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Sample records for adult specimens collected

  1. Specimen collection and preservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian

    1987-01-01

    Specimens, as discussed in this handbook, have but a single purpose--to provide information leading to the diagnosis of a cause of disease or death. A specimen may be an intact carcass, various tissues removed from carcasses, or parasites. In any event, the specimen should be as fresh and undamaged as possible.

  2. Collecting live ant specimens (colony sampling).

    PubMed

    Smith, Chris R; Tschinkel, Walter R

    2009-07-01

    Because of the great diversity of ants, it is difficult to give a single protocol for the collection of live specimens. Ant body size can be very small or extremely large; the ants can be hard or soft, sting or spray toxic chemicals, live in the open or in hard-to-reach places; and colony size can range from tens of individuals to millions. Thus, collection techniques must be tailored to each particular species. In particular, caution must always be taken when dealing with stinging species, and symptoms and basic first-aid measures, especially for the treatment of anaphylactic shock, should be reviewed before beginning fieldwork. Nonetheless, many species are collectable as whole colonies. This protocol reviews some basic techniques for collecting ground-nesting species and describes how to collect whole live colonies (with queens), which are necessary for long-term laboratory studies and addressing questions of social organization and ecology. PMID:20147204

  3. 21 CFR 862.1675 - Blood specimen collection device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood specimen collection device. 862.1675 Section... Systems § 862.1675 Blood specimen collection device. (a) Identification. A blood specimen collection device is a device intended for medical purposes to collect and to handle blood specimens and to...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1675 - Blood specimen collection device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood specimen collection device. 862.1675 Section... Systems § 862.1675 Blood specimen collection device. (a) Identification. A blood specimen collection device is a device intended for medical purposes to collect and to handle blood specimens and to...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1675 - Blood specimen collection device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood specimen collection device. 862.1675 Section... Systems § 862.1675 Blood specimen collection device. (a) Identification. A blood specimen collection device is a device intended for medical purposes to collect and to handle blood specimens and to...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1675 - Blood specimen collection device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood specimen collection device. 862.1675 Section... Systems § 862.1675 Blood specimen collection device. (a) Identification. A blood specimen collection device is a device intended for medical purposes to collect and to handle blood specimens and to...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1675 - Blood specimen collection device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood specimen collection device. 862.1675 Section... Systems § 862.1675 Blood specimen collection device. (a) Identification. A blood specimen collection device is a device intended for medical purposes to collect and to handle blood specimens and to...

  8. Wildlife specimen collection, preservation, and shipment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, C. LeAnn; Dusek, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Prior to collecting samples, it is important to determine the capabilities and submission criteria of the laboratory receiving the samples. Some laboratories may specialize in a limited number of tests, be equipped to accept only certain types of tissues (instead of entire carcasses), or specialize in particular species or group of animals (e.g., reptiles, birds, mammals). Diagnostic laboratories have specific requirements regarding preparation, labeling, and shipping of samples. Adherence to these requirements helps ensure the usefulness of any submitted specimens. Although laboratories may vary in the cost and turnaround times for diagnostic tests, some laboratories may be able to prioritize samples and accommodate accelerated time frames if communicated at the time of submission. Keeping a prepacked kit with basic carcass-collection supplies, including a paper copy of the specimen history form (available for download from the Web sites of most diagnostic laboratories), in the office or vehicle will decrease the chances of forgetting an essential item and decrease response time for arriving at an event.

  9. 10 CFR 26.107 - Collecting a urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen. 26.107 Section 26.107 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.107 Collecting a urine specimen. (a) The collector shall direct the donor to go into the room or stall used...

  10. 10 CFR 26.107 - Collecting a urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen. 26.107 Section 26.107 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.107 Collecting a urine specimen. (a) The collector shall direct the donor to go into the room or stall used...

  11. 10 CFR 26.83 - Specimens to be collected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Specimens to be collected. 26.83 Section 26.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.83 Specimens to be collected. Except as permitted under § 26.31(d)(5), licensees and other entities who...

  12. 10 CFR 26.83 - Specimens to be collected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Specimens to be collected. 26.83 Section 26.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.83 Specimens to be collected. Except as permitted under § 26.31(d)(5), licensees and other entities who...

  13. 10 CFR 26.83 - Specimens to be collected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Specimens to be collected. 26.83 Section 26.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.83 Specimens to be collected. Except as permitted under § 26.31(d)(5), licensees and other entities who...

  14. 10 CFR 26.83 - Specimens to be collected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specimens to be collected. 26.83 Section 26.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.83 Specimens to be collected. Except as permitted under § 26.31(d)(5), licensees and other entities who...

  15. 10 CFR 26.107 - Collecting a urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen. 26.107 Section 26.107 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.107 Collecting a urine specimen. (a) The collector shall direct the donor to go into the room or stall used...

  16. 10 CFR 26.107 - Collecting a urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen. 26.107 Section 26.107 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.107 Collecting a urine specimen. (a) The collector shall direct the donor to go into the room or stall used...

  17. 10 CFR 26.83 - Specimens to be collected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Specimens to be collected. 26.83 Section 26.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.83 Specimens to be collected. Except as permitted under § 26.31(d)(5), licensees and other entities who...

  18. 10 CFR 26.107 - Collecting a urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen. 26.107 Section 26.107 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.107 Collecting a urine specimen. (a) The collector shall direct the donor to go into the room or stall used...

  19. 46 CFR 4.06-20 - Specimen collection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... provide a specimen of their urine according to 46 CFR part 16 and 49 CFR part 40. (2) Specimen collection and shipping kits used to conduct drug testing must be used according to 49 CFR part 40. ... involved in the SMI must provide a specimen of their breath, blood, or saliva to the marine employer...

  20. 46 CFR 4.06-20 - Specimen collection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... provide a specimen of their urine according to 46 CFR part 16 and 49 CFR part 40. (2) Specimen collection and shipping kits used to conduct drug testing must be used according to 49 CFR part 40. ... involved in the SMI must provide a specimen of their breath, blood, or saliva to the marine employer...

  1. 46 CFR 4.06-20 - Specimen collection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... provide a specimen of their urine according to 46 CFR part 16 and 49 CFR part 40. (2) Specimen collection and shipping kits used to conduct drug testing must be used according to 49 CFR part 40. ... involved in the SMI must provide a specimen of their breath, blood, or saliva to the marine employer...

  2. 46 CFR 4.06-20 - Specimen collection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... provide a specimen of their urine according to 46 CFR part 16 and 49 CFR part 40. (2) Specimen collection and shipping kits used to conduct drug testing must be used according to 49 CFR part 40. ... involved in the SMI must provide a specimen of their breath, blood, or saliva to the marine employer...

  3. 49 CFR 219.302 - Prompt specimen collection; time limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prompt specimen collection; time limitation. 219.302 Section 219.302 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Testing for Cause § 219.302 Prompt specimen collection;...

  4. 49 CFR 219.205 - Specimen collection and handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specimen collection and handling. 219.205 Section 219.205 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Post-Accident Toxicological Testing § 219.205 Specimen collection...

  5. 46 CFR 4.06-20 - Specimen collection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... provide a specimen of their urine according to 46 CFR part 16 and 49 CFR part 40. (2) Specimen collection and shipping kits used to conduct drug testing must be used according to 49 CFR part 40. ... CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Mandatory Chemical Testing Following Serious Marine Incidents Involving...

  6. Agreement for HPV genotyping detection between self-collected specimens on a FTA cartridge and clinician-collected specimens

    PubMed Central

    Guan, YaoYao; Gravitt, Patti E.; Howard, Roslyn; Eby, Yolanda J.; Wang, Shaoming; Li, Belinda; Feng, Changyan; Qiao, You-Lin; Castle, Philip E.

    2016-01-01

    The current method of transporting self-collected cervicovaginal specimen for HPV DNA testing relies on liquid based medium, which is challenging and expensive to transport. A novel, dry storage and transportation device, Whatman indicating FTA™ Elute Cartridge, avoids some of the pitfalls of liquid-based medium. This method has been shown to be comparable to liquid-based collection medium, but relative performance of self-collected (SC) and clinician-collected (CC) samples onto FTA cards has not been reported. The objective of this study is to compare the analytic performance of self- and clinician-collected samples onto FTA cartridges for the detection of carcinogenic HPV using Linear Array. There was a 91% agreement, 69% positive agreement, and kappa of 0.75 between the clinician-collected and self-collected specimens for detection of any carcinogenic HPV genotype. When the HPV results were categorized hierarchically according to cervical cancer risk, there was no difference in the distribution of the HPV results for the clinician- and self-collected specimens (p = 0.7). This study concludes that FTA elute cartridge is a promising method of specimen transport for cervical cancer screening programs considering using self-collected specimen and HPV testing. Larger studies with clinical endpoints are now needed to assess the clinical performance. PMID:23370404

  7. 43 CFR 15.9 - Collection of scientific specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... educational purposes and for scientific and industrial research shall be done only in accordance with the.... Such permits shall be issued only to persons representing reputable scientific, research, or... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collection of scientific specimens....

  8. 43 CFR 15.9 - Collection of scientific specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... educational purposes and for scientific and industrial research shall be done only in accordance with the.... Such permits shall be issued only to persons representing reputable scientific, research, or... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Collection of scientific specimens....

  9. 43 CFR 15.9 - Collection of scientific specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... educational purposes and for scientific and industrial research shall be done only in accordance with the.... Such permits shall be issued only to persons representing reputable scientific, research, or... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Collection of scientific specimens....

  10. 43 CFR 15.9 - Collection of scientific specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... educational purposes and for scientific and industrial research shall be done only in accordance with the.... Such permits shall be issued only to persons representing reputable scientific, research, or... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Collection of scientific specimens....

  11. 43 CFR 15.9 - Collection of scientific specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... educational purposes and for scientific and industrial research shall be done only in accordance with the.... Such permits shall be issued only to persons representing reputable scientific, research, or... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Collection of scientific specimens....

  12. Preparing for Ebolavirus disease: specimen collection, packaging and transport.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Sheena; Wilson, Roger; James, Greg

    2015-08-01

    Ebolavirus is classified by Standards Australia as a Risk Group 4 pathogen for handling in laboratories. Specimens known or reasonably expected to contain Ebolavirus are classified by the United Nations as Dangerous Goods Infectious Substances Category A, UN 2814, which if transported by air must comply with International Air Transport Association (IATA) Hazard Class 6.2 and Packing Instruction 620 and Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) Regulations. As such high risk pathogens are rarely encountered in pathology laboratories in Australia, the possibility of an imported case of Ebolavirus disease occurring in NSW during the current ongoing outbreak which began in West Africa in 2014 prompted a review and rapid implementation of specific risk management protocols for Ebolavirus testing. Here we describe and report on the management of specimen collection, packaging and transport by public and private pathology laboratories agreed by a task force led by NSW Health Pathology and Health Protection NSW. PMID:26126048

  13. 10 CFR 26.89 - Preparing to collect specimens for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preparing to collect specimens for testing. 26.89 Section 26.89 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.89 Preparing to collect specimens for testing. (a) When an individual has been notified of...

  14. 10 CFR 26.115 - Collecting a urine specimen under direct observation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen under direct observation. 26.115 Section 26.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.115 Collecting a urine specimen under direct observation. (a) Procedures...

  15. 10 CFR 26.89 - Preparing to collect specimens for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preparing to collect specimens for testing. 26.89 Section 26.89 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.89 Preparing to collect specimens for testing. (a) When an individual has been notified of...

  16. 10 CFR 26.115 - Collecting a urine specimen under direct observation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen under direct observation. 26.115 Section 26.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.115 Collecting a urine specimen under direct observation. (a) Procedures...

  17. 10 CFR 26.89 - Preparing to collect specimens for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preparing to collect specimens for testing. 26.89 Section 26.89 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.89 Preparing to collect specimens for testing. (a) When an individual has been notified of...

  18. 10 CFR 26.115 - Collecting a urine specimen under direct observation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen under direct observation. 26.115 Section 26.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.115 Collecting a urine specimen under direct observation. (a) Procedures...

  19. 10 CFR 26.89 - Preparing to collect specimens for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparing to collect specimens for testing. 26.89 Section 26.89 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.89 Preparing to collect specimens for testing. (a) When an individual has been notified of...

  20. 10 CFR 26.115 - Collecting a urine specimen under direct observation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen under direct observation. 26.115 Section 26.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.115 Collecting a urine specimen under direct observation. (a) Procedures...

  1. 10 CFR 26.89 - Preparing to collect specimens for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preparing to collect specimens for testing. 26.89 Section 26.89 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.89 Preparing to collect specimens for testing. (a) When an individual has been notified of...

  2. 10 CFR 26.115 - Collecting a urine specimen under direct observation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen under direct observation. 26.115 Section 26.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.115 Collecting a urine specimen under direct observation. (a) Procedures...

  3. Comparison of blood specimens from plain and gel vacuum blood collection tubes.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, V

    2001-05-01

    This study was set in the Division of Laboratory Medicine, Chulalongkorn Hospital. All 2,000 blood specimens were randomly collected using evacuated blood collection by plain or gel vacuum tubes. After collection, each specimen was considered and judged using criteria of specimen rejection to determine how proper the specimen presentations were. All data were reviewed, collected and interpreted. It revealed that there were only 20 (1%) improper specimens and all were improper in quality. There was no significant difference between the ratio of improper specimens in both groups (P > 0.30). From this study, it revealed that efficacy of both types of vacuum tubes was not different. The new gel vacuum tube seems to be an effective tool in the evacuated blood collection system due to its advantage in reduction of time in specimen processing. PMID:11560224

  4. Evaluation of the intercept oral specimen collection device with HIV assays versus paired serum/plasma specimens.

    PubMed

    Beelaert, G; Van Heddegem, L; Van Frankenhuijsen, M; Vandewalle, G; Compernolle, V; Florence, E; Fransen, K

    2016-08-01

    Oral fluid has many advantages over blood-based techniques: it is less invasive, eliminates the occupational risk associated with needle stick accidents and collection can be self-administrated. Each individual test is packaged with a corresponding collection device. This study tested the suitability of the Intercept Oral Specimen Collection Device for different HIV diagnostic tests: three different rapid HIV tests and two adapted ELISAs, which were evaluated and compared with a gold standard on blood. In addition a total IgG quantification was performed to demonstrate the quality of the specimen. HIV antibodies were detected with a sensitivity of 100%, 99.3%, 98.6%, 100% and 95.7% for, DPP, OraQuick, Aware, Genscreen and Vironostika respectively using the Intercept Collection Device. Respective specificities were 100%, 100%, 99.3%, 97.3% and 100%. PMID:27142112

  5. 49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Collection Personnel § 40.31 Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors meeting the requirements of this subpart are...

  6. 49 CFR 40.49 - What materials are used to collect urine specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What materials are used to collect urine specimens? 40.49 Section 40.49 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR... in DOT Urine Collections § 40.49 What materials are used to collect urine specimens? For each...

  7. 49 CFR 40.49 - What materials are used to collect urine specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What materials are used to collect urine specimens? 40.49 Section 40.49 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR... in DOT Urine Collections § 40.49 What materials are used to collect urine specimens? For each...

  8. Collection & Processing of Vertebrate Specimens for Arbovirus Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sudia, W. Daniel; And Others

    Described are techniques used by the National Communicable Disease Center in obtaining blood and tissues from man and other vertebrates for arbovirus isolation and antibody studies. Also included are techniques for capturing and handling vertebrates; banding and marking; restraining and bleeding; storing of specimens to preserve antibody and…

  9. 10 CFR 707.12 - Specimen collection, handling and laboratory analysis for drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Specimen collection, handling and laboratory analysis for drug testing. 707.12 Section 707.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.12 Specimen collection, handling and laboratory analysis for drug...

  10. 10 CFR 707.12 - Specimen collection, handling and laboratory analysis for drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Specimen collection, handling and laboratory analysis for drug testing. 707.12 Section 707.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.12 Specimen collection, handling and laboratory analysis for drug...

  11. 10 CFR 707.12 - Specimen collection, handling and laboratory analysis for drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specimen collection, handling and laboratory analysis for drug testing. 707.12 Section 707.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.12 Specimen collection, handling and laboratory analysis for drug...

  12. 10 CFR 707.12 - Specimen collection, handling and laboratory analysis for drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Specimen collection, handling and laboratory analysis for drug testing. 707.12 Section 707.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.12 Specimen collection, handling and laboratory analysis for drug...

  13. 10 CFR 707.12 - Specimen collection, handling and laboratory analysis for drug testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Specimen collection, handling and laboratory analysis for drug testing. 707.12 Section 707.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.12 Specimen collection, handling and laboratory analysis for drug...

  14. [Counter-measures against patient misidentification and specimen mismanagement with blood collection].

    PubMed

    Ohgoe, Kazuhiko

    2013-08-01

    My theme for this symposium is counter-measures against patient misidentification and specimen mismanagement with blood collection due to the lack of using authentication systems. What is applicable to our laboratory is patient misidentification counter-measures for specimen management at the time of inpatient ward blood collection and specimen examination (mistakes in appending bar code labels and entering specimen numbers). During the period from January 2008 to July 2012 at our laboratory, there were 9 cases of patient misidentification for hospital ward blood collection and specimen management. There were 2 cases in 2008 (1 for blood collection, 1 for specimen management), no cases in 2009, 3 cases in 2010 involving blood collection, 1 case in 2011 involving specimen management, and 3 cases in 2012 (1 for blood collection, 2 for specimen management). All patient misidentifications involving hospital ward blood collection arose from bedside blood collection. As a counter-measure, training slides were created at a medical safety management review session, repeated training in attention and patient check procedures was conducted with staff members, and hands-on training in pointing and naming was carried out. With these training slides, the goal was the execution of verification duties by encouraging conversations that include the patient's name, such as "Mr./Ms. XXXX, today we'll be collecting 3 tubes of blood," as a link to patient verification duties. With specimen management, 3 of the 4 cases occurred during overtime for day-shift work. As counter measures: 1) adherence to 1 patient, 1 tray, and signing when matching; 2) as a counter-measure against mistaking specimens for blood gas hemolysis, confirmation as other specimens, separating approximately 3 drops of blood that cannot be used for sampling, confirming hemolysis, and preventing misidentification. PMID:24218774

  15. 49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors meeting the requirements of this subpart are the only persons authorized to collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing. (b) A collector must meet... act as the collector when that employee is tested, unless no other collector is available and you...

  16. 49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors meeting the requirements of this subpart are the only persons authorized to collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing. (b) A collector must meet... act as the collector when that employee is tested, unless no other collector is available and you...

  17. 49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors meeting the requirements of this subpart are the only persons authorized to collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing. (b) A collector must meet... act as the collector when that employee is tested, unless no other collector is available and you...

  18. 49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors meeting the requirements of this subpart are the only persons authorized to collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing. (b) A collector must meet... act as the collector when that employee is tested, unless no other collector is available and you...

  19. Unusual Findings in Appendectomy Specimens of Adults: Retrospective Analyses of 1466 Patients and a Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Yabanoglu, Hakan; Caliskan, Kenan; Ozgur Aytac, Huseyin; Turk, Emin; Karagulle, Erdal; Kayaselcuk, Fazilet; Akin Tarim, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diseases and tumors of the appendix vermiformis are very rare, except acute appendicitis. Objectives: This retrospective study was conducted to document the unusual findings in appendectomy specimens. Patients and Methods: Data of 1466 adult patients were gathered retrospectively. Appendectomy was performed in 1169 and in 297 patients following a diagnosis of acute appendicitis and during other abdominal operations, respectively. The data of 57 (3.88 %) patients who were pathologically reported to have unusual appendix findings were retrospectively collected. The records were analyzed according to patients’ age, gender, clinical presentations, operative reports, pathological reports and follow up. Results: Unusual pathologic examination findings were detected in the appendectomy specimens of 57 patients with a mean age of 48.34 ± 19. Twenty-nine patients (50.8 %) were male and 28 (49.2 %) were female. Normal appendix tissues were observed in specimens of 26 (45.6 %) patients and inflamed appendix in 31 (54.3 %). The most common unusual finding was parasitic diseases of the intestine. Pathological diagnosis of malignancy and benign features were reported in specimens of 14 and 43 patients, respectively. Macroscopic evaluation of appendectomy specimens during surgery might result in negligence of the presence of unusual pathology. Conclusions: Even if the macroscopic appearance of the specimen is normal or acute appendicitis, we suggest routine histopathological examination. PMID:24719727

  20. Attitudes of pregnant women towards collection of biological specimens during pregnancy and at birth.

    PubMed

    Nechuta, Sarah; Mudd, Lanay M; Elliott, Michael R; Lepkowski, James M; Paneth, Nigel

    2012-05-01

    Epidemiological investigations of maternal and child health may involve the collection of biological specimens, including cord blood and the placenta; however, the attitudes of pregnant women towards participation in the collection of biological specimens have been studied rarely. We evaluated attitudes towards collection and storage of biological specimens, and determined whether attitudes differed by maternal characteristics, in a cross-sectional study of pregnant women residing in Kent County, Michigan. Women were interviewed at their first visit for prenatal care between April and October 2006 (n = 311). Willingness to participate was highest for maternal blood collection (72%), followed by storage of biological specimens (68%), placenta collection (64%), and cord blood collection (63%). About one-quarter of women (25-28% by procedure) would not participate even if compensated. Hispanic ethnicity was associated with unwillingness to participate in maternal blood collection (OR = 2.16 [95% CI 1.15, 4.04]). Primiparity was associated with unwillingness to participate in cord blood collection (OR = 1.72 [95% CI 1.23, 2.42]). Among women willing to participate, Hispanic women were less likely to require compensation; while higher educated, married and primiparous women were more likely to require compensation. In conclusion, while many pregnant women were willing to participate in biological specimen collection, some women were more resistant, in particular Hispanic and primiparous women. Targeting these groups of women for enhanced recruitment efforts may improve overall participation rates and the representativeness of participants in future studies of maternal and child health. PMID:22471686

  1. Recommendations for Collection and Handling of Specimens From Group Breast Cancer Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Leyland-Jones, Brian R.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bartlett, John; Ellis, Matthew J.C.; Enos, Rebecca A.; Raji, Adekunle; Pins, Michael R.; Zujewski, Jo Anne; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Forbes, John F.; Abramovitz, Mark; Braga, Sofia; Cardoso, Fatima; Harbeck, Nadia; Denkert, Carsten; Jewell, Scott D.

    2008-01-01

    Recommendations for specimen collection and handling have been developed for adoption across breast cancer clinical trials conducted by the Breast International Group (BIG)-sponsored Groups and the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-sponsored North American Cooperative Groups. These recommendations are meant to promote identifiable standards for specimen collection and handling within and across breast cancer trials, such that the variability in collection/handling practices that currently exists is minimized and specimen condition and quality are enhanced, thereby maximizing results from specimen-based diagnostic testing and research. Three working groups were formed from the Cooperative Group Banking Committee, BIG groups, and North American breast cancer cooperative groups to identify standards for collection and handling of (1) formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue; (2) blood and its components; and (3) fresh/frozen tissue from breast cancer trials. The working groups collected standard operating procedures from multiple group specimen banks, administered a survey on banking practices to those banks, and engaged in a series of discussions from 2005 to 2007. Their contributions were synthesized into this document, which focuses primarily on collection and handling of specimens to the point of shipment to the central bank, although also offers some guidance to central banks. Major recommendations include submission of an FFPE block, whole blood, and serial serum or plasma from breast cancer clinical trials, and use of one fixative and buffer type (10% neutral phosphate-buffered formalin, pH 7) for FFPE tissue across trials. Recommendations for proper handling and shipping were developed for blood, serum, plasma, FFPE, and fresh/frozen tissue. PMID:18955459

  2. Creating & using specimen images for collection documentation, research, teaching and outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demouthe, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    In this age of digital media, there are many opportunities for use of good images of specimens. On-line resources such as institutional web sites and global sites such as PaleoNet and the Paleobiology Database provide venues for collection information and images. Pictures can also be made available to the general public through popular media sites such as Flickr and Facebook, where they can be retrieved and used by teachers, students, and the general public. The number of requests for specimen loans can be drastically reduced by offering the scientific community access to data and specimen images using the internet. This is an important consideration in these days of limited support budgets, since it reduces the amount of staff time necessary for giving researchers and educators access to collections. It also saves wear and tear on the specimens themselves. Many institutions now limit or refuse to send specimens out of their own countries because of the risks involved in going through security and customs. The internet can bridge political boundaries, allowing everyone equal access to collections. In order to develop photographic documentation of a collection, thoughtful preparation will make the process easier and more efficient. Acquire the necessary equipment, establish standards for images, and develop a simple workflow design. Manage images in the camera, and produce the best possible results, rather than relying on time-consuming editing after the fact. It is extremely important that the images of each specimen be of the highest quality and resolution. Poor quality, low resolution photos are not good for anything, and will often have to be retaken when another need arises. Repeating the photography process involves more handling of specimens and more staff time. Once good photos exist, smaller versions can be created for use on the web. The originals can be archived and used for publication and other purposes.

  3. Cryptic species of hairworm parasites revealed by molecular data and crowdsourcing of specimen collections.

    PubMed

    Hanelt, Ben; Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas; Bolek, Matthew G

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing cryptic species promotes a better understanding of biodiversity, systematics, evolutionary biology, and biogeography. When cryptic species are disease-causing organisms, such as parasites, their correct recognition has important implications for the study of epidemiology, disease ecology, and host-parasite relationships. Freshwater nematomorphs (Nematomorpha: Gordiida) or hairworms, are an enigmatic yet fascinating group of parasites that are known to manipulate host behavior to aid transition from the parasitic phase, within terrestrial insects, to the free-living aquatic stage. Hairworm taxonomy has been hampered by a paucity of informative diagnostic characters and it has long been suspected that this group contains numerous cryptic species. Study of single hairworm species over large geographical areas has been difficult due to extremely rare encounters and unreliable methods of collecting adult worms. Here we report that by using crowdsourcing, citizen scientists have collected and submitted samples of Gordius cf. robustus from throughout its range in North America making its genetic study possible. Combined with our own collections, we examined samples from 28 localities within the USA; despite the collection of numerous hairworms from Canada and Mexico, G. cf. robustus were not collected outside of the contiguous United States. Mitochondrial CO1 genetic distances revealed that specimens grouped into 8 clades separated by 8-24.3%. In addition, molecular evidence from mitochondrial (CO1 and cytB) and nuclear (partial 28S, ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2) DNA suggests that these 8 clades are distinct species and that this group of species is paraphyletic, since the North American species G. attoni and the European species G. aquaticus and G. balticus group among the G. robustus lineages. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between genetic (CO1) and geographic distance between the 8 Gordius species. This study demonstrates the value of involving the

  4. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 219 - Post-Accident Testing Specimen Collection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Toxicological Testing (49 CFR part 219), describing the testing event and identifying the employees whose... Custody and Control Form (49 CFR part 219) (Form FRA F 6180.74 (revised)). 5. If required by the medical... employment (49 CFR 219.11). A private, controlled area should be designated for collection of specimens...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 219 - Post-Accident Testing Specimen Collection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Toxicological Testing (49 CFR part 219), describing the testing event and identifying the employees whose... Custody and Control Form (49 CFR part 219) (Form FRA F 6180.74 (revised)). 5. If required by the medical... employment (49 CFR 219.11). A private, controlled area should be designated for collection of specimens...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 219 - Post-Accident Testing Specimen Collection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Toxicological Testing (49 CFR part 219), describing the testing event and identifying the employees whose... Custody and Control Form (49 CFR part 219) (Form FRA F 6180.74 (revised)). 5. If required by the medical... employment (49 CFR 219.11). A private, controlled area should be designated for collection of specimens...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 219 - Post-Accident Testing Specimen Collection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Toxicological Testing (49 CFR part 219), describing the testing event and identifying the employees whose... Custody and Control Form (49 CFR part 219) (Form FRA F 6180.74 (revised)). 5. If required by the medical... employment (49 CFR 219.11). A private, controlled area should be designated for collection of specimens...

  8. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 219 - Post-Accident Testing Specimen Collection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Toxicological Testing (49 CFR part 219), describing the testing event and identifying the employees whose... Custody and Control Form (49 CFR part 219) (Form FRA F 6180.74 (revised)). 5. If required by the medical... employment (49 CFR 219.11). A private, controlled area should be designated for collection of specimens...

  9. Improvements in avian influenza virus (AIV) specimen collection, transport and processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Specimen collection and transport are critical to achieving optimal sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests. Since influenza tests are so widely used, small improvements in sensitivity and specificity can translate into substantial cost savings from better test accuracy. To optimize testin...

  10. 21 CFR 866.2900 - Microbiological specimen collection and transport device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Microbiological specimen collection and transport device. 866.2900 Section 866.2900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology...

  11. 21 CFR 866.2900 - Microbiological specimen collection and transport device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microbiological specimen collection and transport device. 866.2900 Section 866.2900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology...

  12. 21 CFR 866.2900 - Microbiological specimen collection and transport device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Microbiological specimen collection and transport device. 866.2900 Section 866.2900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology...

  13. 21 CFR 866.2900 - Microbiological specimen collection and transport device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Microbiological specimen collection and transport device. 866.2900 Section 866.2900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology...

  14. 21 CFR 866.2900 - Microbiological specimen collection and transport device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Microbiological specimen collection and transport device. 866.2900 Section 866.2900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology...

  15. Type Specimens on Deposit in the United States Department of Agriculture Nematode Collection, Beltsville, Maryland

    PubMed Central

    Handoo, Zafar A.; Golden, A. Morgan; Ellington, Donna M. S.

    1998-01-01

    A list of the deposited type specimens with references, a detailed historical background, importance, and maintenance procedures are given for the type collection of the United States Department of Agriculture Nematode Collection (USDANC). The type specimen section is considered one of the largest and most valuable in existence. It contains 1,430 species mounted and preserved on 5,177 metal and glass slides and 404 vials. Also, a brief description of the other constituent divisions of the collection is given, which, including the type collection, consists of 34,000 permanent slides and vials and 19,500 species entries. The list of deposited types is a type specimen location reference only and should not be used for the status of type species. The generic and specific names are arranged in alphabetical order and are given as indicated by the author(s) or depositor(s) when the types were deposited in the type section of the USDANC. The complete title of the reference is not given for each species, only the author's date, and source and slide number(s). Also, included are authors of designated types other than those of the original type series, e.g. paralectotype, allolectotype, neotype. PMID:19274205

  16. Home collection of urine specimens--boric acid bottles or Dipslides?

    PubMed Central

    Jewkes, F E; McMaster, D J; Napier, W A; Houston, I B; Postlethwaite, R J

    1990-01-01

    Sterile mid stream specimens of urine (MSSU) were obtained from 84 children in a hospital outpatient department. All 84 children collected urine at home by one of two Dipslide methods and by collection into boric acid within 24 hours of the hospital collected MSSU. The samples collected at home were posted to the hospital. Thirty six of the Dipslides (43%) and nine of the boric acid samples (10%) were not sterile but none had a pure growth of a single organism of greater than 10(5) organisms/ml. In addition, 17 of the Dipslides (20%) were returned with one or both media detached and therefore could not be relied upon to exclude urinary tract infection. In a second part to the study, 95 urines which showed a significant growth in primary culture were also cultured after storage in boric acid. Inhibition was noted in nine samples after storage in boric acid, seven of which were in underfilled bottles. Transport of specimens in boric acid produced less contamination than Dipslides but may inhibit growth in a small number of specimens. Technical failures with Dipslides were disappointingly high. PMID:2334205

  17. Re-evaluation of rejection criteria for endotracheal tube (ETT) specimens from adult patients.

    PubMed

    Walkty, A; Lagacé-Wiens, P R S; Manickam, K; Adam, H; Pieroni, P; Alfa, M; Karlowsky, J A

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine optimal criteria for microbiology laboratory screening of endotracheal tube (ETT) specimens submitted for bacterial culture from adult patients. ETT specimens from adult patients that were received by two microbiology laboratories were prospectively evaluated and subdivided into one of three study arms with the following criteria: <10 squamous epithelial cells (SECs) per low-power field with bacteria seen on Gram staining (arm 1), >10 SECs per low-power field with bacteria seen on Gram staining (arm 2) and <10 SECs per low-power field with no bacteria seen on Gram staining (arm 3). A fourth study arm (>10 SECs per low-power field with no bacteria seen on Gram staining) was planned but this arm was terminated due to the paucity of specimens meeting these criteria. Isolate evaluation was performed using standard microbiology protocols. A limited chart review was undertaken at one of the institutions, only reviewing patients from which a potential pathogen was recovered on culture. In total, 141 ETT specimens were evaluated. A potential respiratory pathogen was recovered from 54, 37 and 10 % of specimens in study arms 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P<0.0001, comparing between arm 1 and arm 3). For the 23 patients included in the chart review from whom a potential pathogen was recovered on culture, respiratory infection was considered to be present in 50 % (6/12) of patients in arm 1, 66.6 % (6/9) of patients in arm 2 and 100 % (2/2) of patients in arm 3. Therapy was rarely altered based on culture results. In this study, the ETT specimens submitted for bacterial culture were of limited benefit to clinicians. The data presented here support the use of an absence of bacteria on Gram staining as a rejection criterion for ETT specimens. The criterion of >10 SECs per low-power field should be further evaluated in a prospective study of patients with an unequivocal clinical diagnosis of pneumonia. PMID:22700550

  18. “Cleansing” anatomical collections: The politics of removing specimens from German anatomical and medical collections 1988–92

    PubMed Central

    Weindling, Paul

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In 1989–90 an intense debate erupted in the Federal Republic of Germany over the status of anatomical specimens from the period of National Socialism. Pressure was brought on the German universities and research institutes to remove body parts. The solution was deemed rapid burial of all specimens whose provenance was in doubt. A range of options was considered, and the eventual decision to bury cremated remains was deemed the best way to draw a line under an uncomfortable past of Nazi medical atrocities. The aim was to achieve closure on this issue by a rapid “cleansing” of collections. However, identification of victims was left unresolved amidst the heated debates at the time. PMID:22445542

  19. Acceptability and Feasibility of Repeated Mucosal Specimen Collection in Clinical Trial Participants in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Omosa-Manyonyi, Gloria; Park, Harriet; Mutua, Gaudensia; Farah, Bashir; Bergin, Philip J.; Laufer, Dagna; Lehrman, Jennifer; Chinyenze, Kundai; Barin, Burc; Fast, Pat; Gilmour, Jill; Anzala, Omu

    2014-01-01

    Background Mucosal specimens are essential to evaluate compartmentalized immune responses to HIV vaccine candidates and other mucosally targeted investigational products. We studied the acceptability and feasibility of repeated mucosal sampling in East African clinical trial participants at low risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Methods and Findings The Kenya AIDS Vaccine Initiative (KAVI) enrolled participants into three Phase 1 trials of preventive HIV candidate vaccines in 2011–2012 at two clinical research centers in Nairobi. After informed consent to a mucosal sub-study, participants were asked to undergo collection of mucosal secretions (saliva, oral fluids, semen, cervico-vaginal and rectal), but could opt out of any collection at any visit. Specimens were collected at baseline and two additional time points. A tolerability questionnaire was administered at the final sub-study visit. Of 105 trial participants, 27 of 34 women (79%) and 62 of 71 men (87%) enrolled in the mucosal sub-study. Nearly all sub-study participants gave saliva and oral fluids at all visits. Semen was collected from about half the participating men (47–48%) at all visits. Cervico-vaginal secretions were collected by Softcup from about two thirds of women (63%) at baseline, increasing to 78% at the following visits, with similar numbers for cervical secretion collection by Merocel sponge; about half of women (52%) gave cervico-vaginal samples at all visits. Rectal secretions were collected with Merocel sponge from about a quarter of both men and women (24%) at all 3 visits, with 16% of men and 19% of women giving rectal samples at all visits. Conclusions Repeated mucosal sampling in clinical trial participants in Kenya is feasible, with a good proportion of participants consenting to most sampling methods with the exception of rectal samples. Experienced staff members of both sexes and trained counselors with standardized messaging may improve acceptance of rectal

  20. Buprenorphine and major metabolites in blood specimens collected for drug analysis in law enforcement purposes.

    PubMed

    Oechsler, Stephanie; Skopp, Gisela

    2010-02-25

    A liquid chromatographic/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric method for the quantification of buprenorphine (BUP), norbuprenorphine (NBUP), buprenorphine-3-beta-D-glucuronide (BUPG) and norbuprenorphine-3-beta-D-glucuronide (NBUPG) in serum samples was developed and validated. Pre-treatment of BUP and NBUP was by liquid-liquid extraction, while glucuronides were favourably isolated by solid phase extraction. Separation in 2 separate runs (2 x 5 min) was achieved using isocratic elution. The method was applied to 20 authentic serum specimens collected for law enforcement purposes where BUP intake had been indicated. The parent drug was not detectable in half of the specimens at a lower limit of detection of 0.2 ng/mL, whereas NBUP could be determined from any sample but one. NBUPG is the major metabolite present, which could be identified along with BUPG in all samples under investigation. In authentic specimens it could be advisable to monitor BUP metabolites along with the parent drug. PMID:20006453

  1. Specimen shipment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian

    1987-01-01

    Procedures for shipping specimens vary with different disease diagnostic laboratories. Therefore, it is important to contact the receiving laboratory and obtain specific instructions. This will facilitate processing of specimens when they reach the laboratory and assure that the quality of the specimens is not compromised. Time spent on field investigation, specimen collection, and obtaining an adequate history will be of little clue is specimens become contaminated, decomposed, or otherwise spoiled enroute to the diagnostic laboratory. There are five bases of proper specimen shipment: (1) prevent cross-contamination from specimen to specimen, (2) prevent decomposition of the specimen, (3) prevent leakage of fluids, (4) preserve individual specimen identity, and (5) properly label the package. Basic supplies needed for specimen shipment are shown in Fig. 3.1.

  2. Quality impact on diagnostic blood specimen collection using a new device to relieve venipuncture pain.

    PubMed

    Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2013-07-01

    A new device called Buzzy(®) has been recently presented that combines a cooling ice pack and a vibrating motor in order to relieve the venipuncture pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of Buzzy(®) use during diagnostic blood specimen collection by venipuncture for routine immunochemistry tests. Blood was collected from 100 volunteers by a single, expert phlebotomist. A vein was located on the left forearm without applying tourniquet, in order to prevent any interference from venous stasis, and blood samples were collected using a 20-G straight needle directly into 5 mL vacuum tubes with clot activator and gel separator. In sequence, external cold and vibration by Buzzy(®) was applied on the right forearm-5 cm above the chosen puncture site-for 1 min before venipuncture and continued until the end of the same procedure already done in the left forearm. The panel of tests included the following: glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, c-reactive protein, urea, creatinine, uric acid, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, AST, ALT, g-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, total bilirubin, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron, sodium, potassium, chloride, lipase, cortisol, insulin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, total triiodothyronine, free triiodothyronine, total thyroxine, free thyroxine and haemolysis index. Clinically significant differences between samples were found only for: total protein, albumin and transferrin. The Buzzy(®) can be used during diagnostic blood specimens collection by venipuncture for the majority of the routine immunochemistry tests. We only suggest avoiding this device during blood collection when protein, albumin and transferrin determinations should be performed. PMID:24426217

  3. Experimental basis of standardized specimen collection: effect of posture on blood picture.

    PubMed

    Leppänen, E A; Gräsbeck, R

    1988-03-01

    22 subjectively healthy females were supine, sat in an armchair and stood while specimens of peripheral venous blood were collected after at least 15 min in each position without using a tourniquet. The albumin, haemoglobin, erythrocyte concentration and the haematocrit increased significantly when the subjects assumed a more erect position, probably as a result of increased hydrostatic pressure. The leucocyte count did not rise, and there was a statistically significant drop in the lymphocyte concentration when changing from supine to sitting. However, the leucocyte concentration rose significantly from supine to sitting or standing. When interpreting laboratory data, the difference in the behaviour of different cell species should be kept in mind. However, on the whole this study supports the stipulation contained in international recommendations that the posture of the subject should be standardized before collection of peripheral blood for haematological tests. PMID:3356238

  4. Massive Pleural Fluid Collection in Adult Nigerians

    PubMed Central

    Okoh, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Background. There are no available literatures on massive pleural effusions (MPE) in our country. Aim. To determine the aetiology of MPE and compare the mortality rate between malignant and nonmalignant MPE in adult Nigerians. Methods. A prospective study of all the patients diagnosed with nontraumatic pleural fluid collections for one year in two tertiary federal hospitals in Southern Nigeria. A total of 101 consecutive patients with pleural fluid collections were studied. Diagnoses were made by clinical features and laboratory and radiological investigations. Results. Forty-eight patients (47.5%) had MPE with a mean age of 43 years ± 14.04 and 35 were females. Thirty patients (62.5%) were diagnosed with nonmalignant conditions (21 from pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and 9 from other causes). Haemorrhagic pleural collections were from malignancy in 12 (30.8%) and from PTB in 6 (15.4%). Straw-coloured collections were from malignancy in 9 (23.1%), from PTB in 8 (20.1%), and from posttraumatic exudative effusion in 3 (7.7%). Compared with nonmalignant MPE, patients with malignant collections had higher mortality within 6 months (8/18 versus 0/30 with a P value of 0.000). Conclusion. The presentation of patients with nontraumatic haemorrhagic or straw-coloured MPE narrows the diagnosis to PTB and malignancy with MPE cases being a marker for short survival rate. PMID:27437443

  5. Implementing Self-collection of Biological Specimens With a Diverse Sample

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, April; Skinner, Martie L.; Woelfel, Tiffany; Carpenter, Thomas; Haggerty, Kevin P.

