In males, the odds ratio (OR) of harboring MetS was higher in married [OR1.6 (Confidence Interval (CI) 1.1, 2.4); p < 0.03], and high income class [OR 2.3(CI 1.5, 3.5); p < 0.001] and lowest in retired and unemployed individuals [1.4(1.0, 1.9); p < 0.04, 0.61(0.45, 0.82); p < 0.001] respectively. In females, MetS was inversely related to high income [OR 0.70 (CI 0.46, 1.1); p < 0.09] and education level [OR 0.38 (CI 0.26, 0.56); p < 0.001], and was significantly higher in the unemployed class [OR 1.6 (CI 1.2, 2.2); p < 0.004]. Conclusions The prevalence of MetS is significantly high among retired, married and high-earning Saudi males while in females, high earners and high education seem to confer a protective effect against MetS. PMID:24735007

  16. Incautiously Optimistic: Positively-Valenced Cognitive Avoidance in Adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Knouse, Laura E.; Mitchell, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians who conduct cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) targeting attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood have noted that their patients sometimes verbalize overly positive automatic thoughts and set overly optimistic goals. These cognitions are frequently related to failure to engage in compensatory behavioral strategies emphasized in CBT. In this paper, we offer a functional analysis of this problematic pattern, positively-valenced cognitive avoidance, and suggest methods for addressing it within CBT for adult ADHD. We propose that maladaptive positive cognitions function to relieve aversive emotions in the short-term and are therefore negatively reinforced but that, in the long-term, they are associated with decreased likelihood of active coping and increased patterns of behavioral avoidance. Drawing on techniques from Behavioral Activation (BA), we offer a case example to illustrate these concepts and describe step-by-step methods for clinicians to help patients recognize avoidant patterns and engage in more active coping. PMID:25908901

  17. Intelligence and socioeconomic position in childhood in relation to frailty and cumulative allostatic load in later life: the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Catharine R; Booth, Tom; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2016-01-01

    Background Information on childhood determinants of frailty or allostatic load in later life is sparse. We investigated whether lower intelligence and greater socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood increased the risk of frailty and higher allostatic load, and explored the mediating roles of adult socioeconomic position, educational attainment and health behaviours. Methods Participants were 876 members of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 whose intelligence was assessed at age 11. At age 70, frailty was assessed using the Fried criteria. Measurements were made of fibrinogen, triglyceride, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, albumin, glycated haemoglobin, C reactive protein, body mass index and blood pressure, from which an allostatic load score was calculated. Results In sex-adjusted analyses, lower intelligence and lower social class in childhood were associated with an increased risk of frailty: relative risks (95% CIs) were 1.57 (1.21 to 2.03) for a SD decrease in intelligence and 1.48 (1.12 to 1.96) for a category decrease in social class. In the fully adjusted model, both associations ceased to be significant: relative risks were 1.13 (0.83 to 1.54) and 1.19 (0.86 to 1.61), respectively. Educational attainment had a significant mediating effect. Lower childhood intelligence in childhood, but not social class, was associated with higher allostatic load. The sex-adjusted coefficient for allostatic load for a SD decrease in intelligence was 0.10 (0.07 to 0.14). In the fully adjusted model, this association was attenuated but remained significant (0.05 (0.01 to 0.09)). Conclusions Further research will need to investigate the mechanisms whereby lower childhood intelligence is linked to higher allostatic load in later life. PMID:26700299

  18. Living in danger: previous violence, socioeconomic position, and mortality risk among women over a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Trygged, Sven; Hedlund, Ebba; Kåreholt, Ingemar

    2014-01-01

    Violence against women has many negative consequences. In this short report the authors investigate patterns of mortality among women experiencing violence leading to inpatient care from 1992 to 2006. Do women who are victims of severe violence have an increased mortality risk (a) in general? (b) by violence? (c) by suicide? Does socioeconomic position have any bearing on the mortality risk? The study was based on Swedish national registers, where 6,085 women exposed to violence resulting in inpatient care were compared with a nonexposed population sample of 55,016 women. Women of all social strata previously exposed to severe violence and treated in hospital had a highly increased risk of premature death from all-cause mortality, violence, or suicide. Women previously exposed to severe violence continue to live a life in danger. There is need for a societal response to support and protect these women against further violence after discharge from hospital.

  19. Sexual Health and Socioeconomic-Related Factors Among HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Jovet-Toledo, Gerardo G.; Ortiz-Sánchez, Edgardo J.; Rodríguez-Santiago, Edda I.; Vargas-Molina, Ricardo L.

    2015-01-01

    Most of the research among HIV-positive populations has been approached from behavioral risk models. This is particularly true for those otherwise socially vulnerable groups like men who have sex with men (MSM). As a response to this pattern, we examined data from an ongoing health promotion research being conducted in Puerto Rico (PR). The study is limited to HIV-positive MSM and consists of the participation in a survey interview that includes domains used to assess indicators of socio-economic-related factors (age, educational level, employment, religion, and partnership status) and sexual health (sexual satisfaction, condom use, and sexual health knowledge (SHK)). Participants reported a relatively high level(75 %) of sexual satisfaction and inconsistent condom use (50.9 % reported always using a condom). A deficient (61 %) SHK was also reported. In multivariate analyses, a higher educational level was associated with higher sexual satisfaction (aβ = 3.223; 95 % CI 0.291–6.156) and higher levels of SHK (aβ=1.328; 95 % CI 0.358–2.297), while unemployment was associated with less condom use (aOR 0.314; 95 % CI 0.122–0.810). Not having a primary sexual partner was associated with less sexual satisfaction (aβ= −3.871; 95 % CI −7.534–0.208) and more condom use (aOR 4.292; 95 % CI 1.310–14.068). Findings support the notion that men of a disadvantaged socioeconomic position may have a poorer sexual health status; with a lower level of education and unemployment leading this disparity. Findings also evidence that partnership status may have a role in the sexual health of HIV-positive MSM. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive analysis of sexual health and socio-economic indicators among Hispanic/Latino HIV-positive MSM in PR and in the Caribbean. Findings provide valuable information to address the sexual health needs of an underserved population. PMID:26123066

  20. Sexual health and socioeconomic-related factors among HIV-positive men who have sex with men in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Díaz, Carlos E; Jovet-Toledo, Gerardo G; Ortiz-Sánchez, Edgardo J; Rodríguez-Santiago, Edda I; Vargas-Molina, Ricardo L

    2015-10-01

    Most of the research among HIV-positive populations has been approached from behavioral risk models. This is particularly true for those otherwise socially vulnerable groups like men who have sex with men (MSM). As a response to this pattern, we examined data from an ongoing health promotion research being conducted in Puerto Rico (PR). The study is limited to HIV-positive MSM and consists of the participation in a survey interview that includes domains used to assess indicators of socio-economic-related factors (age, educational level, employment, religion, and partnership status) and sexual health (sexual satisfaction, condom use, and sexual health knowledge(SHK)). Participants reported a relatively high level (75 %) of sexual satisfaction and inconsistent condom use (50.9 % reported always using a condom). A deficient (61 %) SHK was also reported. In multivariate analyses, a higher educational level was associated with higher sexual satisfaction (aβ = 3.223; 95 % CI 0.291-6.156) and higher levels of SHK (aβ = 1.328; 95 % CI 0.358-2.297), while unemployment was associated with less condom use (aOR 0.314; 95 % CI 0.122-0.810). Not having a primary sexual partner was associated with less sexual satisfaction (aβ = -3.871; 95 % CI -7.534-0.208) and more condom use (aOR 4.292; 95 % CI 1.310-14.068). Findings support the notion that men of a disadvantaged socioeconomic position may have a poorer sexual health status; with a lower level of education and unemployment leading this disparity. Findings also evidence that partnership status may have a role in the sexual health of HIV-positive MSM. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive analysis of sexual health and socioeconomic indicators among Hispanic/Latino HIV-positive MSM in PR and in the Caribbean. Findings provide valuable information to address the sexual health needs of an underserved population.

  1. Unemployment and substance use problems among young adults: Does childhood low socioeconomic status exacerbate the effect?

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Hill, Karl G; Hartigan, Lacey A; Boden, Joseph M; Guttmannova, Katarina; Kosterman, Rick; Bailey, Jennifer A; Catalano, Richard F

    2015-10-01

    The current study tested whether unemployment predicted young adults' heavy episodic drinking, cigarette smoking, and cannabis use after taking into account individual development in substance use. Furthermore, building on the life course perspective, this study examined whether the link between unemployment and substance use among young adults differed for those who experienced low childhood SES compared to those who did not. Data for the present study came from the Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP), a panel study examining a broad range of developmental outcomes from ages 10 to 33. A life history calendar (LHC) was administered to assess substance use and unemployment status during young adulthood. Covariates included baseline symptoms of psychopathology, baseline substance use, gender, ethnicity, and adult educational attainment. Results suggest that unemployment is associated with young adults' heavy episodic drinking and possibly cigarette use, but not cannabis use. Moreover, for all three substances, the detrimental impact of unemployment on substance use seems to be exacerbated among young adults who spent their childhood and adolescence in a lower SES household. Public health efforts that provide other viable and affordable options to cope with unemployment among young adults from low SES backgrounds are needed to address this disproportionate concentration of adverse impacts of unemployment on behavioral health. PMID:26342911

  2. Unemployment and substance use problems among young adults: Does childhood low socioeconomic status exacerbate the effect?

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Hill, Karl G; Hartigan, Lacey A; Boden, Joseph M; Guttmannova, Katarina; Kosterman, Rick; Bailey, Jennifer A; Catalano, Richard F

    2015-10-01

    The current study tested whether unemployment predicted young adults' heavy episodic drinking, cigarette smoking, and cannabis use after taking into account individual development in substance use. Furthermore, building on the life course perspective, this study examined whether the link between unemployment and substance use among young adults differed for those who experienced low childhood SES compared to those who did not. Data for the present study came from the Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP), a panel study examining a broad range of developmental outcomes from ages 10 to 33. A life history calendar (LHC) was administered to assess substance use and unemployment status during young adulthood. Covariates included baseline symptoms of psychopathology, baseline substance use, gender, ethnicity, and adult educational attainment. Results suggest that unemployment is associated with young adults' heavy episodic drinking and possibly cigarette use, but not cannabis use. Moreover, for all three substances, the detrimental impact of unemployment on substance use seems to be exacerbated among young adults who spent their childhood and adolescence in a lower SES household. Public health efforts that provide other viable and affordable options to cope with unemployment among young adults from low SES backgrounds are needed to address this disproportionate concentration of adverse impacts of unemployment on behavioral health.

  3. Prematurity, Birth Weight, and Socioeconomic Status Are Linked to Atypical Diurnal Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activity in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Winchester, Suzy Barcelos; Sullivan, Mary C; Roberts, Mary B; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-02-01

    In a prospective, case-controlled longitudinal design, 180 preterm and fullterm infants who had been enrolled at birth participated in a comprehensive assessment battery at age 23. Of these, 149 young adults, 34 formerly full-term and 115 formerly preterm (22 healthy preterm, 48 with medical complications, 21 with neurological complications, and 24 small for gestational age) donated five saliva samples from a single day that were assayed for cortisol to assess diurnal variation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Analyses were conducted to determine whether prematurity category, birth weight, and socioeconomic status were associated with differences in HPA axis function. Pre- and perinatal circumstances associated with prematurity influenced the activity of this environmentally sensitive physiological system. Results are consistent with the theory of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease and highlight a possible mechanism for the link between prematurity and health disparities later in life. PMID:26676400

  4. Socio-economic dietary inequalities in UK adults: an updated picture of key food groups and nutrients from national surveillance data.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Eva R; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-01-14

    Socio-economic differences in diet are a potential contributor to health inequalities. The present study provides an up-to-date picture of socio-economic differences in diet in the UK, focusing on the consumption of three food groups and two nutrients of public health concern: fruit and vegetables; red and processed meat; oily fish; saturated fats; non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES). We analysed data for 1491 adults (age ≥ 19 years) from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2008-2011. Socio-economic indicators were household income, occupational social class and highest educational qualification. Covariate-adjusted estimates for intakes of fruit and vegetables, red and processed meat, and both nutrients were estimated using general linear models. Covariate-adjusted OR for oily fish consumption were derived with logistic regression models. We observed consistent socio-economic gradients in the consumption of the three food groups as estimated by all the three indicators. Contrasting highest and lowest levels of each socio-economic indicator, we observed significant differences in intakes for the three food groups and NMES. Depending on the socio-economic indicator, highest socio-economic groups consumed up to 128 g/d more fruit and vegetables, 26 g/d less red and processed meat, and 2·6% points less NMES (P< 0·05 for all). Relative to lowest socio-economic groups, highest socio-economic groups were 2·4 to 4·0 times more likely to eat oily fish. No significant patterns in saturated fat consumption were apparent. In conclusion, socio-economic differences were identified in the consumption of food groups and one nutrient of public health importance. Aligning dietary intakes with public health guidance may require interventions specifically designed to reduce health inequalities.

  5. Socio-economic dietary inequalities in UK adults: an updated picture of key food groups and nutrients from national surveillance data.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Eva R; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-01-14

    Socio-economic differences in diet are a potential contributor to health inequalities. The present study provides an up-to-date picture of socio-economic differences in diet in the UK, focusing on the consumption of three food groups and two nutrients of public health concern: fruit and vegetables; red and processed meat; oily fish; saturated fats; non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES). We analysed data for 1491 adults (age ≥ 19 years) from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2008-2011. Socio-economic indicators were household income, occupational social class and highest educational qualification. Covariate-adjusted estimates for intakes of fruit and vegetables, red and processed meat, and both nutrients were estimated using general linear models. Covariate-adjusted OR for oily fish consumption were derived with logistic regression models. We observed consistent socio-economic gradients in the consumption of the three food groups as estimated by all the three indicators. Contrasting highest and lowest levels of each socio-economic indicator, we observed significant differences in intakes for the three food groups and NMES. Depending on the socio-economic indicator, highest socio-economic groups consumed up to 128 g/d more fruit and vegetables, 26 g/d less red and processed meat, and 2·6% points less NMES (P< 0·05 for all). Relative to lowest socio-economic groups, highest socio-economic groups were 2·4 to 4·0 times more likely to eat oily fish. No significant patterns in saturated fat consumption were apparent. In conclusion, socio-economic differences were identified in the consumption of food groups and one nutrient of public health importance. Aligning dietary intakes with public health guidance may require interventions specifically designed to reduce health inequalities. PMID:25399952

  6. Socioeconomic and behavioral risk factors for mortality in a national 19-year prospective study of U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Lantz, Paula M; Golberstein, Ezra; House, James S; Morenoff, Jeffrey

    2010-05-01

    Many demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral risk factors predict mortality in the United States. However, very few population-based longitudinal studies are able to investigate simultaneously the impact of a variety of social factors on mortality. We investigated the degree to which demographic characteristics, socioeconomic variables and major health risk factors were associated with mortality in a nationally-representative sample of 3617 U.S. adults from 1986 to 2005, using data from the 4 waves of the Americans' Changing Lives study. Cox proportional hazard models with time-varying covariates were employed to predict all-cause mortality verified through the National Death Index and death certificate review. The results revealed that low educational attainment was not associated with mortality when income and health risk behaviors were included in the model. The association of low income with mortality remained after controlling for major behavioral risks. Compared to those in the "normal" weight category, neither overweight nor obesity was significantly associated with the risk of mortality. Among adults age 55 and older at baseline, the risk of mortality was actually reduced for those were overweight (hazard rate ratio = 0.83) and those who were obese (hazard rate ratio = 0.68), controlling for other health risk behaviors and health status. Having a low level of physical activity was a significant risk factor for mortality (hazard rate ratio = 1.58). The results from this national longitudinal study underscore the need for health policies and clinical interventions focusing on the social and behavioral determinants of health, with a particular focus on income security, smoking prevention/cessation, and physical activity.

  7. Reciprocity in relationships: socio-economic and health influences on intergenerational exchanges between Third Age parents and their adult children in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Grundy, Emily

    2005-06-01

    In this paper data from a nationally representative British longitudinal study are used to analyse exchanges of support between Third Age parents (aged 55-75) and their adult children. Results show that between two thirds and three quarters of parents in this age group were involved in some sort of exchange relationship with at least one of their children. Generally, more Third Age parents were providers than recipients of help, but there was a strong reciprocal element to intergenerational exchange with, for example, married parents who provided support to at least one child being twice as likely as those who did not to receive support from a child, after allowance for a range of relevant parental and child characteristics. Parental characteristics associated with higher probability of providing help included higher income, home ownership and being married or widowed rather than divorced. Higher income and home ownership were, however, negatively associated with odds of receiving help from a child, again after adjustment for other co-variates, suggesting socio-economic differences in the balance of support exchanges. Children seem responsive to parental needs in that receipt of help from a child was positively associated with older parental age and with parental disability. The paper shows that in Britain, as in the USA, the balance of intergenerational exchanges involving Third Age adults is downward rather than upward, in contravention of depictions of older adults as 'burdens' on younger generations. Current demographic and social changes are, it is argued, likely to increase support demands from adult children to Third Age parents in coming decades. PMID:15926906

  8. Adult male positioning in baboon progressions: order and chaos revisited.

    PubMed

    Rhine, R J; Westlund, B J

    1981-01-01

    Evidence of nonrandom positioning among adult males is crucial for a protection theory of the spatial organization of baboon progressions. In a recent study it was suggested that systematic positioning of troop members other than mothers and infants is so slight and rare that progressions may be regarded as essentially random. This suggestion depends upon debatable methodological points presumably downgrading previous findings of nonrandom order. Reanalysis of data from this study revealed numerous analytical and statistical problems, as well as serious calculation and other errors, and showed that the findings are consistent with results of the present and previous research. Adult males tended toward the front or back of progressions, a tendency which was intensified in potentially dangerous situations. Dominant males were disproportionately more often frontward and subordinate males rearward. Nonrandom order, which was found for a variety of circumstances at high levels of statistical significance, was unusually general in that it occurred in 6 studies, 7 troops, 2 species, and 5 locations. Such generality is consistent with a protection theory postulating phylogenetic underpinnings of a sociospatial organization which allows an advanced primate to adapt to terrestrial coexistence with predators.

  9. Mediating pathways between parental socio-economic position and allostatic load in mid-life: Findings from the 1958 British birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Barboza Solís, Cristina; Fantin, Romain; Castagné, Raphaële; Lang, Thierry; Delpierre, Cyrille; Kelly-Irving, Michelle

    2016-09-01

    Understanding how human environments affect our health by "getting under the skin" and penetrating the cells, organs and physiological systems of our bodies is a key tenet in public health research. Here, we examine the idea that early life socioeconomic position (SEP) can be biologically embodied, potentially leading to the production of health inequalities across population groups. Allostatic load (AL), a composite measure of overall physiological wear-and-tear, could allow for a better understanding of the potential biological pathways playing a role in the construction of the social gradient in adult health. We investigate the factors mediating the link between two components of parental SEP, maternal education (ME) and parental occupation (PO), and AL at 44 years. Data was used from 7573 members of the 1958 British birth cohort follow-up to age 44. AL was constructed using 14 biomarkers representing four physiological systems. We assessed the contribution of financial/materialist, psychological/psychosocial, educational, and health behaviors/BMI pathways over the life course, in mediating the associations between ME, PO and AL. ME and PO were mediated by three pathways: educational, material/financial, and health behaviors, for both men and women. A better understanding of embodiment processes leading to disease development may contribute to developing adapted public policies aiming to reduce health inequalities. PMID:27485729

  10. Unemployment and substance use problems among young adults: Does childhood low socioeconomic status exacerbate the effect?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Hill, Karl G.; Hartigan, Lacey. A.; Boden, Joseph; Guttmannova, Katarina; Kosterman, Rick; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    The current study tested whether unemployment predicted young adults’ heavy episodic drinking, cigarette smoking, and cannabis use after taking into account individual development in substance use. Furthermore, building on the life course perspective, this study examined whether the link between unemployment and substance use among young adults differed for those who experienced low childhood SES compared to those who did not. Data for the present study came from the Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP), a panel study examining a broad range of developmental outcomes from ages 10 to 33. A life history calendar (LHC) was administered to assess substance use and unemployment status during young adulthood. Covariates included baseline symptoms of psychopathology, baseline substance use, gender, ethnicity, and adult educational attainment. Results suggest that unemployment is associated with young adults’ heavy episodic drinking and possibly cigarette use, but not cannabis use. Moreover, for all three substances, the detrimental impact of unemployment on substance use seems to be exacerbated among young adults who spent their childhood and adolescence in a lower SES household. Public health efforts that provide other viable and affordable options to cope with unemployment among young adults from low SES backgrounds are needed to address this disproportionate concentration of adverse impacts of unemployment on behavioral health. PMID:26342911

  11. Long-Range Socioeconomic and Marital Consequences of Adolescent Marriage in Three Cohorts of Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teti, Douglas M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Studied long-term consequences of adolescent marriage in three age cohorts of males. Found that Black and White males who married as adolescents completed less education, earned less, held lower-status occupations, and experienced more marital disruption than did peers who married as adults. (Author/NB)

  12. Life Course Socioeconomic Position: Associations with Cardiac Structure and Function at Age 60-64 Years in the 1946 British Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Emily T.; Jones, Rebecca; Thomas, Claudia; Ghosh, Arjun K.; Sattar, Naveed; Deanfield, John; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana; Hughes, Alun D.; Whincup, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Although it is recognized that risks of cardiovascular diseases associated with heart failure develop over the life course, no studies have reported whether life course socioeconomic inequalities exist for heart failure risk. The Medical Research Council’s National Survey of Health and Development was used to investigate associations between occupational socioeconomic position during childhood, early adulthood and middle age and measures of cardiac structure [left ventricular (LV) mass index and relative wall thickness (RWT)] and function [systolic: ejection fraction (EF) and midwall fractional shortening (mFS); diastolic: left atrial (LA) volume, E/A ratio and E/e’ ratio)]. Different life course models were compared with a saturated model to ascertain the nature of the relationship between socioeconomic position across the life course and each cardiac marker. Findings showed that models where socioeconomic position accumulated over multiple time points in life provided the best fit for 3 of the 7 cardiac markers: childhood and early adulthood periods for the E/A ratio and E/e’ ratio, and all three life periods for LV mass index. These associations were attenuated by adjustment for adiposity, but were little affected by adjustment for other established or novel cardio-metabolic risk factors. There was no evidence of a relationship between socioeconomic position at any time point and RWT, EF, mFS or LA volume index. In conclusion, socioeconomic position across multiple points of the lifecourse, particularly earlier in life, is an important determinant of some measures of LV structure and function. BMI may be an important mediator of these associations. PMID:27031846

  13. Reach and Effectiveness of an Integrated Community-Based Intervention on Physical Activity and Healthy Eating of Older Adults in a Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luten, Karla A.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Dijkstra, Arie; de Winter, Andrea F.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the reach and effectiveness of an integrated community-based intervention designed to promote physical activity and healthy eating among older adults in a socioeconomically disadvantaged community in the Netherlands. The intervention was evaluated with a controlled pre-post quasi-experimental design, with 430…

  14. Knowledge of Food Production Methods Informs Attitudes toward Food but Not Food Choice in Adults Residing in Socioeconomically Deprived Rural Areas within the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Maria; Kearney, John; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Understand food choice, from the perspective of people residing in socioeconomically deprived rural neighborhoods. Methods: Focus groups (n = 7) were undertaken within a community setting involving 42 adults (2 males and 40 females) recruited through voluntary action groups. Data were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and content…

  15. The Mediating Effects of Lifestyle Factors on the Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Self-Rated Health among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhyun

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about how different lifestyle factors mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health among middle-aged and older adults in Korea. Using data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, this study examined the direct effects of SES on self-rated health and how lifestyle factors mediate the relationships…

  16. Healthcare Contacts after Myocardial Infarction According to Mental Health and Socioeconomic Position: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Tine Jepsen; Vestergaard, Mogens; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Christensen, Bo; Larsen, Karen Kjær

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the long-term use of healthcare contacts to general practice (GP) and hospital after a first-time myocardial infarction (MI) according to mental health and socioeconomic position. Methods Population-based cohort study of all patients discharged with first-time MI in the Central Denmark Region in 2009 (n=908) using questionnaires and nationwide registers. We estimated adjusted incidence rates and incidence rate ratios (IRR) for GP and hospital contacts according to depressive and anxiety symptoms, educational level and cohabitation status. Results During the 24-month period after the MI, patients with anxiety symptoms had 24% more GP contacts (adjusted IRR 1.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12–1.36) than patients with no anxiety symptoms. In contrast, patients with depressive symptoms (1.05, 0.94–1.16) and with short and medium education (<10 years: 0.96, 0.84–1.08; 10–12 years: 0.91, 0.80–1.03) and patients living alone (0.95, 0.87–1.04) had the same number of GP contacts as their counterparts (patients with no depressive symptoms, with long education [>12 years] and patients living with a partner). During the first 6 months after the MI, patients living alone had 13% fewer hospital contacts (0.87, 0.77–0.99), patients with short education had 16% fewer hospital contacts (<10 years: 0.84, 0.72–0.98) and patients with anxiety symptoms had 27% fewer hospital contacts (0.73, 0.62–0.86) than their counterparts. In contrast, patients with depressive symptoms (0.92, 0.77–1.10) and medium education (10–12 years: 1.05, 0.91–1.22) had the same number of hospital contacts as their counterparts. Conclusions This study indicates that patients with depressive symptoms, short and medium education and patients living alone have a lower long-term use of healthcare contacts following MI than patients without these risk factors. Patients with depressive symptoms and low socioeconomic position would be expected to have a higher need of

  17. Socioeconomic Inequality in Disability Among Adults: A Multicountry Study Using the World Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad R.; Stewart Williams, Jennifer A.; Gautam, Jeny; Posarac, Aleksandra; Officer, Alana; Verdes, Emese; Kostanjsek, Nenad

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We compared national prevalence and wealth-related inequality in disability across a large number of countries from all income groups. Methods. Data on 218 737 respondents participating in the World Health Survey 2002–2004 were analyzed. A composite disability score (0–100) identified respondents who experienced significant disability in physical, mental, and social functioning irrespective of their underlying health condition. Disabled persons had disability composite scores above 40. Wealth was evaluated using an index of economic status in households based on ownership of selected assets. Socioeconomic inequalities were measured using the slope index of inequality and the relative index of inequality. Results. Median age-standardized disability prevalence was higher in the low- and lower middle-income countries. In all the study countries, disability was more prevalent in the poorest than in the richest wealth quintiles. Pro-rich inequality was statistically significant in 43 of 49 countries, with disability prevalence higher among populations with lower wealth. Median relative inequality was higher in the high- and upper middle-income countries. Conclusions. Integrating equity components into the monitoring of disability trends would help ensure that interventions reach and benefit populations with greatest need. PMID:23678901

  18. Understanding the Positive Role of Neighborhood Socioeconomic Advantage in Achievement: The Contribution of the Home, Child Care, and School Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupere, Veronique; Leventhal, Tama; Crosnoe, Robert; Dion, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the mechanisms underlying associations between neighborhood socioeconomic advantage and children's achievement trajectories between ages 54 months and 15 years. Results of hierarchical linear growth models based on a diverse sample of 1,364 children indicate that neighborhood socioeconomic advantage was…

  19. Management of adult Ph-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Chiaretti, Sabina; Foà, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Philadelphia-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) has been regarded for decades as the ALL subgroup with the worse outcome. It represents the most frequent genetic subtype of adult ALL, and increases progressively with age. The introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has enabled to obtain complete hematologic remissions (CHRs) in virtually all patients, including the elderly, to improve disease-free survival and overall survival, as well as to increase the percentage of patients who can undergo an allogeneic stem cell transplant (allo-SCT).The current management of adult Ph+ ALL patients relies on the use of a TKI with or without chemotherapy followed by an allo-SCT, which still remains the only curative option. Minimal residual disease screening is permitting not only a better stratification of patients, but has also allowed to reconsider the role of autologous stem cell transplant for a set of patients who do not have a donor or are not eligible for an allo-SCT. At present, clinical challenges are represented by the emergence of resistant mutations, particularly the gatekeeper T315I, for which alternative approaches, comprising novel TKIs or therapies based on the combination of TKI with immunotherapeutic strategies, are being considered in order to overcome resistance.

  20. Socioeconomic Status and Other Related Factors of Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in the South Korean Adult Population Based on a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu-Chong; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Jin Yong; Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Byoung-Duck; Shin, Koh-Eun; Lee, Anna; Ko, Byung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the association between seasonal influenza vaccination in South Korea and socioeconomic status (SES) as well as other potential related factors. Methods The study was based on data obtained in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2011. Education level and household income were used as indicators for SES. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate SES and other demographic variables as related factors for influenza vaccination, the primary outcome. Results Higher household income was positively associated with higher vaccine uptake in the younger (19–49 years) group [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–2.23], whereas the low-income and low-education group had increased vaccination coverage than the middle-income and middle-education group in the older (≥ 50 years) group (aOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.09–1.69). Current smokers tend to be unvaccinated in all age groups. Among individuals aged ≥ 50, older age, mild to moderate alcohol consumption, regular exercise, and having co-morbidities were positively associated with vaccination, while those who self-reported their health status as good were less likely to be vaccinated. Conclusions The relationship between SES and seasonal influenza vaccination coverage differed between the age groups throughout the adult South Korean population. Public health policies need to address these inequalities. PMID:25646847

  1. Individual and community-level socioeconomic position and its association with adolescents experience of childhood sexual abuse: a multilevel analysis of six countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Yahaya, Ismail; Ponce de Leon, Antonio; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Soares, Joaquim; Macassa, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a substantial global health and human rights problem and consequently a growing concern in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the association between individual and community-level socioeconomic status (SES) and the likelihood of reporting CSA. Methods: We applied multiple multilevel logistic regression analysis on Demographic and Health Survey data for 6,351 female adolescents between the ages of 15 and 18 years from six countries in sub-Saharan Africa, between 2006 and 2008. Results: About 70% of the reported cases of CSA were between 14 and 17 years. Zambia had the highest proportion of reported cases of CSA (5.8%). At the individual and community level, we found that there was no association between CSA and socioeconomic position. This study provides evidence that the likelihood of reporting CSA cut across all individual SES as well as all community socioeconomic strata. Conclusions: We found no evidence of socioeconomic differentials in adolescents’ experience of CSA, suggesting that adolescents from the six countries studied experienced CSA regardless of their individual and community-level socioeconomic position. However, we found some evidence of geographical clustering, adolescents in the same community are subject to common contextual influences. Further studies are needed to explore possible effects of countries’ political, social, economic, legal, and cultural impact on childhood sexual abuse. PMID:23797565

  2. Association between weight perception and socioeconomic status among adults in the Seychelles

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the association between weight perception and socioeconomic status (SES) in sub-Saharan Africa, and none made this association based on education, occupation and income simultaneously. Methods Based on a population-based survey (n = 1255) in the Seychelles, weight and height were measured and self-perception of one's own body weight, education, occupation, and income were assessed by a questionnaire. Individuals were considered to have appropriate weight perception when their self-perceived weight matched their actual body weight. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 35% and 28%, respectively. Multivariate analysis among overweight/obese persons showed that appropriate weight perception was directly associated with actual weight, education, occupation and income, and that it was more frequent among women than among men. In a model using all three SES indicators together, only education (OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.3-4.8) and occupation (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.2-4.5) were independently associated with appropriate perception of being overweight. The OR reached 6.9 [95% CI: 3.4-14.1] when comparing the highest vs. lowest categories of SES based on a score including all SES indicators and 6.1 [95% CI: 3.0-12.1] for a score based on education and occupation. Conclusions Appropriately perceiving one's weight as too high was associated with different SES indicators, female sex and being actually overweight. These findings suggest means and targets for clinical and population-based interventions for weight control. Further studies should examine whether these differences in weight perception underlie differences in cognitive skills, healthy weight norms, or body size ideals. PMID:20696072

  3. Work characteristics, socioeconomic position and health: a systematic review of mediation and moderation effects in prospective studies

    PubMed Central

    Hoven, Hanno; Siegrist, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Social inequalities in health persist in modern societies. The contribution of adverse work and employment conditions towards their explanation is analysed by two approaches, mediation and moderation. Yet the relative significance of each approach remains unclear in respective research. We set out to study this question by conducting a systematic literature review. We included all original papers based on prospective observational studies of employed cohorts that were published between January 1980 and October 2012 meeting our search criteria, by using major databases and by observing established quality criteria. 26 reports were included after quality assessment. 17 studies examined the mediation hypothesis and nine studies tested the moderation hypothesis. Moderate support was found for the mediation hypothesis where OR or HR of health according to socioeconomic position (SEP) were reduced in a majority of analyses after introducing work characteristics in multivariate models. Evidence in favour of the moderation hypothesis was found in some studies, demonstrating stronger effects of adverse work on health among people with low SEP. Despite some support in favour of the two hypotheses future research should aim at reducing the heterogeneity in defining and measuring core variables and at applying advanced statistical analyses. Policy recommendations would benefit from a higher degree of consistency of respective research evidence. PMID:23739492

  4. Cognitive ability, parental socioeconomic position and internalising and externalising problems in adolescence: Findings from two European cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Araya, Ricardo; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether cognitive ability (CA) may be a moderator of the relationship of parental socioeconomic position (SEP) with internalising and externalising problems in adolescents. We used data from two longitudinal cohort studies; the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and the Tracking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS). Indicators of SEP were mother’s education and household income. CA was estimated with IQ scores, derived from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Internalising and externalising problems were measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in ALSPAC and with the Child Behavior Checklist in TRAILS. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the relative index of inequality (RII) for each outcome; the RII provides the odds ratio comparing the most to least deprived for each measure of SEP. In fully adjusted models an association of mother’s education with externalising problems was observed [ALSPAC RII 1.42 (95%CI: 1.01–1.99); TRAILS RII 2.21 (95%CI: 1.37–3.54)], and of household income with internalising and externalising problems [pooled ALSPAC & TRAILS internalising RII 1.30 (95%CI: 0.99–1.71); pooled ALSPAC & TRAILS externalising RII 1.38 (95%CI: 1.03–1.84)]. No consistent associations were observed between mother’s education and internalising problems. Results of stratified analyses and interaction-terms showed no evidence that CA moderated the association of SEP with internalising or externalising problems. PMID:20535529

  5. Socio-economic position as an intervention against overweight and obesity in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shunquan; Ding, Yingying; Wu, Fuquan; Li, Ruisheng; Hu, Yan; Hou, Jun; Mao, Panyong

    2015-06-01

    Studies that investigated the association between socio-economic position (SEP) and obesity in children suggest inconsistent results. The aim of this study is to summarize and quantify the current evidence on SEP and risks of overweight and obesity in children aged 0-15 years. Relevant studies published between 1990 to Sep 4, 2014 were searched in Medline, Web of Science, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Risk estimates from individual studies were pooled using random-effects models, according to lowest vs the highest SEP category. A total of 62 articles were included in the meta-analysis. The odds of both overweight risk and obesity risk were higher in the children with lowest SEP than in those with highest SEP (OR, 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03-1.17, and OR, 1.41, 95% CI: 1.29-1.55, respectively). Sub-group analyses showed that the inverse relationships between SEP and childhood overweight and obesity were only found in high-income countries and in more economic developed areas. In conclusion, our study suggests that children with lower SEP had higher risks of overweight and obesity, and the increased risks were independent of the income levels of countries.

  6. Socio-economic position as an intervention against overweight and obesity in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shunquan; Ding, Yingying; Wu, Fuquan; Li, Ruisheng; Hu, Yan; Hou, Jun; Mao, Panyong

    2015-06-26

    Studies that investigated the association between socio-economic position (SEP) and obesity in children suggest inconsistent results. The aim of this study is to summarize and quantify the current evidence on SEP and risks of overweight and obesity in children aged 0-15 years. Relevant studies published between 1990 to Sep 4, 2014 were searched in Medline, Web of Science, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Risk estimates from individual studies were pooled using random-effects models, according to lowest vs the highest SEP category. A total of 62 articles were included in the meta-analysis. The odds of both overweight risk and obesity risk were higher in the children with lowest SEP than in those with highest SEP (OR, 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03-1.17, and OR, 1.41, 95% CI: 1.29-1.55, respectively). Sub-group analyses showed that the inverse relationships between SEP and childhood overweight and obesity were only found in high-income countries and in more economic developed areas. In conclusion, our study suggests that children with lower SEP had higher risks of overweight and obesity, and the increased risks were independent of the income levels of countries.

  7. Socioeconomic Considerations and Shared-Care Models of Cancer Care for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Dale, William; Chow, Selina; Sajid, Saleha

    2016-02-01

    Older adults with cancer require a geriatrics approach to treatment. Such an approach targets appropriate treatments based on physiologic, not chronologic, age. Patients older than 65 years of age constitute the largest group of patients with cancer, making them the most expensive group of patients with cancer, especially with the advent of expensive new treatments with minimal impact on overall survival. Geriatric assessment, combined with targeted inventions, can optimize the value propositions in caring for older patients with cancer. Over the past 20 years, geriatric oncology care models have emerged applying these care principles in clinical practice.

  8. Socioeconomic Considerations and Shared-Care Models of Cancer Care for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Dale, William; Chow, Selina; Sajid, Saleha

    2016-02-01

    Older adults with cancer require a geriatrics approach to treatment. Such an approach targets appropriate treatments based on physiologic, not chronologic, age. Patients older than 65 years of age constitute the largest group of patients with cancer, making them the most expensive group of patients with cancer, especially with the advent of expensive new treatments with minimal impact on overall survival. Geriatric assessment, combined with targeted inventions, can optimize the value propositions in caring for older patients with cancer. Over the past 20 years, geriatric oncology care models have emerged applying these care principles in clinical practice. PMID:26614859

  9. Socioeconomic Position, But Not African Genomic Ancestry, Is Associated With Blood Pressure in the Bambui-Epigen (Brazil) Cohort Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    Lima-Costa, M Fernanda; Mambrini, Juliana Vaz de Mello; Leite, Maria Lea Corrêa; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo; Loyola Filho, Antônio Ignácio de; Gouveia, Mateus H; Leal, Thiago P; Pereira, Alexandre Costa; Macinko, James; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    The study objective is to examine the role of African genome origin on baseline and 11-year blood pressure trajectories in community-based ethnoracially admixed older adults in Brazil. Data come from 1272 participants (aged ≥60 years) of the Bambui cohort study of aging during 11 years of follow-up. Outcome measures were systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and hypertension control. Potential confounding variables were demographic characteristics, socioeconomic position (schooling and household income), and health indicators (smoking, sedentary lifestyle, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, waist circumference, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases), including antihypertensive drug use. We used 370 539 single-nucleotide polymorphisms to estimate each individual's African, European, and Native American trihybrid ancestry proportions. Median African, European, and Native American ancestry were 9.6%, 84.0%, and 5.3%, respectively. Among those with African ancestry, 59.4% came from East and 40.6% from West Africa. Baseline systolic and diastolic blood pressure, controlled hypertension, and their respective trajectories, were not significantly (P>0.05) associated with level (in quintiles) of African genomic ancestry. Similar results were found for West and East African subcontinental origins. Lower schooling level (<4 years versus higher) showed a significant and positive association with systolic blood pressure (Adjusted β=2.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.85-4.99). Lower monthly household income per capita (

  10. Adiposity and stroke among older adults of low socioeconomic status: the Chicago Stroke Study.

    PubMed Central

    DiPietro, L; Ostfeld, A M; Rosner, G L

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that overall and truncal adiposity increase the risk of stroke independent of their association with cardiovascular disease risk factors and other preexisting illnesses. METHODS. Analyses were conducted of longitudinal data from a poor, biracial cohort of noninstitutionalized adults 65 to 74 years of age who participated in the Chicago Stroke Study from 1965 to 1970. RESULTS. Ponderal index (cm/kg1/3) and chest skinfold were significantly associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum cholesterol and triglycerides, plasma glucose, and smoking. Ponderal index was also associated with diabetes and risk of stroke. After potential confounders were controlled, the following variables showed significant independent associations with risk of stroke: Black race, female gender, and age 70+; hypertensive heart disease; and diabetes. Neither adiposity variable was associated with risk of stroke in the presence of these powerful predictors. CONCLUSIONS. Control of hypertension and diabetes continues to be important among older adults. Since excess adiposity seems to influence risk of stroke through its association with these disorders and other cardiovascular disease risk factors, control of weight and fat remains an important concern as well. PMID:8279605

  11. Usage of Positional Therapy in Adults with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Grietje E.; Hoekema, Aarnoud; Doff, Michiel H.J.; Kerstjens, Huib A.M.; Meijer, Petra M.; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.; Wijkstra, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Many positional therapy (PT) strategies are available for treating positional obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). PT is primarily supplied to selected patients as a secondary treatment option when other therapies have failed. To our knowledge this is the largest study to date to assess effectiveness and long-term compliance of PT (both commercial waistband and self-made constructions, mimicking the tennis ball technique) as primary treatment in patients with different positional OSA severities. Methods: PT was used by 53 patients, of which 40 patients underwent a follow-up polygraphic evaluation under treatment after a median time interval of 12 weeks. Patients were routinely contacted regarding their clinical status and treatment compliance. Results: PT was successful in 27 out of 40 patients (68%). Overall AHI reduced significantly from a median (interquartile range [IQR]) AHI of 14.5 (10.7–19.6) to 5.9 (3.1–8.5), p < 0.001. The commercial waistband and self-made constructions were equally effective (median (IQR) reduction in overall AHI (Δ9.6 (5.5–11.9) and Δ6.8 (3.2–11.3) respectively), p = 0.22). Short-term compliance was good as most patients used PT more than 7 hours/night (mean 7.2 ± SD 1.4) and more than 6 days/week (mean 6.5 ± SD 1.3). However, after mean 13 ± 5 months, 26 patients (65%) reported they no longer used PT, especially patients with moderate positional OSA (89%). Conclusions: On the short-term, PT using the tennis ball technique, is an easy method to treat most patients with positional OSA, showing significant reductions in AHI. Unfortunately, long-term compliance is low and close follow-up of patients on PT with regard to their compliance is necessary. Citation: de Vries GE, Hoekema A, Doff MH, Kerstjens HA, Meijer PM, van der Hoeven JH, Wijkstra PJ. Usage of positional therapy in adults with obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(2):131–137. PMID:25406271

  12. Stressors May Compromise Medication Adherence among Adults with Diabetes and Low Socioeconomic Status

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, Chandra Y.; Mayberry, Lindsay S.; Wagner, Julie A.; Welch, Garry W.

    2014-01-01

    Studies examining the impact of stressors on diabetes self-care have been limited by focusing on a single stressor or have been largely qualitative. Therefore, we assessed the stressors experienced by a high-risk population with type 2 diabetes, and tested whether having more stressors was associated with less adherence to multiple self-care behaviors. Participants were recruited from a Federally Qualified Health Center and 192 completed a stressors checklist. Experiencing more stressors was associated with less adherence to diet recommendations and medications among participants who were trying to be adherent, but was not associated with adherence to other self-care behaviors. Because having more stressors was also associated with more depressive symptoms, we further adjusted for depressive symptoms; stressors remained associated with less adherence to medications, but not to diet recommendations. For adults engaged in adherence, experiencing numerous chronic stressors presents barriers to adherence that are distinct from associated depressive symptoms. PMID:24569697

  13. Novel coronary heart disease risk factors at 60-64 years and life course socioeconomic position: the 1946 British birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rebecca; Hardy, Rebecca; Sattar, Naveed; Deanfield, John E; Hughes, Alun; Kuh, Diana; Murray, Emily T; Whincup, Peter H; Thomas, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Social disadvantage across the life course is associated with a greater risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and with established CHD risk factors, but less is known about whether novel CHD risk factors show the same patterns. The Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development was used to investigate associations between occupational socioeconomic position during childhood, early adulthood and middle age and markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6), endothelial function (E-selectin, tissue-plasminogen activator), adipocyte function (leptin, adiponectin) and pancreatic beta cell function (proinsulin) measured at 60-64 years. Life course models representing sensitive periods, accumulation of risk and social mobility were compared with a saturated model to ascertain the nature of the relationship between social class across the life course and each of these novel CHD risk factors. For interleukin-6 and leptin, low childhood socioeconomic position alone was associated with high risk factor levels at 60-64 years, while for C-reactive protein and proinsulin, cumulative effects of low socioeconomic position in both childhood and early adulthood were associated with higher (adverse) risk factor levels at 60-64 years. No associations were observed between socioeconomic position at any life period with either endothelial marker or adiponectin. Associations for C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, leptin and proinsulin were reduced considerably by adjustment for body mass index and, to a lesser extent, cigarette smoking. In conclusion, socioeconomic position in early life is an important determinant of several novel CHD risk factors. Body mass index may be an important mediator of these relationships.

  14. Sex Differences in the Association of Childhood Socioeconomic Status with Adult Blood Pressure Change: The CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Cohen, Sheldon; Matthews, Karen A.; Jacobs, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine sex differences in the relation of childhood socioeconomic status (CSES) to systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure trajectories during 15-years spanning young (30 ± 3 years) and middle (45±3 years) adulthood, independent of adult SES. Method 4077 adult participants reported father’s and mother’s educational attainments at study enrollment (Year 0), and own educational attainment at enrollment and at all follow-up exams. Resting BP also was measured at all exams. Data from exam Years 5 (when participant mean age=30± 3 years), 7, 10, 15, and 20 are examined here. Associations of own adult [Year 5], mother’s, and father’s educations with 15-year BP trajectories were examined in separate multilevel models. Fully controlled models included time-invariant covariates (age, sex, race, recruitment center), and time-varying covariates that were measured at each exam (marital status, body mass, cholesterol, oral contraceptives/hormones, antihypertensives). Parental education analyses controlled for own education. Results When examined without covariates, higher education -- own (SBP γ=−0.03, DBP γ= −0.03), mother’s (SBP γ= −0.02, DBP γ= −0.02), and father’s (SBP γ= −0.02, DBP γ= −0.01) -- were associated with attenuated 15-year increases in BP (p<0.001). Associations of own (but not either parent’s) education with BP trajectories remained independent of standard controls. Sex moderated the apparent null effects of parental education, such that higher parental education–especially mother’s, predicted attenuated BP trajectories independent of standard covariates among women (SBP γ= −.02, p=.02; DBP γ= −.01, p=0.04) but not men (SBP γ=0.02, p=0.06; DBP γ=0.005, p=0.47; p-interaction SBP<0.001, p-interaction DBP=0.01). Conclusion CSES may influence women’s health independent of their own adult status. PMID:22822232

  15. Micronutrient intakes among children and adults in Greece: the role of age, sex and socio-economic status.

    PubMed

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Mavrogianni, Christina; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Cécile

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to report the usual nutrient intakes of sixteen micronutrients by schoolchildren, adults and the elderly in Greece and to further explore the role of age, sex and socio-economic status (SES) on meeting the recommended nutrient intakes. Dietary intake, demographic and SES data from three existing studies conducted in Greece (in 9-13-year-old children; 40-60-year-old adults; and 50-75-year-old women) were collected. The prevalence of study participants with inadequate micronutrient intakes were assessed using the estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-point method. Regarding sex and age differences, the highest prevalences of inadequate nutrient intakes occurred in post-menopausal women. In both sexes and all age groups, the prevalence of vitamin D intake below EAR reached 100%. Furthermore, nutrient intakes of 75% or more below EAR were found for vitamin E in all age groups, folate in women and for calcium and magnesium in post-menopausal women (p < 0.05). Regarding SES differences, the prevalences of inadequate calcium and vitamin C intakes were higher for children and postmenopausal women of lower SES compared to their higher SES counterparts (p < 0.05). The current study reported the highest prevalences of inadequate intakes for both sexes and all age and SES groups for calcium, folate and vitamins D and E. These findings could provide guidance to public health policy makers in terms of updating current dietary guidelines and fortifying foods to meet the needs of all population subgroups. PMID:25285410

  16. Socio-economic position and subjective health and well-being among older people in Europe: a systematic narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Read, Sanna; Grundy, Emily; Foverskov, Else

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Previous studies of older European populations have established that disability and morbidity vary with indicators of socio-economic position (SEP). We undertook a systematic narrative review of the literature to ascertain to what extent there is evidence of similar inequalities in the subjective health and well-being of older people in Europe. Method: Relevant original research articles were searched for using Medline, Global Health, Embase, Social Policy and Practice, Cinahl, Web of Science and International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS). We included studies of SEP and indicators of subjective health and well-being (self-rated health; life satisfaction; quality of life) conducted since 1991 using population-based samples of older people in Europe and published 1995–2013. Results: A total of 71 studies were identified. Poorer SEP was associated with poorer subjective health and well-being. Associations varied somewhat depending on the SEP measure and subjective health and well-being outcome used. Associations were weaker when social support and health-related behaviours were adjusted for suggesting that these factors mediate the relationship between SEP and subjective health and well-being. Associations tended to be weaker in the oldest age groups. The patterns of associations by gender were not consistent and tended to diminish after adjusting for indicators of health and life circumstances. Conclusion: The results of this systematic narrative review of the literature demonstrate the importance of social influences on later life subjective health and well-being and indicate areas which need further investigation, such as more studies from Eastern Europe, more longitudinal studies and more research on the role of mediating factors. PMID:25806655

  17. Position of the mandibular foramen in adult male Tanzania mandibles.

    PubMed

    Russa, Afadhali D; Fabian, Flora M

    2014-01-01

    Failure of the inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia is common in various dental operations. Anatomical variations of the location of the inferior alveolar nerve as it enters the mandibular foramen have been implicated as a main cause of these anesthesia failures. The aim of this work was to determine the location of the mandibular foramen in relation to the occlusal plane at the level of mandibular first molar and second premolar--often used as landmarks during the blocking procedure--and to different landmarks on the ramus of the mandible. The study was performed using mandibles from adult black male Tanzanians aged 30-45 years. Measurements were accomplished using two-digit electronic Vernier calipers. The distances were determined from the center of the mandibular foramen to the different reference points. The mandibular foramen was above the occlusal plane at the M1 and PM2 reference points in all the mandibles studied. It was also located about 20 mm and 12 mm from the anterior and posterior borders of the ramus respectively. There was no significant difference between the left and right side in any of the measurements. These results indicate that during anesthetic or other clinical procedures, the clinician can precisely determine the position of neurovascular bundle of the inferior alveolar nerve above the occlusal plane. PMID:26749676

  18. High alcohol consumption in middle aged adults is associated with poorer cognitive performance only in the low socioeconomic group. Results from the GAZEL cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sabia, Séverine; Guéguen, Alice; Berr, Claudine; Berkman, Lisa; Ankri, Joël; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2010-01-01

    Aims To examine the association of alcohol consumption over 10 years with cognitive performance in different socioeconomic groups. Design Prospective cohort study, the French GAZEL study. Setting France. Participants Employees of France’s national electricity and gas company. Measurements Alcohol intake was assessed annually, beginning in 1992, using questions on frequency and quantity of alcoholic beverages consumed in a week; used to define mean consumption and trajectory of alcohol intake over 10 years. Cognitive performance among participants aged ≥55 years (N=4073) was assessed in 2002–2004 using the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), a measure of psychomotor speed, attention and reasoning. Occupational position at age 35 and education were used as the markers of socioeconomic position. Findings All analyses were stratified by socioeconomic position. In the low occupational group, participants consuming a mean of more than 21 drinks per week had 2.1 points lower (95% CI: −3.9, −0.3) DSST score compared to those consuming 4–14 drinks per week. In participants with primary school education, the corresponding difference was 3.6 points (95% CI: −7.1,−0.0). No association between alcohol consumption and cognitive performance was observed in the intermediate and high socioeconomic groups, defined using either occupation or education. Analysis of trajectories of alcohol consumption showed that in the low socioeconomic groups large increase or decrease in alcohol consumption was associated with lower cognitive scores compared to stable consumption. Conclusions Our results suggest that high alcohol consumption is associated with poorer cognitive performance only in the low socioeconomic group, possibly due to greater cognitive reserve in the higher socioeconomic groups. PMID:20840170

  19. Do positive children become positive adults? Evidence from a longitudinal birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Richards, Marcus; Huppert, Felicia A

    2011-02-10

    activity, or work satisfaction. While childhood conduct and emotional problems were associated with few of the social and life satisfaction outcomes, the former were negatively associated with educational and occupational attainment, and positively with divorce, whereas the latter were negatively associated with being married. CONCLUSIONS: Prospectively rated childhood wellbeing has long-term beneficial links to adult functioning; our results also support the view that positive wellbeing has a unique impact on these outcomes, and does not merely represent the absence of mental ill-health. PMID:22723805

  20. Do positive children become positive adults? Evidence from a longitudinal birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Richards, Marcus; Huppert, Felicia A

    2011-02-10

    activity, or work satisfaction. While childhood conduct and emotional problems were associated with few of the social and life satisfaction outcomes, the former were negatively associated with educational and occupational attainment, and positively with divorce, whereas the latter were negatively associated with being married. CONCLUSIONS: Prospectively rated childhood wellbeing has long-term beneficial links to adult functioning; our results also support the view that positive wellbeing has a unique impact on these outcomes, and does not merely represent the absence of mental ill-health.

  1. Do positive children become positive adults? Evidence from a longitudinal birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Marcus; Huppert, Felicia A

    2012-01-01

    , leadership activity, or work satisfaction. While childhood conduct and emotional problems were associated with few of the social and life satisfaction outcomes, the former were negatively associated with educational and occupational attainment, and positively with divorce, whereas the latter were negatively associated with being married. Conclusions Prospectively rated childhood wellbeing has long-term beneficial links to adult functioning; our results also support the view that positive wellbeing has a unique impact on these outcomes, and does not merely represent the absence of mental ill-health. PMID:22723805

  2. Use of new guidance to profile 'equivalent minutes' of aerobic physical activity for adults in England reveals gender, geographical, and socio-economic inequalities in meeting public health guidance: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David; Townsend, Nick; Foster, Charlie

    2016-12-01

    English physical activity guidance now recognises a double weighting of vigorous over moderate activity; 1 min of vigorous activity is the same as two 'equivalent' minutes of moderate activity. In addition, concerns of over-estimation of occupational PA led to newly applied measurement methods for this domain. Vigorous activity is associated with higher socio-economic position and occupational PA has the opposite association, so these changes may increase inequalities. We profiled adults' total and domain-specific 'equivalent minutes' of weekly PA in England 2012, and investigated inequalities in PA participation, accounting for the new weighting of vigorous PA, and new measurements of occupational PA. Nationally representative cross-sectional survey data on the self-reported PA of 8158 adults was used to produce a profile of the domain and duration of weekly 'equivalent minutes' of PA. Vigorous PA was double-weighted compared to moderate PA, and the percentage contribution from each PA domain quantified, stratified by gender and activity status and split by socio-demographic variables. Women, older adults, and adults without qualifications, from deprived areas, with worse employment conditions, or living in the North of England were significantly less likely to meet MVPA guidance. Type of activity was also socially patterned, particularly sport participation, which contributed a higher percentage of PA in adults of higher socioeconomic status. For active men, sporting activity was the most prevalent domain, and sports and walking for active women. In England, there are important socio-demographic differences in how adults participate in PA, and in percentage meeting public health guidance. PMID:27413661

  3. Promoting Positive Adaptation in Adult Survivors of Natural Disasters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warchal, Judith R.; Graham, Louise B.

    2011-01-01

    This article integrates the guidelines of American Red Cross and the "Psychological First Aid: Field Operations Guide" (Brymer et al., 2006) with adult development theories to demonstrate the promotion of adaptive functioning in adults after a disaster. Case examples and recommendations for counselors working in disaster situations are included.

  4. A systematic review of the effectiveness of individual, community and societal-level interventions at reducing socio-economic inequalities in obesity among adults

    PubMed Central

    Hillier-Brown, F C; Bambra, C L; Cairns, J-M; Kasim, A; Moore, H J; Summerbell, C D

    2014-01-01

    Background: Socioeconomic inequalities in obesity are well established in high-income countries. There is a lack of evidence of the types of intervention that are effective in reducing these inequalities among adults. Objectives: To systematically review studies of the effectiveness of individual, community and societal interventions in reducing socio-economic inequalities in obesity among adults. Methods: Nine electronic databases were searched from start date to October 2012 along with website and grey literature searches. The review examined the best available international evidence (both experimental and observational) of interventions at an individual, community and societal level that might reduce inequalities in obesity among adults (aged 18 years or over) in any setting and country. Studies were included if they reported a body fatness-related outcome and if they included a measure of socio-economic status. Data extraction and quality appraisal were conducted using established mechanisms and narrative synthesis was conducted. Results: The ‘best available' international evidence was provided by 20 studies. At the individual level, there was evidence of the effectiveness of primary care delivered tailored weight loss programmes among deprived groups. Community based behavioural weight loss interventions and community diet clubs (including workplace ones) also had some evidence of effectiveness—at least in the short term. Societal level evaluations were few, low quality and inconclusive. Further, there was little evidence of long term effectiveness, and few studies of men or outside the USA. However, there was no evidence to suggest that interventions increase inequalities. Conclusions: The best available international evidence suggests that some individual and community-based interventions may be effective in reducing socio-economic inequalities in obesity among adults in the short term. Further research is required particularly of more complex, multi

  5. Association of Household and Community Socioeconomic Position and Urbanicity with Underweight and Overweight among Women in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Janjua, Naveed Zafar; Mahmood, Bushra; Bhatti, Junaid A.; Khan, M. Imran

    2015-01-01

    Background Similar to other developing countries, Pakistan is going through a rapid nutrition transition where shift from underweight to overweight and obesity is occurring. In this paper, we report on the relationship of household socioeconomic position (SEP), community SEP and urbanicity with under- and over-weight categories of BMI among Pakistani women. Methods We analyzed data on 4,767 women ages 15-49 years enrolled in a nationally representative Pakistan Demographic Health Survey (PDHS) conducted in 2012-13 that employed a multistage, stratified cluster sampling design. We assessed the association of urbanicity, household and community SEP derived from household assets and utilities, with categories of body mass index (BMI) using multinomial regression analysis where normal weight (BMI 18.6-22.5) was the reference category. Results Thirteen percent of women were underweight (BMI <18.5), 15% pre-overweight (BMI: 22.6-24.9), 25% overweight (BMI: 25.0–29.9) and 14% were obese (BMI≥30). Pre-overweight, overweight and obesity among women increased across household wealth quintiles (HWQs) in a graded fashion whereas there was no significant difference in underweight by household wealth. Women in urban areas were more likely to be obese. There was a pronounced increase in adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for overweight/obesity across HWQs within urban areas compared to rural areas. There was a steeper gradient in aORs for obesity from 1st to 5th HWQs in high income communities compared to the middle- and low income communities. In community-level analyses, communities in urban areas were more likely to have higher levels of obesity while in rural areas, especially in Sindh, more communities were more likely to have a higher level of underweight. Conclusion A shift to higher overweight and obesity than underweight in Pakistan is associated with high household and community wealth as well as living in urban areas. Clustering of obesity and underweight in distinct

  6. Disparities in Children’s Blood Lead and Mercury Levels According to Community and Individual Socioeconomic Positions

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sinye; Ha, Mina; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Son, Mia; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to examine the associations between blood lead and mercury levels and individual and community level socioeconomic positions (SEPs) in school-aged children. A longitudinal cohort study was performed in 33 elementary schools in 10 cities in Korea. Among a total of 6094 children included at baseline, the final study population, 2281 children followed-up biennially, were analyzed. The geometric mean (GM) levels of blood lead were 1.73 μg/dL (range 0.02–9.26) and 1.56 μg/dL (range 0.02–6.83) for male and female children, respectively. The blood lead levels were significantly higher in males, children living in rural areas, and those with lower individual SEP. The GM levels of blood mercury were 2.07 μg/L (range 0.09–12.67) and 2.06 μg/L (range 0.03–11.74) for males and females, respectively. Increased blood mercury levels were significantly associated with urban areas, higher individual SEP, and more deprived communities. The risk of high blood lead level was significantly higher for the lower individual SEP (odds ratio (OR) 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36–3.50 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship observed after adjusting for the community SEP. The association between high blood lead levels and lower individual SEP was much stronger in the more deprived communities (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.27–6.53) than in the less deprived communities (OR 1.40, 95% CI 0.76–2.59), and showed a significant decreasing trend during the follow-up only in the less deprived communities. The risk of high blood mercury levels was higher in higher individual SEP (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.40–1.03 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship noted. Significant decreasing trends were observed during the follow-up both in the less and more deprived communities. From a public health point-of-view, community level intervention with different approaches for

  7. RELATIONSHIP OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC POSITION TO THE CONNOTATIVE MEANING OF CERTAIN WORDS USED IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCMILLION, MARTIN B.

    THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY WAS TO DETERMINE (1) WHETHER THREE DIFFERENT SOCIOECONOMIC GROUPS OF STUDENTS AND VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS PLACED DIFFERENT CONNOTATIVE MEANINGS ON CERTAIN WORDS AND PHRASES IMPORTANT IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE, AND (2) THE EXTENT TO WHICH TEACHERS RECOGNIZED DIFFERENCES EXISTING AMONG STUDENTS. PUPILS IN 21 ILLINOIS…

  8. Effects of socio-economic and behavioural characteristics in explaining central obesity--a study on adult Asian Indians in Calcutta, India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arnab

    2006-06-01

    The present cross-sectional study on adult Asian Indians in Calcutta, India was undertaken to look into the effects of socio-economic and behavioural characteristics in explaining waist-hip ratio (WHR). A total of 500 apparently healthy individuals (300 men and 200 women) were subjects in the study. A random sampling procedure using local voter's registration list was followed to select the subjects. Only one adult (> or = 30 years) from each household was considered as participant. A total of 24 items, 14 socio-economic and 10 behavioural characters were considered. For socio-economic characters, a number of items namely employment status, types of occupation, education status, nature of housing and marital status were taken into consideration. Smoking status, physical exercise by means of outdoor activity, drinking habits and diets on the other hand were considered as behavioural characters. Information on socio-economic and behavioural characteristics was collected using an open-ended schedule specifically designed in this regard. Anthropometric measures namely height, weight and circumference of waist and hip were obtained from participants using standard techniques. The median WHR for men and women was 0.94 and 0.90 respectively. Analysis of variance revealed significant sex difference for all anthropometric measures. It was observed that more women were leading sedentary (outdoor activity not housework was considered) life than men (85.4% vs. 75.4%). Furthermore, women were predominantly nonsmokers (98.8%) whereas 40.2% men were smokers as against 51.4% ex-smokers (those who have quitted smoking during past two years). Multiple regression analysis (adjusted for age and sex) of WHR by socio-economic and behavioural characters revealed that occupation, housing, marital status, smoking condition, physical exercise, drinking habits and diets pattern cumulatively explains 75% (R2=0.75) of total variation of WHR in the study population.

  9. Project Roadmap: Reeducating Older Adults in Maintaining AIDS Prevention--A Secondary Intervention for Older HIV-Positive Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illa, Lourdes; Echenique, Marisa; Saint Jean, Gilbert; Bustamante-Avellaneda, Victoria; Metsch, Lisa; Mendez-Mulet, Luis; Eisdorfer, Carl; Sanchez-Martinez, Mario

    2010-01-01

    The number of older adults living with HIV/AIDS is larger than ever. Little is known about their sexual behaviors, although contrary to stereotypes, older adults desire and engage in sexual activity. Despite increased recognition of the need for prevention interventions targeting HIV-positive individuals, no secondary HIV prevention interventions…

  10. Socioeconomic differences in the benefits of structured physical activity compared with health education on the prevention of major mobility disability in older adults: the LIFE study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haiying; Bonell, Chris; Glynn, Nancy W; Fielding, Roger A; Manini, Todd; King, Abby C; Pahor, Marco; Mihalko, Shannon L; Gill, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence is lacking on whether health-benefiting community-based interventions differ in their effectiveness according to socioeconomic characteristics. We evaluated whether the benefit of a structured physical activity intervention on reducing mobility disability in older adults differs by education or income. Methods The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study was a multicentre, randomised trial that compared a structured physical activity programme with a health education programme on the incidence of mobility disability among at-risk community-living older adults (aged 70–89 years; average follow-up of 2.6 years). Education (≤ high school (0–12 years), college (13–17 years) or postgraduate) and annual household income were self-reported (<$24 999, $25 000 to $49 999 and ≥$50 000). The risk of disability (objectively defined as loss of ability to walk 400 m) was compared between the 2 treatment groups using Cox regression, separately by socioeconomic group. Socioeconomic group×intervention interaction terms were tested. Results The effect of reducing the incidence of mobility disability was larger for those with postgraduate education (0.72, 0.51 to 1.03; N=411) compared with lower education (high school or less (0.93, 0.70 to 1.24; N=536). However, the education group×intervention interaction term was not statistically significant (p=0.54). Findings were in the same direction yet less pronounced when household income was used as the socioeconomic indicator. Conclusions In the largest and longest running trial of physical activity amongst at-risk older adults, intervention effect sizes were largest among those with higher education or income, yet tests of statistical interactions were non-significant, likely due to inadequate power. Trial registration number NCT01072500. PMID:27060177

  11. Understanding the Positive Role of Neighborhood Socioeconomic Advantage in Achievement: The Contribution of the Home, Child Care and School Environments

    PubMed Central

    Dupéré, Véronique; Leventhal, Tama; Crosnoe, Robert; Dion, Éric

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the mechanisms underlying associations between neighborhood socioeconomic advantage and children’s achievement trajectories between 54 months and 15 years old. Results of hierarchical linear growth models based on a diverse sample of 1,364 children indicate that neighborhood socioeconomic advantage was non-linearly associated with youths’ initial vocabulary and reading scores, such that the presence of educated, affluent professionals in the neighborhood had a favorable association with children’s achievement among those in less advantaged neighborhoods until it leveled off at moderate levels of advantage. A similar tendency was observed for math achievement. The quality of the home and child care environments as well as school advantage partially explained these associations. The findings suggest that multiple environments need to be considered simultaneously for understanding neighborhood-achievement links. PMID:20822235

  12. Personal relevance modulates the positivity bias in recall of emotional pictures in older adults.

    PubMed

    Tomaszczyk, Jennifer C; Fernandes, Myra A; MacLeod, Colin M

    2008-02-01

    Some studies have suggested that older adults remember more positive than negative valence information, relative to younger adults, whereas other studies have reported no such difference. We tested whether differences in encoding instructions and in personal relevance could account for these inconsistencies. Younger and older adults were instructed either to passively view positive, negative, and neutral pictures or to actively categorize them by valence. On a subsequent incidental recall test, older adults recalled equal numbers of positive and negative pictures, whereas younger adults recalled negative pictures best. There was no effect of encoding instructions. Crucially, when the pictures were grouped into high and low personal relevance, a positivity bias emerged in older adults only for low-relevance pictures, suggesting that the personal relevance of pictures may be the factor underlying cross-study differences.

  13. Getting Bigger, Quicker? Gendered Socioeconomic Trajectories in Body Mass Index across the Adult Lifecourse: A Longitudinal Study of 21,403 Australians.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaoqi; Wilson, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Do socioeconomic inequities in body mass index (BMI) widen across the adult lifecourse? BMI data for 29,104 male and 32,454 female person-years aged 15 years and older (21,403 persons in total) were extracted from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia between 2006 and 2012. Multilevel linear regression was used to examine age and gender specific trajectories in BMI by quintiles of neighborhood socioeconomic circumstance. Models were adjusted for probable sources of confounding, including couple status, number of children resident, if somebody in the household had been pregnant in the last 12 months, the highest level of education achieved, the average household gross income, and the percentage of time in the last year spent unemployed. Approximately 9.6% of BMI variation was observed between neighborhoods. High neighborhood disadvantage was associated with 2.09 kg/m2 heavier BMI (95%CI 1.82, 2.36). At age 15-24y, socioeconomic inequity in BMI was already evident among men and women especially (22.6 kg/m2 among women in the most affluent areas compared with 25.4 kg/m2 among the most disadvantaged). Among women only, the socioeconomic gap widened from 2.8 kg/m2 at age 15-24y to 3.2 kg/m2 by age 35-44y. Geographical factors may contribute to more rapid weight gain among women living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:26496435

  14. Differing Pupil Agency in the Face of Adult Positioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayton, Katarina

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this article is children's positioning and agency in a Swedish school class. Drawing on ethnographic data generated during a year-long field study, the actions of three different children are used by the researcher to illustrate how children position themselves and are positioned by others. Using the concept of "professional pupils"…

  15. A Tale of Two City Blocks: Differences in Immature and Adult Mosquito Abundances between Socioeconomically Different Urban Blocks in Baltimore (Maryland, USA)

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Brian; Leisnham, Paul T.; LaDeau, Shannon L.

    2014-01-01

    Infrastructure degradation in many post-industrial cities has increased the availability of potential mosquito habitats, including container habitats that support infestations of invasive disease-vectors. This study is unique in examining both immature and adult mosquito abundance across the fine-scale variability in socio-economic condition that occurs block-to-block in many cities. We hypothesized that abundant garbage associated with infrastructure degradation would support greater mosquito production but instead, found more mosquito larvae and host-seeking adults (86%) in parcels across the higher socio-economic, low-decay block. Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens were 5.61 (p < 0.001) and 4.60 (p = 0.001) times more abundant, respectively. Most discarded (garbage) containers were dry during peak mosquito production, which occurred during the 5th hottest July on record. Containers associated with human residence were more likely to hold water and contain immature mosquitoes. We propose that mosquito production switches from rain-fed unmanaged containers early in the season to container habitats that are purposefully shaded or watered by mid-season. This study suggests that residents living in higher socioeconomic areas with low urban decay may be at greater risk of mosquito-borne disease during peak mosquito production when local container habitats are effectively decoupled from environmental constraints. PMID:24651396

  16. Social capital, socioeconomic status, and health-related quality of life among older adults in Bogotá (Colombia)

    PubMed Central

    Lucumi, Diana; Gomez, Luiz Fernando; Brownson, Ross C.; Parra, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between levels of cognitive social capital and health related quality of life (HRQOL). A multilevel, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2007 in Bogotá Colombia. A total of 1,907 older adults completed the Spanish version of the SF-8 in order to assess HRQOL. Cognitive dimension of social capital was assessed. Hierarchical linear regressions were conducted to determine the associations between social capital variables and HRQOL. Only 20% to 25% of the population reported trust in others and shared values. Ninety three percent reported that people in their neighborhood would try to take advantage of them if given a chance. Higher social capital indicators were positively associated with the mental and physical dimension of HRQOL. Results from this study support evidence on the disintegration of the Colombian society, which may be influenced by high levels of social inequality. PMID:25370712

  17. Reduced late positivity in younger adults, but not older adults, during short-term repetition.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ting; Li, Juan; Broster, Lucas S; Niu, Yanan; Wang, Pengyun

    2015-01-12

    Although word repetition was generally associated with enhanced amplitude of late positive complex (LPC), it seemed to yield attenuated LPC when words were repeated over short enough lags. However, this issue and its corresponding age effects have not been examined directly. For this purpose, EEG was recorded when young and elderly participants were required to make animacy decision during an incidental word repetition paradigm with words repeated after one, six, or nine intervening words. The results revealed that with one intervening word lag LPC decreased for nonliving words which supposed to be related to higher semantic activation levels reflected by larger N400, unchanged for living words associated with lower semantic incongruity activation levels, and increased in relatively longer lags (with six or nine intervening words) in the young group. Whereas, enhanced LPC was observed in the elderly in all conditions. Furthermore, significant age-related LPC repetition differences were revealed only with one intervening word lag for nonliving words. The results suggested that (1) how LPC changes after repetition is influenced by the initial incongruity activation levels of items and their thereafter maintenance in short-term memory; (2) the age-related differences result from the declining of short-term memory maintenance rather than from initial lower incongruity activations among elderly adults. PMID:25451125

  18. Family environment and adult resilience: contributions of positive parenting and the oxytocin receptor gene

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Bekh; Davis, Telsie A.; Wingo, Aliza P.; Mercer, Kristina B.; Ressler, Kerry J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Abundant research shows that childhood adversity increases the risk for adult psychopathology while research on influences of positive family environment on risk for psychopathology is limited. Similarly, a growing body of research examines genetic and gene by environment predictors of psychopathology, yet such research on predictors of resilience is sparse. Objectives We examined the role of positive factors in childhood family environment (CFE) and the OXTR rs53576 genotype in predicting levels of adult resilient coping and positive affect. We also examined whether the relationship between positive factors in the CFEs and adult resilient coping and positive affect varied across OXTR rs53576 genotype. Methods We gathered self-report data on childhood environment, trauma history, and adult resilience and positive affect in a sample of 971 African American adults. Results We found that positive CFE was positively associated with higher levels of resilient coping and positive affect in adulthood after controlling for childhood maltreatment, other trauma, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. We did not find a direct effect of OXTR 53576 on a combined resilient coping/positive-affect-dependent variable, but we did find an interaction of OXTR rs53576 with family environment. Conclusions Our data suggest that even in the face of adversity, positive aspects of the family environment may contribute to resilience. These results highlight the importance of considering protective developmental experiences and the interaction of such experiences with genetic variants in risk and resilience research. PMID:24058725

  19. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential in HIV-Positive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Matas, Carla Gentile; Samelli, Alessandra Giannella; Angrisani, Rosanna Giaffredo; Magliaro, Fernanda Cristina Leite; Segurado, Aluísio C.

    2015-01-01

    Background To characterize the findings of brainstem auditory evoked potential in HIV-positive individuals exposed and not exposed to antiretroviral treatment. Material/Methods This research was a cross-sectional, observational, and descriptive study. Forty-five HIV-positive individuals (18 not exposed and 27 exposed to the antiretroviral treatment – research groups I and II, respectively – and 30 control group individuals) were assessed through brainstem auditory evoked potential. Results There were no significant between-group differences regarding wave latencies. A higher percentage of altered brainstem auditory evoked potential was observed in the HIV-positive groups when compared to the control group. The most common alteration was in the low brainstem. Conclusions HIV-positive individuals have a higher percentage of altered brainstem auditory evoked potential that suggests central auditory pathway impairment when compared to HIV-negative individuals. There was no significant difference between individuals exposed and not exposed to antiretroviral treatment. PMID:26485202

  20. A repeated cross-sectional study of socio-economic inequities in dietary sodium consumption among Canadian adults: implications for national sodium reduction strategies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In many countries including Canada, excess consumption of dietary sodium is common, and this has adverse implications for population health. Socio-economic inequities in sodium consumption seem likely, but research is limited. Knowledge of socio-economic inequities in sodium consumption is important for informing population-level sodium reduction strategies, to ensure that they are both impactful and equitable. Methods We examined the association between socio-economic indicators (income and education) and sodium, using two outcome variables: 1) sodium consumption in mg/day, and 2) reported use of table salt, in two national surveys: the 1970/72 Nutrition Canada Survey and the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2. This permitted us to explore whether there were any changes in socio-economic patterning in dietary sodium during a time period characterized by modest, information-based national sodium reduction efforts, as well as to provide baseline information against which to examine the impact (equitable or not) of future sodium reduction strategies in Canada. Results There was no evidence of a socio-economic inequity in sodium consumption (mg/day) in 2004. In fact findings pointed to a positive association in women, whereby women of higher education consumed more sodium than women of lower education in 2004. For men, income was positively associated with reported use of table salt in 1970/72, but negatively associated in 2004. Conclusions An emerging inequity in reported use of table salt among men could reflect the modest, information-based sodium reduction efforts that were implemented during the time frame considered. However, for sodium consumption in mg/day, we found no evidence of a contemporary inequity, and in fact observed the opposite effect among women. Our findings could reflect data limitations, or they could signal that sodium differs from some other nutrients in terms of its socio-economic patterning, perhaps reflecting very

  1. Kidney transplantation in HIV-positive adults: the UK experience.

    PubMed

    Gathogo, Esther N; Hamzah, Lisa; Hilton, Rachel; Marshall, Neal; Ashley, Caroline; Harber, Mark; Levy, Jeremy B; Jones, Rachael; Boffito, Marta; Khoo, Saye H; Drage, Martin; Bhagani, Sanjay; Post, Frank A

    2014-01-01

    HIV-positive patients are at increased risk of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Kidney transplantation (KT) is an established treatment modality for ESKD in the general population. Recent data have confirmed the feasibility of kidney transplantation in HIV-positive patients, and kidney transplantation is increasingly offered to ESKD patients with well-controlled HIV infection. We report clinical outcomes in a national cohort study of kidney transplantation in HIV-positive patients. In all, 35 HIV-positive KT recipients who had undergone KT up to December 2010 (66% male, 74% black ethnicity) were identified; the median CD4 cell count was 366, all had undetectable HIV RNA levels at kidney transplantation, and 44% received a kidney from a live donor. Patient survival at 1 and 3 years was 91.3%, and graft survival 91.3% and 84.7%, respectively. At one-year post-kidney transplantation, the cumulative incidence of acute rejection was 48%, and the median (IQR) eGFR was 64 (46, 78) mL/min/1.73 m(2). Although HIV viraemia and HIV disease progression were uncommon, renal complications were relatively frequent. Our study corroborates the feasibility of kidney transplantation in HIV-positive patients. The high rates of acute rejection suggest that the optimal immune suppression strategy in this population remains to be refined.

  2. Parenting, Socioeconomic Status Risk, and Later Young Adult Health: Exploration of Opposing Indirect Effects via DNA Methylation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Steven R. H.; Lei, Man-Kit; Brody, Gene H.; Kim, Sangjin; Barton, Allen W.; Dogan, Meesha V.; Philibert, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    A sample of 398 African American youth, residing in rural counties with high poverty and unemployment, were followed from ages 11 to 19. Protective parenting was associated with better health, whereas elevated socioeconomic status (SES) risk was associated with poorer health at age 19. Genome-wide epigenetic variation assessed in young adulthood…

  3. Positive Side Effects of a Job-Related Training Program for Older Adults in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Minhong; Choi, Jae-Sung

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate empirically positive side effects of a job-related training program on older adults' self-esteem, depression, and social networks. A total of 70 older adults participated in the study after completing the Older Paraprofessional Training Program developed and provided by the Continuing Education…

  4. Positive talk training in an adult with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Yuen, H K

    1997-10-01

    Social skills often create a barrier to placement in less restrictive environments for persons with TBI. This case study illustrated the use of a positive talk program in the treatment of a person with long-standing social skill deficits. Occupational therapy intervention with speech-language consultation began with an evaluation of the cognitive barriers that influenced the client's social behavior. Work with the client's concrete concept formation, decreased memory, and poor generalization skills led to the development of the positive talk training program described. Through an understanding of the underlying cognitive deficits that influenced the client's behavior, the clinical team was able to develop an individual treatment plan. The intervention resulted in modification of behavior that would have required placing the client in a restricted environment. In the final analysis, the client's social skills improved to a level where he could be discharged to a less restrictive environment.

  5. Effects of Positive and Negative Adult-Child Interactions on Children's Social Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, William H.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Studied the effects of positive and negative interaction on the performance of preschool and elementary school children and their preferences for the adults associated with each type of interaction. (Author/SDH)

  6. Non-typhoidal Salmonella infections in HIV-positive adults.

    PubMed

    Subramoney, Evette L

    2015-10-01

    Non-typhoidal salmonellae are important pathogens causing bacteraemia, especially in immunocompromised patients, but there are limited data explicitly describing the clinical characteristics and outcome in these individuals. Recurrent invasive salmonellosis has been recognised as an AIDS-defining condition in HIV-positive patients since the 1980s. Salmonella meningitis is an infrequent complication of Salmonella sepsis, accounting for 0.8-6% of all cases of bacterial meningitis, and is associated with a high mortality rate.

  7. Socioeconomic status is positively associated with measures of adiposity and insulin resistance, but inversely associated with dyslipidaemia in Colombian children

    PubMed Central

    Buitrago-Lopez, Adriana; van den Hooven, Edith H; Rueda-Clausen, Christian F; Serrano, Norma; Ruiz, Alvaro J; Pereira, Mark A; Mueller, Noel T

    2015-01-01

    Background Low socioeconomic status (SES) has been associated with higher risk of cardiometabolic diseases in developed societies, but investigation of SES and cardiometabolic risk in children in less economically developed populations is sparse. We aimed to examine associations among SES and cardiometabolic risk factors in Colombian children. Methods We used data from a population-based study of 1282 children aged 6–10 years from Bucaramanga, Colombia. SES was classified according to household wealth, living conditions and access to public utilities. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured at a clinic visit. Cardiometabolic risk factors were analysed continuously using linear regression and as binary outcomes—according to established paediatric cut points—using logistic regression to calculate OR and 95% CIs. Results Mean age of the children was 8.4 (SD 1.4) and 51.1% of the sample were boys. Odds of overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity and insulin resistance were greater among higher SES. Compared with the lowest SES stratum, children in the highest SES had higher odds of overweight/obesity (OR=3.25, 95% CI 1.89 to 5.57), abdominal obesity (OR=2.74, 95% CI 1.41 to 5.31) and insulin resistance (OR=2.60, 95% CI 1.81 to 3.71). In contrast, children in the highest SES had lower odds of hypertriglyceridaemia (triglycerides ≥90th centile; OR=0.28, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.54) and low (≤10th centile) high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (OR=0.35, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.78). Conclusions In Colombian children, SES is directly associated with obesity and insulin resistance, but inversely associated with dyslipidaemia (hypertriglyceridaemia and low HDL cholesterol). Our findings highlight the need to analyse cardiometabolic risk factors separately in children and to carefully consider a population's level of economic development when studying their social determinants of cardiometabolic disease. PMID:25691273

  8. Positive trends in organic carbon storage in Swedish agricultural soils due to unexpected socio-economic drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeplau, C.; Bolinder, M. A.; Eriksson, J.; Lundblad, M.; Kätterer, T.

    2015-06-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a crucial role in the global carbon cycle as a potential sink or source. Land management influences SOC storage, so the European Parliament decided in 2013 that changes in carbon stocks within a certain land use type, including arable land, must be reported by all member countries in their national inventory reports for greenhouse gas emissions. Here we show the temporal dynamics of SOC during the past 2 decades in Swedish agricultural soils, based on soil inventories conducted in 1988-1997 (Inventory I), 2001-2007 (Inventory II) and from 2010 onwards (Inventory III), and link SOC changes with trends in agricultural management. From Inventory I to Inventory II, SOC increased in 16 out of 21 Swedish counties, while from Inventory I to Inventory III it increased in 18 out of 21 counties. Mean topsoil (0-20 cm) SOC concentration for the entire country increased from 2.48 to 2.67% C (a relative increase of 7.7%, or 0.38% yr-1) over the whole period. We attributed this to a substantial increase in ley as a proportion of total agricultural area in all counties. The horse population in Sweden has more than doubled since 1981 and was identified as the main driver for this management change (R2 = 0.72). Due to subsidies introduced in the early 1990s, the area of long-term set-aside (mostly old leys) also contributed to the increase in area of ley. The carbon sink function of Swedish agricultural soils demonstrated in this study differs from trends found in neighbouring countries. This indicates that country-specific or local socio-economic drivers for land management must be accounted for in larger-scale predictions.

  9. Yoga Enhances Positive Psychological States in Young Adult Musicians.

    PubMed

    Butzer, Bethany; Ahmed, Khalique; Khalsa, Sat Bir S

    2016-06-01

    Although yoga has been shown to be a viable technique for improving the performance of the mind and body, little attention has been directed to studying the relationship between yoga and the psychological states of flow and mindfulness. Musicians enrolled in a 2-month fellowship program in 2005, 2006 and 2007 were invited to participate in a yoga and meditation program. Fellows not participating in the yoga program were recruited separately as controls. All participants completed baseline and end-program questionnaires evaluating dispositional flow, mindfulness, confusion, and music performance anxiety. Compared to controls, yoga participants reported significant decreases in confusion and increases in dispositional flow. Yoga participants in the 2006 sample also reported significant increases in the mindfulness subscale of awareness. Correlational analyses revealed that increases in participants' dispositional flow and mindfulness were associated with decreases in confusion and music performance anxiety. This study demonstrates the commonalities between positive psychology and yoga, both of which are focused on enhancing human performance and promoting beneficial psychological states. The results suggest that yoga and meditation may enhance the states of flow and mindful awareness, and reduce confusion. PMID:26721471

  10. Obesity-Related Behaviors among Poor Adolescents and Young Adults: Is Social Position Associated with Risk Behaviors?

    PubMed

    Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda Lucia; Fernald, Lia C; Goodman, Elizabeth; Guendelman, Sylvia; Adler, Nancy E

    2015-01-01

    HighlightsDifferent measures of social position capture unique dimensions of relative rank among youth.Youth-specific measures of social position may be important in identifying the most at-risk for obesity.Lower social status youth are more likely to be at-risk for obesity-related behaviors compared to those with a higher rank. This cross-sectional study examines multiple dimensions of social position in relation to obesity-related behaviors in an adolescent and young adult population. In addition to using conventional measures of social position, including parental education and household expenditures, we explore the usefulness of three youth-specific measures of social position - community and society subjective social status and school dropout status. Data are taken from a 2004 house-to-house survey of urban households within the bottom 20th percentile of income distribution within seven states in Mexico. A total of 5,321 Mexican adolescents, aged 12-22 years, provided information on obesity-related behaviors (e.g., diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior) and indicators of subjective and objective social position. A parent in each household provided information on socioeconomic status of the parent and household. Ordinal logistic regressions are used to estimate the associations of parental, household and adolescent indicators of social position and obesity-related risk behaviors. Those adolescents with the highest odds of adopting obesity risk behaviors were the ones who perceived themselves as lower in social status in reference to their peer community and those who had dropped out of school. We found no significant associations between parental education or household expenditures and obesity-related risk behaviors. Immediate social factors in adolescents' lives may have a strong influence on their health-related behaviors. This study provides evidence for the usefulness of two particular measures, both of which are youth-specific. Adolescents and

  11. Personality Traits and Positive/Negative Affects: An Analysis of Meaning in Life among Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isik, Serife; Üzbe, Nazife

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of positive and negative affects and personality traits on meaning in life in an adult population. The sample consisted of 335 subjects: 190 females and 145 males, and a Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), positive and negative schedule (PANAS), and adjective-based personality scale (ABPT) were used in the research.…

  12. Chess Expertise and Memory for Chess Positions in Children and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Wolfgang; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study presented four groups of chess players (child experts and novices, adult experts and novices) with short-term memory tasks involving meaningful and random chess positions, as well as a control board composed of geometric-shaped spaces and pieces. Found that child experts' immediate recall for meaningful chess positions was far superior to…

  13. Distinct effects of positive and negative music on older adults' auditory target identification performances.

    PubMed

    Vieillard, Sandrine; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Older adults, compared to younger adults, are more likely to attend to pleasant situations and avoid unpleasant ones. Yet, it is unclear whether such a phenomenon may be generalized to musical emotions. In this study, we investigated whether there is an age-related difference in how musical emotions are experienced and how positive and negative music influences attention performances in a target identification task. Thirty-one young and twenty-eight older adults were presented with 40 musical excerpts conveying happiness, peacefulness, sadness, and threat. While listening to music, participants were asked to rate their feelings and monitor each excerpt for the occurrence of an auditory target. Compared to younger adults, older adults reported experiencing weaker emotional activation when listening to threatening music and showed higher level of liking for happy music. Correct reaction times (RTs) for target identification were longer for threatening than for happy music in older adults but not in younger adults. This suggests that older adults benefit from a positive musical context and can regulate emotion elicited by negative music by decreasing attention towards it (and therefore towards the auditory target).

  14. Tackling inequalities in obesity: a protocol for a systematic review of the effectiveness of public health interventions at reducing socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in obesity and associated risk factors for obesity are widening throughout developed countries worldwide. Tackling obesity is high on the public health agenda both in the United Kingdom and internationally. However, what works in terms of interventions that are able to reduce inequalities in obesity is lacking. Methods/Design The review will examine public health interventions at the individual, community and societal level that might reduce inequalities in obesity among adults aged 18 years and over, in any setting and in any country. The following electronic databases will be searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Social Science Citation Index, ASSIA, IBSS, Sociological Abstracts, and the NHS Economic Evaluation Database. Database searches will be supplemented with website and gray literature searches. No studies will be excluded based on language, country or publication date. Randomized and non-randomized controlled trials, prospective and retrospective cohort studies (with/without control groups) and prospective repeat cross-sectional studies (with/without control groups) that have a primary outcome that is a proxy for body fatness and have examined differential effects with regard to socioeconomic status (education, income, occupation, social class, deprivation, poverty) or where the intervention has been targeted specifically at disadvantaged groups or deprived areas will be included. Study inclusion, data extraction and quality appraisal will be conducted by two reviewers. Meta-analysis and narrative synthesis will be conducted. The main analysis will examine the effects of 1) individual, 2) community and 3) societal level public health interventions on socioeconomic inequalities in adult obesity. Interventions will be characterized by their level of action and their approach to tackling inequalities. Contextual information on how such public health interventions are organized, implemented and delivered will also

  15. Epigenetic Signatures May Explain the Relationship Between Socioeconomic Position and Risk of Mental Illness: Preliminary Findings from an Urban Community Based Sample

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Monica; Galea, Sandro; Chang, Shun Chiao; Koenen, Karestan C.; Goldmann, Emily; Wildman, Derek E.; Aiello, Allison E.

    2013-01-01

    Low socioeconomic position (SEP) has previously been linked to a number of negative health indicators, including poor mental health. The biologic mechanisms linking SEP and mental health remain poorly understood. Recent work suggests that social exposures influence DNA methylation in a manner salient to mental health. We conducted a pilot investigation to assess whether SEP, measured as educational attainment, modifies the association between genomic methylation profiles and traumatic stress in a trauma-exposed sample. Results show that methylation × SEP interactions occur preferentially in genes pertaining to nervous system function, suggesting a plausible biologic pathway by which SEP may enhance sensitivity to stress, and, in turn, risk of post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:23701537

  16. Social Activities, Socioeconomic Factors, and Overweight Status Among Middle-Aged and Older Korean Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Christine; Oh, In-Hwan; Kwon, Young Dae

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between social activities and overweight among middle-aged and older adults. This study used data from the 2008 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging which included a total of 8157 adults. We divided body mass index into 2 groups: normal weight and overweight. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the association between social activities and overweight. For males, frequency of meetings with neighbors (1-3 times a week) was associated with being less overweight. Middle-aged adults who met with neighbors 1 to 3 times a week were less likely being overweight than those with once a year meeting frequency. On the contrary, social activity participation is related with high risk of overweight especially in the female and older adults. Our results suggest that social activity participation and social support needs to be taken into consideration when dealing with being overweight.