    2013-01-01

    Collecting saliva is the most noninvasive way to detect changing levels of cortisol (Adam & Kumari, 2009; Soo-Quee Koh & Choon-Huat Koh, 2007), a stress hormone of interest to behavioral and health scientists, where there are benefits from multiple samples taken over a period of days. Various self-collection strategies have been employed, ranging from treated cards to cotton swabs and passive drool methods. The current study investigates the effectiveness of a variety of reminder techniques in encouraging adherence with procedures requiring 4 samples per day on 3 separate days of passive drool collection among African American and European American young adults. The findings suggest that direct texts were associated with the greatest level of adherence, while phone reminders were most effective when controlling for total number of contacts. Results indicate that both traditional and novel reminder methods can positively influence adherence, even with challenging populations. PMID:24376374

  6. TEST FUSION IN ADULT FORAMINIFERA: A REVIEW WITH NEW OBSERVATIONS OF AN EARLY EOCENE NUMMULITES SPECIMEN

    PubMed Central

    Ferràndez-Cañadell, Carles; Briguglio, Antonino; Hohenegger, Johann; Wöger, Julia

    2015-01-01

    In foraminifera, so-called “double tests” usually arise due to abnormal growth originating mainly from twinning, but may also be caused by irregularities in the early chambers and by regeneration after test injury that modifies the direction of growth. A fourth cause of double tests has only rarely been reported: the fusion of the tests of two adult individuals. We studied an early Eocene Nummulites double test consisting of two adult individuals that fused after an extended period of independent growth. The specimen was studied using computed tomography with micrometric resolution (micro-CT) that allowed bi- and three-dimensional visualization of the internal structure. Before fusion each individual test had 30–36 chambers, which, by comparison with growth rates in recent nummulitids, implies at least three months of independent growth. After fusion, the compound test grew in two spirals that fused after about one whorl and then continued in a single spiral. To fuse their tests, either adult individuals have to be forced to do so or the allorecognition (ability to distinguish between self and another individual) mechanisms must fail. A possible explanation for the merged Nummulites tests in this study is forced fusion in attached individuals after surviving ingestion and digestion by a metazoan. Alternatively, environmental stress could lead to a failure of allorecognition mechanisms and/or foraminiferal motility. Once fused, subsequent growth seems to be determined mainly by the relative orientation of individual tests. In any case, the frequency in which adult fusion occurs remains unknown. PMID:26166916

  7. Quantification of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) in oral gargle specimens collected using mouthwash

    PubMed Central

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Guan, Wei; Sprung, Robert; Koomen, John M.; O’Keefe, Michael T.; Ingles, Donna J.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) is an innate immunity-associated protein known to inhibit HIV transmission, and is thought to inhibit a variety of infectious agents, including human papillomaviruses (HPVs). We aimed to optimize an established ELISA-based SLPI quantification assay for use with oral gargle specimens collected using mouthwash, and to assess preliminary associations with age, smoking status, and alcohol intake. Methods Oral gargle supernatants from 50 individuals were used to optimize the Human SLPI Quantikine ELISA Kit. Sample suitability was assessed and quality control analyses were conducted. Results Salivary SLPI was successfully recovered from oral gargles with low intra-assay and high inter-individual variability. Initial measurements showed that salivary SLPI varied considerably across individuals, and that SLPI was inversely associated with age. Conclusions This optimized assay can be used to examine the role of SLPI in the acquisition of oral HPV and other infections. PMID:24140751

  8. ColectoR, a digital field notebook for voucher specimen collection for smartphones1

    PubMed Central

    Maya-Lastra, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: ColectoR was developed to aid botanists in the collection of data for voucher specimens using smartphones, accelerating the process of data capture in situ and its subsequent organization. Methods and Results: ColectoR features a minimalist design that uses an intuitive iconic interface. The integration of external application programming interfaces (APIs) and an automated spreadsheet extends its functionality and increases the information and tools available to the user. This app is currently supported by any Android device. Conclusions: ColectoR provides an efficient method for capturing data in the field while also serving to organize the information into a coherent database, thereby greatly reducing the time required for postcapture data organization and label printing. PMID:27437169

  9. Reflectance-based identification of parasitized host eggs and adult Trichogramma specimens.

    PubMed

    Nansen, Christian; Coelho, Aloisio; Vieira, Jaci Mendes; Parra, Jose Roberto Postali

    2014-04-01

    A wide range of imaging and spectroscopy technologies is used in medical diagnostics, quality control in production systems, military applications, stress detection in agriculture, and ecological studies of both terrestrial and aquatic organisms. In this study, we hypothesized that reflectance profiling can be used to successfully classify animals that are otherwise very challenging to classify. We acquired hyperspectral images from adult specimens of the egg parasitoid genus Trichogramma (T. galloi, T. pretiosum and T. atopovirilia), which are ~1.0 mm in length. We also acquired hyperspectral images from host eggs containing developing Trichogramma instar and pupae. These obligate egg endoparasitoid species are commercially available as natural enemies of lepidopteran pests in food production systems. Because of their minute size and physical resemblance, classification is time consuming and requires a high level of technical experience. The classification of reflectance profiles was based on a combination of average reflectance and variogram parameters (describing the spatial structure of reflectance data) of reflectance values in individual spectral bands. Although variogram parameters (variogram analysis) are commonly used in large-scale spatial research (i.e. geoscience and landscape ecology), they have only recently been used in classification of high-resolution hyperspectral imaging data. The classification model of parasitized host eggs was equally successful for each of the three species and was successfully validated with independent data sets (>90% classification accuracy). The classification model of adult specimens accurately separated T. atopovirilia from the other two species, but specimens of T. galloi and T. pretiosum could not be accurately separated. Interestingly, molecular-based classification (using the DNA sequence of the internally transcribed spacer ITS2) of Trichogramma species published elsewhere corroborates the classification, as T

  10. Identifying new cannabis use with urine creatinine-normalized THCCOOH concentrations and time intervals between specimen collections.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael L; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2009-05-01

    A previously recommended method for detecting new cannabis use with creatinine-normalized 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) urine concentrations in periodically collected specimens for treatment, workplace and judicial drug testing applications is refined by considering the time interval between urine collections. All urine specimens were collected from six less-than-daily cannabis users who smoked placebo, 1.75%, and 3.55% THC cigarettes in randomized order, each separated by one week. Ratios (n = 24,322) were calculated by dividing each creatinine-normalized THCCOOH concentration (U2) by that of a previously collected specimen (U1). Maximum, 95% limit, and median U2/U1 ratios with 15 and 6 ng THCCOOH/mL cutoff concentrations, with and without new use between specimens, were calculated for each 24-h interval after smoking up to 168 h and are included in tables. These ratios decreased with increasing interval between collections providing improved decision values for determining new cannabis use. For example, with a 15 ng THCCOOH/mL cutoff concentration and no new use between specimens, the maximum, 95% limit, and median U2/U1 ratios were 3.05, 1.59, and 0.686, respectively, when the collection interval was

  11. Brief communication: assessment and validation of nonspermicidal condoms as specimen collection sheaths for semen analysis and assisted conception.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, M J; Naeem, A; Hopkisson, J F; Campbell, B

    2012-09-01

    The choice of nonspermicidal sheaths for specimen collection for diagnosis and/or fertility treatment is limited. Those that are available tend to be relatively expensive and as a results, offered selectively to patients. This study describes the evaluation of three over-the-counter nonspermicidal condoms as alternatives to specialized specimen collection sheaths. Sheaths were incubated with motile sperm for up to 2 h and the percent Grade A motility, percent progressive motility and progressive velocity assessed using an 'in-house' computer-assisted semen analysis system every 30 min. Two of the sheaths tested, Pasante Naturelle (PN) and the Durex Avanti Ultima were shown to be highly toxic to sperm, leading to immobilization of most specimens within 1 h. However the loss of sperm motility when sperm were incubated with the Pasante Unique (PU) condom was no greater than with either the control (rigid 60 ml specimen container) or the Male Factor Pak (MFP), a commercially available specialized semen collection sheath. In conclusion, the PU brand of condom could be used as a cheaper alternative to the specimen collection sheaths currently available. Furthermore, some brands of condom sold as nonspermicidal are in fact toxic to sperm and will immobilize most specimens within 1 h. PMID:22873172

  12. Abridged Description Listing for Adult and Continuing Education Research Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syracuse Univ., NY. Publications Program in Continuing Education.

    This publication contains descriptions of 53 research collections in adult and continuing education housed at Syracuse University (Syracuse, New York) Collection strengths have been identified as the history of adult education as a profession, field, and practice; literacy; and civic education. Each collection is described, and the number of boxes…

  13. Catalogue of the type specimens deposited in the Mollusca Collection of the Museu Nacional / UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Alexandre Dias; Monteiro, Júlio César; Barbosa, André Favaretto; Salgado, Norma Campos; Coelho, Arnaldo Campos Dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    A curatorial revision of the type specimens deposited in the Mollusca Collection of the Museu Nacional / UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (MNRJ) revealed the existence of 518 lots of type specimens (holotypes, neotypes, syntypes and paratypes) for 285 names of molluscan taxa from 88 families, including 247 gastropods, 30 bivalves, three cephalopods and five scaphopods. A total of 106 holotypes and one neotype are deposited in the MNRJ. Type material for ten nominal taxa described as being deposited in the MNRJ was not located; the probable reasons are discussed. Some previously published erroneous information about types in the MNRJ is rectified. A total of 37 type specimens are illustrated. PMID:24871828

  14. Archaeological jade mystery solved using a 119-year-old rock collection specimen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlow, G. E.; Davies, H. L.; Summerhayes, G. R.; Matisoo-Smith, E.

    2012-12-01

    In a recent publication (Harlow et al. 2012), a ~3200-year old small stone artefact from an archaeological excavation on Emirau Island, Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea was described and determined to be a piece of jadeite jade (jadeitite). True jadeitite from any part of New Guinea was not previously known, either in an archaeological or geological context, so this object was of considerable interest with respect to its geological source and what that would mean about trade between this source and Emirau Island. Fortuitously, the artefact, presumably a wood-carving gouge, is very unusual with respect to both pyroxene composition and minor mineral constituents. Pyroxene compositions lie essentially along the jadeite-aegirine join: Jd94Ae6 to Jd63Ae36, and without any coexisting omphacite. This contrasts with Jd-Di or Jd-Aug compositional trends commonly observed in jadeitites worldwide. Paragonite and albite occur in veins and cavities with minor titanite, epidote-allanite, and zircon, an assemblage seen in a few jadeitites. Surprisingly, some titanite contains up to 6 wt% Nb2O5 with only trace Ta and a single grain of a Y-Nb phase (interpreted as fergusonite) is present; these are unique for jadeitite. In a historical tribute to C.E.A. Wichmann, a German geologist who taught at Utrecht University, the Netherlands, a previously unpublished description of chlormelanite from the Torare River in extreme northeast Papua, Indonesia was given. The bulk composition essentially matches the pyroxene composition of the jade, so this sample was hypothesized as coming from the source. We were able to arrange a loan from the petrology collection at Utrecht University of the specimen acquired by Wichmann in 1893. In addition we borrowed stone axes from the Natural History Museum - Naturalis in Leiden obtained from natives near what is now Jayapura in eastern-most Papua. Petrography and microprobe analysis of sections of these samples clearly show that (1) Wichmann's 1893

  15. Comparison of ESwab and Wound Fiber Swab Specimen Collection Devices for Use with Xpert SA Nasal Complete Assay.

    PubMed

    Beck, Eric T; Buchan, Blake W; Reymann, Garrett C; Ledeboer, Nathan A

    2016-07-01

    Paired nasal swab specimens were collected from patients who were undergoing routine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) screening prior to elective cardiac or orthopedic procedures. Each patient was swabbed using a traditional wound fiber liquid Stuart swab and an ESwab device, a flocked swab with a modified liquid Amies microbiology transport medium. The two specimens were tested using the Cepheid Xpert SA Nasal Complete assay. Results demonstrated a 95.5% agreement between the ESwab and the FDA-cleared wound fiber swab collection device. PMID:27122376

  16. Comparison of ESwab and Wound Fiber Swab Specimen Collection Devices for Use with Xpert SA Nasal Complete Assay

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Eric T.; Reymann, Garrett C.

    2016-01-01

    Paired nasal swab specimens were collected from patients who were undergoing routine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) screening prior to elective cardiac or orthopedic procedures. Each patient was swabbed using a traditional wound fiber liquid Stuart swab and an ESwab device, a flocked swab with a modified liquid Amies microbiology transport medium. The two specimens were tested using the Cepheid Xpert SA Nasal Complete assay. Results demonstrated a 95.5% agreement between the ESwab and the FDA-cleared wound fiber swab collection device. PMID:27122376

  17. Specimen collection for induced pluripotent stem cell research: harmonizing the approach to informed consent.

    PubMed

    Lowenthal, Justin; Lipnick, Scott; Rao, Mahendra; Hull, Sara Chandros

    2012-05-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have elicited excitement in both the scientific and ethics communities for their potential to advance basic and translational research. They have been hailed as an alternative to derivation from embryos that provides a virtually unlimited source of pluripotent stem cells for research and therapeutic applications. However, research with iPSCs is ethically complex, uniquely encompassing the concerns associated with genomics, immortalized cell lines, transplantation, human reproduction, and biobanking. Prospective donation of tissue specimens for iPSC research thus requires an approach to informed consent that is constructed for this context. Even in the nascent stages of this field, approaches to informed consent have been variable in ways that threaten the simultaneous goals of protecting donors and safeguarding future research and translation, and investigators are seeking guidance. We address this need by providing concrete recommendations for informed consent that balance the perspectives of a variety of stakeholders. Our work combines analysis of consent form language collected from investigators worldwide with a conceptual balancing of normative ethical concerns, policy precedents, and scientific realities. Our framework asks people to consent prospectively to a broad umbrella of foreseeable research, including future therapeutic applications, with recontact possible in limited circumstances. We argue that the long-term goals of regenerative medicine, interest in sharing iPSC lines, and uncertain landscape of future research all would be served by a framework of ongoing communication with donors. Our approach balances the goals of iPSC and regenerative medicine researchers with the interests of individual research participants. PMID:23197820

  18. Impact of a large-scale educational intervention program on venous blood specimen collection practices

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Phlebotomy performed with poor adherence to venous blood specimen collection (VBSC) guidelines jeopardizes patient safety and may lead to patient suffering and adverse events. A first questionnaire study demonstrated low compliance to VBSC guidelines, motivating an educational intervention of all phlebotomists within a county council. The aim was to evaluate the impact of a large-scale educational intervention program (EIP) on primary health care phlebotomists’ adherence to VBSC guidelines. We hypothesised that the EIP would improve phlebotomists’ VBSC practical performance. Methods The present study comprise primary health care centres (n = 61) from two county councils in northern Sweden. The final selected study group consisted of phlebotomists divided into an intervention group (n = 84) and a corresponding control group (n = 79). Both groups responded to a validated self-reported VBSC questionnaire twice. The EIP included three parts: guideline studies, an oral presentation, and an examination. Non-parametric statistics were used for comparison within and between the groups. Results Evaluating the EIP, we found significant improvements in the intervention group compared to the control group on self-reported questionnaire responses regarding information search (ES = 0.23-0.33, p < 0.001-0.003), and patient rest prior to phlebotomy (ES = 0.27, p = 0.004). Test request management, patient identity control, release of venous stasis, and test tube labelling had significantly improved in the intervention group but did not significantly differ from the control group (ES = 0.22- 0.49, p = < 0.001- 0.006). The control group showed no significant improvements at all (ES = 0–0.39, p = 0.016-0.961). Conclusions The present study demonstrated several significant improvements on phlebotomists’ adherence to VBSC practices. Still, guideline adherence improvement to several crucial phlebotomy practices is needed. We

  19. The 'Mandarin-missionary' strategy: Robert Kennicott, Spencer Fullerton Baird and specimen collection in the Hudson's Bay Territory.

    PubMed

    Laubacher, Matthew

    2012-06-01

    In 1859, Robert Kennicott, one of the most promising specimen collectors and young naturalists in the United States, was dispatched to Hudson's Bay Territory by Spencer Fullerton Baird, the Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian. Kennicott was chosen because of previous experience in Canada, the familiarity with biota of the American Midwest, and because he had a boundless, infectious, enthusiasm for natural history that was typical among Baird's closest protégées. Kennicott was a natural scientific envoy--or missionary--to the officers of the Hudson's Bay Company, and many officers were enthusiastically 'converted' to the cause of collecting and/or overseeing the collection of natural history specimens. Due to this collaboration between Baird, Kennicott and the officers of the Hudson's Bay Company, the Smithsonian became a leading center of Canadian natural history in the Western hemisphere. PMID:22410313

  20. A catalog of bird specimens associated with Prince Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied and potential type material in the natural history collection in Wiesbaden

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Dorothee; Geller-Grimm, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Bird specimens collected by 19th century explorer and ornithologist Prince Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied form one of the foundation collections of the American Museum of Natural History in New York. However, parts of his collection remained in Germany and came to the Museum Wiesbaden. Since Wied described numerous new species without designating types, some of these specimens might be type material. Here we present a catalog of the 30 Wiesbaden specimens associated with him and discuss their potential type status. We conclude that 17 individuals in 11 species are potential type specimens that should be considered in future taxonomic work. PMID:24294100

  1. Type specimens in the Port Elizabeth Museum, South Africa, including the historically important Albany Museum collection. Part 1: Amphibians.

    PubMed

    Conradie, Werner; Branch, William R; Watson, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    The Port Elizabeth Museum houses the consolidated herpetological collections of three provincial museums of the Eastern Cape, South Africa: the Port Elizabeth Museum (Port Elizabeth), the Amatole (previously Kaffarian) Museum (King Williams Town), and the Albany Museum (Grahamstown). Under John Hewitt, Albany Museum was the main centre of herpetological research in South Africa from 1910-1940, and he described numerous new species, many based on material in the museum collection. The types and other material from the Albany Museum are now incorporated into the Port Elizabeth Museum Herpetology collection (PEM). Due to the vague typification of much of Hewitt's material, the loss of the original catalogues in a fire and the subsequent deterioration of specimen labels, the identification of this type material is often troublesome. Significant herpetological research has been undertaken at the PEM in the last 35 years, and the collection has grown to be the third largest in Africa. During this period, numerous additional types have been deposited in the PEM collection, generated by active taxonomic research in the museum. As a consequence, 43 different amphibian taxa are represented by 37 primary and 151 secondary type specimens in the collection. This catalogue provides the first documentation of these types. It provides the original name, the original publication date, journal number and pagination, reference to illustrations, current name, museum collection number, type locality, notes on the type status, and photographs of all holotypes and lectotypes. Where necessary to maintain nomenclatural stability, and where confused type series are housed in the PEM collection, lectotypes and paralectotypes are nominated. PMID:25947420

  2. 76 FR 24862 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Protocol for Access to Tissue Specimen Samples...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ...The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C....

  3. The reliability analysis of Xpert-positive result for smear-negative and culture-negative specimen collected from bone and joint tuberculosis suspects

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Guomei; Mu, Jing; Wang, Guirong; Huo, Fengmin; Dong, Lingling; Li, Yunxu

    2016-01-01

    Background The Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert; Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) has been widely used for pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis. In clinical practice, specimen yielding smear-negative, culture-negative but Xpert-positive results is frequently confronted. Due to the notorious possibility of contamination that molecular tests always been thought of, Xpert-positive results without bacteriological supporting evidence arouse great confusions to clinicians. Methods A retrospective study was performed. From April 2014 to February 2015, 852 clinical specimens were Xpert-positive. The results of Xpert assay, bacteriological and pathological examinations from either the same specimens or from the specimens collected during same clinical operations were investigated. Results A total of 90 specimens with Xpert-positive but smear-negative and culture-negative results were recruited, and 81 of them were pus specimens collected from Bone and Joint Tuberculosis (BJTB) patients. According to the pathological examination results, 77 of the 81 pus specimens, 8 of 9 other types of specimens were confirmed as either TB or strongly suggestive of TB; three pus specimens and one biopsy tissue were also suggested TB but with less stronger evidence; only one pus specimen was not TB suggestive. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that Xpert could be trusted for BJTB diagnosis even when no supporting bacteriological evidence is available in high TB prevalence settings. Our results will alleviate the confusion among clinicians in such scenarios. PMID:27293838

  4. Validation of a Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Specimen Collection Procedure and Quantitative ELISA in Solid Tumor Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sook Ryun; Kinders, Robert J.; Khin, Sonny; Hollingshead, Melinda; Antony, Smitha; Parchment, Ralph E.; Tomaszewski, Joseph E.; Kummar, Shivaani; Doroshow, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) is an important marker of hypoxia in human tumors and has been implicated in tumor progression. Drugs targeting HIF-1α are being developed, but the ability to measure drug-induced changes in HIF-1α is limited by the lability of the protein in normoxia. Our goal was to devise methods for specimen collection and processing that preserve HIF-1α in solid tumor tissues and to develop and validate a two-site chemiluminescent quantitative ELISA for HIF-1α. We tested various strategies for HIF-1α stabilization in solid tumors including nitrogen gas-purged lysis buffer, addition of proteasome inhibitors, or the prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor 2-hydroxyglutarate, and bead homogenization. Degassing and addition of 2-hydroxyglutarate to the collection buffer significantly increased HIF-1α recovery, while bead-homogenization in sealed tubes improved HIF-1α recovery and reduced sample variability. Validation of the ELISA demonstrated intra- and inter-assay variability of less than 15% and accuracy of 99.8% ± 8.3% as assessed by spike recovery. Inter-laboratory reproducibility was also demonstrated (R2 = 0.999). Careful sample handling techniques allow us to quantitatively detect HIF-1α in samples as small as 2.5 µg of total protein extract, and this method is currently being applied to analyze tumor biopsy specimens in early-phase clinical trials. PMID:24799347

  5. DNA Amplification from Pin Mounted Bumble Bees (Bombus) in a Museum Collection: Effects of Fragment Size and Specimen Age on Successful PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historic data in the form of pinned specimens in entomological collections offer the potential to determine trends in genetic diversity of bumble bees (Bombus). We screened eight microsatellite loci for amplification success in pinned bumble bee specimens from the U.S. National Pollinating Insects C...

  6. [Adult and Continuing Education Collections at Syracuse University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syracuse University Library Associates Courier, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This issue of the biannual "Syracuse University Library Associate Courier" is devoted to covering the world famous collections of adult and continuing education materials held by the Syracuse University Library. It contains five articles: "Laubach in India: 1935-1970" (S. Y. Shah) describes missionary and founder of Laubach Literacy International…

  7. High antipredatory efficiency of insular lizards: a warning signal of excessive specimen collection?

    PubMed

    Delibes, Miguel; Blázquez, María del Carmen; Soriano, Laura; Revilla, Eloy; Godoy, José Antonio

    2011-01-01

    We live-captured lizards on islands in the Gulf of California and the Baja California peninsula mainland, and compared their ability to escape predation. Contrary to expectations, endemic lizard species from uninhabited islands fled from humans earlier and more efficiently than those from peninsular mainland areas. In fact, 58.2% (n=146) of the lizards we tried to capture on the various islands escaped successfully, while this percentage was only 14.4% (n=160) on the peninsular mainland. Separate evidence (e.g., proportion of regenerated tails, low human population at the collection areas, etc.) challenges several potential explanations for the higher antipredatory efficiency of insular lizards (e.g., more predation pressure on islands, habituation to humans on the peninsula, etc.). Instead, we suggest that the ability of insular lizards to avoid predators may be related to harvesting by humans, perhaps due to the value of endemic species as rare taxonomic entities. If this hypothesis is correct, predation-related behavioral changes in rare species could provide early warning signals of their over-exploitation, thus encouraging the adoption of conservation measures. PMID:22216244

  8. Field Evaluation of Capillary Blood Samples as a Collection Specimen for the Rapid Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Infection During an Outbreak Emergency

    PubMed Central

    Strecker, Thomas; Palyi, Bernadett; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Jonckheere, Sylvie; de Clerck, Hilde; Bore, Joseph Akoi; Gabriel, Martin; Stoecker, Kilian; Eickmann, Markus; van Herp, Michel; Formenty, Pierre; Di Caro, Antonino; Becker, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Reliable reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)–based diagnosis of Ebola virus infection currently requires a blood sample obtained by intravenous puncture. During the current Ebola outbreak in Guinea, we evaluated the usability of capillary blood samples collected from fingersticks of patients suspected of having Ebola virus disease (EVD) for field diagnostics during an outbreak emergency. Methods. A total of 120 venous and capillary blood samples were collected from 53 patients admitted to the Ebola Treatment Centre in Guéckédou, Guinea, between July and August 2014. All sample specimens were analyzed by RT-PCR using the RealStar Filovirus Screen RT-PCR Kit 1.0 from altona Diagnostics (Germany). We compared samples obtained by venipuncture and those obtained by capillary blood sampling absorbed onto swab devices. Results. The resulting sensitivity and specificity of tests performed with capillary blood samples were 86.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 71.9%–95.6%; 33/38 patients) and 100% (95% CI, 84.6%–100%; 22/22 patients), respectively. Conclusions. Our data suggest that capillary blood samples could serve as an alternative to venous blood samples for the diagnosis of EVD in resource-limited settings during a crisis. This can be of particular advantage in cases when venipuncture is difficult to perform—for example, with newborns and infants or when adult patients reject venipuncture for cultural or religious reasons. PMID:25991465

  9. Occurrence of Panagrellus (Rhabditida: Panagrolaimidae) Nematodes in a Morphologically Aberrant Adult Specimen of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae).

    PubMed

    Camerota, Manuela; Mazza, Giuseppe; Carta, Lynn K; Paoli, Francesco; Torrini, Giulia; Benvenuti, Claudia; Carletti, Beatrice; Francardi, Valeria; Roversi, Pio Federico

    2016-03-01

    An aberrant specimen of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) also known as red palm weevil (RPW), the most economically important insect pest of palms in the world, was found among a batch of conspecifics reared for research purposes. A morphological analysis of this weevil revealed the presence of nematodes associated with a structured cuticle defect of the thorax. These nematodes were not able to be cultured, but were characterized by molecular analysis using 28S and 18S ribosomal DNA and shown to belong to the family Panagrolaimidae (Rhabditida), within a clade of Panagrellus. While most nematodes in the insect were juveniles, a single male adult was partially characterized by light microscopy. Morphometrics showed similarities to a species described from Germany. Excluding the entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN), only five other genera of entomophilic or saprophytic rhabditid nematodes are associated with this weevil. This is the first report of panagrolaimid nematodes associated with this invasive pest. Possible mechanisms of nematode-insect association are discussed. PMID:27168645

  10. Occurrence of Panagrellus (Rhabditida: Panagrolaimidae) Nematodes in a Morphologically Aberrant Adult Specimen of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Camerota, Manuela; Mazza, Giuseppe; Carta, Lynn K.; Paoli, Francesco; Torrini, Giulia; Benvenuti, Claudia; Carletti, Beatrice; Francardi, Valeria; Roversi, Pio Federico

    2016-01-01

    An aberrant specimen of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) also known as red palm weevil (RPW), the most economically important insect pest of palms in the world, was found among a batch of conspecifics reared for research purposes. A morphological analysis of this weevil revealed the presence of nematodes associated with a structured cuticle defect of the thorax. These nematodes were not able to be cultured, but were characterized by molecular analysis using 28S and 18S ribosomal DNA and shown to belong to the family Panagrolaimidae (Rhabditida), within a clade of Panagrellus. While most nematodes in the insect were juveniles, a single male adult was partially characterized by light microscopy. Morphometrics showed similarities to a species described from Germany. Excluding the entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN), only five other genera of entomophilic or saprophytic rhabditid nematodes are associated with this weevil. This is the first report of panagrolaimid nematodes associated with this invasive pest. Possible mechanisms of nematode-insect association are discussed. PMID:27168645

  11. Redescription of Parapercis okamurai Kamohara, 1960 (Perciformes: Pinguipedidae), based on specimens newly collected from Taiwan and Japan.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hsuan-Ching

    2014-01-01

    A rare species of sandperch, Parapercis okamurai, is redescribed based on 2 types and 15 specimens newly collected from Taiwan and Japan. The species is unique in having cycloid scales on the parietal, opercle and subopercle, except for few large ctenoid scale that covers the base of the opercular spine; body color yellowish dorsally, with 10 or 11 faint yellow bands on lateral body and pale ventrally; and black spots on inner side of upper pectoral fin base. It can also be distinguished from congeners by having a combination of the following characters: dorsal-fin rays V, 23; anal-fin rays I, 19; pectoral-fin rays 18; pored lateral-line scales 59-64; medial predorsal scales 9-10; transverse scale rows 4.5-5.5/14-15; circumpeduncular scales 20-21; gill raker4-5+9-10=13-16; -4 pairs of canine teeth at front of lower jaw; 2-4 rows of teeth on vomer; 2 rows of teeth on palatines; scales on cheek moderately large, each half embedded; and body color yellowish dorsally and a prominent ocellus at upper caudal-fin base. PMID:25283124

  12. Assay of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in oral fluid-evaluation of the OraSure oral specimen collection device.

    PubMed

    Kauert, Gerold F; Iwersen-Bergmann, Stefanie; Toennes, Stefan W

    2006-05-01

    Oral fluid is considered to be an alternative to urine testing for the detection of acute ingestion of drugs. The OraSure Intercept DOA Oral Specimen Collection Device (OSCD) has been used in studies for the quantitation of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), but concerns have been raised. In the present study, we investigated whether the volume of oral fluid can be determined and how much THC remains adsorbed on the device. It was found that THC is markedly adsorbed onto the absorptive pad. The recovery using the standard elution procedure was only 37.8 +/- 9.4% for 10 ng/mL and 55.6 +/- 1.0% for 100 ng/mL of THC in oral fluid (n = 5 each). With an additional methanol wash, a further 25% could be eluted. Therefore, a modification of the procedure was evaluated, consisting of the addition of 2 mL of methanol to the elution buffer. THC could be completely recovered over a range of concentrations (1 to 1000 ng/mL). For the determination of the amount of oral fluid absorbed, a gravimetric approach was evaluated as the weights of the devices vary only by 0.6% relative standard deviation. After application of 0.5 mL oral fluid to pads and evaluation of the weight differences, the applied amount could be estimated with a precision of 7.5% (n = 8) and an accuracy of 6.1%. From these results it can be concluded that the OraSure OSCD is useful to collect oral fluid for reliable quantitative THC assay applying a modified elution procedure and gravimetric determination of the amount of oral fluid. PMID:16803667

  13. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in Fecal Specimens From Adults Diagnosed With Pulmonary Tuberculosis Using the Xpert MTB/Rifampicin Test

    PubMed Central

    Kokuto, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Yuka; Yoshimatsu, Shoji; Mizuno, Kazue; Yi, Lina; Mitarai, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/rifampicin (RIF) is a fully automated diagnostic test that allows for the detection of MTB including its RIF resistance. Although the test is used for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in sputum samples worldwide, studies using fecal specimens are scarce. We therefore evaluated the efficacy of the Xpert MTB/RIF test for detection of MTB in fecal specimens obtained from adult pulmonary TB patients, confirmed by culture and/or molecular diagnostic methods. Methods. We conducted a retrospective case-control study to provide proof-of-concept regarding the efficacy of the Xpert MTB/RIF test using fecal samples for diagnosing pulmonary TB via detection of MTB in adult patients (≥20 years) at the Fukujuji Hospital in Tokyo, Japan. Results. Fecal specimens were obtained from 56 active pulmonary TB patients (including 48 sputum smear-positive and 8 sputum smear-negative patients), 10 non-TB patients (including 4 Myocobacterium avium complex infections), and 27 healthy individuals who were exposed to active pulmonary TB patients. The sensitivity of the fecal Xpert MTB/RIF was 100% (81.7%–100%) for detection of MTB in specimens from sputum smear-positive (1+ to 3+) patients, 81.0% (58.1%–94.6%) in specimens from sputum smear scanty positive patients, and 50.0% (15.7%–84.3%) in specimens from sputum smear-negative patients. Meanwhile, each of the fecal specimens from the non-TB group was negative for MTB (specificity 100%; 95% confidence interval, 86.2–100). Conclusions. The fecal Xpert MTB/RIF test could detect MTB in a large proportion of smear-positive pulmonary TB patients, without frequent false-positive results at a TB referral hospital in Japan. PMID:26125035

  14. 76 FR 68509 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Reintegration of Ex-Offenders-Adult Reporting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... Request for Information Collection for Reintegration of Ex-Offenders-Adult Reporting System, Extension... support the Reintegration of Ex-Offenders-Adult (RExO-Adult) grants, which expires on March 31, 2012. A... Reintegration of Ex-Offender-Adult (formerly Prisoner Reentry Initiative) grants, faith-based and...

  15. Comparison of Rates of Positivity for Bordetella pertussis by Real-Time PCR between Specimens Collected with Rayon Swabs on Aluminum Wire Shaft in Amies Gel with Charcoal and Specimens Collected with Flocked Swabs in Universal Viral Transport Medium during an Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Ferrieri, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of real-time PCR positivity rates for Bordetella pertussis between specimens collected with rayon swabs on an aluminum wire shaft in Amies gel with charcoal and those collected with flocked swabs in universal viral transport medium during an epidemic revealed that their performances were comparable. PMID:24789194

  16. Comparison of rates of positivity for Bordetella pertussis by real-time PCR between specimens collected with rayon swabs on aluminum wire shaft in Amies gel with charcoal and specimens collected with flocked swabs in universal viral transport medium during an epidemic.

    PubMed

    Arbefeville, Sophie; Ferrieri, Patricia

    2014-07-01

    A comparison of real-time PCR positivity rates for Bordetella pertussis between specimens collected with rayon swabs on an aluminum wire shaft in Amies gel with charcoal and those collected with flocked swabs in universal viral transport medium during an epidemic revealed that their performances were comparable. PMID:24789194

  17. "Where Did You Dig Up That Old Fossil?": Will Universities Own the Research Specimens That They Collect or Purchase?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villareal, Marc; Zacharakis, Elaine

    1993-01-01

    Laws governing university ownership of paleontological specimens and resources, and attempts by the federal government to claim ownership, are discussed. A 1993 court case and its implications for universities are reviewed; and current statutes, regulations, and proposed legislation are examined. Guidelines for university paleontologists in…

  18. A Golden Age for Adult Education: The Collective Disorienting Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The continuing challenge of engaging adult learners in the process of positive social change has summoned adult educators to a new understanding of their role as change agents in an increasingly complex world. Despite all obstacles presented by our contemporary culture, the nature of adult development continues to offer opportunities for adult…

  19. Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection: comparison of four methods on specimens collected in Cary-Blair transport medium and tcdB PCR on fresh versus frozen samples

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Noah A.; LeBar, William D.; Young, Carol L.; Hankerd, Rosemary E.; Newton, Duane W.

    2011-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) caused by toxigenic strains of C. difficile is primarily a nosocomial infection with increasing prevalence. Stool specimens are typically collected in Cary-Blair transport medium to maximize culture-based detection of common stool pathogens. The goal of this study was to establish an analytically accurate and efficient algorithm for the detection of CDI in our patient population using samples collected in Cary-Blair transport medium. In addition, we wished to determine whether the sensitivity and specificity of PCR was affected by freezing samples before testing. Using 357 specimens, we compared four methods: enzyme immunoassay for the antigen glutamate dehydrogenase (Wampole™ C. DIFF CHEK-60 Assay, GDH), toxin A and B enzyme immunoassay (Remel ProSpecT™ C. difficile Toxin A/B Microplate Assay, Toxin EIA), cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (Bartels™ Cytotoxicity Assay, CT), and real-time PCR targeting the toxin B gene (BD GeneOhm™ Cdiff Assay, PCR). The analytic sensitivity and specificity of each as determined using a combined gold standard were as follows: GDH, 100% and 93.2%; Toxin EIA, 82.9% and 82.9%; CT, 100% and 100%; PCR (performed on frozen specimens) 74.3% and 96.6%; respectively. However, the sensitivity and specificity of PCR improved to 100% when performed on 50 fresh stool samples collected in Cary-Blair. While CT remains a sensitive method for the detection of CDI, GDH offers an excellent initial screening method to rule out CDI. While the performance of each assay did not appear to be affected by collection in Cary-Blair medium, PCR performed better using fresh specimens. PMID:24470904

  20. Occurrence of Panagrellus (Rhabditida: Panagrolaimidae) nematodes in a morphologically aberrant adult specimen of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An aberrant specimen of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) also known as Red Palm Weevil, the most economically important insect pest of palms in the world, was found among a batch of conspecifics reared for research purposes. A morphological analysis of this weevil revealed the ...

  1. Investigation of Fossil Insect Systematics of Specimens Collected at the Clare Quarry Site in the Florissant Fossil Beds, Florissant, Colorado from 1996 to Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cancellare, J. A.; Villalobos, J. I.; Lemone, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Clare Quarry is located in the town of Florissant, Teller County, Colorado, approximately 30 miles west of Colorado Springs on State Highway 27. The elevation at the quarry face is 2500 meters ASL. Ar40/Ar39 dating of the upper beds of the Florissant Formation indicates an age of 34.07 +/- 0.10 Ma.An Oreodont fossil jaw and other mammalian fossils place the formation in the Chadronian Age.The basin in which the formation lies is undergirded by Wall Mountain Tuff dated at 37Ma, which sits on Pike's Peak Granite, which is dated at1080 Ma. In the Late Eocene the Florissant region was lacustrine in nature due to the damning of the river valley which runs north into Florissant. The ash and lahars from volcanic eruptions from the Thirty-nine Mile Volcano Field formed impoundments that produced shallow lakes for what is thought to been a period for 5000 years. Repeated ash falls placed plant matter and insect material in the lakes and streams that were formed intermittently during the period. The ash layers in the Florissant Formation are very fine grained, and contain diatomaceous mats that formed on the lake deposited ash layers aiding in the preservation of plant and insects material. Previous work on Florissant Fossils has been done by Lesquereaux (plants) 1878, Scudder (insects) 1890, and Mc Ginitie (plants) 1953. This project began 17 years ago and has consisted of collection trips ranging from one to eight days in the summers at a proprietary quarry owned land adjacent to The Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument. The collection consists of 2700 catalogued plants, insects, and fish fossils. Of this number, 513 are insect fossils (19% of the total collection). Quality of preservation ranges from very poor to very good with the average qualitative evaluation between poor to fair. The largest series identied to family are Tipulids (Craneflies) with 23 specimens in the series. In this series wing venation is often incomplete and smaller characters including

  2. Rapid detection of west nile virus from human clinical specimens, field-collected mosquitoes, and avian samples by a TaqMan reverse transcriptase-PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Lanciotti, R S; Kerst, A J; Nasci, R S; Godsey, M S; Mitchell, C J; Savage, H M; Komar, N; Panella, N A; Allen, B C; Volpe, K E; Davis, B S; Roehrig, J T

    2000-11-01

    The authors report on the development and application of a rapid TaqMan assay for the detection of West Nile (WN) virus in a variety of human clinical specimens and field-collected specimens. Oligonucleotide primers and FAM- and TAMRA-labeled WN virus-specific probes were designed by using the nucleotide sequence of the New York 1999 WN virus isolate. The TaqMan assay was compared to a traditional reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR assay and to virus isolation in Vero cells with a large number ( approximately 500) of specimens obtained from humans (serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain tissue), field-collected mosquitoes, and avian tissue samples. The TaqMan assay was specific for WN virus and demonstrated a greater sensitivity than the traditional RT-PCR method and correctly identified WN virus in 100% of the culture-positive mosquito pools and 98% of the culture-positive avian tissue samples. The assay should be of utility in the diagnostic laboratory to complement existing human diagnostic testing and as a tool to conduct WN virus surveillance in the United States. PMID:11060069

  3. Adult Education. Part II: Collection of Learning Experiences. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peavey, Kay S., Ed.

    This document, which is the first in a series of best practice documents incorporating the wisdom and experiences of New York's adult educators, presents eight learning experiences that are specifically tailored for adult learners and instructors. The following information is provided for each learning experience: (1) a brief description of the…

  4. Aspects of Adult Literacy: A Collection of Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Tovim, Margaret, Ed.; Kedney, R. J., Ed.

    The book contains 15 papers focusing on adult illiteracy in Great Britain in the context of the community, but excluding the prison population, trainees at Adult Training Centres, patients in mental hospitals, or literacy education in the armed forces. The papers are presented in three sections. Part 1 on students contains six papers: "The Scale…

  5. OR Specimen Labeling.

    PubMed

    Zervakis Brent, Mary Ann

    2016-02-01

    Mislabeled surgical specimens jeopardize patient safety and quality care. The purpose of this project was to determine whether labeling surgical specimens with two patient identifiers would result in an 80% reduction in specimen labeling errors within six months and a 100% reduction in errors within 12 months. Our failure mode effects analysis found that the lack of two patient identifiers per label was the most unsafe step in our specimen handling process. We piloted and implemented a new process in the OR using the Plan-Do-Check-Act conceptual framework. The audit process included collecting data and making direct observations to determine the sustainability of the process change; however, the leadership team halted the direct observation audit after four months. The total number of surgical specimen labeling errors was reduced by only 60% within six months and 62% within 12 months; therefore, the goal of the project was not met. However, OR specimen labeling errors were reduced. PMID:26849982

  6. Field Evaluation of Xpert HPV Point-of-Care Test for Detection of Human Papillomavirus Infection by Use of Self-Collected Vaginal and Clinician-Collected Cervical Specimens.

    PubMed

    Toliman, P; Badman, S G; Gabuzzi, J; Silim, S; Forereme, L; Kumbia, A; Kombuk, B; Kombati, Z; Allan, J; Munnull, G; Ryan, C; Vallely, L M; Kelly-Hanku, A; Wand, H; Mola, G D L; Guy, R; Siba, P; Kaldor, J M; Tabrizi, S N; Vallely, A J

    2016-07-01

    The World Health Organization has recommended that testing for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) (hrHPV) infection be incorporated into cervical screening programs in all settings worldwide. In many high-burden, low-income countries, it will not be feasible to achieve high cervical screening coverage using hrHPV assays that require clinician-collected samples. We conducted the first evaluation of self-collected vaginal specimens compared with clinician-collected cervical specimens for the detection of hrHPV infection using the Xpert HPV test. Women aged 30 to 54 years attending two well-woman clinics in Papua New Guinea were invited to participate and provided self-collected vaginal and clinician-collected cervical cytobrush specimens. Both specimen types were tested at the point of care by using the Xpert HPV test. Women were given their cervical test result the same day. Those with a positive hrHPV test and positive examination upon visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid were offered same-day cervical cryotherapy. A total of 1,005 women were enrolled, with 124 (12.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10.3%, 14.4%) being positive for any hrHPV infection. There was a 99.4% overall percent agreement (OPA) between vaginal and cervical tests for HPV-16 (95% CI, 98.9%, 99.9%), a 98.5% OPA for HPV-18/45 (95% CI, 97.7%, 99.3%), a 94.4% OPA for other hrHPV infections (95% CI, 92.9%, 95.9%), and a 93.4% OPA for all hrHPV types combined (95% CI, 91.8%, 95.0%). Self-collected vaginal specimens had excellent agreement with clinician-collected cervical specimens for the detection of hrHPV infection using the Xpert HPV test. This approach provides for the first time an opportunity to incorporate point-of-care hrHPV testing into clinical cervical screening algorithms in high-burden, low-income settings. PMID:27076663

  7. Mass digitization of scientific collections: New opportunities to transform the use of biological specimens and underwrite biodiversity science

    PubMed Central

    Beaman, Reed S.; Cellinese, Nico

    2012-01-01

    Abstract New information technologies have enabled the scientific collections community and its stakeholders to adapt, adopt, and leverage novel approaches for a nearly 300 years old scientific discipline. Now, few can credibly question the transformational impact of technology on efforts to digitize scientific collections, as IT now reaches into almost every nook and cranny of society. Five to ten years ago this was not the case. Digitization is an activity that museums and academic institutions increasingly recognize, though many still do not embrace, as a means to boost the impact of collections to research and society through improved access. The acquisition and use of scientific collections is a global endeavor, and digitization enhances their value by improved access to core biodiversity information, increases use, relevance and potential downstream value, for example, in the management of natural resources, policy development, food security, and planetary and human health. This paper examines new opportunities to design and implement infrastructure that will support not just mass digitization efforts, but also a broad range of research on biological diversity and physical sciences in order to make scientific collections increasingly relevant to societal needs and interest. PMID:22859875

  8. Hybridization Capture Using RAD Probes (hyRAD), a New Tool for Performing Genomic Analyses on Collection Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Suchan, Tomasz; Pitteloud, Camille; Gerasimova, Nadezhda S.; Kostikova, Anna; Schmid, Sarah; Arrigo, Nils; Pajkovic, Mila; Ronikier, Michał; Alvarez, Nadir

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years, many protocols aimed at reproducibly sequencing reduced-genome subsets in non-model organisms have been published. Among them, RAD-sequencing is one of the most widely used. It relies on digesting DNA with specific restriction enzymes and performing size selection on the resulting fragments. Despite its acknowledged utility, this method is of limited use with degraded DNA samples, such as those isolated from museum specimens, as these samples are less likely to harbor fragments long enough to comprise two restriction sites making possible ligation of the adapter sequences (in the case of double-digest RAD) or performing size selection of the resulting fragments (in the case of single-digest RAD). Here, we address these limitations by presenting a novel method called hybridization RAD (hyRAD). In this approach, biotinylated RAD fragments, covering a random fraction of the genome, are used as baits for capturing homologous fragments from genomic shotgun sequencing libraries. This simple and cost-effective approach allows sequencing of orthologous loci even from highly degraded DNA samples, opening new avenues of research in the field of museum genomics. Not relying on the restriction site presence, it improves among-sample loci coverage. In a trial study, hyRAD allowed us to obtain a large set of orthologous loci from fresh and museum samples from a non-model butterfly species, with a high proportion of single nucleotide polymorphisms present in all eight analyzed specimens, including 58-year-old museum samples. The utility of the method was further validated using 49 museum and fresh samples of a Palearctic grasshopper species for which the spatial genetic structure was previously assessed using mtDNA amplicons. The application of the method is eventually discussed in a wider context. As it does not rely on the restriction site presence, it is therefore not sensitive to among-sample loci polymorphisms in the restriction sites that usually causes

  9. Hybridization Capture Using RAD Probes (hyRAD), a New Tool for Performing Genomic Analyses on Collection Specimens.

    PubMed

    Suchan, Tomasz; Pitteloud, Camille; Gerasimova, Nadezhda S; Kostikova, Anna; Schmid, Sarah; Arrigo, Nils; Pajkovic, Mila; Ronikier, Michał; Alvarez, Nadir

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years, many protocols aimed at reproducibly sequencing reduced-genome subsets in non-model organisms have been published. Among them, RAD-sequencing is one of the most widely used. It relies on digesting DNA with specific restriction enzymes and performing size selection on the resulting fragments. Despite its acknowledged utility, this method is of limited use with degraded DNA samples, such as those isolated from museum specimens, as these samples are less likely to harbor fragments long enough to comprise two restriction sites making possible ligation of the adapter sequences (in the case of double-digest RAD) or performing size selection of the resulting fragments (in the case of single-digest RAD). Here, we address these limitations by presenting a novel method called hybridization RAD (hyRAD). In this approach, biotinylated RAD fragments, covering a random fraction of the genome, are used as baits for capturing homologous fragments from genomic shotgun sequencing libraries. This simple and cost-effective approach allows sequencing of orthologous loci even from highly degraded DNA samples, opening new avenues of research in the field of museum genomics. Not relying on the restriction site presence, it improves among-sample loci coverage. In a trial study, hyRAD allowed us to obtain a large set of orthologous loci from fresh and museum samples from a non-model butterfly species, with a high proportion of single nucleotide polymorphisms present in all eight analyzed specimens, including 58-year-old museum samples. The utility of the method was further validated using 49 museum and fresh samples of a Palearctic grasshopper species for which the spatial genetic structure was previously assessed using mtDNA amplicons. The application of the method is eventually discussed in a wider context. As it does not rely on the restriction site presence, it is therefore not sensitive to among-sample loci polymorphisms in the restriction sites that usually causes

  10. Optimal specimen collection and transport methods for the detection of avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Active and passive surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is widespread in commercial poultry worldwide, therefore optimization of sample collection and transport would be valuable to achieve the best sensitivity and specificity possible, and to develop the mo...

  11. Collection, handling and analysis of specimens for studies of mucosal immunity in animals of veterinary importance - Appendix III

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The validity of data in science depends on the reliability of the collection procedure and the methods used for data analysis. This becomes a major challenge in studies of mucosal immunology since samples for analysis come from various anatomical sources which differ remarkably in their content and ...