  17. Socioeconomic Disparities in the Prevalence of Blepharoptosis in the South Korean Adult Population Based on a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Rha, Eun Young; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yongkyu; Yoo, Gyeol

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and the prevalence of blepharoptosis in a representative South Korean population. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on data obtained in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012. In total, 17,178 Korean adults (7,261 men and 9,917 women) aged 19 years or older were enrolled. Blepharoptosis was defined as a marginal reflex distance 1 (MDR 1) lower than 2 mm. Household income and education level were used as indicators of SES. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the relationship between SES and the prevalence of blepharoptosis. Results Household income was inversely associated with the prevalence of blepharoptosis in women [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was 1.894 (1.336, 2.685)], and educational level was inversely associated with blepharoptosis in both men and women [aORs and 95% CIs were 1.572 (1.113, 2.219) and 1.973 (1.153, 3.376), respectively]. After adjusting for household income and educational level, low SES was associated with a high prevalence of blepharoptosis in women only. Conclusions Socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of blepharoptosis were found among women. Indeed, future research using a prospective design to determine the causal relationship between SES and blepharoptosis may identify SES as a risk factor for this condition. PMID:26727468

  18. [Obesity and overweight in adult Xukuru of Ororubá Indians, Pernambuco State, Brazil: magnitude and associated socioeconomic and demographic factors].

    PubMed

    Fávaro, Thatiana Regina; Santos, Ricardo Ventura; Cunha, Geraldo Marcelo da; Leite, Iuri da Costa; Coimbra Jr, Carlos E A

    2015-08-01

    This cross-sectional study focused on the epidemiology of overweight and obesity and the association with demographic and socioeconomic variables in a sample of 794 Xukuru of Ororubá adults 19-59 years of age, from an indigenous reserve in Pesqueira County, Pernambuco State, Brazil. Descriptive analyses and multivariate logistic regression were carried out, using cut-off points of BMI > 24.99kg/m2 for overweight and > 29.99kg/m2 for obesity. Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were higher in women (52.2% and 21%, respectively) than in men (44.1% and 7.5%, respectively). Female sex and age (> 30 years) were associated with both outcomes in the multivariate regression. For obesity, the following variable showed statistically significant associations: socioeconomic status and the interaction between male gender and per capita income. As in other indigenous populations in Brazil, the study's findings suggest that the Xukuru are experiencing a rapid nutritional transition.

  19. The relationship of area-level sociodemographic characteristics, household composition and individual-level socioeconomic status on walking behavior among adults.

    PubMed

    Hearst, Mary O; Sirard, John R; Forsyth, Ann; Parker, Emily D; Klein, Elizabeth G; Green, Christine G; Lytle, Leslie A

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the contextual factors associated with why adults walk is important for those interested in increasing walking as a mode of transportation and leisure. This paper investigates the relationships between neighborhood-level sociodemographic context, individual level sociodemographic characteristics and walking for leisure and transport. Data from two community-based studies of adults (n=550) were used to determine the association between the area-sociodemographic environment (ASDE), calculated from U.S. Census variables, and individual-level SES as potential correlates of walking behavior. Descriptive statistics, mean comparisons and Pearson's correlations coefficients were used to assess bivariate relationships. Generalized estimating equations were used to model the relationship between ASDE, as quartiles, and walking behavior. Adjusted models suggest adults engage in more minutes of walking for transportation and less walking for leisure in the most disadvantaged compared to the least disadvantaged neighborhoods but adding individual level demographics and SES eliminated the significant results. However, when models were stratified for free or reduced cost lunch, of those with children who qualified for free or reduced lunch, those who lived in the wealthiest neighborhoods engaged in 10.7 minutes less of total walking per day compared to those living in the most challenged neighborhoods (p<0.001). Strategies to increase walking for transportation or leisure need to take account of individual level socioeconomic factors in addition to area-level measures. PMID:23729994

  20. Greater Emotional Gain from Giving in Older Adults: Age-Related Positivity Bias in Charitable Giving.

    PubMed

    Bjälkebring, Pär; Västfjäll, Daniel; Dickert, Stephan; Slovic, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Older adults have been shown to avoid negative and prefer positive information to a higher extent than younger adults. This positivity bias influences their information processing as well as decision-making. We investigate age-related positivity bias in charitable giving in two studies. In Study 1 we examine motivational factors in monetary donations, while Study 2 focuses on the emotional effect of actual monetary donations. In Study 1, participants (n = 353, age range 20-74 years) were asked to rate their affect toward a person in need and then state how much money they would be willing to donate to help this person. In Study 2, participants (n = 108, age range 19-89) were asked to rate their affect toward a donation made a few days prior. Regression analysis was used to investigate whether or not the positivity bias influences the relationship between affect and donations. In Study 1, we found that older adults felt more sympathy and compassion and were less motivated by negative affect when compared to younger adults, who were motivated by both negative and positive affect. In Study 2, we found that the level of positive emotional reactions from monetary donations was higher in older participants compared to younger participants. We find support for an age-related positivity bias in charitable giving. This is true for motivation to make a future donation, as well as affective thinking about a previous donation. We conclude that older adults draw more positive affect from both the planning and outcome of monetary donations and hence benefit more from engaging in monetary charity than their younger counterparts. PMID:27378966

  1. Greater Emotional Gain from Giving in Older Adults: Age-Related Positivity Bias in Charitable Giving

    PubMed Central

    Bjälkebring, Pär; Västfjäll, Daniel; Dickert, Stephan; Slovic, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Older adults have been shown to avoid negative and prefer positive information to a higher extent than younger adults. This positivity bias influences their information processing as well as decision-making. We investigate age-related positivity bias in charitable giving in two studies. In Study 1 we examine motivational factors in monetary donations, while Study 2 focuses on the emotional effect of actual monetary donations. In Study 1, participants (n = 353, age range 20–74 years) were asked to rate their affect toward a person in need and then state how much money they would be willing to donate to help this person. In Study 2, participants (n = 108, age range 19–89) were asked to rate their affect toward a donation made a few days prior. Regression analysis was used to investigate whether or not the positivity bias influences the relationship between affect and donations. In Study 1, we found that older adults felt more sympathy and compassion and were less motivated by negative affect when compared to younger adults, who were motivated by both negative and positive affect. In Study 2, we found that the level of positive emotional reactions from monetary donations was higher in older participants compared to younger participants. We find support for an age-related positivity bias in charitable giving. This is true for motivation to make a future donation, as well as affective thinking about a previous donation. We conclude that older adults draw more positive affect from both the planning and outcome of monetary donations and hence benefit more from engaging in monetary charity than their younger counterparts. PMID:27378966

  2. Adults with Greater Weight Satisfaction Report More Positive Health Behaviors and Have Better Health Status Regardless of BMI

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Christine E.; Hébert, James R.; Lee, Duck-chul; Adams, Swann A.; Steck, Susan E.; Sui, Xuemei; Kuk, Jennifer L.; Baruth, Meghan; Blair, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Prior studies suggest that weight satisfaction may preclude changes in behavior that lead to healthier weight among individuals who are overweight or obese. Objective. To gain a better understanding of complex relationships between weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, and health outcomes. Design. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS). Participants. Large mixed-gender cohort of primarily white, middle-to-upper socioeconomic status (SES) adults with baseline examination between 1987 and 2002 (n = 19,003). Main Outcome Variables. Weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, chronic health conditions, and clinical health indicators. Statistical Analyses Performed. Chi-square test, t-tests, and linear and multivariate logistic regression. Results. Compared to men, women were more likely to be dieting (32% women; 18% men) and had higher weight dissatisfaction. Men and women with greater weight dissatisfaction reported more dieting, yo-yo dieting, and snacking and consuming fewer meals, being less active, and having to eat either more or less than desired to maintain weight regardless of weight status. Those who were overweight or obese and dissatisfied with their weight had the poorest health. Conclusion. Greater satisfaction with one's weight was associated with positive health behaviors and health outcomes in both men and women and across weight status groups. PMID:23862054

  3. Positive feelings facilitate working memory and complex decision making among older adults.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Stephanie M; Peters, Ellen; Västfjäll, Daniel; Isen, Alice M

    2013-01-01

    The impact of induced mild positive feelings on working memory and complex decision making among older adults (aged 63-85) was examined. Participants completed a computer administered card task in which participants could win money if they chose from "gain" decks and lose money if they chose from "loss" decks. Individuals in the positive-feeling condition chose better than neutral-feeling participants and earned more money overall. Participants in the positive-feeling condition also demonstrated improved working-memory capacity. These effects of positive-feeling induction have implications for affect theory, as well as, potentially, practical implications for people of all ages dealing with complex decisions. PMID:22764739

  4. Age-related affective modulation of the startle eyeblink response: older adults startle most when viewing positive pictures.

    PubMed

    Feng, Michelle C; Courtney, Christopher G; Mather, Mara; Dawson, Michael E; Davison, Gerald C

    2011-09-01

    Previous studies reveal age by valence interactions in attention and memory, such that older adults focus relatively more on positive and relatively less on negative stimuli than younger adults. In the current study, eyeblink startle response was used to measure differences in emotional reactivity to images that were equally arousing to both age groups. Viewing positive and negative pictures from the International Affective Picture System had opposite effects on startle modulation for older and younger adults. Younger adults showed the typical startle blink pattern, with potentiated startle when viewing negative pictures compared to positive pictures. Older adults, on the other hand, showed the opposite pattern, with potentiated startle when viewing positive pictures compared to viewing negative and neutral pictures. Potential underlying mechanisms for this interaction are evaluated. This pattern suggests that, compared with younger adults, older adults are more likely to spontaneously suppress responses to negative stimuli and process positive stimuli more deeply.

  5. Cross-Country Differences in the Additive Effects of Socioeconomics, Health Behaviors and Medical Comorbidities on Disability among Older Adults with Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Patients with heart disease experience limited activities of daily living (ADL). This is a cross-country comparison of the additive effects of Socioeconomics, health behaviors, and the number of medical comorbidities on disability among patients with heart disease. Methods: The current study used a cross-sectional design. Data came from the Research on Early Life and Aging Trends and Effects (RELATE). The current analysis utilized data on elderly individuals (age ≥60 y) from 13 countries. The outcome was any ADL limitation (i.e. bathing, dressing, using toilet, transferring, lifting heavy things, shopping, and eating meals). Socioeconomics (i.e. age, gender, education, and income), health behaviors (i.e. exercise, smoking, and drinking), and number of chronic medical conditions (i.e. hypertension, respiratory, arthritis, stroke, and diabetes) were entered into country-specific logistic regressions, considering at least one limitation in ADL as the main outcome. Results: Number of comorbid medical conditions and age were positively associated with disability in 85% of the countries. Physical activity and drinking were linked to disability in 54%and 31% of countries, respectively. Higher education and income were associated with lower disability in 31% and 23% of the countries, respectively. Female gender was associated with higher disability only in 15% of the countries. Smoking was not associated with disability, while the effects of socioeconomics, drinking, exercise, and medical comorbidities were controlled. Conclusion: Determinants of disability depend on the country; accordingly, locally designed health promotion interventions may be superior to the universal interventions for patients with heart disease. Medical comorbidities, however, should be universally diagnosed and treated. PMID:26157460

  6. Positive Reinforcement Used to Control Head-Turning in a Retarded Adult

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hester, Bob F.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    An institutionalized, retarded, adult male's response to verbal commands was increased through the use of positive control of a discriminative stimulus. Operant conditioning was noted as a possible means of enabling retarded individuals to acquire behaviors fundamental to a self-help repetoire. (Editor)

  7. Positive affect and mortality risk in older adults: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yujing; Han, Buxin

    2016-06-01

    We performed a meta-analysis on the relationship between positive affect (PA) and mortality risk in older adults (55 years and older) and reviewed evidence on the Main Effect Model and the Stress-buffering Model of PA. Four databases (ISI Web of Knowledge, APA PsycNET, PubMed, and Embase) were used to identify potential studies. Three types of effect sizes (ESs), odds ratio, relative risk, and hazard ratio (OR, RR, and HR), were calculated and analyzed within a random effects model. The analysis of the studies in which the effects of other variables were not controlled indicated that older adults with higher levels of positive affect had lower mortality risk (75%, HR = 0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.66-0.85) than those with lower positive affect. In studies in which the effects of covariates were controlled, this rate was 85% (HR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.81-0.89), which was still significant. These results suggest that higher positive affect is associated with lower mortality risk in community-dwelling older adults, even after controlling for medical, psychological, and social factors. The results point to potential methods of improving longevity, and to achieving healthy aging in older adults. PMID:27113246

  8. Future Life Goals of HIV-Positive Gay and Bisexual Male Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Douglas; Harper, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the future life goals reported by a sample of HIV-positive gay/bisexual male emerging adults. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 54 participants ages 17-24 at four geographically and demographically diverse adolescent HIV medicine programs to explore the content of participants' goals, perceived…

  9. Positive, Peaceful Interactions between Adults and Young Children. Growing Together: Building a Peaceful Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruning, Merribeth D.

    This paper discusses classroom practices contributing to positive, peaceful interactions between adults and young children. The paper begins with reminders about the development of self-control as a crucial aspect of peacefulness, the role of the toddler's developing autonomy, and the development of a sense of fairness in prekindergarten children.…

  10. Positive gaze preferences in older adults: assessing the role of cognitive effort with pupil dilation.

    PubMed

    Allard, Eric S; Wadlinger, Heather A; Isaacowitz, Derek M

    2010-05-01

    Older adults display positive preferences in their gaze, consistent with their prioritization of emotion regulation goals. While some research has argued that substantial amounts of cognitive effort are necessary for these information-processing preferences to occur, other work suggests that these attentional patterns unfold with minimal cognitive exertion. The current study used an implicit regulatory context (i.e., viewing facial stimuli of varying emotions) to assess how much cognitive effort was required for positive attentional preferences to occur. Effortful cognitive processing was assessed with a direct measure of change in pupil dilation. Results indicated that minimal cognitive effort was expended when older adults engaged in positive gaze preferences. This finding suggests that gaze acts as a rather effortless and economical regulatory tool for individuals to shape their affective experience.

  11. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic patterns of chronic non-communicable disease among the older adult population in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Minicuci, Nadia; Biritwum, Richard B.; Mensah, George; Yawson, Alfred E.; Naidoo, Nirmala; Chatterji, Somnath; Kowal, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background In Ghana, the older adult population is projected to increase from 5.3% of the total population in 2015 to 8.9% by 2050. National and local governments will need information about non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in this population in order to allocate health system resources and respond to the health needs of older adults. Design The 2007/08 Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 in Ghana used face-to-face interviews in a nationally representative sample of persons aged 50-plus years. Individual respondents were asked about their overall health, diagnosis of 10 chronic non-communicable conditions, and common health risk factors. A number of anthropometric and health measurements were also taken in all respondents, including height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, and blood pressure (BP). Results This paper includes 4,724 adults aged 50-plus years. The highest prevalence of self-reported chronic conditions was for hypertension [14.2% (95% CI 12.8–15.6)] and osteoarthritis [13.8%, (95% CI 11.7–15.9)]. The figure for hypertension reached 51.1% (95% CI 48.9–53.4) when based on BP measurement. The prevalence of current smokers was 8.1% (95% CI 7.0–9.2), while 2.0 (95% CI 1.5–2.5) were infrequent/frequent heavy drinkers, 67.9% (95% CI 65.2–70.5) consume insufficient fruits and vegetables, and 25.7% (95% CI 23.1–28.3) had a low level of physical activity. Almost 10% (95% CI 8.3–11.1) of adults were obese and 77.6% (95% CI 76.0–79.2) had a high-risk waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Risks from tobacco and alcohol consumption continued into older age, while insufficient fruit and vegetable intake, low physical activity and obesity increased with increasing age. The patterns of risk factors varied by income quintile, with higher prevalence of obesity and low physical activity in wealthier respondents, and higher prevalence of insufficient fruit and vegetable intake and smoking in lower-income respondents. The multivariate analysis

  12. Impact of Surface Type, Wheelchair Weight, and Axle Position on Wheelchair Propulsion by Novice Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Rachel E.; Nash, Mark S.; Collinger, Jennifer L.; Koontz, Alicia M.; Boninger, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of surface type, wheelchair weight, and rear axle position on older adult propulsion biomechanics. Design Crossover trial. Setting Biomechanics laboratory. Participants Convenience sample of 53 ambulatory older adults with minimal wheelchair experience (65−87y); men = 20, women = 33. Intervention Participants propelled 4 different wheelchair configurations over 4 surfaces; tile, low carpet, high carpet, and an 8% grade ramp (surface, chair order randomized). Chair configurations included: (1) unweighted chair with an anterior axle position, (2) 9.05kg weighted chair with an anterior axle position, (3) unweighted chair with a posterior axle position (Δ0.08m), and (4) 9.05kg weighted chair with a posterior axle position (Δ0.08m). Weight was added to a titanium folding chair, simulating the weight difference between very light and depot wheelchairs. Instrumented wheels measured propulsion kinetics. Main Outcome Measures Average self-selected velocity, push-frequency, stroke length, peak resultant and tangential force. Results Velocity decreased as surface rolling resistance or chair weight increased. Peak resultant and tangential forces increased as chair weight increased, surface resistance increased, and with a posterior axle position. The effect of a posterior axle position was greater on high carpet and the ramp. The effect of weight was constant, but more easily observed on high carpet and ramp. The effects of axle position and weight were independent of one another. Conclusion Increased surface resistance decreases self-selected velocity and increases peak forces. Increased weight decreases self-selected velocity and increases forces. Anterior axle positions decrease forces, more so on high carpet. Effects of weight and axle position are independent. Greatest reductions in peak forces occur in lighter chairs with anterior axle positions. PMID:19577019

  13. Measuring socio-economic position for epidemiological studies in low- and middle-income countries: a methods of measurement in epidemiology paper

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Laura D; Galobardes, Bruna; Matijasevich, Alicia; Gordon, David; Johnston, Deborah; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Patel, Rita; Webb, Elizabeth A; Lawlor, Debbie A; Hargreaves, James R

    2012-01-01

    Much has been written about the measurement of socio-economic position (SEP) in high-income countries (HIC). Less has been written for an epidemiology, health systems and public health audience about the measurement of SEP in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The social stratification processes in many LMIC—and therefore the appropriate measurement tools—differ considerably from those in HIC. Many measures of SEP have been utilized in epidemiological studies; the aspects of SEP captured by these measures and the pathways through which they may affect health are likely to be slightly different but overlapping. No single measure of SEP will be ideal for all studies and contexts; the strengths and limitations of a given indicator are likely to vary according to the specific research question. Understanding the general properties of different indicators, however, is essential for all those involved in the design or interpretation of epidemiological studies. In this article, we describe the measures of SEP used in LMIC. We concentrate on measures of individual or household-level SEP rather than area-based or ecological measures such as gross domestic product. We describe each indicator in terms of its theoretical basis, interpretation, measurement, strengths and limitations. We also provide brief comparisons between LMIC and HIC for each measure. PMID:22438428

  14. Emotional Modulation of the Late Positive Potential during Picture Free Viewing in Older and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Margaret M.; Sege, Christopher T.; Bowers, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Hedonic bias during free viewing of novel emotional and neutral scenes was investigated in older adults and college students. A neurophysiological index of emotional picture processing–the amplitude of the centroparietal late positive potential (LPP)–was recorded from the scalp using a dense sensor array while participants (29 older adults; 21 college students) viewed emotionally engaging or mundane natural scenes that varied in specific content. Both students and older adults showed LPP enhancement when viewing affective, compared to neutral, scenes, and there was no difference in LPP amplitude between older individuals and college students when viewing neutral everyday scenes. However, compared to the college students, older individuals showed attenuated LPP amplitude when viewing emotional scenes, regardless of hedonic valence or specific content. Age related differences could be mediated by a reduction in reactive emotional arousal with age, possible mediated by repeated life exposure to emotional stimuli. PMID:27589393

  15. Emotional Modulation of the Late Positive Potential during Picture Free Viewing in Older and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Renfroe, Jenna B; Bradley, Margaret M; Sege, Christopher T; Bowers, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Hedonic bias during free viewing of novel emotional and neutral scenes was investigated in older adults and college students. A neurophysiological index of emotional picture processing-the amplitude of the centroparietal late positive potential (LPP)-was recorded from the scalp using a dense sensor array while participants (29 older adults; 21 college students) viewed emotionally engaging or mundane natural scenes that varied in specific content. Both students and older adults showed LPP enhancement when viewing affective, compared to neutral, scenes, and there was no difference in LPP amplitude between older individuals and college students when viewing neutral everyday scenes. However, compared to the college students, older individuals showed attenuated LPP amplitude when viewing emotional scenes, regardless of hedonic valence or specific content. Age related differences could be mediated by a reduction in reactive emotional arousal with age, possible mediated by repeated life exposure to emotional stimuli. PMID:27589393

  16. Predictors of positive psychosocial functioning of older adults in residential care facilities.

    PubMed

    Schanowitz, Jeff Y; Nicassio, Perry M

    2006-04-01

    This research examined the contributions of active and passive coping for health problems, and meaning-based coping, to positive psychosocial functioning in a sample of 100 individuals in residential care with a mean age of 83.11 years old. Study participants resided in skilled care, intermediate care, or assisted living facilities. Based on interview data collected on site in participants' residential settings, hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that active and passive coping and meaning-based coping had separate influences on measures of positive psychosocial functioning. Active coping was correlated with higher positive affect, whereas passive coping was associated with higher negative affect and self-acceptance. Positive reappraisal, a meaning-based coping strategy, was uniquely associated with higher positive affect, positive social relations, and self-acceptance. Positive religious coping was not independently associated with positive psychosocial functioning indices, whereas negative religious coping was related to higher negative affect. Health functioning did not contribute to positive psychosocial functioning in this sample. The results confirm the separate importance of health-related and meaning-based coping strategies in explaining positive psychosocial functioning in older adults living in residential care settings. PMID:16453068

  17. Older and younger adults' first impressions from faces: similar in agreement but different in positivity.

    PubMed

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A; Franklin, Robert G; Hillman, Suzanne; Boc, Henry

    2013-03-01

    People readily form first impressions from faces, with consensual judgments that have significant social consequences. Similar impressions are shown by children, young adults (YA), and people from diverse cultures. However, this is the first study to systematically investigate older adults' (OA) impressions. OA and YA showed similar levels of within-age agreement in their impressions of competence, health, hostility, and trustworthiness. Both groups also showed stronger within- than between-age agreement. Consistent with other evidence for age-related increases in positivity, OA showed more positive impressions of the health, hostility, and trustworthiness of faces. These effects tended to be strongest for the most negatively valenced faces, suggesting that they derive from OA lesser processing of negative cues rather than greater processing of positive cues. An own-age bias in impressions was limited to greater OA positivity in impressions of the hostility of older faces, but not younger ones. Although OA and YA differed in vision and executive function, only OA slower processing speed contributed to age differences in impression positivity. Positivity effects in OA have not been previously linked to processing speed, and research investigating possible explanations for this effect would be worthwhile. PMID:23276216

  18. Older and younger adults' first impressions from faces: similar in agreement but different in positivity.

    PubMed

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A; Franklin, Robert G; Hillman, Suzanne; Boc, Henry

    2013-03-01

    People readily form first impressions from faces, with consensual judgments that have significant social consequences. Similar impressions are shown by children, young adults (YA), and people from diverse cultures. However, this is the first study to systematically investigate older adults' (OA) impressions. OA and YA showed similar levels of within-age agreement in their impressions of competence, health, hostility, and trustworthiness. Both groups also showed stronger within- than between-age agreement. Consistent with other evidence for age-related increases in positivity, OA showed more positive impressions of the health, hostility, and trustworthiness of faces. These effects tended to be strongest for the most negatively valenced faces, suggesting that they derive from OA lesser processing of negative cues rather than greater processing of positive cues. An own-age bias in impressions was limited to greater OA positivity in impressions of the hostility of older faces, but not younger ones. Although OA and YA differed in vision and executive function, only OA slower processing speed contributed to age differences in impression positivity. Positivity effects in OA have not been previously linked to processing speed, and research investigating possible explanations for this effect would be worthwhile.

  19. Positive Outcomes Enhance Incidental Learning for Both Younger and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Mara; Schoeke, Andrej

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that memory encoding is enhanced when people are anticipating a potential reward, consistent with the idea that dopaminergic systems that respond to motivationally relevant information also enhance memory for that information. In the current study, we examined how anticipating and receiving rewards versus losses affect incidental learning of information. In addition, we compared the modulatory effects of reward anticipation and outcome on memory for younger and older adults. Forty-two younger (aged 18–33 years) and 44 older (aged 66–92 years) adults played a game involving pressing a button as soon as they saw a target. Gain trials began with a cue that they would win $0.25 if they pressed the button fast enough, loss trials began with a cue that they would avoid losing $0.25 if they pressed the button fast enough, and no-outcome trials began with a cue indicating no monetary outcome. The target was a different photo-object on each trial (e.g., balloon, dolphin) and performance outcomes were displayed after the photo disappeared. Both younger and older adults recalled and recognized pictures from trials with positive outcomes (either rewarding or loss avoiding) better than from trials with negative outcomes. Positive outcomes were associated with not only enhanced memory for the picture just seen in that trial, but also with enhanced memory for the pictures shown in the next two trials. Although anticipating a reward also enhanced incidental memory, this effect was seen only in recognition memory of positive pictures and was a smaller effect than the outcome effect. The fact that older adults showed similar incidental memory effects of reward anticipation and outcome as younger adults suggests that reward–memory system interactions remain intact in older age. PMID:22125509

  20. Loneliness and HIV-related stigma explain depression among older HIV-positive adults.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Golub, Sarit A; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Brennan, Mark; Karpiak, Stephen E

    2010-05-01

    Advances in the treatment of HIV have resulted in a large growing population of older adults with HIV. These aging adults face added social, psychological, and physical challenges associated with the aging process. Correlations between depression, loneliness, health, and HIV/AIDS-related stigma have been studied, but there is little evaluation of these associations among HIV-positive adults over the age of 50. Data for these analyses were taken from the Research on Older Adults with HIV study of 914 New York City-based HIV-positive men and women over the age of 50. In total, 39.1% of participants exhibited symptoms of major depression (CES-D > 23). Multivariate modeling successfully explained 42% of the variance in depression which was significantly related to increased HIV-associated stigma, increased loneliness, decreased cognitive functioning, reduced levels of energy, and being younger. These data underscore the need for service providers and researchers to assert more aggressive and innovative efforts to resolve both psychosocial and physical health issues that characterize the graying of the AIDS epidemic in the USA. Data suggest that focusing efforts to reduce HIV-related stigma and loneliness may have lasting effects in reducing major depressive symptoms and improving perceived health.

  1. The Influence of Lumbar Joint Mobilization on Joint Position Sense in Normal Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Wontae

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of lumbar joint mobilization on the joint position sense (JPS) of normal adults. [Subjects] A total of 30 normal adults were divided into an experimental group (n = 15) and a control group (n = 15). [Methods] The experimental group received lumbar joint mobilization and massage, and the control group received massage only. Both the experimental and control groups were evaluated for joint position error (JPE) by using a digital dual inclinometer before and after the experiment. [Results] In the before and after comparison for the experimental group, statistically significant differences were found in flexion, extension, left lateral flexion, and right lateral flexion. There was no statistically significant difference in the before and after comparison for the control group. [Conclusion] Because lumbar joint mobilization can reduce JPE and improve JPS, its use in the treatment of patients with lumbar problems is recommended. PMID:25540513

  2. Prevalence of pregnancy experiences and contraceptive knowledge among single adults in a low socio-economic suburban community in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of pregnancy experience and its association with contraceptive knowledge among single adults in a low socio-economic suburban community in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012 among the Kerinchi suburban community. Of the total 3,716 individuals surveyed, young single adults between 18 and 35 years old were questioned with regard to their experience with unplanned pregnancy before marriage. Contraceptive knowledge was assessed by a series of questions on identification of method types and the affectivity of condoms for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. Results A total of 226 female and 257 male participants completed the survey. In total, eight female (3.5%) participants reported experience with an unplanned pregnancy before marriage, and five male (1.9 %) participants had the experience of impregnating their partners. The participants had a mean total score of 3.15 (SD = 1.55) for contraceptive knowledge out of a possible maximum score of five. Female participants who had experienced an unplanned pregnancy had a significantly lower contraceptive knowledge score (2.10 ± 1.48) than who had never experienced pregnancy (3.30 ± 1.35), p<0.05. Likewise, male participants who had experienced impregnating their partners had a significantly lower contraceptive knowledge score (1.60 ± 1.50) than those who did not have such experience (3.02 ± 1.59), p<0.05. Conclusion The results showed evidence of premarital unplanned pregnancy among this suburban community. The low level of contraceptive knowledge found in this study indicates the need for educational strategies designed to improve contraceptive knowledge. PMID:25438066

  3. Influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic position on the transition to type II diabetes in older Mexican Americans: the Sacramento Area Longitudinal Study on Aging

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Lorena; Lee, Anne; Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina; Neuhaus, John M; Aiello, Allison; Elfassy, Tali; Haan, Mary N

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic position (NSEP) on development of diabetes over time. Design A longitudinal cohort study. Setting The data reported were from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging, a longitudinal study of the health of 1789 older Latinos. Participants Community-dwelling older Mexican Americans residing in the Sacramento Metropolitan Statistical Area. Main outcome Multistate Markov regression were used to model transitions through four possible states over time: 1=normal; 2=pre-diabetic; 3=diabetic; and 4=death without diabetes. Results At baseline, nearly 50% were non-diabetic, 17.5% were pre-diabetic and nearly 33% were diabetic. At the end of follow-up, there were a total of 824 people with type 2 diabetes. In a fully adjusted MSM regression model, among non-diabetics, higher NSEP was not associated with a transition to pre-diabetes. Among non-diabetics, higher NSEP was associated with an increased risk of diabetes (HR=1.66, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.42) and decreased risk of death without diabetes (HR: 0.56, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.96). Among pre-diabetics, higher NSEP was significantly associated with a transition to non-diabetic status (HR: 1.22, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.50). Adjusting for BMI, age, education, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, medical insurance and nativity did not affect this relationship. Conclusions Our findings show that high NSEP poses higher risk of progression from normal to diabetes compared with a lower risk of death without diabetes. This work presents a possibility that these associations are modified by nativity or culture. PMID:27515749

  4. Socioeconomic position, lifestyle factors and age at natural menopause: a systematic review and meta-analyses of studies across six continents

    PubMed Central

    Schoenaker, Danielle AJM; Jackson, Caroline A; Rowlands, Jemma V; Mishra, Gita D

    2014-01-01

    Background: Age at natural menopause (ANM) is considered a marker of biological ageing and is increasingly recognized as a sentinel for chronic disease risk in later life. Socioeconomic position (SEP) and lifestyle factors are thought to be associated with ANM. Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analyses to determine the overall mean ANM, and the effect of SEP and lifestyle factors on ANM by calculating the weighted mean difference (WMD) and pooling adjusted hazard ratios. We explored heterogeneity using meta-regression and also included unpublished findings from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. Results: We identified 46 studies across 24 countries. Mean ANM was 48.8 years [95% confidence interval (CI): 48.3, 49.2], with between-study heterogeneity partly explained by geographical region. ANM was lowest among African, Latin American, Asian and Middle Eastern countries and highest in Europe and Australia, followed by the USA. Education was associated with later ANM (WMD middle vs low education 0.30, 95% CI: 0.10, 0.51; high vs low education 0.64, 95% CI 0.26, 1.02). A similar dose-response relationship was also observed for occupation. Smoking was associated with a 1-year reduction of ANM (WMD: -0.91, 95% CI: –1.34, –0.48). Being overweight and moderate/high physical activity were modestly associated with later ANM, but findings were less conclusive. Conclusions: ANM varies across populations, partly due to differences across geographical regions. SEP and some lifestyle factors are associated with ANM, but further research is needed to examine the impact of the associations between risk factors and ANM on future health outcomes. PMID:24771324

  5. Association of socioeconomic status change between infancy and adolescence, and blood pressure, in South African young adults: Birth to Twenty Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Adair, Linda S; Pisa, Pedro T; Griffiths, Paula L; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2016-01-01

    Objective Social epidemiology models suggest that socioeconomic status (SES) mobility across the life course affects blood pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between SES change between infancy and adolescence, and blood pressure, in young adults, and the impact of early growth on this relationship. Setting Data for this study were obtained from a ‘Birth to Twenty’ cohort in Soweto, Johannesburg, in South Africa. Participants The study included 838 Black participants aged 18 years who had household SES measures in infancy and at adolescence, anthropometry at 0, 2, 4 and 18 years of age and blood pressure at the age of 18 years. Methods We computed SES change using asset-based household SES in infancy and during adolescence as an exposure variable, and blood pressure and hypertension status as outcomes. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were used to investigate the associations between SES change from infancy to adolescence, and age, height and sex-specific blood pressure and hypertension prevalence after adjusting for confounders. Results Compared to a persistent low SES, an upward SES change from low to high SES tertile between infancy and adolescence was significantly associated with lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) at the age of 18 years (β=−4.85; 95% CI −8.22 to −1.48; p<0.01; r2=0.1804) after adjusting for SES in infancy, small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and weight gain. Associations between SES change and SBP were partly explained by weight gain between birth and the age of 18 years. There was no association between SES mobility and diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure or hypertension status. Conclusions Our study confirms that upward SES change has a protective effect on SBP by the time participants reach young adulthood. Socioeconomic policies and interventions that address inequality may have the potential to reduce cardiovascular disease burden related to BP in later life. PMID

  6. International issues: Obtaining an adult neurology residency position in the United States: an overview.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Justin T; Sellner, Johann; Struhal, Walter; Schneider, Logan; Mayans, David

    2014-04-01

    Around the world, there are marked differences in neurology training, including training duration and degree of specialization. In the United States, adult neurology residency is composed of 1 year of internal medicine training (preliminary year) and 3 years of neurology-specific training. Child neurology, which is not the focus of this article, is 2 years of pediatrics and 3 years of neurology training. The route to adult neurology residency training in the United States is standardized and is similar to most other US specialties. Whereas US medical graduates often receive stepwise guidance from their medical school regarding application for residency training, international graduates often enter this complex process with little or no such assistance. Despite this discrepancy, about 10%-15% of residency positions in the United States are filled by international medical graduates.(1,2) In adult neurology specifically, 35% of matched positions were filled by international graduates in 2013, 75% of whom were not US citizens.(1) In an effort to provide a preliminary understanding of the application process and related terminology (table 1) and thereby encourage international residency applicants, we describe the steps necessary to apply for neurology residency in the United States.

  7. Attentional bias for threat in older adults: moderation of the positivity bias by trait anxiety and stimulus modality.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lewina O; Knight, Bob G

    2009-09-01

    Socioemotional selectivity theory suggests that emotion regulation goals motivate older adults to preferentially allocate attention to positive stimuli and away from negative stimuli. This study examined whether anxiety moderates the effect of the positivity bias on attention for threat. The authors employed the dot probe task to compare subliminal and supraliminal attention for threat in 103 young and 44 older adults. Regardless of anxiety, older but not young adults demonstrated a vigilant-avoidant response to angry faces. Anxiety influenced older adults' attention such that anxious individuals demonstrated a vigilant-avoidant reaction to sad faces but an avoidant-vigilant reaction to negative words. PMID:19739931

  8. Attentional bias for threat in older adults: moderation of the positivity bias by trait anxiety and stimulus modality.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lewina O; Knight, Bob G

    2009-09-01

    Socioemotional selectivity theory suggests that emotion regulation goals motivate older adults to preferentially allocate attention to positive stimuli and away from negative stimuli. This study examined whether anxiety moderates the effect of the positivity bias on attention for threat. The authors employed the dot probe task to compare subliminal and supraliminal attention for threat in 103 young and 44 older adults. Regardless of anxiety, older but not young adults demonstrated a vigilant-avoidant response to angry faces. Anxiety influenced older adults' attention such that anxious individuals demonstrated a vigilant-avoidant reaction to sad faces but an avoidant-vigilant reaction to negative words.

  9. Relationship between socioeconomic status and asthma: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hancox, R; Milne, B; Taylor, D; Greene, J; Cowan, J; Flannery, E; Herbison, G; McLachlan, C; Poulton, R; Sears, M

    2004-01-01

    Background: There is conflicting information about the relationship between asthma and socioeconomic status, with different studies reporting no, positive, or inverse associations. Most of these studies have been cross sectional in design and have relied on subjective markers of asthma such as symptoms of wheeze. Many have been unable to control adequately for potential confounding factors. Methods: We report a prospective cohort study of approximately 1000 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972–3. This sample has been assessed regularly throughout childhood and into adulthood, with detailed information collected on asthma symptoms, lung function, airway responsiveness, and atopy. The prevalence of these in relation to measures of socioeconomic status were analysed with and without controls for potential confounding influences including parental history of asthma, smoking, breast feeding, and birth order using cross sectional time series models. Results: No consistent association was found between childhood or adult socioeconomic status and asthma prevalence, lung function, or airway responsiveness at any age. Having asthma made no difference to educational attainment or socioeconomic status by age 26. There were trends to increased atopy in children from higher socioeconomic status families consistent with previous reports. Conclusions: Socioeconomic status in childhood had no significant impact on the prevalence of asthma in this New Zealand born cohort. Generalisation of these results to other societies should be done with caution, but our results suggest that the previously reported associations may be due to confounding. PMID:15115861

  10. Gender, race and socioeconomic influence on diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Olmos, R.D.; de Figueiredo, R.C.; Aquino, E.M.; Lotufo, P.A.; Bensenor, I.M.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid diseases are common, and use of levothyroxine is increasing worldwide. We investigated the influence of gender, race and socioeconomic status on the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders using data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a multicenter cohort study of civil servants (35-74 years of age) from six Brazilian cities. Diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction was by thyrotropin (TSH), and free thyroxine (FT4) if TSH was altered, and the use of specific medications. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed using overt hyperthyroidism/hypothyroidism and levothyroxine use as dependent variables and sociodemographic characteristics as independent variables. The frequencies of overt hyper- and hypothyroidism were 0.7 and 7.4%, respectively. Using whites as the reference ethnicity, brown, and black race were protective for overt hypothyroidism (OR=0.76, 95%CI=0.64-0.89, and OR=0.53, 95%CI=0.43-0.67, respectively, and black race was associated with overt hyperthyroidism (OR=1.82, 95%CI=1.06-3.11). Frequency of hypothyroidism treatment was higher in women, browns, highly educated participants and those with high net family incomes. After multivariate adjustment, levothyroxine use was associated with female gender (OR=6.06, 95%CI=3.19-11.49) and high net family income (OR=3.23, 95%CI=1.02-10.23). Frequency of hyperthyroidism treatment was higher in older than in younger individuals. Sociodemographic factors strongly influenced the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders, including the use of levothyroxine. PMID:26108100

  11. Gender, race and socioeconomic influence on diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Olmos, R D; Figueiredo, R C de; Aquino, E M; Lotufo, P A; Bensenor, I M

    2015-08-01

    Thyroid diseases are common, and use of levothyroxine is increasing worldwide. We investigated the influence of gender, race and socioeconomic status on the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders using data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a multicenter cohort study of civil servants (35-74 years of age) from six Brazilian cities. Diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction was by thyrotropin (TSH), and free thyroxine (FT4) if TSH was altered, and the use of specific medications. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed using overt hyperthyroidism/hypothyroidism and levothyroxine use as dependent variables and sociodemographic characteristics as independent variables. The frequencies of overt hyper- and hypothyroidism were 0.7 and 7.4%, respectively. Using whites as the reference ethnicity, brown, and black race were protective for overt hypothyroidism (OR=0.76, 95%CI=0.64-0.89, and OR=0.53, 95%CI=0.43-0.67, respectively, and black race was associated with overt hyperthyroidism (OR=1.82, 95%CI=1.06-3.11). Frequency of hypothyroidism treatment was higher in women, browns, highly educated participants and those with high net family incomes. After multivariate adjustment, levothyroxine use was associated with female gender (OR=6.06, 95%CI=3.19-11.49) and high net family income (OR=3.23, 95%CI=1.02-10.23). Frequency of hyperthyroidism treatment was higher in older than in younger individuals. Sociodemographic factors strongly influenced the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders, including the use of levothyroxine.

  12. Socio-economic, demographic, lifestyle and health characteristics associated with consumption of fatty-sweetened and fatty-salted foods in middle-aged French adults.

    PubMed

    Méjean, Caroline; Macouillard, Pauline; Castetbon, Katia; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Hercberg, Serge

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have specifically focused on characteristics associated with consumption of combined fatty-salted and fatty-sweetened foods, whereas their identification could be useful for defining effective public health measures. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between demographic, socio-economic, lifestyle and health characteristics and consumption of these types of food in a general sample of French adults. Dietary intake was assessed using a minimum of six 24 h dietary records collected over a 2-year period in 6240 subjects aged 35-60 years who participated in the Supplémentation en VItamines Minéraux et AntioXydants cohort study. Associations of individual characteristics with high and intermediate consumption of fatty-sweetened and fatty-salted foods were assessed using multivariate polytomic logistic regression models. Risk of moderate or high consumption of fatty-salted foods decreased with increasing age. Current smokers, drinkers, individuals with overweight and with hypertension were more likely to consume moderate or high amounts of such foods. Risk of moderate or high consumption of fatty-sweetened foods decreased with increasing age. Women, individuals living as a couple, moderate drinkers and persons with low or medium physical activity level were more likely to consume moderate or high amounts of such foods. Lower educated subjects, current smokers, heavy drinkers and individuals with severe hypertriacylglycerolaemia were less likely to have moderate or high consumption. Consumption of fatty-sweetened and fatty-salted foods varied according to demographic, lifestyle and health characteristics. Common unhealthy behaviours such as smoking, low physical activity and alcohol drinking, associated with high consumption of these food groups, may help to effectively target public health efforts. PMID:20946706

  13. Effect of an armed conflict on relative socioeconomic position of rural households: case study from western Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Current conceptual frameworks on the interrelationship between armed conflict and poverty are based primarily on aggregated macro-level data and/or qualitative evidence and usually focus on adherents of warring factions. In contrast, there is a paucity of quantitative studies about the socioeconomic consequences of armed conflict at the micro-level, i.e., noncommitted local households and civilians. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of data pertaining to risk factors for malaria and neglected tropical diseases. Standardized questionnaires were administered to 182 households in a rural part of western Côte d'Ivoire in August 2002 and again in early 2004. Between the two surveys, the area was subject to intensive fighting in the Ivorian civil war. Principal component analysis was applied at the two time points for constructing an asset-based wealth-index and categorizing the households in wealth quintiles. Based on quintile changes, the households were labeled as 'worse-off', 'even' or 'better-off'. Statistical analysis tested for significant associations between the socioeconomic fates of households and head of household characteristics, household composition, village characteristics and self-reported events associated with the armed conflict. Most-poor/least-poor ratios and concentration indices were calculated to assess equity changes in households' asset possession. Results Of 203 households initially included in the first survey, 21 were lost to follow-up. The population in the remaining 182 households shrunk from 1,749 to 1,625 persons due to migration and natural population changes. However, only weak socioeconomic dynamics were observed; every seventh household was defined as 'worse-off' or 'better-off' despite the war-time circumstances. Analysis of other reported demographic and economic characteristics did not clearly identify more or less resilient households, and only subtle equity shifts were noted. However, the results indicate

  14. Roads not taken: A narrative positioning analysis of older adults' stories about missed opportunities.

    PubMed

    Blix, Bodil Hansen; Hamran, Torunn; Normann, Hans Ketil

    2015-12-01

    The point of departure for this article is narrative gerontology's conceptualization of life as storied and the assumption that identity development and meaning making do not cease at any age, but rather continue throughout life. We suggest that if identity construction is considered to be a lifelong project, narrative gerontology would benefit from applying analytical perspectives focused on the situated activity of narration. In this article, we apply a three-level positioning analysis to segments of interviews with two elderly Sami women concerning missed opportunities or roads not taken and, more specifically, to narrations about missed opportunities for education. We argue that such narrations should not necessarily be considered expressions of regret or processes of reconciliation but rather as pivotal in here-and-now identity constructions. Narrations about missed opportunities demonstrate that what narrators choose to insert into their life stories is chosen for a purpose and for an audience in a specific interpersonal and discursive context. We suggest that narrative gerontology would benefit from a broader focus on the diversity of sites of engagement in which older adults perform identity constructions. This shift implies moving beyond traditional studies of older adults' life stories and biographical narratives as related in the context of qualitative research interviews (of which the present study of Sami older adults' life stories is indeed an example). PMID:26568226

  15. Learning Disabilities: The Needs of Adults with Learning Disabilities. A Position Paper of the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities, Baltimore, MD.

    The paper presents the position of the National Joint Commission on Learning Disabilities regarding the needs of adults with learning disabilities (LD). Among problems cited are lack of adequate assessment procedures for the population along with inadequate awareness of the social and emotional problems facing adults with LD. Five major…

  16. Intellectual Disabilities and Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health: An Overview of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Hilary

    2005-01-01

    Background: There is an enduring association between socioeconomic position and health, both over time and across major causes of death. Children and adults with intellectual disabilities are disproportionately represented among the poorer and less healthy sections of the population. But research on health inequalities, and on the broader societal…

  17. Determinants of physical and global functioning in adult HIV-positive heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Shah, Krupa; McMahon, James M; Trabold, Nicole; Aidala, Angela A; Chen, Michael; Pouget, Enrique R; Simmons, Janie; Klostermann, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the psychosocial factors that might impact the functioning ability of heterosexual men living with HIV. We examined positive and negative coping, social support, and HIV stigma as predictors of physical and global functioning in a cross-sectional sample of 317 HIV-infected adult heterosexual male patients recruited from clinical and social service agencies in New York City. Study participants were primarily minority and low income. Sixty-four percent were African-American, 55% were single, and 90% were 40 years of age or older. The majority had long-term HIV (LTHIV), with an average duration of 15 years since diagnosis. After controlling for participant characteristics, structural equation modeling analyses revealed that positive coping and social support had a significant positive direct effect on global functioning, while stigma had a significant negative direct effect on global functioning. The physical functioning model revealed that negative coping and HIV stigma had significant negative direct effects, whereas social support had a significant positive indirect effect. Age and duration of HIV diagnosis were not associated with physical and global functioning. In conclusion, we found that heterosexual men living with LTHIV who have ineffective coping, less social support, and greater stigma have reduced functioning ability. Study findings have implications for developing interventions aimed at increasing and retaining functioning ability with the end goal of improving successful aging in this population.