  12. Human Service Planning as a Collective Adult Learning Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Joan

    Based on a study by the Department of Community Service Education, Cornell University, to evaluate human service planning (HSP) nationwide, this paper discusses the premises that HSP may be defined as community learning and that the community (according to the Robert Boyd and Jerold Apps model for adult education) is both a beneficiary of and…

  13. Impact of the phlebotomy training based on CLSI/NCCLS H03-A6 - procedures for the collection of diagnostic blood specimens by venipuncture.

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The activities involving phlebotomy, a critical task for obtaining diagnostic blood samples, are poorly studied as regards the major sources of errors and the procedures related to laboratory quality control. The aim of this study was to verify the compliance with CLSI documents of clinical laboratories from South America and to assess whether teaching phlebotomists to follow the exact procedure for blood collection by venipuncture from CLSI/NCCLS H03-A6 - Procedures for the Collection of Diagnostic Blood Specimens by Venipuncture might improve the quality of the process. Materials and methods: A survey was sent by mail to 3674 laboratories from South America to verify the use of CLSI documents. Thirty skilled phlebotomists were trained with the CLSI H03-A6 document to perform venipuncture procedures for a period of 20 consecutive working days. The overall performances of the phlebotomists were further compared before and after the training program. Results: 2622 from 2781 laboratories that did answer our survey used CLSI documents to standardize their procedures and process. The phlebotomists’ training for 20 days before our evaluation completely eliminated non-conformity procedures for: i) incorrect friction of the forearm, during the cleaning of the venipuncture site to ease vein location; ii) incorrect sequence of vacuum tubes collection; and iii) inadequate mixing of the blood in primary vacuum tubes containing anticoagulants or clot activators. Unfortunately the CLSI H03-A6 document does not caution against both unsuitable tourniquet application time (i.e., for more than one minute) and inappropriate request to clench the fist repeatedly. These inadequate procedures were observed for all phlebotomists. Conclusion: We showed that strict observance of the CLSI H03-A6 document can remarkably improve quality, although the various steps for collecting diagnostic blood specimens are not a gold standard, since they may still permit errors. Tourniquet

  14. Differential acetyl cholinesterase inhibition by volatile oils from two specimens of Marlierea racemosa (Myrtaceae) collected from different areas of the Atlantic Rain Forest.

    PubMed

    Souza, Amanda; Silva, Michelle C; Cardoso-Lopes, Elaine M; Cordeiro, Inês; Sobral, Marcos E G; Young, Maria Cláudia M; Moreno, Paulo R H

    2009-08-01

    The volatile oil composition and anti-acetyl cholinesterase activity were analyzed in two specimens of Marlierea racemosa growing in different areas of the Atlantic Rain Forest (Cananéia and Caraguatatuba, SP, Brazil). Component identifications were performed by GC/MS and their acetyl cholinesterase inhibitory activity was measured through colorimetric analysis. The major constituent in both specimens was spathulenol (25.1% in Cananéia and 31.9% in Caraguatatuba). However, the first one also presented monoterpenes (41.2%), while in the Carguatatuba plants, this class was not detected. The oils from the plants collected in Cananéia were able to inhibit the acetyl cholinesterase activity by up to 75%, but for oils from the other locality the maximal inhibition achieved was 35%. These results suggested that the monoterpenes are more effective in the inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase activity than sesquiterpenes as these compounds are present in higher amounts in the M. racemosa plants collected in Cananéia. PMID:19769001

  15. The external morphology of adult female Egrasilus labracis as shown using hexamethyldisilazane treated, uncoated specimens for scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Murray, Harry M; Hill, Stephen J; Ang, Keng P

    2016-07-01

    The description and application of a modified Scanning Electron Microscope preparation technique using hexamethyldisilazane for small parasitic copepods was demonstrated though a high resolution depiction of individuals of Ergasilus labracis sampled from three spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in Bay D'Espoir, Newfoundland during summer 2015 and from archival samples retrieved from Atlantic salmon par (Salmo salar) stored at the Atlantic reference centre, St. Andrews, New Brunswick. The specimens were very well preserved showing high quality detail of important features and verifying those previously described using light microscopy by Hogans. Additionally the technique allowed excellent in situ demonstrations of mouth parts, swimming legs, and unusual and previously undescribed features of the second antenna including prominent striations and pore-like structures found to define the claw. It is thought that this technique will become a quick and efficient tool for describing important taxonomic features of small parasitic copepods like E. labracis or other similar small aquatic organisms. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:657-663, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27151371

  16. Early collection of saliva specimens from Bell's palsy patients: quantitative analysis of HHV-6, HSV-1, and VZV.

    PubMed

    Turriziani, Ombretta; Falasca, Francesca; Maida, Paola; Gaeta, Aurelia; De Vito, Corrado; Mancini, Patrizia; De Seta, Daniele; Covelli, Edoardo; Attanasio, Giuseppe; Antonelli, Guido

    2014-10-01

    Bell's palsy is the most common cause of facial paralysis. Although it has been associated with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, pregnancy, and preeclampsia, the etiology of Bell's palsy remains unknown. The reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus (HSV) or varicella-zoster virus (VZV) with subsequent inflammation and entrapment of the facial nerve in the narrow labyrinthine segment has been implicated as a cause of facial paralysis, but the active role of these viruses in Bell's palsy is still discussed. This study quantified HSV-1 DNA, VZV DNA, and HHV-6 DNA in 95 saliva samples collected from patients within 48 hr from the onset of paralysis. HSV-1, VZV, and HHV-6 were detected in 13%, 3%, and 61% of patients, respectively. The detection rate did not differ significantly between patients and a control group of healthy donors. Interestingly, however, the value of HHV-6 DNA copies was significantly higher than that detected in healthy donors. In addition, the mean value of HHV-6 DNA recorded in patients who had at least a one grade improvement of palsy at the first visit was significantly lower than that detected in patients who showed no change in facial palsy grade or an increase of at least one grade. These findings call into question the role of HSV-1 and VZV in the etiology of Bell's palsy, and suggest that HHV-6 may be involved in the development of the disease or that the underlying disease mechanism might predispose patients to HHV-6 reactivation. PMID:24619963

  17. Doll Collecting; A Course Designed for the Adult Education Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Betty M.

    The author has attempted to organize the many materials to be found on doll collecting into a course which will provide a foundation of knowledge for appreciating and evaluating old dolls. The course has been divided into sessions in which old dolls will be studied by type (images, idols, and early playthings; child, doll, and social realities;…

  18. Catalog of type specimens of invertebrates in the collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Brazil. VI. Hexapoda: Hemiptera: Heteroptera.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Higor D D; Ferreira-Keppler, Ruth L

    2013-01-01

    A catalog of type specimens of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) deposited in the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), Manaus, Brazil, is presented and updated to May, 2012. A total of 37 holotypes and 61 lots of paratypes of 78 species are listed in their families: Miridae and Reduviidae (infraorder: Cimicomorpha); Mesoveliidae and Velfidae (Gerromorpha); Belostomatidae, Naucoridae, and Notonectidae (Nepomorpha); and Coreidae, Geocoridae [the older sense of "Lygaeidae"], and Pentatomidae (Pentatomomorpha). The taxa are presented alphabetically by infraorders, families, and genera, followed by epithet, bibliographic citation, type category, collection number, method of preservation, and present data on the labels. When necessary, we added localities data, and changes in taxonomic status of some species PMID:26106772

  19. Preliminary results of trace element contents in mantle derived specimens from Kakanui, New Zealand, of the Jarosewich's Microbeam Reference Samples Collection: The first step of a new program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, M.

    2009-12-01

    Over the last two decades, microbeam instrumentation has been the subject of a great technological development—ever more sophisticated analytical capabilities including lower detection limits and better mass- and spectral resolution. Nevertheless, the accuracy of microananalysis is limited because of the lack of reliable reference materials for trace elements (<0.1 wt. %) with a similar composition to the unknown. The program started at the Department of Mineral Sciences, NMNH, Smithsonian Institution (Logan, 2009) has the long-term objective of establishing working values for the trace element contents of the 59 specimens (including silicates, oxides, carbonates, REE orthoposphates, and volcanic and synthetic glasses) from the Jarosewich Microbeam Reference Samples Collection. During the 1970s and 1980s Eugene Jarosewich characterized these specimens for major and minor elements by wet chemistry to be used as RM for microanalysis, Jarosewich et al., (1980). Currently, more than 600 reference samples from this collection are yearly requested by laboratories all over the world. Suitable homogeneous crystals for reference samples can only grow in an environment with constant P-T conditions for a long time such as the mantle. However, during the ascent of mantle nodules to the surface of the earth, their original composition could be affected by metasomatism. Therefore, this program focuses on a rigorous analysis of the degree and scale of homogeneity of trace element contents in mantle derived specimens, as they are the most likely to satisfy the requirements to become RMs. Because the most frequently requested specimens of this collection are from the well know locality Kakanui, New Zealand, a statistical analysis was performed based on 640 electron microprobe analyses (P, Sc, V, Cr, Ni and Zn) on the tschermakitic augite (NMNH 122142), kaersutitic hornblende (NMNH 143965) and a pyrope garnet,(NMNH 143968) in traverses across three randomly selected grains. In

  20. 76 FR 13339 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Child and Adult...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... accuracy of meal claims submitted for reimbursement by family day care home providers for meals served to children who attend the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) day care homes. The assessment is tasked... family day care homes (FDCHs) during FY 2011. DATES: Written comments on this notice must be received...

  1. Evaluation of the Alere i Influenza A&B Nucleic Acid Amplification Test by Use of Respiratory Specimens Collected in Viral Transport Medium

    PubMed Central

    Bell, J. Jeremiah

    2014-01-01

    The Alere i Influenza A&B assay is a newly developed rapid molecular assay which has the potential to generate results within 15 min from sample collection. In this study, we evaluated the Alere i Influenza A&B assay by using salvaged frozen respiratory specimens that were collected in viral transport medium from children ages 10 months to 19 years. Alere i Influenza A&B assay test results were compared with viral culture and ProFlu+ real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay results. We found that the overall sensitivity and specificity of the Alere i Influenza A&B assay were 93.3% and 94.5% for the detection of influenza A virus and 100% and 100% for the detection of influenza B virus, respectively, compared to viral culture. In comparison to ProFlu+ real-time RT-PCR, overall sensitivity and specificity of the Alere i Influenza A&B assay for the detection of influenza A virus were 88.8% and 98.3% and 100% and 100% for detecting influenza B virus. Overall, the Alere i Influenza A&B assay performed well compared to either virus cell culture or RT-PCR. PMID:25210070

  2. Antemortem Detection of Chronic Wasting Disease Prions in Nasal Brush Collections and Rectal Biopsy Specimens from White-Tailed Deer by Real-Time Quaking-Induced Conversion.

    PubMed

    Haley, Nicholas J; Siepker, Chris; Walter, W David; Thomsen, Bruce V; Greenlee, Justin J; Lehmkuhl, Aaron D; Richt, Jürgen A

    2016-04-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, was first documented nearly 50 years ago in Colorado and Wyoming and has since spread to cervids in 23 states, two Canadian provinces, and the Republic of Korea. The expansion of this disease makes the development of sensitive diagnostic assays and antemortem sampling techniques crucial for the mitigation of its spread; this is especially true in cases of relocation/reintroduction of farmed or free-ranging deer and elk or surveillance studies of private or protected herds, where depopulation is contraindicated. This study sought to evaluate the sensitivity of the real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay by using recto-anal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) biopsy specimens and nasal brush samples collected antemortem from farmed white-tailed deer (n= 409). Antemortem findings were then compared to results from ante- and postmortem samples (RAMALT, brainstem, and medial retropharyngeal lymph nodes) evaluated by using the current gold standardin vitroassay, immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis. We hypothesized that the sensitivity of RT-QuIC would be comparable to IHC analysis in antemortem tissues and would correlate with both the genotype and the stage of clinical disease. Our results showed that RAMALT testing by RT-QuIC assay had the highest sensitivity (69.8%) compared to that of postmortem testing, with a specificity of >93.9%. These data suggest that RT-QuIC, like IHC analysis, is an effective assay for detection of PrP(CWD)in rectal biopsy specimens and other antemortem samples and, with further research to identify more sensitive tissues, bodily fluids, or experimental conditions, has potential for large-scale and rapid automated testing for CWD diagnosis. PMID:26865693

  3. Providing Contemporary Access to Historical Biospecimen Collections: Development of the NHLBI Biologic Specimen and Data Repository Information Coordinating Center (BioLINCC)

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Leslie E.; Adams, John T.; Brennan, Sean P.; Coady, Sean A.; Wagner, Elizabeth L.

    2015-01-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), within the United States' National Institutes of Health (NIH), established a Biorepository in 1976 that initially archived biospecimens from population-based blood product safety surveys. It was later expanded to biospecimens from clinical and epidemiological studies in heart, lung, and blood disorders. The NHLBI also established a Data Repository in 2000 to store and distribute study data from NHLBI-sponsored research. The NHLBI Biologic Specimen and Data Repository Information Coordinating Center (BioLINCC) was established in 2008 to develop the infrastructure needed to link the contents of these two related NHLBI Repositories, facilitate access to repository resources, and streamline request processes. Three key program subcomponents were developed simultaneously: 1) the linkage of biospecimen electronic inventory records with their clinical or characterization data; 2) the development and implementation of a website with both public-facing information and private processing workspaces; and 3) the development of processes to maximize efficiency via a web-based system while maintaining workflow control, document tracking, and secure processes. The BioLINCC website was launched on October 1, 2009 with eight biospecimen collections and data from 72 research studies. By the end of the fourth online year, 38 biospecimen collections were linked and posted, and data from 108 research studies had been made available for request. The number of registered users by the end of the fourth online year approached 2600, and continues to show a trend towards an increasing rate of new users per year. BioLINCC has fulfilled 381 requests comprising 851 data collections, as well as 600 teaching dataset requests and 75 data renewal agreements. 154 biospecimen requests comprising 147,388 biospecimens were fulfilled or actively in process. We conclude that the BioLINCC program has been successful in its goal to increase the

  4. Providing Contemporary Access to Historical Biospecimen Collections: Development of the NHLBI Biologic Specimen and Data Repository Information Coordinating Center (BioLINCC).

    PubMed

    Giffen, Carol A; Carroll, Leslie E; Adams, John T; Brennan, Sean P; Coady, Sean A; Wagner, Elizabeth L

    2015-08-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), within the United States' National Institutes of Health (NIH), established a Biorepository in 1976 that initially archived biospecimens from population-based blood product safety surveys. It was later expanded to biospecimens from clinical and epidemiological studies in heart, lung, and blood disorders. The NHLBI also established a Data Repository in 2000 to store and distribute study data from NHLBI-sponsored research. The NHLBI Biologic Specimen and Data Repository Information Coordinating Center (BioLINCC) was established in 2008 to develop the infrastructure needed to link the contents of these two related NHLBI Repositories, facilitate access to repository resources, and streamline request processes. Three key program subcomponents were developed simultaneously: 1) the linkage of biospecimen electronic inventory records with their clinical or characterization data; 2) the development and implementation of a website with both public-facing information and private processing workspaces; and 3) the development of processes to maximize efficiency via a web-based system while maintaining workflow control, document tracking, and secure processes. The BioLINCC website was launched on October 1, 2009 with eight biospecimen collections and data from 72 research studies. By the end of the fourth online year, 38 biospecimen collections were linked and posted, and data from 108 research studies had been made available for request. The number of registered users by the end of the fourth online year approached 2600, and continues to show a trend towards an increasing rate of new users per year. BioLINCC has fulfilled 381 requests comprising 851 data collections, as well as 600 teaching dataset requests and 75 data renewal agreements. 154 biospecimen requests comprising 147,388 biospecimens were fulfilled or actively in process. We conclude that the BioLINCC program has been successful in its goal to increase the

  5. Evaluation of laboratory tests for SAT serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus with specimens collected from convalescent cattle in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Sammin, D J; Paton, D J; Parida, S; Ferris, N P; Hutchings, G H; Reid, S M; Shaw, A E; Holmes, C; Gibson, D; Corteyn, M; Knowles, N J; Valarcher, J-F; Hamblin, P A; Fleming, L; Gwaze, G; Sumption, K J

    2007-05-12

    During a field study in Zimbabwe, clinical specimens were collected from 403 cattle in six herds, in which the history of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccination and infection appeared to be known with some certainty. Five herds had reported outbreaks of disease one to five months previously but clinical FMD had not been observed in the sixth herd. A trivalent vaccine (South African Territories [SAT] types 1, 2 and 3) had been used in some of the herds at various times either before and/or after the recent outbreaks of FMD. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of serological tests for the detection of SAT-type FMD virus infection, particularly elisas for antibodies to non-structural proteins (NSPs) of FMD virus and solid phase competition ELISAS (SPCEs) for serotypes SAT1 and SAT2. Secondary aims were to examine NSP seroconversion rates in cattle that had been exposed to infection and to compare virus detection rates by virus isolation and real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR (rtRT-PCR) tests on both oesophagopharyngeal fluids and nasopharyngeal brush swabbings. In addition, the hooves of sampled animals were examined for growth arrest lines as clinical evidence of FMD convalescence. Laboratory tests provided evidence of FMD virus infection in all six herds; SAT2 viruses were isolated from oesophagopharyngeal fluids collected from two herds in northern Zimbabwe, and SAT1 viruses were isolated from three herds in southern Zimbabwe. Optimised rtRT-PCR was more sensitive than virus isolation at detecting FMD virus persistence and when the results of the two methods were combined for oesophagopharyngeal fluids, between 12 and 35 per cent of the cattle sampled in the convalescent herds were deemed to be carriers. In contrast, nasopharyngeal swabs yielded only two virus-positive specimens. The overall seroprevalence in the five affected herds varied with the different NSPS from 56 per cent to 75 per cent, compared with 81 per cent and 91 per cent

  6. Transport of viral specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, F B

    1990-01-01

    The diagnosis of viral infections by culture relies on the collection of proper specimens, proper care to protect the virus in the specimens from environmental damage, and use of an adequate transport system to maintain virus activity. Collection of specimens with swabs that are toxic to either virus or cell culture should be avoided. A variety of transport media have been formulated, beginning with early bacteriological transport media. Certain swab-tube combinations have proven to be both effective and convenient. Of the liquid transport media, sucrose-based and broth-based media appear to be the most widely accepted and used. Studies on virus stability show that most viruses tested are sufficiently stable in transport media to withstand a transport time of 1 to 3 days. Some viruses may withstand longer transport times. In many cases, it is not necessary to store virus specimens in a refrigerator or send them to the laboratory on wet ice or frozen on dry ice. However, the specimen should not be exposed to environmental extremes. Modern viral transport media allow for more effective use of viral culture and culture enhancement techniques for the diagnosis of human viral infections. PMID:2187591

  7. Spectrum of Gastroenteropancreatic NENs in Routine Histological Examinations of Bioptic and Surgical Specimen: A Study of 161 Cases Collected from 17 Departments of Pathology in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Mandys, Václav

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To characterize GEP-NENs in routine biopsies and surgical specimen in the Czech Republic and to evaluate how WHO Classification (2010) is acceptable in diagnostic practice. Methods. Paraffin-embedded blocks and bioptic reports were collected from 17 departments of pathology. Histologic slides were stained with H&E and immunohistologically for CgA, synaptophysin, and Ki-67. Results. Out of 28 gastric NENs, there were 22 NETs, G1, 5 NETs, G2, and 1 NEC. Ten duodenal NENs were NETs, G1. Among 27 NENs of jejunum and ileum, 23 were NETs, G1, 2 NETs, G2, and 1 NEC and 1 mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC). Among 42 appendiceal “incidentalomas”, 39 were NETs G1, 2 goblet cell carcinoids, and 1 MANEC. Out of 34 large intestinal NENs, 30 were NETs, G1, 3 NETs, G2, and 1 NEC. One small intestinal and 6 large bowel neoplasms were reclassified as poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas. In 12 pancreatic NENs, there were 7 NETs, G1, 3 NETs, G2, and 2 NECs. Conclusions. Our study demonstrates differences in GEP-NENs frequency in sites of origin in our region, comparing to other countries. Regarding routine bioptic diagnostics, we gave evidence that the WHO 2010 classification of NENs is fully acceptable for exact categorisation of tumours. PMID:24695372

  8. Spectrum of Gastroenteropancreatic NENs in Routine Histological Examinations of Bioptic and Surgical Specimen: A Study of 161 Cases Collected from 17 Departments of Pathology in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Mandys, Václav; Jirásek, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To characterize GEP-NENs in routine biopsies and surgical specimen in the Czech Republic and to evaluate how WHO Classification (2010) is acceptable in diagnostic practice. Methods. Paraffin-embedded blocks and bioptic reports were collected from 17 departments of pathology. Histologic slides were stained with H&E and immunohistologically for CgA, synaptophysin, and Ki-67. Results. Out of 28 gastric NENs, there were 22 NETs, G1, 5 NETs, G2, and 1 NEC. Ten duodenal NENs were NETs, G1. Among 27 NENs of jejunum and ileum, 23 were NETs, G1, 2 NETs, G2, and 1 NEC and 1 mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC). Among 42 appendiceal "incidentalomas", 39 were NETs G1, 2 goblet cell carcinoids, and 1 MANEC. Out of 34 large intestinal NENs, 30 were NETs, G1, 3 NETs, G2, and 1 NEC. One small intestinal and 6 large bowel neoplasms were reclassified as poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas. In 12 pancreatic NENs, there were 7 NETs, G1, 3 NETs, G2, and 2 NECs. Conclusions. Our study demonstrates differences in GEP-NENs frequency in sites of origin in our region, comparing to other countries. Regarding routine bioptic diagnostics, we gave evidence that the WHO 2010 classification of NENs is fully acceptable for exact categorisation of tumours. PMID:24695372

  9. Single genome amplification of proviral HIV-1 DNA from dried blood spot specimens collected during early infant screening programs in Lusaka, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Seu, Lillian; Mwape, Innocent; Guffey, M. Bradford

    2014-01-01

    The ability to evaluate individual HIV-1 virions from the quasispecies of vertically infected infants was evaluated in a field setting at the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia. Infant heel-prick blood specimens were spotted onto dried blood spot (DBS) filter paper cards at government health clinics. Nucleic acid was extracted and used as a template for HIV-1 proviral DNA detection by a commercial Amplicor HIV-1 PCR test (Roche, version 1.5). On samples that tested positive by commercial diagnostic assay, amplification of DNA was performed using an in-house assay of the 5′ and 3′ region of the HIV-1 genome. Additionally, fragments covering 1200 nucleotides within pol (full length protease and partial reverse transcriptase) and 1400 nucleotides within env (variable 1-variable 5 region) were further analyzed by single genome amplification (SGA). In summary, we have demonstrated an in-house assay for amplifying the 5′ and 3′ proviral HIV-1 DNA as well as pol and env proviral DNA fragments from DBS cards collected and analyzed entirely in Zambia. In conclusion, this study shows the feasibility of utilizing DBS cards to amplify the whole proviral HIV-1 genome as well as perform SGA on key HIV-1 genes. PMID:24667303

  10. Cross-Sectional Study of Hepatitis A Virus Infection in the Pantanal Population before Vaccine Implementation in Brazil: Usage of Non-Invasive Specimen Collection

    PubMed Central

    Tourinho, Renata Santos; de Almeida, Adilson José; Villar, Livia Melo; Murat, Paula Guerra; Capelin, Gina Jonasson Mousquer; Motta Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra; de Paula, Vanessa Salete

    2015-01-01

    Population-based prevalence studies are essential tools for screening of hepatitis A and provide important data on susceptible groups. However, surveillance in isolated communities is difficult because of the limited access to these areas and the need for blood sample collection. This study aimed to determine the anti-HAV prevalence using oral fluid samples to provide an alternative tool for epidemiological studies that might be useful for vaccination-related decisions. The study population was composed of 224 volunteers from South Pantanal, aged 3 to 86 years old. This study was performed using oral fluids, previously standardized for anti-HAV antibody detection, which were collected using a ChemBio device. Eluates were tested using modified commercial EIA to detect anti-HAV antibodies. The overall prevalence was 79.1%, corresponding to 178 reactive EIA tests out of 224 samples. The age stratified data revealed a prevalence of 47.8% between 0–10 years, 84% in 11–20 years and 91.9% in subjects older than 21 years. Results indicate that hepatitis A prevalence was higher in adolescents and adults, corroborating the literature reports. Thus, oral fluid samples could replace serum in HAV epidemiological studies in isolated communities as they are efficient at detecting anti-HAV antibodies. PMID:26133128

  11. Genomics and museum specimens.

    PubMed

    Nachman, Michael W

    2013-12-01

    Nearly 25 years ago, Allan Wilson and colleagues isolated DNA sequences from museum specimens of kangaroo rats (Dipodomys panamintinus) and compared these sequences with those from freshly collected animals (Thomas et al. 1990). The museum specimens had been collected up to 78 years earlier, so the two samples provided a direct temporal comparison of patterns of genetic variation. This was not the first time DNA sequences had been isolated from preserved material, but it was the first time it had been carried out with a population sample. Population geneticists often try to make inferences about the influence of historical processes such as selection, drift, mutation and migration on patterns of genetic variation in the present. The work of Wilson and colleagues was important in part because it suggested a way in which population geneticists could actually study genetic change in natural populations through time, much the same way that experimentalists can do with artificial populations in the laboratory. Indeed, the work of Thomas et al. (1990) spawned dozens of studies in which museum specimens were used to compare historical and present-day genetic diversity (reviewed in Wandeler et al. 2007). All of these studies, however, were limited by the same fundamental problem: old DNA is degraded into short fragments. As a consequence, these studies mostly involved PCR amplification of short templates, usually short stretches of mitochondrial DNA or microsatellites. In this issue, Bi et al. (2013) report a breakthrough that should open the door to studies of genomic variation in museum specimens. They used target enrichment (exon capture) and next-generation (Illumina) sequencing to compare patterns of genetic variation in historic and present-day population samples of alpine chipmunks (Tamias alpinus) (Fig. 1). The historic samples came from specimens collected in 1915, so the temporal span of this comparison is nearly 100 years. PMID:24138088

  12. Electronic Data Collection and Management System for Global Adult Tobacco Survey

    PubMed Central

    Pujari, Sameer J; Palipudi, Krishna M; Morton, Jeremy; Levinsohn, Jay; Litavecz, Steve; Green, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Portable handheld computers and electronic data management systems have been used for national surveys in many high-income countries, however their use in developing countries has been challenging due to varying geographical, economic, climatic, political and cultural environments. In order to monitor and measure global adult tobacco use, the World Health Organization and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated the Global Adult Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative household survey of adults, 15 years of age or older, using a standard core questionnaire, sample design, and data collection and management procedures. The Survey has been conducted in 14 low- and middle-income countries, using an electronic data collection and management system. This paper describes implementation of the electronic data collection system and associated findings. Methods: The Survey was based on a comprehensive data management protocol, to enable standardized, globally comparable high quality data collection and management. It included adaptation to specific country needs, selection of appropriate handheld hardware devices, use of open source software, and building country capacity and provide technical support. Results: In its first phase, the Global Adult Tobacco Survey was successfully conducted between 2008 and 2010, using an electronic data collection and management system for interviews in 302,800 households in 14 countries. More than 2,644 handheld computers were fielded and over 2,634 fieldworkers, supervisors and monitors were trained to use them. Questionnaires were developed and programmed in 38 languages and scripts. The global hardware failure rate was < 1% and data loss was almost 0%. Conclusion: Electronic data collection and management systems can be used effectively for conducting nationally representative surveys, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, irrespective of geographical, climatic, political and cultural

  13. Anaerobic specimen transport device.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, T D; Jimenez-Ulate, F

    1975-01-01

    A device is described and evaluated for the anaerobic transport of clinical specimens. The device limits the amount of oxygen entering with the sample to a maximum of 2%, which is rapidly removed by reacting with hydrogen in the presence of a palladium catalyst. The viability on swabs of 12 species of anaerobes, four strains of facultative anaerobes and a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, was maintained during the length of the tests (24 or 48 h). The results demonstrated that this device protected even the more oxygen-sensitive clinical anaerobes from death due to oxygen exposure. This device can be used for swabs as well as for anaerobic collection and liquid and solid specimens. Images PMID:1104656

  14. The relationship between collective self-esteem, acculturation, and alcohol-related consequences among Asian American young adults.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eric R; Hsu, Sharon Hsin; Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M; Larimer, Mary E

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relationship between collective self-esteem (i.e., the value one places on being part of a collective group), acculturation, and alcohol-related consequences in a sample of 442 Asian American young adults. We found that membership self-esteem and public collective self-esteem interacted with acculturation such that low levels of both predicted greater rates of consequences. Participants with lower acculturation and greater private collective self-esteem experienced more alcohol consequences. This study suggests that differential aspects of collective self-esteem may serve as protective or risk factors for Asian American young adults depending on degree of acculturation. PMID:23480211

  15. The Relationship Between Collective Self-Esteem, Acculturation, and Alcohol-Related Consequences Among Asian American Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    PEDERSEN, ERIC R.; HSU, SHARON HSIN; NEIGHBORS, CLAYTON; LEE, CHRISTINE M.; LARIMER, MARY E.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the relationship between collective self-esteem (i.e., the value one places on being part of a collective group), acculturation, and alcohol-related consequences in a sample of 442 Asian American young adults. We found that membership self-esteem and public collective self-esteem interacted with acculturation such that low levels of both predicted greater rates of consequences. Participants with lower acculturation and greater private collective self-esteem experienced more alcohol consequences. This study suggests that differential aspects of collective self-esteem may serve as protective or risk factors for Asian American young adults depending on degree of acculturation. PMID:23480211

  16. Pilot environmental specimen bank program

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, S.A.; Zeisler, R.

    1984-10-01

    The concept of an environmental specimen bank for archiving of biological and environmental samples for retrospective analysis has been recognized recently as an important component of systematic environmental monitoring. A pilot program was designed to evaluate the feasibility of a national program by providing actual working experience in all aspects of specimen banking, that is, in specimen collection, processing, storage, and analysis. Four types of environmental specimens, which represent environmental accumulators, were selected for inclusion in the National Bureau of Standards pilot program: human soft tissue (liver), a marine accumulator (marine mussels, Mytilus edulis), a food accumulator and the air pollutant accumulator have not been selected. Attention is focused on the experience gained in the pilot program with the human liver specimens. 32 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  17. NASA Biological Specimen Repository

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMonigal, K. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Johnson, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Biological Specimen Repository (NBSR) was established in 2006 to collect, process, preserve and distribute spaceflight-related biological specimens from long duration ISS astronauts. This repository provides unique opportunities to study longitudinal changes in human physiology spanning may missions. The NBSR collects blood and urine samples from all participating ISS crewmembers who have provided informed consent. These biological samples are collected once before flight, during flight scheduled on flight days 15, 30, 60, 120 and within 2 weeks of landing. Postflight sessions are conducted 3 and 30 days after landing. The number of in-flight sessions is dependent on the duration of the mission. Specimens are maintained under optimal storage conditions in a manner that will maximize their integrity and viability for future research The repository operates under the authority of the NASA/JSC Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects to support scientific discovery that contributes to our fundamental knowledge in the area of human physiological changes and adaptation to a microgravity environment. The NBSR will institute guidelines for the solicitation, review and sample distribution process through establishment of the NBSR Advisory Board. The Advisory Board will be composed of representatives of all participating space agencies to evaluate each request from investigators for use of the samples. This process will be consistent with ethical principles, protection of crewmember confidentiality, prevailing laws and regulations, intellectual property policies, and consent form language. Operations supporting the NBSR are scheduled to continue until the end of U.S. presence on the ISS. Sample distribution is proposed to begin with selections on investigations beginning in 2017. The availability of the NBSR will contribute to the body of knowledge about the diverse factors of spaceflight on human physiology.

  18. Orientation of histopathology specimens.

    PubMed

    Burns, A; Adams, J; Endersby, S

    2004-02-01

    We present a simple way of orientating large specimens being sent to the laboratory for histopathological examination by supplementing the pinning of the specimen on a cork board with Polaroid photographs of the specimen and numbered tags. PMID:14706306

  19. Cinemicrographic specimen housing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Housing used to observe gravitation effects on specimens embedded in support media, such as agar, supports microbial specimens vertically for time-lapsed cinemicrographic studies. Procedure cannot be performed with conventional microscopes which see specimens in horizontal plane only.

  20. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  1. NASA Biological Specimen Repository

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pietrzyk, Robert; McMonigal, K. A.; Sams, C. F.; Johnson, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Biological Specimen Repository (NBSR) has been established to collect, process, annotate, store, and distribute specimens under the authority of the NASA/JSC Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects. The International Space Station (ISS) provides a platform to investigate the effects of microgravity on human physiology prior to lunar and exploration class missions. The NBSR is a secure controlled storage facility that is used to maintain biological specimens over extended periods of time, under well-controlled conditions, for future use in approved human spaceflight-related research protocols. The repository supports the Human Research Program, which is charged with identifying and investigating physiological changes that occur during human spaceflight, and developing and implementing effective countermeasures when necessary. The storage of crewmember samples from many different ISS flights in a single repository will be a valuable resource with which researchers can validate clinical hypotheses, study space-flight related changes, and investigate physiological markers All samples collected require written informed consent from each long duration crewmember. The NBSR collects blood and urine samples from all participating long duration ISS crewmembers. These biological samples are collected pre-flight at approximately 45 days prior to launch, during flight on flight days 15, 30, 60 120 and within 2 weeks of landing. Postflight sessions are conducted 3 and 30 days following landing. The number of inflight sessions is dependent on the duration of the mission. Operations began in 2007 and as of October 2009, 23 USOS crewmembers have completed or agreed to participate in this project. As currently planned, these human biological samples will be collected from crewmembers covering multiple ISS missions until the end of U.S. presence on the ISS or 2017. The NBSR will establish guidelines for sample distribution that are consistent with ethical principles

  2. The Adult Netherlands Twin Register: twenty-five years of survey and biological data collection.

    PubMed

    Willemsen, Gonneke; Vink, Jacqueline M; Abdellaoui, Abdel; den Braber, Anouk; van Beek, Jenny H D A; Draisma, Harmen H M; van Dongen, Jenny; van 't Ent, Dennis; Geels, Lot M; van Lien, Rene; Ligthart, Lannie; Kattenberg, Mathijs; Mbarek, Hamdi; de Moor, Marleen H M; Neijts, Melanie; Pool, Rene; Stroo, Natascha; Kluft, Cornelis; Suchiman, H Eka D; Slagboom, P Eline; de Geus, Eco J C; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2013-02-01

    Over the past 25 years, the Adult Netherlands Twin Register (ANTR) has collected a wealth of information on physical and mental health, lifestyle, and personality in adolescents and adults. This article provides an overview of the sources of information available, the main research findings, and an outlook for the future. Between 1991 and 2012, longitudinal surveys were completed by twins, their parents, siblings, spouses, and offspring. Data are available for 33,957 participants, with most individuals having completed two or more surveys. Smaller projects provided in-depth phenotyping, including measurements of the autonomic nervous system, neurocognitive function, and brain imaging. For 46% of the ANTR participants, DNA samples are available and whole genome scans have been obtained in more than 11,000 individuals. These data have resulted in numerous studies on heritability, gene x environment interactions, and causality, as well as gene finding studies. In the future, these studies will continue with collection of additional phenotypes, such as metabolomic and telomere length data, and detailed genetic information provided by DNA and RNA sequencing. Record linkage to national registers will allow the study of morbidity and mortality, thus providing insight into the development of health, lifestyle, and behavior across the lifespan. PMID:23298648

  3. The Adult Netherlands Twin Register: Twenty-Five Years of Survey and Biological Data Collection

    PubMed Central

    Willemsen, Gonneke; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Abdellaoui, Abdel; den Braber, Anouk; van Beek, Jenny H. D. A.; Draisma, Harmen H. M.; van Dongen, Jenny; van ‘t Ent, Dennis; Geels, Lot M.; van Lien, Rene; Ligthart, Lannie; Kattenberg, Mathijs; Mbarek, Hamdi; de Moor, Marleen H. M.; Neijts, Melanie; Pool, Rene; Stroo, Natascha; Kluft, Cornelis; Suchiman, H. Eka D.; Slagboom, P. Eline; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, the Adult Netherlands Twin Register (ANTR) has collected a wealth of information on physical and mental health, lifestyle, and personality in adolescents and adults. This article provides an overview of the sources of information available, the main research findings, and an outlook for the future. Between 1991 and 2012, longitudinal surveys were completed by twins, their parents, siblings, spouses, and offspring. Data are available for 33,957 participants, with most individuals having completed two or more surveys. Smaller projects provided in-depth phenotyping, including measurements of the autonomic nervous system, neurocognitive function, and brain imaging. For 46% of the ANTR participants, DNA samples are available and whole genome scans have been obtained in more than 11,000 individuals. These data have resulted in numerous studies on heritability, gene × environment interactions, and causality, as well as gene finding studies. In the future, these studies will continue with collection of additional phenotypes, such as metabolomic and telomere length data, and detailed genetic information provided by DNA and RNA sequencing. Record linkage to national registers will allow the study of morbidity and mortality, thus providing insight into the development of health, lifestyle, and behavior across the lifespan. PMID:23298648

  4. Collectivity, Distributivity, and the Interpretation of Plural Numerical Expressions in Child and Adult Language

    PubMed Central

    Musolino, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Sentences containing plural numerical expressions (e.g., two boys) can give rise to two interpretations (collective and distributive), arising from the fact that their representation admits of a part-whole structure. We present the results of a series of experiments designed to explore children’s understanding of this distinction and its implications for the acquisition of linguistic expressions with number words. We show that preschoolers access both interpretations, indicating that they have the requisite linguistic and conceptual machinery to generate the corresponding representations. Furthermore, they can shift their interpretation in response to structural and lexical manipulations. However, they are not fully adult-like: unlike adults, they are drawn to the distributive interpretation, and are not yet aware of the lexical semantics of each and together, which should favor one or another interpretation. This research bridges a gap between a well-established body of work in cognitive psychology on the acquisition of number words and more recent work investigating children’s knowledge of the syntactic and semantic properties of sentences featuring numerical expressions. PMID:24223477

  5. Minthorn Springs Creek Summer Juvenile Release and Adult Collection Facility; 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rowan, Gerald D.

    1995-05-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) are cooperating in a joint effort to enhance steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. Bonifer Pond, Minthorn Springs and Imeques C-mem-ini-kem acclimation facilities are operated for acclimation and release of juvenile summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), fall and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O, kisutch). Minthorn is also used for holding and spawning summer steelhead, fall chinook and coho salmon. In the spring of 1994, juvenile summer steelhead were acclimated at Bonifer and Minthorn. At Imeques C-mem-ini-kem, juvenile spring chinook were acclimated in the spring and fall. A total of 92 unmarked and 42 marked summer steelhead were collected for broodstock at Three Mile Dam from October 1, 1993 through May 2, 1994 and held at Minthorn. An estimated 234,432 green eggs were taken from 48 females. The eggs were transferred to Irrigon Hatchery for incubation and early rearing. Fingerlings were transferred to Umatilla Hatchery for final rearing and release into the Umatilla River in 1995. Fall chinook and coho salmon broodstock were not collected in 1994. Coded-wire tag recovery information was accessed to determine the contribution of Umatilla River releases to ocean, Columbia River and Umatilla River fisheries. Total estimated juvenile adult survival rates are detailed in this document.

  6. Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis genotypes in adult dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of G. duodenalis genotypes was determined in adult dairy cows. Fecal specimens were collected from two farms each in Vermont, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and Florida. Specimens, cleaned of fecal debris and concentrated using CsCl density gradient centr...

  7. Evaluation of the Beckman Coulter UniCel DxH 800, Beckman Coulter LH 780, and Abbott Diagnostics Cell-Dyn Sapphire hematology analyzers on adult specimens in a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Tan, Brent T; Nava, Armando J; George, Tracy I

    2011-06-01

    We evaluated the new Beckman Coulter DxH 800 hematology analyzer (Beckman Coulter, Miami, FL) vs the Abbott Diagnostics Cell-Dyn Sapphire (Abbott Diagnostics, Santa Clara, CA) and Beckman Coulter LH 780 hematology analyzers using 430 adult specimens. The DxH 800 provided a CBC and differential that correlated well with those of the Sapphire and LH 780, with most parameters showing correlation coefficients (r) of more than 0.97. In the instrument vs 400-cell manual differential comparison, all 3 instruments showed similar and acceptable accuracy to the reference method except for nucleated RBC (NRBC) enumeration, in which the DxH 800 and Sapphire outperformed the LH 780. We also compared clinical efficiency by determining whether flagged specimens showed abnormalities on a peripheral blood smear as defined by International Council for Standardization in Haematology criteria. The efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity of the DxH 800 were 77.0%, 87.1%, and 73.0%, respectively, compared with the Sapphire at 75.8%, 93.5%, and 68.8%, respectively, and LH 780 at 66.1%, 93.5%, and 55.3%, respectively. PMID:21571967

  8. Levels of mineral nutrients in fresh- and frozen bulk hydrated biological specimens: a comparison of EDS data collected in the environmental SEM and a conventional cryo-SEM.

    PubMed

    Egerton-Warburton, L M; Griffin, B J

    1994-01-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDS) was compared in fresh- and frozen bulk hydrated tissues using the Environmental SEM (ESEM) and conventional cryo-SEM, respectively. Analysis of globoid inclusions of Eucalyptus calophylla seed from two soil types demonstrated that higher levels of cations (K, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn) occurred in seeds from soils containing higher levels of Al, while EDS-detectable levels of S and P were dependent upon the techniques utilised. Cumulative changes in ESEM-EDS-detectable levels of S and P were characterized by collecting cumulative spectra from nutrient standards and compared with those for K. Progressive increases in K occurred and were consistent with an enriching effect. Levels of S and P increased during early analysis (40-60 sec live time) and decreased thereafter. The semi-conductive nature of biological samples, the loss of anions and gain of cations from the net negatively-charged electron interaction volume contributed to an electrochemical bias. These local modifications in fluid chemistry were reversible. Dehydration effects also occurred in stable, 'wet' samples. These differences indicated that EDS in ESEM may be limited to cations rather than anions, and that changes in fluid electrochemistry and dehydration may affect the level and distribution of elements. PMID:7881898

  9. The P15--A Multinational Assessment Battery for Collecting Data on Health Indicators Relevant to Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, J.; Linehan, C.; Kerr, M.; Salvador-Carulla, L.; Zeilinger, E.; Weber, G.; Walsh, P.; Van Schrojenstein Lantman-De-Valk, H.; Haveman, M.; Azema, B.; Buono, S.; Cara, A. C.; Germanavicius, A.; Van Hove, G.; Maatta, T.; Berger, D. M.; Tossebro, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health disparities between adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and the general population have been well documented but, to date, no dedicated assessment battery for measuring health disparity has been available. This paper reports on the development and testing of a multinational assessment battery for collecting data on a…

  10. Cultural Codes as Catalysts for Collective Conscientisation in Environmental Adult Education: Mr. Floatie, Tree Squatting and Save-Our-Surfers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how cultural codes in environmental adult education can be used to "frame" collective identity, develop counterhegemonic ideologies, and catalyse "educative-activism" within social movements. Three diverse examples are discussed, spanning environmental movements in urban Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, the redwoods of…

  11. Could home STI specimen collection with e-prescription be a cost-effective strategy for clinical trials and clinical care?

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Diane R; Spielberg, Freya; Levy, Vivian; Lensing, Shelly; Wolff, Peter A.; Venkatasubramanian, Lalitha; Acevedo, Nincoshka; Padian, Nancy; Chattopadhyay, Ishita; Gaydos, Charlotte A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Results of a recent demonstration project evaluating feasibility, acceptability, and cost of a web-based STI testing and e-prescription treatment program (eSTI) suggest that this approach could be a feasible alternative to clinic based testing and treatment, but the results need to be confirmed by a randomized comparative effectiveness trial. Methods We modeled a decision tree comparing: 1) cost of eSTI screening using a home collection kit and an e-prescription for uncomplicated treatment versus 2) hypothetical costs derived from the literature for referral to standard clinic based STI screening and treatment. Primary outcome was number of STIs detected. Analyses were conducted from the clinical trial perspective and the healthcare system perspective. Results The eSTI strategy detected 75 infections, and the Clinic-referral strategy detected 45 infections. Total cost of eSTI was $94,938 ($1,266/STI detected) from the clinical trial perspective and $96,088 ($1,281/STI detected) from the healthcare system perspective. Total cost of clinic referral was $87,367 ($1,941/STI detected) from the clinical trial perspective and $71,668 ($1,593/STI detected) from the healthcare system perspective. Conclusions Results indicate that eSTI will likely be more cost-effective (lower cost/STI detected) than clinic based STI screening, both in the context of clinical trials and in routine clinical care. Although our results are promising, they are based on a demonstration project and estimates from other small studies. A comparative effectiveness research (CER) trial is needed to determine actual cost and impact of the eSTI system on identification and treatment of new infections and prevention of their sequelae. PMID:25504295

  12. 42 CFR 493.1232 - Standard: Specimen identification and integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Specimen identification and integrity... Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1232 Standard: Specimen identification and integrity. The... optimum integrity of a patient's specimen from the time of collection or receipt of the specimen...

  13. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-specimen methods of collection. (b) If the urine specimen is to be split into two specimen bottles, hereinafter referred to as Bottle A and Bottle B, the collector shall take the following steps: (1) The... urine specimen. The collector shall pour 30 mL of urine into Bottle A and a minimum of 15 mL of...

  14. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-specimen methods of collection. (b) If the urine specimen is to be split into two specimen bottles, hereinafter referred to as Bottle A and Bottle B, the collector shall take the following steps: (1) The... urine specimen. The collector shall pour 30 mL of urine into Bottle A and a minimum of 15 mL of...

  15. 42 CFR 493.1232 - Standard: Specimen identification and integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard: Specimen identification and integrity... Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1232 Standard: Specimen identification and integrity. The... optimum integrity of a patient's specimen from the time of collection or receipt of the specimen...

  16. The type specimen of Anoura geoffroyi lasiopyga (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arroyo-Cabrales, Joaquin; Gardner, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    In 1868, Wilhelm Peters described Glossonycteris lasiopyga, based on a specimen provided by Henri de Saussure and collected in Mexico. The type specimen was presumed to be among those housed in the collections of the Zoologisches Museum of the Humboldt Universitat in Berlin, Germany. Our study of one of Saussure?s specimens from Mexico, discovered in the collections of the Museum d?Histoire Naturelle, Geneva, Switzerland, demonstrates that it and not one of the Berlin specimens is the holotype.

  17. A subsized fatigue specimen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeelani, S.; Natarajan, R.; Reddy, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    A subsized fatigue specimen has been designed to overcome the difficulty of machining a full-sized specimen from cast superalloy components. A finite element analysis confirmed that the stress was maximum at the gauge section for any given set of clamping and tensile loads, and that the stresses developed due to clamping forces were negligible compared with those due to tensile or compressive loads. Fatigue data generated using subsized specimens of AISI 4130 steel, 2024-T4 aluminum alloy and 6Al-4V titanium alloy compared well with those available in the literature for full-sized specimens.

  18. 37 CFR 2.59 - Filing substitute specimen(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filing substitute specimen(s..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Drawing § 2.59 Filing substitute specimen(s). (a... specimen(s), the applicant must: (1) For an amendment to allege use under § 2.76, verify by affidavit...

  19. 77 FR 37923 - Comment Request for Information Collection for the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) Adult and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... Investment Act (WIA) Adult and Dislocated Worker Programs Gold Standard Evaluation (WIA Evaluation); New... than 6 million people annually at a cost of over $3 billion (U.S. Department of Labor, Fiscal Year 2012...--adults and dislocated workers in this group can receive any WIA service for which they are eligible;...

  20. Minthorn Springs Creek Summer Juvenile Release and Adult Collection Facility; 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rowan, Gerald D.

    1993-08-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CT'UIR) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) are cooperating in a joint effort to supplement steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. As an integral part of this program, Bonifer and Minthorn Acclimation Facilities are operated for holding and spawning adult steelhead and fall chinook salmon and acclimation and release of juvenile salmon and steelhead. Acclimation of 109,101 spring chinook salmon and 19,977 summer steelhead was completed at Bonifer in the spring of 1992. At Minthorn, 47,458 summer steelhead were acclimated and released. Control groups of spring chinook salmon were released instream concurrent with the acclimated releases to evaluate the effects of acclimation on adult returns to the Umatilla River. Acclimation studies with summer steelhead were not conducted in 1992. A total of 237 unmarked adult steelhead were collected for broodstock at Three Mile Dam from October 18, 1991 through April 24, 1992 and held at Minthorn. Utilizing a 3 x 3 spawning matrix, a total of 476,871 green eggs were taken from 86 females. The eggs were transferred to Umatilla Hatchery for incubation, rearing, and later release into the Umatilla River. A total of 211 fall chinook salmon were also collected for broodstock at Three Mile Dam and held at Minthorn. Using a 1:1 spawning ratio, a total of 195,637 green eggs were taken from 58 females. They were also transferred to Umatilla Hatchery for incubation, rearing, and later release into the Umatilla River. Personnel from the ODFW Eastern Oregon Fish Pathology Laboratory in La Grande took samples of tissues and reproductive fluids from Umatilla River summer steelhead and fall chinook salmon broodstock for monitoring and evaluation purposes. Cell culture assays for replicating agents, including IHNV virus, on all spawned fish were negative. One of 60 summer steelhead tested positive for EIBS virus, while all fall chinook tested

  1. Controlled environment specimen transfer.

    PubMed

    Damsgaard, Christian D; Zandbergen, Henny; W Hansen, Thomas; Chorkendorff, Ib; B Wagner, Jakob

    2014-08-01

    Specimen transfer under controlled environment conditions, such as temperature, pressure, and gas composition, is necessary to conduct successive complementary in situ characterization of materials sensitive to ambient conditions. The in situ transfer concept is introduced by linking an environmental transmission electron microscope to an in situ X-ray diffractometer through a dedicated transmission electron microscope specimen transfer holder, capable of sealing the specimen in a gaseous environment at elevated temperatures. Two catalyst material systems have been investigated; Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst for methanol synthesis and a Co/Al2O3 catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Both systems are sensitive to ambient atmosphere as they will oxidize after relatively short air exposure. The Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst, was reduced in the in situ X-ray diffractometer set-up, and subsequently, successfully transferred in a reactive environment to the environmental transmission electron microscope where further analysis on the local scale were conducted. The Co/Al2O3 catalyst was reduced in the environmental microscope and successfully kept reduced outside the microscope in a reactive environment. The in situ transfer holder facilitates complimentary in situ experiments of the same specimen without changing the specimen state during transfer. PMID:24824787

  2. Evaluation of some adhesives for collecting Musca domestica and Chrysomya megacephala adults or mosquito larvae in sticky traps.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, S; Yunus, H; Sohadi, R

    1987-07-01

    1. Seven types of water-insoluble adhesives were evaluated in sticky traps for collecting adults of Musca domestica L. and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) or mosquito larvae (Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say). 2. Adhesive viscosity affected the tackiness of the glues and this determined their trapping efficiency in air or water. 3. From the 'Hyvis' range of adhesives tested, 'Hyvis 200' was most effective for trapping adult flies. 4. With 24 h exposure to fourth instar Ae.aegypti larvae in tapwater, submerged plates coated with 'Hyvis 10', 'Hyvis 30' or 'Hyvis 200' formulations trapped the majority of larvae. In polluted water the highest rates of trapping were 17.3% of Ae.aegypti and 18.7% of Cx quinquefasciatus with 'Hyvis 200'. Floating traps were consistently less productive than submerged traps under laboratory conditions. 5. In a heavily polluted natural breeding-site of Cx quinquefasciatus, floating traps were more productive than submerged sticky traps with four of seven adhesives tested, the most efficient being 'Hyvis 200' (4.2 mosquitoes per hour) and Hyvis:polyethylene 90:10 (4.5/h). Despite the relative inefficiency of aquatic traps, emergent adults, pupae and second to fourth instars of larvae were collected quickly from the habitat. PMID:2979541

  3. Adult Education. Proven Exemplary Educational Programs and Practices: A Collection from the National Diffusion Network (NDN).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Board of Education, Lansing.

    This booklet provides descriptions of 16 adult education programs that have been validated as successful by the Joint Dissemination Review Panel (JDRP), U.S. Department of Education and that are being promoted by the National Diffusion Network (NDN). Although the programs were developed by individual school districts in response to local needs,…

  4. New Adult Level Curriculum Materials in the Government Documents Collection. 1989-1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Diana J., Comp.

    The purpose of this bibliography is to provide a list of government documents of special interest to students in education, especially adult students, teachers, and university faculty. Types of materials indexed include: curriculum guides and supplements, sources of government and non-government print and non-print resources, bibliographies,…

  5. Evaluation of various substances to increase adult Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) collections on alsynite cylinder traps in north Florida.

    PubMed

    Cilek, J E

    1999-09-01

    During 1993-1995, field studies evaluated various volatile substances to increase the catch of adult stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans L., on adhesive-coated translucent fiberglass (Alsynite) cylinder traps. Dry ice, 1-octen-3-ol (referred to as octenol), acetone, 4:1:8 mixture of 1 octen-3-ol: 3-n-propylphenol: 4-methylphenol, and an eye gnat (Hippelates) attractant were tested. Using dry ice as a baseline, the latter 4 treatments also were considered as possible alternatives to carbon dioxide. Dry ice significantly increased fly collections on cylinders as much as 25-fold compared with cylinders with no odor. Although trap collections increased by approximately 4% with addition of octenol (release rate approximately 18.0 mg/h), it was not significantly different when compared with dry ice alone. Fly collections on cylinders baited with octenol only were significantly lower than dry ice and not significantly different from cylinders with no odor. Collections from Alsynite cylinders baited with either acetone released at approximately 62.0 mg/h or eye gnat bait plus sand caught significantly more stable flies than no odor. However, neither substance increased fly collections as much as dry ice. The 4:1:8 phenolic mixture (released at either 0.7 mg/h or 20.0 mg/h) significantly increased fly collection on cylinders nearly 6-fold compared with no odor and warrants further investigation as an alternative to carbon dioxide for sampling stable flies. PMID:10534955

  6. Baseline Test Specimen Machining Report

    SciTech Connect

    mark Carroll

    2009-08-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project is tasked with selecting a high temperature gas reactor technology that will be capable of generating electricity and supplying large amounts of process heat. The NGNP is presently being designed as a helium-cooled high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) with a large graphite core. The graphite baseline characterization project is conducting the research and development (R&D) activities deemed necessary to fully qualify nuclear-grade graphite for use in the NGNP reactor. Establishing nonirradiated thermomechanical and thermophysical properties by characterizing lot-to-lot and billet-to-billet variations (for probabilistic baseline data needs) through extensive data collection and statistical analysis is one of the major fundamental objectives of the project. The reactor core will be made up of stacks of graphite moderator blocks. In order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the varying characteristics in a wide range of suitable graphites, any of which can be classified as “nuclear grade,” an experimental program has been initiated to develop an extensive database of the baseline characteristics of numerous candidate graphites. Various factors known to affect the properties of graphite will be investigated, including specimen size, spatial location within a graphite billet, specimen orientation within a billet (either parallel to [P] or transverse to [T] the long axis of the as-produced billet), and billet-to-billet variations within a lot or across different production lots. Because each data point is based on a certain position within a given billet of graphite, particular attention must be paid to the traceability of each specimen and its spatial location and orientation within each billet. The evaluation of these properties is discussed in the Graphite Technology Development Plan (Windes et. al, 2007). One of the key components in the evaluation of these graphite types will be mechanical testing on

  7. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  8. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  9. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Splitting the urine specimen. 26.113 Section 26.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. (a) Licensees and other entities may, but are not required to, use...

  10. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  11. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Splitting the urine specimen. 26.113 Section 26.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. (a) Licensees and other entities may, but are not required to, use...

  12. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  13. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  14. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Splitting the urine specimen. 26.113 Section 26.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. (a) Licensees and other entities may, but are not required to, use...

  15. Collective Bargaining Agreement by and Between Moraine Park Vocational, Technical and Adult Education District and the Faculty Association of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education District 10, July 1973-June 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraine Park Technical Inst., Fond du Lac, WI.

    This is the collective bargaining agreement between the Moraine Park Vocational, Technical and Adult Education District and the Faculty Association of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education District 10 covering the period July 1973-June 1974. Contents cover academic freedom; advancement on the salary schedule; aggrieved person; arbitration and…

  16. Toward collecting a standardized nursing data set across the continuum: case of adult care nurse practitioner setting.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Gail; Stocker, Julia; Barkauskas, Violet; Treder, Marcy; Heath, Crystal

    2003-01-01

    Viable strategies are needed to move toward collection of a standardized nursing data set across settings for eventual use in examining nursing effectiveness. One strategy is to introduce potential nurse adopters to subsets of valid setting-specific standardized terms and measures to support adoption and initial implementation. The present study was designed to identify the "most clinically useful" NANDA (North American Nursing Diagnoses Association) diagnoses, NOC (Nursing Outcomes Classifications) outcomes, and NIC (Nursing Intervention Classifications) interventions pertinent to the adult care nurse practitioner setting. Ultimately, clinicians must recognize, however, that they will need to use additional terms and measures outside the subsets to more fully describe the nursing care provided. PMID:12881972

  17. 76 FR 52687 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for the Bureau of Indian Education Adult Education...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Program. The information collection is currently authorized by OMB Control number 1076-0120, which expires... will be able to do so. III. Data OMB Control Number: 1076-0120. Title: Bureau of Indian Affairs...

  18. 37 CFR 2.59 - Filing substitute specimen(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Filing substitute specimen(s). 2.59 Section 2.59 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Drawing § 2.59 Filing substitute specimen(s)....

  19. 37 CFR 2.59 - Filing substitute specimen(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Filing substitute specimen(s). 2.59 Section 2.59 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Drawing § 2.59 Filing substitute specimen(s)....

  20. 37 CFR 2.59 - Filing substitute specimen(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Filing substitute specimen(s). 2.59 Section 2.59 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Drawing § 2.59 Filing substitute specimen(s)....

  1. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of seedling and adult plant leaf rust resistance in a world wheat collection.

    PubMed

    Dakouri, Abdulsalam; McCallum, Brent D; Radovanovic, Natasa; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Genetic resistance is the most effective approach to managing wheat leaf rust. The aim of this study was to characterize seedling and adult plant leaf rust resistance of a world wheat collection. Using controlled inoculation with ten races of Puccinia triticina, 14 seedling resistance genes were determined or postulated to be present in the collection. Lr1, Lr3, Lr10 and Lr20 were the most prevalent genes around the world while Lr9, Lr14b, Lr3ka and/or Lr30 and Lr26 were rare. To confirm some gene postulations, the collection was screened with gene-specific molecular markers for Lr1, Lr10, Lr21 and Lr34. Although possessing the Lr1 and/or Lr10 gene-specific marker, 51 accessions showed unexpected high infection types to P. triticina race BBBD. The collection was tested in the field, where rust resistance ranged from nearly immune or highly resistant with severity of 1 % and resistant host response to highly susceptible with severity of 84 % and susceptible host response. The majority of the accessions possessing the adult plant resistance (APR) gene Lr34 had a maximum rust severity of 0-35 %, similar to or better than accession RL6058, a Thatcher-Lr34 near-isogenic line. Many accessions displayed an immune response or a high level of resistance under field conditions, likely as a result of synergy between APR genes or between APR and seedling resistance genes. However, accessions with three or more seedling resistance genes had an overall lower field severity than those with two or fewer. Immune or highly resistant accessions are potential sources for improvement of leaf rust resistance. In addition, some lines were postulated to have known but unidentified genes/alleles or novel genes, also constituting potentially important sources of novel resistance. PMID:24078786

  2. A Novel Approach to Collecting Satellite Cells From Adult Skeletal Muscles on the Basis of Their Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Yasumasa; Wakao, Shohei

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells are generally collected using flow cytometry, but this method is not applicable when the cell surface marker is not well determined. Satellite cells, which are skeletal muscle stem cells, have the ability to regenerate damaged muscles and are expected to be applicable for treatment of muscle degeneration. Although the transcription factor Pax7 is a known specific marker of satellite cells, it is not located on the cell surface and therefore flow cytometry is not directly applicable. In the present study, we turned our attention to the stress tolerance of adult stem cells, and we propose long-term trypsin incubation (LTT) as a novel approach to collecting satellite cells from mouse and human skeletal muscles. LTT led to a remarkable increase in the ratio of Pax7(+) cells that retain normal myogenic stem cell function. In particular, human Pax7(+) cells made up approximately 30% of primary cultured cells, whereas after LTT, the ratio of Pax7(+) cells increased up to ∼80%, and the ratio of Pax7(+) and/or MyoD(+) myogenic cells increased to ∼95%. Once transplanted, LTT-treated cells contributed to subsequent muscle regeneration following repetitive muscle damage without additional cell transplantation. The stress tolerance of Pax7(+) cells is related to heat shock protein 27 and αB-crystallin, members of the small heat shock protein family. This approach, based on the stress resistance of adult stem cells, is a safe and inexpensive method of efficiently collecting human satellite cells and may also be used for collecting other tissue stem cells whose surface marker is unknown. PMID:23748608

  3. Plastinated Knee Specimens: A Novel Educational Tool

    PubMed Central

    Neha; Lalwani, Sanjeev; Dhingra, Renu

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: During the routine dissection of knee joints in an anatomy dissection hall, it was observed that the specimens had deteriorated overtime, due to their repeated handling and the use of high concentrations of formalin for their fixation. In order to stop their further deterioration, we decided to plastinate these specimens. Thus, the present study was undertaken to prepare plastinated knee specimens from old embalmed cadavers and to compare them with freshly fixed, plastinated specimens. Objectives: 1. To plastinate old embalmed and fresh formalin fixed knee regions. 2. To demonstrate the extra and the intracapsular structures around both the plastinated knee regions. 3. To compare their morphological features in terms of their colours, dilatation and flexibility. Methods: A total of 15 knee joint specimens from among fresh formalin (5-8%) fixed (group I) and old embalmed bodies (group II) were collected, washed and plastinated by using the standard S-10 silicon technique and they were compared for their colours, dilatation and flexibility. Results: All the plastinated specimens showed an accurate reproduction of the tissue details that were comparable to those of the natural unfixed specimens. A comparison among the two groups showed a significant difference in terms of the colour, dilatation and the flexibility of the specimens. The plastinated knee joint specimens from group I were of good quality, with negligible shrinkage, more flexibility and well preserved morphologies. Conclusion: Plastinated knee specimens can serve as an excellent educational tool for the undergraduate and postgraduate students of anatomy, radiology and orthopaedics, as they are dry, odourless and nontoxic, with a good structural preservation and a higher instructional value. The fresh knee regions, when they were plastinated, were aesthetically superior in terms of their colours, dilatation and flexibility, thus making them ideal for teaching and hands-on experiences. PMID

  4. Minthorn Springs Creek Summer Juvenile Release and Adult Collection Facility; 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rowan, Gerald D.

    1994-05-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CT'UIR) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) are cooperating in a joint effort to supplement steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. As an integral part of this program, Bonifer and Minthorn Acclimation Facilities are operated for holding and spawning adult steelhead and fall chinook salmon and acclimation and release of juvenile salmon and steelhead. This 1993 annual report details scheduled maintenance and other projects carried out during the year.

  5. A new, cost-effective, battery-powered aspirator for adult mosquito collections.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M; Galvin, William A; Kelly, Rosmarie; Kitron, Uriel

    2009-11-01

    We report the development of a new mosquito aspirator with the same aspiration capacity (airflow) of the CDC Backpack Aspirator (CDC-BP), but smaller and lighter (0.8 kg without battery), less expensive (US$45-70), easier to build, and compatible with the use of telescoping extension poles to access hard-to-reach locations. The performance of this new aspirator, named "Prokopack," was compared with the CDC-BP in laboratory settings as well as in paired collections in combined sewer overflow (CSO) tunnels in Atlanta, GA, and indoor mosquito collections in Iquitos, Peru. The difference in suction power between both aspirators (average, 0.29-0.43 m/s) was negligible. However, 2.3 times more mosquitoes were collected using the Prokopack in the upper wall (>1.5 m) and ceilings of CSO tunnels than with the CDC-BP in lower walls. Indoor collection in Iquitos yielded significantly more total mosquito numbers [including Culex pipiens complex, Culex (melanoconion) sp., and Mansonia sp.] and Aedes aegypti (L.) in the Prokopack than in the CDC-BP. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of the Prokopack to collect different mosquito species in different epidemiological settings. PMID:19960668

  6. A New, Cost-Effective, Battery-Powered Aspirator for Adult Mosquito Collections

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M.; Galvin, William A.; Kelly, Rosmarie; Kitron, Uriel

    2009-01-01

    We report the development of a new mosquito aspirator with the same aspiration capacity (airflow) of the CDC Backpack Aspirator (CDC-BP), but smaller and lighter (0.8 kg without battery), less expensive (US$45–70), easier to build, and compatible with the use of telescoping extension poles to access hard-to-reach locations. The performance of this new aspirator, named “Prokopack,” was compared with the CDC-BP in laboratory settings as well as in paired collections in combined sewer overflow (CSO) tunnels in Atlanta, GA, and indoor mosquito collections in Iquitos, Peru. The difference in suction power between both aspirators (average, 0.29–0.43 m/s) was negligible. However, 2.3 times more mosquitoes were collected using the Prokopack in the upper wall (> 1.5 m) and ceilings of CSO tunnels than with the CDC-BP in lower walls. Indoor collection in Iquitos yielded significantly more total mosquito numbers [including Culex pipiens complex, Culex (melanoconion) sp., and Mansonia sp.] and Aedes aegypti (L.) in the Prokopack than in the CDC-BP. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of the Prokopack to collect different mosquito species in different epidemiological settings. PMID:19960668

  7. Biaxial Creep Specimen Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    JL Bump; RF Luther

    2006-02-09

    This report documents the results of the weld development and abbreviated weld qualification efforts performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for refractory metal and superalloy biaxial creep specimens. Biaxial creep specimens were to be assembled, electron beam welded, laser-seal welded, and pressurized at PNNL for both in-pile (JOYO reactor, O-arai, Japan) and out-of-pile creep testing. The objective of this test campaign was to evaluate the creep behavior of primary cladding and structural alloys under consideration for the Prometheus space reactor. PNNL successfully developed electron beam weld parameters for six of these materials prior to the termination of the Naval Reactors program effort to deliver a space reactor for Project Prometheus. These materials were FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, Alloy 617, Haynes 230, and Nirnonic PE16. Early termination of the NR space program precluded the development of laser welding parameters for post-pressurization seal weldments.

  8. Multiaxial graphite test specimen

    SciTech Connect

    1988-09-01

    A multiaxial test program is to be conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on the core component graphite. The objectives of the tests are to obtain failure data under uniaxial and biaxial states of stress in order to construct a failure surface in a two-dimensional stress space. These data will be used in verifying the accuracy of the maximum stress failure theory being proposed for use in designing the core graphite components. Tubular specimens are proposed to be used and are either loaded axially and/or subjected to internal pressure. This report includes a study on three specimen configurations. The conclusions of that study indicate that an elliptical transition geometry procedures the smallest discontinuity effects. Several loading combustions were studied using the elliptical transition specimen. The primary purpose is to establish the location of the highest stress state and its relation to the gage section for all of the loading conditions. The tension/internal pres sure loading condition (1:1) indicated that the high stress area is just outside the gage section but still should be acceptable. 5 refs., 18 figs.

  9. 76 FR 78018 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for the Bureau of Indian Education Adult Education...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... information collection. BIE published a 60-day notice in the Federal Register on August 23, 2011. (76 FR 52687... currently authorized by OMB Control Number 1076-0120, which expires December 31, 2011. DATES: Interested... identifiable information, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to do so. III. Data OMB Control Number:...

  10. Adult Learners in Cyberspace: A Collective Case Study of Reentry Women in a Virtual Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Brian R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this collective case study is to describe and explore a virtual learning community as experienced by women reentering higher education in an online graduate degree program. The grand tour question for this study was: How do reentry women in an online graduate program describe their experience in a virtual learning community? …

  11. Collectivity, Distributivity, and the Interpretation of Plural Numerical Expressions in Child and Adult Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syrett, Kristen; Musolino, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Sentences containing plural numerical expressions (e.g., "two boys") can give rise to two interpretations (collective and distributive), arising from the fact that their representation admits of a part-whole structure. We present the results of a series of experiments designed to explore children's understanding of this distinction…

  12. Automated Tracking of Drosophila Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Rubén; Macía-Vázquez, Germán; Zalama, Eduardo; Gómez-García-Bermejo, Jaime; Perán, José-Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila Melanogaster has become a model organism in the study of neurobiology and behavior patterns. The analysis of the way the fly moves and its behavior is of great scientific interest for research on aspects such as drug tolerance, aggression or ageing in humans. In this article, a procedure for detecting, identifying and tracking numerous specimens of Drosophila by means of computer vision-based sensing systems is presented. This procedure allows dynamic information about each specimen to be collected at each moment, and then for its behavior to be quantitatively characterized. The proposed algorithm operates in three main steps: a pre-processing step, a detection and segmentation step, and tracking shape. The pre-processing and segmentation steps allow some limits of the image acquisition system and some visual artifacts (such as shadows and reflections) to be dealt with. The improvements introduced in the tracking step allow the problems corresponding to identity loss and swaps, caused by the interaction between individual flies, to be solved efficiently. Thus, a robust method that compares favorably to other existing methods is obtained. PMID:26258779

  13. Automated Tracking of Drosophila Specimens.

    PubMed

    Chao, Rubén; Macía-Vázquez, Germán; Zalama, Eduardo; Gómez-García-Bermejo, Jaime; Perán, José-Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila Melanogaster has become a model organism in the study of neurobiology and behavior patterns. The analysis of the way the fly moves and its behavior is of great scientific interest for research on aspects such as drug tolerance, aggression or ageing in humans. In this article, a procedure for detecting, identifying and tracking numerous specimens of Drosophila by means of computer vision-based sensing systems is presented. This procedure allows dynamic information about each specimen to be collected at each moment, and then for its behavior to be quantitatively characterized. The proposed algorithm operates in three main steps: a pre-processing step, a detection and segmentation step, and tracking shape. The pre-processing and segmentation steps allow some limits of the image acquisition system and some visual artifacts (such as shadows and reflections) to be dealt with. The improvements introduced in the tracking step allow the problems corresponding to identity loss and swaps, caused by the interaction between individual flies, to be solved efficiently. Thus, a robust method that compares favorably to other existing methods is obtained. PMID:26258779

  14. Method for thinning specimen

    DOEpatents

    Follstaedt, David M.; Moran, Michael P.

    2005-03-15

    A method for thinning (such as in grinding and polishing) a material surface using an instrument means for moving an article with a discontinuous surface with an abrasive material dispersed between the material surface and the discontinuous surface where the discontinuous surface of the moving article provides an efficient means for maintaining contact of the abrasive with the material surface. When used to dimple specimens for microscopy analysis, a wheel with a surface that has been modified to produce a uniform or random discontinuous surface significantly improves the speed of the dimpling process without loss of quality of finish.

  15. Manual for the Collection of Adult Education Statistics. Within the Framework of International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Statistics on Education.

    The first 15 pages of the manual provide: (1) background information on the importance of adult education, the need for adult education statistics, the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), and the scope of the term adult education; (2) the application of ISCED to adult education and the ISCED classifications (levels, fields,…

  16. Improving the Quality of Adult Mortality Data Collected in Demographic Surveys: Validation Study of a New Siblings' Survival Questionnaire in Niakhar, Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Helleringer, Stéphane; Pison, Gilles; Masquelier, Bruno; Kanté, Almamy Malick; Douillot, Laetitia; Duthé, Géraldine; Sokhna, Cheikh; Delaunay, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    Background In countries with limited vital registration, adult mortality is frequently estimated using siblings' survival histories (SSHs) collected during Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). These data are affected by reporting errors. We developed a new SSH questionnaire, the siblings' survival calendar (SSC). It incorporates supplementary interviewing techniques to limit omissions of siblings and uses an event history calendar to improve reports of dates and ages. We hypothesized that the SSC would improve the quality of adult mortality data. Methods and Findings We conducted a retrospective validation study among the population of the Niakhar Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Senegal. We randomly assigned men and women aged 15–59 y to an interview with either the DHS questionnaire or the SSC. We compared SSHs collected in each group to prospective data on adult mortality collected in Niakhar. The SSC reduced respondents' tendency to round reports of dates and ages to the nearest multiple of five or ten (“heaping”). The SSC also had higher sensitivity in recording adult female deaths: among respondents whose sister(s) had died at an adult age in the past 15 y, 89.6% reported an adult female death during SSC interviews versus 75.6% in DHS interviews (p = 0.027). The specificity of the SSC was similar to that of the DHS questionnaire, i.e., it did not increase the number of false reports of deaths. However, the SSC did not improve the reporting of adult deaths among the brothers of respondents. Study limitations include sample selectivity, limited external validity, and multiple testing. Conclusions The SSC has the potential to collect more accurate SSHs than the questionnaire used in DHS. Further research is needed to assess the effects of the SSC on estimates of adult mortality rates. Additional validation studies should be conducted in different social and epidemiological settings. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN06849961

  17. Minthorn Springs Creek Summer Juvenile Release and Adult Collection Facility; Operation, Maintenance and Evaluation of the Bonifer and Minthorn Springs Juvenile Release and Adult Collection Facilities, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lofy, Peter T.; Rowan, Gerald D.

    1990-03-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) are cooperating in a joint effort to increase steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. As part of this program, Bonifer and Minthorn Acclimation Facilities are operated for holding and spawning adult steelhead and acclimation and release of juvenile salmon and steelhead. Regularly-scheduled maintenance was completed in 1989. Equipment and pumps received maintenance and repair. An automatic dialing system was incorporated into the alarm system at the Minthorn facility. A security company has replaced the function of the Umatilla Tribal Police which was to contact fisheries personnel in case of an alarm. The configuration of the alarm system was upgraded to activate the alarm faster and provide better access to project personnel with a pager system. A survey was completed in 1988 by Thomas Bumstead of Albrook Hydraulics Lab in Pullman, WA. to determine potential measures to address the change in course of the Umatilla River around Minthorn as a result of the flood of 1986. Options and recommendations were submitted in a report in 1989. Fish Management Consultants Inc. submitted the final reports of evaluations for both the Bonifer and Minthorn facilities. A total of 150 adult steelhead were collected for broodstock at Threemile Dam from December through March and held at Minthorn. Forty-two pairs were spawned (37 pairs from Minthorn and 5 pairs collected and immediately spawned at Threemile Dam). The 241,682 eggs were transferred to Irrigon Hatchery for incubation and later moved to Oak Springs Hatchery for rearing. An estimated 368 adult hatchery steelhead returned to the Umatilla River in 1988-89 (based on Threemile Dam trap counts and harvest below Threemile Dam) these, and 349 were released upriver. Of seven returned to the Bonifer trap where the smolts were initially released. Acclimation of 79,984 spring chinook salmon and 22

  18. Field Evaluation of a Novel Mos-Hole Trap and Naphtha Compared with BG Sentinel Trap and Mosquito Magnet X Trap to Collect Adult Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Xue, Rui-De; Smith, Michael L; Yi, Hoonbook; Kline, Daniel L

    2015-03-01

    The novel Mos-Hole trap™ with liquid attractant naphtha™ from Korea was compared with BG Sentinel™ trap and Mosquito Magnet X™ trap for field collection of adult mosquitoes in St. Johns County, northeastern Florida, from May to October 2013. The novel Mos-Hole trap baited with naphtha (liquid attractant) collected similar numbers of mosquitoes, compared with the number of mosquitoes caught by BG Sentinel traps baited with BG Lure™. Both Mos-Hole and BG Sentinel traps collected a significantly greater number of mosquitoes compared with the numbers collected by Mosquito Magnet X traps. In other field evaluations when switching lures, the Mos-Hole traps baited with BG Lure caught more mosquitoes than the BG Sentinel trap baited with liquid naphtha attractant. The results showed that the novel Mos-Hole trap has the potential to be used as an additional effective sampling tool for population surveillance and control of adult mosquitoes. PMID:25843186

  19. German health interview and examination survey for adults (DEGS) - design, objectives and implementation of the first data collection wave

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS) is part of the recently established national health monitoring conducted by the Robert Koch Institute. DEGS combines a nationally representative periodic health survey and a longitudinal study based on follow-up of survey participants. Funding is provided by the German Ministry of Health and supplemented for specific research topics from other sources. Methods/design The first DEGS wave of data collection (DEGS1) extended from November 2008 to December 2011. Overall, 8152 men and women participated. Of these, 3959 persons already participated in the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98) at which time they were 18–79 years of age. Another 4193 persons 18–79 years of age were recruited for DEGS1 in 2008–2011 based on two-stage stratified random sampling from local population registries. Health data and context variables were collected using standardized computer assisted personal interviews, self-administered questionnaires, and standardized measurements and tests. In order to keep survey results representative for the population aged 18–79 years, results will be weighted by survey-specific weighting factors considering sampling and drop-out probabilities as well as deviations between the design-weighted net sample and German population statistics 2010. Discussion DEGS aims to establish a nationally representative data base on health of adults in Germany. This health data platform will be used for continuous health reporting and health care research. The results will help to support health policy planning and evaluation. Repeated cross-sectional surveys will permit analyses of time trends in morbidity, functional capacity levels, disability, and health risks and resources. Follow-up of study participants will provide the opportunity to study trajectories of health and disability. A special focus lies on chronic diseases including asthma

  20. Unusual Histopathological Findings in Childhood Appendectomy Specimens.

    PubMed

    Buyukbese Sarsu, Sevgi; Ucak, Ramazan; Buyukbese, Mehmet Akif; Karakus, Suleyman Cuneyt; Deniz, Hale

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the unusual findings in the childhood appendectomy specimens and their incidence. The clinicopathological data of 1,306 patients whose ages ranged from 3 to 16 were retrospectively collected. Histopathological findings in appendectomy specimens taken from patients who had a prediagnosis of appendicitis were obtained. Incidental appendectomies were not included in the research. Unusual findings were reevaluated in the histopathological assessment of appendectomy specimens. The number of patients whose pathological findings are considered unusual is 25 (1.91 %). Nine of the patients were girls and 16 of them were boys. Their ages ranged from 6 to 15. Pathological results revealed that there were 16 (1.22 %) cases of parasitosis, 3 (0.23 %) cases of granulomatosis, 3 (0.23 %) cases of eosinophilic appendicitis, 2 (0.15 %) cases of carcinoid tumors, and 1 (0.08 %) case of appendiceal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. All patients underwent a standard appendectomy. Uncommon histopathological findings in childhood appendectomy specimens are more common than those in adulthood. This kind of certain unexpected lesions of the appendix may require advanced diagnostics, careful clinical care, follow-up for years, and a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, histopathological examinations of appendectomy specimens must be performed routinely. PMID:26730070

  1. More Than Just Chinese Food...A Collection of Writings by Adult ESL Learners and Three Approaches to Teaching and Writing in the ESL Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Pauline; And Others

    This book consists of a collection of stories written by adults who attend a bilingual ESL (English as a Second Language) program co-sponsored by the Toronto Board of Education and Chinese Information and Community Services. All the writings deal with Chinese culture but the book may be used by people of diverse backgrounds and of varying levels…

  2. Minthorn Springs Creek Summer Juvenile Release and Adult Collection Facility; Operation, Maintenance and Evaluation; 1991 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rowan, Gerald D.

    1992-06-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) are cooperating in a joint effort to supplement steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. As part of this program, Bonifer and Minthorn Acclimation Facilities are operated for holding and spawning adult steelhead and fall chinook salmon and acclimation and release of juvenile salmon and steelhead. Regularly-scheduled maintenance of pumps, equipment and facilities was performed in 1991. Major repairs to one Minthorn pump were required and flood damage at Minthorn necessitated the replacement of rock and gravel around the pump house and steelhead brood holding area. Several modifications to the steelhead brood holding pond were also made to help reduce mortality. These changes appeared to be successful as evidenced by the reduced number of mortalities. Total prespawn mortality in 1990-91 was 10.4%. This compares to 20.0 to 39.0% for the previous three years at Minthorn. A total of 202 adult steelhead were collected for broodstock at Threemile Dam from November, 1990 through April, 1991 and held at Minthorn. Utilizing a 3 x 3 spawning matrix, a total of 410,356 eggs were taken from 64 females. The eggs were transferred to Irrigon Hatchery for incubation and initial rearing. The fish were then transferred to Umatilla Hatchery for further rearing and later release into the Umatilla River. A total of 347 fall chinook salmon were also collected for broodstock at Threemile Dam and held at Minthorn. Using a 1:l spawning ratio, a total of 601,548 eggs were taken from 159 females. They were transferred to Umatilla Hatchery for incubation, rearing and later release into the Umatilla River. Acclimation of 100,505 spring chinook salmon and 42,610 summer steelhead was completed at Bonifer in the spring of 1991. At Minthorn, 152,974 coho and 79,672 fall chinook salmon were acclimated and released. In the fall, 81,144 spring chinook salmon

  3. 49 CFR 40.71 - How does the collector prepare the specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... employee, must first pour at least 30 mL of urine from the collection container into one specimen bottle... urine from the collection container into the second specimen bottle to be used for the split specimen. (4) You, not the employee, must place and secure (i.e., tighten or snap) the lids/caps on the...

  4. 49 CFR 40.71 - How does the collector prepare the specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... employee, must first pour at least 30 mL of urine from the collection container into one specimen bottle... urine from the collection container into the second specimen bottle to be used for the split specimen. (4) You, not the employee, must place and secure (i.e., tighten or snap) the lids/caps on the...

  5. 49 CFR 40.71 - How does the collector prepare the specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How does the collector prepare the specimens? 40... collector prepare the specimens? (a) All collections under DOT agency drug testing regulations must be split specimen collections. (b) As the collector, you must take the following steps, in order, after the...

  6. 49 CFR 40.71 - How does the collector prepare the specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How does the collector prepare the specimens? 40... collector prepare the specimens? (a) All collections under DOT agency drug testing regulations must be split specimen collections. (b) As the collector, you must take the following steps, in order, after the...

  7. Preparation and Use of Voucher Specimens for Documenting Research in Weed Science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically voucher specimens and herbarium collections have provided the basis for research in plant science. Available for study and verification by contemporary and future workers, voucher specimens are permanent records documenting identification, distribution, and interspecific and intraspeci...

  8. Manufacturing of Plutonium Tensile Specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Cameron M

    2012-08-01

    Details workflow conducted to manufacture high density alpha Plutonium tensile specimens to support Los Alamos National Laboratory's science campaigns. Introduces topics including the metallurgical challenge of Plutonium and the use of high performance super-computing to drive design. Addresses the utilization of Abaqus finite element analysis, programmable computer numerical controlled (CNC) machining, as well as glove box ergonomics and safety in order to design a process that will yield high quality Plutonium tensile specimens.

  9. Sequence capture of ultraconserved elements from bird museum specimens.

    PubMed

    McCormack, John E; Tsai, Whitney L E; Faircloth, Brant C

    2016-09-01

    New DNA sequencing technologies are allowing researchers to explore the genomes of the millions of natural history specimens collected prior to the molecular era. Yet, we know little about how well specific next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques work with the degraded DNA typically extracted from museum specimens. Here, we use one type of NGS approach, sequence capture of ultraconserved elements (UCEs), to collect data from bird museum specimens as old as 120 years. We targeted 5060 UCE loci in 27 western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica) representing three evolutionary lineages that could be species, and we collected an average of 3749 UCE loci containing 4460 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Despite older specimens producing fewer and shorter loci in general, we collected thousands of markers from even the oldest specimens. More sequencing reads per individual helped to boost the number of UCE loci we recovered from older specimens, but more sequencing was not as successful at increasing the length of loci. We detected contamination in some samples and determined that contamination was more prevalent in older samples that were subject to less sequencing. For the phylogeny generated from concatenated UCE loci, contamination led to incorrect placement of some individuals. In contrast, a species tree constructed from SNPs called within UCE loci correctly placed individuals into three monophyletic groups, perhaps because of the stricter analytical procedures used for SNP calling. This study and other recent studies on the genomics of museum specimens have profound implications for natural history collections, where millions of older specimens should now be considered genomic resources. PMID:26391430

  10. Perinatal Specimens of Saurolophus angustirostris (Dinosauria: Hadrosauridae), from the Upper Cretaceous of Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Dewaele, Leonard; Tsogtbaatar, Khishigjav; Barsbold, Rinchen; Garcia, Géraldine; Stein, Koen; Escuillié, François; Godefroit, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Background The Late Cretaceous Nemegt Formation, Gobi Desert, Mongolia has already yielded abundant and complete skeletons of the hadrosaur Saurolophus angustirostris, from half-grown to adult individuals. Methodology/Principal Findings Herein we describe perinatal specimens of Saurolophus angustirostris, associated with fragmentary eggshell fragments. The skull length of these babies is around 5% that of the largest known S. angustirostris specimens, so these specimens document the earliest development stages of this giant hadrosaur and bridge a large hiatus in our knowledge of the ontogeny of S. angustirostris. Conclusions/Significance The studied specimens are likely part of a nest originally located on a riverbank point bar. The perinatal specimens were buried by sediment carried by the river current presumably during the wet summer season. Perinatal bones already displayed diagnostic characters for Saurolophus angustirostris, including premaxillae with a strongly reflected oral margin and upturned premaxillary body in lateral aspect. The absence of a supracranial crest and unfused halves of the cervical neural arches characterize the earliest stages in the ontogeny of S. angustirostris. The eggshell fragments associated with the perinatal individuals can be referred to the Spheroolithus oogenus and closely resemble those found in older formations (e.g. Barun Goyot Fm in Mongolia) or associated with more basal hadrosauroids (Bactrosaurus-Gilmoreosaurus in the Iren Dabasu Fm, Inner Mongolia, China). This observation suggests that the egg microstructure was similar in basal hadrosauroids and more advanced saurolophines. Competing Interests One of the authors (FE) is employed by the commercial organization Eldonia. Eldonia provided support in the form of a salary for FE, but did not have any additional role or influence in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript and it does not alter the authors

  11. Detection of Helicobacter pylori DNA in inflamed dental pulp specimens from Japanese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ogaya, Yuko; Nomura, Ryota; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Nakano, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The oral cavity has been implicated as a source of Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood. Various PCR methods have been used to detect H. pylori DNA in oral specimens with various detection rates reported. Such disparity in detection rates complicates the estimation of the true infection rate of H. pylori in the oral cavity. In the present study, we constructed a novel PCR system for H. pylori detection and used it to analyse oral specimens. Firstly, the nucleotide alignments of genes commonly used for H. pylori detection were compared using the complete genome information for 48 strains registered in the GenBank database. Candidate primer sets with an estimated amplification size of approximately 300-400 bp were selected, and the specificity and sensitivity of the detection system using each primer set were evaluated. Five sets of primers targeting ureA were considered appropriate, of which a single primer set was chosen for inclusion in the PCR system. The sensitivity of the system was considered appropriate and its detection limit established as one to ten cells per reaction. The novel PCR system was used to examine H. pylori distribution in oral specimens (40 inflamed pulp tissues, 40 saliva samples) collected from Japanese children, adolescents and young adults. PCR analysis revealed that the detection rate of H. pylori in inflamed pulp was 15 %, whereas no positive reaction was found in any of the saliva specimens. Taken together, our novel PCR system was found to be reliable for detecting H. pylori. The results obtained showed that H. pylori was detected in inflamed pulp but not saliva specimens, indicating that an infected root canal may be a reservoir for H. pylori. PMID:25332373

  12. Current activities within the National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank.

    PubMed

    Wise, S A; Koster, B J; Langland, J K; Zeisler, R

    1993-11-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has been involved in biological environmental specimen banking activities since 1979. These activities, which are known collectively as the National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank (NBSB), include the banking of a variety of specimens (human liver, sediment, mussels/oysters, fish tissue and marine mammal tissues) from several different projects supported by different government agencies. The two most recent projects, the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project (AMMTAP) and the National Marine Mammal Tissue Bank (NMMTB), focus on the collection, banking and analysis of marine mammal tissues and they are part of a comprehensive plan to address marine mammal monitoring, specimen banking and quality assurance of analytical measurements associated with contaminant analyses in marine mammals. PMID:8272819

  13. Comparative Field Evaluation of Different Traps for Collecting Adult Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an Endemic Area of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rojas, Jorge J; Arque-Chunga, Wilfredo; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A

    2016-06-01

    Phlebotominae are the vectors of Leishmania parasites. It is important to have available surveillance and collection methods for the sand fly vectors. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate and compare traps for the collection of sand fly species and to analyze trap catches along months and transects. Field evaluations over a year were conducted in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. A randomized-block design was implemented in study area with tropical rainforest vegetation. The study design utilized 4 transects with 11 trap types: 1) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light trap with incandescent bulb (CDC-I), 2) CDC light trap with blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) (CDC-B), 3) CDC light trap with white LEDs (CDC-W), 4) CDC light trap with red LEDs (CDC-R), 5) CDC light trap with green LEDs (CDC-G), 6) Disney trap, 7) Disney trap with white LEDs, 8) sticky panels, 9) sticky panels with white LEDs, 10) delta-like trap, and 11) delta-like trap with white LEDs. A total of 1,014 specimens of 13 species and 2 genera (Lutzomyia and Brumptomyia) were collected. There were significant differences in the mean number of sand flies caught with the 11 traps; CDC-I was (P  =  0.0000) more effective than the other traps. Other traps exhibited the following results: CDC-W (17.46%), CDC-B (15.68%), CDC-G (14.89%), and CDC-R (14.30%). The relative abundance of different species varied according to trap types used, and the CDC-I trap attracted more specimens of the known vectors of Leishmania spp., such as like Lutzomyia cruciata, Lu. shannoni, and Lu. ovallesi. Disney trap captured more specimens of Lu. olmeca olmeca. Based on abundance and number of species, CDC light traps and Disney traps appeared to be good candidates for use in vector surveillance programs in this endemic area of Mexico. PMID:27280348

  14. Considerations in the design of an environmental specimen bank: experiences of the National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank Program.