  18. Socio-economic position and its relationship to physical capacity among elderly people living in Jyväskylä, Finland: five- and ten-year follow-up studies.

    PubMed

    Rautio, Nina; Heikkinen, Eino; Ebrahim, Shah

    2005-06-01

    Socio-economic differences in self-reported disability are well described but much less is known about their associations with more objective measures of physical capacity. The aim was to study socio-economic differences in performance-based physical capacity in 75-year-old persons, examining changes in performance at five- and ten-year follow-up intervals. At the baseline 350 residents of the city of Jyväskylä, Finland, aged 75 were interviewed and 295 of them took part in clinical examinations. The corresponding figures at the five-year follow-up were 234 and 191 and at the ten-year follow-up 139 and 103. The statistical significance of differences in physical capacity between the socio-economic groups and genders were tested using ANOVA in univariate and repeated measures models and ANCOVA, with confounders added to the models. Generally, higher education and income were separately related to better maximal walking speed and vital capacity at every measurement point. In addition, higher income was related to better maximal isometric hand grip strength at both follow-ups. When education and income were in the same model, only income was related to physical capacity, almost without exception. Similarly, in the five- and ten-year follow-up periods, both education and income groups showed a parallel decline in physical capacity. The association between income and physical capacity remained even after adjusting for smoking, physical activity and number of chronic diseases. The results indicate that elderly people in disadvantaged socio-economic groups show lower levels of performance in almost all domains of physical capacity, but change in capacity over time does not differ significantly between either markers of socio-economic position.

  19. Thinking about a limited future enhances the positivity of younger and older adults' recall: Support for socioemotional selectivity theory.

    PubMed

    Barber, Sarah J; Opitz, Philipp C; Martins, Bruna; Sakaki, Michiko; Mather, Mara

    2016-08-01

    Compared with younger adults, older adults have a relative preference to attend to and remember positive over negative information. This is known as the "positivity effect," and researchers have typically evoked socioemotional selectivity theory to explain it. According to socioemotional selectivity theory, as people get older they begin to perceive their time left in life as more limited. These reduced time horizons prompt older adults to prioritize achieving emotional gratification and thus exhibit increased positivity in attention and recall. Although this is the most commonly cited explanation of the positivity effect, there is currently a lack of clear experimental evidence demonstrating a link between time horizons and positivity. The goal of the current research was to address this issue. In two separate experiments, we asked participants to complete a writing activity, which directed them to think of time as being either limited or expansive (Experiments 1 and 2) or did not orient them to think about time in a particular manner (Experiment 2). Participants were then shown a series of emotional pictures, which they subsequently tried to recall. Results from both studies showed that regardless of chronological age, thinking about a limited future enhanced the relative positivity of participants' recall. Furthermore, the results of Experiment 2 showed that this effect was not driven by changes in mood. Thus, the fact that older adults' recall is typically more positive than younger adults' recall may index naturally shifting time horizons and goals with age. PMID:27112461

  20. An online positive affect skills intervention reduces depression in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Michael A; Pietrucha, Martha E; Saslow, Laura R; Hult, Jen R; Moskowitz, Judith T

    2014-01-01

    Positive affect predicts improved glycemic control and longevity in adults with type 2 diabetes. We tested DAHLIA, a self-paced online intervention for type 2 diabetes that teaches positive affect skills such as savoring, gratitude, and acts of kindness. Participants (n=49) were randomized to the 5-week DAHLIA course or an emotion-reporting waitlist control. DAHLIA was understood and accepted by participants and showed good retention (78%). At post-intervention, DAHLIA participants showed a significantly greater decrease in depression than controls (-4.3 vs. +0.6 points on the CES-D, p =.05). Secondary analyses found that this effect was considerably stronger in intervention recipients recruited online than those recruited in person. Intervention recipients recruited online also showed significantly increased positive affect, reduced negative affect, and reduced perceived stress. There were no effects on measures of diabetes-specific efficacy or sense of burden, or preliminary measures of health behaviors. This successful feasibility and efficacy trial provides support for a larger trial focusing more specifically on health behavior. PMID:25214877

  1. LGBTQ adolescents and young adults raised within a Christian religious context: positive and negative outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Angie L; Galliher, Renee V

    2012-12-01

    Religious contexts have traditionally been understood as protective for a variety of psychosocial health outcomes. However, the generalizability of these findings to youth who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender or queer (LGBTQ) is questioned due to denominational teachings on same-sex attractions and sexual behavior. Eight adolescents (15-17 years) and 11 young adults (19-24 years) who identify as LGBTQ raised in Christian religious affiliations (16 participants raised in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, 2 participants raised Catholic and 1 participant raised Presbyterian) participated in individual in-depth interviews, journal writings, and focus groups to provide greater insight into the lived experiences of LGBTQ individuals raised within a Christian religious environment. Findings suggest the religious context is related to both positive and negative outcomes. Eight themes are explored using participant's own words and experiences. Directions for future research and implications are discussed. PMID:22910195

  2. Inflammatory Pathways Link Socioeconomic Inequalities to White Matter Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Gianaros, Peter J.; Marsland, Anna L.; Sheu, Lei K.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Verstynen, Timothy D.

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic disadvantage confers risk for aspects of ill health that may be mediated by systemic inflammatory influences on the integrity of distributed brain networks. Following this hypothesis, we tested whether socioeconomic disadvantage related to the structural integrity of white matter tracts connecting brain regions of distributed networks, and whether such a relationship would be mediated by anthropometric, behavioral, and molecular risk factors associated with systemic inflammation. Otherwise healthy adults (N= 155, aged 30–50 years, 78 men) completed protocols assessing multilevel indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP), anthropometric and behavioral measures of adiposity and cigarette smoking, circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), and white matter integrity by diffusion tensor imaging. Mediation modeling was used to test associations between SEP indicators and measures of white matter tract integrity, as well as indirect mediating paths. Measures of tract integrity followed a socioeconomic gradient: individuals completing more schooling, earning higher incomes, and residing in advantaged neighborhoods exhibited increases in white matter fractional anisotropy and decreases in radial diffusivity, relative to disadvantaged individuals. Moreover, analysis of indirect paths showed that adiposity, cigarette smoking, and CRP partially mediated these effects. Socioeconomic inequalities may relate to diverse health disparities via inflammatory pathways impacting the structural integrity of brain networks. PMID:22772650

  3. Inflammatory pathways link socioeconomic inequalities to white matter architecture.

    PubMed

    Gianaros, Peter J; Marsland, Anna L; Sheu, Lei K; Erickson, Kirk I; Verstynen, Timothy D

    2013-09-01

    Socioeconomic disadvantage confers risk for aspects of ill health that may be mediated by systemic inflammatory influences on the integrity of distributed brain networks. Following this hypothesis, we tested whether socioeconomic disadvantage related to the structural integrity of white matter tracts connecting brain regions of distributed networks, and whether such a relationship would be mediated by anthropometric, behavioral, and molecular risk factors associated with systemic inflammation. Otherwise healthy adults (N= 155, aged 30-50 years, 78 men) completed protocols assessing multilevel indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP), anthropometric and behavioral measures of adiposity and cigarette smoking, circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), and white matter integrity by diffusion tensor imaging. Mediation modeling was used to test associations between SEP indicators and measures of white matter tract integrity, as well as indirect mediating paths. Measures of tract integrity followed a socioeconomic gradient: individuals completing more schooling, earning higher incomes, and residing in advantaged neighborhoods exhibited increases in white matter fractional anisotropy and decreases in radial diffusivity, relative to disadvantaged individuals. Moreover, analysis of indirect paths showed that adiposity, cigarette smoking, and CRP partially mediated these effects. Socioeconomic inequalities may relate to diverse health disparities via inflammatory pathways impacting the structural integrity of brain networks. PMID:22772650

  4. Impact of socio-economic position on cancer stage at presentation: Findings from a large hospital-based study in Germany.

    PubMed

    Singer, Susanne; Roick, Julia; Briest, Susanne; Stark, Sylvia; Gockel, Ines; Boehm, Andreas; Papsdorf, Kirsten; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Müller, Tobias; Prietzel, Torsten; Schiefke, Franziska; Dietel, Anja; Bräunlich, Jens; Danker, Helge

    2016-10-15

    We explored the relationship between socio-economic characteristics and cancer stage at presentation. Patients admitted to a university hospital for diagnosis and treatment of cancer provided data on their education, vocational training, income, employment, job, health insurance and postcode. Tumor stage was classified according to the Union International Contre le Cancer (UICC). To analyze disparities in the likelihood of late-stage (UICC III/IV vs. I/II) diagnoses, logistic regression models adjusting for age and gender were used. Out of 1,012 patients, 572 (59%) had late-stage cancer. Separately tested, increased odds of advanced disease were associated with post-compulsory education compared to college degrees, with apprenticeship and no vocational training, with unemployment, disability pension, jobs with a low hierarchy level, blue collar jobs and with low income. Health insurance and community size were not related with late-stage cancer. Jointly modelled, there was evidence for an independent effect of unemployment (odds ratio (OR) 1.7, CI 1.0-2.8), disability pension (OR 1.8, CI 1.0-3.2) and very low income (OR 2.6, CI 1.1-6.1) on the likelihood of advanced disease stage. It is of great concern that these socio-economic gradients occur even in systems with equal access to health care. PMID:27244597

  5. Impact of socio-economic position on cancer stage at presentation: Findings from a large hospital-based study in Germany.

    PubMed

    Singer, Susanne; Roick, Julia; Briest, Susanne; Stark, Sylvia; Gockel, Ines; Boehm, Andreas; Papsdorf, Kirsten; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Müller, Tobias; Prietzel, Torsten; Schiefke, Franziska; Dietel, Anja; Bräunlich, Jens; Danker, Helge

    2016-10-15

    We explored the relationship between socio-economic characteristics and cancer stage at presentation. Patients admitted to a university hospital for diagnosis and treatment of cancer provided data on their education, vocational training, income, employment, job, health insurance and postcode. Tumor stage was classified according to the Union International Contre le Cancer (UICC). To analyze disparities in the likelihood of late-stage (UICC III/IV vs. I/II) diagnoses, logistic regression models adjusting for age and gender were used. Out of 1,012 patients, 572 (59%) had late-stage cancer. Separately tested, increased odds of advanced disease were associated with post-compulsory education compared to college degrees, with apprenticeship and no vocational training, with unemployment, disability pension, jobs with a low hierarchy level, blue collar jobs and with low income. Health insurance and community size were not related with late-stage cancer. Jointly modelled, there was evidence for an independent effect of unemployment (odds ratio (OR) 1.7, CI 1.0-2.8), disability pension (OR 1.8, CI 1.0-3.2) and very low income (OR 2.6, CI 1.1-6.1) on the likelihood of advanced disease stage. It is of great concern that these socio-economic gradients occur even in systems with equal access to health care.

  6. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: dietary fatty acids for healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Vannice, Gretchen; Rasmussen, Heather

    2014-01-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (the Academy) that dietary fat for the healthy adult population should provide 20% to 35% of energy, with an increased consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and limited intake of saturated and trans fats. The Academy recommends a food-based approach through a diet that includes regular consumption of fatty fish, nuts and seeds, lean meats and poultry, low-fat dairy products, vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and legumes. These recommendations are made within the context of rapidly evolving science delineating the influence of dietary fat and specific fatty acids on human health. In addition to fat as a valuable and calorically dense macronutrient with a central role in supplying essential nutrition and supporting healthy body weight, evidence on individual fatty acids and fatty acid groups is emerging as a key factor in nutrition and health. Small variations in the structure of fatty acids within broader categories of fatty acids, such as polyunsaturated and saturated, appear to elicit different physiological functions. The Academy recognizes that scientific knowledge about the effects of dietary fats on human health is young and takes a prudent approach in recommending an increase in fatty acids that benefit health and a reduction in fatty acids shown to increase risk of disease. Registered dietitian nutritionists are uniquely positioned to translate fat and fatty acid research into practical and effective dietary recommendations.

  7. Does Positivity Operate When the Stakes are High?: Health Status and Decision-Making Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    English, Tammy; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    Research and theory suggest that emotional goals are increasingly prioritized with age. Related empirical work has shown that, compared to younger adults, older adults attend to and remember positive information more than negative information. This age-related positivity effect has been eliminated in experiments that have explicitly demanded processing of both positive and negative information. In the present study, we explored whether a reduction of the preference for positive information over negative information appears when the material being reviewed holds personal relevance for the individual. Older participants whose health varied from poor to very good reviewed written material prior to making decisions about health related and non-health related issues. As predicted, older adults in relatively poor health (compared with those in relatively good health) showed less positivity in review of information while making health-related decisions. In contrast, positivity emerged regardless of health status for decisions that were unrelated to health. Across decision contexts, those individuals who focused more on positive information than negative information reported better post-decisional mood and greater decision satisfaction. Results are consistent with the theoretical argument that the age-related positivity effect reflects goal-directed cognitive processing and, furthermore, suggests that personal relevance and contextual factors determine whether or not positivity emerges. PMID:25894484

  8. Sagittal jaw position in relation to body posture in adult humans – a rasterstereographic study

    PubMed Central

    Lippold, Carsten; Danesh, Gholamreza; Schilgen, Markus; Drerup, Burkhard; Hackenberg, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Background The correlations between the sagittal jaw position and the cranio – cervical inclination are described in literature. Only few studies focus on the sagittal jaw position and the body posture using valid and objective orthopaedic examination methods. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that patients with malocclusions reveal significant differences in body posture compared to those without (upper thoracic inclination, kyphotic angle, lordotic angle and lower lumbar inclination). Methods Eighty-four healthy adult patients (with a mean age = 25.6 years and ranging from 16.1 to 55.8 years) were examined with informed consent. The orthodontic examination horizontal overjet (distance between upper and lower incisors) was determined by using an orthodontic digital sliding calliper. The subjects were subdivided in respect of the overjet with the following results: 18 revealed a normal overjet (Class I), 38 had an increased overjet (Class II) and 28 had an reversed overjet (Class III). Rasterstereography was used to carry out a three – dimensional back shape analysis. This method is based on photogrammetry. A three-dimensional shape was produced by analysing the distortion of parallel horizontal white light lines projected on the patient's back, followed by mathematical modelling. On the basis of the sagittal profile the upper thoracic inclination, the thoracic angle, the lordotic angle and the pelvic inclination were determined with a reported accuracy of 2.8° and the correlations to the sagittal jaw position were calculated by means of ANOVA, Scheffé and Kruskal-Wallis procedures. Results Between the different overjet groups, no statistically significant differences or correlations regarding the analysed back shape parameters could be obtained. However, comparing males and females there were statistically significant differences in view of the parameters 'lordotic angle' and 'pelvic inclination'. Conclusion No correlations between overjet and

  9. Socioeconomic conditions across life related to multiple measures of the endocrine system in older adults: Longitudinal findings from a British birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Bann, David; Hardy, Rebecca; Cooper, Rachel; Lashen, Hany; Keevil, Brian; Wu, Frederick C.W.; Holly, Jeff M.P.; Ong, Ken K.; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Kuh, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about how socioeconomic position (SEP) across life impacts on different axes of the endocrine system which are thought to underlie the ageing process and its adverse consequences. We examined how indicators of SEP across life related to multiple markers of the endocrine system in late midlife, and hypothesized that lower SEP across life would be associated with an adverse hormone profile across multiple axes. Methods Data were from a British cohort study of 875 men and 905 women followed since their birth in March 1946 with circulating free testosterone and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) measured at both 53 and 60–64 years, and evening cortisol at 60–64 years. Indicators of SEP were ascertained prospectively across life—paternal occupational class at 4, highest educational attainment at 26, household occupational class at 53, and household income at 60–64 years. Associations between SEP and hormones were investigated using multiple regression and logistic regression models. Results Lower SEP was associated with lower free testosterone among men, higher free testosterone among women, and lower IGF-I and higher evening cortisol in both sexes. For example, the mean standardised difference in IGF-I comparing the lowest with the highest educational attainment at 26 years (slope index of inequality) was −0.4 in men (95% CI -0.7 to −0.2) and −0.4 in women (−0.6 to −0.2). Associations with each hormone differed by SEP indicator used and sex, and were particularly pronounced when using a composite adverse hormone score. For example, the odds of having 1 additional adverse hormone concentration in the lowest compared with highest education level were 3.7 (95% CI: 2.1, 6.3) among men, and 1.6 (1.0, 2.7) among women (P (sex interaction) = 0.02). We found no evidence that SEP was related to apparent age-related declines in free testosterone or IGF-I. Conclusions Lower SEP was associated with an adverse hormone profile

  10. Facets of Spirituality Diminish the Positive Relationship between Insecure Attachment and Mood Pathology in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Hiebler-Ragger, Michaela; Falthansl-Scheinecker, Johanna; Birnhuber, Gerhard; Fink, Andreas; Unterrainer, Human Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, in attachment theory, secure attachment has been linked to parameters of mental health, while insecure attachment has been associated with parameters of psychopathology. Furthermore, spirituality and attachment to God have been discussed as corresponding to, or compensating for, primary attachment experiences. Accordingly, they may contribute to mental health or to mental illness. In this cross-sectional observational study, we investigate attachment styles (Avoidant and Anxious Attachment; ECR-RD), spirituality (Religious and Existential Well-Being; MI-RSWB), and mood pathology (Anxiety, Depression, Somatization; BSI-18) in 481 (76% female) young adults (age range: 18-30 years) who had a Roman Catholic upbringing. In accordance with previous research, we found insecure attachment to be associated with low levels of spirituality. Furthermore, insecure attachment and low levels of spirituality were associated with higher levels of mood pathology. In hierarchical regression analyses, only Anxious Attachment positively predicted all three dimensions of mood pathology while Existential Well-Being-but not Religious Well-Being-was an additional negative predictor for Depression. Our results underline that spirituality can correspond to the attachment style, or may also compensate for insecure attachment. Higher Existential Well-Being-comprised of facets such as hope for a better future, forgiveness and the experience of sense and meaning-seems to have an especially corrective effect on mood pathology, independent of attachment styles. Our findings emphasize the vital role of existential well-being in young adults' affective functioning, which might be considered in prevention and treatment. Further research in clinical surroundings is recommended. PMID:27336471

  11. Contribution of Head Position, Standing Surface, and Vision to Postural Control in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Pociask, Fredrick D; DiZazzo-Miller, Rosanne; Goldberg, Allon; Adamo, Diane E

    2016-01-01

    Postural control requires the integration of sensorimotor information to maintain balance and to properly position and orient the body in response to external stimuli. Age-related declines in peripheral and central sensory and motor function contribute to postural instability and falls. This study investigated the contribution of head position, standing surface, and vision on postural sway in 26 community-dwelling older adults. Participants were asked to maintain a stable posture under conditions that varied standing surface, head position, and the availability of visual information. Significant main and interaction effects were found for all three factors. Findings from this study suggest that postural sway responses require the integration of available sources of sensory information. These results have important implications for fall risks in older adults and suggest that when standing with the head extended and eyes closed, older adults may place themselves at risk for postural disequilibrium and loss of balance. PMID:26709429

  12. Contribution of Head Position, Standing Surface, and Vision to Postural Control in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Pociask, Fredrick D; DiZazzo-Miller, Rosanne; Goldberg, Allon; Adamo, Diane E

    2016-01-01

    Postural control requires the integration of sensorimotor information to maintain balance and to properly position and orient the body in response to external stimuli. Age-related declines in peripheral and central sensory and motor function contribute to postural instability and falls. This study investigated the contribution of head position, standing surface, and vision on postural sway in 26 community-dwelling older adults. Participants were asked to maintain a stable posture under conditions that varied standing surface, head position, and the availability of visual information. Significant main and interaction effects were found for all three factors. Findings from this study suggest that postural sway responses require the integration of available sources of sensory information. These results have important implications for fall risks in older adults and suggest that when standing with the head extended and eyes closed, older adults may place themselves at risk for postural disequilibrium and loss of balance.

  13. Youth Asset Mapping: Showcasing Youth Empowerment and Positive Youth-Adult Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handy, Deborah J.; Rodgers, Kathleen Boyce; Schwieterman, Tiffany Anne

    2011-01-01

    Youth and adult partners participated in youth asset mapping, a form of action research, to assess community assets and youth involvement opportunities. Qualitative data were analyzed to examine youths' feelings of empowerment and experiences with adult partners. Asset mapping contributed to youth empowerment, especially when adults were engaging…

  14. Can we disentangle life course processes of accumulation, critical period and social mobility? An analysis of disadvantaged socio-economic positions and myocardial infarction in the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program.

    PubMed

    Hallqvist, Johan; Lynch, John; Bartley, Mel; Lang, Thierry; Blane, David

    2004-04-01

    The accumulation hypothesis would propose that the longer the duration of exposure to disadvantaged socio-economic position, the greater the risk of myocardial infarction. However there may be a danger of confounding between accumulation and possibly more complex combinations of critical periods of exposure and social mobility. The objective of this paper is to investigate the possibility of distinguishing between these alternatives. We used a population based case-control study (Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Programme) of all incident first events of myocardial infarction among men and women, living in the Stockholm region 1992-94. The analyses were restricted to men 53-70 years, 511 cases and 716 controls. From a full occupational history each subject was categorized as manual worker or non-manual at three stages of the life course, childhood (from parent's occupation), at the ages 25-29 and 51-55, resulting in 8 possible socio-economic trajectories. We found a graded response to the accumulation of disadvantaged socio-economic positions over the life course. However, we also found evidence for effects of critical periods and of social mobility. A conceptual analysis showed that there are, for theoretical reasons, only a limited number of trajectories available, too small to form distinct empirical categories of each hypothesis. The empirical task of disentangling the life course hypotheses of critical period, social mobility and accumulation is therefore comparable to the problem of separating age, period, and cohort effects. Accordingly, the interpretation must depend on prior knowledge of more specific causal mechanisms.

  15. DNA-histone interactions are sufficient to position a single nucleosome juxtaposing Drosophila Adh adult enhancer and distal promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, J R; Benyajati, C

    1993-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase gene (Adh) of Drosophila melanogaster is transcribed from two tandem promoters in distinct developmental and tissue-specific patterns. Both promoters are regulated by separate upstream enhancer regions. In its wild-type context the adult enhancer specifically stimulates only the distal promoter, approximately 400 bp downstream, and not the proximal promoter, which is approximately 700 bp further downstream. Genomic footprinting and micrococcal nuclease analyses have revealed a specifically positioned nucleosome between the distal promoter and adult enhancer. In vitro reconstitution of this nucleosome demonstrated that DNA-core histone interactions alone are sufficient to position the nucleosome. Based on this observation and sequence periodicities in the underlying DNA, the mechanism of positioning appears to involve specific DNA structural features (ie flexibility or curvature). We have observed this nucleosome positioned early during development, before tissue differentiation, and before non-histone protein-DNA interactions are established at the distal promoter or adult enhancer. This nucleosome positioning element in the Adh regulatory region could be involved in establishing a specific tertiary nucleoprotein structure that facilitates specific cis-element accessibility and/or distal promoter-adult enhancer interactions. Images PMID:8451195

  16. The Health Impact of Upward Mobility: Does Socioeconomic Attainment Make Youth More Vulnerable to Stressful Circumstances?

    PubMed

    Wickrama, Kandauda A S; O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Lee, Tae Kyoung

    2016-02-01

    Previous research has documented that adolescent stressful life experiences have a long-term detrimental influence on cardio-metabolic disease risk. While studies have focused on either the moderating or mediating effects of youth socioeconomic competence, drawing from a life course perspective, we estimate these mediating and moderating effects simultaneously within a single analytical framework. The study used a nationally representative sample of 11,271 adolescents (53 % female) over 13 years. The sample included 49 % minority youth (21 % Blacks, 16 % Hispanics, 6 % Asians, 4 % multiracial youth, and 2 % Native Americans). The analyses focused specifically on adolescents' stressful life experiences, their socioeconomic development (conceptualized as their future orientation in adolescence as well as their educational attainment and income in young adulthood), and cardio-metabolic disease risk in young adulthood (assessed by a measure of allostatic load consisting of nine regulatory bio-markers). The study findings indicated detrimental influences of stressful life experiences on both socioeconomic development and young adult cardio-metabolic disease risk and a beneficial additive influence of positive socioeconomic development on young adult cardio-metabolic health. However, there was also evidence that striving for socioeconomic attainment increased the detrimental influence of stressful life experiences on young adult cardio-metabolic health. These study findings have important implications for our understanding about youth resilience in relation to stressful life contexts and for the formulation of policies and programs for promoting youth health.

  17. The Health Impact of Upward Mobility: Does Socioeconomic Attainment Make Youth More Vulnerable to Stressful Circumstances?

    PubMed

    Wickrama, Kandauda A S; O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Lee, Tae Kyoung

    2016-02-01

    Previous research has documented that adolescent stressful life experiences have a long-term detrimental influence on cardio-metabolic disease risk. While studies have focused on either the moderating or mediating effects of youth socioeconomic competence, drawing from a life course perspective, we estimate these mediating and moderating effects simultaneously within a single analytical framework. The study used a nationally representative sample of 11,271 adolescents (53 % female) over 13 years. The sample included 49 % minority youth (21 % Blacks, 16 % Hispanics, 6 % Asians, 4 % multiracial youth, and 2 % Native Americans). The analyses focused specifically on adolescents' stressful life experiences, their socioeconomic development (conceptualized as their future orientation in adolescence as well as their educational attainment and income in young adulthood), and cardio-metabolic disease risk in young adulthood (assessed by a measure of allostatic load consisting of nine regulatory bio-markers). The study findings indicated detrimental influences of stressful life experiences on both socioeconomic development and young adult cardio-metabolic disease risk and a beneficial additive influence of positive socioeconomic development on young adult cardio-metabolic health. However, there was also evidence that striving for socioeconomic attainment increased the detrimental influence of stressful life experiences on young adult cardio-metabolic health. These study findings have important implications for our understanding about youth resilience in relation to stressful life contexts and for the formulation of policies and programs for promoting youth health. PMID:26684790

  18. A pilot study using global positioning systems (GPS) devices and surveys to ascertain older adults' travel patterns.

    PubMed

    Yen, Irene H; Leung, Cindy W; Lan, Mars; Sarrafzadeh, Majid; Kayekjian, Karen C; Duru, O Kenrik

    2015-04-01

    Some studies indicate that older adults lead active lives and travel to many destinations including those not in their immediate residential neighborhoods. We used global positioning system (GPS) devices to track the travel patterns of 40 older adults (mean age: 69) in San Francisco and Los Angeles. Study participants wore the GPS devices for 7 days in fall 2010 and winter 2011. We collected survey responses concurrently about travel patterns. GPS data showed a mean of four trips/day, and a mean trip distance of 7.6 km. Survey data indicated that older adults commonly made trips for four activities (e.g., volunteering, work, visiting friends) at least once each week. Older adults regularly travel outside their residential neighborhoods. GPS can document the mode of travel, the path of travel, and the destinations. Surveys can document the purpose of the travel and the impressions or experiences in the specific locations.

  19. Affordable Care Act Provision Had Similar, Positive Impacts For Young Adults With And Without Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Porterfield, Shirley L; Huang, Jin

    2016-05-01

    Beginning in 2010 the Affordable Care Act (ACA) allowed young adults (ages 19-25) to remain on their parents' private health insurance plans, even if they were not full-time students. This study investigated the impact of the ACA on health insurance coverage for young adults with disabilities, comparing their experience with that of young adults without disabilities and that of a group of older adults (ages 26-34) with disabilities. We analyzed the periods 2006-09 and 2011-14, which were before and after implementation of the dependent coverage provision in the ACA, respectively. Coverage gains for older adults with disabilities were entirely attributable to changes in public insurance. Gains for young adults overall were driven by changes in private insurance. Both young adults with and without disabilities experienced a 4-percentage-point increase in private health insurance coverage between the two time periods, so the gap in private coverage between the two groups did not change significantly over time. Gains in coverage affected perhaps 2.9 million young adults overall and nearly 300,000 young adults with disabilities. PMID:27140994

  20. Affordable Care Act Provision Had Similar, Positive Impacts For Young Adults With And Without Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Porterfield, Shirley L; Huang, Jin

    2016-05-01

    Beginning in 2010 the Affordable Care Act (ACA) allowed young adults (ages 19-25) to remain on their parents' private health insurance plans, even if they were not full-time students. This study investigated the impact of the ACA on health insurance coverage for young adults with disabilities, comparing their experience with that of young adults without disabilities and that of a group of older adults (ages 26-34) with disabilities. We analyzed the periods 2006-09 and 2011-14, which were before and after implementation of the dependent coverage provision in the ACA, respectively. Coverage gains for older adults with disabilities were entirely attributable to changes in public insurance. Gains for young adults overall were driven by changes in private insurance. Both young adults with and without disabilities experienced a 4-percentage-point increase in private health insurance coverage between the two time periods, so the gap in private coverage between the two groups did not change significantly over time. Gains in coverage affected perhaps 2.9 million young adults overall and nearly 300,000 young adults with disabilities.

  1. The Effects of Positive and Negative Support from Children on Widowed Older Adults' Psychological Adjustment: A Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Jung-Hwa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines the extent to which positive and negative support from children prior to and after spousal loss and changes in support from pre- to post-loss affect widowed older adults' depressive symptoms, anxiety, and anger 18 months following widowhood. Design and Methods: Analyses are based on the Changing Lives of Older…

  2. Mindfulness Training Increases Momentary Positive Emotions and Reward Experience in Adults Vulnerable to Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geschwind, Nicole; Peeters, Frenk; Drukker, Marjan; van Os, Jim; Wichers, Marieke

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) increases momentary positive emotions and the ability to make use of natural rewards in daily life. Method: Adults with a life-time history of depression and current residual depressive symptoms (mean age = 43.9 years, SD = 9.6; 75% female; all Caucasian) were randomized to…

  3. Pharmacokinetics of Antituberculosis Drugs in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Adults in Malawi.

    PubMed

    van Oosterhout, J J; Dzinjalamala, F K; Dimba, A; Waterhouse, D; Davies, G; Zijlstra, E E; Molyneux, M E; Molyneux, E M; Ward, S

    2015-10-01

    Limited data address the impact of HIV coinfection on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of antituberculosis drugs in sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 47 Malawian adults underwent rich pharmacokinetic sampling at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 24 h postdose. Of the subjects, 51% were male, their mean age was 34 years, and 65% were HIV-positive with a mean CD4 count of 268 cells/μl. Antituberculosis drugs were administered as fixed-dose combinations (150 mg rifampin, 75 mg isoniazid, 400 mg pyrazinamide, and 275 mg ethambutol) according to recommended weight bands. Plasma drug concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (rifampin and pyrazinamide) or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (isoniazid and ethambutol). Data were analyzed by noncompartmental methods and analysis of variance of log-transformed summary parameters. The pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows (median [interquartile range]): for rifampin, maximum concentration of drug in plasma (Cmax) of 4.129 μg/ml (2.474 to 5.596 μg/ml), area under the curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0-∞) of 21.32 μg/ml · h (13.57 to 28.60 μg/ml · h), and half-life of 2.45 h (1.86 to 3.08 h); for isoniazid, Cmax of 3.97 μg/ml (2.979 to 4.544 μg/ml), AUC0-24 of 22.5 (14.75 to 34.59 μg/ml · h), and half-life of 3.93 h (3.18 to 4.73 h); for pyrazinamide, Cmax of 34.21 μg/ml (30.00 to 41.60 μg/ml), AUC0-24 of 386.6 μg/ml · h (320.0 to 463.7 μg/ml · h), and half-life of 6.821 h (5.71 to 8.042 h); and for ethambutol, Cmax of 2.278 μg/ml (1.694 to 3.098 μg/ml), AUC0-24 of 20.41 μg/ml · h (16.18 to 26.27 μg/ml · h), and half-life of 7.507 (6.517 to 8.696 h). The isoniazid PK data analysis suggested that around two-thirds of the participants were slow acetylators. Dose, weight, and weight-adjusted dose were not significant predictors of PK exposure, probably due to weight-banded dosing. In this first pharmacokinetic study of antituberculosis drugs in Malawian adults, measures of

  4. Pharmacokinetics of Antituberculosis Drugs in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Adults in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Dzinjalamala, F. K.; Dimba, A.; Waterhouse, D.; Davies, G.; Zijlstra, E. E.; Molyneux, M. E.; Molyneux, E. M.; Ward, S.

    2015-01-01

    Limited data address the impact of HIV coinfection on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of antituberculosis drugs in sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 47 Malawian adults underwent rich pharmacokinetic sampling at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 24 h postdose. Of the subjects, 51% were male, their mean age was 34 years, and 65% were HIV-positive with a mean CD4 count of 268 cells/μl. Antituberculosis drugs were administered as fixed-dose combinations (150 mg rifampin, 75 mg isoniazid, 400 mg pyrazinamide, and 275 mg ethambutol) according to recommended weight bands. Plasma drug concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (rifampin and pyrazinamide) or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (isoniazid and ethambutol). Data were analyzed by noncompartmental methods and analysis of variance of log-transformed summary parameters. The pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows (median [interquartile range]): for rifampin, maximum concentration of drug in plasma (Cmax) of 4.129 μg/ml (2.474 to 5.596 μg/ml), area under the curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0–∞) of 21.32 μg/ml · h (13.57 to 28.60 μg/ml · h), and half-life of 2.45 h (1.86 to 3.08 h); for isoniazid, Cmax of 3.97 μg/ml (2.979 to 4.544 μg/ml), AUC0–24 of 22.5 (14.75 to 34.59 μg/ml · h), and half-life of 3.93 h (3.18 to 4.73 h); for pyrazinamide, Cmax of 34.21 μg/ml (30.00 to 41.60 μg/ml), AUC0–24 of 386.6 μg/ml · h (320.0 to 463.7 μg/ml · h), and half-life of 6.821 h (5.71 to 8.042 h); and for ethambutol, Cmax of 2.278 μg/ml (1.694 to 3.098 μg/ml), AUC0–24 of 20.41 μg/ml · h (16.18 to 26.27 μg/ml · h), and half-life of 7.507 (6.517 to 8.696 h). The isoniazid PK data analysis suggested that around two-thirds of the participants were slow acetylators. Dose, weight, and weight-adjusted dose were not significant predictors of PK exposure, probably due to weight-banded dosing. In this first pharmacokinetic study of antituberculosis drugs in Malawian adults, measures of

  5. Pharmacokinetics of Antituberculosis Drugs in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Adults in Malawi.

    PubMed

    van Oosterhout, J J; Dzinjalamala, F K; Dimba, A; Waterhouse, D; Davies, G; Zijlstra, E E; Molyneux, M E; Molyneux, E M; Ward, S

    2015-10-01

    Limited data address the impact of HIV coinfection on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of antituberculosis drugs in sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 47 Malawian adults underwent rich pharmacokinetic sampling at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 24 h postdose. Of the subjects, 51% were male, their mean age was 34 years, and 65% were HIV-positive with a mean CD4 count of 268 cells/μl. Antituberculosis drugs were administered as fixed-dose combinations (150 mg rifampin, 75 mg isoniazid, 400 mg pyrazinamide, and 275 mg ethambutol) according to recommended weight bands. Plasma drug concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (rifampin and pyrazinamide) or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (isoniazid and ethambutol). Data were analyzed by noncompartmental methods and analysis of variance of log-transformed summary parameters. The pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows (median [interquartile range]): for rifampin, maximum concentration of drug in plasma (Cmax) of 4.129 μg/ml (2.474 to 5.596 μg/ml), area under the curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0-∞) of 21.32 μg/ml · h (13.57 to 28.60 μg/ml · h), and half-life of 2.45 h (1.86 to 3.08 h); for isoniazid, Cmax of 3.97 μg/ml (2.979 to 4.544 μg/ml), AUC0-24 of 22.5 (14.75 to 34.59 μg/ml · h), and half-life of 3.93 h (3.18 to 4.73 h); for pyrazinamide, Cmax of 34.21 μg/ml (30.00 to 41.60 μg/ml), AUC0-24 of 386.6 μg/ml · h (320.0 to 463.7 μg/ml · h), and half-life of 6.821 h (5.71 to 8.042 h); and for ethambutol, Cmax of 2.278 μg/ml (1.694 to 3.098 μg/ml), AUC0-24 of 20.41 μg/ml · h (16.18 to 26.27 μg/ml · h), and half-life of 7.507 (6.517 to 8.696 h). The isoniazid PK data analysis suggested that around two-thirds of the participants were slow acetylators. Dose, weight, and weight-adjusted dose were not significant predictors of PK exposure, probably due to weight-banded dosing. In this first pharmacokinetic study of antituberculosis drugs in Malawian adults, measures of

  6. Lateral flow urine lipoarabinomannan assay for detecting active tuberculosis in Hiv-positive adults

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Maunank; Hanrahan, Colleen; Wang, Zhuo Yu; Dendukuri, Nandini; Lawn, Stephen D; Denkinger, Claudia M; Steingart, Karen R

    2016-01-01

    Background Rapid detection of tuberculosis (TB) among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a global health priority. HIV-associated TB may have different clinical presentations and is challenging to diagnose. Conventional sputum tests have reduced sensitivity in HIV-positive individuals, who have higher rates of extrapulmonary TB compared with HIV-negative individuals. The lateral flow urine lipoarabinomannan assay (LF-LAM) is a new, commercially available point-of-care test that detects lipoarabinomannan (LAM), a lipopolysaccharide present in mycobacterial cell walls, in people with active TB disease. Objectives To assess the accuracy of LF-LAM for the diagnosis of active TB disease in HIV-positive adults who have signs and symptoms suggestive of TB (TB diagnosis).To assess the accuracy of LF-LAM as a screening test for active TB disease in HIV-positive adults irrespective of signs and symptoms suggestive of TB (TB screening). Search methods We searched the following databases without language restriction on 5 February 2015: the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; MEDLINE (PubMed,1966); EMBASE (OVID, from 1980); Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED, from 1900), Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (CPCI-S, from 1900), and BIOSIS Previews (from 1926) (all three using the Web of Science platform; MEDION; LILACS (BIREME, from 1982); SCOPUS (from 1995); the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT); the search portal of the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP); and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&l (from 1861). Selection criteria Eligible study types included randomized controlled trials, cross-sectional studies, and cohort studies that determined LF-LAM accuracy for TB against a microbiological reference standard (culture or nucleic acid amplification test from any body site). A higher quality reference standard was one in which two or more specimen types were

  7. Lateral flow urine lipoarabinomannan assay for detecting active tuberculosis in Hiv-positive adults

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Maunank; Hanrahan, Colleen; Wang, Zhuo Yu; Dendukuri, Nandini; Lawn, Stephen D; Denkinger, Claudia M; Steingart, Karen R

    2016-01-01

    Background Rapid detection of tuberculosis (TB) among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a global health priority. HIV-associated TB may have different clinical presentations and is challenging to diagnose. Conventional sputum tests have reduced sensitivity in HIV-positive individuals, who have higher rates of extrapulmonary TB compared with HIV-negative individuals. The lateral flow urine lipoarabinomannan assay (LF-LAM) is a new, commercially available point-of-care test that detects lipoarabinomannan (LAM), a lipopolysaccharide present in mycobacterial cell walls, in people with active TB disease. Objectives To assess the accuracy of LF-LAM for the diagnosis of active TB disease in HIV-positive adults who have signs and symptoms suggestive of TB (TB diagnosis).To assess the accuracy of LF-LAM as a screening test for active TB disease in HIV-positive adults irrespective of signs and symptoms suggestive of TB (TB screening). Search methods We searched the following databases without language restriction on 5 February 2015: the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; MEDLINE (PubMed,1966); EMBASE (OVID, from 1980); Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED, from 1900), Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (CPCI-S, from 1900), and BIOSIS Previews (from 1926) (all three using the Web of Science platform; MEDION; LILACS (BIREME, from 1982); SCOPUS (from 1995); the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT); the search portal of the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP); and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&l (from 1861). Selection criteria Eligible study types included randomized controlled trials, cross-sectional studies, and cohort studies that determined LF-LAM accuracy for TB against a microbiological reference standard (culture or nucleic acid amplification test from any body site). A higher quality reference standard was one in which two or more specimen types were

  8. Positive Behaviour Support and Supported Employment for Adults with Severe Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Elizabeth A.; Patton, Holly Ann

    2010-01-01

    Background: Functional assessments and supported employment procedures have the potential to enhance quality of life factors for adults who have historically been isolated. Method: Functional assessments and supported employment procedures were used to assist four adults with severe disability who exhibited challenging behaviour, to achieve…

  9. Interword Spacing and Landing Position Effects during Chinese Reading in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zang, Chuanli; Liang, Feifei; Bai, Xuejun; Yan, Guoli; Liversedge, Simon P.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined children and adults' eye movement behavior when reading word spaced and unspaced Chinese text. The results showed that interword spacing reduced children and adults' first pass reading times and refixation probabilities indicating spaces between words facilitated word identification. Word spacing effects occurred to a…

  10. Sex Education in Adult Retail Stores: Positioning Consumers' Questions as Teachable Moments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbenick, Debby; Reece, Michael

    2007-01-01

    To assess the extent to which consumers of adult retail stores present "teachable moments" that could be used for sexuality education, data were analyzed from 273 employees of adult retail stores in 61 U.S. cities. Participants reported on the frequency with which they were asked questions related to disease prevention, pregnancy prevention, or…

  11. Facets of Spirituality Diminish the Positive Relationship between Insecure Attachment and Mood Pathology in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hiebler-Ragger, Michaela; Falthansl-Scheinecker, Johanna; Birnhuber, Gerhard; Fink, Andreas; Unterrainer, Human Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, in attachment theory, secure attachment has been linked to parameters of mental health, while insecure attachment has been associated with parameters of psychopathology. Furthermore, spirituality and attachment to God have been discussed as corresponding to, or compensating for, primary attachment experiences. Accordingly, they may contribute to mental health or to mental illness. In this cross-sectional observational study, we investigate attachment styles (Avoidant and Anxious Attachment; ECR-RD), spirituality (Religious and Existential Well-Being; MI-RSWB), and mood pathology (Anxiety, Depression, Somatization; BSI-18) in 481 (76% female) young adults (age range: 18–30 years) who had a Roman Catholic upbringing. In accordance with previous research, we found insecure attachment to be associated with low levels of spirituality. Furthermore, insecure attachment and low levels of spirituality were associated with higher levels of mood pathology. In hierarchical regression analyses, only Anxious Attachment positively predicted all three dimensions of mood pathology while Existential Well-Being–but not Religious Well-Being–was an additional negative predictor for Depression. Our results underline that spirituality can correspond to the attachment style, or may also compensate for insecure attachment. Higher Existential Well-Being–comprised of facets such as hope for a better future, forgiveness and the experience of sense and meaning–seems to have an especially corrective effect on mood pathology, independent of attachment styles. Our findings emphasize the vital role of existential well-being in young adults’ affective functioning, which might be considered in prevention and treatment. Further research in clinical surroundings is recommended. PMID:27336471

  12. Racism at the intersections: Gender and socioeconomic differences in the experience of racism among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Goodman, Melody S

    2015-09-01

    Several studies investigating the health effects of racism have reported gender and socioeconomic differences in exposures to racism, with women typically reporting lower frequencies, and individuals with greater resources reporting higher frequencies. This study used diverse measures of socioeconomic position and multiple measures and methods to assess experienced racism. Socioeconomic position included education and financial and employment status. Quantitative racism measures assessed individual experiences with day-to-day and with major lifetime incidents and perceptions of the extent to which African Americans as a group experience racism. A brief qualitative question asked respondents to describe a racist incident that stood out in recent memory. Participants comprised a probability sample of N = 144 African American adults aged 19 to 87 residing in New York City. Results suggested that women reported fewer lifetime incidents but did not differ from men on everyday racism. These differences appear to be partly because of scale content. Socioeconomic position as measured by years of education was positively associated with reported racism in the total sample but differently patterned across gender; subjective social status showed a negative association. Qualitative responses describing memorable incidents fell into 5 key categories: resources/opportunity structures, criminal profiling, racial aggression/assault, interpersonal incivilities, and stereotyping. In these narratives, men were more likely to offer accounts involving criminal profiling, and women encountered incivilities more often. The findings highlight the need for closer attention to the intersection of gender and socioeconomic factors in investigations of the health effects of racism. PMID:26460700

  13. Racism at the intersections: Gender and socioeconomic differences in the experience of racism among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Goodman, Melody S

    2015-09-01

    Several studies investigating the health effects of racism have reported gender and socioeconomic differences in exposures to racism, with women typically reporting lower frequencies, and individuals with greater resources reporting higher frequencies. This study used diverse measures of socioeconomic position and multiple measures and methods to assess experienced racism. Socioeconomic position included education and financial and employment status. Quantitative racism measures assessed individual experiences with day-to-day and with major lifetime incidents and perceptions of the extent to which African Americans as a group experience racism. A brief qualitative question asked respondents to describe a racist incident that stood out in recent memory. Participants comprised a probability sample of N = 144 African American adults aged 19 to 87 residing in New York City. Results suggested that women reported fewer lifetime incidents but did not differ from men on everyday racism. These differences appear to be partly because of scale content. Socioeconomic position as measured by years of education was positively associated with reported racism in the total sample but differently patterned across gender; subjective social status showed a negative association. Qualitative responses describing memorable incidents fell into 5 key categories: resources/opportunity structures, criminal profiling, racial aggression/assault, interpersonal incivilities, and stereotyping. In these narratives, men were more likely to offer accounts involving criminal profiling, and women encountered incivilities more often. The findings highlight the need for closer attention to the intersection of gender and socioeconomic factors in investigations of the health effects of racism.

  14. Associations of Socioeconomic Status and Processed Food Intake with Serum Phosphorus in Community-Living Adults: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M.; Katz, Ronit; Peralta, Carmen A.; de Boer, Ian H.; Siscovick, David; Wolf, Myles; Roux, Ana Diez; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Ix, Joachim H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Higher serum phosphorus concentrations are associated with cardiovascular disease events and mortality. Low socioeconomic status is linked with higher serum phosphorus, but the reasons are unclear. Poor individuals disproportionately consume inexpensive processed foods commonly enriched with phosphorus-based food preservatives. Accordingly, we hypothesized that excess intake of these foods accounts for a relationship between lower socioeconomic status and higher serum phosphorus. Design Cross-sectional analysis. Setting and Participants We examined a random cohort of 2,664 participants with available phosphorus measurements in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a community-based sample of individuals free of clinically apparent cardiovascular disease from across the United States. Predictor Variables Socioeconomic status, the intake of foods commonly enriched with phosphorus additives (processed meats, sodas) and frequency of fast food consumption. Outcomes Fasting morning serum phosphorus concentrations. Results In unadjusted analyses, lower income and lower educational achievement categories were associated with modestly higher serum phosphorus (by 0.02 to 0.10 mg/dL, P < 0.05 for all). These associations were attenuated in models adjusted for demographic and clinical factors, almost entirely due to adjustment for female gender. There were no statistically significant associations of processed meat intake or frequency of fast-food consumption with serum phosphorus in multivariable-adjusted analyses. In contrast, each serving per day higher soda intake was associated with 0.02 mg/dl lower serum phosphorus (95% confidence interval, −0.04, −0.01). Conclusions Greater intake of foods commonly enriched with phosphorus additives was not associated with higher serum phosphorus in a community-living sample with largely preserved kidney function. These results suggest that excess intake of processed and fast foods may not impact fasting serum

  15. Conditional Reduction of Adult Born Doublecortin-Positive Neurons Reversibly Impairs Selective Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, Lillian; Zhang, Jingzhong; Zimprich, Annemarie; Niedermeier, Kristina M.; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Vogt Weisenhorn, Daniela; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hölter, Sabine M.

    2015-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis occurs in the adult mammalian subventricular zone (SVZ) along the walls of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. While a burgeoning body of research implicates adult neurogenesis in olfactory bulb (OB)- and hippocampal-related behaviors, the precise function continues to elude. To further assess the behavioral importance of adult neurogenesis, we herein generated a novel inducible transgenic mouse model of adult neurogenesis reduction where mice with CreERT2 under doublecortin (DCX) promoter control were crossed with mice where diphtheria toxin A (DTA) was driven by the Rosa26 promoter. Activation of DTA, through the administration of tamoxifen (TAM), results in a specific reduction of DCX+ immature neurons in both the hippocampal dentate gyrus and OB. We show that the decrease of DCX+ cells causes impaired social discrimination ability in both young adult (from 3 months) and middle aged (from 10 months) mice. Furthermore, these animals showed an age-independent altered coping behavior in the Forced Swim Test without clear changes in anxiety-related behavior. Notably, these behavior changes were reversible on repopulating the neurogenic zones with DCX+ cells on cessation of the TAM treatment, demonstrating the specificity of this effect. Overall, these results support the notion that adult neurogenesis plays a role in social memory and in stress coping but not necessarily in anxiety-related behavior. PMID:26617501

  16. Socioeconomic inequalities in health after age 50: Are health risk behaviors to blame?

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Benjamin A.; McGeever, Kelly; Grubert, Elizabeth; Agahi, Neda; Fors, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that socioeconomic inequalities in health extend into the elderly population, even within the most highly developed welfare states. One potential explanation for socioeconomic inequalities in health focuses on the role of health behaviors, but little is known about the degree to which health behaviors account for health inequalities among older adults, in particular. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (N=19,245), this study examined the degree to which four behavioral risk factors – smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, and heavy drinking – are associated with socioeconomic position among adults aged 51 and older, and whether these behaviors mediate socioeconomic differences in mortality, and the onset of disability among those who were disability-free at baseline, over a 10-year period from 1998–2008. Results indicate that the odds of both smoking and physical inactivity are higher among persons with lower wealth, with similar stratification in obesity, but primarily among women. The odds of heavy drinking decrease at lower levels of wealth. Significant socioeconomic inequalities in mortality and disability onset are apparent among older men and women; however, the role that health behaviors play in accounting for these inequalities differs by age and gender. For example, these health behaviors account for between 23–45% of the mortality disparities among men and middle aged women, but only about 5% of the disparities found among women over 65 years. Meanwhile, these health behaviors appear to account for about 33% of the disparities in disability onset found among women survivors, and about 9–14% among men survivors. These findings suggest that within the U.S. elderly population, behavioral risks such as smoking and physical inactivity contribute moderately to maintaining socioeconomic inequalities in health. As such, promoting healthier lifestyles among the socioeconomically disadvantaged older adults should help

  17. Occupational therapy in adult day-care (position paper). American Occupational Therapy Association.

    PubMed

    1986-12-01

    Occupational therapy personnel assume central roles in adult day-care regardless of specific program emphasis. Occupational therapy focuses on health rather than illness, on what the individual can do in spite of disabilities. Several of the profession's objectives directly parallel those of adult day-care--to enable individuals to function as independently as possible despite their physical and mental limitations. To achieve this, a variety of intervention strategies are used, including remedial therapeutic activities, environmental modifications, adapted living techniques, and, when necessary, adaptation of the home environment. In this way, occupational therapy contributes significantly to the quality of life of adult day-care participants.

  18. American Geriatrics Society care of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender older adults position statement: American Geriatrics Society Ethics Committee.

    PubMed

    2015-03-01

    There is ample evidence that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals face discrimination in the healthcare setting. Providing high-quality health care for older LGBT adults will require active steps by organizations, institutions, advocacy groups, and health professionals that create an environment that is free from discrimination. This position statement that the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) Ethics Committee developed addresses the vision of the AGS for the care of LGBT older adults and specific steps that can be taken to ensure that they receive the care that they need.

  19. American Geriatrics Society care of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender older adults position statement: American Geriatrics Society Ethics Committee.

    PubMed

    2015-03-01

    There is ample evidence that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals face discrimination in the healthcare setting. Providing high-quality health care for older LGBT adults will require active steps by organizations, institutions, advocacy groups, and health professionals that create an environment that is free from discrimination. This position statement that the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) Ethics Committee developed addresses the vision of the AGS for the care of LGBT older adults and specific steps that can be taken to ensure that they receive the care that they need. PMID:25803784

  20. Children and Adults Both See "Pirates" in "Parties": Letter-Position Effects for Developing Readers and Skilled Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Kevin B.; Read, Josephine; McGowan, Victoria A.; Jordan, Timothy R.

    2015-01-01

    Developing readers often make anagrammatical errors (e.g. misreading pirates as parties), suggesting they use letter position flexibly during word recognition. However, while it is widely assumed that the occurrence of these errors decreases with increases in reading skill, empirical evidence to support this distinction is lacking. Accordingly, we…

  1. Psychosocial Predictors of Sexual HIV Transmission Risk Behavior among HIV-Positive Adults with a Sexual Abuse History in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Meade, Christina S.; Kochman, Arlene; Fox, Ashley M.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with HIV sexual risk behavior. Although many psychosocial correlates of sexual risk among HIV-positive persons have been identified, studies predicting continued risk among HIV-positive adults with histories of CSA are limited. This cross-sectional study identified variables predictive of sexual transmission risk behavior among an ethnically diverse sample of 256 HIV-positive adults (women and men who have sex with men; MSM) with CSA histories. Participants were assessed for trauma symptoms, shame related to HIV and sexual trauma, substance use, coping style, and sexual risk behavior. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify variables predictive of unprotected sexual behavior in the past 4 months. Unprotected sex was significantly associated with substance use and trauma-related behavioral difficulties among women and men, and less spiritual coping among men. Unprotected sex with HIV negative or serostatus unknown partners was significantly associated with greater trauma-related behavioral difficulties, more HIV-related shame, and fewer active coping strategies. Thus, trauma symptoms, shame, coping style, and substance use were significantly associated with sexual risk behavior among HIV-positive adults with histories of CSA, with models of prediction differing by gender and partner serostatus. HIV prevention intervention for persons with HIV and CSA histories should address trauma-related behavioral difficulties and enhance coping skills to reduce sexual transmission risk behavior. PMID:17999171

  2. Her4-positive population in the tectum opticum is proliferating neural precursors in the adult zebrafish brain.

    PubMed

    Jung, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Ryu, Jae-Ho; Gwak, Jung-Woo; Bae, Young-Ki; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Yeo, Sang-Yeob

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that Notch signaling not only regulates the number of early differentiating neurons, but also maintains proliferating neural precursors in the neural tube. Although it is well known that Notch signaling is closely related to the differentiation of adult neural stem cells, none of transgenic zebrafish provides a tool to figure out the relationship between Notch signaling and the differentiation of neural precursors. The goal of this study was to characterize Her4-positive cells by comparing the expression of a fluorescent Her4 reporter in Tg[her4-dRFP] animals with a GFAP reporter in Tg[gfap-GFP] adult zebrafish. BrdU incorporation indicated that dRFP-positive cells were proliferating and a double labeling assay revealed that a significant fraction of the Her4-dRFP positive population was also GFAP-GFP positive. Our observations suggest that a reporter line with Notch-dependent gene expression can provide a tool to examine proliferating neural precursors and/or neuronal/glial precursors in the development of the adult nervous system to examine the model in which Notch signaling maintains proliferating neural precursors in the neural tube.

  3. Conservation, Innovation, and Bias: Embryonic Segment Boundaries Position Posterior, but Not Anterior, Head Horns in Adult Beetles.

    PubMed

    Busey, Hannah A; Zattara, Eduardo E; Moczek, Armin P

    2016-07-01

    The integration of form and function of novel traits is a fundamental process during the developmental evolution of complex organisms, yet how novel traits and trait functions integrate into preexisting contexts remains poorly understood. Here, we explore the mechanisms by which the adult insect head has been able to integrate novel traits and features during its ontogeny, focusing on the cephalic horns of Onthophagus beetles. Specifically, using a microablation approach we investigate how different regions of the dorsal head of adult horned beetles relate to their larval and embryonic counterparts and test whether deeply conserved regional boundaries that establish the embryonic head might also facilitate or bias the positioning of cephalic horns along the dorsal adult head. We find that paired posterior horns-the most widespread horn type within the genus-are positioned along a border homologous to the embryonic clypeolabral (CL)-ocular boundary, and that this placement constitutes the ancestral form of horn positioning. In contrast, we observed that the phylogenetically much rarer anterior horns are positioned by larval head regions contained firmly within the CL segment and away from any major preexisting larval head landmarks or boundaries. Lastly, we describe the unexpected finding that ablations at medial head regions can result in ectopic outgrowths bearing terminal structures resembling the more anterior clypeal ridge. We discuss our results in the light of the developmental genetic mechanisms of head formation in holometabolous insects and the role of co-option in innovation and bias in developmental evolution.

  4. Tourette syndrome and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Aldred, Mark; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2015-09-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by multiple motor and vocal tics. Co-morbid behavioural problems are common and include obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder, depression and anxiety. Both tics and behavioural symptoms tend to have a chronic course and can affect patients' health-related quality of life; however, little is known about the relationship between TS, social status and occupation. We conducted an exploratory study on a clinical sample of 137 adult patients with TS to investigate the association between the core features of TS (both tic severity ratings and behavioural co-morbidities) and socioeconomic class. Both clinician- and patient-reported tic severity ratings were significantly higher amongst unemployed patients, compared to patients in the highest socioeconomic class (P = 0.004 and P < 0.001, respectively). There were no significant differences in socioeconomic class distribution between patients with TS and co-morbid behavioural problems ('TS plus', n = 88) and patients with uncomplicated TS ('pure TS', n = 49) (P = 0.205). Our findings suggest that higher tic severity can have far-reaching consequences on patients' life, as it appears to be selectively associated with unemployment and lower socioeconomic status. These observations prompt further research into the complex relationship between TS and social status.

  5. Differences in socioeconomic position, lifestyle and health-related pregnancy characteristics between Pakistani and White British women in the Born in Bradford prospective cohort study: the influence of the woman's, her partner's and their parents’ place of birth

    PubMed Central

    West, J; Lawlor, D A; Fairley, L; Wright, J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine differences between Pakistani and White British women in relation to socioeconomic position, lifestyle and health-related pregnancy characteristics, and to determine whether these differences vary depending on the woman's, her partner's and both of their parents’ place of birth. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Bradford, UK Participants 3656 Pakistani and 3503 White British women recruited to the Born in Bradford study. Main outcome measures Socioeconomic position (employment status; level of education; receipt of benefits; housing tenure), lifestyle characteristics (body mass index (BMI) at the start of pregnancy; smoking during pregnancy) and health-related pregnancy characteristics (hypertensive disorders of pregnancy; gestational diabetes; fasting glucose, postload glucose and fasting insulin at ∼27 weeks gestation). Results Fewer Pakistani women were employed (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.19), the difference being markedly less for UK born women. UK born Pakistani women were more likely, and South Asian born less likely, to be educated post 16 than White British women. Smoking was uncommon among Pakistani women, though the difference comparing UK born Pakistani women to White British women was less than for other groups. BMI was lower among Pakistani compared to White British women (adjusted mean difference −1.12, 95% CI −1.43 to −0.81), the difference being greatest when partners were UK born irrespective of the woman’s place of birth. Pakistani women had higher fasting and postload glucose (mean difference 0.20 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.24; 0.37, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.45), higher fasting insulin and were more likely to have gestational diabetes (GDM). Conclusions Our results suggest that some socioeconomic, lifestyle and pregnancy characteristics could be beginning to change in response to migration to the UK, with generally beneficial changes, that is, improving education and employment prospects, lower BMI and no

  6. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in HIV-positive patients on the island of Bioko, Equatorial Guinea: its relation to sanitary conditions and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Roka, Margarita; Goñi, Pilar; Rubio, Encarnación; Clavel, Antonio

    2012-08-15

    The prevalence of intestinal parasitic diseases and their associated factors has been investigated in HIV populations from the Island of Bioko, Equatorial Guinea. The feces of 310 participants from the island of Bioko (260 HIV-positive and 50 HIV-negative) were analyzed by microscopic observation. Immunochromatography was also used to diagnose Giardia, Entamoeba histolytica and Cryptosporidium spp. In addition, patients were asked for sociodemographic, economic and academic status, and CD4+ T cell counts were recorded. For HIV-positive patients, the prevalence of infection by intestinal parasites was 81.5% (212/260), 83.8% (218/260) by pathogenic helminths and 55.4% (168/260) by pathogenic protozoa (E. histolytica/dispar and Giardia duodenalis). Gender association was found between the infection by Ascaris and Schistosoma, a higher proportion being found in women; and between Entamoeba and the place of residence, a higher proportion being observed in the urban belt. Strongyloides stercoralis and Chilomastix mesnili appeared only in the people of this group, all the cases of Chilomastix being in females. For HIV-negative participants, the prevalence of infection by intestinal parasites was 74.0% (37/50), 90.0% (45/50) by pathogenic helminths and 66.0% (43/50) by pathogenic protozoa. Gender, educational level and low hygiene were associated with intestinal parasitic infection. When comparing the two groups (HIV-positive and HIV-negative), statistical association between HIV co-infection and infection by Giardia and Entamoeba was found. Diarrhea was also associated with intestinal parasitic infection in the HIV-positive group. Not only do our findings reflect high rates of intestinal parasitic infections in HIV-positive people, but also in the HIV-negative group, suggesting a closer relationship between sanitary status and living conditions than with immune status, and thus they highlight the need to carry out health education policies in the population. In addition

  7. A positive association between active lifestyle and hemispheric lateralization for motor control and learning in older adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinsung; D'Amato, Arthur; Bambrough, Jennifer; Swartz, Ann M; Miller, Nora E

    2016-11-01

    Physical activity (PA) is well known to have general health benefits for older adults, but it is unclear whether it can also positively affect brain function involved in motor control and learning. We have previously shown that interlimb transfer of visuomotor adaptation occurs asymmetrically in young adults, while that occurs symmetrically in older adults, which suggests that the lateralized function of each hemisphere during motor tasks is diminished with aging. Here, we investigated the association between the level of PA and hemispheric motor lateralization by comparing the pattern of interlimb transfer following visuomotor adaptation between physically active and inactive older adults. Subjects were divided into two groups based on their PA level (active, inactive). They were further divided into two groups, such that a half of the subjects in each group adapted to a 30° rotation during targeted reaching movements with the left arm first, then with the right arm; and the other half with the right arm first, then with the left arm. Results indicated asymmetrical transfer (from left to right only) in the active subjects, whereas symmetrical transfer (from left to right, and vice versa) was observed in the inactive subjects. These findings suggest that older adults who maintain active lifestyle have a central nervous system that is more intact in terms of its lateralized motor function as compared with those who are inactive. PMID:27481694

  8. Effects of hip abductor muscle fatigue on gait control and hip position sense in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Arvin, Mina; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Burger, Bart J; Rispens, Sietse M; Verschueren, Sabine M P; van Dieën, Jaap H; Pijnappels, Mirjam

    2015-10-01

    We experimentally investigated whether unilateral hip abductor muscle fatigue affected gait control and hip position sense in older adults. Hip abductor muscles were fatigued unilaterally in side-lying position in 17 healthy older adults (mean age 73.2 SD 7.7 years). Hip joint position sense was assessed by an active-active repositioning test while standing and was expressed as absolute and relative errors. Participants walked on a treadmill at their preferred walking speed, while 3D linear accelerations were collected by an inertial sensor at the lower back. Gait parameters, including step and stride time, local divergence exponents and harmonic ratio were quantified. In fatigued gait, stride time variability and step-to-step asymmetry in the frontal plane were significantly increased. Also a significantly slower mediolateral trunk movement in fatigued leg late stance toward the non-fatigued leg was observed. Despite these temporal and symmetry changes, gait stability in terms of the local divergence exponents was not affected by fatigue. Hip position sense was also affected by fatigue, as indicated by an increased relative error of 0.7° (SD 0.08) toward abduction. In conclusion, negative effects of fatigue on gait variability, step-to-step symmetry, mediolateral trunk velocity control and hip position sense indicate the importance of hip abductor muscles for gait control.

  9. Continuity and Discontinuity of Depressed Mood from Late Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Mediating and Stabilizing Roles of Young Adults' Socioeconomic Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Rand D.; Lorenz, Federick O.; Martin, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Using prospective, longitudinal data from 467 youth over a 13-year period (late adolescence and young adulthood), the present study investigates three research questions: (1) to what extent do elevations in depressed mood continue (homotypic continuity) from adolescence to young adulthood, (2) to what extent do young adults' socioeconomic…

  10. The Role of Adult Literacy & Numeracy in Lifelong Learning and Socio-Economic Well-Being: ALNARC National Research Program, June 2001-June 2002. Feature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Sue

    2002-01-01

    An Adult Literacy and Numeracy Australian Research Consortium (ALNARC) program comprised four projects designed to integrate new research with analysis of past practices and provision. Preliminary themes were the perception of a "policy void" in regard to literacy and numeracy skills; professional development's tie to workplace practice and…

  11. Can older adults resist the positivity effect in neural responding? The impact of verbal framing on event-related brain potentials elicited by emotional images.

    PubMed

    Rehmert, Andrea E; Kisley, Michael A

    2013-10-01

    Older adults have demonstrated an avoidance of negative information, presumably with a goal of greater emotional satisfaction. Understanding whether avoidance of negative information is a voluntary, motivated choice or an involuntary, automatic response will be important to differentiate, as decision making often involves emotional factors. With the use of an emotional framing event-related potential (ERP) paradigm, the present study investigated whether older adults could alter neural responses to negative stimuli through verbal reframing of evaluative response options. The late positive potential (LPP) response of 50 older adults and 50 younger adults was recorded while participants categorized emotional images in one of two framing conditions: positive ("more or less positive") or negative ("more or less negative"). It was hypothesized that older adults would be able to overcome a presumed tendency to down-regulate neural responding to negative stimuli in the negative framing condition, thus leading to larger LPP wave amplitudes to negative images. A similar effect was predicted for younger adults, but for positively valenced images, such that LPP responses would be increased in the positive framing condition compared with the negative framing condition. Overall, younger adults' LPP wave amplitudes were modulated by framing condition, including a reduction in the negativity bias in the positive frame. Older adults' neural responses were not significantly modulated, even though task-related behavior supported the notion that older adults were able to successfully adopt the negative framing condition.

  12. Developing Positive Young Adults: Lessons from Two Decades of YouthBuild Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Ronald F.; Snipes, Jason; Hossain, Farhana; Manno, Michelle S.

    2015-01-01

    Youth development is a cornerstone of the YouthBuild program, which provides job skills training, academic support, counseling, and leadership opportunities to low-income, out-of-school young adults. This report presents findings from two separate research efforts that shed light on the process of youth transformation and identity development in…

  13. The Positioning of Adult Learners: Appropriating Learner Experience on the Continuum of Empowerment to Emancipation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthman, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a critical analysis of discourses and power structures and the ways they operate in two instructors' adult education and ESOL classrooms. The instructors defined learner experience in specific ways and subsequently used those definitions and drew on their learners' experiences to define their curricula and pedagogy. They…

  14. A Model of Processes that Underpin Positive Relationships for Adults with Severe Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Hilary; Douglas, Jacinta; Bigby, Christine; Iacono, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Background: Relationships develop through social interaction and assist with participation and inclusion. Little is known about how relationships develop between people with severe intellectual disability who have limited communication and others. Method: Interactions were observed between 6 adults with severe intellectual disability and paid…

  15. From Loving Grandma to Working with Older Adults: Promoting Positive Attitudes towards Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goncalves, Daniela C.

    2009-01-01

    The steady increase of population aging requires not only more people working within the field of aging but also the creation of new services. However, current students from areas such as medicine, nursing, psychology, and social work frequently have low interest in working with older adults. The low interest relates to this task's lack of…

  16. Expectations for Communication with Positive and Negative Subtypes of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Jake; Williams, Angie

    1998-01-01

    Perceptions, expectations, and evaluations of intergenerational communication were examined. College students responded to an older adult target portrayed as "perfect grandparent" or "despondent." Their perceptions of conversation with that target were measured. Findings are considered in terms of theoretical models of intergenerational…

  17. Positive interactions between irrawaddy dolphins and artisanal fishers in the Chilika Lagoon of eastern India are driven by ecology, socioeconomics, and culture.

    PubMed

    D'Lima, Coralie; Marsh, Helene; Hamann, Mark; Sinha, Anindya; Arthur, Rohan

    2014-09-01

    In human-dominated landscapes, interactions and perceptions towards wildlife are influenced by multidimensional drivers. Understanding these drivers could prove useful for wildlife conservation. We surveyed the attitudes and perceptions of fishers towards threatened Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris) at Chilika Lagoon India. To validate the drivers of fisher perceptions, we : (1) observed dolphin foraging behavior at stake nets, and (2) compared catch per unit effort (CPUE) and catch income of fishers from stake nets in the presence and absence of foraging dolphins. We found that fishers were mostly positive towards dolphins, believing that dolphins augmented their fish catch and using culture to express their perceptions. Foraging dolphins were observed spending half their time at stake nets and were associated with significantly higher catch income and CPUE of mullet (Liza sp.), a locally preferred food fish species. Wildlife conservation efforts should use the multidimensional drivers of human-wildlife interactions to involve local stakeholders in management.

  18. Hip rotation range of motion in sitting and prone positions in healthy Japanese adults

    PubMed Central

    Han, Heonsoo; Kubo, Akira; Kurosawa, Kazuo; Maruichi, Shizuka; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to elucidate the difference in hip external and internal rotation ranges of motion (ROM) between the prone and sitting positions. [Subjects] The subjects included 151 students. [Methods] Hip rotational ROM was measured with the subjects in the prone and sitting positions. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze ipsilateral hip rotation ROM in the prone and sitting positions in males and females. The total ipsilateral hip rotation ROM was calculated by adding the measured values for external and internal rotations. [Results] Ipsilateral hip rotation ROM revealed significant differences between two positions for both left and right internal and external rotations. Hip rotation ROM was significantly higher in the prone position than in the sitting position. Hip rotation ROM significantly differed between the men and women. Hip external rotation ROM was significantly higher in both positions in men; conversely, hip internal rotation ROM was significantly higher in both positions in women. [Conclusion] Hip rotation ROM significantly differed between the sexes and between the sitting and prone positions. Total ipsilateral hip rotation ROM, total angle of external rotation, and total angle of internal rotation of the left and right hips greatly varied, suggesting that hip joint rotational ROM is widely distributed. PMID:25729186

  19. Socio-Economic Status and Reproduction among Adults Born with an Oral Cleft: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Sivertsen, Åse; Ariansen, Anja Maria Steinsland; Filip, Charles; Vindenes, Halvard A.; Feragen, Kristin B.; Moster, Dag; Lie, Rolv Terje; Haaland, Øystein A.

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been reported that people born with orofacial clefts do worse in life than their peers regarding a range of social markers, such as academic achievement and reproduction. We have compared otherwise healthy individuals with and without clefts, to investigate if these differences are due to the cleft or other background factors. Materials and Methods In a retrospective national cohort study, based on compulsory registers with data collected prospectively, we included everybody born in Norway between 1967 and 1992 (1490279 individuals, 2584 with clefts). This cohort was followed until the year 2010, when the youngest individuals were 18 years old. In order to ensure that the individuals were not affected by unknown syndromes or diseases, we excluded all individuals with any chronic medical condition, or who had other birth defects than clefts, hydroceles and dislocated hips. Individuals with oral clefts who were included in the study are said to have isolated clefts. Results Isolated cleft patients are similar to the general population regarding education, income and social class. Isolated cleft patients have lower fertility than the background population, but considering only married couples this difference in fertility disappeared. Conclusions An oral cleft did not appear to affect future socioeconomic status or chances of becoming a parent for children born in Norway. An exception was males with cleft lip and palate, but differences were small. PMID:27631472

  20. [Body mass index and its relationship to nutritional and socioeconomic variables: a linear regression approach to a Brazilian adult sub-population].

    PubMed

    Leite de Vasconcellos, M T; Portela, M C

    2001-01-01

    This paper focuses on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and family energy intake, occupational energy expenditure, per capita family expenditure, sex, age, and left arm circumference for a group of Brazilian adults randomly selected among those interviewed for a survey on food consumption and family budgets, called the National Family Expenditure Survey. The authors discuss linear regression methodological issues related to treatment of outliers and influential cases, multicollinearity, model specification, heteroscedasticity, as well as the use of two-level variables derived from samples with complex design. The results indicate that the model is not affected by outliers and that there are no significant specification errors. They also show a significant linear relationship between BMI and the variables listed above. Although the hypothesis tests indicate significant heteroscedasticity, its corrections did not significantly change the model's parameters, probably due to the sample size (14,000 adults), making hypothesis tests more rigorous than desired. PMID:11784903

  1. Self-control in adult humans: variation in positive reinforcer amount and delay.

    PubMed Central

    Logue, A W; Peña-Correal, T E; Rodriguez, M L; Kabela, E

    1986-01-01

    In five experiments, choice responding of female human adults was examined, as a function of variations in reinforcer amount and reinforcer delay. Experiment 1 used a discrete-trials procedure, and Experiments 2, 3, 4, and 5 used a concurrent variable-interval variable-interval schedule. Reinforcer amount and reinforcer delay were varied both separately and together. In contrast to results previously reported with pigeons, the subjects in the present experiments usually chose the larger reinforcers even when those reinforcers were delayed. Together, the results from all the experiments suggest that the subjects followed a maximization strategy in choosing reinforcers. Such behavior makes it easy to observe self-control and difficult to observe impulsiveness in traditional laboratory experiments that use adult human subjects. PMID:3760749

  2. Spontaneous myogenic differentiation of Flk-1-positive cells from adult pancreas and other nonmuscle tissues.

    PubMed

    Di Rocco, Giuliana; Tritarelli, Alessandra; Toietta, Gabriele; Gatto, Ilaria; Iachininoto, Maria Grazia; Pagani, Francesca; Mangoni, Antonella; Straino, Stefania; Capogrossi, Maurizio C

    2008-02-01

    At the embryonic or fetal stages, autonomously myogenic cells (AMCs), i.e., cells able to spontaneously differentiate into skeletal myotubes, have been identified from several different sites other than skeletal muscle, including the vascular compartment. However, in the adult animal, AMCs from skeletal muscle-devoid tissues have been described in only two cases. One is represented by thymic myoid cells, a restricted population of committed myogenic progenitors of unknown derivation present in the thymic medulla; the other is represented by a small subset of adipose tissue-associated cells, which we recently identified. In the present study we report, for the first time, the presence of spontaneously differentiating myogenic precursors in the pancreas and in other skeletal muscle-devoid organs such as spleen and stomach, as well as in the periaortic tissue of adult mice. Immunomagnetic selection procedures indicate that AMCs derive from Flk-1(+) progenitors. Individual clones of myogenic cells from nonmuscle organs are morphologically and functionally indistinguishable from skeletal muscle-derived primary myoblasts. Moreover, they can be induced to proliferate in vitro and are able to participate in muscle regeneration in vivo. Thus, we provide evidence that fully competent myogenic progenitors can be derived from the Flk-1(+) compartment of several adult tissues that are embryologically unrelated to skeletal muscle. PMID:18094147

  3. Integration of CD45-positive leukocytes into newly forming lymphatics of adult mice.

    PubMed

    Buttler, K; Lohrberg, M; Gross, G; Weich, H A; Wilting, J

    2016-06-01

    The embryonic origin of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) has been a matter of controversy since more than a century. However, recent studies in mice have supported the concept that embryonic lymphangiogenesis is a complex process consisting of growth of lymphatics from specific venous segments as well as the integration of lymphangioblasts into the lymphatic networks. Similarly, the mechanisms of adult lymphangiogenesis are poorly understood and have rarely been studied. We have recently shown that endothelial progenitor cells isolated from the lung of adult mice have the capacity to form both blood vessels and lymphatics when grafted with Matrigel plugs into the skin of syngeneic mice. Here, we followed up on these experiments and studied the behavior of host leukocytes during lymphangiogenesis in the Matrigel plugs. We observed a striking co-localization of CD45(+) leukocytes with the developing lymphatics. Numerous CD45(+) cells expressed the LEC marker podoplanin and were obviously integrated into the lining of lymphatic capillaries. This indicates that, similar to inflammation-induced lymphangiogenesis in man, circulating CD45(+) cells of adult mice are capable of initiating lymphangiogenesis and of adopting a lymphvasculogenic cellular differentiation program. The data are discussed in the context of embryonic and inflammation-induced lymphangiogenesis. PMID:26748643

  4. Memory for positive, negative and neutral events in younger and older adults: Does emotion influence binding in event memory?

    PubMed

    Earles, Julie L; Kersten, Alan W; Vernon, Laura L; Starkings, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    When remembering an event, it is important to remember both the features of the event (e.g., a person and an action) and the connections among features (e.g., who performed which action). Emotion often enhances memory for stimulus features, but the relationship between emotion and the binding of features in memory is unclear. Younger and older adults attempted to remember events in which a person performed a negative, positive or neutral action. Memory for the action was enhanced by emotion, but emotion did not enhance the ability of participants to remember which person performed which action. Older adults were more likely than younger adults to make binding errors in which they incorrectly remembered a familiar actor performing a familiar action that had actually been performed by someone else, and this age-related associative deficit was found for both neutral and emotional actions. Emotion not only increased correct recognition of old events for older and younger adults but also increased false recognition of events in which a familiar actor performed a familiar action that had been performed by someone else. Thus, although emotion may enhance memory for the features of an event, it does not increase the accuracy of remembering who performed which action.

  5. Understanding Social Positioning in the Context of Learning and Participation Experienced by Adult Transitional Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, E. Beverly

    2010-01-01

    There are two dimensions of positioning: self-identity (reflexive) and, events and interaction between people (discursive). Positioning may become socially restrictive when disruptive discursive episodes have a negative impact on individual self-identity. An interpretive biographical study of 11 participants in a transitional residency (temporary…

  6. Nestin- and doublecortin-positive cells reside in adult spinal cord meninges and participate in injury-induced parenchymal reaction.

    PubMed

    Decimo, Ilaria; Bifari, Francesco; Rodriguez, Francisco Javier; Malpeli, Giorgio; Dolci, Sissi; Lavarini, Valentina; Pretto, Silvia; Vasquez, Sandra; Sciancalepore, Marina; Montalbano, Alberto; Berton, Valeria; Krampera, Mauro; Fumagalli, Guido

    2011-12-01

    Adult spinal cord has little regenerative potential, thus limiting patient recovery following injury. In this study, we describe a new population of cells resident in the adult rat spinal cord meninges that express the neural stem/precursor markers nestin and doublecortin. Furthermore, from dissociated meningeal tissue a neural stem cell population was cultured in vitro and subsequently shown to differentiate into functional neurons or mature oligodendrocytes. Proliferation rate and number of nestin- and doublecortin-positive cells increased in vivo in meninges following spinal cord injury. By using a lentivirus-labeling approach, we show that meningeal cells, including nestin- and doublecortin-positive cells, migrate in the spinal cord parenchyma and contribute to the glial scar formation. Our data emphasize the multiple roles of meninges in the reaction of the parenchyma to trauma and indicate for the first time that spinal cord meninges are potential niches harboring stem/precursor cells that can be activated by injury. Meninges may be considered as a new source of adult stem/precursor cells to be further tested for use in regenerative medicine applied to neurological disorders, including repair from spinal cord injury.

  7. Relationship of DAT1 and adult ADHD to task-positive and task-negative working memory networks

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ariel Beth; Biederman, Joseph; Valera, Eve; Makris, Nikos; Doyle, Alysa; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Mick, Eric; Spencer, Thomas; Faraone, Stephen; Seidman, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Alterations in working memory, default-mode network (DMN), and dopamine transporter have all been proposed as endophenotypes for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity/Disorder (ADHD). Despite evidence that these systems are interrelated, their relationship to each other has never been studied in the context of ADHD. In order to understand the potential mediating effects of task-positive and task-negative networks between DAT1 and diagnosis, we tested effects of genotype and diagnosis on regions of positive and negative BOLD signal change (as measured with fMRI) in 53 adults with ADHD and 38 control subjects during a working memory task. We also examined the relationship of these responses to ADHD symptoms. Our results yielded four principal findings: 1) association of 9R with adult ADHD, 2) marginal DAT1 association with task-related suppression in left medial PFC, 3) marginal genotype × diagnosis interaction in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and 4) correlation of DMN suppression to ADHD symptoms. These findings replicate the association of the 9R allele with adult ADHD. Further, we show that DMN suppression is likely linked to DAT1 and to severity of inattention in ADHD. DMN may therefore be a target of DAT1 effects, and lie on the path between the gene and inattention in ADHD. PMID:21596533

  8. Apolipoprotein E ϵ4 is positively related to spatial performance but unrelated to hippocampal volume in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Stening, Eva; Persson, Jonas; Eriksson, Elias; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Zetterberg, Henrik; Söderlund, Hedvig

    2016-02-15

    The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ϵ4 allele is known to be a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been linked to especially episodic memory decline and hippocampal atrophy in both healthy and demented elderly populations. In young adults, ϵ4 carriers have shown better performance in episodic memory compared to non-carriers. Spatial memory, however, has not been thoroughly assessed in relation to APOE in spite of its dependence on the hippocampus. In this study, we assessed the effect of APOE genotype on a variety of spatial and episodic memory tasks as well as hippocampal volume assessed through manual tracing in a sample of young adults (N=123). We also assessed whether potential effects were modulated by sex. The presence of one or more ϵ4 alleles had positive effects on spatial function and memory and object location memory, but no effect on word recognition. Men were superior to women in spatial function and memory but there were no sex differences in the other tasks. In spite of APOE ϵ4 carriers having superior performance in several memory tasks, no difference was found as a function of APOE genotype in hippocampal volume. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show that APOE ϵ4 has a positive effect on spatial ability in young adults.

  9. Patterns of Substance Use among HIV-Positive Adults Over 50: Implications for Treatment and Medication Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Starks, Tyrel J.; Millar, Brett M.; Boonrai, Kailip; Marcotte, David

    2014-01-01

    Background The population of older adults living with HIV is increasing in the United States. Despite an increased focus on the health of HIV-positive older adults, knowledge about their substance use, a primary risk factor for HIV medication non-adherence, and the association between use, problems associated with use, and adherence behavior, is limited. Methods Data were collected from 557 HIV-positive adults aged 50 and older in the New York City area via telephone interview. Participants reported the number of days in the past month on which they missed any doses of HIV medication as well as the number of days they used alcohol, marijuana, cocaine/crack, opiates, amyl nitrite (poppers), and other drugs. The severity of substance use associated problems was assessed using the DAST-10 and AUDIT-C. Results The sample included gay/bisexual (40.4%) and heterosexual (28.1%) men as well as lesbian/bisexual (4.9%) and heterosexual (26.7%) women. Latent class analyses identified four distinct patterns of substance use: Exclusive Alcohol Use; Alcohol and Marijuana; Alcohol and Cocaine/Crack; and Multiple-Substance Use. Variability in the number of missed HIV medication days and perceptions of substance use associated problems were observed across classes, with poorest adherence reported in the Alcohol and Cocaine/Crack class, followed by the Multiple-Substance Use class. These two classes also reported the greatest perceived impairment from substance use. Conclusions Patterns of recent substance use were associated with varying levels of HIV medication adherence and perceived substance use impairment, indicating that substance type matters when considering the health of older adults living with HIV, and that multiple-substance use needs to be addressed by interventions aimed at improving medication adherence. PMID:24745475

  10. Music training and empathy positively impact adults' sensitivity to infant distress.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Christine E; Young, Katherine S; Jegindø, Else-Marie E; Vuust, Peter; Stein, Alan; Kringelbach, Morten L

    2014-01-01

    Crying is the most powerful auditory signal of infant need. Adults' ability to perceive and respond to crying is important for infant survival and in the provision of care. This study investigated a number of listener variables that might impact on adults' perception of infant cry distress, namely parental status, musical training, and empathy. Sensitivity to infant distress was tested using a previously validated task, which experimentally manipulated distress by varying the pitch of infant cries. This task required that participants discriminate between pitch differences and interpret these as differences in infant distress. Parents with musical training showed a significant advantage on this task when compared with parents without. The extent of the advantage was correlated with the amount of self-reported musical training. For non-parents, individual differences in empathy were associated with task performance, with higher empathy scores corresponding to greater sensitivity to infant distress. We suggest that sensitivity to infant distress can be impacted by a number of listener variables, and may be amenable to training. PMID:25566122

  11. Prolonged perceptual learning of positional acuity in adult amblyopia: perceptual template retuning dynamics.

    PubMed

    Li, Roger W; Klein, Stanley A; Levi, Dennis M

    2008-12-24

    Amblyopia is a developmental abnormality that results in physiological alterations in the visual cortex and impairs form vision. It is often successfully treated by patching the sound eye in infants and young children, but is generally considered to be untreatable in adults. However, a number of recent studies suggest that repetitive practice of a visual task using the amblyopic eye results in improved performance in both children and adults with amblyopia. These perceptual learning studies have used relatively brief periods of practice; however, clinical studies have shown that the time-constant for successful patching is long. The time-constant for perceptual learning in amblyopia is still unknown. Here we show that the time-constant for perceptual learning depends on the degree of amblyopia. Severe amblyopia requires >50 h (approximately equal to 35,000 trials) to reach plateau, yielding as much as a five-fold improvement in performance at a rate of approximately equal to 1.5%/h. There is significant transfer of learning from the amblyopic to the dominant eye, suggesting that the learning reflects alterations in higher decision stages of processing. Using a reverse correlation technique, we document, for the first time, a dynamic retuning of the amblyopic perceptual decision template and a substantial reduction in internal spatial distortion. These results show that the mature amblyopic brain is surprisingly malleable, and point to more intensive treatment methods for amblyopia.

  12. Utilization of medical treatments and adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive adults with histories of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Meade, Christina S; Hansen, Nathan B; Kochman, Arlene; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2009-04-01

    HIV is a chronic, life-threatening illness that necessitates regular and consistent medical care. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a common experience among HIV-positive adults and may interfere with treatment utilization. This study examined rates and correlates of treatment utilization among HIV-positive adults with CSA enrolled in a coping intervention trial in New York City. The baseline assessment included measures of treatment utilization, mental health, substance abuse, and other psychosocial factors. In 2002-2004, participants (50% female, 69% African-American, M = 42.3 +/- 6.8 years old) were recruited. Nearly all (99%) received HIV medical care. However, 20% had no outpatient visits and 24% sought emergency services in the past 4 months. Among 184 participants receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), 22% were less than 90% adherent in the past week. In a multivariable logistic regression model, no outpatient treatment was associated with African American race (AOR = 3.46 [1.42-8.40]), poor social support (AOR = 1.59 [1.03-2.45]), and abstinence from illicit drug use (AOR = 0.37 [0.16-0.85]). Emergency service utilization was associated with HIV symptoms (AOR = 2.30 [1.22-4.35]), binge drinking (AOR=2.92 (1.18-7.24)), and illicit drug use (AOR = 1.98 [1.02-3.85]). Poor medication adherence was associated with trauma symptoms (AOR = 2.64 [1.07-6.75]) and poor social support (AOR = 1.82 [1.09-2.97]). In sum, while participants had access to HIV medical care, a sizable minority did not adhere to recommended guidelines and thus may not be benefiting optimally from treatment. Interventions targeting HIV-positive adults with CSA histories may need to address trauma symptoms, substance abuse, and poor social support that interfere with medical treatment utilization and adherence.

  13. The aftermath of public housing relocations: relationships between changes in local socioeconomic conditions and depressive symptoms in a cohort of adult relocaters.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Hannah L F; Hunter-Jones, Josalin; Kelley, Mary E; Karnes, Conny; Haley, Danielle F; Ross, Zev; Rothenberg, Richard; Bonney, Loida E

    2014-04-01

    USA is experiencing a paradigm shift in public housing policy: while policies used to place people who qualified for housing assistance into spatially concentrated housing complexes, they now seek to geographically disperse them, often to voucher-subsidized rental units in the private market. Programs that relocate residents from public housing complexes tend to move them to neighborhoods that are less impoverished and less violent. To date, studies have reached conflicting findings about the relationship between public housing relocations and depression among adult relocaters. The present longitudinal multilevel analysis tests the hypothesis that pre-/postrelocation improvements in local economic conditions, social disorder, and perceived community violence are associated with declines in depressive symptoms in a cohort of African-American adults; active substance misusers were oversampled. We tested this hypothesis in a cohort of 172 adults who were living in one of seven public housing complexes scheduled for relocation and demolition in Atlanta, GA; by design, 20% were dependent on substances and 50% misused substances but were not dependent. Baseline data captured prerelocation characteristics of participants; of the seven census tracts where they lived, three waves of postrelocation data were gathered approximately every 9 months thereafter. Surveys were administered at each wave to assess depressive symptoms measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), perceived community violence, and other individual-level covariates. Participants' home addresses were geocoded to census tracts at each wave, and administrative data sources were used to characterize tract-level economic disadvantage and social disorder. Hypotheses were tested using multilevel models. Between waves 1 and 2, participants experienced significant improvements in reported depressive symptoms and perceived community violence and in tract-level economic disadvantage

  14. Strength and stress: Positive and negative impacts on caregivers for older adults in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Laura; Thapsuwan, Sasinee; Thongcharoenchupong, Natjera

    2016-01-01

    Aim To understand the experiences of caregivers with older people living in Thailand, particularly as related to quality of life and stress management. Method In‐depth interviews with 17 family caregivers were conducted and then data were thematically analysed. Results Carers experience not only negative impacts but also positive impacts from caregiving. Negative impacts include emotional stress, financial struggles and worry due to lack of knowledge. Positive impacts include affection from care recipients, good relationships with caregivers before needing care themselves and encouragement from the wider community. Opportunities to show gratitude, build karma (from good deeds) and ideas shaped largely by Buddhist teachings result in positive experiences. Negotiating between the extremes of bliss and suffering and understanding suffering as a part of life may help carers manage their stress. Conclusions Temples and centres for older people could be engaged to develop caregiving programs. PMID:26969906

  15. Inflammatory Markers and Immune Response to Pneumococcal Vaccination in HIV-Positive and -Negative Adults

    PubMed Central

    Leggat, David J.; Ohtola, Jennifer A.; Saul-McBeth, Jessica L.; Khuder, Sadik A.; Westerink, M. A. Julie

    2016-01-01

    Background Members of the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-superfamily have speculated roles in the response against T-independent type II antigens (TI-II) including pneumococcal polysaccharides (PPS). Dysregulation in their expression is associated with an enhanced risk for pneumococcal disease in neonates but their expression in other high-risk populations including HIV-positive individuals remains to be elucidated. Objective To investigate signals that contribute towards PPS-response and identify potential anomalies that may account for diminished serological response in HIV-positive individuals post Pneumovax (PPV23) immunization. Methods Markers of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, sCD27 and sCD30, were assessed in HIV-positive and -negative individuals as potential predictors of PPV23 response. Serum levels of B cell activating factor (BAFF), transmembrane activator and calcium-modulator and cytophilin ligand interactor (TACI), B cell maturation antigen (BCMA) and B cell expression of BAFF-R, TACI, BCMA, CD40 and CD21 were assessed in total (unselected) and PPS23F (antigen)-specific B cells of PPV23 immunized HIV-positive and -negative individuals. Results CRP, sCD27, sCD30 and BAFF were significantly elevated in the serum of HIV-positive individuals but did not adversely affect PPV23 response. Assessment of PPS-specific B cells revealed enhanced TACI and reduced BAFF-R expression compared to unselected B cells in HIV-positive and -negative individuals. Surface TACI was similar but soluble TACI was significantly lower in HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative individuals. Conclusion Current studies highlight a potential role for TACI in PPV23 response based on its enhanced expression on PPS-specific B cells. Although surface levels of TACI were similar, diminished soluble TACI (sTACI) in HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative individuals could potentially decrease BAFF responsiveness and Ig response. A better understanding of the role of TNF receptors

  16. Does head posture have a significant effect on the hyoid bone position and sternocleidomastoid electromyographic activity in young adults?