    PubMed Central

    Wise, S A; Koster, B J

    1995-01-01

    Since 1979 the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has been involved in environmental specimen banking activities as part of the National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank (NBSB). These activities have focused on the development of procedures for the collection, processing, analysis, and long-term storage of a variety of environmental specimens including: human liver, mussels and oysters, fish tissue (liver and muscle), marine mammal tissues (blubber, liver, and kidney), and marine sediments. The experiences of the NBSB can provide valuable information to assist in the design of new specimen bank efforts. Based on the experiences of the NBSB, the issues that should be addressed in the design and operation of a valid specimen bank program are presented. PMID:7635114

  15. A transport medium for specimens containing Pasteurella pestis

    PubMed Central

    Cavanaugh, D. C.; Vivona, S.; Do-Van-Quy; Gibson, F. L.; Deuber, G. L.; Rust, J. H.

    1967-01-01

    A medium, originally designed by Stuart and co-workers and later modified by Cary & Blair, for the maintenance and transport, without multiplication, of pathogenic bacteria contained in bacteriological specimens was tested in the laboratory and in the field in Viet-Nam to determine its effectiveness in preserving specimens known to contain Pasteurella pestis. The results indicate that this medium should be useful in diagnostic plague studies in areas where transport facilities are inadequate. Properly collected clinical specimens, sent to a central laboratory by any means and under any climatic conditions likely to be encountered in the hot tropics, should yield viable Pasteurella pestis for at least 30 days. PMID:5301387

  16. 10 CFR 26.159 - Assuring specimen security, chain of custody, and preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... inspect each package for evidence of possible tampering and shall compare information on specimen bottles... evidence of tampering or discrepancies in the information on the specimen bottles and the custody-and... reasonably practical, except if a split specimen collection was performed, either the Bottle A or Bottle...

  17. 10 CFR 26.95 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. 26.95 Section 26.95 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.95 Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. (a)...

  18. 10 CFR 26.111 - Checking the acceptability of the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Checking the acceptability of the urine specimen. 26.111 Section 26.111 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.111 Checking the acceptability of the urine specimen. (a) Immediately after the...

  19. 10 CFR 26.95 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. 26.95 Section 26.95 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.95 Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. (a)...

  20. 10 CFR 26.111 - Checking the acceptability of the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Checking the acceptability of the urine specimen. 26.111 Section 26.111 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.111 Checking the acceptability of the urine specimen. (a) Immediately after the...

  1. 10 CFR 26.95 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. 26.95 Section 26.95 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.95 Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. (a)...

  2. 10 CFR 26.111 - Checking the acceptability of the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Checking the acceptability of the urine specimen. 26.111 Section 26.111 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.111 Checking the acceptability of the urine specimen. (a) Immediately after the...

  3. 10 CFR 26.111 - Checking the acceptability of the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Checking the acceptability of the urine specimen. 26.111 Section 26.111 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.111 Checking the acceptability of the urine specimen. (a) Immediately after the...

  4. 10 CFR 26.117 - Preparing urine specimens for storage and shipping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preparing urine specimens for storage and shipping. 26.117 Section 26.117 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.117 Preparing urine specimens for storage and shipping. (a) Both the donor and the...

  5. 10 CFR 26.117 - Preparing urine specimens for storage and shipping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preparing urine specimens for storage and shipping. 26.117 Section 26.117 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.117 Preparing urine specimens for storage and shipping. (a) Both the donor and the...

  6. 10 CFR 26.95 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. 26.95 Section 26.95 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.95 Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. (a)...

  7. 10 CFR 26.111 - Checking the acceptability of the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Checking the acceptability of the urine specimen. 26.111 Section 26.111 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.111 Checking the acceptability of the urine specimen. (a) Immediately after the...

  8. 10 CFR 26.117 - Preparing urine specimens for storage and shipping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preparing urine specimens for storage and shipping. 26.117 Section 26.117 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.117 Preparing urine specimens for storage and shipping. (a) Both the donor and the...

  9. 10 CFR 26.117 - Preparing urine specimens for storage and shipping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preparing urine specimens for storage and shipping. 26.117 Section 26.117 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.117 Preparing urine specimens for storage and shipping. (a) Both the donor and the...

  10. 10 CFR 26.117 - Preparing urine specimens for storage and shipping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparing urine specimens for storage and shipping. 26.117 Section 26.117 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.117 Preparing urine specimens for storage and shipping. (a) Both the donor and the...

  11. 10 CFR 26.95 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. 26.95 Section 26.95 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.95 Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. (a)...

  12. Electrothermal fracturing of tensile specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blinn, H. O.; Hanks, J. G.; Perkins, H. P.

    1970-01-01

    Pulling device consisting of structural tube, connecting rod, spring-loaded nuts, loading rod, heating element, and three bulkheads fractures tensile specimens. Alternate heating and cooling increases tensile loading by increments until fracturing occurs. Load cell or strain gage, applied to pulling rod, determines forces applied.

  13. An interlaminar tension strength specimen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Wade C.; Martin, Roderick H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a technique to determine interlaminar tension strength, sigma(sub 3c) of a fiber reinforced composite material using a curved beam. The specimen was a unidirectional curved beam, bent 90 degrees, with straight arms. Attached to each arm was a hinged loading mechanism which was held by the grips of a tensile testing machine. Geometry effects of the specimen, including the effects of loading arm length, inner radius, thickness, and width, were studied. The data sets fell into two categories: low strength corresponding to a macroscopic flaw related failure and high strength corresponding to a microscopic flaw related failure. From the data available, the loading arm length had no effect on sigma(sub 3c). The inner radius was not expected to have a significant effect on sigma(sub 3c), but this conclusion could not be confirmed because of differences in laminate quality for each curve geometry. The thicker specimens had the lowest value of sigma(sub 3c) because of poor laminate quality. Width was found to affect the value of sigma(sub 3c) only slightly. The wider specimens generally had a slightly lower strength since more material was under high stress, and hence, had a larger probability of containing a significant flaw.

  14. An Interlaminar Tensile Strength Specimen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Roderick H.; Jackson, Wade C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a technique to determine interlaminar tensile strength, sigma(sub 3c), of a fiber reinforced composite material using a curved beam. The specimen was a unidirectional curved beam, bent 90 deg, with straight arms. Attached to each arm was a hinged loading mechanism that was held by the grips of a tension testing machine. Geometry effects of the specimen, including the effects of loading arm length, inner radius, thickness, and width, were studied. The data sets fell into two categories: low strength corresponding to a macroscopic flaw related failure and high strength corresponding to a microscopic flaw related failure. From the data available, the specimen width and loading arm length had little effect on sigma(sub 3c). The inner radius was not expected to have a significant effect on sigma(sub 3c), but this conclusion could not be confirmed because of differences in laminate quality for each curve geometry. The thicker specimens had the lowest value of sigma(sub 3c) because of poor laminate quality.

  15. Utility of Multiple-Stool-Specimen Ova and Parasite Examinations in a High-Prevalence Setting

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, Charles P.

    1999-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of the results of 2,704 ova and parasite (O & P) examinations performed on stool specimens collected from 1,374 patients between October 1996 and September 1997 was performed to evaluate the utility of performing O & P examinations on multiple, independently collected stool specimens in a high-prevalence setting. A total of 995 specimens (36.8%) examined during the study contained parasites; 546 (20.2%) contained pathogenic organisms. The positivity rate (54.5%) for the patients from whom three specimens were examined was significantly higher than for the patients from whom either two specimens (33.3%) or a single specimen (19.8%) was submitted for examination. For the group of patients from whom at least 3 specimens were submitted for O & P examination, 373 independent opportunities for diagnosing infection with intestinal parasites could be analyzed. The first stool specimen collected proved to be adequate in only 75.9% (283 of 373) of evaluated cases; however, examination of two specimens increased the sensitivity of O & P detection to 92% (343 of 373). The third specimen collected provided additional information on only 30 of 373 occasions (8%). These data indicate that in populations with a high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections, two independently collected stool specimens should be subjected to O & P examination to ensure adequate diagnostic sensitivity. PMID:10405376

  16. Operation, Maintenance and Evaluation of the Bonifer and Minthorn Springs Juvenile Release and Adult Collection Facilities, 1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lofy, Peter T.

    1989-12-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife are cooperating in a joint effort to increase steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. As part of this program, Bonifer and Minthorn Acclimation Facilities are operated for holding adult steelhead and acclimation and release of juvenile steelhead and salmon. This report details the projects and maintenance done during 1988.

  17. Operation, Maintenance, and Evaluation of the Bonifer and Minthorn Springs Juvenile Release and Adult Collection Facilities, 1987 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lofy, Peter T.

    1988-12-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife are cooperating in a joint effort to increase steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. As part of this program, Bonifer and Minthorn Acclimation Facilities are operated for holding adult steelhead and acclimation and release of juvenile steelhead and salmon. This report details the projects and maintenance done during 1987.

  18. Bird specimens and documentation: critical data for a critical resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, M.S.; Cannell, P.

    1990-01-01

    As governments impose increasingly stringent regulations on the collection of bird specimens and as man alters ever greater areas of habitat with the loss of many of their contained species, museum specimens increase immeasurably in importance. Yet at present, museum collections do not contain an adequate representation of the world's avifauna and, unfortunately, are not likely to do so. Thus, it is imperative that data associated with specimens that are obtained be as complete as possible. To this end, we describe categories of information with wide application to many types of studies, outline character states, and recommend standard forms of data notation. We recognize that under certain circumstances, it may be appropriate to record more limited data. However, we encourage at least those engaged in general collecting to record as many of these standard data as possible.

  19. Search for biological specimens from midwestern parks: pitfalls and solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the results of searches of herbarium and museum collections and databases for records of vertebrate and vascular plant specimens that had been collected in 15 midwestern National Park System units. The records of these specimens were previously unknown to the National Park Service (NPS). In the course of our searches, numerous obstacles were encountered that prevented us from fully completing our task. These ranged from difficulties with the way databases are structured, to poor record-keeping, to incomplete or incorrect information on the actual location of specimens within collections. Despite these problems, we are convinced that the information to be gained from such searches in invaluable, and we believe that our experience, and the recommendations we offer, may well prove instructive to others undertaking this kind of work.

  20. 10 CFR 26.165 - Testing split specimens and retesting single specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... single specimens. (a) Testing split specimens. (1) If a specimen has been split into Bottle A and Bottle... required, of the specimen in Bottle A. (2) If a specimen was initially tested at a licensee testing... laboratory shall perform initial and confirmatory testing, if required, of the specimen in Bottle A. (3)...

  1. 10 CFR 26.165 - Testing split specimens and retesting single specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... single specimens. (a) Testing split specimens. (1) If a specimen has been split into Bottle A and Bottle... required, of the specimen in Bottle A. (2) If a specimen was initially tested at a licensee testing... laboratory shall perform initial and confirmatory testing, if required, of the specimen in Bottle A. (3)...

  2. Appendix A: Specimen 72275 documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marvin, U. B.

    1974-01-01

    The friability of the matrix of specimen 72275 caused numerous fragments and an abundance of fines to break away from the main mass during transport from the moon and handling in the lunar receiving laboratory. Samples 72275,1 to 72275,14 were labeled during PET examination. Samples 72275,1, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 9 were placed in storage, and the remainder were distributed.

  3. Eccentric loading of microtensile specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trapp, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic materials have a lower density than most metals and are capable of performing at extremely high temperatures. The utility of these materials is obvious; however, the fracture strength of brittle materials is not easily predicted and often varies greatly. Characteristically, brittle materials lack ductility and do not yield as other materials. Ceramics materials are naturally populated with microscopic cracks due to fabrication techniques. Upon application of a load, stress concentration occurs at the root of these cracks and fracture will eventually occur at some not easily predicted strength. In order to use ceramics in any application some design methodology must exist from which a component can be placed into service. This design methodology is CARES/LIFE (Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures) which has been developed and refined at NASA over the last several decades. The CARES/LIFE computer program predicts the probability of failure of a ceramic component over its service life. CARES combines finite element results from a commercial FE (finite element) package such as ANSYS and experimental results to compute the abovementioned probability of failure. Over the course of several tests CARES has had great success in predicting the life of various ceramic components and has been used throughout industry. The latest challenge is to verify that CARES is valid for MEMS (Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems). To investigate a series of microtensile specimens were fractured in the laboratory. From this data, material parameters were determined and used to predict a distribution of strength for other specimens that exhibit a known stress concentration. If the prediction matches the experimental results then these parameters can be applied to a desired component outside of the laboratory. During testing nearly half of the tensile Specimens fractured at a location that was not expected and hence not captured in the FE model. It has been my duty

  4. Compound Charpy specimens by adhesive joining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoneim, M. M.; Hammad, F. H.; Pachur, D.; Britz, L.

    1992-03-01

    Compound (reconstituted) Charpy specimens were manufactured by an adhesive joining method in which each half of a previously tested specimen formed the central section of a new testpiece. 29 adhesives were screened to select the most suitable. Compound specimens were precracked and used as minature fracture mechanics specimens and tested in both 3-point static bending and impact. The results are in good agreement with those of conventional specimens. Recommendations for the most appropriate commercial adhesive for hot cell operations are given.

  5. Using online crowdsourcing to understand young adult attitudes toward expert-authored messages aimed at reducing hazardous alcohol consumption and to collect peer-authored messages.

    PubMed

    Kristan, Jeffrey; Suffoletto, Brian

    2015-03-01

    Text message delivered prevention interventions have the potential to improve health behaviors on a large scale, including reducing hazardous alcohol consumption in young adults. Online crowdsourcing can be used to efficiently develop relevant messages, but remains largely understudied. This study aims to use online crowdsourcing to evaluate young adult attitudes toward expert-authored messages and to collect peer-authored messages. We designed an online survey with four drinking scenarios and a demographic questionnaire. We made it available to people who reported age 18-25 years, residence in the US, and any lifetime alcohol consumption via the Amazon Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing platform. Participants rated 71 sample text messages on instrumental (helpful) and affective (interesting) attitude scales and generated their own messages. All messages were coded as informational, motivational, or strategy facilitating. We examined differences in attitudes by message type and by drinking status and sex. We surveyed 272 participants in 48 h, and 222 were included in analysis for a total participant payment cost of $178. Sample mean age was 23 years old, with 50 % being female, 65 % being of white race, and 78 % scored as hazardous drinkers. Informational messages were rated the most helpful, whereas motivational messages were rated the most interesting. Hazardous drinkers rated informational messages less helpful than non-hazardous drinkers. Men reported messages less helpful and interesting than women for most categories. Young adults authored 161 messages, with the highest proportion being motivational. Young adults had variable instrumental and affective attitudes toward expert-authored messages. They generated a substantial number of peer-authored messages that could enhance relevance of future alcohol prevention interventions. PMID:25729452

  6. Cranial Pathologies in a Specimen of Pachycephalosaurus

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Joseph E.; Vittore, Christopher P.

    2012-01-01

    Background A frontoparietal dome of a large pachycephalosaurid collected from the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation in 2001 is identified as Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis. The specimen features two large oval depressions on the dorsal surface, accompanied by numerous circular pits on the margin and inner surface of the larger depressions. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to identify the origin of these structures, computed tomography (CT) data and morphological characteristics of the specimen are analyzed and compared with similar osteological structures in fossil and extant archosaurs caused by taphonomic processes, non-pathologic bone resorption, and traumatic infection/inflammatory origins. The results of these analyses suggest that the structures are pathologic lesions likely resulting from a traumatic injury and followed by secondary infection at the site. Conclusions/Significance The presence of lesions on a frontoparietal dome, and the exclusivity of their distribution along the dorsal dome surface, offers further insight into frontoparietal dome function and supports previously hypothesized agonistic behavior in pachycephalosaurids. PMID:22558394

  7. 49 CFR 219.302 - Prompt specimen collection; time limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the observations or other events described in this section; or (2) In the case of an accident/incident...” means any responsible line supervisor (e.g., a trainmaster or road foreman of engines) or...

  8. 49 CFR 219.302 - Prompt specimen collection; time limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the observations or other events described in this section; or (2) In the case of an accident/incident...” means any responsible line supervisor (e.g., a trainmaster or road foreman of engines) or...

  9. 49 CFR 219.302 - Prompt specimen collection; time limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the observations or other events described in this section; or (2) In the case of an accident/incident...” means any responsible line supervisor (e.g., a trainmaster or road foreman of engines) or...

  10. 49 CFR 219.302 - Prompt specimen collection; time limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the observations or other events described in this section; or (2) In the case of an accident/incident...” means any responsible line supervisor (e.g., a trainmaster or road foreman of engines) or...

  11. Collection of a 24-Hour Urine Specimen (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Licensed Materials from any location via the Internet. b. STANDALONE WORKSTATION: A standalone subscription permits multiple ... computer. A Standalone Workstation license does not include Internet access to the Licensed Materials. c. INSTITUTIONAL SUBSCRIPTION: ...

  12. 49 CFR 219.205 - Specimen collection and handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Post-Accident Toxicological Testing.../incident and any treatment administered after the accident/incident. Accordingly, the...

  13. 49 CFR 219.205 - Specimen collection and handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Post-Accident Toxicological Testing.../incident and any treatment administered after the accident/incident. Accordingly, the...

  14. Multiphoton microspectroscopy of biological specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Bai-Ling; Kao, Fu-Jen; Cheng, Ping C.; Sun, Chi-Kuang; Chen, RangWu; Wang, YiMin; Chen, JianCheng; Wang, Yung-Shun; Liu, Tzu-Ming; Huang, Mao-Kuo

    2000-07-01

    The non-linear nature of multi-photon fluorescence excitation restricts the fluorescing volume to the vicinity of the focal point. As a result, the technology has the capacity for micro- spectroscopy of biological specimen at high spatial resolution. Chloroplasts in mesophyll protoplast of Arabidopsis thaliana and maize stem sections were used to demonstrate the feasibility of multi-photon fluorescence micro-spectroscopy at subcellular compartments. Time-lapse spectral recording provides a means for studying the response of cell organelles to high intensity illumination.

  15. Hydraulically Driven Grips For Hot Tensile Specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, R. Keith; Johnson, George W.

    1994-01-01

    Pair of grips for tensile and compressive test specimens operate at temperatures up to 1,500 degrees F. Grips include wedges holding specimen inside furnace, where heated to uniform temperature. Hydraulic pistons drive wedges, causing them to exert clamping force. Hydraulic pistons and hydraulic fluid remain outside furnace, at room temperature. Cooling water flows through parts of grips to reduce heat transferred to external components. Advantages over older devices for gripping specimens in high-temperature tests; no need to drill holes in specimens, maintains constant gripping force on specimens, and heated to same temperature as that of specimen without risk of heating hydraulic fluid and acuator components.

  16. Single ectopic ureteral orifice with bilateral duplicated renal collecting systems in an adult girl: Diagnosis by magnetic resonance urography

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Min; Wang, Quanrongzi; Liu, Bianjiang; Li, Jie; Lu, Qiang; Song, Ninghong; Wang, Zengjun; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Renal duplication accompanied by ureteral ectopia is an uncommon urinary congenital abnormality. We report the case of a 21-year-old girl who suffered from lifelong continuous urinary leakage. She was finally diagnosed with bilateral duplicated collecting systems complicated with right ectopic ureteral orifice – an extremely rare case. The patient underwent ureteric re-implantation for the ectopic side, and her urinary incontinence ceased soon thereafter. In this case, traditional imaging failed to show the exact insertion of an ectopic ureter. However, magnetic resonance urography combined with retrograde intubation radiography successfully depicted the point of ureteric insertion, which may make the diagnostic process accurate and efficient. PMID:26609333

  17. 46 CFR 4.06-40 - Specimen handling and shipping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-four (24) hours of receipt by the carrier. (b) The marine employer shall ensure that the urine specimen collection procedures of § 16.113 of this chapter and the chain of custody requirements of 49 CFR part 40... and 4. 06-30 are promptly shipped to a laboratory complying with the requirements of 49 CFR part...

  18. Pathogenesis and epidemiology of Brucellosis in Yellowstone bison: serologic and culture results from adult females and their offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this prospective study was to follow the natural course of Brucella abortus infection in cohorts of seropositive and seronegative female bison and their offspring in Yellowstone National Park over a 5 year period. Specimens were collected from 53 adult, female bison at least once a...

  19. The International Environmental Specimen Banks--let's get visible.

    PubMed

    Küster, Anette; Becker, Paul R; Kucklick, John R; Pugh, Rebecca S; Koschorreck, Jan

    2015-02-01

    Environmental specimen banks (ESBs) are facilities that archive samples from the environment for future research and monitoring purposes. In addition, the long-term preservation of representative specimens is an important complement to environmental research and monitoring. Today, environmental specimen banking is experiencing a renaissance due to an increase in regulatory interest in ESB biota standards and trend data. The International Environmental Specimen Bank Group (IESB) promotes the worldwide development of techniques and strategies of environmental specimen banking and the international cooperation and collaboration among national ESBs. In order to provide a current and comprehensive overview on international environmental specimen banking activities, a questionnaire was sent to the national ESBs and asked for detailed information on the respective ESBs. The results show the rich diversity of national sampling programs, including more detailed information on archived samples, sampling strategies, and studies that have already been performed in the respective countries. All ESBs completing the survey expressed a strong interest in cooperating with other ESBs on a collaborative project. The collected information of national ESBs is intended to be made publicly available. PMID:24390116

  20. Evaluation of specimen preservatives for DNA analyses of bees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frampton, M.; Droege, S.; Conrad, T.; Prager, S.; Richards, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    Large-scale insect collecting efforts that are facilitated by the use of pan traps result in large numbers of specimens being collected. Storage of these specimens can be problematic if space and equipment are limited. In this study, we investigated the effects of various preservatives (alcohol solutions and DMSO) on the amount and quality of DNA extracted from bees (specifically Halictidae, Apidae, and Andrenidae). In addition, we examined the amount and quality of DNA obtained from bee specimens killed and stored at -80 degrees C and from specimens stored for up to 24 years in ethanol. DNA quality was measured in terms of how well it could be PCR-amplified using a set of mitochondrial primers that are commonly used in insect molecular systematics. Overall the best methods of preservation were ultra-cold freezing and dimethyl sulfoxide, but these are both expensive and in the case of ultra-cold freezing, somewhat impractical for field entomologists. Additionally, dimethyl sulfoxide was shown to have adverse effects on morphological characters that are typically used for identification to the level of species. We therefore recommend that the best alternative is 95% ethanol, as it preserves bee specimens well for both morphological and molecular studies.

  1. Characterization of the Bacterial Community Associated with Larvae and Adults of Anoplophora chinensis Collected in Italy by Culture and Culture-Independent Methods

    PubMed Central

    Rizzi, Aurora; Crotti, Elena; Lupi, Daniela; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    The wood-boring beetle Anoplophora chinensis Forster, native to China, has recently spread to North America and Europe causing serious damage to ornamental and forest trees. The gut microbial community associated with these xylophagous beetles is of interest for potential biotechnological applications in lignocellulose degradation and development of pest-control measures. In this study the gut bacterial community of larvae and adults of A. chinensis, collected from different host trees in North Italy, was investigated by both culture and culture-independent methods. Larvae and adults harboured a moderately diverse bacterial community, dominated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. The gammaproteobacterial family Enterobacteriaceae (genera Gibbsiella, Enterobacter, Raoultella, and Klebsiella) was the best represented. The abundance of such bacteria in the insect gut is likely due to the various metabolic abilities of Enterobacteriaceae, including fermentation of carbohydrates derived from lignocellulose degradation and contribution to nitrogen intake by nitrogen-fixing activity. In addition, bacteria previously shown to have some lignocellulose-degrading activity were detected at a relatively low level in the gut. These bacteria possibly act synergistically with endogenous and fungal enzymes in lignocellulose breakdown. The detection of actinobacterial symbionts could be explained by a possible role in the detoxification of secondary plant metabolites and/or protection against pathogens. PMID:24069601

  2. 37 CFR 2.56 - Specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Drawing § 2.56 Specimens. (a) An application under section 1(a) of..., is acceptable. However, a photocopy of the drawing required by § 2.51 is not a proper specimen....

  3. 37 CFR 2.56 - Specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Drawing § 2.56 Specimens. (a) An application under section 1(a) of..., is acceptable. However, a photocopy of the drawing required by § 2.51 is not a proper specimen....

  4. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer Download Printable Version [ ... on the topics below to get started. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer How is cancer ...

  5. Apparatus for automated testing of biological specimens

    DOEpatents

    Layne, Scott P.; Beugelsdijk, Tony J.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus for performing automated testing of infections biological specimens is disclosed. The apparatus comprise a process controller for translating user commands into test instrument suite commands, and a test instrument suite comprising a means to treat the specimen to manifest an observable result, and a detector for measuring the observable result to generate specimen test results.

  6. Specimen mass measurement. [during space environment simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W. E.; Ord, J.

    1973-01-01

    The Skylab specimen mass measurement device was operated throughout the altitude test in close simulation of the 56-day Skylab mission. It performed operational specimen measurements well until it was passed out of the chamber for replacement of the specimen hold-down and was autoclaved prior to return. Fecal measurements were typically made with less than one percent error.

  7. 10 CFR 26.135 - Split specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Split specimens. 26.135 Section 26.135 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.135 Split specimens. (a) If the FFD program follows split-specimen procedures, as described in § 26.113, the licensee...

  8. 10 CFR 26.135 - Split specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Split specimens. 26.135 Section 26.135 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.135 Split specimens. (a) If the FFD program follows split-specimen procedures, as described in § 26.113, the licensee...

  9. 10 CFR 26.135 - Split specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Split specimens. 26.135 Section 26.135 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.135 Split specimens. (a) If the FFD program follows split-specimen procedures, as described in § 26.113, the licensee...

  10. 50 CFR 14.24 - Scientific specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scientific specimens. 14.24 Section 14.24....24 Scientific specimens. Except for wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to parts 16, 17, 18, 21, 22 or 23 of this subchapter, dead, preserved, dried, or embedded scientific specimens or parts...

  11. 50 CFR 14.24 - Scientific specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scientific specimens. 14.24 Section 14.24....24 Scientific specimens. Except for wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to parts 16, 17, 18, 21, 22 or 23 of this subchapter, dead, preserved, dried, or embedded scientific specimens or parts...

  12. 50 CFR 14.24 - Scientific specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scientific specimens. 14.24 Section 14.24....24 Scientific specimens. Except for wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to parts 16, 17, 18, 21, 22 or 23 of this subchapter, dead, preserved, dried, or embedded scientific specimens or parts...

  13. 50 CFR 14.24 - Scientific specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scientific specimens. 14.24 Section 14.24....24 Scientific specimens. Except for wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to parts 16, 17, 18, 21, 22 or 23 of this subchapter, dead, preserved, dried, or embedded scientific specimens or parts...

  14. 50 CFR 14.24 - Scientific specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scientific specimens. 14.24 Section 14.24....24 Scientific specimens. Except for wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to parts 16, 17, 18, 21, 22 or 23 of this subchapter, dead, preserved, dried, or embedded scientific specimens or parts...

  15. The fate of the bird specimens from Cook's voyages possessed by Sir Joseph Banks.

    PubMed

    Medway, David G

    2009-10-01

    Joseph Banks possessed the greater part of the zoological specimens collected on James Cook's three voyages round the world (1768-1780). In early 1792, Banks divided his zoological collection between John Hunter and the British Museum. It is probable that those donations together comprised most of the zoological specimens then in the possession of Banks, including such bird specimens as remained of those that had been collected by himself and Daniel Solander on Cook's first voyage, and those that had been presented to him from Cook's second and third voyages. The bird specimens included in the Banks donations of 1792 became part of a series of transactions during the succeeding 53 years which involved the British Museum, the Royal College of Surgeons of England, and William Bullock. It is a great pity that, of the extensive collection of bird specimens from Cook's voyages once possessed by Banks, only two are known with any certainty to survive. PMID:20014506

  16. Behavior and movement of adult summer steelhead following collection and release, lower Cowlitz River, Washington, 2012--2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kock, Tobias J.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Ekstrom, Brian K.; Rondorf, Dennis W.; Gleizes, Chris; Dammers, Wolf; Gibson, Scott; Murphy, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Historically, adult summer steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss returning to hatcheries on the lower Cowlitz River were sometimes transported and released in the river (recycled) to provide additional angling opportunity for the popular sport fishery in the basin. However, this practice has not been used in recent years because of concerns associated with interactions between hatchery fish and wild fish. Fishery managers were interested in resuming recycling but lacked information regarding effects of this practice on wild steelhead so we conducted a study during 2012–2013 to: (1) enumerate recycled steelhead that returned to the hatchery or were removed by anglers; and (2) determine if steelhead that were not removed from the river remained in the system where they could interact with wild fish. During June–August 2012, a total of 549 summer steelhead were captured at the Cowlitz Salmon Hatchery, tagged, and released downstream near the Interstate 5 Bridge. All recycled steelhead were tagged with a white Floy® tag and opercle-punched; 109 (20 percent) of these fish also were radio-tagged. All adult steelhead that return to the hatchery were handled by hatchery staff so recycled steelhead that returned to the hatchery were enumerated daily. A creel survey and voluntary angler reports were used to determine the number of recycled steelhead that were caught by anglers. We established three fixed telemetry monitoring sites on the mainstem Cowlitz River and eight additional sites were deployed on tributaries to the lower Cowlitz River where wild winter steelhead are known to spawn. We also conducted mobile tracking from a boat during October 2012, November 2012, and January 2013 to locate radio-tagged fish. A total of 10,722 summer steelhead were captured at the Cowlitz Salmon Hatchery in 2012, which was the largest return since 2008. River flows during much of the study period were similar to 2008–2011 average flows, however, high-flow periods in July and November

  17. Resonance testing of space shuttle thermoacoustic structural specimen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrahamson, A. L.; Osinski, J.

    1977-01-01

    The resonance testing of a structural specimen related to the space shuttle vehicle is described. The specimen consisted of a thin aluminum skin reinforced by hat-section stringers and supported by two ribs or bulkheads of corrugated web. A representative section of the space shuttle thermal protection system was bonded to the outer surface of the skin. The tests were completed by using miniature accelerometers to collect vibration data from locations forming a predetermined mesh over the tiles and base structure. The signals were recorded on FM magnetic tape and subsequently analyzed on a modal analysis system.

  18. The SmokefreeTXT (SFTXT) Study: Web and Mobile Data Collection to Evaluate Smoking Cessation for Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Derick; Parvanta, Sarah; Dolina, Suzanne; Kelly, Bridget; Dever, Jill; Southwell, Brian G; Sanders, Amy; Augustson, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Background Text messaging (short message service, SMS) has been shown to be effective in delivering interventions for various diseases and health conditions, including smoking cessation. While there are many published studies regarding smoking cessation text messaging interventions, most do not provide details about the study’s operational methods. As a result, there is a gap in our understanding of how best to design studies of smoking cessation text messaging programs. Objective The purpose of this paper is to detail the operational methods used to conduct a randomized trial comparing three different versions of the National Cancer Institute’s SmokefreeText (SFTXT) program, designed for smokers 18 to 29 years of age. We detail our methods for recruiting participants from the Internet, reducing fraud, conducting online data collection, and retaining panel study participants. Methods Participants were recruited through website advertisements and market research online panels. Screening questions established eligibility for the study (eg, 18 to 29 years of age, current smoker). Antifraud measures screened out participants who could not meet the study requirements. After completing a baseline survey, participants were randomized to one of three study arms, which varied by type and timing of text message delivery. The study offered US $20 gift cards as incentives to complete each of four follow-up surveys. Automated email reminders were sent at designated intervals to increase response rates. Researchers also provided telephone reminders to those who had not completed the survey after multiple email reminders. We calculated participation rates across study arms and compared the final sample characteristics to the Current Population Survey to examine generalizability. Results Recruitment methods drove 153,936 unique visitors to the SFTXT Study landing page and 27,360 began the screener. Based on the screening questions, 15,462 out of 27,360 responders (56.51%) were

  19. ARCTOS: a relational database relating specimens, specimen-based science, and archival documentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarrell, Gordon H.; Ramotnik, Cindy A.; McDonald, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    Data are preserved when they are perpetually discoverable, but even in the Information Age, discovery of legacy data appropriate to particular investigations is uncertain. Secure Internet storage is necessary but insufficient. Data can be discovered only when they are adequately described, and visibility increases markedly if the data are related to other data that are receiving usage. Such relationships can be built within (1) the framework of a relational database, or (1) they can be built among separate resources, within the framework of the Internet. Evolving primarily around biological collections, Arctos is a database that does both of these tasks. It includes data structures for a diversity of specimen attributes, essentially all collection-management tasks, plus literature citations, project descriptions, etc. As a centralized collaboration of several university museums, Arctos is an ideal environment for capitalizing on the many relationships that often exist between items in separate collections. Arctos is related to NIH’s DNA-sequence repository (GenBank) with record-to-record reciprocal linkages, and it serves data to several discipline-specific web portals, including the Global Biodiversity Information Network (GBIF). The University of Alaska Museum’s paleontological collection is Arctos’s recent extension beyond the constraints of neontology. With about 1.3 million cataloged items, additional collections are being added each year.

  20. The type specimens of Hekstra's owl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Browning, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-four new subspecies of New World owls of the genus Otus were named in a paper by Hekstra (1982b) issued 17 December 1982. These same new names also appeared in Hekstra's (1982a) unpublished thesis. The holotypes of the new taxa are in 10 different collections, most of which are in the United States. Incorrect information was published with regard to museum designation, museum number, and collecting locality of many of the holotypes. I here list the holotypes with their correct specimen label data. The species names are here presented in the sequence proposed by Marshall & King (1988). The subspecies are generally arranged from north to south. The type localities given are standardized, and the spellings are corrected where required. Abbreviations for museum designations are given under acknowledgments. The numbers following the names refer to the pages where the descriptions were given (Hekstra 1982b). Several of the scientific names proposed were spelled incorrectly and these have been emended in accord with Article 31c and Appendix D of the International Code (International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1985). Taxonomic comments are appended for a small number of Hekstra's proposed taxa. The remaining forms he named require further study.

  1. A novel approach to managing hemolyzed specimens.

    PubMed

    Pretlow, Lester; Johnson, Shamala; Russell, Barbara; Evans, Bridget

    2013-01-01

    Hemolyzed specimens continue to cost the laboratory time and money. However, the core laboratory at Georgia Regents Health System, Inc. has instituted a novel approach to managing this problem. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the laboratory's new approach had a significant impact on the turn-around time (TAT) and cost of processing hemolyzed and non-hemolyzed specimens in the laboratory. The investigators queried the laboratory information systems for hemolyzed and non-hemolyzed specimens categorized as routine or STAT from the core laboratory and calculated statistical differences between the groups with respect to TAT and cost.The investigators found a statistically significant difference in the time it takes to process STAT hemolyzed specimens versus non-hemolyzed specimens with the new approach. Because of the new approach, hemolyzed specimens were actually processed as fast as, or faster than non-hemolyzed specimens in the core laboratory. PMID:23967544

  2. Prospective evaluation of the protected specimen brush for the diagnosis of pulmonary infections in ventilated newborns.

    PubMed

    Rigal, E; Roze, J C; Villers, D; Derriennic, M; David-Melon, V; Lacroix-Mechinaud, F; Mouzard, A

    1990-01-01

    The precise diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infection in the critically ill newborn remains a difficult challenge. The bronchoscopic protected specimen brush (PSB) is a reliable method in intubated adults. Because the bronchoscopic procedure is not generally available for young children, Zucker proposed a blind technique for introducing the PSB into the distal airways. His results were promising but were not compared with any bacteriologic reference method. Therefore, we wanted to evaluate this technique in comparison with the open lung biopsy (OLB) when it could be ethically accomplished. Eleven PSB were collected simultaneously with an OLB. The sensitivity of the PSB procedure was 100%, its specificity 88%, its positive predictive value 66%, and its negative predictive value 100%. There were no complications secondary to the PSB procedure. In this short study, the PSB procedure using a blind technique is safe and feasible to obtain uncontaminated specimens in intubated and ventilated newborns, and is largely accurate in identifying the bacterial etiologic agent of lower respiratory tract infection. PMID:2371075

  3. [The German Environmental Specimen Bank].

    PubMed

    Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Gies, Andreas; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) is the long-term storage of environmental and human samples under stable deep-freeze conditions for future research. The ESB is unique in providing a continuous historical record of environmental and human exposure to chemicals in Germany. ESB was started parallel to the development of the first German Chemicals Legislation in the late 1970s. In 1979, the ESB test operation began. After the Chemicals Law came into force in 1982, the ESB was established as a permanent facility in 1985. With the new European Chemicals Legislation, REACH, in 2007 responsibility for the safety of commercial chemicals and risk assessment was assigned to the industry. Since then, the ESB has become even more important in verifying the self-assessment of the industry, in evaluating the effectiveness of regulations, thus ensuring the protection of humans and the environment against adverse effects caused by exposure to chemicals. These objectives are pursued by the regular monitoring of contaminations and the assessment of temporal trends. Demonstrating the necessity of deriving exposure reduction measures, ESB results serve as key information for policy-makers. Information on preventing exposure to chemicals is available to the general public and to the public health services. The ESB is thus an important monitoring instrument of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety. The Federal Environment Agency operates the ESB based on its own concepts, heads the scientific data evaluation and transfers results into the environmental policy arena and to the general public. PMID:26753867

  4. Alfredo Dugès' type specimens of amphibians and reptiles revisited.

    PubMed

    Flores-Villela, Oscar; Ríos-Muñoz, César A; Magaña-Cota, Gloria E; Quezadas-Tapia, Néstor L

    2016-01-01

    The type specimens of amphibians and reptiles of the Museo de Historia Natural Alfredo Dugès, at the University of Guanajuato (MADUG) were reviewed following Smith & Necker's (1943) summary. Owing to this collection's eventful history and its historical importance as the oldest herpetological collection in Mexico, a review of its conservation status was needed. After many years, the collection has received proper recognition at the University of Guanajuato with a portion of the herpetological types considered "Precious Assets" of the university. We found 34 type specimens pertaining to 18 taxa; six are additional specimens to those previously reported; six herpetological types are missing, including the body of the type of Adelophis copei. All specimens are in good to reasonable condition except for the type of Rhinocheilus antonii, which has dried out completely. All specimens are illustrated to show their condition. PMID:27394365

  5. Enhanced Diagnostic Yields of Bacteremia and Candidemia in Blood Specimens by PCR-Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Laffler, Thomas G.; Cummins, Lendell L.; McClain, Colt M.; Quinn, Criziel D.; Toro, Michelle A.; Carolan, Heather E.; Toleno, Donna M.; Rounds, Megan A.; Eshoo, Mark W.; Stratton, Charles W.; Sampath, Rangarajan; Blyn, Lawrence B.; Ecker, David J.

    2013-01-01

    A prospective study was performed to determine the value of direct molecular testing of whole blood for detecting the presence of culturable and unculturable bacteria and yeasts in patients with suspected bloodstream infections. A total of 464 adult and pediatric patients with positive blood cultures matched with 442 patients with negative blood cultures collected during the same period were recruited during a 10-month study. PCR amplification coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR-ESI-MS) plus blood culture reached an overall agreement of 78.6% in the detection and species-level identification of bacterial and candidal pathogens. Of 33 culture-negative/PCR-ESI-MS-positive specimens, 31 (93.9%) were judged to be truly bacteremic and/or candidemic based on a medical chart review and analytical metrics. Among the 15 culture-positive specimens in which PCR-ESI-MS detected additional bacterial or yeast species, 66.7% and 20.0% of the additional positive specimens by PCR-ESI-MS were judged to be truly or possibly bacteremic and/or candidemic, respectively. Direct analysis of blood samples by PCR-ESI-MS rapidly detects bacterial and yeast pathogens in patients with bloodstream infections. When used in conjunction with blood culture, PCR-ESI-MS enhances the diagnostics of septicemia by shortening test turnaround time and improving yields. PMID:23966503

  6. Assessment of East Asian-type cagA-positive Helicobacter pylori using stool specimens from asymptomatic healthy Japanese individuals.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Itaru; Sasaki, Tadahiro; Kimoto, Ai; Fujimoto, Saori; Moriyama, Toshiki; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2009-09-01

    Recent investigations have suggested that CagA, a virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori and known to have multiple genotypes, plays a critical role in the development of stomach cancer. However, the prevalence of cagA-positive H. pylori strains and the cagA genotypes have not been well studied in healthy individuals because of the difficulty in collecting gastric specimens. In the present study, we assessed the prevalence of infection with H. pylori, particularly the strains with the East Asian cagA genotype (which is more potent in causing gastric diseases), among healthy asymptomatic Japanese individuals by a noninvasive method using stool specimens. The H. pylori antigen was detected in 40.3 % of healthy asymptomatic adult individuals (n=186) enrolled in the study. For the detection and genotyping of the cagA gene, DNA was extracted from the stool specimens of these individuals and analysed by PCR. We detected the East Asian cagA genotype in the DNA samples of a significantly high number (63.1 %) of healthy asymptomatic Japanese individuals. These results indicate that a significant number of asymptomatic healthy Japanese individuals were infected with highly virulent H. pylori. PMID:19528144

  7. Standardizing the Handling of Surgical Specimens.

    PubMed

    Shirey, Cheryl; Perrego, Kristen

    2015-11-01

    To standardize the handling of surgical specimens, the OR clinical educators in a community hospital setting devised a series of departmental changes as a quality improvement project. A newly created skill validation was reviewed in an hour-long educational meeting with all OR staff members. In addition to creating a new annual skill validation, discussions about specimens were included in the hand over, the time out, and a newly instituted debriefing tool to be used toward the end of a procedure. This interdisciplinary group devised interventions to improve the process of handling specimens such as standardizing the labeling process and changing the transparency of the specimen container. The goal was to assure standardization of specimen handling, specifically to assist novice staff members, and to harmonize inconsistencies between specialties within the practice of existing staff members. These combined methods helped to ensure accurate communication and procurement of specimens for all procedures. PMID:26514715

  8. Flat tensile specimen design for advanced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worthem, Dennis W.

    1990-01-01

    Finite element analyses of flat, reduced gage section tensile specimens with various transition region contours were performed. Within dimensional constraints, such as maximum length, tab region width, gage width, gage length, and minimum tab length, a transition contour radius of 41.9 cm produced the lowest stress values in the specimen transition region. The stresses in the transition region were not sensitive to specimen material properties. The stresses in the tab region were sensitive to specimen composite and/or tab material properties. An evaluation of stresses with different specimen composite and tab material combinations must account for material nonlinearity of both the tab and the specimen composite. Material nonlinearity can either relieve stresses in the composite under the tab or elevate them to cause failure under the tab.

  9. 49 CFR 40.51 - What materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory? 40.51 Section 40.51 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... and Supplies Used in DOT Urine Collections § 40.51 What materials are used to send urine specimens...

  10. 49 CFR 40.51 - What materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What materials are used to send urine specimens to the laboratory? 40.51 Section 40.51 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... and Supplies Used in DOT Urine Collections § 40.51 What materials are used to send urine specimens...

  11. 49 CFR 40.187 - What does the MRO do with split specimen laboratory results?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the primary specimen results. As the MRO, you must report to the DER and the employee the result(s.... As the MRO, you must report to the DER and the employee that the test must be cancelled. (1) As the... the immediate collection of another specimen from the employee under direct observation, with...

  12. 50 CFR 16.33 - Importation of natural-history specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Importation of natural-history specimens... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS INJURIOUS WILDLIFE Additional Exemptions § 16.33 Importation of natural-history... natural-history specimens of wildlife or their eggs for museum or scientific collection purposes:...

  13. 50 CFR 16.33 - Importation of natural-history specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Importation of natural-history specimens... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS INJURIOUS WILDLIFE Additional Exemptions § 16.33 Importation of natural-history... natural-history specimens of wildlife or their eggs for museum or scientific collection purposes:...

  14. 50 CFR 16.33 - Importation of natural-history specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Importation of natural-history specimens... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS INJURIOUS WILDLIFE Additional Exemptions § 16.33 Importation of natural-history... natural-history specimens of wildlife or their eggs for museum or scientific collection purposes:...

  15. 50 CFR 16.33 - Importation of natural-history specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Importation of natural-history specimens... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS INJURIOUS WILDLIFE Additional Exemptions § 16.33 Importation of natural-history... natural-history specimens of wildlife or their eggs for museum or scientific collection purposes:...

  16. In-Hospital Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccination Is Associated With Detection of Pneumococcal Vaccine Serotypes in Adults Hospitalized for Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Grijalva, Carlos G; Wunderink, Richard G; Zhu, Yuwei; Williams, Derek J; Balk, Robert; Fakhran, Sherene; Courtney, D Mark; Anderson, Evan J; Qi, Chao; Trabue, Christopher; Pavia, Andrew T; Moore, Matthew R; Jain, Seema; Edwards, Kathryn M; Self, Wesley H

    2015-12-01

    During an etiology study of adults hospitalized for pneumonia, in which urine specimens were examined for serotype-specific pneumococcal antigen detection, we observed that some patients received 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine before urine collection. Some urine samples became positive for specific vaccine pneumococcal serotypes shortly after vaccination, suggesting false-positive test results. PMID:26512357

  17. In-Hospital Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccination Is Associated With Detection of Pneumococcal Vaccine Serotypes in Adults Hospitalized for Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Grijalva, Carlos G.; Wunderink, Richard G.; Zhu, Yuwei; Williams, Derek J.; Balk, Robert; Fakhran, Sherene; Courtney, D. Mark; Anderson, Evan J.; Qi, Chao; Trabue, Christopher; Pavia, Andrew T.; Moore, Matthew R.; Jain, Seema; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Self, Wesley H.