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Saúl; Miralles, Rodolfo; Ravera, María José; Zúñiga, Claudia; Santander, Hugo; Ferrer, Marcelo; Nakouzi, Jorge

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between head posture (head extension, normal head posture, and head flexion) and anteroposterior head position, hyoid bone position, and the sternocleidomastoid integrated electromyographic (IEMG) activity in a sample of young adults. The study included 50 individuals with natural dentition and bilateral molar support. A lateral craniocervical radiograph was taken for each subject and a cephalometric analysis was performed. Head posture was measured by means of the craniovertebral angle formed by the MacGregor plane and the odontoid plane. According to the value of this angle, the sample was divided into the following three groups: head extension (less than 95 degrees); normal head posture (between 95 degrees and 106 degrees); and head flexion (more than 106 degrees). The following cephalometric measurements were taken to compare the three groups: anteroposterior head position (true vertical plane/pterygoid distance), anteroposterior hyoid bone position (true vertical plane-Ha distance), vertical hyoid bone position (H-H' distance in the hyoid triangle), and CO-C2 distance. In the three groups, IEMG recordings at rest and during swallowing of saliva and maximal voluntary clenching were performed by placing bipolar surface electrodes on the right and left sternocleidomastoid muscles. In addition, the condition with/without craniomandibular dysfunction (CMD) in each group was also assessed. Head posture showed no significant association with anteroposterior head position, anteroposterior hyoid bone position, vertical hyoid bone position, or sternocleidomastoid IEMG activity. There was no association to head posture with/without the condition of CMD. Clinical relevance of the results is discussed.

  17. Stereotypic behavior of mentally retarded adults adjunctive to a positive reinforcement schedule.

    PubMed

    Wieseler, N A; Hanson, R H; Chamberlain, T P; Thompson, T

    1988-01-01

    Stereotypic behavior is one of the more common disturbed behaviors displayed by people who are developmentally disabled. This study evaluated the indirect effects on stereotypic frequency when the value of a concurrent fixed-interval reinforcement schedule for adaptive behavior was varied. Three profoundly mentally retarded adults performed a simple adaptive task reinforced under a fixed-interval schedule. The reinforcement schedule value was varied from fixed-interval 15 to 90, and 180 seconds after schedule control under each condition was demonstrated. The dependent measure was the frequency of stereotypic behavior. Stereotypic behavior increased in direct relation to the interval length. The theoretical and practical implications of treating stereotypies as an adjunctive behavior partially controlled by the reinforcement frequency for adaptive behaviors are discussed.

  18. Anthropometric Analysis of Palpebral Fissure Dimensions and its Position in South Indian Ethnic Adults

    PubMed Central

    Vasanthakumar, P.; Kumar, Pramod; Rao, Mohandas

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The morphology and anatomical relationship of periorbital features vary according to age, sex and ethnicity. Standard database regarding periorbital region is available for other ethnic groups. Since there is no data available in the literature, specifically for south Indian ethnic adults, the present study was carried out to determine the normal average values for South Indian ethnic population related to gender. Methods Anthropometric measurements of both eyes were done on standardized frontal view photograph of 200 South Indian ethnic adults aged 18 to 26 years. Parameters included were palpebral fissure width (PFW), palpebral fissure height (PFH), palpebral fissure inclination (PFI), outercanthal distance (OCD), interpupillary distance (IPD), intercanthal distance (ICD) and comparisons were made between the genders using the independent t test. Results Significant sexual dimorphism was noted in the given parameters. Palpebral fissure width (male: 31.08 mm; female: 29.90 mm), palpebral fissure inclination (male: 5.053°; female: 6.102°), outercanthal distance (male: 95.55 mm; female: 92.44 mm) and interpupillary distance (male: 66.72 mm; female: 62.59 mm). The palpebral fissure height (male: 11.30 mm; female: 11.58 mm) and intercanthal distance (male: 34.27 mm; female: 33.41 mm) showed no significant sexual differences. Conclusion Statistically significant differences were found between South Indian ethnic males and female in certain key parameters. The present study suggests that ethnicity and gender should be considered in orbital surgery. To individualize the treatment planning and diagnosis, it is important for the surgeons to have knowledge of these local norms. PMID:23386941

  19. Liberation Literature: Positive Cultural Messages in Children's and Young Adult Literature at Freedom Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Tambra O.; Boutte, Gloria S.

    2009-01-01

    In U.S. schools, African American students are typically fed steady diets of stereotypical and culturally invasive literature and often do not see themselves positively and consistently represented in books. The crisis is fueled, in part, by teachers who (for various reasons) do not include and draw upon counter-narratives in their classrooms.…

  20. Modifying Adult Interactional Style as Positive Behavioural Intervention for a Child with Rett Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Ian M.; Meyer, Luanna H.

    1999-01-01

    A naturalistic behavioral assessment and intervention program over a 3-year period for a New Zealand girl (age 5) with Rett syndrome is described. The most significant reduction in hand mannerisms and other excess behaviors was related to positive social interactions and play that allowed for communication at the affective level. (Author/CR)

  1. Positive Body Image and Sexual Functioning in Dutch Female University Students: The Role of Adult Romantic Attachment.

    PubMed

    van den Brink, Femke; Smeets, Monique A M; Hessen, David J; Woertman, Liesbeth

    2016-07-01

    This study focused on links between romantic attachment, positive body image, and sexual functioning. Dutch female university students (N = 399) completed an online survey that included self-report items about body appreciation, sexual functioning, and romantic attachment. A proposed conceptual model was tested using structural equation modeling and a good fit to the data was found. Results revealed that attachment avoidance in a romantic context was negatively related to sexual arousal, vaginal lubrication, the ability to reach orgasm, and sexual satisfaction. Attachment anxiety was negatively related to body appreciation which, in turn, was positively related to sexual desire and arousal. Findings indicated that romantic attachment is meaningfully linked to body appreciation and sexual functioning. Therefore, the concept of adult attachment may be a useful tool for the treatment of sexual problems of young women.

  2. Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms Predict Sustained Quality of Life Deficits in HIV-Positive Ugandan Adults Despite Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ezeamama, Amara E; Woolfork, Makhabele N; Guwatudde, David; Bagenda, Danstan; Manabe, Yukari C; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Smith Fawzi, Mary C

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The impact of psychosocial status at onset of antiretroviral therapy on changes in quality of life (QOL) and subjectively rated health (SRH) among adults on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in resource-limited settings is poorly understood. Therefore, we evaluate the association between stigma, anxiety, depression, and social support and change in QOL and SRH in HIV-infected Ugandan adults during an 18-month period. Psychosocial indicators were assessed at enrollment using structured questionnaires. QOL and SRH measures were assessed at months 0, 6, 12, and 18 using the Medical Outcomes Survey-HIV. Linear mixed models determined risk estimated differences in QOL and SRH in relation to quartiles of each psychosocial status indicator. Repeated measures generalized estimating equations modeling was implemented to assess differences in likelihood of improved versus nonimproved SRH during follow-up. QOL scores and SRH improved significantly for all participants over 18 months (P < 0.0001). The gain in QOL increased dose-dependently as baseline depressive symptoms (time∗depression P < 0.001) and anxiety levels (time∗anxiety P < 0.001) declined. Lower social support was associated with worse QOL at baseline (P = 0.0005) but QOL improvement during follow-up was not dependent on baseline level of social support (time∗social support P = 0.8943) or number of stigmatizing experiences (time∗stigma P = 0.8662). Psychosocial determinants did not predict changes in SRH in this study. High levels of depression and anxiety symptoms at HAART initiation predicts lower gains in QOL for HIV-positive patients for as long as 18 months. Long-term QOL improvements in HIV-infected adults may be enhanced by implementation of psychosocial interventions to reduce depression and anxiety in HIV-infected adults. PMID:26945347

  3. Position article for the use of extracorporeal life support in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Andreas; Benk, Christoph; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Haimerl, Gerd; Merkle, Frank; Mestres, Carlos; Pepper, John; Wahba, Alexander

    2011-09-01

    Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is one of the recent fields in cardiac surgery which has improved significantly the quality of patient care in acute or chronic end-stage heart disease. The safe use of this new technology requires many different prerequisites which are summarized in this position article. It includes the necessary personnel and their qualifications, the structural assumptions, the required equipment, and the parameters which have to be monitored for the safe usage of these devices. In addition, indications and contraindications for ECLS, the management and control of a wide range of parameters related to the extracorporeal circulation, as well as the necessary equipment are described. Quality assurance and education are also described in this position article.

  4. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Interventions for the Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults.

    PubMed

    Raynor, Hollie A; Champagne, Catherine M

    2016-01-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that successful treatment of overweight and obesity in adults requires adoption and maintenance of lifestyle behaviors contributing to both dietary intake and physical activity. These behaviors are influenced by many factors; therefore, interventions incorporating more than one level of the socioecological model and addressing several key factors in each level may be more successful than interventions targeting any one level and factor alone. Registered dietitian nutritionists, as part of a multidisciplinary team, need to be current and skilled in weight management to effectively assist and lead efforts that can reduce the obesity epidemic. Using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' Evidence Analysis Process and Evidence Analysis Library, this position paper presents the current data and recommendations for the treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. Evidence on intrapersonal influences, such as dietary approaches, lifestyle intervention, pharmacotherapy, and surgery, is provided. Factors related to treatment, such as intensity of treatment and technology, are reviewed. Community-level interventions that strengthen existing community assets and capacity and public policy to create environments that support healthy energy balance behaviors are also discussed. PMID:26718656

  5. Unseen positive and negative affective information influences social perception in bipolar I disorder and healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Gruber, June; Siegel, Erika H; Purcell, Amanda L; Earls, Holly A; Cooper, Gaia; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2016-03-01

    Bipolar disorder is fundamentally a disorder of emotion regulation, and associated with explicit processing biases for socially relevant emotional information in human faces. Less is known, however, about whether implicit processing of this type of emotional information directly influences social perception. We thus investigated group-related differences in the influence of unconscious emotional processing on conscious person perception judgments using a continuous flash suppression task among 22 individuals with remitted bipolar I disorder (BD; AgeM=30.82, AgeSD=7.04; 68.2% female) compared with 22 healthy adults (CTL; AgeM=20.86, AgeSD=9.91; 72.2% female). Across both groups, participants rated neutral faces as more trustworthy, warm, and competent when paired with unseen happy faces as compared to unseen angry and neutral faces; participants rated neutral faces as less trustworthy, warm, and competent when paired with unseen angry as compared to neutral faces. These findings suggest that emotion-related disturbances are not explained by early automatic processing stages, and that activity in the dorsal visual stream underlying implicit emotion processing is intact in bipolar disorder. Implications for understanding the etiology of emotion disturbance in BD are discussed. PMID:26745436

  6. Unseen positive and negative affective information influences social perception in bipolar I disorder and healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Erika H.; Purcell, Amanda L.; Earls, Holly A.; Cooper, Gaia; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is fundamentally a disorder of emotion regulation, and associated with explicit processing biases for socially relevant emotional information in human faces. Less is known, however, about whether implicit processing of this type of emotional information directly influences social perception. We thus investigated group-related differences in the influence of unconscious emotional processing on conscious person perception judgments using a continuous flash suppression task among 22 individuals with remitted bipolar I disorder (BD; AgeM=30.82, AgeSD=7.04; 68.2% female) compared with 22 healthy adults (CTL; AgeM=20.86, AgeSD=9.91; 72.2% female). Across both groups, participants rated neutral faces as more trustworthy, warm, and competent when paired with unseen happy faces as compared to unseen angry and neutral faces; participants rated neutral faces as less trustworthy, warm, and competent when paired with unseen angry as compared to neutral faces. These findings suggest that emotion-related disturbances are not explained by early automatic processing stages, and that activity in the dorsal visual stream underlying implicit emotion processing is intact in bipolar disorder. Implications for understanding the etiology of emotion disturbance in BD are discussed. PMID:26745436

  7. Effect of number and position of siblings on child and adult outcomes.

    PubMed

    Taubman, P; Behrman, J R

    1986-01-01

    This paper develops a theoretical model of the effects of family size and birth order on educational attainment and earnings. The parental utility maximization model allows the development of closed-form expressions for the within-family ratios of schooling and earnings. A reduced form demand function for each child's schooling and earnings also can be obtained. Each of these functions depends on the exogenous variables of the price of education divided by the price of parental consumption, parental income, the child's endowment, and the parameters of the utility and the production function. Application of this model to empirical data from the Twin and Adult Offspring Sample confirmed both birth order and family size effects for schooling even when parental age, income, education, and father's religion were controlled. The effects were larger for daughters than sons. The difference in educational attainment between 1st and 5th-born was 0.7 years for males and 1.4 years for females. Family size further reduces parental contribution to college education and encourages working, loans, and scholarships. The earnings data do not display birth order effects once family background and sibship size are controlled.

  8. Determinants of Tuberculosis Infection among Adult HIV Positives Attending Clinical Care in Western Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Melkamu, Hatoluf; Seyoum, Berhanu; Dessie, Yadeta

    2013-01-01

    There has been a drastic rise of tuberculosis (TB) infection across the world associated with the pandemic occurrence of HIV/AIDS. There are various determinants factors that increase the chance of TB infection among HIV positives (TB/HIV confection) that varies contextually. This study aimed to assess the determinants of TB/HIV coinfection among adult HIV positives attending clinical care at two public health facilities in Nekemte, western Ethiopia. Unmatched case-control study was conducted from December 26, 2011, to February 29, 2012. Cases were 123 TB infected HIV positives, and controls were 246 non-TB infected HIV positives. Being divorced/widowed AOR = 3.02, 95% CI (1.70, 7.88), not attending formal education AOR = 4.32, 95% CI (2.20, 14.15), being underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) AOR = 3.87, 95% CI (2.18, 6.87), having history of diabetic mellitus AOR = 3.63, 95% CI (1.33, 9.94), and being in advanced WHO HIV/AIDS clinical staging AOR = 2.29, 95% CI (1.32, 3.98), were determinant factors associated with TB/HIV co-infection. Having a separate kitchen AOR = 0.48, 95% CI (0.28, 0.81) showed protective role. For most of these determinants interventions can be made at individual and institutional levels, whereas, factors like education and nutrition need societal level integrations. PMID:24222846

  9. Proliferation of Estrogen Receptor alpha Positive Mammary Epithelial Cells is Restrained by TGFbeta1 in Adult Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ewan, Kenneth B.R.; Oketch-Rabah, Hellen A.; Ravani, Shraddha A.; Shyamala, G.; Moses, Harold L.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2005-03-03

    Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}1) is a potent inhibitor of mammary epithelial proliferation. In human breast, estrogen receptor {alpha} (ER{alpha}) cells rarely co-localize with markers of proliferation, but their increased frequency correlates with breast cancer risk. To determine whether TGF{beta}1 is necessary for the quiescence of ER{alpha}-positive population, we examined mouse mammary epithelial gland at estrus. Approximately 35% of cells showed TGF{beta}1 activation, which co-localized with nuclear receptor-phosphorylated Smad 2/3, indicating that TGF{beta} signaling is autocrine. Furthermore, nuclear Smad co-localized with nuclear ER{alpha}. To test whether TGF{beta} was functional, we examined genetically engineered mice with different levels of TGF{beta}1. ER{alpha} co-localization with markers of proliferation (i.e. Ki-67 or BrdU) at estrus was significantly increased in the mammary glands of Tgf{beta}1 C57/bl/129SV heterozygote mice. This relationship was maintained following pregnancy, but was absent at puberty. Conversely, mammary epithelial expression of constitutively active TGF{beta}1 via the MMTV promoter suppressed proliferation of ER{alpha} positive cells. Thus, TGF{beta}1 activation functionally restrains ER{alpha} positive cells from proliferating in adult mammary gland. Accordingly, we propose that TGF{beta}1 dysregulation may promote proliferation of ER{alpha} positive cells associated with breast cancer risk in humans.

  10. A web-based delphi study for eliciting helpful criteria in the positive diagnosis of hemophagocytic syndrome in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Hejblum, Gilles; Lambotte, Olivier; Galicier, Lionel; Coppo, Paul; Marzac, Christophe; Aumont, Cédric; Fardet, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of the reactive form of hemophagocytic syndrome in adults remains particularly difficult since none of the clinical or laboratory manifestations are specific. We undertook a study in order to elicit which features constitute helpful criteria for a positive diagnosis. In this Delphi study, the features investigated in the questionnaire and the experts invited to participate in the survey were issued from a bibliographic search. The questionnaire was iteratively proposed to experts via a web-based application with a feedback of the results observed at the preceding Delphi round. Experts were asked to label each investigated criterion in one of the following categories: absolutely required, important, of minor interest, or not assessable in the routine practice environment. A positive consensus was a priori defined as at least 75% answers observed in the categories absolutely required and important. The questionnaire investigated 26 criteria and 24 experts originating from 13 countries participated in the second and final Delphi round. A positive consensus was reached for the nine following criteria: unilineage cytopenia, bicytopenia, pancytopenia, presence of hemophagocytosis pictures on a bone marrow aspirate or on a tissue biopsy, high ferritin level, fever, organomegaly, presence of a predisposing underlying disease, and high level of lactate dehydrogenase. A negative consensus was reached for 13 criteria, and an absence of consensus was observed for 4 criteria. The study constitutes the first initiative to date for defining international guidelines devoted to the positive diagnosis of the reactive form of hemophagocytic syndrome.

  11. Some considerations about maintenance of the mandibular position for adult patient with TMJ disorder.

    PubMed

    Nagahara, K; Miyajima, K; Tanida, K; Yamada, A; Nakamura, S; Iizuka, T

    1990-01-01

    The patient was twenty-three year old female with TMJ disorder and crowding. She had often had a clicking sound caused probably by malocclusion since she was eighteen years of age. Limitation of mouth opening with TMJ locking has been occurring since she had an impacted right lower third molar extracted at nineteen. A stabilization splint was applied for better mandibular position to rectify the TMJ disorder. The clinical symptom was relieved one month later, so the malocclusion was treated with a multi-bracket appliance. Since cross bite in [formula: see text] was corrected in a year and three months, symptoms of the TMJ disorder disappeared and this condition has remained stable for the past year. A stabilization retainer worn at night was considered necessary to prevent a relapse of the dentition and mandibular position, and to keep the masticatory muscles relaxed. For the purpose of stabilizing the TMJ condition and occlusion, the patient was taught unilateral mastication in order to diminish the difference between sides in chewing force, because only one side had been habitually used for a long time. It is suggested that such an alternative chewing habit will improve functional stability following the structural correction.

  12. Experiences of social stigma and implications for healthcare among a diverse population of HIV positive adults.

    PubMed

    Sayles, Jennifer N; Ryan, Gery W; Silver, Junell S; Sarkisian, Catherine A; Cunningham, William E

    2007-11-01

    Stigma profoundly affects the lives of people with HIV/AIDS. Fear of being identified as having HIV or AIDS may discourage a person from getting tested, from accessing medical services and medications, and from disclosing their HIV status to family and friends. In the present study, we use focus groups to identify the most salient domains of stigma and the coping strategies that may be common to a group of diverse, low-income women and men living with HIV in Los Angeles, CA (n = 48). We also explore the impact of stigma on health and healthcare among HIV positive persons in our sample. Results indicate that the most salient domains of stigma include: blame and stereotypes of HIV, fear of contagion, disclosure of a stigmatized role, and renegotiating social contracts. We use the analysis to develop a framework where stigma is viewed as a social process composed of the struggle for both internal change (self-acceptance) and reintegration into the community. We discuss implications of HIV-related stigma for the mental and physical health of HIV-positive women and men and suggestions for possible interventions to address stigma in the healthcare setting. PMID:17786561

  13. High or conventional positive end-expiratory pressure in adult respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Alersi, R; Navarro-Ramírez, C

    2014-01-01

    Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome may require high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) levels, though the optimum level remains to be established. Several clinical trials have compared high PEEP levels versus conventional PEEP. Overall, although high PEEP levels improve oxygenation and are safe, they do not result in a significant reduction of the mortality rates. Nevertheless, some metaanalyses have revealed 2 situations in which high PEEP may decrease mortality: When used in severe distress and when PEEP is set following the characteristics of lung mechanics. Five studies have explored this latter scenario. Unfortunately, all of them have small sample sizes and have used different means to determine optimum PEEP. It is therefore necessary to conduct studies of sufficient sample size to compare the treatment of patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, using a protective ventilation strategy with high PEEP guided by the characteristics of lung mechanics and ventilation with the protocol proposed by the ARDS Network.

  14. Fasting Insulin Level Is Positively Associated With Incidence of Hypertension Among American Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Xun, Pengcheng; Liu, Kiang; Cao, Wenhong; Sidney, Stephen; Williams, O. Dale; He, Ka

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although hyperinsulinemia, a surrogate of insulin resistance, may play a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension (HTN), the longitudinal association between fasting insulin level and HTN development is still controversial. We examined the relation between fasting insulin and incidence of HTN in a large prospective cohort. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A prospective cohort of 3,413 Americans, aged 18–30 years, without HTN in 1985 (baseline) were enrolled. Six follow-ups were conducted in 1987, 1990, 1992, 1995, 2000, and 2005. Fasting insulin and glucose levels were assessed by a radioimmunoassay and hexokinase method, respectively. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs of incident HTN (defined as the initiation of antihypertensive medication, systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg, or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg). RESULTS During the 20-year follow-up, 796 incident cases were identified. After adjustment for potential confounders, participants in the highest quartile of insulin levels had a significantly higher incidence of HTN (HR 1.85 [95% CI 1.42–2.40]; Ptrend < 0.001) compared with those in the lowest quartile. The positive association persisted in each sex/ethnicity/weight status subgroup. A similar dose-response relation was observed when insulin-to-glucose ratio or homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance was used as exposure. CONCLUSIONS Fasting serum insulin levels or hyperinsulinemia in young adulthood was positively associated with incidence of HTN later in life for both men and women, African Americans and Caucasians, and those with normal weight and overweight. Our findings suggested that fasting insulin ascertainment may help clinicians identify those at high risk of HTN. PMID:22511258

  15. Neural activity to positive expressions predicts daily experience of schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms in adults with high social anhedonia.

    PubMed

    Hooker, Christine I; Benson, Taylor L; Gyurak, Anett; Yin, Hong; Tully, Laura M; Lincoln, Sarah Hope

    2014-02-01

    Social anhedonia (SA), the diminished pleasure from social relationships, is a prominent characteristic of the vulnerability and manifestation of schizophrenia disorder. However, SA can develop for multiple reasons and little is known about its neural basis; these 2 issues hinder the utility and sensitivity of SA as a marker of schizophrenia pathology. This study investigated whether lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) deficits in social reward processing are associated with both SA and other schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms. During functional MRI (fMRI), a community sample of healthy adults (N = 30) with high and low SA viewed positive, negative, and neutral facial expressions. Afterward, participants completed an online daily diary in which they rated schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms and occurrence of interpersonal conflict each day for 21 days. Compared with low SA, high SA participants had less ventral (V)LPFC activity to positive versus neutral expressions. In addition, participants with a combination of high SA and low VLPFC activity to positive versus neutral expressions had worse daily diary ratings of schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms, including worse cognition, paranoia, motivation/productivity, and vigor/positive affect (i.e., psychomotor activation). Finally, among high SA participants, VLPFC activity predicted the daily relationship between distress from interpersonal conflict and symptom-severity; specifically, high SA participants with low VLPFC activity had worse paranoia on days of high conflict distress. These findings indicate that VLPFC deficits in positive emotion are associated with both SA and other schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms and that understanding the interaction of SA, VLPFC function, and social stress could facilitate the use of SA in the prevention and treatment of schizophrenia.

  16. Joint positioning sense, perceived force level and two-point discrimination tests of young and active elderly adults

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Priscila G.; Santos, Karini B.; Rodacki, André L. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changes in the proprioceptive system are associated with aging. Proprioception is important to maintaining and/or recovering balance and to reducing the risk of falls. Objective: To compare the performance of young and active elderly adults in three proprioceptive tests. Method: Twenty-one active elderly participants (66.9±5.5 years) and 21 healthy young participants (24.6±3.9 years) were evaluated in the following tests: perception of position of the ankle and hip joints, perceived force level of the ankle joint, and two-point discrimination of the sole of the foot. Results: No differences (p>0.05) were found between groups for the joint position and perceived force level. On the other hand, the elderly participants showed lower sensitivity in the two-point discrimination (higher threshold) when compared to the young participants (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Except for the cutaneous plantar sensitivity, the active elderly participants had maintained proprioception. Their physical activity status may explain similarities between groups for the joint position sense and perceived force level, however it may not be sufficient to prevent sensory degeneration with aging. PMID:26443978

  17. Randomized study of reduced-intensity chemotherapy combined with imatinib in adults with Ph-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Chalandon, Yves; Thomas, Xavier; Hayette, Sandrine; Cayuela, Jean-Michel; Abbal, Claire; Huguet, Françoise; Raffoux, Emmanuel; Leguay, Thibaut; Rousselot, Philippe; Lepretre, Stéphane; Escoffre-Barbe, Martine; Maury, Sébastien; Berthon, Céline; Tavernier, Emmanuelle; Lambert, Jean-François; Lafage-Pochitaloff, Marina; Lhéritier, Véronique; Chevret, Sylvie; Ifrah, Norbert; Dombret, Hervé

    2015-06-11

    In this study, we randomly compared high doses of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib combined with reduced-intensity chemotherapy (arm A) to standard imatinib/hyperCVAD (cyclophosphamide/vincristine/doxorubicin/dexamethasone) therapy (arm B) in 268 adults (median age, 47 years) with Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The primary objective was the major molecular response (MMolR) rate after cycle 2, patients being then eligible for allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) if they had a donor, or autologous SCT if in MMolR and no donor. With fewer induction deaths, the complete remission (CR) rate was higher in arm A than in arm B (98% vs 91%; P = .006), whereas the MMolR rate was similar in both arms (66% vs 64%). With a median follow-up of 4.8 years, 5-year event-free survival and overall survival (OS) rates were estimated at 37.1% and 45.6%, respectively, without difference between the arms. Allogeneic transplantation was associated with a significant benefit in relapse-free survival (hazard ratio [HR], 0.69; P = .036) and OS (HR, 0.64; P = .02), with initial white blood cell count being the only factor significantly interacting with this SCT effect. In patients achieving MMolR, outcome was similar after autologous and allogeneic transplantation. This study validates an induction regimen combining reduced-intensity chemotherapy and imatinib in Ph+ ALL adult patients and suggests that SCT in first CR is still a good option for Ph+ ALL adult patients. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00327678. PMID:25878120

  18. Randomized study of reduced-intensity chemotherapy combined with imatinib in adults with Ph-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Chalandon, Yves; Thomas, Xavier; Hayette, Sandrine; Cayuela, Jean-Michel; Abbal, Claire; Huguet, Françoise; Raffoux, Emmanuel; Leguay, Thibaut; Rousselot, Philippe; Lepretre, Stéphane; Escoffre-Barbe, Martine; Maury, Sébastien; Berthon, Céline; Tavernier, Emmanuelle; Lambert, Jean-François; Lafage-Pochitaloff, Marina; Lhéritier, Véronique; Chevret, Sylvie; Ifrah, Norbert; Dombret, Hervé

    2015-06-11

    In this study, we randomly compared high doses of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib combined with reduced-intensity chemotherapy (arm A) to standard imatinib/hyperCVAD (cyclophosphamide/vincristine/doxorubicin/dexamethasone) therapy (arm B) in 268 adults (median age, 47 years) with Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The primary objective was the major molecular response (MMolR) rate after cycle 2, patients being then eligible for allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) if they had a donor, or autologous SCT if in MMolR and no donor. With fewer induction deaths, the complete remission (CR) rate was higher in arm A than in arm B (98% vs 91%; P = .006), whereas the MMolR rate was similar in both arms (66% vs 64%). With a median follow-up of 4.8 years, 5-year event-free survival and overall survival (OS) rates were estimated at 37.1% and 45.6%, respectively, without difference between the arms. Allogeneic transplantation was associated with a significant benefit in relapse-free survival (hazard ratio [HR], 0.69; P = .036) and OS (HR, 0.64; P = .02), with initial white blood cell count being the only factor significantly interacting with this SCT effect. In patients achieving MMolR, outcome was similar after autologous and allogeneic transplantation. This study validates an induction regimen combining reduced-intensity chemotherapy and imatinib in Ph+ ALL adult patients and suggests that SCT in first CR is still a good option for Ph+ ALL adult patients. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00327678.

  19. Socioeconomic gradients in cardiovascular risk in Canadian children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Y.; de Groh, M.; Bancej, C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors show clear socioeconomic gradients in Canadian adults. Whether socioeconomic gradients in cardiovascular risk emerge in childhood remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether there are socioeconomic gradients in physiological markers of CVD risk in Canadian children and adolescents. Methods: Using combined cross-sectional data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey 2007–2011, we examined the following cardiovascular risk markers: overweight (including obesity), aerobic fitness score (AFS), blood pressure (BP), blood lipids (total as well as HDL and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides), glucose metabolism and C-reactive protein (CRP) by sex in 2149 children (ages 6–11 years) and 2073 adolescents (ages 12–17 years). Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to identify patterns in cardiovascular risk across strata of household income adequacy and parental educational attainment, adjusting for age and ethnicity, and stratified by age group and sex. Results: Young boys showed markedly higher prevalence of obesity than young girls (prevalence of 18.5%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.6–21.5 vs. 7.7%, 95% CI: 5.2–10.3). However, negative SES gradients in adiposity risk were seen in young and adolescent girls rather than boys. Young and adolescent boys were more physically fit than girls (mean AFS of 541, 95% CI: 534–546 vs. 501, 95% CI: 498–505 in children; 522, 95% CI: 514–529 vs. 460, 95% CI: 454–466 in adolescents; p < .001). Although a positive income gradient in AFS was observed in both boys and girls, statistical significance was reached only in girls (p  = .006). A negative gradient of parental education in BP was observed in young children. While we observed substantial sex differences in systolic BP, total and HDL cholesterol, fasting glucose and CRP in adolescents, sex-specific socioeconomic gradients were only observed

  20. Poverty, Socioeconomic Change, Institutional Anomie, and Homicide*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Weon; Pridemore, William Alex

    2006-01-01

    Objective. This study examined institutional anomie theory in the context of transitional Russia. Methods. We employed an index of negative socioeconomic change and measures of family, education, and polity to test the hypothesis that institutional strength conditions the effects of poverty and socioeconomic change on homicide rates. Results. As expected, the results of models estimated using negative binomial regression show direct positive effects of poverty and socioeconomic change and direct negative effects of family strength and polity on regional homicide rates. There was no support, however, for the hypothesis that stronger social institutions reduce the effects of poverty and socioeconomic change on violence. Conclusions. We interpret these results in the Russia-specific setting, concluding that Russia is a rich laboratory for examining the effects of social change on crime and that empirical research in other nations is important when assessing the generalizability of theories developed to explain crime and violence in the United States. PMID:16900262

  1. Poverty, Socioeconomic Change, Institutional Anomie, and Homicide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Weon; Pridemore, William Alex

    2005-12-01

    Objective. This study examined institutional anomie theory in the context of transitional Russia. Methods. We employed an index of negative socioeconomic change and measures of family, education, and polity to test the hypothesis that institutional strength conditions the effects of poverty and socioeconomic change on homicide rates. Results. As expected, the results of models estimated using negative binomial regression show direct positive effects of poverty and socioeconomic change and direct negative effects of family strength and polity on regional homicide rates. There was no support, however, for the hypothesis that stronger social institutions reduce the effects of poverty and socioeconomic change on violence. Conclusions. We interpret these results in the Russia-specific setting, concluding that Russia is a rich laboratory for examining the effects of social change on crime and that empirical research in other nations is important when assessing the generalizability of theories developed to explain crime and violence in the United States.

  2. GH safety workshop position paper: a critical appraisal of recombinant human GH therapy in children and adults

    PubMed Central

    Allen, D B; Backeljauw, P; Bidlingmaier, M; Biller, B M K; Boguszewski, M; Burman, P; Butler, G; Chihara, K; Christiansen, J; Cianfarani, S; Clayton, P; Clemmons, D; Cohen, P; Darendeliler, F; Deal, C; Dunger, D; Erfurth, E M; Fuqua, J S; Grimberg, A; Haymond, M; Higham, C; Ho, K; Hoffman, A R; Hokken-Koelega, A; Johannsson, G; Juul, A; Kopchick, J; Lee, P; Pollak, M; Radovick, S; Robison, L; Rosenfeld, R; Ross, R J; Savendahl, L; Saenger, P; Toft Sorensen, H; Stochholm, K; Strasburger, C; Swerdlow, A; Thorner, M

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant human GH (rhGH) has been in use for 30 years, and over that time its safety and efficacy in children and adults has been subject to considerable scrutiny. In 2001, a statement from the GH Research Society (GRS) concluded that ‘for approved indications, GH is safe’; however, the statement highlighted a number of areas for on-going surveillance of long-term safety, including cancer risk, impact on glucose homeostasis, and use of high dose pharmacological rhGH treatment. Over the intervening years, there have been a number of publications addressing the safety of rhGH with regard to mortality, cancer and cardiovascular risk, and the need for long-term surveillance of the increasing number of adults who were treated with rhGH in childhood. Against this backdrop of interest in safety, the European Society of Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE), the GRS, and the Pediatric Endocrine Society (PES) convened a meeting to reappraise the safety of rhGH. The ouput of the meeting is a concise position statement. PMID:26563978

  3. Position paper for the organization of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation programs for acute respiratory failure in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Combes, Alain; Brodie, Daniel; Bartlett, Robert; Brochard, Laurent; Brower, Roy; Conrad, Steve; De Backer, Daniel; Fan, Eddy; Ferguson, Niall; Fortenberry, James; Fraser, John; Gattinoni, Luciano; Lynch, William; MacLaren, Graeme; Mercat, Alain; Mueller, Thomas; Ogino, Mark; Peek, Giles; Pellegrino, Vince; Pesenti, Antonio; Ranieri, Marco; Slutsky, Arthur; Vuylsteke, Alain

    2014-09-01

    The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for severe acute respiratory failure (ARF) in adults is growing rapidly given recent advances in technology, even though there is controversy regarding the evidence justifying its use. Because ECMO is a complex, high-risk, and costly modality, at present it should be conducted in centers with sufficient experience, volume, and expertise to ensure it is used safely. This position paper represents the consensus opinion of an international group of physicians and associated health-care workers who have expertise in therapeutic modalities used in the treatment of patients with severe ARF, with a focus on ECMO. The aim of this paper is to provide physicians, ECMO center directors and coordinators, hospital directors, health-care organizations, and regional, national, and international policy makers a description of the optimal approach to organizing ECMO programs for ARF in adult patients. Importantly, this will help ensure that ECMO is delivered safely and proficiently, such that future observational and randomized clinical trials assessing this technique may be performed by experienced centers under homogeneous and optimal conditions. Given the need for further evidence, we encourage restraint in the widespread use of ECMO until we have a better appreciation for both the potential clinical applications and the optimal techniques for performing ECMO.

  4. GH safety workshop position paper: a critical appraisal of recombinant human GH therapy in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Allen, D B; Backeljauw, P; Bidlingmaier, M; Biller, B M K; Boguszewski, M; Burman, P; Butler, G; Chihara, K; Christiansen, J; Cianfarani, S; Clayton, P; Clemmons, D; Cohen, P; Darendeliler, F; Deal, C; Dunger, D; Erfurth, E M; Fuqua, J S; Grimberg, A; Haymond, M; Higham, C; Ho, K; Hoffman, A R; Hokken-Koelega, A; Johannsson, G; Juul, A; Kopchick, J; Lee, P; Pollak, M; Radovick, S; Robison, L; Rosenfeld, R; Ross, R J; Savendahl, L; Saenger, P; Toft Sorensen, H; Stochholm, K; Strasburger, C; Swerdlow, A; Thorner, M

    2016-02-01

    Recombinant human GH (rhGH) has been in use for 30 years, and over that time its safety and efficacy in children and adults has been subject to considerable scrutiny. In 2001, a statement from the GH Research Society (GRS) concluded that 'for approved indications, GH is safe'; however, the statement highlighted a number of areas for on-going surveillance of long-term safety, including cancer risk, impact on glucose homeostasis, and use of high dose pharmacological rhGH treatment. Over the intervening years, there have been a number of publications addressing the safety of rhGH with regard to mortality, cancer and cardiovascular risk, and the need for long-term surveillance of the increasing number of adults who were treated with rhGH in childhood. Against this backdrop of interest in safety, the European Society of Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE), the GRS, and the Pediatric Endocrine Society (PES) convened a meeting to reappraise the safety of rhGH. The ouput of the meeting is a concise position statement.

  5. Reported consumption of takeaway food and its contribution to socioeconomic inequalities in body mass index.

    PubMed

    Miura, Kyoko; Turrell, Gavin

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether takeaway food consumption mediated (explained) the association between socioeconomic position and body mass index (BMI). A postal-survey was conducted among 1500 randomly selected adults aged between 25 and 64years in Brisbane, Australia during 2009 (response rate 63.7%, N=903). BMI was calculated using self-reported weight and height. Participants reported usual takeaway food consumption, and these takeaway items were categorised into "healthy" and "less healthy" choices. Socioeconomic position was ascertained by education, household income, and occupation. The mean BMI was 27.1kg/m(2) for men and 25.7kg/m(2) for women. Among men, none of the socioeconomic measures were associated with BMI. In contrast, women with diploma/vocational education (β=2.12) and high school only (β=2.60), and those who were white-collar (β=1.55) and blue-collar employees (β=2.83) had significantly greater BMI compared with their more advantaged counterparts. However, household income was not associated with BMI. Among women, the consumption of "less healthy" takeaway food mediated BMI differences between the least and most educated, and between those employed in blue collar occupations and their higher status counterparts. Decreasing the consumption of "less healthy" takeaway options may reduce socioeconomic inequalities in overweight and obesity among women but not men.

  6. A study of suicide and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Ying, Yung-Hsiang; Chang, Koyin

    2009-04-01

    The topic of suicide has long been an important socioeconomic issue studied in many countries. Suicides inject an atmosphere of unrest into society, and media attention furthers that social uneasiness. From the viewpoint of economics and management, suicide is a waste of human resource: it decreases the labor force in society and deteriorates human capital. This paper provides a series of analyses of suicide rate based on theoretical reasoning and empirical approaches. Aggregate data from G7 countries are obtained and stacked into panel data for analysis. Data are collected for different age groups. Even though suicide issues have been extensively discussed in the past, newly developed econometric tools are applied to her. Beyond previously recognized relationships between economic factors and suicide rates findings include that unemployment strikes men more than women in terms of psychological pressure: for middle age or older women, unemployment may even be positive for the entire family; and female labor force participation exerts pressure on male counterparts and increases its suicide rate. As a result, a low income family with an unemployed man and an employed woman is at high risk for adult male suicide.

  7. Socioeconomic pathways to depressive symptoms in adulthood: evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979.

    PubMed

    Quesnel-Vallée, Amélie; Taylor, Miles

    2012-03-01

    The existence of a direct effect of early socioeconomic position (SEP) on adult mental health outcomes net of adult SEP is still debated. This question demands the explicit modeling of pathways linking early SEP to adult SEP and mental health. In light of this background, we pursue two objectives in this study. First, we examine whether depressive symptoms in adulthood can be fit in a trajectory featuring both an intercept, or baseline range of depressive symptoms that varied between individuals, and a slope describing the average evolution of depressive symptoms over the years. Second, we estimate the direct and indirect pathways linking early SEP, respondents' education and adult household income, with a particular focus on whether early SEP retains a significant direct effect on the trajectory of depressive symptoms once adult SEP is entered into the pathway model. Drawing from 29 years of cohort data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, a survey that has been following a national probability sample of American civilian and military youth (Zagorsky and White, 1999), we used structural equation models to estimate the pathways between parents' education, respondent's education, and latent growth curves of household income and depressive symptoms. We found that the effect of parents' education was entirely mediated by respondent's education. In turn, the effect of respondent's education was largely mediated by household income. In conclusion, our findings showed that the socioeconomic attainment process that is rooted in parents' education and leads to respondent's education and then to household income is a crucial pathway for adult mental health. These results suggest that increasing educational opportunities may be an effective policy to break the intergenerational transmission of low socioeconomic status and poor mental health.

  8. fMRI brain activation during a delay discounting task in HIV-positive adults with and without cocaine dependence

    PubMed Central

    Meade, Christina S.; Lowen, Steven B.; MacLean, Robert R.; Key, Mary D.; Lukas, Scott E.

    2011-01-01

    Cocaine use is associated with poorer HIV clinical outcomes and may contribute to neurobiological impairments associated with impulsive decision making. This study examined the effect of cocaine dependence on brain activation during a delay discounting task involving choices between smaller immediate rewards and larger delayed ones. Participants were 39 HIV-positive adults on antiretroviral therapy who had current cocaine dependence (“active,” n=15), past cocaine dependence (“recovered,” n=13), or no lifetime substance dependence (“naïve,” n=11). Based on responses on a traditional delay discounting task, three types of choices were individualized for presentation during fMRI scanning: hard (similarly valued), easy (disparately valued), and no (single option). Active participants had significantly smaller increases in activation than naïve participants during hard versus easy choices bilaterally in the precentral gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex and in the right frontal pole (including dorsolateral, ventrolateral, and orbitofrontal cortex). During hard and easy choices relative to no choices, active participants had smaller increases in activation compared to naïve participants in frontoparietal cortical regions. These deficits in the executive network during delay discounting choices may contribute to impulsive decision making among HIV-positive cocaine users, with implications for risk behaviors associated with disease transmission and progression. PMID:21546221

  9. [Health status of people with a migrant background and impact of socio-economic factors: First results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    PubMed

    Rommel, Alexander; Saß, A C; Born, S; Ellert, U

    2015-06-01

    People with a migrant background (PMB) have specific health-related risk factors and resources compared to the non-migrant population (NMP). The analysis focuses on the relationship between migrant background and health and health-related behavior. Moreover, the study analyses whether socio-economic status (SES) contributes to the explanation of differences between PMB and the NMP. The research is based on the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1) (2008-2012, n = 8151). The population for cross-sectional analyses contains 1107 PMB (weighted 19.8 %). The research question is addressed on the basis of nine exemplary health outcomes. All analyses are gender specific and make a distinction between first and second generation PMB. Logistic regression is calculated adjusting for age and SES. The results reveal clear gender-specific patterns: For women, differences are statistically significant mainly for first generation PMB. Compared to the NMP their self-assessed health status is lower, they are less physically active, consume less alcohol, feel less informed about cancer screening programs and make less use of preventive health services. However, daily smoking is more prevalent in second generation women. For men, differences are statistically significant for first and second generation PMB. Men with a migrant background show more symptoms of depression, consume less alcohol and feel less informed about cancer screening programs. After adjusting for SES the impact of migrant background on health status and health-related behavior largely remains stable. The study shows that the DEGS1 data offers valuable results and new insights into the health status of people with a migrant background. The use of this data for further research requires a differentiated approach to the concept of migrant background and a careful interpretation of results.

  10. [Health status of people with a migrant background and impact of socio-economic factors: First results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    PubMed

    Rommel, Alexander; Saß, A C; Born, S; Ellert, U

    2015-06-01

    People with a migrant background (PMB) have specific health-related risk factors and resources compared to the non-migrant population (NMP). The analysis focuses on the relationship between migrant background and health and health-related behavior. Moreover, the study analyses whether socio-economic status (SES) contributes to the explanation of differences between PMB and the NMP. The research is based on the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1) (2008-2012, n = 8151). The population for cross-sectional analyses contains 1107 PMB (weighted 19.8 %). The research question is addressed on the basis of nine exemplary health outcomes. All analyses are gender specific and make a distinction between first and second generation PMB. Logistic regression is calculated adjusting for age and SES. The results reveal clear gender-specific patterns: For women, differences are statistically significant mainly for first generation PMB. Compared to the NMP their self-assessed health status is lower, they are less physically active, consume less alcohol, feel less informed about cancer screening programs and make less use of preventive health services. However, daily smoking is more prevalent in second generation women. For men, differences are statistically significant for first and second generation PMB. Men with a migrant background show more symptoms of depression, consume less alcohol and feel less informed about cancer screening programs. After adjusting for SES the impact of migrant background on health status and health-related behavior largely remains stable. The study shows that the DEGS1 data offers valuable results and new insights into the health status of people with a migrant background. The use of this data for further research requires a differentiated approach to the concept of migrant background and a careful interpretation of results. PMID:25824135

  11. [Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases in women: association with socioeconomic and demographic variables].