    2015-01-01

    During an etiology study of adults hospitalized for pneumonia, in which urine specimens were examined for serotype-specific pneumococcal antigen detection, we observed that some patients received 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine before urine collection. Some urine samples became positive for specific vaccine pneumococcal serotypes shortly after vaccination, suggesting false-positive test results. PMID:26512357

  18. Thick Concrete Specimen Construction, Testing, and Preliminary Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Dwight A.; Hoegh, Kyle; Khazanovich, Lev

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants (NPPs) beyond 60 years. Since many important safety structures in an NPP are constructed of concrete, inspection techniques must be developed and tested to evaluate the internal condition. In-service containment structures generally do not allow for the destructive measures necessary to validate the accuracy of these inspection techniques. This creates a need for comparative testing of the various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) measurement techniques on concrete specimens with known material properties, voids, internal microstructure flaws, and reinforcement locations. A preliminary report detailed some of the challenges associated with thick reinforced concrete sections and prioritized conceptual designs of specimens that could be fabricated to represent NPP concrete structures for using in NDE evaluation comparisons. This led to the construction of the concrete specimen presented in this report, which has sufficient reinforcement density and cross-sectional size to represent an NPP containment wall. Details on how a suitably thick concrete specimen was constructed are presented, including the construction materials, final nominal design schematic, as well as formwork and rigging required to safely meet the desired dimensions of the concrete structure. The report also details the type and methods of forming the concrete specimen as well as information on how the rebar and simulated defects were embedded. Details on how the resulting specimen was transported, safely anchored, and marked to allow access for systematic comparative NDE testing of defects in a representative NPP containment wall concrete specimen are also given. Data collection using the MIRA Ultrasonic NDE equipment and

  19. 36 CFR 1002.5 - Research specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Research specimens. 1002.5... RECREATION § 1002.5 Research specimens. (a) Taking plants, fish, wildlife, rocks or minerals except in... representative of a reputable scientific or educational institution or a State or Federal agency for the...

  20. 36 CFR 1002.5 - Research specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Research specimens. 1002.5... RECREATION § 1002.5 Research specimens. (a) Taking plants, fish, wildlife, rocks or minerals except in... representative of a reputable scientific or educational institution or a State or Federal agency for the...

  1. 36 CFR 1002.5 - Research specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Research specimens. 1002.5... RECREATION § 1002.5 Research specimens. (a) Taking plants, fish, wildlife, rocks or minerals except in... representative of a reputable scientific or educational institution or a State or Federal agency for the...

  2. 36 CFR 2.5 - Research specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Research specimens. 2.5 Section 2.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.5 Research specimens. (a) Taking plants, fish, wildlife, rocks or minerals except in accordance with...

  3. 10 CFR 26.135 - Split specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... shall store Bottles A and B of the specimen in a secure manner until the facility has finished testing. If the initial validity and drug test results are negative and the specimen in Bottle A will not be forwarded to the HHS-certified laboratory, the licensee testing facility may discard both Bottle A...

  4. 10 CFR 26.135 - Split specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... shall store Bottles A and B of the specimen in a secure manner until the facility has finished testing. If the initial validity and drug test results are negative and the specimen in Bottle A will not be forwarded to the HHS-certified laboratory, the licensee testing facility may discard both Bottle A...

  5. Machining technique prevents undercutting in tensile specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moscater, R. E.; Royster, D. M.

    1968-01-01

    Machining technique prevents undercutting at the test section in tensile specimens when machining the four corners of the reduced section. Made with a gradual taper in the test section, the width of the center of the tensile specimen is less than the width at the four corners of the reduced section.

  6. 37 CFR 2.56 - Specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... advertising of the services in commerce. (b)(1) A trademark specimen is a label, tag, or container for the... goods, or in the sale or advertising of the services, is acceptable. However, a photocopy of the drawing... specimen that meets the requirements of the rule (i.e., is flat and no larger than 81/2 inches (21.6...

  7. 37 CFR 1.166 - Specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Plant Patents § 1.166 Specimens. The applicant may be required to furnish specimens of the plant, or its flower or fruit, in a quantity and at a time in its stage of growth as may be designated, for study and inspection....

  8. 37 CFR 1.166 - Specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Plant Patents § 1.166 Specimens. The applicant may be required to furnish specimens of the plant, or its flower or fruit, in a quantity and at a time in its stage of growth as may be designated, for study and inspection....

  9. 37 CFR 1.166 - Specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Specimens. 1.166 Section 1.166 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Plant Patents § 1.166 Specimens. The applicant may be required to...

  10. Making Ceramic Reference Specimens Containing Seeded Voids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baaklini, George Y.; Klima, Stanley J.; Roth, Don J.

    1994-01-01

    Internal and surface voids of known sizes incorporated into silicon carbide and silicon nitride ceramic reference specimens at prescribed locations. Specimens used to demonstrate sensitivity and resolution in nondestructive examination techniques like scanning laser acoustic microscopy and x-radiography, and to assist in establishing proper examination procedures.

  11. 36 CFR 1002.5 - Research specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Research specimens. 1002.5... RECREATION § 1002.5 Research specimens. (a) Taking plants, fish, wildlife, rocks or minerals except in... of research, baseline inventories, monitoring, impact analysis, group study, or museum display...

  12. 36 CFR 1002.5 - Research specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Research specimens. 1002.5... RECREATION § 1002.5 Research specimens. (a) Taking plants, fish, wildlife, rocks or minerals except in... of research, baseline inventories, monitoring, impact analysis, group study, or museum display...

  13. Layered Plating Specimens For Mechanical Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Linda B.; Flowers, Cecil E.

    1991-01-01

    Layered specimens readily made in standard sizes for tensile and other tests of mechanical properties. Standard specimen of metal ordinarily difficult to plate to standard grip thickness or diameter made by augmentation with easier-to-plate material followed by machining to standard size and shape.

  14. Clinical evaluation of the walk-away specimen processor and ESwab for recovery of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates in prenatal screening specimens.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Blake W; Olson, Wendy J; Mackey, Tami-Lea A; Ledeboer, Nathan A

    2014-06-01

    Rectal/vaginal specimens (n = 97) were collected in parallel using ESwab and Liquid Stuart (LS) rayon fiber wrapped swab collection devices. Each collection device was used to directly inoculate culture medium and LIM broth. Medium inoculation by ESwab was conducted using the Walk-Away specimen processor (WASP). Medium inoculation by the LS device was conducted manually. The sensitivities of ESwab and LS upon direct plating were 93.8% and 87.5%, respectively, and increased to 96.9% and 90.6%, respectively, following broth enrichment. PMID:24622104

  15. Effectiveness of Patient-Collected Swabs for Influenza Testing

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Neelam; Miller, Rita M.; Finley, Janet L.; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D.; Nestler, David M.; Boggust, Andy J.; Jenkins, Sarah M.; Smith, Thomas F.; Wilson, John W.; Cockerill, Franklin R.; Pritt, Bobbi S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of self-collected and health care worker (HCW)–collected nasal swabs for detection of influenza viruses and determine the patients' preference for type of collection. Patients and Methods We enrolled adult patients presenting with influenzalike illness to the Emergency Department at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, from January 28, 2011, through April 30, 2011. Patients self-collected a midturbinate nasal flocked swab from their right nostril following written instructions. A second swab was then collected by an HCW from the left nostril. Swabs were tested for influenza A and B viruses by real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, and percent concordance between collection methods was determined. Results Of the 72 paired specimens analyzed, 25 were positive for influenza A or B RNA by at least one of the collection methods (34.7% positivity rate). When the 14 patients who had prior health care training were excluded, the qualitative agreement between collection methods was 94.8% (55 of 58). Two of the 58 specimens (3.4%) from patients without health care training were positive only by HCW collection, and 1 of 58 (1.7%) was positive only by patient self-collection. A total of 53.4% of patients (31 of 58) preferred the self-collection method over the HCW collection, and 25.9% (15 of 58) had no preference. Conclusion Self-collected midturbinate nasal swabs provide a reliable alternative to HCW collection for influenza A and B virus real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. PMID:22551906

  16. 49 CFR 40.65 - What does the collector check for when the employee presents a specimen?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Specimen Collections § 40.65.... You must check to ensure that the specimen contains at least 45 mL of urine. (1) If it does not, you... of tampering) also exists. (3) You are never permitted to combine urine collected from separate...

  17. 49 CFR 40.65 - What does the collector check for when the employee presents a specimen?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Specimen Collections § 40.65.... You must check to ensure that the specimen contains at least 45 mL of urine. (1) If it does not, you... of tampering) also exists. (3) You are never permitted to combine urine collected from separate...

  18. 49 CFR 40.65 - What does the collector check for when the employee presents a specimen?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Specimen Collections § 40.65.... You must check to ensure that the specimen contains at least 45 mL of urine. (1) If it does not, you... of tampering) also exists. (3) You are never permitted to combine urine collected from separate...

  19. 49 CFR 40.65 - What does the collector check for when the employee presents a specimen?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Specimen Collections § 40.65.... You must check to ensure that the specimen contains at least 45 mL of urine. (1) If it does not, you... of tampering) also exists. (3) You are never permitted to combine urine collected from separate...

  20. Improving the pathologic evaluation of lung cancer resection specimens.

    PubMed

    Osarogiagbon, Raymond U; Hilsenbeck, Holly L; Sales, Elizabeth W; Berry, Allen; Jarrett, Robert W; Giampapa, Christopher S; Finch-Cruz, Clara N; Spencer, David

    2015-08-01

    Accurate post-operative prognostication and management heavily depend on pathologic nodal stage. Patients with nodal metastasis benefit from post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy, those with mediastinal nodal involvement may also benefit from adjuvant radiation therapy. However, the quality of pathologic nodal staging varies significantly, with major survival implications in large populations of patients. We describe the quality gap in pathologic nodal staging, and provide evidence of its potential reversibility by targeted corrective interventions. One intervention, designed to improve the surgical lymphadenectomy, specimen labeling, and secure transfer between the operating theatre and the pathology laboratory, involves use of pre-labeled specimen collection kits. Another intervention involves application of an improved method of gross dissection of lung resection specimens, to reduce the inadvertent loss of intrapulmonary lymph nodes to histologic examination for metastasis. These corrective interventions are the subject of a regional dissemination and implementation project in diverse healthcare systems in a tri-state region of the United States with some of the highest lung cancer incidence and mortality rates. We discuss the potential of these interventions to significantly improve the accuracy of pathologic nodal staging, risk stratification, and the quality of specimens available for development of stage-independent prognostic markers in lung cancer. PMID:26380184

  1. Improving the pathologic evaluation of lung cancer resection specimens

    PubMed Central

    Hilsenbeck, Holly L.; Sales, Elizabeth W.; Berry, Allen; Jarrett, Robert W.; Giampapa, Christopher S.; Finch-Cruz, Clara N.; Spencer, David

    2015-01-01

    Accurate post-operative prognostication and management heavily depend on pathologic nodal stage. Patients with nodal metastasis benefit from post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy, those with mediastinal nodal involvement may also benefit from adjuvant radiation therapy. However, the quality of pathologic nodal staging varies significantly, with major survival implications in large populations of patients. We describe the quality gap in pathologic nodal staging, and provide evidence of its potential reversibility by targeted corrective interventions. One intervention, designed to improve the surgical lymphadenectomy, specimen labeling, and secure transfer between the operating theatre and the pathology laboratory, involves use of pre-labeled specimen collection kits. Another intervention involves application of an improved method of gross dissection of lung resection specimens, to reduce the inadvertent loss of intrapulmonary lymph nodes to histologic examination for metastasis. These corrective interventions are the subject of a regional dissemination and implementation project in diverse healthcare systems in a tri-state region of the United States with some of the highest lung cancer incidence and mortality rates. We discuss the potential of these interventions to significantly improve the accuracy of pathologic nodal staging, risk stratification, and the quality of specimens available for development of stage-independent prognostic markers in lung cancer. PMID:26380184

  2. Solution Preserves Nucleic Acids in Body-Fluid Specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Stowe, Raymond P.

    2004-01-01

    A solution has been formulated to preserve deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) in specimens of blood, saliva, and other bodily fluids. Specimens of this type are collected for diagnostic molecular pathology, which is becoming the method of choice for diagnosis of many diseases. The solution makes it possible to store such specimens at room temperature, without risk of decomposition, for subsequent analysis in a laboratory that could be remote from the sampling location. Thus, the solution could be a means to bring the benefits of diagnostic molecular pathology to geographic regions where refrigeration equipment and diagnostic laboratories are not available. The table lists the ingredients of the solution. The functions of the ingredients are the following: EDTA chelates divalent cations that are necessary cofactors for nuclease activity. In so doing, it functionally removes these cations and thereby retards the action of nucleases. EDTA also stabilizes the DNA helix. Tris serves as a buffering agent, which is needed because minor contaminants in an unbuffered solution can exert pronounced effects on pH and thereby cause spontaneous degradation of DNA. SDS is an ionic detergent that inhibits ribonuclease activity. SDS has been used in some lysis buffers and as a storage buffer for RNA after purification. The use of the solution is straightforward. For example, a sample of saliva is collected by placing a cotton roll around in the subject's mouth until it becomes saturated, then the cotton is placed in a collection tube. Next, 1.5 mL of the solution are injected directly into the cotton and the tube is capped for storage at room temperature. The effectiveness of the solution has been demonstrated in tests on specimens of saliva containing herpes simplex virus. In the tests, the viral DNA, as amplified by polymerase chain reaction, was detected even after storage for 120 days.

  3. Optimal design of biaxial tensile cruciform specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demmerle, S.; Boehler, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    F OR EXPERIMENTAL investigations concerning the mechanical behaviour under biaxial stress states of rolled sheet metals, mostly cruciform flat specimens are used. By means of empirical methods, different specimen geometries have been proposed in the literature. In order to evaluate the suitability of a specimen design, a mathematically well defined criterion is developed, based on the standard deviations of the values of the stresses in the test section. Applied to the finite element method, the criterion is employed to realize the shape optimization of biaxial cruciform specimens for isotropic elastic materials. Furthermore, the performance of the obtained optimized specimen design is investigated in the case of off-axes tests on anisotropic materials. Therefore, for the first time, an original testing device, consisting of hinged fixtures with knife edges at each arm of the specimen, is applied to the biaxial test. The obtained results indicate the decisive superiority of the optimized specimens for the proper performance on isotropic materials, as well as the paramount importance of the proposed off-axes testing technique for biaxial tests on anisotropic materials.

  4. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Biological Specimen Repository

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMonigal, Kathleen A.; Pietrzyk, Robert a.; Johnson, Mary Anne

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Biological Specimen Repository (Repository) is a storage bank that is used to maintain biological specimens over extended periods of time and under well-controlled conditions. Samples from the International Space Station (ISS), including blood and urine, will be collected, processed and archived during the preflight, inflight and postflight phases of ISS missions. This investigation has been developed to archive biosamples for use as a resource for future space flight related research. The International Space Station (ISS) provides a platform to investigate the effects of microgravity on human physiology prior to lunar and exploration class missions. The storage of crewmember samples from many different ISS flights in a single repository will be a valuable resource with which researchers can study space flight related changes and investigate physiological markers. The development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Biological Specimen Repository will allow for the collection, processing, storage, maintenance, and ethical distribution of biosamples to meet goals of scientific and programmatic relevance to the space program. Archiving of the biosamples will provide future research opportunities including investigating patterns of physiological changes, analysis of components unknown at this time or analyses performed by new methodologies.

  5. Banking Brain Tumor Specimens Using a University Core Facility.

    PubMed

    Bregy, Amade; Papadimitriou, Kyriakos; Faber, David A; Shah, Ashish H; Gomez, Carmen R; Komotar, Ricardo J; Egea, Sophie C

    2015-08-01

    Within the past three decades, the significance of banking human cancer tissue for the advancement of cancer research has grown exponentially. The purpose of this article is to detail our experience in collecting brain tumor specimens in collaboration with the University of Miami/Sylvester Tissue Bank Core Facility (UM-TBCF), to ensure the availability of high-quality samples of central nervous system tumor tissue for research. Successful tissue collection begins with obtaining informed consent from patients following institutional IRB and federal HIPAA guidelines, and it needs a well-trained professional staff and continued maintenance of high ethical standards and record keeping. Since starting in 2011, we have successfully banked 225 brain tumor specimens for research. Thus far, the most common tumor histology identified among those specimens has been glioblastoma (22.1%), followed by meningioma (18.1%). The majority of patients were White, non-Hispanics accounting for 45.1% of the patient population; Hispanic/Latinos accounted for 23%, and Black/African Americans accounted for 14%, which represent the particular population of the State of Florida according to the 2010 census data. The most common tumors found in each subgroup were as follows: Black/African American, glioblastoma and meningioma; Hispanic, metastasis and glioblastoma; White, glioblastoma and meningioma. The UM-TBCF is a valuable repository, offering high-quality tumor samples from a unique patient population. PMID:26280502

  6. Specimen for high-temperature tensile tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulbert, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    Split nut with internal taper to hold specially formed specimen composed of filaments of refractory material provides means for holding at high temperature and under tension so that performance evaluations may be made.

  7. 37 CFR 2.56 - Specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... specimen”), the Office will create a digital facsimile of the specimen that meets the requirements of the...-bulky alternatives, the Office may accept an audio or video cassette tape recording, CD-ROM, or...

  8. 37 CFR 2.56 - Specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... exceeding these size requirements (a “bulky specimen”), the Office will create a digital facsimile of the... bulky specimen. (3) In the absence of non-bulky alternatives, the Office may accept an audio or...

  9. A Live Specimen Cell for the Microscope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, D. W.

    1991-01-01

    Provides background and instructions for the assembly of a microaquarium, or specimen cell, in which the dynamic world of living microorganisms can be viewed through a microscope overextended periods of time utilizing the simplest of materials in the process. (JJK)

  10. Impact of specimen adequacy on the assessment of renal allograft biopsy specimens

    PubMed Central

    Cimen, S.; Geldenhuys, L.; Guler, S.; Imamoglu, A.; Molinari, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Banff classification was introduced to achieve uniformity in the assessment of renal allograft biopsies. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of specimen adequacy on the Banff classification. All renal allograft biopsies obtained between July 2010 and June 2012 for suspicion of acute rejection were included. Pre-biopsy clinical data on suspected diagnosis and time from renal transplantation were provided to a nephropathologist who was blinded to the original pathological report. Second pathological readings were compared with the original to assess agreement stratified by specimen adequacy. Cohen's kappa test and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analyses. Forty-nine specimens were reviewed. Among these specimens, 81.6% were classified as adequate, 6.12% as minimal, and 12.24% as unsatisfactory. The agreement analysis among the first and second readings revealed a kappa value of 0.97. Full agreement between readings was found in 75% of the adequate specimens, 66.7 and 50% for minimal and unsatisfactory specimens, respectively. There was no agreement between readings in 5% of the adequate specimens and 16.7% of the unsatisfactory specimens. For the entire sample full agreement was found in 71.4%, partial agreement in 20.4% and no agreement in 8.2% of the specimens. Statistical analysis using Fisher's exact test yielded a P value above 0.25 showing that - probably due to small sample size - the results were not statistically significant. Specimen adequacy may be a determinant of a diagnostic agreement in renal allograft specimen assessment. While additional studies including larger case numbers are required to further delineate the impact of specimen adequacy on the reliability of histopathological assessments, specimen quality must be considered during clinical decision making while dealing with biopsy reports based on minimal or unsatisfactory specimens. PMID:27119314

  11. Canadian Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooke, W. Michael, Comp.

    "Trends," a publication of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, is a collection of abstracts on selected subjects affecting adult education; this issue is on adult basic education (ABE). It covers teachers and teacher training, psychological factors relating to the ABE teacher and students, manuals for teachers, instructional materials,…

  12. Mode 2 fatigue crack growth specimen development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzard, R. J.; Gross, B.; Srawley, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    A Mode II test specimen was developed which has potential application in understanding phemonena associated with mixed mode fatigue failures in high performance aircraft engine bearing races. The attributes of the specimen are: it contains one single ended notch, which simplifiers data gathering and reduction; the fatigue crack grous in-line with the direction of load application; a single axis test machine is sufficient to perform testing; and the Mode I component is vanishingly small.

  13. Standard Specimen Reference Set: Pancreatic — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    The primary objective of the EDRN Pancreatic Cancer Working Group Proposal is to create a reference set consisting of well-characterized serum/plasma specimens to use as a resource for the development of biomarkers for the early detection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The testing of biomarkers on the same sample set permits direct comparison among them; thereby, allowing the development of a biomarker panel that can be evaluated in a future validation study. Additionally, the establishment of an infrastructure with core data elements and standardized operating procedures for specimen collection, processing and storage, will provide the necessary preparatory platform for larger validation studies when the appropriate marker/panel for pancreatic adenocarcinoma has been identified.

  14. STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN TEAR DROP SPECIMENS

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, P; Philip Zapp, P; Jonathan Duffey, J; Kerry Dunn, K

    2009-05-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of 304L stainless steel used to construct the containment vessels for the storage of plutonium-bearing materials. The tear drop corrosion specimens each with an autogenous weld in the center were placed in contact with moist plutonium oxide and chloride salt mixtures. Cracking was found in two of the specimens in the heat affected zone (HAZ) at the apex area. Finite element analysis was performed to simulate the specimen fabrication for determining the internal stress which caused SCC to occur. It was found that the tensile stress at the crack initiation site was about 30% lower than the highest stress which had been shifted to the shoulders of the specimen due to the specimen fabrication process. This finding appears to indicate that the SCC initiation took place in favor of the possibly weaker weld/base metal interface at a sufficiently high level of background stress. The base material, even subject to a higher tensile stress, was not cracked. The relieving of tensile stress due to SCC initiation and growth in the HAZ and the weld might have foreclosed the potential for cracking at the specimen shoulders where higher stress was found.

  15. Nasopharyngeal versus oropharyngeal sampling for detection of pneumococcal carriage in adults.

    PubMed

    Watt, James P; O'Brien, Katherine L; Katz, Scott; Bronsdon, Melinda A; Elliott, John; Dallas, Jean; Perilla, Mindy J; Reid, Raymond; Murrow, Laurel; Facklam, Richard; Santosham, Mathuram; Whitney, Cynthia G

    2004-11-01

    Several studies have shown that nasopharyngeal sampling is more sensitive than oropharyngeal sampling for the detection of pneumococcal carriage in children. The data for adults are limited and conflicting. This study was part of a larger study of pneumococcal carriage on the Navajo and White Mountain Apache Reservation following a clinical trial of a seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Persons aged 18 years and older living in households with children enrolled in the vaccine trial were eligible. We collected both nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal specimens by passing a flexible calcium alginate wire swab either nasally to the posterior nasopharynx or orally to the posterior oropharynx. Swabs were placed in skim milk-tryptone-glucose-glycerin medium and frozen at -70 degrees C. Pneumococcal isolation was performed by standard techniques. Analyses were based on specimens collected from 1,994 adults living in 1,054 households. Nasopharyngeal specimens (11.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.8 and 12.6%) were significantly more likely to grow pneumococci than were oropharyngeal specimens (5.8%; 95% CI, 4.8 to 6.9%) (P < 0.0001). Few persons had pneumococcal growth from both specimens (1.7%). Therefore, both tests together were more likely to identify pneumococcal carriage (15.2%; 95% CI, 13.7 to 16.9%) than either test alone. Although we found that nasopharyngeal sampling was more sensitive than oropharyngeal sampling, nasopharyngeal sampling alone would have underestimated the prevalence of pneumococcal carriage in this adult population. Sampling both sites may give more accurate results than sampling either site alone in studies of pneumococcal carriage in adults. PMID:15528682

  16. Occult Congenital Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction in Two Adults Presenting with Collecting System Rupture After Blunt Renal Trauma: A Case Report Series

    PubMed Central

    Hoffner, Haley E.; Dagrosa, Lawrence M.; Pais, Vernon M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We report two adult cases of congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction detected incidentally in the setting of blunt abdominal trauma. CT images are provided to describe the presentation, while review of the literature and management of renal trauma are discussed.

  17. Using molecular genetics to identify immature specimens of the weevil Ceratapion basicorne (Coleoptera, Apionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate host plant specificity of the yellow starthistle rosette weevil, Ceratapion basicorne. Larvae infesting plants were preserved in 99% ethanol. Adult specimens of C. basicorne and four closely related species were identified using conventional morphologic...

  18. Closeout of JOYO-1 Specimen Fabrication Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    ME Petrichek; JL Bump; RF Luther

    2005-10-31

    Fabrication was well under way for the JOYO biaxial creep and tensile specimens when the NR Space program was canceled. Tubes of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 for biaxial creep specimens had been drawn at True Tube (Paso Robles, CA), while tubes of Mo-47.5 Re were being drawn at Rhenium Alloys (Cleveland, OH). The Mo-47.5 Re tubes are now approximately 95% complete. Their fabrication and the quantities produced will be documented at a later date. End cap material for FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had been swaged at Pittsburgh Materials Technology, Inc. (PMTI) (Large, PA) and machined at Vangura (Clairton, PA). Cutting of tubes, pickling, annealing, and laser engraving were in process at PMTI. Several biaxial creep specimen sets of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had already been sent to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for weld development. In addition, tensile specimens of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, and Mo-47.5 Re had been machined at Kin-Tech (North Huntington, PA). Actual machining of the other specimen types had not been initiated. Flowcharts 1-3 detail the major processing steps each piece of material has experienced. A more detailed description of processing will be provided in a separate document [B-MT(SRME)-51]. Table 1 lists the in-process materials and finished specimens. Also included are current metallurgical condition of these materials and specimens. The available chemical analyses for these alloys at various points in the process are provided in Table 2.

  19. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA in museum specimens of Ixodes dammini ticks.

    PubMed

    Persing, D H; Telford, S R; Rys, P N; Dodge, D E; White, T J; Malawista, S E; Spielman, A

    1990-09-21

    In order to investigate the potential for Borrelia burgdorferi infection before the recognition of Lyme disease as a clinical entity, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to examine museum specimens of Ixodes dammini (deer ticks) for the presence of spirochete-specific DNA sequences. One hundred and thirty-six archival tick specimens were obtained representing various continental U.S. locations; DNA sequences characteristic of modern day isolates of B. burgdorferi were detected in 13 1940s specimens from Montauk Point and Hither Hills, Long Island, New York. Five archival specimens of Dermacentor variabilis (dog tick) from the same collection and 118 Ixodes specimens from other endemic and nonendemic sites were negative. These data suggest that the appearance of the Lyme disease spirochete in suitable arthropod vectors preceded, by at least a generation, the formal recognition of this disease as a clinical entity in the United States. PMID:2402635

  20. Histopathologic findings in breast reduction specimens.

    PubMed

    Kececi, Yavuz; Tasli, Funda Alkan; Yagcı, Ayse; Sır, Emin; Canpolat, Selin; Vardar, Enver

    2014-04-01

    Reduction mammaplasty is a commonly performed operation for treatment of breast hypertrophy. It allows examination of specimens from a seemingly healthy population. Although there are many publications reporting the incidence of occult breast carcinomas, only a few studies have specifically examined the incidence of other breast lesions in reduction mammaplasty specimens. The authors conducted a single-centre retrospective chart review examining the incidence of benign and precancerous lesions in breast reduction specimens. Both age and the number of tissue sections were evaluated for the association with important pathologic findings. Of the 95 patients who underwent reduction mammaplasty, eight patients (8.4%) had atypical lesions. Fourteen patients (15%) had proliferative and 54 patients (57%) had non-proliferative breast lesions. No occult invasive breast cancer was identified in the breast reduction specimens. The existence of significant pathologic findings was not associated with age (p = 0.231, student t-test). On the other hand, it was found to be associated with the number of tissue sections (p = 0.046, Mann-Whitney U-test). This study reveals that breast reduction specimens should be analyzed histologically since a considerable amount of patients have breast lesions with increased cancer risk. Therefore, this analysis would guide the management of these patients in the follow-up period. PMID:23879776

  1. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 40 - Report Format: Split Specimen Failure To Reconfirm

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... D Appendix D to Part 40 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. D Appendix D to Part 40—Report Format.... Collection site name, address, and phone number. 3. Date of collection. 4. Specimen I.D. number....

  2. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 40 - Report Format: Split Specimen Failure To Reconfirm

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... D Appendix D to Part 40 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. D Appendix D to Part 40—Report Format.... Collection site name, address, and phone number. 3. Date of collection. 4. Specimen I.D. number....

  3. Surface analysis of space telescope material specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fromhold, A. T.; Daneshvar, K.

    1985-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative data on Space Telescope materials which were exposed to low Earth orbital atomic oxygen in a controlled experiment during the 41-G (STS-17) mission were obtained utilizing the experimental techniques of Rutherford backscattering (RBS), particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE), and ellipsometry (ELL). The techniques employed were chosen with a view towards appropriateness for the sample in question, after consultation with NASA scientific personnel who provided the material specimens. A group of eight samples and their controls selected by NASA scientists were measured before and after flight. Information reported herein include specimen surface characterization by ellipsometry techniques, a determination of the thickness of the evaporated metal specimens by RBS, and a determination of trace impurity species present on and within the surface by PIXE.

  4. Screening of human bocavirus in surgically excised cancer specimens.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Moneim, Ahmed S; El-Fol, Hosam A; Kamel, Mahmoud M; Soliman, Ahmed S A; Mahdi, Emad A; El-Gammal, Ahmed S; Mahran, Taha Z M

    2016-08-01

    Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a prevalent virus worldwide and is mainly associated with respiratory disorders. Recently, it was detected in several disease conditions, including cancers. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third main cause of cancers worldwide. Risk factors that initiate cell transformation include nutritional, hereditary and infectious causes. The aim of the current study was to screen for the presence of HBoV in solid tumors of colorectal cancer and to determine the genotypes of the detected strains. Surgically excised and paraffin-embedded colorectal cancer tissue specimens from 101 male and female patients with and without metastasis were collected over the last four years. Pathological analysis and tumor stages were determined. The presence of HBoV was screened by polymerase chain reaction, and the genotype of the detected HBoV was determined by direct gene sequencing. Most of the examined specimens were adenocarcinoma with mucinous activity in many of them. Twenty-four out of 101 (23.8 %) CRC tissue specimens were found to contain HBoV-1. Low sequence diversity was recorded in the detected strains. The virus was detected in both male and female patients with an age range of 30-75 years. It is proposed that HBoV-1 could play a potential role in the induction of CRC. PMID:27155943

  5. Isothermal Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Directly from Respiratory Clinical Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Petrone, Brianna L.; Wolff, Bernard J.; DeLaney, Alexandra A.; Diaz, Maureen H.

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) across patient populations of all ages. We have developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay that enables rapid, low-cost detection of M. pneumoniae from nucleic acid extracts and directly from various respiratory specimen types. The assay implements calcein to facilitate simple visual readout of positive results in approximately 1 h, making it ideal for use in primary care facilities and resource-poor settings. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was determined to be 100 fg by testing serial dilutions of target DNA ranging from 1 ng to 1 fg per reaction, and no cross-reactivity was observed against 17 other Mycoplasma species, 27 common respiratory agents, or human DNA. We demonstrated the utility of this assay by testing nucleic acid extracts (n = 252) and unextracted respiratory specimens (n = 72) collected during M. pneumoniae outbreaks and sporadic cases occurring in the United States from February 2010 to January 2014. The sensitivity of the LAMP assay was 88.5% tested on extracted nucleic acid and 82.1% evaluated on unextracted clinical specimens compared to a validated real-time PCR test. Further optimization and improvements to this method may lead to the availability of a rapid, cost-efficient laboratory test for M. pneumoniae detection that is more widely available to primary care facilities, ultimately facilitating prompt detection and appropriate responses to potential M. pneumoniae outbreaks and clusters within the community. PMID:26179304

  6. Stress intensity factor in a tapered specimen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue-Hui, L.; Erdogan, F.

    1985-01-01

    The general problem of a tapered specimen containing an edge crack is formulated in terms of a system of singular integral equations. The equations are solved and the stress intensity factor is calculated for a compact and for a slender tapered specimen, the latter simulating the double cantilever beam. The results are obtained primarily for a pair of concentrated forces and for crack surface wedge forces. The stress intensity factors are also obtained for a long strip under uniform tension which contains inclined edge cracks.

  7. A specimen of Rhamphorhynchus with soft tissue preservation, stomach contents and a putative coprolite

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Donald M.; Therrien, François; Habib, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Despite being known for nearly two centuries, new specimens of the derived non-pterodactyloid pterosaur Rhamphorhynchus continue to be discovered and reveal new information about their anatomy and palaeobiology. Here we describe a specimen held in the collections of the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology, Alberta, Canada that shows both preservation and impressions of soft tissues, and also preserves material interpreted as stomach contents of vertebrate remains and, uniquely, a putative coprolite. The specimen also preserves additional evidence for fibers in the uropatagium. PMID:26312182

  8. Within-Person Variability in Urinary Bisphenol A Concentrations: Measurements from Specimens after Long-Term Frozen Storage

    PubMed Central

    Nepomnaschy, Pablo A.; Baird, Donna Day; Weinberg, Clarice R.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Longnecker, Matthew P.; Wilcox, Allen J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic contaminant of food and water associated with adverse developmental effects in laboratory animals. BPA has recently been linked to morbidity in adult humans, but studies of developmental effects in humans are methodologically more difficult. The ability to measure BPA in urine samples after long-term storage could aid in such studies. Because the half-life of BPA is <6 hours, a single measurement would be useful only if the environmental exposure is relatively constant over weeks or months. Our aim was to measure within-person temporal variability in urinary BPA after 22–24 years of specimen storage, given that measurements suggested stability of BPA in the stored urine samples. Methods We measured total BPA concentration by mass spectrometry in first-morning urine samples from 60 premenopausal women. We selected from each woman’s stored daily collections three urine samples approximately two and four weeks apart. Samples were selected from both the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle to assess cycle effects. Temporal variability was assessed with mixed model regression and correlations. Results BPA levels had an inter-quartile range from 1.1 to 3.1 ng/mg creatinine, slightly higher than levels in specimens from NHANES collected 3–11 years later. The Spearman correlation was approximately 0.5 for samples two weeks apart, and 0.3 for samples 4 weeks apart. Menstrual cycle phase did not influence levels. BPA tended to increase during the three-year collection period, but not significantly. Conclusions The similar distribution to NHANES samples and correlation of BPA levels taken at 2-week intervals provide indirect evidence that BPA is relatively stable during long-term freezer storage. The correlations indicate generally stable exposures over periods of weeks. These findings suggest that developmental effects of BPA exposure could be investigated with measurements from stored urine. PMID:19463991

  9. Rift Valley fever virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus). Isolations from Diptera collected during an inter-epizootic period in Kenya.

    PubMed Central

    Linthicum, K. J.; Davies, F. G.; Kairo, A.; Bailey, C. L.

    1985-01-01

    A total of 134 876 Diptera collected in Kenya during a 3-year period were tested in 3383 pools for Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus. Nineteen pools of unengorged mosquitoes were found positive for RVF. All isolations were made from specimens collected at or near the naturally or artificially flooded grassland depressions that serve as the developmental sites for the immature stages of many mosquito species. The isolation of virus from adult male and female A. lineatopennis which had been reared from field-collected larvae and pupae suggests that transovarial transmission of the virus occurs in this species. PMID:2862206

  10. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart A of... - Dummy Specimen in Specimen Holder

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dummy Specimen in Specimen Holder 6 Figure 6 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt....

  11. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart A of... - Dummy Specimen in Specimen Holder

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dummy Specimen in Specimen Holder 6 Figure 6 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt....

  12. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart A of... - Dummy Specimen in Specimen Holder

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dummy Specimen in Specimen Holder 6 Figure 6 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt....

  13. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart A of... - Dummy Specimen in Specimen Holder

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dummy Specimen in Specimen Holder 6 Figure 6 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt....

  14. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1610 - Specimen Holder Supported in Specimen Rack

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Specimen Holder Supported in Specimen Rack 3 Figure 3 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1610 - Specimen Holder Supported in Specimen Rack

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Specimen Holder Supported in Specimen Rack 3 Figure 3 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1610 - Specimen Holder Supported in Specimen Rack

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Specimen Holder Supported in Specimen Rack 3 Figure 3 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1610 - Specimen Holder Supported in Specimen Rack

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Specimen Holder Supported in Specimen Rack 3 Figure 3 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part...

  18. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart A of... - Dummy Specimen in Specimen Holder

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dummy Specimen in Specimen Holder 6 Figure 6 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Subpart A of Part...

  19. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1610 - Specimen Holder Supported in Specimen Rack

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specimen Holder Supported in Specimen Rack 3 Figure 3 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part...

  20. Specimen banking of marine organisms in the United States: current status and long-term prospective.

    PubMed

    Becker, P R; Wise, S A; Thorsteinson, L; Koster, B J; Rowles, T

    1997-05-01

    A major part of the activities conducted over the last decade by the National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank (NBSB) has involved the archival of marine specimens collected by ongoing environmental monitoring programs. These archived specimens include bivalves, marine sediments, and fish tissues collected by the National Status and Trends and the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Damage Assessment programs, and marine mammal tissues collected by the Marine Mammal Health and Stranding, Response Program and the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project. In addition to supporting these programs, the specimens have been used to investigate circumpolar patterns of chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations, genetic separation of marine animal stocks, baseline levels of essential and nonessential elements in marine mammals, and the potential risk to human consumers in the Arctic from anthropogenic contaminants found in local subsistence foods. The NBSB specimens represent a resource that has the potential for addressing future issues of marine environmental quality and ecosystem changes through retrospective analysis; however, an ecosystem-based food web approach would maximize this potential. The current status of the NBSB activities related to the banking of marine organisms is presented and discussed, the long-term prospective of these activities is presented, and the importance of an ecosystem-based food web monitoring approach to the value of specimen banking is discussed. PMID:9159892

  1. Specimen banking of marine organisms in the United States: Current status and long-term prospective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, P.R.; Wise, S.A.; Thorsteinson, L.; Koster, B.J.; Rowles, T.

    1997-01-01

    A major part of the activities conducted over the last decade by the National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank (NBSB) has involved the archival of marine specimens collected by ongoing environmental monitoring programs. These archived specimens include bivalves, marine sediments, and fish tissues collected by the National Status and Trends and the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Damage Assessment programs, and marine mammal tissues collected by the Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program and the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project. In addition to supporting these programs, the specimens have been used to investigate circumpolar patterns of chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations, genetic separation of marine animal stocks, baseline levels of essential and nonessential elements in marine mammals, and the potential risk to human consumers in the Arctic from anthropogenic contaminants found in local subsistence foods. The NBSB specimens represent a resource that has the potential for addressing future issues of marine environmental quality and ecosystem changes through retrospective analysis; however, an ecosystem-based food web approach would maximize this potential. The current status of the NBSB activities related to the banking of marine organisms is presented and discussed, the long-term prospective of these activities is presented, and the importance of an ecosystem-based food web monitoring approach to the value of specimen banking is discussed.

  2. Increasing the efficiency of digitization workflows for herbarium specimens.

    PubMed

    Tulig, Melissa; Tarnowsky, Nicole; Bevans, Michael; Anthony Kirchgessner; Thiers, Barbara M

    2012-01-01

    The New York Botanical Garden Herbarium has been databasing and imaging its estimated 7.3 million plant specimens for the past 17 years. Due to the size of the collection, we have been selectively digitizing fundable subsets of specimens, making successive passes through the herbarium with each new grant. With this strategy, the average rate for databasing complete records has been 10 specimens per hour. With 1.3 million specimens databased, this effort has taken about 130,000 hours of staff time. At this rate, to complete the herbarium and digitize the remaining 6 million specimens, another 600,000 hours would be needed. Given the current biodiversity and economic crises, there is neither the time nor money to complete the collection at this rate.Through a combination of grants over the last few years, The New York Botanical Garden has been testing new protocols and tactics for increasing the rate of digitization through combinations of data collaboration, field book digitization, partial data entry and imaging, and optical character recognition (OCR) of specimen images. With the launch of the National Science Foundation's new Advancing Digitization of Biological Collections program, we hope to move forward with larger, more efficient digitization projects, capturing data from larger portions of the herbarium at a fraction of the cost and time. PMID:22859882

  3. Increasing the efficiency of digitization workflows for herbarium specimens

    PubMed Central

    Tulig, Melissa; Tarnowsky, Nicole; Bevans, Michael; Anthony Kirchgessner; Thiers,  Barbara M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The New York Botanical Garden Herbarium has been databasing and imaging its estimated 7.3 million plant specimens for the past 17 years. Due to the size of the collection, we have been selectively digitizing fundable subsets of specimens, making successive passes through the herbarium with each new grant. With this strategy, the average rate for databasing complete records has been 10 specimens per hour. With 1.3 million specimens databased, this effort has taken about 130,000 hours of staff time. At this rate, to complete the herbarium and digitize the remaining 6 million specimens, another 600,000 hours would be needed. Given the current biodiversity and economic crises, there is neither the time nor money to complete the collection at this rate. Through a combination of grants over the last few years, The New York Botanical Garden has been testing new protocols and tactics for increasing the rate of digitization through combinations of data collaboration, field book digitization, partial data entry and imaging, and optical character recognition (OCR) of specimen images. With the launch of the National Science Foundation’s new Advancing Digitization of Biological Collections program, we hope to move forward with larger, more efficient digitization projects, capturing data from larger portions of the herbarium at a fraction of the cost and time. PMID:22859882

  4. The production of calibration specimens for impact testing of subsize Charpy specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.J.; Corwin, W.R.; Owings, T.D.

    1994-09-01

    Calibration specimens have been manufactured for checking the performance of a pendulum impact testing machine that has been configured for testing subsize specimens, both half-size (5.0 {times} 5.0 {times} 25.4 mm) and third-size (3.33 {times} 3.33 {times} 25.4 mm). Specimens were fabricated from quenched-and-tempered 4340 steel heat treated to produce different microstructures that would result in either high or low absorbed energy levels on testing. A large group of both half- and third-size specimens were tested at {minus}40{degrees}C. The results of the tests were analyzed for average value and standard deviation, and these values were used to establish calibration limits for the Charpy impact machine when testing subsize specimens. These average values plus or minus two standard deviations were set as the acceptable limits for the average of five tests for calibration of the impact testing machine.

  5. Some recent innovations in small specimen testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odette, G. R.; He, M.; Gragg, D.; Klingensmith, D.; Lucas, G. E.

    2002-12-01

    New innovative small specimen test techniques are described. Finite element simulations show that combinations of cone indentation pile-up geometry and load-penetration depth relations can be used to determine both the yield stress and strain-hardening behavior of a material. Techniques for pre-cracking and testing sub-miniaturized fracture toughness bend bars, with dimensions of 1.65×1.65×9 mm 3, or less, are described. The corresponding toughness-temperature curves have a very steep transition slope, primarily due to rapid loss of constraint, which has advantages in some experiments to characterize the effects of specified irradiation variables. As one example of using composite specimens, an approach to evaluating helium effects is proposed, involving diffusion bonding small wires of a 54Fe-based ferritic-martensitic alloy to a surrounding fracture specimen composed of an elemental Fe-based alloy. Finally, we briefly outline some potential approaches to multipurpose specimens and test automation.

  6. Recent progress in small specimen test technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, G. E.; Odette, G. R.; Sokolov, M.; Spätig, P.; Yamamoto, T.; Jung, P.

    2002-12-01

    Small specimen test technology (SSTT) has enabled the development of fusion materials by efficiently using available irradiation volumes. The technology has also evolved in anticipation of the construction and operation of a high-energy neutron source for development and verification of an engineering database for materials for fusion power reactors. Work to date has brought SSTT to a robust state of maturity. SSTT specimens and techniques now routinely serve as the foundation for a number of ongoing and planned experimental programs. Moreover, the need to use small specimens has given rise to the development of new approaches to fracture assessment, such as the master curves-shifts method. Nonetheless a wealth of opportunities exists to further develop new and very innovative SSTT methods not only for characterizing standard mechanical properties but also to enable both large matrix single variable experiments and highly controlled basic mechanism studies. This paper reviews briefly the recent progress on developing a more science-based SSTT, including some future opportunities. The importance and utility of applying a variety of quasi-non-destructive evaluations to a single specimen and closely integrating finite element simulations and fundamental models of deformation and fracture are emphasized.

  7. Vee-notch tool cuts specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spier, R. A.

    1970-01-01

    Triangular cutting tool uses carbide tips for notching heat-treated or abrasive materials, and alloys subjected to high structural stresses. The tool is rigidly mounted in a slot of mating contour to prevent deflection during cutting of tensile specimens. No other expensive machine equipment is required.

  8. Myocardial Sleeve Tissues in Surgical Lung Specimens.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Akihiko; Kamata, Tsugumasa; Iwasa, Takeshi; Watanabe, Shun-ichi; Tsuta, Koji

    2015-10-01

    Left atrial myocardial extensions over the pulmonary veins (PVs), known as myocardial sleeves, are present in the physiological anatomy of most individuals. Although this structure has recently received clinical attention as a major origin of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF), it has not been documented in surgical specimens. Here, we examine incidentally identified myocardial sleeve tissue in routinely processed lung resection specimens to determine its incidence and diagnostic implications. Among 694 lung resection specimens with evaluable PV margins, myocardial sleeve tissue was identified in 26 cases (3.7%). The tissue was located within the adventitia of the PVs, mostly in margin preparations, and existed outside the pericardium in the majority of cases. Carcinoma infiltration of the sleeves was evident in 6 cases. No heart injuries were observed, and no tumors invaded the heart. Preoperative electrocardiography showed sinus rhythm in all cases, whereas postoperative monitoring revealed sinus rhythm in all patients except one who showed AF and flutter. Myocardial sleeve tissue is an underrecognized incidental finding in lung resection specimens, and it is not indicative of heart injury. Cancer infiltration into this tissue indicates neither heart invasion nor, by itself, invasion into the pericardium. Although surgical transection of the myocardial sleeve did not evoke immediate arrhythmia in most cases, the overall influence of this procedure on the postsurgical risk of AF remains to be determined in further studies involving extensive rhythm assessment. PMID:26099012

  9. 36 CFR 2.5 - Research specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 43 CFR part 24. Regulations concerning archeological resources are found in 43 CFR part 3. ... Federal agency for the purpose of research, baseline inventories, monitoring, impact analysis, group study... if removal of the specimen would result in damage to other natural or cultural resources,...

  10. 36 CFR 2.5 - Research specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 43 CFR part 24. Regulations concerning archeological resources are found in 43 CFR part 3. ... Federal agency for the purpose of research, baseline inventories, monitoring, impact analysis, group study... if removal of the specimen would result in damage to other natural or cultural resources,...

  11. 3-D Volume Rendering of Sand Specimen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) images of resin-impregnated Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) specimens are assembled to provide 3-D volume renderings of density patterns formed by dislocation under the external loading stress profile applied during the experiments. Experiments flown on STS-79 and STS-89. Principal Investigator: Dr. Stein Sture

  12. 7 CFR 97.8 - Specimen requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION The Application § 97.8 Specimen requirements. (a) The applicant may be..., in a quantity and at a specified stage of growth, as may be necessary to verify the statements in the... reimburse the Office for all costs, including travel, per diem or subsistence, and salary. (b)...

  13. 7 CFR 97.8 - Specimen requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION The Application § 97.8 Specimen requirements. (a) The applicant may be..., in a quantity and at a specified stage of growth, as may be necessary to verify the statements in the... reimburse the Office for all costs, including travel, per diem or subsistence, and salary. (b)...

  14. 7 CFR 97.8 - Specimen requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION The Application § 97.8 Specimen requirements. (a) The applicant may be..., in a quantity and at a specified stage of growth, as may be necessary to verify the statements in the... reimburse the Office for all costs, including travel, per diem or subsistence, and salary. (b)...

  15. 7 CFR 97.8 - Specimen requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION The Application § 97.8 Specimen requirements. (a) The applicant may be..., in a quantity and at a specified stage of growth, as may be necessary to verify the statements in the... reimburse the Office for all costs, including travel, per diem or subsistence, and salary. (b)...

  16. Simultaneous specimen and stage cleaning device for analytical electron microscope

    DOEpatents

    Zaluzec, Nestor J.

    1996-01-01

    An improved method and apparatus are provided for cleaning both a specimen stage, a specimen and an interior of an analytical electron microscope (AEM). The apparatus for cleaning a specimen stage and specimen comprising a plasma chamber for containing a gas plasma and an air lock coupled to the plasma chamber for permitting passage of the specimen stage and specimen into the plasma chamber and maintaining an airtight chamber. The specimen stage and specimen are subjected to a reactive plasma gas that is either DC or RF excited. The apparatus can be mounted on the analytical electron microscope (AEM) for cleaning the interior of the microscope.

  17. SCORE Imaging: Specimen in a Corrected Optical Rotational Enclosure

    PubMed Central

    Petzold, Andrew M.; Bedell, Victoria M.; Boczek, Nicole J.; Essner, Jeffrey J.; Balciunas, Darius; Clark, Karl J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Visual data collection is paramount for the majority of scientific research. The added transparency of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) allows for a greater detail of complex biological research that accompanies seemingly simple observational tools. We developed a visual data analysis and collection approach that takes advantage of the cylindrical nature of the zebrafish allowing for an efficient and effective method for image capture that we call Specimen in a Corrected Optical Rotational Enclosure imaging. To achieve a nondistorted image, zebrafish were placed in a fluorinated ethylene propylene tube with a surrounding optically corrected imaging solution (water). By similarly matching the refractive index of the housing (fluorinated ethylene propylene tubing) to that of the inner liquid and outer liquid (water), distortion was markedly reduced, producing a crisp imagable specimen that is able to be fully rotated 360°. A similar procedure was established for fixed zebrafish embryos using convenient, readily available borosilicate capillaries surrounded by 75% glycerol. The method described here could be applied to chemical genetic screening and other related high-throughput methods within the fish community and among other scientific fields. PMID:20528262

  18. 49 CFR 40.65 - What does the collector check for when the employee presents a specimen?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What does the collector check for when the employee presents a specimen? 40.65 Section 40.65 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Specimen Collections § 40.65 What does the collector check for...

  19. Ron Leuschner donates over 11,000 specimens of Pyraloidea to the National Museum of Natural History

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ron Leuschner, Past President of the Lepidopterists’ Society, donated over 11,000 specimens of the Pyraloidea to the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. This collection is strongly represented by specimens from the western United States and may prove to be on...

  20. Genomic treasure troves: complete genome sequencing of herbarium and insect museum specimens.

    PubMed

    Staats, Martijn; Erkens, Roy H J; van de Vossenberg, Bart; Wieringa, Jan J; Kraaijeveld, Ken; Stielow, Benjamin; Geml, József; Richardson, James E; Bakker, Freek T

    2013-01-01

    Unlocking the vast genomic diversity stored in natural history collections would create unprecedented opportunities for genome-scale evolutionary, phylogenetic, domestication and population genomic studies. Many researchers have been discouraged from using historical specimens in molecular studies because of both generally limited success of DNA extraction and the challenges associated with PCR-amplifying highly degraded DNA. In today's next-generation sequencing (NGS) world, opportunities and prospects for historical DNA have changed dramatically, as most NGS methods are actually designed for taking short fragmented DNA molecules as templates. Here we show that using a standard multiplex and paired-end Illumina sequencing approach, genome-scale sequence data can be generated reliably from dry-preserved plant, fungal and insect specimens collected up to 115 years ago, and with minimal destructive sampling. Using a reference-based assembly approach, we were able to produce the entire nuclear genome of a 43-year-old Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) herbarium specimen with high and uniform sequence coverage. Nuclear genome sequences of three fungal specimens of 22-82 years of age (Agaricus bisporus, Laccaria bicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus) were generated with 81.4-97.9% exome coverage. Complete organellar genome sequences were assembled for all specimens. Using de novo assembly we retrieved between 16.2-71.0% of coding sequence regions, and hence remain somewhat cautious about prospects for de novo genome assembly from historical specimens. Non-target sequence contaminations were observed in 2 of our insect museum specimens. We anticipate that future museum genomics projects will perhaps not generate entire genome sequences in all cases (our specimens contained relatively small and low-complexity genomes), but at least generating vital comparative genomic data for testing (phylo)genetic, demographic and genetic hypotheses, that become increasingly more horizontal

  1. 76 FR 14072 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... portion of the collection: Preteens (11- Young adults Total task Task 13) Teens (14-18) (19-22) Adults... Rating 0 125 125 150 400 ] Total group target 400 Preteens (11- Young adults Total regional...

  2. Surveillance of Acute Respiratory Infections Using Community-Submitted Symptoms and Specimens for Molecular Diagnostic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Goff, Jennifer; Rowe, Aaron; Brownstein, John S.; Chunara, Rumi

    2015-01-01

    Participatory systems for surveillance of acute respiratory infection give real-time information about infections circulating in the community, yet to-date are limited to self-reported syndromic information only and lacking methods of linking symptom reports to infection types. We developed the GoViral platform to evaluate whether a cohort of lay volunteers could, and would find it useful to, contribute self-reported symptoms online and to compare specimen types for self-collected diagnostic information of sufficient quality for respiratory infection surveillance. Volunteers were recruited, given a kit (collection materials and customized instructions), instructed to report their symptoms weekly, and when sick with cold or flu-like symptoms, requested to collect specimens (saliva and nasal swab). We compared specimen types for respiratory virus detection sensitivity (via polymerase-chain-reaction) and ease of collection. Participants were surveyed to determine receptivity to participating when sick, to receiving information on the type of pathogen causing their infection and types circulating near them. Between December 1 2013 and March 1 2014, 295 participants enrolled in the study and received a kit. Of those who reported symptoms, half (71) collected and sent specimens for analysis. Participants submitted kits on average 2.30 days (95 CI: 1.65 to 2.96) after symptoms began. We found good concordance between nasal and saliva specimens for multiple pathogens, with few discrepancies. Individuals report that saliva collection is easiest and report that receiving information about what pathogen they, and those near them, have is valued and can shape public health behaviors. Community-submitted specimens can be used for the detection of acute respiratory infection with individuals showing receptivity for participating and interest in a real-time picture of respiratory pathogens near them. PMID:26075141

  3. A New Specimen of the Controversial Chasmosaurine Torosaurus latus (Dinosauria: Ceratopsidae) from the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation of Montana.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Andrew T; Campbell, Carl E; Thomas, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Torosaurus latus is an uncommon and contentious taxon of chasmosaurine ceratopsid known from several upper Maastrichtian units in western North America. We describe a partial parietal of To. latus from the Hell Creek Formation of Montana. Although the specimen's ontogenetic maturity means that it cannot inform the ongoing debate over whether To. latus is the old adult form of the contemporary Triceratops, the specimen is one of the best-preserved To. latus parietals and supplements previous descriptions. PMID:26974149

  4. Transection of Radioactive Seeds in Breast Specimens.

    PubMed

    Gilcrease, Michael Z; Dogan, Basak E; Black, Dalliah M; Contreras, Alejandro; Dryden, Mark J; Jimenez, Sandra M

    2016-10-01

    Radioactive seed localization is a new procedure for localizing breast lesions that has several advantages over the standard wire-localization procedure. It is reported to be safe for both patients and medical personnel. Although it is theoretically possible to transect the titanium-encapsulated seed while processing the breast specimen in the pathology laboratory, the likelihood of such an event is thought to be exceedingly low. In fact, there are no previous reports of such an event in the literature to date. We recently encountered 2 cases in which a radioactive seed was inadvertently transected while slicing a breast specimen at the grossing bench. In this report, we describe each case and offer recommendations for minimizing radioactive exposure to personnel and for preventing radioactive contamination of laboratory equipment. PMID:27627744

  5. A new approach to standardize multicenter studies: mobile lab technology for the German Environmental Specimen Bank.

    PubMed

    Lermen, Dominik; Schmitt, Daniel; Bartel-Steinbach, Martina; Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; von Briesen, Hagen; Zimmermann, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    Technical progress has simplified tasks in lab diagnosis and improved quality of test results. Errors occurring during the pre-analytical phase have more negative impact on the quality of test results than errors encountered during the total analytical process. Different infrastructures of sampling sites can highly influence the quality of samples and therewith of analytical results. Annually the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) collects, characterizes, and stores blood, plasma, and urine samples of 120-150 volunteers each on four different sampling sites in Germany. Overarching goal is to investigate the exposure to environmental pollutants of non-occupational exposed young adults combining human biomonitoring with questionnaire data. We investigated the requirements of the study and the possibility to realize a highly standardized sampling procedure on a mobile platform in order to increase the required quality of the pre-analytical phase. The results lead to the development of a mobile epidemiologic laboratory (epiLab) in the project "Labor der Zukunft" (future's lab technology). This laboratory includes a 14.7 m(2) reception area to record medical history and exposure-relevant behavior, a 21.1 m(2) examination room to record dental fillings and for blood withdrawal, a 15.5 m(2) biological safety level 2 laboratory to process and analyze samples on site including a 2.8 m(2) personnel lock and a 3.6 m2 cryofacility to immediately freeze samples. Frozen samples can be transferred to their final destination within the vehicle without breaking the cold chain. To our knowledge, we herewith describe for the first time the implementation of a biological safety laboratory (BSL) 2 lab and an epidemiologic unit on a single mobile platform. Since 2013 we have been collecting up to 15.000 individual human samples annually under highly standardized conditions using the mobile laboratory. Characterized and free of alterations they are kept ready for retrospective

  6. Specimen loading list for the varying temperature experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Qualls, A.L.; Sitterson, R.G.

    1998-09-01

    The varying temperature experiment HFIR-RB-13J has been assembled and inserted in the reactor. Approximately 5300 specimens were cleaned, inspected, matched, and loaded into four specimen holders. A listing of each specimen loaded into the steady temperature holder, its position in the capsule, and the identification of the corresponding specimen loaded into the varying temperature holder is presented in this report.

  7. Motorized manipulator for positioning a TEM specimen

    DOEpatents

    Schmid, Andreas Karl; Andresen, Nord

    2010-12-14

    The invention relates to a motorized manipulator for positioning a TEM specimen holder with sub-micron resolution parallel to a y-z plane and rotating the specimen holder in the y-z plane, the manipulator comprising a base (2), and attachment means (30) for attaching the specimen holder to the manipulator, characterized in that the manipulator further comprises at least three nano-actuators (3.sup.a, 3.sup.b, 3.sup.c) mounted on the base, each nano-actuator showing a tip (4.sup.a, 4.sup.b, 4.sup.c), the at least three tips defining the y-z plane, each tip capable of moving with respect to the base in the y-z plane; a platform (5) in contact with the tips of the nano-actuators; and clamping means (6) for pressing the platform against the tips of the nano-actuators; as a result of which the nano-actuators can rotate the platform with respect to the base in the y-z plane and translate the platform parallel to the y-z plane.

  8. Spalling Experiments on Large Hard Rock Specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsson, Lars; Appelquist, Karin; Lindkvist, Jan Erik

    2015-07-01

    Specimens of coarse-grained Äspö diorite were axially compressed to observe stress-induced spalling. The specimens had a novel design characterized by two manufactured large radius notches on opposite sides. The tangential stress occurring in the notches aimed to represent the tangential loading around a circular opening. Fracture stages were monitored by acoustic emission measurements. Rock chips were formed similar to those found in situ, which indicates a similar fracture process. Slabs were cut out from the specimens and impregnated using a fluorescent material to visualize the cracks. The cracks were subsequently examined by the naked eye and by means of microscopy images, from which fracture paths could be identified and related to different minerals and their crystallographic orientations. The microscopy analyses showed how the stress field and the microstructure interact. Parallel cracks were formed 2-4 mm below the surface, sub-parallel to the direction of the maximum principal stress. The crack initiation, the roles of minerals such as feldspar, biotite and quartz and their grain boundaries and crystallographic directions are thoroughly studied and discussed in this paper. Scale effects, which relate to the stress gradient and microstructure, are discussed.

  9. Influence of Specimen Preparation and Specimen Size on Composite Transverse Tensile Strength and Scatter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OBrien, T. Kevin; Chawan, Arun D.; DeMarco, Kevin; Paris, Isabelle

    2001-01-01

    The influence of specimen polishing, configuration, and size on the transverse tension strength of two glass-epoxy materials, and one carbon-epoxy material, loaded in three and four point bending was evaluated. Polishing machined edges, arid/or tension side failure surfaces, was detrimental to specimen strength characterization instead of yielding a higher, more accurate, strength as a result of removing inherent manufacture and handling flaws. Transverse tension strength was typically lower for longer span lengths due to the classical weakest link effect. However, strength was less sensitive to volume changes achieved by increasing specimen width. The Weibull scaling law typically over-predicted changes in transverse tension strengths in three point bend tests and under-predicted changes in transverse tension strengths in four point bend tests. Furthermore, the Weibull slope varied with specimen configuration, volume, and sample size. Hence, this scaling law was not adequate for predicting transverse tension strength of heterogeneous, fiber-reinforced, polymer matrix composites.

  10. Human tissue monitoring and specimen banking: opportunities for exposure assessment, risk assessment, and epidemiologic research.

    PubMed

    Lee, L W; Griffith, J; Zenick, H; Hulka, B S

    1995-04-01

    A symposium on Human Tissue Monitoring and Specimen Banking: Opportunities for Exposure Assessment, Risk Assessment, and Epidemiologic Research was held from 30 March to 1 April 1993 in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. There were 117 registered participants from 18 states and 5 foreign countries. The first 2 days featured 21 invited speakers from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, various other government agencies, and universities in the United States, Canada, Germany, and Norway. The speakers provided a state-of-the-art overview of human exposure assessment techniques (especially applications of biological markers) and their relevance to human tissue specimen banking. Issues relevant to large-scale specimen banking were discussed, including program design, sample design, data collection, tissue collection, and ethical ramifications. The final group of presentations concerned practical experiences of major specimen banking and human tissue monitoring programs in the United States and Europe. The symposium addressed the utility and research opportunities afforded by specimen banking programs for future research needs in the areas of human exposure assessment, risk assessment, and environmental epidemiology. The third day of the symposium consisted of a small workshop convened to discuss and develop recommendations to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regarding applications and utility of large-scale specimen banking, biological monitoring, and biological markers for risk assessment activities. PMID:7635108

  11. Morphine-3-D glucuronide stability in postmortem specimens exposed to bacterial enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Carroll, F T; Marraccini, J V; Lewis, S; Wright, W

    2000-12-01

    Medical examiners frequently rely on the finding of free morphine present in postmortem specimens to assist in certifying deaths associated with narcotics. In vitro hydrolysis of morphine-3-D glucuronide (M3DG) to free morphine was studied using variable specimen pH, initial degree of specimen putrefaction, storage temperature and time, and the effectiveness of sodium fluoride (NaF) preservation. Reagent M3DG was added to opiate-free fresh blood and urine and to autopsy-derived blood specimens. Reagent bovine glucuronidase was also added to certain specimens. Freshly collected and refrigerated NaF-preserved blood produced minimal free morphine, whereas four of five autopsy blood specimens produced free morphine from M3DG. Increased storage time, temperature, and initial degree of putrefaction resulted in greater free morphine generation despite the absence of viable bacteria. Hydrolysis occurring during specimen storage can generate free morphine from M3DG and may result in erroneous conclusions in certifying narcotic deaths. PMID:11111790

  12. Further studies of specimen volume changes during processing for SEM: including some plant tissue.

    PubMed

    Boyde, A; Boyde, S

    1980-01-01

    The dimensions of specimens undergoing preparation for examination in the SEM were measured throughout the preparative sequence or at various important stages. The tissues studied included 15-day mouse embryo limbs (MEL), small blocks of adult mouse liver and brain, and potato tuber. The animal tissues were fixed in 3% glutaraldehyde (GA) in 0.15M cacodylate buffer, and the potatoe tissue in 2% GA in water. The effects of various secondary fixation and other treatments were investigated. The results show that lithium salts cause a reduction in the shrinkage of MEL in 100% ethanol but this effect was not significant in the other tissues investigated, and did not persist in specimens stored after critical point drying (CPD). All CPD specimens were shrunken. However postosmication and treatment with uranyl acetate (UAc) and cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC) all reduced specimen shrinkage in 100% ethanol and after critical point drying. The volume gains with Os + UAc and Os + CPC are both very significant, but it was found that these larger specimens shrank more on storage. Thus rapid examination in the SEM is recommended. Ethanol and Freon 113 were compared as intermediate fluids and it was found that ethanol-CO2 critical point dried specimens shrank more before and after CPD than Freon 113-CO2 specimens. The latter technique is, therefore, to be recommended. Potato tissue shrinks in 30% ethanol, whereas animal tissues all swell in this concentration. The potato tissue also shrank very litte on critical point drying in contrast to the animal tissue specimens. PMID:6999595

  13. Preparation of Regular Specimens for Atom Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, Kim; Wishard, James

    2003-01-01

    A method of preparation of specimens of non-electropolishable materials for analysis by atom probes is being developed as a superior alternative to a prior method. In comparison with the prior method, the present method involves less processing time. Also, whereas the prior method yields irregularly shaped and sized specimens, the present developmental method offers the potential to prepare specimens of regular shape and size. The prior method is called the method of sharp shards because it involves crushing the material of interest and selecting microscopic sharp shards of the material for use as specimens. Each selected shard is oriented with its sharp tip facing away from the tip of a stainless-steel pin and is glued to the tip of the pin by use of silver epoxy. Then the shard is milled by use of a focused ion beam (FIB) to make the shard very thin (relative to its length) and to make its tip sharp enough for atom-probe analysis. The method of sharp shards is extremely time-consuming because the selection of shards must be performed with the help of a microscope, the shards must be positioned on the pins by use of micromanipulators, and the irregularity of size and shape necessitates many hours of FIB milling to sharpen each shard. In the present method, a flat slab of the material of interest (e.g., a polished sample of rock or a coated semiconductor wafer) is mounted in the sample holder of a dicing saw of the type conventionally used to cut individual integrated circuits out of the wafers on which they are fabricated in batches. A saw blade appropriate to the material of interest is selected. The depth of cut and the distance between successive parallel cuts is made such that what is left after the cuts is a series of thin, parallel ridges on a solid base. Then the workpiece is rotated 90 and the pattern of cuts is repeated, leaving behind a square array of square posts on the solid base. The posts can be made regular, long, and thin, as required for samples

  14. Herbarium specimens show contrasting phenological responses to Himalayan climate

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Robbie; Salick, Jan; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Xu, Jianchu

    2014-01-01

    Responses by flowering plants to climate change are complex and only beginning to be understood. Through analyses of 10,295 herbarium specimens of Himalayan Rhododendron collected by plant hunters and botanists since 1884, we were able to separate these responses into significant components. We found a lack of directional change in mean flowering time over the past 45 y of rapid warming. However, over the full 125 y of collections, mean flowering time shows a significant response to year-to-year changes in temperature, and this response varies with season of warming. Mean flowering advances with annual warming (2.27 d earlier per 1 °C warming), and also is delayed with fall warming (2.54 d later per 1 °C warming). Annual warming may advance flowering through positive effects on overwintering bud formation, whereas fall warming may delay flowering through an impact on chilling requirements. The lack of a directional response suggests that contrasting phenological responses to temperature changes may obscure temperature sensitivity in plants. By drawing on large collections from multiple herbaria, made over more than a century, we show how these data may inform studies even of remote localities, and we highlight the increasing value of these and other natural history collections in understanding long-term change. PMID:25002486

  15. Operation Bootstrap: Adult Education Program Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Ella M.

    Adult educators need to ask themselves two basic questions: What are the problems which adults face today? What are the services which adult education can deliver to help adults individually, and collectively, resolve their problems? For many low-income adults, the problems of high death and unemployment rates, low life expectancy rates, limited…

  16. APTIMA® Trichomonas vaginalis, a transcription-mediated amplification assay for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis in urogenital specimens.

    PubMed

    Chapin, Kimberle; Andrea, Sarah

    2011-09-01

    The APTIMA(®) Trichomonas vaginalis (APTIMA TV; Gen-Probe Inc.) assay is the only amplification-based assay for T. vaginalis (TV) currently cleared by the US FDA. The assay was cleared in April 2011. APTIMA TV utilizes target capture specimen processing, transcription-mediated amplification and chemiluminescent probe hybridization for the qualitative detection of TV ribosomal RNA. The assay is used for the screening/diagnosis of trichomoniasis in women. Specimen types that can be used include physician-collected endocervical swabs, vaginal swabs, endocervical specimens collected in PreservCyt(®) (Thin Prep, Hologic Incorporated, MA, USA) solution and female urine specimens. The APTIMA TV assay has shown superior performance in side-by-side comparisons with other diagnostic methods in all patient populations and specimen types tested. Clinical sensitivity and specificity are >95 and 98%, respectively. The APTIMA TV assay fills a significant void in sexually transmitted infection diagnostics. PMID:21902528

  17. A Century of Shope Papillomavirus in Museum Rabbit Specimens.

    PubMed

    Escudero Duch, Clara; Williams, Richard A J; Timm, Robert M; Perez-Tris, Javier; Benitez, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Sylvilagus floridanus Papillomavirus (SfPV) causes growth of large horn-like tumors on rabbits. SfPV was described in cottontail rabbits (probably Sylvilagus floridanus) from Kansas and Iowa by Richard Shope in 1933, and detected in S. audubonii in 2011. It is known almost exclusively from the US Midwest. We explored the University of Kansas Natural History Museum for historical museum specimens infected with SfPV, using molecular techniques, to assess if additional wild species host SfPV, and whether SfPV occurs throughout the host range, or just in the Midwest. Secondary aims were to detect distinct strains, and evidence for strain spatio-temporal specificity. We found 20 of 1395 rabbits in the KU collection SfPV symptomatic. Three of 17 lagomorph species (S. nuttallii, and the two known hosts) were symptomatic, while Brachylagus, Lepus and eight additional Sylvilagus species were not. 13 symptomatic individuals were positive by molecular testing, including the first S. nuttallii detection. Prevalence of symptomatic individuals was significantly higher in Sylvilagus (1.8%) than Lepus. Half of these specimens came from Kansas, though new molecular detections were obtained from Jalisco-Mexico's first-and Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, and Texas, USA. We document the oldest lab-confirmed case (Kansas, 1915), pre-dating Shope's first case. SfPV amplification was possible from 63.2% of symptomatic museum specimens. Using multiple methodologies, rolling circle amplification and, multiple isothermal displacement amplification in addition to PCR, greatly improved detection rates. Short sequences were obtained from six individuals for two genes. L1 gene sequences were identical to all previously detected sequences; E7 gene sequences, were more variable, yielding five distinct SfPV1 strains that differing by less than 2% from strains circulating in the Midwest and Mexico, between 1915 and 2005. Our results do not clarify whether strains are host species specific, though

  18. Isolation Frequency Characteristics of Candida Species from Clinical Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ga-Yeon; Jeon, Jae-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Candida spp. is an invasive infectious fungus, a major risk factor that can increase morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. In this study, 2,508 Candida spp. were isolated from various clinical specimens collected from university hospitals from July 2011 to October 2014. They were identified in order to determine isolation frequencies and characteristics by specimen, gender, age group, year, season, and month. The strain-specific isolation rate of Candida spp. is in the order of Candida albicans (1,218 strains, 48.56%), Candida glabrata (416 strains, 16.59%), Candida utilis (305 strains, 12.16%), Candida tropicalis (304 strains, 12.12%), and Candida parapsilosis (116 strains, 4.63%) and these five species accounted for more than 94% of the total strains. Of the specimens, Candida spp. were most frequently isolated from urine-catheter, followed by urine-voided, blood, sputum, other, open pus, vaginal discharge, Tip, ear discharge, bronchial aspiration and bile, in that order. Looking at the age distribution, the detection rate of patients in their 60s and older was significantly higher at 75.8% (1,900/2,508). The detection rate of patients in their 20s and younger was shown to be very low at 2.55% (64/2,508). By year, the detection rate of non-albicans Candida spp. showed a tendency to gradually increase each year compared with C. albicans. As isolation of Candida spp. from clinical samples at the specie level can vary depending on characteristics of the patient, sample, season, etc., continual studies are required. PMID:27433120

  19. Bacterial diversity analysis of larvae and adult midgut microflora using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods in lab-reared and field-collected Anopheles stephensi-an Asian malarial vector

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Mosquitoes are intermediate hosts for numerous disease causing organisms. Vector control is one of the most investigated strategy for the suppression of mosquito-borne diseases. Anopheles stephensi is one of the vectors of malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax. The parasite undergoes major developmental and maturation steps within the mosquito midgut and little is known about Anopheles-associated midgut microbiota. Identification and characterization of the mosquito midgut flora is likely to contribute towards better understanding of mosquito biology including longevity, reproduction and mosquito-pathogen interactions that are important to evolve strategies for vector control mechanisms. Results Lab-reared and field-collected A. stephensi male, female and larvae were screened by "culture-dependent and culture-independent" methods. Five 16S rRNA gene library were constructed form lab and field-caught A. stephensi mosquitoes and a total of 115 culturable isolates from both samples were analyzed further. Altogether, 68 genera were identified from midgut of adult and larval A. stephensi, 53 from field-caught and 15 from lab-reared mosquitoes. A total of 171 and 44 distinct phylotypes having 85 to 99% similarity with the closest database matches were detected among field and lab-reared A. stephensi midgut, respectively. These OTUs had a Shannon diversity index value of 1.74–2.14 for lab-reared and in the range of 2.75–3.49 for field-caught A. stephensi mosquitoes. The high species evenness values of 0.93 to 0.99 in field-collected adult and larvae midgut flora indicated the vastness of microbial diversity retrieved by these approaches. The dominant bacteria in field-caught adult male A. stephensi were uncultured Paenibacillaceae while in female and in larvae it was Serratia marcescens, on the other hand in lab-reared mosquitoes, Serratia marcescens and Cryseobacterium meninqosepticum bacteria were found to be abundant. Conclusion More than fifty percent of

  20. Adult Learning and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenson, Kjell, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    As individuals and societies try to respond to fundamental economic and social transformation, the field of adult learning and education is rapidly getting increased attention and new topics for research on adult learning have emerged. This collection of articles from the International Encyclopedia of Education 3e offers practitioners and…

  1. Specimen size effect of explosive sensitivity under low velocity impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Danzhu; Chen, Pengwan; Dai, Kaida; Zhou, Qiang

    2014-05-01

    Low velocity impact may ignite the solid high explosives and cause undesired explosion incidents. The safety of high explosives under low velocity impact is one of the most important issues in handling, manufacture, storage, and transportation procedures. Various evaluation tests have been developed for low velocity impact scenarios, including, but not limited to the drop hammer test, the Susan test, the Spigot test, and the Steven test, with a charge mass varying from tens of milligrams to several kilograms. The effects of specimen size on explosive sensitivity were found in some impact tests such as drop hammer test and Steven tests, including the threshold velocity/height and reaction violence. To analyse the specimen size effects on explosive sensitivity under low velocity impacts, we collected the impact sensitivity data of several PBX explosives in the drop hammer test, the Steven test, the Susan test and the Spigot test. The effective volume of explosive charge and the critical specific mechanical energy were introduced to investigate the size-effect on the explosive reaction thresholds. The effective volumes of explosive charge in Steven test and Spigot test were obtained by numerical simulation, due to the deformation localization of the impact loading. The critical specific mechanical energy is closely related to the effective volume of explosive charge. The results show that, with the increase of effective volume, the critical mechanical energy needed for explosive ignition decreases and tends to reach a constant value. The mechanisms of size effects on explosive sensitivity are also discussed.

  2. Fabrication and testing of composite ring specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liber, T.; Daniel, I. M.; Labedz, R.; Niiro, T.

    1979-01-01

    The tooling and techniques used in the fabrication of composite laminate tubes of any desired ply orientation and stacking sequence are described along with techniques for cutting ring specimens under internal pressure. The method consists of laying up the tube on a central circular mandrel, and by means of internal pressure, expanding the prepreg tube against the cavity wall of an external mold tool, which forms the geometric curing envelope for the tube. Tube quality is assessed by laminate wall thickness measurement, by hoop strength measurement on rings cut from the ends of the tube, and by ultrasonic inspection.

  3. Gas permeation measurements on small polymer specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Karen S.; Vannorman, John D.

    1988-01-01

    Mass spectrometry was used to measure oxygen and nitrogen permeabilities while polarography was used to measure oxygen permeabilities for several contact lens materials. Applicable sample holders were designed and fabricated to accommodate curved and flat specimens. A prepared standard was used to calibrate the mass spectrometric analyses. The oxygen permeability values determined by mass spectrometry were significantly greater than those determined by polarography. This was attributed to the phase boundary phenomena and the limiting oxygen permeance of water inherent in the polarographic technique. Polarographic values determined were in good agreement with proprietary values obtained by polarography, with the exception of one material.

  4. Controlled crack growth specimen for brittle systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calomino, Anthony M.; Brewer, David N.

    1990-01-01

    A pure Mode 1 fracture specimen and test procedure has been developed which provides extended, stable, through-thickness crack growth in ceramics and other brittle, nonmetallic materials. Fixed displacement loading, applied at the crack mouth, promotes stable crack extension by reducing the stored elastic strain energy. Extremely fine control of applied displacements is achieved by utilizing the Poisson's expansion of a compressively loaded cylindrical pin. Stable cracks were successfully grown in soda-lime glass and monolithic Al2O3 for lengths in excess of 20 mm without uncontrollable catastrophic failure.

  5. Controlled crack growth specimen for brittle systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calomino, Anthony M.; Brewer, David N.

    1992-01-01

    A pure Mode 1 fracture specimen and test procedure has been developed which provides extended, stable, through-thickness crack growth in ceramics and other brittle, nonmetallic materials. Fixed displacement loading, applied at the crack mouth, promotes stable crack extension by reducing the stored elastic strain energy. Extremely fine control of applied displacements is achieved by utilizing the Poisson's expansion of a compressively loaded cylindrical pin. Stable cracks were successfully grown in soda-lime glass and monolithic Al2O3 for lengths in excess of 2O mm without uncontrollable catastrophic failure.

  6. 10 CFR 26.87 - Collection sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collection sites. 26.87 Section 26.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.87 Collection sites. (a) Each FFD program must have one or more designated collection sites that have all necessary...

  7. 10 CFR 26.87 - Collection sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Collection sites. 26.87 Section 26.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.87 Collection sites. (a) Each FFD program must have one or more designated collection sites that have all necessary...

  8. 10 CFR 26.87 - Collection sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Collection sites. 26.87 Section 26.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.87 Collection sites. (a) Each FFD program must have one or more designated collection sites that have all necessary...

  9. 10 CFR 26.87 - Collection sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Collection sites. 26.87 Section 26.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.87 Collection sites. (a) Each FFD program must have one or more designated collection sites that have all necessary...

  10. Is cost-related non-collection of prescriptions associated with a reduction in health? Findings from a large-scale longitudinal study of New Zealand adults

    PubMed Central

    Jatrana, Santosh; Richardson, Ken; Norris, Pauline; Crampton, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether cost-related non-collection of prescription medication is associated with a decline in health. Settings New Zealand Survey of Family, Income and Employment (SoFIE)-Health. Participants Data from 17 363 participants with at least two observations in three waves (2004–2005, 2006–2007, 2008–2009) of a panel study were analysed using fixed effects regression modelling. Primary outcome measures Self-rated health (SRH), physical health (PCS) and mental health scores (MCS) were the health measures used in this study. Results After adjusting for time-varying confounders, non-collection of prescription items was associated with a 0.11 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.15) unit worsening in SRH, a 1.00 (95% CI 0.61 to 1.40) unit decline in PCS and a 1.69 (95% CI 1.19 to 2.18) unit decline in MCS. The interaction of the main exposure with gender was significant for SRH and MCS. Non-collection of prescription items was associated with a decline in SRH of 0.18 (95% CI 0.11 to 0.25) units for males and 0.08 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.13) units for females, and a decrease in MCS of 2.55 (95% CI 1.67 to 3.42) and 1.29 (95% CI 0.70 to 1.89) units for males and females, respectively. The interaction of the main exposure with age was significant for SRH. For respondents aged 15–24 and 25–64 years, non-collection of prescription items was associated with a decline in SRH of 0.12 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.21) and 0.12 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.17) units, respectively, but for respondents aged 65 years and over, non-collection of prescription items had no significant effect on SRH. Conclusion Our results show that those who do not collect prescription medications because of cost have an increased risk of a subsequent decline in health. PMID:26553826

  11. 76 FR 74812 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request New Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request New Collection; 2012 Census of Adult Probation Supervising Agencies ACTION: 60-Day notice of information collection under review. The Department...

  12. Specimen preparation for cryogenic coherent X-ray diffraction imaging of biological cells and cellular organelles by using the X-ray free-electron laser at SACLA.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Amane; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Oroguchi, Tomotaka; Okajima, Koji; Fukuda, Asahi; Oide, Mao; Yamamoto, Masaki; Nakasako, Masayoshi

    2016-07-01

    Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) allows internal structures of biological cells and cellular organelles to be analyzed. CXDI experiments have been conducted at 66 K for frozen-hydrated biological specimens at the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free-Electron Laser facility (SACLA). In these cryogenic CXDI experiments using X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) pulses, specimen particles dispersed on thin membranes of specimen disks are transferred into the vacuum chamber of a diffraction apparatus. Because focused single XFEL pulses destroy specimen particles at the atomic level, diffraction patterns are collected through raster scanning the specimen disks to provide fresh specimen particles in the irradiation area. The efficiency of diffraction data collection in cryogenic experiments depends on the quality of the prepared specimens. Here, detailed procedures for preparing frozen-hydrated biological specimens, particularly thin membranes and devices developed in our laboratory, are reported. In addition, the quality of the frozen-hydrated specimens are evaluated by analyzing the characteristics of the collected diffraction patterns. Based on the experimental results, the internal structures of the frozen-hydrated specimens and the future development for efficient diffraction data collection are discussed. PMID:27359147

  13. Salvia divinorum: toxicological aspects and analysis in human biological specimens.

    PubMed

    Margalho, Cláudia; Corte-Real, Francisco; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Gallardo, Eugenia

    2016-07-01

    The identification and quantitation of the main psychoactive component of Salvia divinorum (salvinorin A) in biological specimens are crucial in forensic and clinical toxicology. Despite all the efforts made, its uncontrolled abuse has increased quickly, exposing its users' health to serious risks both in the short and long term. The use of alternative biological matrices in toxicological analyzes can be advantageous as complementary postmortem samples, or in situations when neither blood nor urine can be collected; they may be useful tools in those determinations, providing important information about prior exposure. The aim of this article is to present a brief summary of legal aspects of Salvia divinorum and salvinorin A, including the methods used for the determination of the latter in biological matrices. PMID:27277872

  14. Maintaining respect and fairness in the usage of stored shared specimens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Every year, research specimens are shipped from one institution to another as well as across national boundaries. A significant proportion of specimens move from poor to rich countries. Concerns are always raised on the future usage of the stored specimens shipped to research insitutions from developing countries. Creating awareness of the processes is required in all sectors involved in biomedical research. To maintain fairness and respect in sharing biomedical specimens and reserch products requires safeguarding by Ethics Review Committees in both provider and recepient institutions. Training in basic ethical principles in research is required to all sectors involved in biomedical research so as to level up the research playing field. Discussion By agreeing to provide specimens, individuals and communities from whom samples are collected would have placed their trust and all ensuing up-keep of the specimens to the researchers. In most collaborative set-up, laid down material transfer agreements are negotiated and signed before the shipment of specimens. Researchers, research ethics committees (RECs) and institutions in the countries of origin are supposed to serve as overseers of the specimens. There is need to advocate for honesty in sample handling and sharing, and also need to oversee any written commitments by researchers, RECs and institutions at source as well as in recipient institution. Commitments from source RECs and Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) and in the receiving institution on overseeing the future usage of stored specimens are required; including the ultimate confirmation abiding by the agreement. Training in ethical issues pertaining to sample handling and biomedical research in general is essential at all levels of academic pursuit. While sharing of biological specimens and research data demands honesty and oversight by ethical regulatory agents from both institutions in developing country and recepient institutions in developed

  15. West Nile Virus Documented in Indonesia from Acute Febrile Illness Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Myint, Khin Saw Aye; Kosasih, Herman; Artika, I. Made; Perkasa, Aditya; Puspita, Mita; Ma'roef, Chairin Nisa; Antonjaya, Ungke; Ledermann, Jeremy P.; Powers, Ann M.; Alisjahbana, Bachti

    2014-01-01

    We report the presence of West Nile virus in a cryopreserved, dengue-negative serum specimen collected from an acute fever case on Java in 2004–2005. The strain belongs to genotype lineage 2, which has recently been implicated in human outbreaks in Europe. PMID:24420775

  16. First records of Nocomis biguttatus (Hornyhead Chub) from West Virginia discovered in museum voucher specimens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, Stuart; Cincotta, Daniel A.; Starnes, Wayne C.

    2013-01-01

    Specimens of Nocomis biguttatus (Hornyhead Chub) from South Fork Hughes River (Little Kanawha River drainage, WV) were discovered in two museum lots at the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences. These accessions, collected in 1960 and 1966, represent an addition to the state fauna and are the first distribution records for this species from the Appalachian Plateau, WV

  17. Characterization of Mechanical Properties of Nuclear Graphite Using Subsize Specimens and Reusing Tested Specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Ji Hyun, Yoon; Byun, Thak Sang; Strizak, Joe P; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical properties of NBG-18 nuclear grade graphite have been characterized using small specimen test techniques and statistical treatment on the test results. New fracture strength and toughness test techniques were developed to use subsize cylindrical specimens with glued heads and to reuse their broken halves. Three sets of subsize cylindrical specimens with the different diameters of 4 mm, 8 mm, and 12 mm were tested to obtain tensile fracture strength. The longer piece of the broken halves was cracked from side surfaces and tested under three-point bend loading to obtain fracture toughness. Both the strength and fracture toughness data were analyzed using Weibull distribution models focusing on size effect. The mean fracture strength decreased from 22.9 MPa to 21.5 MPa as the diameter increased from 4 mm to 12 mm, and the mean strength of 15.9 mm diameter standard specimen, 20.9 MPa, was on the extended trend line. These fracture strength data indicate that in the given diameter range the size effect is not significant and much smaller than that predicted by the Weibull statistics-based model. Further, no noticeable size effect existed in the fracture toughness data, whose mean values were in a narrow range of 1.21 1.26 MPa. The Weibull moduli measured for fracture strength and fracture toughness datasets were around 10. It is therefore believed that the small or negligible size effect enables to use the subsize specimens and that the new fracture toughness test method to reuse the broken specimens to help minimize irradiation space and radioactive waste.

  18. Early-response cytokine expression in adult middle ear effusions.

    PubMed

    Ondrey, F G; Juhn, S K; Adams, G L

    1998-10-01

    Various cytokines are presently known to be associated with the regulation of inflammatory responses. In pediatric otitis media, cytokines that correlate with various degrees of inflammation are present in middle ear effusions as inflammatory mediators. The present study was undertaken to examine the potential role of the early-response cytokines, interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, in adult otitis media. Fifty-nine adults with otitis media underwent tympanocentesis, and the effusion specimens were analyzed for the presence of both cytokines by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. Eighty-eight percent of the effusions were serous in nature. Sixty-seven percent of the patients had a known history of head and neck malignancy and radiation to the temporal bone. Twelve percent of the effusions were positive for interleukin-1beta expression, compared with 85% of effusions in children with otitis media. Eight percent of the effusions contained tumor necrosis factor-alpha, compared with 85% of those collected in pediatric otitis media. All of the specimens that contained tumor necrosis factor-alpha also contained interleukin-1beta. In the present study, there was no correlation with head and neck malignancy/radiation or the clinical degree of inflammation with the presence of either cytokine. We conclude that adult otitis media is associated with lower expression of an acute inflammatory response, as judged by the levels of interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the effusions. Additionally, adult otitis probably represents a less severe and more chronic inflammatory state in comparison with pediatric otitis media. Further analysis of inflammatory mediators in adult otitis media is necessary to evaluate the contribution of cytokines in relation to various etiologic factors. PMID:9781987

  19. Detection of alpha human papillomaviruses in archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens.

    PubMed

    Kocjan, Boštjan J; Hošnjak, Lea; Poljak, Mario

    2016-03-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens stored in pathology departments worldwide are an invaluable source for diagnostic purposes when fresh clinical material is unavailable as well as for retrospective molecular and epidemiological studies, especially when dealing with rare clinical conditions for which prospective collection is not feasible. Accurate detection of HPV infection in these specimens is particularly challenging because nucleic acids are often degraded and therefore, not suitable for amplification of larger fragments of the viral genome or viral gene transcripts. This review provides a brief summary of molecular methods for detecting alpha-HPV DNA/RNA in FFPE tissue specimens. We specifically address the key procedural and environmental factors that have the greatest impact on the quality of nucleic acids extracted from FFPE tissue specimens, and describe some solutions that can be used to increase their integrity and/or amplifiability. Moreover, commonly used methods for HPV DNA/RNA detection in FFPE tissue specimens are presented and discussed, focusing on studies using polymerase chain reaction as an HPV detection method and published after 1999. Finally, we briefly summarize our 22 years of experience with HPV detection in FFPE tissue specimens. PMID:26514313

  20. Specimen illumination apparatus with optical cavity for dark field illumination

    DOEpatents

    Pinkel, Daniel; Sudar, Damir; Albertson, Donna

    1999-01-01

    An illumination apparatus with a specimen slide holder, an illumination source, an optical cavity producing multiple reflection of illumination light to a specimen comprising a first and a second reflective surface arranged to achieve multiple reflections of light to a specimen is provided. The apparatus can further include additional reflective surfaces to achieve the optical cavity, a slide for mounting the specimen, a coverslip which is a reflective component of the optical cavity, one or more prisms for directing light within the optical cavity, antifading solutions for improving the viewing properties of the specimen, an array of materials for analysis, fluorescent components, curved reflective surfaces as components of the optical cavity, specimen detection apparatus, optical detection equipment, computers for analysis of optical images, a plane polarizer, fiberoptics, light transmission apertures, microscopic components, lenses for viewing the specimen, and upper and lower mirrors above and below the specimen slide as components of the optical cavity. Methods of using the apparatus are also provided.