    PubMed

    Jiménez, A L; Gotlieb, S L; Hardy, E; Zaneveld, L J

    2001-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have been a subject of discussion both among scientists and in the mass media, especially because of their association with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We studied the adoption of specific protective behaviors for the prevention of STDs among women, as well as the associations between these behaviors and socioeconomic and demographic variables. This was a descriptive study based on secondary data from a previous study carried out in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 635 women were selected using the social network ("snowball") technique. Subjects were classified into four groups: adolescents and adults of upper middle and lower socioeconomic status, respectively. Condoms were the STD prevention method most frequently mentioned by interviewees. A negative association was observed between having a steady partner and condom use in all the groups. The main reason mentioned for not using condoms was "having a single partner and trusting him". Among adolescents, a positive association was observed between schooling above the 8th grade and condom use, and a negative association was observed between age and condom use. Among adults, only condom use in general was also positively associated with socioeconomic status.

  12. Position statement on interdisciplinary team training in geriatrics: an essential component of quality health care for older adults.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    Interdisciplinary team training (IDT) is an important component of ensuring quality geriatric care delivery, which can be complex and time intensive, requiring coordination of many medical, psychosocial, and therapeutic interventions and professionals. The Partnership for Health in Aging (PHA), a loose coalition of more than 30 organizations representing healthcare professionals who care for older adults supported by the American Geriatrics Society, identified IDT training in geriatrics as a priority area in addressing the geriatrics workforce shortage described in the 2008 Institute of Medicine report, Retooling for An Aging America: Building the Health Care Workforce. A PHA Workgroup on Interdisciplinary Team Training in Geriatrics was convened to review the literature focused on geriatrics IDT training and to develop a position statement that would inform and influence groups involved in the development and expansion of academic and continuing education programs in IDT training, including professional associations, credentialing and licensing bodies, accreditation organizations, and university administrators. There are significant challenges to expanding the development and implementation of geriatrics IDT training for health professionals, and such training will be successful only with substantial and sustained advocacy from the above professional groups.

  13. Prolongation of GFP-expressed skin graft after intrathymic injection of GFP positive splenocytes in adult rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakamata, Yoji; Igarashi, Yuka; Murakami, Takashi; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2006-02-01

    GFP is a fluorescent product of the jellyfish Aequorea victoria and has been used for a variety of biological experiments as a reporter molecule. While GFP possesses advantages for the non-invasive imaging of viable cells, GFP-positive cells are still considered potential xeno-antigens. It is difficult to observe the precise fate of transplanted cells/organs in recipients without immunological control. The aim of this study was to determine whether intrathymic injection of GFP to recipients and the depletion of peripheral lymphocytes could lead to donor-specific unresponsiveness to GFP-expressed cell. LEW rats were administered intraperitoneally with 0.2 ml of anti-rat lymphocyte serum (ALS) 1 day prior to intrathymic injection of donor splenocytes or adeno-GFP vector. Donor cells and vector were non-invasively inoculated into the thymus under high frequency ultrasound imaging using an echo-guide. All animals subsequently received a 7 days GFP-expressed skin graft from the same genetic background GFP LEW transgenic rat. Skin graft survival was greater in rats injected with donor splenocytes (23.6+/-9.1) compared with adeno-GFP (13.0+/-3.7) or untreated control rats (9.5+/-1.0). Intrathymic injection of donor antigen into adult rats can induce donor-specific unresponsiveness. Donor cells can be observed for a long-term in recipients with normal immunity using this strategy.

  14. Position of the Patella among Emirati Adult Knees. Is Insall-Salvati Ratio Applicable to Middle-Easterners?

    PubMed Central

    Althani, Saeed; Shahi, Alisina; Tan, Timothy L.; Al-Belooshi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Abnormal patellar height is associated with anterior knee pain and several conditions that affect the patellofemoral joint. The aim of this study was to 1) report the incidence of patella alta and patella baja and 2) investigate whether the normal limits of the Insall-Salvati ratio is applicable in adult Middle-Easterners. Methods: A radiographic review of the lateral radiographs of 736 Middle-Eastern knees were performed. Patellar tendon length (TL) and the patellar length (TP) was digitally measured and the ratios of these measures was used to calculate the Insall-Salvati ratio. Results: The overall mean TL/PL ratio was 1.20±0.17. The Insall-Salvati ratio was higher (p=0.0013) in males (1.22± 0.12) than in females (1.18±0.17). According to our measurement, the recommended levels for defining abnormal patellar position should be 0.86 for patella baja and 1.54 for patella alta. Conclusion: The use of TL/PL ratio demonstrated a higher incidence of patella alta and a higher mean TL/PL ratio compared to other techniques. The normal ranges for the TL/PL differs from western populations and may be attributed to lifestyle differences. PMID:27200391

  15. Emotional expressions of old faces are perceived as more positive and less negative than young faces in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Hass, Norah C.; Schneider, Erik J. S.; Lim, Seung-Lark

    2015-01-01

    Interpreting the emotions of others through their facial expressions can provide important social information, yet the way in which we judge an emotion is subject to psychosocial factors. We hypothesized that the age of a face would bias how the emotional expressions are judged, with older faces generally more likely to be viewed as having more positive and less negative expressions than younger faces. Using two-alternative forced-choice perceptual decision tasks, participants sorted young and old faces of which emotional expressions were gradually morphed into one of two categories—“neutral vs. happy” and “neutral vs. angry.” The results indicated that old faces were more frequently perceived as having a happy expression at the lower emotional intensity levels, and less frequently perceived as having an angry expression at the higher emotional intensity levels than younger faces in young adults. Critically, the perceptual decision threshold at which old faces were judged as happy was lower than for young faces, and higher for angry old faces compared to young faces. These findings suggest that the age of the face influences how its emotional expression is interpreted in social interactions. PMID:26379599

  16. Imatinib-based therapy in adult Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, LI; CHEN, MENG; FENG, BO; KUANG, PU; HE, PENG; LIU, TING; PAN, LING

    2015-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has a rapid onset and rarely occurs with exclusive prodrome of general osteoporosis and vertebral compression fractures. However, Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) ALL has a poor prognosis, even when patients are treated with intensive chemotherapy, and the first-line effective treatment requires further elucidation. The present study focused on a 56-year-old Chinese male patient who initially presented with spontaneous bone fractures and was ultimately diagnosed as Ph+ ALL after 6 months, which required to preliminarily exclude a working diagnosis of myeloma. Apart from intensive chemotherapy, the patient successfully completed an imatinib-based regimen and achieved complete remission (CR) 2 weeks later. Subsequently, the patient was subjected to consolidation treatment using the same imatinib regimen combined with interferon-α 2b for 9 courses. In November 2013, the patient had achieved persistent hematological and molecular genetic normality for ~16 months after the initial CR. In conclusion, Ph+ ALL must be considered in the differential diagnosis of adults experiencing unexplained bone disease. PMID:26622794

  17. Imagining a brighter future: the effect of positive imagery training on mood, prospective mental imagery and emotional bias in older adults.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Susannah E; Clare O'Donoghue, M; Drazich, Erin H S; Blackwell, Simon E; Christina Nobre, Anna; Holmes, Emily A

    2015-11-30

    Positive affect and optimism play an important role in healthy ageing and are associated with improved physical and cognitive health outcomes. This study investigated whether it is possible to boost positive affect and associated positive biases in this age group using cognitive training. The effect of computerised imagery-based cognitive bias modification on positive affect, vividness of positive prospective imagery and interpretation biases in older adults was measured. 77 older adults received 4 weeks (12 sessions) of imagery cognitive bias modification or a control condition. They were assessed at baseline, post-training and at a one-month follow-up. Both groups reported decreased negative affect and trait anxiety, and increased optimism across the three assessments. Imagery cognitive bias modification significantly increased the vividness of positive prospective imagery post-training, compared with the control training. Contrary to our hypothesis, there was no difference between the training groups in negative interpretation bias. This is a useful demonstration that it is possible to successfully engage older adults in computer-based cognitive training and to enhance the vividness of positive imagery about the future in this group. Future studies are needed to assess the longer-term consequences of such training and the impact on affect and wellbeing in more vulnerable groups.

  18. Imagining a brighter future: The effect of positive imagery training on mood, prospective mental imagery and emotional bias in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Susannah E.; Clare O’Donoghue, M.; Drazich, Erin H.S.; Blackwell, Simon E.; Christina Nobre, Anna; Holmes, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    Positive affect and optimism play an important role in healthy ageing and are associated with improved physical and cognitive health outcomes. This study investigated whether it is possible to boost positive affect and associated positive biases in this age group using cognitive training. The effect of computerised imagery-based cognitive bias modification on positive affect, vividness of positive prospective imagery and interpretation biases in older adults was measured. 77 older adults received 4 weeks (12 sessions) of imagery cognitive bias modification or a control condition. They were assessed at baseline, post-training and at a one-month follow-up. Both groups reported decreased negative affect and trait anxiety, and increased optimism across the three assessments. Imagery cognitive bias modification significantly increased the vividness of positive prospective imagery post-training, compared with the control training. Contrary to our hypothesis, there was no difference between the training groups in negative interpretation bias. This is a useful demonstration that it is possible to successfully engage older adults in computer-based cognitive training and to enhance the vividness of positive imagery about the future in this group. Future studies are needed to assess the longer-term consequences of such training and the impact on affect and wellbeing in more vulnerable groups. PMID:26235478

  19. Socioeconomic Status, Parenting, and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H., Ed.; Bradley, Robert H., Ed.

    Noting that there is near universal agreement that children from families with higher socioeconomic status (SES) have access to more of the resources needed to support their positive development than do lower SES children, this monograph examines the myriad questions remaining regarding relations among SES, parenting, and child development from a…

  20. Exploring the complexities of body image experiences in middle age and older adult women within an exercise context: The simultaneous existence of negative and positive body images.

    PubMed

    Bailey, K Alysse; Cline, Lindsay E; Gammage, Kimberley L

    2016-06-01

    Despite many body changes that accompany the aging process, the extant research is limited on middle age and older adults' body image experiences. The purpose of the present study was to explore how body image is represented for middle age and older adult women. Using thematic analysis, 10 women over the age of 55 were interviewed within an exercise context. The following themes were found: body dissatisfaction, body satisfaction despite ageist stereotypes, neutral body image within cohort, and positive body image characteristics. Negative and positive body images were experienced simultaneously, with neutral experiences expressed as low levels of dissatisfaction. This supports the contention that negative and positive body images exist on separate continuums and neutral body image is likely on the same continuum as negative body image. Programs that foster a social support network to reduce negative body image and improve positive body image in older female populations are needed.

  1. Exploring the complexities of body image experiences in middle age and older adult women within an exercise context: The simultaneous existence of negative and positive body images.

    PubMed

    Bailey, K Alysse; Cline, Lindsay E; Gammage, Kimberley L

    2016-06-01

    Despite many body changes that accompany the aging process, the extant research is limited on middle age and older adults' body image experiences. The purpose of the present study was to explore how body image is represented for middle age and older adult women. Using thematic analysis, 10 women over the age of 55 were interviewed within an exercise context. The following themes were found: body dissatisfaction, body satisfaction despite ageist stereotypes, neutral body image within cohort, and positive body image characteristics. Negative and positive body images were experienced simultaneously, with neutral experiences expressed as low levels of dissatisfaction. This supports the contention that negative and positive body images exist on separate continuums and neutral body image is likely on the same continuum as negative body image. Programs that foster a social support network to reduce negative body image and improve positive body image in older female populations are needed. PMID:26989980

  2. Important non-parental adults and positive youth development across mid- to late-adolescence: the moderating effect of parenting profiles.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Edmond P; Johnson, Sara K; Buckingham, Mary H; Gasca, Santiago; Warren, Daniel J A; Lerner, Jacqueline V; Lerner, Richard M

    2014-06-01

    Both parents and important non-parental adults have influential roles in promoting positive youth development (PYD). Little research, however, has examined the simultaneous effects of both parents and important non-parental adults for PYD. We assessed the relationships among youth-reported parenting profiles and important non-parental adult relationships in predicting the Five Cs of PYD (competence, confidence, connection, character, and caring) in four cross-sectional waves of data from the 4-H Study of PYD (Grade 9: N = 975, 61.1% female; Grade 10: N = 1,855, 63.4% female; Grade 11: N = 983, 67.9% female; Grade 12: N = 703, 69.3% female). The results indicated the existence of latent profiles of youth-reported parenting styles based on maternal warmth, parental school involvement, and parental monitoring that were consistent with previously identified profiles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved) as well as reflecting several novel profiles (highly involved, integrative, school-focused, controlling). Parenting profile membership predicted mean differences in the Five Cs at each wave, and also moderated the relationships between the presence of an important non-parental adult and the Five Cs. In general, authoritative and highly involved parenting predicted higher levels of PYD and a higher likelihood of being connected to an important non-parental adult. We discuss the implications of these findings for future research on adult influences of youth development and for programs that involve adults in attempts to promote PYD. PMID:24557780

  3. Important non-parental adults and positive youth development across mid- to late-adolescence: the moderating effect of parenting profiles.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Edmond P; Johnson, Sara K; Buckingham, Mary H; Gasca, Santiago; Warren, Daniel J A; Lerner, Jacqueline V; Lerner, Richard M

    2014-06-01

    Both parents and important non-parental adults have influential roles in promoting positive youth development (PYD). Little research, however, has examined the simultaneous effects of both parents and important non-parental adults for PYD. We assessed the relationships among youth-reported parenting profiles and important non-parental adult relationships in predicting the Five Cs of PYD (competence, confidence, connection, character, and caring) in four cross-sectional waves of data from the 4-H Study of PYD (Grade 9: N = 975, 61.1% female; Grade 10: N = 1,855, 63.4% female; Grade 11: N = 983, 67.9% female; Grade 12: N = 703, 69.3% female). The results indicated the existence of latent profiles of youth-reported parenting styles based on maternal warmth, parental school involvement, and parental monitoring that were consistent with previously identified profiles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved) as well as reflecting several novel profiles (highly involved, integrative, school-focused, controlling). Parenting profile membership predicted mean differences in the Five Cs at each wave, and also moderated the relationships between the presence of an important non-parental adult and the Five Cs. In general, authoritative and highly involved parenting predicted higher levels of PYD and a higher likelihood of being connected to an important non-parental adult. We discuss the implications of these findings for future research on adult influences of youth development and for programs that involve adults in attempts to promote PYD.

  4. ¿Usted Va Al Capitolio También?: Adult Immigrants' Positioning in Response to News and Digital Media about Immigration Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noguerón-Liu, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which adult immigrants engaged in discussion about immigration news at a web design course during the passing of Senate Bill 1070 in Arizona. Drawing on the method and theory of mediated discourse analysis, two focal interactions reveal the diverse positions that students took up in relation to anti-immigrant…

  5. Socioeconomic Patterning in Tobacco Use in Argentina, 2005

    PubMed Central

    Diez Roux, Ana V.; Alazraqui, Marcio; Spinelli, Hugo; Lantz, Paula M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Globally, tobacco is the number one preventable cause of death, killing 1 in 10 adults. By 2030, 80% of all tobacco deaths will occur in developing countries. Social factors drive the adoption and cessation of smoking in high-income countries, but few studies have examined the socioeconomic patterning of smoking in developing countries. Methods: Using data from the 2005 National Survey of Risk Factors for Non-communicable Diseases in Argentina, we investigated gender-specific socioeconomic patterning of current, former, and never-smoking status; the intensity of smoking; and smokers’ readiness for cessation using multinomial logistic and ordinary least squares regression. We also investigated heterogeneity in the patterning by age. Results: Higher socioeconomic position (SEP) was associated with less smoking for men in all age groups, although the results were most pronounced for men at younger ages (odds ratio [OR] of current vs. never smoking = 0.57, 95% CI 0.51–0.63 for higher vs. lower education at ages 18–24 years). For women, higher SEP was associated with more smoking in older age groups but less smoking in younger age groups (OR = 1.51, CI 1.41–1.62 and OR = 0.86, CI 0.78–0.96 for higher vs. lower education at ages 50–64 and 18–24 years, respectively). Higher SEP was also associated with higher odds of recently quitting compared to not considering quitting for men regardless of age group but for women only in younger age groups. Discussion: The higher burden of smoking among those of lower SEP, especially in younger age groups, is a troubling pattern that is certain to impact future disparities in chronic disease outcomes unless interventions are undertaken. PMID:21622491

  6. Nutritional status and socioeconomic change among Toba and Wichí populations of the Argentinean Chaco

    PubMed Central

    Valeggia, Claudia R.; Burke, Kevin M.; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity is growing at an accelerated pace in disadvantaged populations. Indigenous populations all over the world, whose lifestyle is changing rapidly and drastically, seem to be particularly prone to show an increased prevalence of overweight and its co-morbidities among adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between socioeconomic and nutritional statuses in adults of two indigenous populations of the Argentine Gran Chaco: the Toba and Wichí of the province of Formosa. Originally hunter-gatherers, they are now more settled and engage in temporary wage labor and local political positions. A total of 541 adults (>20 years old) participated in the study. Almost 50% of the adult Toba and 34% of the adult Wichí were overweight and 10% of adults in both populations were obese. Socioeconomic status was positively associated with body mass index in both populations. Furthermore, political connectedness with the non-indigenous sector, as in the case of community leaders, was highly correlated with obesity. Differences within and between groups can be explained by biocultural factors that include gender, diet (foraged vs store-bought), lifestyle (sedentary vs more active), and history of political power. Our study highlights the interactions among social, cultural, and political economic variables, such as political hierarchies within the group or degree of social connectedness with community leaders. By making these variables an integral part of our analysis and interpretation, we hope to improve our understanding of the situation of indigenous populations in transition. PMID:19959406

  7. Positive influence of long-lasting and intensive weight-bearing physical activity on hip structure of young adults.

    PubMed

    Bréban, Sophie; Chappard, Christine; Jaffre, Christelle; Khacef, Farida; Briot, Karine; Benhamou, Claude-Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to analyze the associations between high-intensity and long-lasting weight-bearing sports with hip structure in young adults. One hundred and seventy-two subjects aged 17-28 yr were divided into 4 groups: 40 athlete women (10.2 ± 2.2 h/wk), 30 control women, 67 athlete men (11.4 ± 3.6 h/wk), and 35 control men. The nondominant femur, lumbar spine, and whole body were scanned by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to assess bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD). Hip structure analysis (HSA) software was applied to evaluate cross-sectional area, cross-sectional moment of inertia, and section modulus at the femoral neck, intertrochanter, and femoral shaft regions. All the BMC and BMD values were significantly higher in athletes of both sexes compared with controls (p < 0.05). Most of the hip structural parameters were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in athletes compared with controls. Most of the differences were maintained after adjustments for height, weight, and calcium intake. Positively significant correlations were observed between HSA parameters and physical activity variables in both sexes (r > 0.32; p < 0.05). Partial correlation suggested that the hours of practice appeared to have a greater influence than the years of practice on hip bone geometry. These results suggest that external mechanical loading is a strong determinant of hip bone structure when weight-bearing physical activity is commenced before puberty and maintained during adulthood.

  8. A New Database Facilitates Characterization of Flavonoid Intake, Sources, and Positive Associations with Diet Quality among US Adults12

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson Enns, Cecilia; Goldman, Joseph D; Martin, Carrie L; Steinfeldt, Lois C; Murayi, Theophile; Moshfegh, Alanna J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic studies demonstrate inverse associations between flavonoid intake and chronic disease risk. However, lack of comprehensive databases of the flavonoid content of foods has hindered efforts to fully characterize population intakes and determine associations with diet quality. Objectives: Using a newly released database of flavonoid values, this study sought to describe intake and sources of total flavonoids and 6 flavonoid classes and identify associations between flavonoid intake and the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010. Methods: One day of 24-h dietary recall data from adults aged ≥20 y (n = 5420) collected in What We Eat in America (WWEIA), NHANES 2007–2008, were analyzed. Flavonoid intakes were calculated using the USDA Flavonoid Values for Survey Foods and Beverages 2007–2008. Regression analyses were conducted to provide adjusted estimates of flavonoid intake, and linear trends in total and component HEI scores by flavonoid intake were assessed using orthogonal polynomial contrasts. All analyses were weighted to be nationally representative. Results: Mean intake of flavonoids was 251 mg/d, with flavan-3-ols accounting for 81% of intake. Non-Hispanic whites had significantly higher (P < 0.001) intakes of total flavonoids (275 mg/d) than non-Hispanic blacks (176 mg/d) and Hispanics (139 mg/d). Tea was the primary source (80%) of flavonoid intake. Regardless of whether the flavonoid contribution of tea was included, total HEI score and component scores for total fruit, whole fruit, total vegetables, greens and beans, seafood and plant proteins, refined grains, and empty calories increased (P < 0.001) across flavonoid intake quartiles. Conclusions: A new database that permits comprehensive estimation of flavonoid intakes in WWEIA, NHANES 2007–2008; identification of their major food/beverage sources; and determination of associations with dietary quality will lead to advances in research on relations between flavonoid intake and

  9. Socioeconomic trends in radiology.

    PubMed

    Barneveld Binkhuysen, F H

    1998-01-01

    For radiology the socioeconomic environment is a topic of increasing importance. In addition to the well-known important scientific developments in radiology such as interventional MRI, several other major trends can be recognized: (1) changes in the delivery of health care, in which all kinds of managed care are developing and will influence the practice of radiology, and (2) the process of computerization and digitization. The socioeconomic environment of radiology will be transformed by the developments in managed care, teleradiology and the integration of information systems. If radiologists want to manage future radiology departments they must have an understanding of the changes in the fields of economics and politics that are taking place and that will increasingly influence radiology. Some important and recognizable aspects of these changes will be described here. PMID:9477292

  10. Impact of Helminth Diagnostic Test Performance on Estimation of Risk Factors and Outcomes in HIV-Positive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, Michael B.; John-Stewart, Grace; Richardson, Barbra A.; Singa, Benson; van Lieshout, Lisette; Verweij, Jaco J.; Sangaré, Laura R.; Mbogo, Loice W.; Naulikha, Jacqueline M.; Walson, Judd L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional methods using microscopy for the detection of helminth infections have limited sensitivity. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays enhance detection of helminths, particularly low burden infections. However, differences in test performance may modify the ability to detect associations between helminth infection, risk factors, and sequelae. We compared these associations using microscopy and PCR. Methods This cross-sectional study was nested within a randomized clinical trial conducted at 3 sites in Kenya. We performed microscopy and real-time multiplex PCR for the stool detection and quantification of Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Schistosoma species. We utilized regression to evaluate associations between potential risk factors or outcomes and infection as detected by either method. Results Of 153 HIV-positive adults surveyed, 55(36.0%) and 20(13.1%) were positive for one or more helminth species by PCR and microscopy, respectively (p<0.001). PCR-detected infections were associated with farming (Prevalence Ratio 1.57, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.40), communal water source (PR 3.80, 95% CI: 1.01, 14.27), and no primary education (PR 1.54, 95% CI: 1.14, 2.33), whereas microscopy-detected infections were not associated with any risk factors under investigation. Microscopy-detected infections were associated with significantly lower hematocrit and hemoglobin (means of -3.56% and -0.77 g/dl) and a 48% higher risk of anemia (PR 1.48, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.88) compared to uninfected. Such associations were absent for PCR-detected infections unless infection intensity was considered, Infections diagnosed with either method were associated with increased risk of eosinophilia (PCR PR 2.42, 95% CI: 1.02, 5.76; microscopy PR 2.92, 95% CI: 1.29, 6.60). Conclusion Newer diagnostic methods, including PCR, improve the detection of helminth infections. This heightened sensitivity may improve the identification

  11. Effect of arm position and foot placement on the five times sit-to-stand test completion times of female adults older than 50 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Shamay S.M.; Kwong, Patrick W.H.; Chau, Michael S.P.; Luk, Isaac C.Y.; Wan, Sam S.; Fong, Shirley S.M.

    2015-01-01

    The five times-sit-to stand test (FTSTS) is a clinical test which is commonly used to assessed the functional muscle strength of the lower limbs of older adults. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of different arm positions and foot placements on the FTSTS completion times of older female adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine healthy female subjects, aged 63.1±5.3 years participated in this cross-sectional study. The times required to complete the FTSTS with 3 different arm positions (hands on thighs, arms crossed over chest, and an augmented arm position with the arms extended forward) and 2 foot placements (neutral and posterior) were recorded. The interaction effect and main effect of arm positions and foot placements were examined using a 3 (arm position) × 2 (foot placement) two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). [Results] There was no interaction effect among the 3 arm positions in the 2 foot placements. A significant main effect was identified for foot placement, but not arm position. Posterior foot placement led to a shorter FTSTS time compared to that of normal foot placement. [Conclusion] With the same arm position, FTSTS completion times with posterior foot placement tended to be shorter. Therefore, the standard foot placement should be used for FTSTS administration. PMID:26180314

  12. Postfamine stature and socioeconomic status in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Young, Kristin; Relethford, John H; Crawford, Michael H

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has documented socioeconomic stratification of secular trend in height in historical populations. Using data from 4,900 males and 1,430 females born between 1840 and 1910 collected as part of the Harvard Anthropological Survey of Ireland (1934-1936), this study examined the secular changes in postfamine Ireland using several socioeconomic variables, including: occupation, migration, education, siblings, birthplace, and occupation of father and mother's father. Correlations were also calculated between height and various historical economic indices. Significant differences in the height of Irish males were found by occupation, education, and socioeconomic status of father and maternal grandfather. Males employed in agriculture, or whose fathers or grandfathers were so employed, were significantly taller than other males. For the smaller female sample, only occupation and grandfather's socioeconomic status had a significant impact on height. An inverse correlation was also found between the British Cost of Living Index (BCL) and male heights. Our results suggest that availability of resources plays an important role in the overall nutritional status reflected in terminal adult height.

  13. From cradle to grave: tracking socioeconomic inequalities in mortality in a cohort of 11 868 men and women born in Uppsala, Sweden, 1915–1929

    PubMed Central

    Juárez, Sol P; Koupil, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    Background Ample evidence has shown that early-life social conditions are associated with mortality later in life. However, little attention has been given to the strength of these effects across specific age intervals from birth to old age. In this paper, we study the effect of the family's socioeconomic position and mother's marital status at birth on all-cause mortality at different age intervals in a Swedish cohort of 11 868 individuals followed across their lifespan. Methods Using the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study, we fitted Cox regression models to estimate age-varying HRs of all-cause mortality according to mother's marital status and family's socioeconomic position. Results Mother's marital status and family's socioeconomic position at birth were associated with higher mortality rates throughout life (HR 1.18 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.26) for unmarried mothers; 1.19 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.25) for low socioeconomic position). While the effect of family's socioeconomic position showed little variation across different age groups, the effect of marital status was stronger for infant mortality (HR 1.47 (95% CI 1.23 to 1.76); p=0.04 for heterogeneity). The results remained robust when early life and adult mediator variables were included. Conclusions Family's socioeconomic position and mother's marital status involve different dimensions of social stratification with independent effects on mortality throughout life. Our findings support the importance of improving early-life conditions in order to enhance healthy ageing. PMID:26733672

  14. The care of adults with congenital heart disease across the globe: Current assessment and future perspective: A position statement from the International Society for Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ISACHD).

    PubMed

    Webb, Gary; Mulder, Barbara J; Aboulhosn, Jamil; Daniels, Curt J; Elizari, Maria Amalia; Hong, Gu; Horlick, Eric; Landzberg, Michael J; Marelli, Ariane J; O'Donnell, Clare P; Oechslin, Erwin N; Pearson, Dorothy D; Pieper, Els P G; Saxena, Anita; Schwerzmann, Markus; Stout, Karen K; Warnes, Carole A; Khairy, Paul

    2015-09-15

    The number of adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) has increased markedly over the past few decades as a result of astounding successes in pediatric cardiac care. Nevertheless, it is now well understood that CHD is not cured but palliated, such that life-long expert care is required to optimize outcomes. All countries in the world that experience improved survival in CHD must face new challenges inherent to the emergence of a growing and aging CHD population with changing needs and medical and psychosocial issues. Founded in 1992, the International Society for Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ISACHD) is the leading global organization of professionals dedicated to pursuing excellence in the care of adults with CHD worldwide. Recognizing the unique and varied issues involved in caring for adults with CHD, ISACHD established a task force to assess the current status of care for adults with CHD across the globe, highlight major challenges and priorities, and provide future direction. The writing committee consisted of experts from North America, South America, Europe, South Asia, East Asia, and Oceania. The committee was divided into subgroups to review key aspects of adult CHD (ACHD) care. Regional representatives were tasked with investigating and reporting on relevant local issues as accurately as possible, within the constraints of available data. The resulting ISACHD position statement addresses changing patterns of worldwide epidemiology, models of care and organization of care, education and training, and the global research landscape in ACHD.

  15. Consumption and expenditure on food prepared away from home among Mexican adults in 2006

    PubMed Central

    Langellier, Brent A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to describe food expenditure and consumption of foods prepared away from home among Mexican adults. Methods Data were from 45,241 adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006, a nationally-representative, cross-sectional survey of Mexican households. Descriptive statistics and multivariable linear and logistic regression were used to assess the relationship between location of residence, educational attainment, socioeconomic status and the following: 1) expenditure on all food and at restaurants, and 2) frequency of consumption of comida corrida/restaurant food and street food. Results Food expenditure and consumption of food prepared away from home were positively associated with socioeconomic status, educational attainment, and urban vs. rural residence (p<0.001 for all relationships in bivariate analyses). Conclusions Consumption of food prepared outside of the home may be an important part of the diet among urban Mexican adults and those with high socioeconomic status and educational attainment. PMID:25629274

  16. Positive-Themed Suicide Prevention Messages Delivered by Adolescent Peer Leaders: Proximal Impact on Classmates' Coping Attitudes and Perceptions of Adult Support.

    PubMed

    Petrova, Mariya; Wyman, Peter A; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; Pisani, Anthony R

    2015-12-01

    Developing science-based communication guidance and positive-themed messages for suicide prevention are important priorities. Drawing on social learning and elaboration likelihood models, we designed and tested two positive-focused presentations by high school peer leaders delivered in the context of a suicide prevention program (Sources of Strength). Thirty-six classrooms in four schools (N = 706 students) were randomized to (1) peer leader modeling of healthy coping, (2) peer leader modeling plus audience involvement to identify trusted adults, or (3) control condition. Students' attitudes and norms were assessed by immediate post-only assessments. Exposure to either presentation enhanced positive coping attitudes and perceptions of adult support. Students who reported suicide ideation in the past 12 months benefited more than nonsuicidal students. Beyond modeling alone, audience involvement modestly enhanced expectations of adult support, congruent with the elaboration likelihood model. Positive peer modeling is a promising alternative to communications focused on negative consequences and directives and may enhance social-interpersonal factors linked to reduced suicidal behaviors.

  17. Factor structure of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) in adult women with fibromyalgia from Southern Spain: the al-Ándalus project

    PubMed Central

    Pulido-Martos, Manuel; Armitage, Christopher J.; Wearden, Alison; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C.; Arrayás-Grajera, Manuel Javier; Girela-Rejón, María J.; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Aparicio, Virginia A.; Geenen, Rinie; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fibromyalgia is a syndrome characterized by the presence of widespread chronic pain. People with fibromyalgia report lower levels of Positive Affect and higher levels of Negative Affect than non-fibromyalgia peers. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS)–a widely used questionnaire to assess two core domains of affect; namely ‘Positive Affect’ and ‘Negative Affect’ –has a controversial factor structure varying across studies. The internal structure of a measurement instrument has an impact on the meaning and validity of its score. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the structural construct validity of the PANAS in adult women with fibromyalgia. Methods: This population-based cross-sectional study included 442 adult women with fibromyalgia (age: 51.3 ± 7.4 years old) from Andalusia (Southern Spain). Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test the factor structure of the PANAS. Results: A structure with two correlated factors (Positive Affect and Negative Affect) obtained the best fit; S-B χ2 = 288.49, df = 155, p < .001; RMSEA = .04; 90% CI of RMSEA = (.036, .052); the best fit SRMR = .05; CFI = .96; CAIC = −810.66, respectively. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that both Positive Affect and Negative Affect are core dimensions of affect in adult women with fibromyalgia. A structure with two correlated factors of the PANAS emerged from our sample of women with fibromyalgia from Andalusia (Southern Spain). In this model, the amount of variance shared by Positive Affect and Negative Affect was small. Therefore, our findings support to use and interpret the Positive Affect and Negative Affect subscales of the PANAS as separate factors that are associated but distinctive as well. PMID:27047704

  18. Life Course Pathways of Adversities Linking Adolescent Socioeconomic Circumstances and Functional Somatic Symptoms in Mid-Adulthood: A Path Analysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Frida; San Sebastian, Miguel; Strömsten, Lotta M. J.; Hammarström, Anne; Gustafsson, Per E.

    2016-01-01

    While research examining the health impact of early socioeconomic conditions suggests that effects may exist independently of or jointly with adult socioeconomic position, studies exploring other potential pathways are few. Following a chain of risk life course model, this prospective study seeks to examine whether pathways of occupational class as well as material and social adversities across the life course link socioeconomic disadvantage in adolescent to functional somatic symptoms in mid-adulthood. Applying path analysis, a multiple mediator model was assessed using prospective data collected during 26 years through the Northern Swedish Cohort. The sample contained 987 individuals residing in the municipality of Luleå, Sweden, who participated in questionnaire surveys at age 16, 21, 30 and 42. Socioeconomic conditions (high/low) in adolescence (age 16) were operationalized using the occupation of the parents, while occupational class in adulthood (manual/non-manual) was measured using the participant’s own occupation at age 21 and 30. The adversity measurements were constructed as separate age specific parcels at age 21 and 30. Social adversity included items pertaining to stressful life events that could potentially harm salient relationships, while material adversity was operationalized using items concerning unfavorable financial and material circumstances. Functional somatic symptoms at age 42 was a summary measure of self-reported physical symptoms, palpitation and sleeping difficulties that had occurred during the last 12 months. An association between socioeconomic conditions at age 16 and functional somatic symptoms at age 42 (r = 0.068) which was partially explained by people’s own occupational class at age 21 and then material as well as social adversity at age 30 was revealed. Rather than proposing a direct and independent health effect of the socioeconomic conditions of the family, the present study suggests that growing up in an unfavorable

  19. Disease patterns and causes of death of hospitalized HIV-positive adults in West Africa: a multicountry survey in the antiretroviral treatment era

    PubMed Central

    Lewden, Charlotte; Drabo, Youssoufou J; Zannou, Djimon M; Maiga, Moussa Y; Minta, Daouda K; Sow, Papa S; Akakpo, Jocelyn; Dabis, François; Eholié, Serge P

    2014-01-01

    Objective We aimed to describe the morbidity and mortality patterns in HIV-positive adults hospitalized in West Africa. Method We conducted a six-month prospective multicentre survey within the IeDEA West Africa collaboration in six adult medical wards of teaching hospitals in Abidjan, Ouagadougou, Cotonou, Dakar and Bamako. From April to October 2010, all newly hospitalized HIV-positive patients were eligible. Baseline and follow-up information until hospital discharge was recorded using standardized forms. Diagnoses were reviewed by a local event validation committee using reference definitions. Factors associated with in-hospital mortality were studied with a logistic regression model. Results Among 823 hospitalized HIV-positive adults (median age 40 years, 58% women), 24% discovered their HIV infection during the hospitalization, median CD4 count was 75/mm3 (IQR: 25–177) and 48% had previously received antiretroviral treatment (ART). The underlying causes of hospitalization were AIDS-defining conditions (54%), other infections (32%), other diseases (8%) and non-specific illness (6%). The most frequent diseases diagnosed were: tuberculosis (29%), pneumonia (15%), malaria (10%) and cerebral toxoplasmosis (10%). Overall, 315 (38%) patients died during hospitalization and the underlying cause of death was AIDS (63%), non-AIDS-defining infections (26%), other diseases (7%) and non-specific illness or unknown cause (4%). Among them, the most frequent fatal diseases were: tuberculosis (36%), cerebral toxoplasmosis (10%), cryptococcosis (9%) and sepsis (7%). Older age, clinical WHO stage 3 and 4, low CD4 count, and AIDS-defining infectious diagnoses were associated with hospital fatality. Conclusions AIDS-defining conditions, primarily tuberculosis, and bacterial infections were the most frequent causes of hospitalization in HIV-positive adults in West Africa and resulted in high in-hospital fatality. Sustained efforts are needed to integrate care of these disease

  20. Roles and functions of occupational therapy in adult day-care (position paper). American Occupational Therapy Association.

    PubMed

    1986-12-01

    Occupational therapy's long-standing involvement in adult day-care attests to the importance of the profession's role in this setting. The functional approach used by occupational therapy helps the older person overcome multiple disablements associated with aging. Intervention promotes independence, adaptation, and the maintenance of occupational performance in self-care, work, and leisure. Working collaboratively with the day-care staff, participant, and family or care giver, occupational therapy personnel use their expertise to analyze activities and facilitate problem solving. Occupational therapy personnel may also work as administrators, activity coordinators, and consultants within the adult day-care setting.

  1. Keeping patient beds in a low position: an exploratory descriptive study to continuously monitor the height of patient beds in an adult acute surgical inpatient care setting.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Huey-Ming; Prakash, Atul; Brehob, Mark; Devecsery, David Andrew; Anderson, Allison; Yin, Chang-Yi

    2012-06-01

    This descriptive study was intended to measure the percentage of the time that patient beds were kept in high position in an adult acute inpatient surgical unit with medical overflow in a community hospital in Michigan, United States. The percentage of the time was calculated for morning, evening, and night shifts. The results showed that overall, occupied beds were in a high position 5.6% of the time: 5.40% in the day shift, 6.88% in the evening shift, and 4.38% in the night shift. It is recognized that this study was unable to differentiate whether those times patient beds being kept in a high position were appropriate for an elevated bed height (e.g., staff were working with the patient). Further research is warranted. Falls committees may conduct high-bed prevalence surveys in a regular basis as a proxy to monitor staff members' behaviors in keeping beds in a high position.

  2. Comparative Evaluation of the Sniffing Position with Simple Head Extension for Laryngoscopic View and Intubation Difficulty in Adults Undergoing Elective Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Smita; Rapsang, Amy G.; Mahajan, Saurabh; Bhattacharjee, Shameek; Singh, Rajvir; Gogia, Anoop R.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of patient position on mask ventilation, laryngoscopic view, intubation difficulty, and the stance adopted by the anesthesiologist during laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation was investigated in 546 anesthetized adults in this prospective, randomized study. Patients were randomly assigned to either the sniffing position group or the simple extension group. The distribution of Cormack grades was comparable between the two groups (P = 0.144). The IDS score [median (IQR)] was 0 (0–2) in the sniffing group and 1 (0–2) in the simple extension group; P = 0.002. There were significant differences between groups with regard to intensity of lifting force, external laryngeal manipulation, alternate techniques used, number of attempts, and the stance adopted by anesthesiologist. We conclude that the sniffing position is superior to simple head extension with regard to ease of intubation as assessed by IDS. An upright stance is adopted by more anesthesiologists performing intubation with patients in the sniffing position. PMID:22110497

  3. Poorer Wisconsin card-sorting test performance in healthy adults with higher positive and negative schizotypal traits.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ting Gang; Lee, I Hui; Chang, Cheng-Chen; Yang, Yen Kuang; Huang, Si Sheng; Chen, Kao Chin; Wang, Chieh Hui; Chang, Yun-Hsuan

    2011-10-01

    Non-clinical schizotypy was found to be related to poorer Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST) performance, but the results were inconsistent. Two subgroups, the higher negative-higher positive and the lower negative-lower positive (15 vs 16), were selected from the top and the bottom quartiles of negative and positive scale scores of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) completed by 177 healthy volunteers, respectively. The higher negative-higher positive SPQ score subgroup had significantly poorer performance regarding the completed categories of WCST than the lower negative-lower positive SPQ score subgroup. Subjects with higher non-clinical schizotypy trait showed relatively mild cognitive dysfunction.

  4. Acoustic-Phonetic Differences between Infant- and Adult-Directed Speech: The Role of Stress and Utterance Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Seidl, Amanda; Cristia, Alejandrina

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that infant-directed speech (IDS) differs from adult-directed speech (ADS) on a variety of dimensions. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether acoustic differences between IDS and ADS in English are modulated by prosodic structure. We compared vowels across the two registers (IDS, ADS) in both stressed…

  5. Improving Functional Communication Skills in Adolescents and Young Adults with Severe Autism Using Gentle Teaching and Positive Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polirstok, Susan Rovet; Dana, Lawrence; Buono, Serafino; Mongelli, Vita; Trubia, Grazia

    2003-01-01

    A study evaluated a therapeutic intervention program for young adults with severe autism at the Oasi Institute in Troina, Sicily. The program, which integrates gentle teaching, humanistic applied behavior analysis, and functional communication training, provides opportunities to acquire functional skills through errorless learning activities.…

  6. To Make Their Journey Better: Research-Focused Aspirations for Preparing Adult Volunteers for Facilitating Positive Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Joshua Aaron

    2010-01-01

    This basic interpretive qualitative research study explored the personal and professional backgrounds, training experiences, perspectives, and perceptions held by adult volunteers serving as crew advisors in the Venturing program of the Boy Scouts of America (BSA). Venturing is the BSA's adventure oriented youth development program for coeds age…

  7. The Role of Supportive Adults in Promoting Positive Development in Middle Childhood: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Eva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Guhn, Martin; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Hertzman, Clyde

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research was to examine the role of supportive adults to emotional well-being in a population of Grade 4 students attending public schools in Vancouver, Canada. Reflecting the ecology of middle childhood, we examined the extent to which perceived family, school, and neighborhood support relate to young people's self-reported…

  8. Prevalence of Psychotropic Drug Use in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Positive and Negative Findings from a Large Scale Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsiouris, John A.; Kim, Soh-Yule; Brown, W. Ted; Pettinger, Jill; Cohen, Ira L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of psychotropics by categories and the reason for their prescription was investigated in a large scale study of 4,069 adults with ID, including those with autism spectrum disorder, in New York State. Similar to other studies it was found that 58 % (2,361/4,069) received one or more psychotropics. Six percent received typical, 6 % received…

  9. Positive Outcomes following Participation in a Music Intervention for Adolescents and Young Adults on the Autism Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillier, Ashleigh; Greher, Gena; Poto, Nataliya; Dougherty, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Music interventions are frequently utilized with those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and have shown a range of benefits. However, empirical evaluations are lacking and would be a timely step forward in the field. Here we report the findings of our pilot music program for adolescents and young adults with ASD. Evaluation of the program…

  10. Using the Good Way Model to Work Positively with Adults and Youth with Intellectual Difficulties and Sexually Abusive Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Bill

    2007-01-01

    The Good Way model is being used increasingly in New Zealand and Australia in both community-based and residential programmes for the treatment of adolescents and adults with intellectual difficulties who have sexually abusive behaviour. It is also being used with children and, in adapted forms, with mainstream adolescents and people of indigenous…

  11. GH safety workshop position paper: A critical appraisal of recombinant human GH therapy in children and adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant human Growth Hormone (rhGH) has been in use for 30 years, and over that time its safety and efficacy in children and adults has been subject to considerable scrutiny. In 2001, a statement from the GH Research Society (GRS) concluded that 'for approved indications, GH is safe'; however, t...

  12. "But I Like My Body": Positive body image characteristics and a holistic model for young-adult women.

    PubMed

    Wood-Barcalow, Nichole L; Tylka, Tracy L; Augustus-Horvath, Casey L

    2010-03-01

    Extant body image research has provided a rich understanding of negative body image but a rather underdeveloped depiction of positive body image. Thus, this study used Grounded Theory to analyze interviews from 15 college women classified as having positive body image and five body image experts. Many characteristics of positive body image emerged, including appreciating the unique beauty and functionality of their body, filtering information (e.g., appearance commentary, media ideals) in a body-protective manner, defining beauty broadly, and highlighting their body's assets while minimizing perceived imperfections. A holistic model emerged: when women processed mostly positive and rejected negative source information, their body investment decreased and body evaluation became more positive, illustrating the fluidity of body image. Women reciprocally influenced these sources (e.g., mentoring others to love their bodies, surrounding themselves with others who promote body acceptance, taking care of their health), which, in turn, promoted increased positive source information.

  13. Examining the positive effects of rapport building: when and why does rapport building benefit adult eyewitness memory?

    PubMed

    Kieckhaefer, Jenna Mitchell; Vallano, Jonathan Patrick; Schreiber Compo, Nadja

    2014-01-01

    Most investigative interviewing protocols recommend building rapport with cooperative adult witnesses to increase the accuracy of their reports. Although a few recent studies support the benefits of rapport building on adult witness recall, no study has examined whether the timing of rapport in relation to post-event misinformation affects recall accuracy, and whether these effects are related to witness anxiety levels throughout the interview. The present study provided two hundred and thirty-three undergraduates with a videotaped mock crime followed by building high or low rapport either before or after they received post-event misinformation. All witnesses were then interviewed about the mock crime. Results indicated that high rapport before misinformation increased the amount of accurate information reported in a subsequent witness interview compared to low rapport. However, these recall benefits were not due to a reduction in anxiety. Theoretical implications and practical recommendations for police interviewing practices are discussed.

  14. Talking about Class: Honest Conversations about Socioeconomic Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanek, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    As independent schools move to a greater emphasis on 21st-century skills and global education, it becomes imperative that curriculum address one of society's greatest challenges: the recognition of socioeconomic difference and its impact on every aspect of people's lives. With an increasingly diverse student and adult population, ensuring…

  15. Positive attitudes toward organic, local, and sustainable foods are associated with higher dietary quality among young adults.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Jennifer E; Laska, Melissa N; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Scant evidence is available on the relationship between preferences for organic, local, sustainable, and nonprocessed foods (ie, alternative food production practices) and dietary quality. This cross-sectional study examined the characteristics and dietary behaviors (eg, consumption of fruits, vegetables, fast food) of young adults who reported placing low, moderate, or high importance on alternative food production practices. A diverse sample of 1,201 students at a 2-year community college and a 4-year public university in the Twin Cities, MN, completed the Student Health and Wellness Study survey in spring 2010. χ(2) tests examined differences in attitudes across demographic characteristics. Linear regression adjusted dietary intake across attitudes. About half (49%) of young adults placed moderate to high importance on alternative production practices, and few demographic differences across attitudes were found. Young adults who placed high importance on alternative production practices consumed 1.3 more servings of fruits and vegetables (P<0.001), more dietary fiber (P<0.001), fewer added sugars (P<0.001), fewer sugar-sweetened beverages (P=0.001), and less fat (P=0.025) than those who placed low importance on these practices. Young adults who placed high importance on alternative food production practices also consumed breakfast approximately 1 more day per week and fast food half as often as those who placed low importance on these practices (P<0.001). Study findings suggest that nutrition messaging around social and environmental implications of food production practices may be well received by this age group. Experimental studies are needed to investigate whether attitudes toward alternative production practices can be manipulated to improve dietary quality. PMID:23260729

  16. Positive attitudes toward organic, local, and sustainable foods are associated with higher dietary quality among young adults

    PubMed Central

    Laska, Melissa N.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Scant evidence is available on the relationship between preferences for organic, local, sustainable, and non-processed foods (i.e., alternative food production practices) and dietary quality. This cross-sectional study examined the characteristics and dietary behaviors (e.g., consumption of fruit, vegetables, fast food, etc.) of young adults who reported placing low, moderate, or high importance on alternative food production practices. A diverse sample of 1,201 students at a two-year community college and a four-year public university in the Twin Cities, MN, completed the Student Health and Wellness Study survey in spring 2010. Chi-square tests examined differences in attitudes across demographic characteristics. Linear regression adjusted dietary intake across attitudes. About half (49%) of young adults placed moderate to high importance on alternative production practices, and few demographic differences across attitudes were found. Young adults who placed high importance on alternative production practices consumed 1.3 greater servings of fruits and vegetables (p<0.001), more dietary fiber (p<0.001), fewer added sugars (p<0.001) and less fat (p=0.025) than those who placed low importance on these practices. Young adults who placed high importance on alternative food production practices also consumed breakfast about one more day per week and fast food half as often as those who placed low importance on these practices (p<0.001). Study findings suggest that nutrition messaging around social and environmental implications of food production practices may be well received by this age group. Experimental studies are needed to investigate whether attitudes toward alternative production practices can be manipulated to improve dietary quality. PMID:23260729

  17. Positive attitudes toward organic, local, and sustainable foods are associated with higher dietary quality among young adults.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Jennifer E; Laska, Melissa N; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Scant evidence is available on the relationship between preferences for organic, local, sustainable, and nonprocessed foods (ie, alternative food production practices) and dietary quality. This cross-sectional study examined the characteristics and dietary behaviors (eg, consumption of fruits, vegetables, fast food) of young adults who reported placing low, moderate, or high importance on alternative food production practices. A diverse sample of 1,201 students at a 2-year community college and a 4-year public university in the Twin Cities, MN, completed the Student Health and Wellness Study survey in spring 2010. χ(2) tests examined differences in attitudes across demographic characteristics. Linear regression adjusted dietary intake across attitudes. About half (49%) of young adults placed moderate to high importance on alternative production practices, and few demographic differences across attitudes were found. Young adults who placed high importance on alternative production practices consumed 1.3 more servings of fruits and vegetables (P<0.001), more dietary fiber (P<0.001), fewer added sugars (P<0.001), fewer sugar-sweetened beverages (P=0.001), and less fat (P=0.025) than those who placed low importance on these practices. Young adults who placed high importance on alternative food production practices also consumed breakfast approximately 1 more day per week and fast food half as often as those who placed low importance on these practices (P<0.001). Study findings suggest that nutrition messaging around social and environmental implications of food production practices may be well received by this age group. Experimental studies are needed to investigate whether attitudes toward alternative production practices can be manipulated to improve dietary quality.

  18. Neofunctionalization of embryonic head patterning genes facilitates the positioning of novel traits on the dorsal head of adult beetles.

    PubMed

    Zattara, Eduardo E; Busey, Hannah A; Linz, David M; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori; Moczek, Armin P

    2016-07-13

    The origin and integration of novel traits are fundamental processes during the developmental evolution of complex organisms. Yet how novel traits integrate into pre-existing contexts remains poorly understood. Beetle horns represent a spectacular evolutionary novelty integrated within the context of the adult dorsal head, a highly conserved trait complex present since the origin of insects. We investigated whether otd1/2 and six3, members of a highly conserved gene network that instructs the formation of the anterior end of most bilaterians, also play roles in patterning more recently evolved traits. Using ablation-based fate-mapping, comparative larval RNA interference (RNAi) and transcript sequencing, we found that otd1/2, but not six3, play a fundamental role in the post-embryonic formation of the adult dorsal head and head horns of Onthophagus beetles. By contrast, neither gene appears to pattern the adult head of Tribolium flour beetles even though all are expressed in the dorsal head epidermis of both Onthophagus and Tribolium We propose that, at least in beetles, the roles of otd genes during post-embryonic development are decoupled from their embryonic functions, and that potentially non-functional post-embryonic expression in the dorsal head facilitated their co-option into a novel horn-patterning network during Onthophagus evolution. PMID:27412276

  19. Indirect effect of financial strain on daily cortisol output through daily negative to positive affect index in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study.

    PubMed

    Puterman, Eli; Haritatos, Jana; Adler, Nancy E; Sidney, Steve; Schwartz, Joseph E; Epel, Elissa S

    2013-12-01

    Daily affect is important to health and has been linked to cortisol. The combination of high negative affect and low positive affect may have a bigger impact on increasing HPA axis activity than either positive or negative affect alone. Financial strain may both dampen positive affect as well as increase negative affect, and thus provides an excellent context for understanding the associations between daily affect and cortisol. Using random effects mixed modeling with maximum likelihood estimation, we examined the relationship between self-reported financial strain and estimated mean daily cortisol level (latent cortisol variable), based on six salivary cortisol assessments throughout the day, and whether this relationship was mediated by greater daily negative to positive affect index measured concurrently in a sample of 776 Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study participants. The analysis revealed that while no total direct effect existed for financial strain on cortisol, there was a significant indirect effect of high negative affect to low positive affect, linking financial strain to elevated cortisol. In this sample, the effects of financial strain on cortisol through either positive affect or negative affect alone were not significant. A combined affect index may be a more sensitive and powerful measure than either negative or positive affect alone, tapping the burden of chronic financial strain, and its effects on biology.

  20. Stable Postdivorce Family Structures during Late Adolescence and Socioeconomic Consequences in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yongmin; Li, Yuanzhang

    2008-01-01

    Using four waves of panel data from 6,954 American young adults in the National Education Longitudinal Study, we compare the long-term socioeconomic consequences of growing up in two types of divorced families. Our findings show that the negative socioeconomic consequences of growing up in unstable postdivorce families are at least twice as large…

  1. Redirection of doublecortin-positive cell migration by over-expression of the chemokines MCP-1, MIP-1α and GRO-α in the adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Tang, S K; Knobloch, R A; Maucksch, C; Connor, B

    2014-02-28

    Inflammation-induced chemoattraction plays a major role in adult subventricular zone (SVZ)-derived precursor cell migration following neural cell loss, in particular through the release of chemokines by activated microglia and macrophages. We previously demonstrated that monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) (chemokine (c-c motif) ligand (CCL)2), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) (CCL3) and growth regulatory protein-α (GRO-α) (chemokine (c-x-c motif) ligand (CXCL)1) are up-regulated following neural cell loss in the adult striatum and act as potent chemoattractants for SVZ-derived precursor cells in vitro. Based on these observations, the current study aimed to examine the individual effect of MCP-1, MIP-1α and GRO-α on the migration of adult SVZ-derived neural precursor cells in vivo. To address this without the confounding effects of injury-induced chemotactic cues, adeno-associated viral (AAV)2-mediated in vivo gene transfer was used to ectopically express either MCP-1, MIP-1α or GRO-α, or the control red fluorescent protein (RFP) in the normal adult rat striatum. The extent of doublecortin (Dcx)-positive cell recruitment from the SVZ into the striatal parenchyma was then determined at 4 and 8weeks following AAV2 injection. Ectopic expression either of MCP-1 or MIP-1α in the normal adult rat brain significantly increased the number of Dcx-positive cells and the extent of their migration into the striatum at both 4 and 8weeks after vector injection but did not promote either precursor cell proliferation or neural differentiation. In contrast, while over-expression of GRO-α 4weeks after vector injection induced a significant increase in Dcx-positive cell migration compared to control, this effect was reduced to control levels by 8weeks post injection. Further, direct comparison between MCP-1, MIP-1α and GRO-α at both 4 and 8weeks post vector injection indicated that GRO-α may have a reduced effect in inducing Dcx-positive cell migration

  2. Pathogenetic, Clinical, and Prognostic Features of Adult t(4;11)(q21;q23)/MLL-AF4 Positive B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Marchesi, F.; Girardi, K.; Avvisati, G.

    2011-01-01

    Translocation t(4;11)(q21;q23) leading to formation of MLL-AF4 fusion gene is found in about 10% of newly diagnosed B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in adult patients. Patients expressing this chromosomal aberration present typical biological, immunophenotypic, and clinical features. This form of leukemia is universally recognized as high-risk leukemia and treatment intensification with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in first complete remission (CR) could be a valid option to improve prognosis, but data obtained from the literature are controversial. In this review, we briefly describe pathogenetic, clinical, and prognostic characteristics of adult t(4;11)(q21;q23)/MLL-AF4 positive ALL and provide a review of the clinical outcome reported by the most important cooperative groups worldwide. PMID:22190943

  3. Socioeconomic inequalities in attitudes towards cancer: an international cancer benchmarking partnership study

    PubMed Central

    Quaife, Samantha L.; Winstanley, Kelly; Robb, Katie A.; Simon, Alice E.; Ramirez, Amanda J.; Forbes, Lindsay J.L.; Brain, Kate E.; Gavin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) differences in attitudes towards cancer have been implicated in the differential screening uptake and the timeliness of symptomatic presentation. However, the predominant emphasis of this work has been on cancer fatalism, and many studies focus on specific community subgroups. This study aimed to assess SES differences in positive and negative attitudes towards cancer in UK adults. A population-based sample of UK adults (n=6965, age≥50 years) completed the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer scale, including six belief items: three positively framed (e.g. ‘Cancer can often be cured’) and three negatively framed (e.g. ‘A cancer diagnosis is a death sentence’). SES was indexed by education. Analyses controlled for sex, ethnicity, marital status, age, self-rated health, and cancer experience. There were few education-level differences for the positive statements, and overall agreement was high (all>90%). In contrast, there were strong differences for negative statements (all Ps<0.001). Among respondents with lower education levels, 57% agreed that ‘treatment is worse than cancer’, 27% that cancer is ‘a death sentence’ and 16% ‘would not want to know if I have cancer’. Among those with university education, the respective proportions were 34, 17 and 6%. Differences were not explained by cancer experience or health status. In conclusion, positive statements about cancer outcomes attract near-universal agreement. However, this optimistic perspective coexists alongside widespread fears about survival and treatment, especially among less-educated groups. Health education campaigns targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged groups might benefit from a focus on reducing negative attitudes, which is not necessarily achieved by promoting positive attitudes. PMID:25734238

  4. Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial of Zinc Supplementation to Prevent Immunological Failure in HIV-Positive Adults1,2

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Marianna K; Lai, Shenghan; Sales, Sabrina; Page, J. Bryan; Campa, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Background Adequate zinc is critical for immune function; however, zinc deficiency occurs in >50% of HIV-infected adults. We examined the safety and efficacy of long-term zinc supplementation on HIV disease progression. Methods A prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted with 231 HIV+ adults with low plasma zinc levels (<0.75 μg/ml), randomly assigned into zinc (12 mg of elemental zinc for women and 15 mg for men) or placebo, for 18 months. The primary endpoint was immunological failure. HIV-viral load and CD4+ cell count were determined every 6 months. Questionnaires, pill-counts, plasma zinc and C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were used to monitor adherence with study supplements and ART. Intent-to-treat analysis utilized multiple-event analysis, treating CD4+ cell count <200 cells/mm3 as recurrent immunological failure event. Cox proportional-hazard models and the general-linear model were used to analyze morbidity and mortality data. Results Zinc supplementation for 18 months reduced four-fold the likelihood of immunological failure, controlling for age, gender, lack of food, baseline CD4+ cell count, viral load, and antiretroviral therapy (RR=0.24[95%CI:0.10,0.56],p<0.002). Viral load indicated poor control with ART but was not affected by zinc supplementation. Zinc supplementation also reduced the rate of diarrhea by more than half (OR=0.4[95%CI:0.183-0.981],p=0.019) compared to placebo. There was no significant difference in mortality between the two groups. Conclusion This study demonstrated that long-term (18-month) zinc supplementation at nutritional levels delayed immunological failure and decreased diarrhea over time. This evidence supports the use of zinc supplementation as an adjunct therapy in HIV+ adult cohorts with poor viral control. Summary This study demonstrated that long-term (18-month) zinc supplementation at nutritional levels delayed immunological failure and decreased diarrhea over time. This evidence supports the use of

  5. Transition of gastroenterological patients from paediatric to adult care: A position statement by the Italian Societies of Gastroenterology.

    PubMed

    Elli, Luca; Maieron, Roberto; Martelossi, Stefano; Guariso, Graziella; Buscarini, Elisabetta; Conte, Dario; di Giulio, Emilio; Staiano, Annamaria; Barp, Jacopo; Bassotti, Gabrio; Bianco, Maria Antonia; Buri, Luigi; Carrara, Maurizio; Ghidini, Benedetta; Giannini, Olivia; Knafelz, Daniela; Miele, Erasmo; Peralta, Sergio; Riccio, Elisabetta; Tomba, Carolina; Zilli, Maurizio; Guadagnini, Tiziana

    2015-09-01

    In 2013, four Italian Gastroenterological Societies (the Italian Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, the Italian Society of Hospital Gastroenterologists and Endoscopists, the Italian Society of Endoscopy, and the Italian Society of Gastroenterology) formed a joint panel of experts with the aim of preparing an official statement on transition medicine in Gastroenterology. The transition of adolescents from paediatric to adult care is a crucial moment in managing chronic diseases such as celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, liver disease and liver transplantation. Improved medical treatment and availability of new drugs and surgical techniques have improved the prognosis of many paediatric disorders, prolonging survival, thus making the transition to adulthood possible and necessary. An inappropriate transition or the incomplete transmission of data from the paediatrician to the adult Gastroenterologist can dramatically decrease compliance to treatment and prognosis of a young patient, particularly in the case of severe disorders. For these reasons, the Italian gastroenterological societies decided to develop an official shared transition protocol. The resulting document discusses the factors influencing the transition process and highlights the main points to accomplish to optimize compliance and prognosis of gastroenterological patients during the difficult transition from childhood to adolescence and adulthood.

  6. Adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia with near haploidy, hyperdiploidy and Ph positive lines: a rare entity with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Sunil, Sidharthan K; Prakash, Purushothaman N; Hariharan, Sreedharan; Vinod, Gopalakrishnan; Preethi, Ramadas T; Geetha, Narayanan; Ankathil, Ravindran

    2006-03-01

    Chromosomal ploidies provide a wealth of information with respect to the prognosis of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The prognosis is favourable in hyperdiploidy (>50 ALL), whereas pseudodiploidy and hypodiploidy have an overall poor clinical outcome. Near haploid ALL with less than 30 chromosomes in the leukemic blasts has been reported. This is an extremely rare malignancy with an adverse clinical course compared to other lymphoblastic leukemias. We present a case of near haploid ALL in an adult male with a diagnosis of pre-B-cell ALL. The presenting features and relevance to the progression of disease are discussed with respect to the near haploid lines. Occurrence in an adult male and the presence of additional clones with structural abnormalities are both unique to the present study. Caution must be exercised when the hyperdiploid metaphases consists exclusively of tetrasomic chromosomes and morphological examination reveals definite dual populations of large and small lymphoblasts. Despite current developments in ALL therapy, near haploid ALL continues to be a disease with an adverse clinical outcome and newer therapeutic strategies are warranted for better management of the disease. PMID:16396782

  7. Evidence-based guidelines for the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in adults with Philadelphia chromosome–positive or BCR-ABL–positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a Canadian consensus

    PubMed Central

    Couban, S.; Savoie, L.; Mourad, Y. Abou; Leber, B.; Minden, M.; Turner, R.; Palada, V.; Shehata, N.; Christofides, A.; Lachance, S.

    2014-01-01

    Adult Philadelphia chromosome–positive (Ph+) or BCR-ABL–positive (BCR-ABL+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (all) is an acute leukemia previously associated with a high relapse rate, short disease-free survival, and poor overall survival. In adults, allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant in first remission remains the only proven curative strategy for transplant-eligible patients. The introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (tkis) in the treatment of patients with Ph+ or BCR-ABL+ all has significantly improved the depth and duration of complete remission, allowing more patients to proceed to transplantation. Although tkis are now considered a standard of care in this setting, few randomized trials have examined the optimal use of tkis in patients with Ph+ all. Questions of major importance remain, including the best way to administer these medications, the choice of tki to administer, and the schedule and the duration to use. We present the results of a systematic review of the literature with consensus recommendations based on the available evidence. PMID:24764712

  8. A Randomized, Controlled Safety, and Immunogenicity Trial of the M72/AS01 Candidate Tuberculosis Vaccine in HIV-Positive Indian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Poongulali, Selvamuthu; Bollaerts, Anne; Moris, Philippe; Beulah, Faith Esther; Ayuk, Leo Njock; Demoitié, Marie-Ange; Jongert, Erik; Ofori-Anyinam, Opokua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated tuberculosis is a major public health threat. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of the candidate tuberculosis vaccine M72/AS01 in HIV-positive and HIV-negative Indian adults. Randomized, controlled observer-blind trial (NCT01262976). We assigned 240 adults (1:1:1) to antiretroviral therapy (ART)-stable, ART-naive, or HIV-negative cohorts. Cohorts were randomized 1:1 to receive M72/AS01 or placebo following a 0, 1-month schedule and followed for 12 months (time-point M13). HIV-specific and laboratory safety parameters, adverse events (AEs), and M72-specific T-cell-mediated and humoral responses were evaluated. Subjects were predominantly QuantiFERON-negative (60%) and Bacille Calmette–Guérin-vaccinated (73%). Seventy ART-stable, 73 ART-naive, and 60 HIV-negative subjects completed year 1. No vaccine-related serious AEs or ART-regimen adjustments, or clinically relevant effects on laboratory parameters, HIV-1 viral loads or CD4 counts were recorded. Two ART-naive vaccinees died of vaccine-unrelated diseases. M72/AS01 induced polyfunctional M72-specific CD4+ T-cell responses (median [interquartile range] at 7 days postdose 2: ART-stable, 0.9% [0.7–1.5]; ART-naive, 0.5% [0.2–1.0]; and HIV-negative, 0.6% [0.4–1.1]), persisting at M13 (0.4% [0.2–0.5], 0.09% [0.04–0.2], and 0.1% [0.09–0.2], respectively). Median responses were higher in the ART-stable cohort versus ART-naive cohort from day 30 onwards (P ≤ 0.015). Among HIV-positive subjects (irrespective of ART-status), median responses were higher in QuantiFERON-positive versus QuantiFERON-negative subjects up to day 30 (P ≤ 0.040), but comparable thereafter. Cytokine-expression profiles were comparable between cohorts after dose 2. At M13, M72-specific IgG responses were higher in ART-stable and HIV-negative vaccinees versus ART-naive vaccinees (P ≤ 0.001). M72/AS01 was well-tolerated and immunogenic in this population of

  9. Peer and romantic relationships among adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood hematological cancer: a review of challenges and positive outcomes.

    PubMed

    Foster, Rebecca H; Stern, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on peer and romantic relationship experiences of adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivors of childhood cancer, highlighting those surviving leukemia or lymphoma. While most AYA survivors adjust well to life following a hematological cancer diagnosis and treatment, many unique experiences, both positive and challenging, have been documented with respect to successfully navigating developmentally normative social goals. Therefore, the social implications of surviving childhood leukemia or lymphoma are explored. Specifically, the development of peer and romantic relationships, perceptions of social acceptance, parental influences and attachment, perceived vulnerabilities and body image, and risks to fertility are discussed. PMID:25228563

  10. Meningitis with polymerase chain reaction for varicella zoster positivity in cerebrospinal flid of a young immunocompetent adult

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pooja; Ranjan, Rajeev; Agrawal, C. S.; Muralikrishnan, K; Dave, Nikhil; Rana, Davinder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Meningitis caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV) is quite rare among young immunocompetent adults though immunocompromised patients are often seen to be affected by reactivation of VZV presenting with primary clinical features of dermatomal rashes and neurological sequelae. Here, we report the clinical scenario of a young, healthy male who had presented with fever, headache, and onset of dermatomal rashes later than the fever and was eventually diagnosed to be a case of VZV meningitis. We would like to highlight the fact that even young immunocompetent patients though rarely, might contract VZV meningitis and clinicians should have a high index of suspicion and keen eyes to catch the more obvious features of VZV infection on complete physical examination and must not harbor any reservations in ordering polymerase chain reaction for VZV DNA or initiating aggressive antiviral therapy.

  11. Meningitis with polymerase chain reaction for varicella zoster positivity in cerebrospinal flid of a young immunocompetent adult

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pooja; Ranjan, Rajeev; Agrawal, C. S.; Muralikrishnan, K; Dave, Nikhil; Rana, Davinder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Meningitis caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV) is quite rare among young immunocompetent adults though immunocompromised patients are often seen to be affected by reactivation of VZV presenting with primary clinical features of dermatomal rashes and neurological sequelae. Here, we report the clinical scenario of a young, healthy male who had presented with fever, headache, and onset of dermatomal rashes later than the fever and was eventually diagnosed to be a case of VZV meningitis. We would like to highlight the fact that even young immunocompetent patients though rarely, might contract VZV meningitis and clinicians should have a high index of suspicion and keen eyes to catch the more obvious features of VZV infection on complete physical examination and must not harbor any reservations in ordering polymerase chain reaction for VZV DNA or initiating aggressive antiviral therapy. PMID:27695246

  12. Rural and Urban Caregivers for Older Adults in Poland: Perceptions of Positive and Negative Impact of Caregiving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bien, Barbara; Wojszel, Beata; Sikorska-Simmons, Elzbieta

    2007-01-01

    This study examines rural-urban differences in informal caregivers' perceptions of caregiving. The study's theoretical framework is based on the two-factor model of caregiving, which views caregiving as having both positive and negative impact. Data were collected in personal interviews with 126 rural and 127 urban caregivers in the Bialystok…

  13. Socioeconomic development in Sichuan.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G

    1997-10-01

    This article discusses the socioeconomic development in Sichuan province in south-central China. The gross domestic product of Sichuan province was 298.5 billion yuan in 1996, which is the 8th highest level in the country. Sichuan accounts for 30% of the total economic output in West China. Grain output accounts for 7.3%, oil bearing seed output accounts for 6.4%, and meat output accounts for 12% of the national total. This province accounts for 5.6% of the national gross output value of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, and fishery, which is the 6th largest proportion in the nation. In 1996, total industrial output was valued at 234.6 billion yuan. Sichuan also has considerable commerce, trade, culture, and education. In 1996, Sichuan had 42 universities and colleges with enrollments of 131,00 students and 6615 postgraduates. The province had 215 secondary vocational schools with an enrollment of 21,700 trainees. 4506 secondary schools had an enrollment of 2.766 million students. 48,911 primary schools had an enrollment of 7.8 million students. In 1996, Sichuan had 13,963 health units with 189,000 beds and 246,000 health and medical workers, of whom 123,000 were doctors and 60,000 were nurses. The population aged over 60 years numbered 8.55 million persons, or 10.2% of provincial total population. It is expected that the number of elderly will reach 9.32 million by the year 2000. There are about 3861 homes and institutions of welfare for the aged, 40 apartment complexes for the elderly, over 700 hospitals and clinics serving the elderly, and 430 schools or universities for the aged.

  14. Isolation of small SSEA-4-positive putative stem cells from the ovarian surface epithelium of adult human ovaries by two different methods.

    PubMed

    Virant-Klun, Irma; Skutella, Thomas; Hren, Matjaz; Gruden, Kristina; Cvjeticanin, Branko; Vogler, Andrej; Sinkovec, Jasna

    2013-01-01

    The adult ovarian surface epithelium has already been proposed as a source of stem cells and germinal cells in the literature, therefore it has been termed the "germinal epithelium". At present more studies have confirmed the presence of stem cells expressing markers of pluripotency in adult mammalian ovaries, including humans. The aim of this study was to isolate a population of stem cells, based on the expression of pluripotency-related stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA-4) from adult human ovarian surface epithelium by two different methods: magnetic-activated cell sorting and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Both methods made it possible to isolate a similar, relatively homogenous population of small, SSEA-4-positive cells with diameters of up to 4  μm from the suspension of cells retrieved by brushing of the ovarian cortex biopsies in reproductive-age and postmenopausal women and in women with premature ovarian failure. The immunocytochemistry and genetic analyses revealed that these small cells--putative stem cells--expressed some primordial germ cell and pluripotency-related markers and might be related to the in vitro development of oocyte-like cells expressing some oocyte-specific transcription factors in the presence of donated follicular fluid with substances important for oocyte growth and development. The stemness of these cells needs to be further researched.

  15. Brain metastasis of ALK positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma after a long-term disease free survival in an old adult

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cai-Xia; Wang, Hai; Li, Jie; Ma, Heng-Hui; Yu, Bo; Shi, Shan-Shan; Zhou, Xiao-Jun; Shi, Qun-Li

    2014-01-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma composed of CD30-positive cells and now recognized as three different entities: primary cutaneous ALCL, primary systemic anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive (ALK+) ALCL and primary ALK-negative (ALK-) ALCL. ALK+ ALCL is supposed to have a better prognosis than ALK- ALCL. It is rarely metastasized to other sites, especially to the central nervous system (CNS). Herein, we present a rare case of systemic ALK+ ALCL which metastasized to the brain after a long-term disease free survival in an adult. Neuroimaging revealed a well-enhanced mass in the left frontal lobe. And it was completely resected. The results of the pathological and immunohistochemical studies were consistent with the metastasized ALK+ ALCL. The clinical findings, pathologic characteristics and treatment are described. PMID:24696735

  16. Socioeconomic Status, IQ, and Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffitt, Terrie E.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Results from two Danish prospective longitudinal studies are presented to support the view that IQ bears a causal relationship to delinquency that is independent of the effects of socioeconomic status (SES). (CL)

  17. Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms Predict Sustained Quality of Life Deficits in HIV-Positive Ugandan Adults Despite Antiretroviral Therapy: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Ezeamama, Amara E; Woolfork, Makhabele N; Guwatudde, David; Bagenda, Danstan; Manabe, Yukari C; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Smith Fawzi, Mary C

    2016-03-01

    The impact of psychosocial status at onset of antiretroviral therapy on changes in quality of life (QOL) and subjectively rated health (SRH) among adults on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in resource-limited settings is poorly understood. Therefore, we evaluate the association between stigma, anxiety, depression, and social support and change in QOL and SRH in HIV-infected Ugandan adults during an 18-month period. Psychosocial indicators were assessed at enrollment using structured questionnaires. QOL and SRH measures were assessed at months 0, 6, 12, and 18 using the Medical Outcomes Survey-HIV. Linear mixed models determined risk estimated differences in QOL and SRH in relation to quartiles of each psychosocial status indicator. Repeated measures generalized estimating equations modeling was implemented to assess differences in likelihood of improved versus nonimproved SRH during follow-up.QOL scores and SRH improved significantly for all participants over 18 months (P < 0.0001). The gain in QOL increased dose-dependently as baseline depressive symptoms (time*depression P < 0.001) and anxiety levels (time*anxiety P < 0.001) declined. Lower social support was associated with worse QOL at baseline (P = 0.0005) but QOL improvement during follow-up was not dependent on baseline level of social support (time*social support P = 0.8943) or number of stigmatizing experiences (time*stigma P = 0.8662). Psychosocial determinants did not predict changes in SRH in this study. High levels of depression and anxiety symptoms at HAART initiation predicts lower gains in QOL for HIV-positive patients for as long as 18 months. Long-term QOL improvements in HIV-infected adults may be enhanced by implementation of psychosocial interventions to reduce depression and anxiety in HIV-infected adults.

  18. Racial and socioeconomic disparities in arterial stiffness and intima media thickness among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Thurston, Rebecca C; Matthews, Karen A

    2009-03-01

    Racial and socioeconomic status (SES) disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are well established among adults. However, little is known about disparities in CVD risk among adolescents, particularly considering indices of subclinical CVD. Our aim was to examine socioeconomic and racial disparities in subclinical CVD indices among adolescents. We hypothesized that African American and lower SES adolescents would show greater arterial stiffness and intima media thickness compared to Caucasian and higher SES adolescents, respectively. Participants were 81 African American and 78 Caucasian adolescents (mean age=17.8) from two schools in Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Measures of subclinical CVD were pulse wave velocity and intima media thickness, as assessed by Doppler and B-mode ultrasound, respectively. SES indices included parental education, family income, family assets, subjective social status, and census-derived neighborhood SES. Hypotheses were evaluated in multiple linear regression models with the covariates age, gender, body mass index, and systolic blood pressure. Results indicated that African American adolescents were more often in low SES positions than Caucasians. When considered individually, racial and SES disparities in pulse wave velocity, and to a lesser extent, intima media thickness, were evident. When race and SES were considered together, high school education, low or medium income, and low neighborhood SES were associated with higher pulse wave velocity. Fewer assets were associated with higher intima media thickness. In conclusion, racial and SES disparities in indices of subclinical CVD were observed, with findings most pronounced for SES disparities in pulse wave velocity. This study extends previous findings in adults to adolescents, indicating that disparities in arterial stiffness and intima media thickness occur as early as adolescence. Efforts to reduce socioeconomic and racial disparities in CVD should target disparities early in life.

  19. Increases in the Numerical Density of GAT-1 Positive Puncta in the Barrel Cortex of Adult Mice after Fear Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Siucinska, Ewa; Hamed, Adam; Jasinska, Malgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Three days of fear conditioning that combines tactile stimulation of a row of facial vibrissae (conditioned stimulus, CS) with a tail shock (unconditioned stimulus, UCS) expands the representation of “trained” vibrissae, which can be demonstrated by labeling with 2-deoxyglucose in layer IV of the barrel cortex. We have also shown that functional reorganization of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) increases GABAergic markers in the hollows of “trained” barrels of the adult mouse. This study investigated how whisker-shock conditioning (CS+UCS) affected the expression of puncta of a high-affinity GABA plasma membrane transporter GAT-1 in the barrel cortex of mice 24 h after associative learning paradigm. We found that whisker-shock conditioning (CS+UCS) led to increase expression of neuronal and astroglial GAT-1 puncta in the “trained” row compared to controls: Pseudoconditioned, CS-only, UCS-only and Naïve animals. These findings suggest that fear conditioning specifically induces activation of systems regulating cellular levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. PMID:25333489

  20. Tax unleashed: fulminant Tax-positive Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma after failed allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ghez, David; Renand, Amédée; Lepelletier, Yves; Sibon, David; Suarez, Felipe; Rubio, Marie-Thérèse; Delarue, Richard; Buzyn, Agnès; Beljord, Kheira; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Varet, Bruno; Hermine, Olivier

    2009-12-01

    The human retrovirus HTLV-1 causes Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL), a malignant lymphoproliferative disease of CD4+ T cells of dismal prognosis, in 3-5% of the 20 million infected individuals (Proietti et al.(1) and Bazarbachi et al.(2)). Infection with HTLV-1 represents a prototypical model of virus-mediated oncogenesis by virtue of the viral transactivator Tax, a potent oncogenic protein that exerts pleiotropic effects through its ability to deregulate the transcription of various cellular genes and signal transduction pathways and inhibit DNA repair enzymes, which are critical for T-cell homeostasis and genetic stability (Matsuoka and Jeang(3)) (et Boxus Retrovirology 2009). However, the oncogenic potential of Tax remains a conundrum. Tax protein expression is undetectable using conventional methods in freshly harvested ATLL cells and in non-malignant infected CD4+ T cells (Furukawa et al.(4)) but is up regulated after only a few hours of culture in vitro (Hanon et al.(5)). These observations strongly suggest that a host-derived mechanism is able to either actively repress the transcription of viral proteins in vivo or refrain the emergence of Tax-expressing cells, which would have a growth advantage. We report herein a unique case of CD4+ T-cell leukemia highly expressing Tax following rejection of an allogenic peripheral blood stem cell graft for an HTLV-1 associated lymphoma. PMID:19836302

  1. Determinants of Anemia Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Adults at Care and Treatment Clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Petraro, Paul; Duggan, Christopher; Spiegelman, Donna; Hertzmark, Ellen; Makubi, Abel; Chalamilla, Guerino; Siril, Helen; Sando, David; Aboud, Said; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2016-02-01

    Anemia is often a comorbidity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Many cross-sectional studies have been conducted on anemia and HIV, but few, if any, have addressed incidence of anemia prospectively. A longitudinal analysis was conducted in 48,068 nonpregnant HIV-infected adults in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, seen at Management and Development for Health-U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief HIV care and treatment programs between 2004 and 2011. Almost 56% (N = 27,184) of study participants had anemia (hemoglobin < 11 g/dL) at the time of enrollment at the clinic. Female gender, low body mass index (BMI), low CD4 T-cell count, high levels of liver enzyme alanine aminotransferase, antiretroviral treatment (ART) regimens, and concurrent tuberculosis treatment were all independently significantly associated with an increased risk of anemia. Low BMI and low CD4 T-cell count were independently significantly associated with an increased risk for iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Higher BMI status and ART use were associated with recovery from anemia. Anemia, including IDA, is a comorbidity that is associated with other adverse consequences (e.g., low BMI and CD4 T-cell count) among individuals with HIV infection, including those on ART. Interventions to prevent anemia and its complications need to be examined in the context of future studies. PMID:26666698

  2. Hydroxychloroquine is a good second-line treatment for adults with immune thrombocytopenia and positive antinuclear antibodies.

    PubMed

    Khellaf, Mehdi; Chabrol, Amèlie; Mahevas, Matthieu; Roudot-Thoraval, Françoise; Limal, Nicolas; Languille, Laetitia; Bierling, Philippe; Michel, Marc; Godeau, Bertrand

    2014-02-01

    Treatment of patients with lupus-associated thrombocytopenia (SLE-ITP) is not standardized. We report data on efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in this setting and in ITP patients with positive antinuclear antibodies (ANA) without definite SLE. Inclusion criteria were: definite diagnosis of ITP with a platelet count (PLT) <50 × 10(9) /L, ANA ≥ 1/160 on Hep2 cells with or without a definite diagnosis of SLE, and no sustained response to at least one previous treatment-line and treatment with HCQ. Response criteria were Complete Response (CR) for PLT ≥ 100 × 10(9) /L and Response (R) for PLT ≥30 × 10(9) /L and at least twice the initial value. Forty patients (32 females) with a mean age of 35 ± 17 years and PLT at ITP diagnosis of 14 ± 13 × 10(9) /L were analyzed. Twelve (30%) patients had a SLE-ITP, 28 patients had only positive ANA. All the patients failed to respond to oral prednisone with a median of two treatment-lines (1-5) before HCQ which was initially given in combination with another ITP treatment in 36 patients. Overall response rate was 60% (24/40) including 18 lasting CR and six lasting R maintained with a median follow-up of 64 months (6-146), in ¾ of cases with only HCQ and no concomitant ITP treatment. The response rate (CR+R) was higher in the SLE group vs ANA-positive group (83% vs 50%, P < 0.05). No patient stopped HCQ because of a side-effect. HCQ appears to be a safe and effective second line treatment for patients with SLE-ITP or ITP and high titer of ANA. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as # NCT01549184.

  3. The impact of resilience among older adults.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Stephanie; Musich, Shirley; Hawkins, Kevin; Alsgaard, Kathleen; Wicker, Ellen R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to provide an overview of resilience for the purpose of informing potential intervention designs that may benefit older adults. While numerous reviews have focused on various specific aspects of resilience, none have provided the necessary information required to design an effective resilience intervention. Research examining resilience suggests that older adults are capable of high resilience despite socioeconomic backgrounds, personal experiences, and declining health. Thus opportunities to inform interventions in this area exist. Research studies have identified the common mental, social, and physical characteristics associated with resilience. High resilience has also been significantly associated with positive outcomes, including successful aging, lower depression, and longevity. Interventions to enhance resilience within this population are warranted, but little evidence of success exists. Thus this review provides an overview of resilience that may aid in the design of resilience interventions for the often underserved population of older adults.

  4. HLA-A is a Predictor of Hepatitis B e Antigen Status in HIV-Positive African Adults.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Philippa C; Carlson, Jonathan M; Beloukas, Apostolos; Malik, Amna; Jooste, Pieter; Ogwu, Anthony; Shapiro, Roger; Riddell, Lynn; Chen, Fabian; Luzzi, Graz; Jesuthasan, Gerald; Jeffery, Katie; Jojic, Nebojsa; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Carrington, Mary; Goulder, Philip J R; Geretti, Anna Maria; Klenerman, Paul

    2016-04-15

    Outcomes of chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) are varied, with increased morbidity reported in the context of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. The factors driving different outcomes are not well understood, but there is increasing interest in an HLA class I effect. We therefore studied the influence of HLA class I on HBV in an African HIV-positive cohort. We demonstrated that virologic markers of HBV disease activity (hepatitis B e antigen status or HBV DNA level) are associated with HLA-A genotype. This finding supports the role of the CD8(+) T-cell response in HBV control, and potentially informs future therapeutic T-cell vaccine strategies.

  5. Subject Positioning in the BOD POD® Only Marginally Affects Measurement of Body Volume and Estimation of Percent Body Fat in Young Adult Men

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Maarten W.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to evaluate whether subject positioning would affect the measurement of raw body volume, thoracic gas volume, corrected body volume and the resulting percent body fat as assessed by air displacement plethysmography (ADP). Methods Twenty-five young adult men (20.7±1.1y, BMI = 22.5±1.4 kg/m2) were measured using the BOD POD® system using a measured thoracic gas volume sitting in a ‘forward bent’ position and sitting up in a straight position in random order. Results Raw body volume was 58±124 ml (p<0.05) higher in the ‘straight’ position compared to the ‘bent’ position. The mean difference in measured thoracic gas volume (bent-straight = −71±211 ml) was not statistically significant. Corrected body volume and percent body fat in the bent position consequently were on average 86±122 ml (p<0.05) and 0.5±0.7% (p<0.05) lower than in the straight position respectively. Conclusion Although the differences reached statistical significance, absolute differences are rather small. Subject positioning should be viewed as a factor that may contribute to between-test variability and hence contribute to (in)precision in detecting small individual changes in body composition, rather than a potential source of systematic bias. It therefore may be advisable to pay attention to standardizing subject positioning when tracking small changes in PF are of interest.The cause of the differences is shown not to be related to changes in the volume of isothermal air in the lungs. It is hypothesized and calculated that the observed direction and magnitude of these differences may arise from the surface area artifact which does not take into account that a subject in the bent position exposes more skin to the air in the device therefore potentially creating a larger underestimation of the actual body volume due to the isothermal effect of air close to the skin. PMID:22461887

  6. Strong positive associations between seafood, vegetables, and alcohol with blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels in the Korean adult population.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2013-01-01

    Blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels are more than fivefold greater in the Korean population compared with those of the United States. This may be related to the foods people consumed. Therefore, we examined the associations between food categories and mercury and arsenic exposure in the Korean adult population. Data regarding nutritional, biochemical, and health-related parameters were obtained from a cross-sectional study, the 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (3,404 men and women age ≥ 20 years). The log-transformed blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels were regressed against the frequency tertiles of each food group after covariate adjustment for sex, age, residence area, education level, smoking status, and drinking status using food-frequency data. Blood mercury levels in the high consumption groups compared to the low consumption groups were elevated by about 20 percents with salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, bluefish, and alcohol, and by about 9-14 percents with seaweeds, green vegetables, fruits and tea, whereas rice did not affect blood mercury levels. Urinary arsenic levels were markedly increased with consumption of rice, bluefish, salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, and seaweed, whereas they were moderately increased with consumption of grains, green and white vegetables, fruits, coffee, and alcohol. The remaining food categories tended to lower these levels only minimally. In conclusion, the typical Asian diet, which is high in rice, salted fish, shellfish, vegetables, alcoholic beverages, and tea, may be associated with greater blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels. This study suggests that mercury and arsenic contents should be monitored and controlled in soil and water used for agriculture to decrease health risks from heavy-metal contamination. PMID:23011092

  7. Treatment for positive urine cultures in hospitalized adults: A three medical center survey of prevalence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Grein, Jonathan D.; Kahn, Katherine L.; Eells, Samantha J.; Choi, Seong K.; Go-Wheeler, Marianne; Hossain, Tanzib; Riva, Maya Y.; Nguyen, Megan H.; Murthy, A. Rekha; Miller, Loren G.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Antibiotic treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is prevalent but often in contrast to published guidelines. We evaluated risk factors for treatment of ASB. DESIGN Retrospective observational study SETTING A tertiary academic hospital, county hospital, and community hospital PATIENTS Hospitalized adults with bacteriuria METHODS Patients without documented symptoms of urinary tract infection per Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) criteria were classified as ASB. We examined ASB treatment risk factors, broad-spectrum antibiotic usage, and quantified diagnostic concordance between IDSA and National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) criteria. RESULTS Among 300 patients with bacteriuria, ASB was present in 71% by IDSA criteria. By NHSN criteria, 71% of patients had ASB; within-patient diagnostic concordance with IDSA was moderate (kappa = 0.52). After excluding those given antibiotics for non-urinary indications, antibiotics were given to 38% (62/164) with ASB. Factors significantly associated with ASB treatment were elevated urine white cell count (65 versus 24 white blood cells per high-powered field, p<0.01), hospital identity (Hospital C vs. A, OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.14–0.80, p=0.01), presence of leukocyte esterase (OR 5.48, 95% CI 2.35–12.79, p<0.01), presence of nitrites (OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.11–5.41, p=0.03), and E. coli on culture (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2–4.7, p=0.01). Of patients treated for ASB, broad-spectrum antibiotics were used in 84%. CONCLUSIONS ASB treatment was prevalent across diverse inpatient settings and contributed to broad-spectrum antibiotic use. Associating abnormal urinalysis results with the need for antibiotic treatment, regardless of symptoms, may drive unnecessary antibiotic use and provides an opportunity for antibiotic stewardship interventions. PMID:26607408

  8. The association between depressive symptoms, anger, and perceived support resources among underserved older HIV positive black/African American adults.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Nicole Ennis; Hearn, Lauren E; Burrell, Larry

    2014-09-01

    By 2015, half of those living with HIV in the United States will be ≥50 years of age. Research suggests that perceived social support is an important factor in maintaining positive health behaviors in this population. The present study examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and trait anger on perceived social support in a sample of low-income HIV positive (HIV+) African Americans ≥50 years of age. Additionally, we examined life stressors moderated the relationship between mental health and perceived support. This study includes 95 HIV+ men and women ≥50 years of age who identify as black/African American. As expected, depressive symptoms and trait anger showed a strong inverse relationship with perceived support resources. Furthermore, life stressors also showed a strong inverse relationship with perceived support. However, life stressors did not moderate the relationship between depressive symptoms and anger. Instead life stressors demonstrated a strong independent relationship with perceived support. The association between depressive symptoms, trait anger, life stressors, and lower perceived support suggests that these factors play a role in one's ability to access needed support resources. Greater perceived support is associated with improved health in HIV+ persons, and may be especially important in tailoring interventions for those ≥50 years of age.

  9. Learning for Life: The Role of Adult Literacy and Numeracy in Lifelong Learning and Socio-Economic Well-Being. Executive Summary of the ALNARC National Research Program, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Sue; Searle, Jean; Falk, Ian; Johnston, Betty; Ovens, Carolyn; Riddell, Christine

    In 2001-2002, the Adult Literacy and Numeracy Australian Research Consortium conducted 26 national investigations with findings in the following areas: (1) population competence; (2) linking literacy and numeracy into training; (3) professional support for educators and trainers; and (4) policy and systemic issues. All the projects were intended…

  10. A Widening Gap? Changes in Multiple Lifestyle Risk Behaviours by Socioeconomic Status in New South Wales, Australia, 2002–2012

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ding; Do, Anna; Schmidt, Heather-Marie; Bauman, Adrian E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in health outcomes have increased over the past few decades in some countries. However, the trends in inequalities related to multiple health risk behaviours have been infrequently reported. In this study, we examined the trends in individual health risk behaviours and a summary lifestyle risk index in New South Wales, Australia, and whether the absolute and relative inequalities in risk behaviours by socioeconomic positions have changed over time. Methods Using data from the annual New South Wales Adult Population Health Survey during the period of 2002–2012, we examined four individual risk behaviours (smoking, higher than recommended alcohol consumption, insufficient fruit and vegetable intake, and insufficient physical activity) and a combined lifestyle risk indicator. Socioeconomic inequalities were assessed based on educational attainment and postal area-level index of relative socio-economic disadvantage (IRSD), and were presented as prevalence difference for absolute inequalities and prevalence ratio for relative inequalities. Trend tes