  1. Current status of small specimen technology in Charpy impact testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurishita, H.; Kayano, H.; Narui, M.; Yamazaki, M.

    1994-09-01

    The current status of small-scale specimen technology in Charpy impact testing for ferritic steels is presented, with emphasis on the effect of the notch dimensions (notch depth, notch root radius and notch angle) on the upper shelf energy (USE) and ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT). The USE for miniaturized specimens, normalized by Bb2 or ( Bb{3}/{2} ( B is the specimen thickness, b the ligament size), is essentially independent of notch geometry and has a linear relationship with the USE of full size specimens, regardless of irradiation and alloy conditions. The DBTT of miniaturized specimens depends strongly on the notch dimensions; this dependence of the DBTT decreases as the DBTT of full size specimens increase due to neutron irradiation or thermal aging. These results may be useful in determining the USE and DBTT for full size specimens from those for miniaturized specimens.

  2. 49 CFR 173.462 - Preparation of specimens for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... specimens for testing. (a) Each specimen (i.e., sample, prototype or scale model) must be examined before... corrected or appropriately taken into account in the subsequent evaluation. (c) The containment system...

  3. Apparatus for determining thermophysical properties of test specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creel, T. R., Jr.; Jones, R. A.; Corwin, R. R.; Kramer, J. S. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Apparatus is described for directly measuring the quantity square root of pck of a test specimen such as a wind tunnel model where p is density, c is the specific heat and k is the thermal conductivity of the specimen. The test specimen and a reference specimen are simultaneously subjected to the heat from a heat source. A thermocouple is attached to the reference specimen for producing a first electrical analog signal proportional to the heat rate Q that the test specimen is subjected to and an infrared radiometer that is aimed at the test specimen produces a second electrical analog signal proportional to the surface temperature T of the test specimen. An analog-to-digital converter converts the first and second electrical analog signals to digital signals. These digital signals are applied to a computer for determining the quantity.

  4. Accelerating plant DNA barcode reference library construction using herbarium specimens: improved experimental techniques.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Dong, Wenpan; Shi, Shuo; Cheng, Tao; Li, Changhao; Liu, Yanlei; Wu, Ping; Wu, Hongkun; Gao, Peng; Zhou, Shiliang

    2015-11-01

    A well-covered reference library is crucial for successful identification of species by DNA barcoding. The biggest difficulty in building such a reference library is the lack of materials of organisms. Herbarium collections are potentially an enormous resource of materials. In this study, we demonstrate that it is likely to build such reference libraries using the reconstructed (self-primed PCR amplified) DNA from the herbarium specimens. We used 179 rosaceous specimens to test the effects of DNA reconstruction, 420 randomly sampled specimens to estimate the usable percentage and another 223 specimens of true cherries (Cerasus, Rosaceae) to test the coverage of usable specimens to the species. The barcode rbcLb (the central four-sevenths of rbcL gene) and matK was each amplified in two halves and sequenced on Roche GS 454 FLX+. DNA from the herbarium specimens was typically shorter than 300 bp. DNA reconstruction enabled amplification fragments of 400-500 bp without bringing or inducing any sequence errors. About one-third of specimens in the national herbarium of China (PE) were proven usable after DNA reconstruction. The specimens in PE cover all Chinese true cherry species and 91.5% of vascular species listed in Flora of China. It is very possible to build well-covered reference libraries for DNA barcoding of vascular species in China. As exemplified in this study, DNA reconstruction and DNA-labelled next-generation sequencing can accelerate the construction of local reference libraries. By putting the local reference libraries together, a global library for DNA barcoding becomes closer to reality. PMID:25865498

  5. Recording and submitting specimen history data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian

    1987-01-01

    Webster defines history as "a chronological record of significant events." In wildlife disease investigations, determining the history or background of a problem is the first significant step in establishing a diagnosis. You can greatly assist the diagnostic process by providing a thorough history with specimens yo submit. This information is also of value in understanding the natural history of disease outbreaks, and is difficult if not impossible to obtain after the event has occurred. Detailed field observations during the course of a die-off and investigation of significant events preceding it also provide valuable information on which to base corrective actions. Remember, the most helpful information is that which obtained at the time of the event by a sensitive and aware observer.

  6. High-resolution, cryogenic, side-entry type specimen stage

    DOEpatents

    King, Wayne E.; Merkle, Karl L.

    1979-01-01

    A high-resolution, cryogenic side-entry type specimen stage includes a copper block within which a specimen can be positioned in the electron beam of an electron microscope, one end of the copper block constituting a specimen heat exchanger, means for directing a flow of helium at cryogenic temperature into the heat exchanger, and electrical leads running from the specimen to the exterior of the microscope for four point D.C. electrical resistivity measurements.

  7. Elastic-plastic analysis of the SS-3 tensile specimen

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, S.

    1998-09-01

    Tensile tests of most irradiated specimens of vanadium alloys are conducted using the miniature SS-3 specimen which is not ASTM approved. Detailed elastic-plastic finite element analysis of the specimen was conducted to show that, as long as the ultimate to yield strength ratio is less than or equal to 1.25 (which is satisfied by many irradiated materials), the stress-plastic strain curve obtained by using such a specimen is representative of the true material behavior.

  8. Mode 1 stress intensity factors for round compact specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, B.

    1976-01-01

    The mode 1 stress intensity factors were computed for round compact specimens by the boundary collocation method. Results are presented for ratios A sub T/R sub 0 in the range 0.3 to 0.8, where A sub t is the distance from the specimen center to the crack tip for a specimen of diameter 2R sub 0.

  9. 21 CFR 864.3250 - Specimen transport and storage container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Specimen transport and storage container. 864.3250....3250 Specimen transport and storage container. (a) Identification. A specimen transport and storage..., or body exudate during storage and transport in order that the matter contained therein can...

  10. 46 CFR 57.06-4 - Production testing specimen requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... sides of the reduced-section tensile specimen in their respective test plates as shown in Figures 57.06...-weld tension test specimen shall have a tensile strength of not less than the minimum of the range of... WELDING AND BRAZING Production Tests § 57.06-4 Production testing specimen requirements. (a) For...

  11. 46 CFR 57.06-4 - Production testing specimen requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... sides of the reduced-section tensile specimen in their respective test plates as shown in Figures 57.06...-weld tension test specimen shall have a tensile strength of not less than the minimum of the range of... WELDING AND BRAZING Production Tests § 57.06-4 Production testing specimen requirements. (a) For...

  12. 46 CFR 57.06-4 - Production testing specimen requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... sides of the reduced-section tensile specimen in their respective test plates as shown in Figures 57.06...-weld tension test specimen shall have a tensile strength of not less than the minimum of the range of... WELDING AND BRAZING Production Tests § 57.06-4 Production testing specimen requirements. (a) For...

  13. 46 CFR 57.06-4 - Production testing specimen requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... sides of the reduced-section tensile specimen in their respective test plates as shown in Figures 57.06...-weld tension test specimen shall have a tensile strength of not less than the minimum of the range of... WELDING AND BRAZING Production Tests § 57.06-4 Production testing specimen requirements. (a) For...

  14. 46 CFR 57.06-4 - Production testing specimen requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... sides of the reduced-section tensile specimen in their respective test plates as shown in Figures 57.06...-weld tension test specimen shall have a tensile strength of not less than the minimum of the range of... WELDING AND BRAZING Production Tests § 57.06-4 Production testing specimen requirements. (a) For...

  15. 7 CFR 97.7 - Deposit of Voucher Specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION The Application § 97.7 Deposit of Voucher Specimen. (a) Voucher specimen types. As regards the deposit of voucher specimen material for purposes of plant variety protection... self-replication either directly or indirectly. Representative examples include seeds, plant...

  16. Adaptation of Museum Specimens for Use in Anatomical Teaching Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, P. F.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Color transparencies are prepared of a re-colored anatomical specimen after placing labels temporarily in position to indicate specific structures. The specimen is also radiographed to show skeletal and soft tissue structures. Cross-reference among the specimen, photographs, and radiographs is supplemented by examination and self-assessment…

  17. 36 CFR 2.5 - Research specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 43 CFR part 24. Regulations concerning archeological resources are found in 43 CFR part 3. ... superintendent approves a written research proposal and determines that the collection will benefit science...

  18. Prospectively Collected Characteristics of Adult Patients, Their Consultations and Outcomes as They Report Breathlessness When Presenting to General Practice in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Currow, David C.; Clark, Katherine; Mitchell, Geoffrey K.; Johnson, Miriam J.; Abernethy, Amy P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Breathlessness is a subjective sensation, so understanding its impacts requires patients’ reports, including prospective patient-defined breathlessness as a reason for presenting to general practitioners (GP).The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of breathlessness as a reason for GP consultations while defining the clinico-demographic factors of these patients and the characteristics and outcomes of those consultations. Methods Using nine years of the Family Medicine Research Centre database of 100 consecutive encounters from 1,000 practices annually, the patient-defined reason for encounter ‘breathlessness’ was explored using prospectively collected data in people ≥18 years with clinical data coded using the International Classification for Primary Care V2. Dichotomous variables were analysed using chi square and 95% confidence intervals calculated using Kish’s formula for a single stage clustered design. Results Of all the 755,729 consultations collected over a nine year period from 1 April, 2000, 7255 included breathlessness as a reason for encounter (0.96%; 95% CI 0.93 to 0.99) most frequently attributed to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Only 48.3% of GPs saw someone reporting breathlessness. The proportion of consultations with breathlessness increased with age. Breathlessness trebled the likelihood that the consultation occurred in the community rather than the consulting room (p<0.0001) and increased 2.5 fold the likelihood of urgent referral to hospital (p<0.0001). Of those with breathlessness, 12% had undiagnosed breathlessness at the end of the consultation (873/7255) with higher likelihood of being younger females. Discussion Breathlessness is a prevalent symptom in general practitioner. Such prevalence enables future research focused on understanding the temporal pattern of breathlessness and the longitudinal care offered to, and outcomes for these patients, including those who leave the consultation without a

  19. Proteinuria in adults: a diagnostic approach.

    PubMed

    Carroll, M F; Temte, J L

    2000-09-15

    Proteinuria is a common finding in adults in primary care practice. An algorithmic approach can be used to differentiate benign causes of proteinuria from rarer, more serious disorders. Benign causes include fever, intense activity or exercise, dehydration, emotional stress and acute illness. More serious causes include glomerulonephritis and multiple myeloma. Alkaline, dilute or concentrated urine; gross hematuria; and the presence of mucus, semen or white blood cells can cause a dipstick urinalysis to be falsely positive for protein. Of the three pathophysiologic mechanisms (glomerular, tubular and overflow) that produce proteinuria, glomerular malfunction is the most common and usually corresponds to a urinary protein excretion of more than 2 g per 24 hours. When a quantitative measurement of urinary protein is needed, most physicians prefer a 24-hour urine specimen. However, the urine protein-to-creatinine ratio performed on a random specimen has many advantages over the 24-hour collection, primarily convenience and possibly accuracy. Most patients evaluated for proteinuria have a benign cause. Patients with proteinuria greater than 2 g per day or in whom the underlying etiology remains unclear after a thorough medical evaluation should be referred to a nephrologist. PMID:11011862

  20. Assessment of specimen fixation in a surgical pathology service.

    PubMed Central

    Start, R. D.; Cross, S. S.; Smith, J. H.

    1992-01-01

    The quality of specimen fixation was examined within a routine diagnostic histopathology service. For each specimen the adequacy of fixation was assessed and the transit time between operating theatre and the laboratory was measured. Preliminary fixation was found to be inadequate in 25% of specimens and some form of manipulation to assist fixation was required in 36% of specimens. The mean transit time was 22 (SD 10.7) hours. Specimen fixation and transport are additional factors to consider in quality assurance of histopathology. PMID:1306049

  1. Improvements in education in pathology: virtual 3D specimens.

    PubMed

    Kalinski, Thomas; Zwönitzer, Ralf; Jonczyk-Weber, Thomas; Hofmann, Harald; Bernarding, Johannes; Roessner, Albert

    2009-01-01

    Virtual three-dimensional (3D) specimens correspond to 3D visualizations of real pathological specimens on a computer display. We describe a simple method for the digitalization of such specimens from high-quality digital images. The images were taken during a whole rotation of a specimen, and merged together into a JPEG2000 multi-document file. The files were made available in the internet (http://patho.med.uni-magdeburg.de/research.shtml) and obtained very positive ratings by medical students. Virtual 3D specimens expand the application of digital techniques in pathology, and will contribute significantly to the successful introduction of knowledge databases and electronic learning platforms. PMID:19457621

  2. Apparatus and method for magnetically processing a specimen

    DOEpatents

    Ludtka, Gerard M; Ludtka, Gail M; Wilgen, John B; Kisner, Roger A; Jaramillo, Roger A

    2013-09-03

    An apparatus for magnetically processing a specimen that couples high field strength magnetic fields with the magnetocaloric effect includes a high field strength magnet capable of generating a magnetic field of at least 1 Tesla and a magnetocaloric insert disposed within a bore of the high field strength magnet. A method for magnetically processing a specimen includes positioning a specimen adjacent to a magnetocaloric insert within a bore of a magnet and applying a high field strength magnetic field of at least 1 Tesla to the specimen and to the magnetocaloric insert. The temperature of the specimen changes during the application of the high field strength magnetic field due to the magnetocaloric effect.

  3. A Century of Shope Papillomavirus in Museum Rabbit Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Escudero Duch, Clara; Williams, Richard A. J.; Timm, Robert M.; Perez-Tris, Javier; Benitez, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Sylvilagus floridanus Papillomavirus (SfPV) causes growth of large horn-like tumors on rabbits. SfPV was described in cottontail rabbits (probably Sylvilagus floridanus) from Kansas and Iowa by Richard Shope in 1933, and detected in S. audubonii in 2011. It is known almost exclusively from the US Midwest. We explored the University of Kansas Natural History Museum for historical museum specimens infected with SfPV, using molecular techniques, to assess if additional wild species host SfPV, and whether SfPV occurs throughout the host range, or just in the Midwest. Secondary aims were to detect distinct strains, and evidence for strain spatio-temporal specificity. We found 20 of 1395 rabbits in the KU collection SfPV symptomatic. Three of 17 lagomorph species (S. nuttallii, and the two known hosts) were symptomatic, while Brachylagus, Lepus and eight additional Sylvilagus species were not. 13 symptomatic individuals were positive by molecular testing, including the first S. nuttallii detection. Prevalence of symptomatic individuals was significantly higher in Sylvilagus (1.8%) than Lepus. Half of these specimens came from Kansas, though new molecular detections were obtained from Jalisco—Mexico’s first—and Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, and Texas, USA. We document the oldest lab-confirmed case (Kansas, 1915), pre-dating Shope’s first case. SfPV amplification was possible from 63.2% of symptomatic museum specimens. Using multiple methodologies, rolling circle amplification and, multiple isothermal displacement amplification in addition to PCR, greatly improved detection rates. Short sequences were obtained from six individuals for two genes. L1 gene sequences were identical to all previously detected sequences; E7 gene sequences, were more variable, yielding five distinct SfPV1 strains that differing by less than 2% from strains circulating in the Midwest and Mexico, between 1915 and 2005. Our results do not clarify whether strains are host species specific

  4. Maternal Screening for Hypothyroidism and Thyroiditis Using Filter Paper Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Foley, T.P.; Henry, J.J.; Hofman, L.F.; Sanfilippo, J.S.; Naylor, E.W.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background and Objective Hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis are more prevalent than previously considered in women during pregnancy and the postpartum, and are associated with adverse effects on the mother and her fetus. We determined the efficacy and accuracy of screening women for primary hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis by testing TSH and two thyroid antibodies (TAb): thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb), in eluates of filter paper specimens collected during early pregnancy and the postpartum. Methods We enrolled 494 first-trimester pregnant women with no exclusion criteria into a prospective study to detect primary hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis. Finger stick blood was applied to filter paper, dried in room air, eluted, and promptly tested for TSH and TAb. A total of 178 of the pregnant women (36%) were tested in the early postpartum. Women with abnormal results had confirmatory serum tests. Results It was found that 91 pregnant women (18.4%) and 43 postpartum women (24.2%) had abnormal TSH values (>4.0 mU/L) and/or positive TAb; 140 pregnant women (28.3%) had TSH values >2.5 mU/L. All subjects with TSH values >4.0 mU/L tested positive for TAb. Eighteen women (3.6%) who tested normal during pregnancy tested abnormal in the postpartum. Conclusions This study confirms that TSH and TPOAb measured in eluates of blood-spotted filter paper specimens are excellent screening tests to detect primary hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis in pregnant and postpartum women. Results are very comparable to serum data in this population published in the literature. PMID:24025107

  5. Strain energy release rate distributions for double cantilever beam specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crews, J. H., Jr.; Shivakumar, K. N.; Raju, I. S.

    1991-01-01

    A 24-ply composite double cantilever-beam specimen under mode I (opening) loading has been analyzed by a 3D FEM code that calculated along a straight delamination starter for several different specimen materials. An isotropic specimen was found to have a strain-energy release rate distribution which varied along its delamination front due to the boundary-layer effect and another effect associated with the anticlastic curvature of the bent specimen arms. A 0-deg graphite-reinforced epoxy specimen had a nearly-uniform strain-energy release rate distribution which dropped only near the edge, due to the boundary-layer effect, and a +/- 45-deg graphite/epoxy specimen exhibited a pronounced strain-energy release rate variation across the specimen width.

  6. M553 sphere forming experiment: Pure nickel specimen evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C.; Peters, E. T.

    1973-01-01

    A region or cap of very fine two-dimensional surface growth structure was observed at the top of three of the six pure nickel flight specimens. Such two-dimensional surface growth structures have been observed both on the ground-based specimens and on other surface areas of the flight specimens. However, the fine structures observed on the three flight samples are at least an order of magnitude finer than those previously observed, and resemble similar localized, fine, two-dimensional surface structures observed in both ground and flight specimens for the nickel alloys. The two-dimensional growth areas consist primarily of fine equiaxed grains, specimen SL-2.6, fine dendrites, specimen SL-2.5, or a core of fine equiaxed grains surrounded by a ring of fine dendrites, specimen SL-1.9.

  7. Recording and submitting specimen history data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodenstein, Barbara L.

    2016-01-01

    SummaryIn wildlife disease investigations, determining the history or background of a problem is the first significant step toward establishing a diagnosis and aiding agencies with management considerations. The diagnostic process and overall investigation is often greatly expedited by a chronological record accompanying specimens submitted for laboratory evaluation. Knowing where and when the outbreak is taking place, what the environmental conditions and species involved are, and clinical signs in sick animals, along with necropsy findings and diagnostic test results are important for understanding the natural history or epizootiology of disease outbreaks. It becomes increasingly difficult to retrospectively obtain all of the pertinent history as time passes. The most helpful information is that which is obtained at the time of the die-off event by perceptive field biologists and other observers. Significant events preceding morbidity and/or mortality also provide valuable information on which to base corrective actions. In this chapter, readers will find information regarding what type of information should be recorded, how it should be recorded and why it is relevant to a disease investigation. A thoughtful approach in providing as much information as possible surrounding the situation including about host species and the biotic and abiotic environment, greatly aids in determining the most likely causative agent(s).

  8. Ultrastable gold substrates: Properties of a support for high-resolution electron cryomicroscopy of biological specimens

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Christopher J.; Passmore, Lori A.

    2016-01-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) allows structure determination of a wide range of biological molecules and specimens. All-gold supports improve cryo-EM images by reducing radiation-induced motion and image blurring. Here we compare the mechanical and electrical properties of all-gold supports to amorphous carbon foils. Gold supports are more conductive, and have suspended foils that are not compressed by differential contraction when cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures. These measurements show how the choice of support material and geometry can reduce specimen movement by more than an order of magnitude during low-dose imaging. We provide methods for fabrication of all-gold supports and preparation of vitrified specimens. We also analyse illumination geometry for optimal collection of high resolution, low-dose data. Together, the support structures and methods herein can improve the resolution and quality of images from any electron cryomicroscope. PMID:26592474

  9. Molecular detection and characterization of Aichivirus A in adult patients with diarrhea in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Saikruang, Wilaiporn; Khamrin, Pattara; Suantai, Boonpa; Ushijima, Hiroshi; Maneekarn, Niwat

    2014-06-01

    Viral gastroenteritis is a common public health problem that causes morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recently, new viruses causing gastroenteritis have been identified. Among these, Aichivirus has also been proposed as a causative agent of gastroenteritis in human. Most studies have been conducted in infants and children, the information in adults is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiology and molecular characterization of Aichivirus in adult patients with diarrhea. A total of 332 fecal specimens collected from January to December 2008 were screened for the presence of Aichivirus by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) method. Out of 332 fecal specimens tested, Aichivirus was detected with the prevalence of 0.9% (3/332). The data indicate that the prevalence of Aichivirus in adults was as low as those reported in children in Thailand. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 sequence revealed that one Aichivirus belonged to genotype A, while other two Aichiviruses were genotype B. In conclusion, this study provided the molecular epidemiological data of Aichivirus circulating in adult patients with diarrhea at low prevalence and the viruses were genetically variable as both genotypes A and B were found in this population. PMID:24536026

  10. Genomic Treasure Troves: Complete Genome Sequencing of Herbarium and Insect Museum Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Staats, Martijn; Erkens, Roy H. J.; van de Vossenberg, Bart; Wieringa, Jan J.; Kraaijeveld, Ken; Stielow, Benjamin; Geml, József; Richardson, James E.; Bakker, Freek T.

    2013-01-01

    Unlocking the vast genomic diversity stored in natural history collections would create unprecedented opportunities for genome-scale evolutionary, phylogenetic, domestication and population genomic studies. Many researchers have been discouraged from using historical specimens in molecular studies because of both generally limited success of DNA extraction and the challenges associated with PCR-amplifying highly degraded DNA. In today's next-generation sequencing (NGS) world, opportunities and prospects for historical DNA have changed dramatically, as most NGS methods are actually designed for taking short fragmented DNA molecules as templates. Here we show that using a standard multiplex and paired-end Illumina sequencing approach, genome-scale sequence data can be generated reliably from dry-preserved plant, fungal and insect specimens collected up to 115 years ago, and with minimal destructive sampling. Using a reference-based assembly approach, we were able to produce the entire nuclear genome of a 43-year-old Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) herbarium specimen with high and uniform sequence coverage. Nuclear genome sequences of three fungal specimens of 22–82 years of age (Agaricus bisporus, Laccaria bicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus) were generated with 81.4–97.9% exome coverage. Complete organellar genome sequences were assembled for all specimens. Using de novo assembly we retrieved between 16.2–71.0% of coding sequence regions, and hence remain somewhat cautious about prospects for de novo genome assembly from historical specimens. Non-target sequence contaminations were observed in 2 of our insect museum specimens. We anticipate that future museum genomics projects will perhaps not generate entire genome sequences in all cases (our specimens contained relatively small and low-complexity genomes), but at least generating vital comparative genomic data for testing (phylo)genetic, demographic and genetic hypotheses, that become increasingly more

  11. Widespread mistaken identity in tropical plant collections.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Zoë A; Harris, David J; Filer, Denis; Wood, John R I; Scotland, Robert W

    2015-11-16

    Specimens of plants and animals preserved in museums are the primary source of verifiable data on the geographical and temporal distribution of organisms. Museum datasets are increasingly being uploaded to aggregated regional and global databases (e.g. the Global Biodiversity Information Facility; GBIF) for use in a wide range of analyses. Thus, digitisation of natural history collections is providing unprecedented information to facilitate the study of the natural world on a global scale. The digitisation of this information utilises information provided on specimen labels, and assumes they are correctly identified. Here we evaluate the accuracy of names associated with 4,500 specimens of African gingers from 40 herbaria in 21 countries. Our data show that at least 58% of the specimens had the wrong name prior to a recent taxonomic study. A similar pattern of wrongly named specimens is also shown for Dipterocarps and Ipomoea (morning glory). We also examine the number of available plant specimens worldwide. Our data demonstrate that, while the world's collections have more than doubled since 1970, more than 50% of tropical specimens, on average, are likely to be incorrectly named. This finding has serious implications for the uncritical use of specimen data from natural history collections. PMID:26583892

  12. Adult Learners: Pathways to Progression. FEDA Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisenberger, Anna; Sanders, John

    1997-01-01

    A study focused on facilitating progression for adults from nonvocational adult education to qualification-bearing courses in further education (FE) and studied their patterns of progression and which factors helped or hindered such progress. Information was collected from adult learners in 10 adult and FE organizations in Britain through a…

  13. Contribution of natural history collection data to biodiversity assessment in national parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connell, A.F., Jr.; Gilbert, A.T.; Hatfield, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    There has been mounting interest in the use of museum and herbaria collections to assess biodiversity; information is often difficult to locate and access, however, and few recommendations are available for effectively using natural history collections. As part of an effort to inventory vertebrates and vascular plants in U.S. national parks, we searched manually and by computer for specimens originating within or adjacent to 14 parks throughout the northeastern United States. We compared the number of specimens located to collection size to determine whether there was any effect on detection rate of specimens. We evaluated the importance of park characteristics (e.g., age since establishment, size, theme [natural vs. cultural]) for influencing the number of specimens found in a collection. We located >31,000 specimens and compiled associated records (hereafter referred to as specimens) from 78 collections; >9000 specimens were park-significant, originating either within park boundaries or in the local township where the park was located. We found >2000 specimens by means of manual searches, which cost $0.001?0.15 per specimen searched and $0.81?151.95 per specimen found. Collection effort appeared relatively uniform between 1890 and 1980, with low periods corresponding to significant sociopolitical events. Detection rates for specimens were inversely related to collection size. Although specimens were most often located in collections within the region of interest, specimens can be found anywhere, particularly in large collections international in scope, suggesting that global searches will be necessary to evaluate historical biodiversity. Park characteristics indicated that more collecting effort occurred within or adjacent to larger parks established for natural resources than in smaller historical sites. Because many institutions have not yet established electronic databases for collections, manual searches can be useful for retrieving specimens. Our results

  14. Fracture toughness of brittle materials determined with chevron notch specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, J. L., Jr.; Bursey, R. T.; Munz, D.; Pierce, W. S.

    1980-01-01

    The use of chevron-notch specimens for determining the plane strain fracture toughness (K sub Ic) of brittle materials is discussed. Three chevron-notch specimens were investigated: short bar, short rod, and four-point-bend. The dimensionless stress intensity coefficient used in computing K sub Ic is derived for the short bar specimen from the superposition of ligament-dependent and ligament-independent solutions for the straight through crack, and also from experimental compliance calibrations. Coefficients for the four-point-bend specimen were developed by the same superposition procedure, and with additional refinement using the slice model of Bluhm. Short rod specimen stress intensity coefficients were determined only by experimental compliance calibration. Performance of the three chevron-notch specimens and their stress intensity factor relations were evaluated by tests on hot-pressed silicon nitride and sintered aluminum oxide. Results obtained with the short bar and the four-point-bend specimens on silicon nitride are in good agreement and relatively free of specimen geometry and size effects within the range investigated. Results on aluminum oxide were affected by specimen size and chevron-notch geometry, believed due to a rising crack growth resistance curve for the material. Only the results for the short bar specimen are presented in detail.

  15. A New Approach to Standardize Multicenter Studies: Mobile Lab Technology for the German Environmental Specimen Bank

    PubMed Central

    Lermen, Dominik; Schmitt, Daniel; Bartel-Steinbach, Martina; Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; von Briesen, Hagen; Zimmermann, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    Technical progress has simplified tasks in lab diagnosis and improved quality of test results. Errors occurring during the pre-analytical phase have more negative impact on the quality of test results than errors encountered during the total analytical process. Different infrastructures of sampling sites can highly influence the quality of samples and therewith of analytical results. Annually the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) collects, characterizes, and stores blood, plasma, and urine samples of 120–150 volunteers each on four different sampling sites in Germany. Overarching goal is to investigate the exposure to environmental pollutants of non-occupational exposed young adults combining human biomonitoring with questionnaire data. We investigated the requirements of the study and the possibility to realize a highly standardized sampling procedure on a mobile platform in order to increase the required quality of the pre-analytical phase. The results lead to the development of a mobile epidemiologic laboratory (epiLab) in the project “Labor der Zukunft” (future’s lab technology). This laboratory includes a 14.7 m2 reception area to record medical history and exposure-relevant behavior, a 21.1 m2 examination room to record dental fillings and for blood withdrawal, a 15.5 m2 biological safety level 2 laboratory to process and analyze samples on site including a 2.8 m2 personnel lock and a 3.6 m2 cryofacility to immediately freeze samples. Frozen samples can be transferred to their final destination within the vehicle without breaking the cold chain. To our knowledge, we herewith describe for the first time the implementation of a biological safety laboratory (BSL) 2 lab and an epidemiologic unit on a single mobile platform. Since 2013 we have been collecting up to 15.000 individual human samples annually under highly standardized conditions using the mobile laboratory. Characterized and free of alterations they are kept ready for retrospective

  16. Three decades of environmental specimen banking at the National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan.

    PubMed

    Karube, Zin-Ichi; Tanaka, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Akinori; Takazawa, Yoshikatsu; Takagi, Mai; Kinoshita, Ayako; Seyama, Haruhiko; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2015-02-01

    After two decades operation of the initial environmental specimen banking, a new program, Environmental Time Capsule Program, started in 2002 as a government-supported long-term program to construct a firm scientific basis for various environmental research studies. The program consists of long-term environmental specimen banking activity and specimen collection of endangered wildlife and is based on cryogenic sample preservation facility called Environmental Time Capsule building, which completed construction in 2004. After 9 years of extensive research, research focuses have been selected and the program was reorganized to the environmental sample collection part and endangered wildlife collection part in 2011. Due to huge environmental disaster caused by the Great East Japan earthquake and the tsunami as well as subsequent nuclear power plant accident at Fukushima, a new sampling and monitoring program started at affected areas in collaboration with the reorganized environmental sample collection and archiving program. Outlines of the quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) activities in the program and future perspective under related international activities, particularly Stockholm Convention, are reported. PMID:24865503

  17. Performance of the Amplicor human immunodeficiency virus type 1 PCR and analysis of specimens with false-negative results.

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, K L; Tosswill, J H; Parry, J V; Clewley, J P

    1997-01-01

    Over a 4-year period, the Roche Amplicor kit was used in a United Kingdom reference laboratory for the detection or confirmation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection, particularly in infants born to HIV-infected mothers. Of 408 specimens from adults and older children tested, the 122 seronegative specimens were all Amplicor negative. Of the 286 seropositive specimens, 268 were Amplicor positive. On the basis of these results, the Amplicor assay has a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 93.7%. In addition, for 247 specimens from infants and young children, serological results may not have been diagnostic because of placental transfer of maternal antibodies. Forty-eight were Amplicor positive, and of the 199 Amplicor-negative specimens, 19 were assumed to be false negative on the basis of clinical data, serological markers (including p24 antigen), and/or results for previous or follow-up specimens. This represents a sensitivity of 75% for the Amplicor test for specimens from patients under 2 years of age. Of these 37 false-negative specimens plus 2 specimens from other laboratories, 31 could be characterized by amplifying extracted material from them by an in-house nested gag PCR spanning the Amplicor target region. The amplicons were sequenced and found to represent subtypes A (35.5%), B (22.6%), C (22.6%), D (16.1%), and G (3.2%). False-negative results by the Amplicor assay may be ascribed to low-target copy number, the physical behavior of one primer (SK462), and sequence variation in the target region of the other primer (SK431). PMID:9350745

  18. The AIDS and Cancer Specimen Resource: Role in HIV/AIDS scientific discovery

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, Leona W; Silver, Sylvia; McGrath, Michael S; Orenstein, Jan M

    2007-01-01

    The AIDS Cancer and Specimen Resource (ACSR) supports scientific discovery in the area of HIV/AIDS-associated malignancies. The ACSR was established as a cooperative agreement between the NCI (Office of the Director, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis) and regional consortia, University of California, San Francisco (West Coast), George Washington University (East Coast) and Ohio State University (Mid-Region) to collect, preserve and disperse HIV-related tissues and biologic fluids and controls along with clinical data to qualified investigators. The available biological samples with clinical data and the application process are described on the ACSR web site. The ACSR tissue bank has more than 100,000 human HIV positive specimens that represent different processing (43), specimen (15), and anatomical site (50) types. The ACSR provides special biospecimen collections and prepares speciality items, e.g., tissue microarrays (TMA), DNA libraries. Requests have been greatest for Kaposi's sarcoma (32%) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (26%). Dispersed requests include 83% tissue (frozen and paraffin embedded), 18% plasma/serum and 9% other. ACSR also provides tissue microarrays of, e.g., Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, for biomarker assays and has developed collaborations with other groups that provide access to additional AIDS-related malignancy specimens. ACSR members and associates have completed 63 podium and poster presentations. Investigators have submitted 125 letters of intent requests. Discoveries using ACSR have been reported in 61 scientific publications in notable journals with an average impact factor of 7. The ACSR promotes the scientific exploration of the relationship between HIV/AIDS and malignancy by participation at national and international scientific meetings, contact with investigators who have productive research in this area and identifying, collecting, preserving, enhancing, and dispersing HIV/AIDS-related malignancy specimens to

  19. The AIDS and Cancer Specimen Resource: role in HIV/AIDS scientific discovery.

    PubMed

    Ayers, Leona W; Silver, Sylvia; McGrath, Michael S; Orenstein, Jan M

    2007-01-01

    The AIDS Cancer and Specimen Resource (ACSR) supports scientific discovery in the area of HIV/AIDS-associated malignancies. The ACSR was established as a cooperative agreement between the NCI (Office of the Director, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis) and regional consortia, University of California, San Francisco (West Coast), George Washington University (East Coast) and Ohio State University (Mid-Region) to collect, preserve and disperse HIV-related tissues and biologic fluids and controls along with clinical data to qualified investigators. The available biological samples with clinical data and the application process are described on the ACSR web site. The ACSR tissue bank has more than 100,000 human HIV positive specimens that represent different processing (43), specimen (15), and anatomical site (50) types. The ACSR provides special biospecimen collections and prepares speciality items, e.g., tissue microarrays (TMA), DNA libraries. Requests have been greatest for Kaposi's sarcoma (32%) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (26%). Dispersed requests include 83% tissue (frozen and paraffin embedded), 18% plasma/serum and 9% other. ACSR also provides tissue microarrays of, e.g., Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, for biomarker assays and has developed collaborations with other groups that provide access to additional AIDS-related malignancy specimens. ACSR members and associates have completed 63 podium and poster presentations. Investigators have submitted 125 letters of intent requests. Discoveries using ACSR have been reported in 61 scientific publications in notable journals with an average impact factor of 7. The ACSR promotes the scientific exploration of the relationship between HIV/AIDS and malignancy by participation at national and international scientific meetings, contact with investigators who have productive research in this area and identifying, collecting, preserving, enhancing, and dispersing HIV/AIDS-related malignancy specimens to

  20. Comparison of different preparation techniques for fine needle aspiration specimens. A semiquantitative and statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Crystal, B S; Wang, H H; Ducatman, B S

    1993-01-01

    Different options exist for preparing fine needle aspiration specimens (FNAS). To compare direct smears and cytocentrifugation specimens, we prospectively obtained FNAS from 38 operative cases, making alcohol-fixed (DIR) and air-dried (AIR) direct smears and collecting additional passes in 50% ethanol (ETH), Saccomanno's solution (SAC) and Hanks' Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS). All slides were stained with Papanicolaou stain except AIR, which were stained with Diff-Quik. We evaluated cellularity, nuclear and cytoplasmic preservation, percent single cells, background and degree of three-dimensionality on a 0-3+ scale and rendered an independent diagnosis for each medium. Statistical analysis of differences between techniques was performed utilizing the paired t test. Cellularity was significantly decreased for ETH, HBSS and SAC as compared to DIFF and DIR. Nuclear preservation was best for DIR and inferior for AIR, ETH, SAC and HBSS. Background was best seen in DIR and AIR as compared to ETH and SAC. HBSS was significantly inferior to DIR but not to AIR. There were no significant differences in cytoplasmic preservation and percent single cells. Three-dimensionality was increased for ETH and SAC but not for HBSS. The ability to make a definitive diagnosis was significantly inferior only for HBSS and SAC as compared to AIR. Direct smears made by cytotechnologists or pathologists are better than Cytospin specimens. However, despite their inherent disadvantages, rinse techniques may be advantageous when specimens are collected solely by clinicians. PMID:8434492

  1. Building a Zoological Teaching Collection of Invertebrates Using Alcoholic Gel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mugnai, Riccardo; Barbosa, Julio Vianna; Baptista, Darcilio Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Teaching collections are of great importance for science instruction at any level. There are several problems linked to the handling and curatorial management of this kind of collection. Among these is the relatively short life-span of specimens, due to the damage from continuous handling by students. Often the specimens used to replenish the…

  2. Revolutionizing the Use of Natural History Collections in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Karen E.; Prather, L. Alan; Cook, Joseph A.; Woolley, James; Bart, Henry L., Jr.; Monfils, Anna K.; Sierwald, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Natural history collections are an irreplaceable and extensive record of life, and form the basis of our understanding of biodiversity on our planet. Broad-scale educational accessibility to these vast specimen collections, specimen images, and their associated data is currently severely hampered. With emerging technologies and massive efforts…

  3. Digital imaging of surgical specimens using a wet scanning technique

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, T; Denney, P

    2001-01-01

    Aim—To develop a simple method of recording digital images of surgical specimens on to a personal computer (PC) for use in presentations for teaching and reporting of their pathology. Methods—A perspex box was constructed to international A4 size 100 mm deep. This box had a base of 3 mm clear perspex with sides and top of 5 mm white perspex. This box was partially filled with distilled water and a specimen immersed in it. It was then placed on top of a standard A4 scanner. The specimen was then scanned into a PC using image capture software. Results—The images produced showed noticeable improvement over normal photographs, especially with specimens prone to wet highlights. Conclusions—The method has proved to be a rapid and efficient means of producing macroscopic images of surgical specimens. Key Words: scanning • personal computer • macroscopic images • surgical specimens PMID:11304853

  4. Evaluation of composite flattened tubular specimen. [fatigue tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liber, T.; Daniel, I. M.

    1978-01-01

    Flattened tubular specimens of graphite/epoxy, S-glass/epoxy, Kevlar-49/epoxy, and graphite/S-glass/epoxy hybrid materials were evaluated under static and cyclic uniaxial tensile loading and compared directly with flat coupon data of the same materials generated under corresponding loading conditions. Additional development for the refinement of the flattened specimen configuration and fabrication was required. Statically tested graphite/epoxy, S-glass/epoxy, and Kevlar 49/epoxy flattened tube specimens exhibit somewhat higher average strengths than their corresponding flat coupons. Flattened tube specimens of the graphite/S-glass/epoxy hybrid and the graphite/epoxy flattened tube specimens failed in parasitic modes with consequential lower strength than the corresponding flat coupons. Fatigue tested flattened tube specimens failed in parasitic modes resulting in lower fatigue strengths than the corresponding flat coupons.

  5. 78 FR 14518 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Program for the International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Adult Competencies (PIAAC) National Supplement Data Collection 2013-2014 AGENCY: Institute for Education... of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) National Supplement Data Collection 2013- 2014. OMB Control Number... Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) National Supplement data...

  6. Fixing Formalin: A Method to Recover Genomic-Scale DNA Sequence Data from Formalin-Fixed Museum Specimens Using High-Throughput Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Hykin, Sarah M; Bi, Ke; McGuire, Jimmy A

    2015-01-01

    For 150 years or more, specimens were routinely collected and deposited in natural history collections without preserving fresh tissue samples for genetic analysis. In the case of most herpetological specimens (i.e. amphibians and reptiles), attempts to extract and sequence DNA from formalin-fixed, ethanol-preserved specimens-particularly for use in phylogenetic analyses-has been laborious and largely ineffective due to the highly fragmented nature of the DNA. As a result, tens of thousands of specimens in herpetological collections have not been available for sequence-based phylogenetic studies. Massively parallel High-Throughput Sequencing methods and the associated bioinformatics, however, are particularly suited to recovering meaningful genetic markers from severely degraded/fragmented DNA sequences such as DNA damaged by formalin-fixation. In this study, we compared previously published DNA extraction methods on three tissue types subsampled from formalin-fixed specimens of Anolis carolinensis, followed by sequencing. Sufficient quality DNA was recovered from liver tissue, making this technique minimally destructive to museum specimens. Sequencing was only successful for the more recently collected specimen (collected ~30 ybp). We suspect this could be due either to the conditions of preservation and/or the amount of tissue used for extraction purposes. For the successfully sequenced sample, we found a high rate of base misincorporation. After rigorous trimming, we successfully mapped 27.93% of the cleaned reads to the reference genome, were able to reconstruct the complete mitochondrial genome, and recovered an accurate phylogenetic placement for our specimen. We conclude that the amount of DNA available, which can vary depending on specimen age and preservation conditions, will determine if sequencing will be successful. The technique described here will greatly improve the value of museum collections by making many formalin-fixed specimens available for

  7. Specimen flatness of thin crystalline arrays: influence of the substrate.

    PubMed

    Glaeser, R M

    1992-10-01

    The extreme degree of specimen flatness (i.e. planarity) required for high-resolution electron diffraction and electron microscopy at high tilt angles cannot be realized with thin, sheet-like crystals of biological macromolecules, just on the basis of the intrinsic stiffness of the specimen itself. In an effort to improve the rate of success at which suitably flat specimens are prepared, this paper analyzes several different factors that can either limit or enhance the specimen flatness. If specimens are adsorbed (by attractive forces) to a support film, such as evaporated carbon, which itself is not flat to atomic dimensions, quantitative calculations show that it is quite likely that the specimen will be too wrinkled to be used for high-resolution studies. Adsorption to an air-water interface is more likely to result in the necessary degree of flatness. Repulsive interactions, which might be used to "sandwich" a specimen between two interfaces, are estimated to be too "soft", i.e. too long-range in character, to be effective. Finally, if only one edge of a specimen sticks firmly to a substrate, then surface tension forces can pull the specimen taut over the surface of the substrate, so that the specimen itself can be more flat than the surface of the substrate upon which it is deposited. A second, important consideration in many studies is the fact that cooling the specimen to low temperature can result in specimen wrinkling, because of the fact that the biological crystal has a much larger coefficient of thermal expansion than that of the evaporated carbon film. In this case one expects that cooling-induced wrinkling might be reduced by using a metal support grid which has a smaller thermal coefficient than that of the carbon film. The validity of this qualitative idea is supported by experiments which show that cooling-induced wrinkling of glucose-embedded purple membrane can be prevented if molybdenum grids are used rather than copper. PMID:1481276

  8. Fission-gas-release rates from irradiated uranium nitride specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, M. B.; Kirchgessner, T. A.; Tambling, T. N.

    1973-01-01

    Fission-gas-release rates from two 93 percent dense UN specimens were measured using a sweep gas facility. Specimen burnup rates averaged .0045 and .0032 percent/hr, and the specimen temperatures ranged from 425 to 1323 K and from 552 to 1502 K, respectively. Burnups up to 7.8 percent were achieved. Fission-gas-release rates first decreased then increased with burnup. Extensive interconnected intergranular porosity formed in the specimen operated at over 1500 K. Release rate variation with both burnup and temperature agreed with previous irradiation test results.

  9. Analysis of the stress state in an Iosipescu sheartest specimen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walrath, D. E.; Adams, D. F.

    1983-01-01

    The state of stress in an Iosipescu shear test specimen is analyzed, utilizing a finite element computer program. The influence of test fixture configuration on this stress state is included. Variations of the standard specimen configuration, including notch depth, notch angle, and notch root radius are modeled. The purpose is to establish guidelines for a specimen geometry which will accommodate highly orthotropic materials while minimizing stress distribution nonuniformities. Materials ranging from isotropic to highly orthotropic are considered. An optimum specimen configuration is suggested, along with changes in the test fixture.

  10. Non-repeatable science: assessing the frequency of voucher specimen deposition reveals that most arthropod research cannot be verified

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Scientific findings need to be verifiable and grounded in repeatability. With specimen-level research this is in part achieved with the deposition of voucher specimens. These are labeled, curated, data-based specimens that have been deposited in a collection or museum, available for verification of the work and to ensure researchers are calling the same taxa by the same names. Voucher specimens themselves are the subject of research, from the discovery of new species by taxonomists to ecologists documenting historical records of invasive species. Our objective was to quantify the frequency of voucher specimen deposition in biodiversity and community ecology research through a survey of the peer-reviewed literature about arthropods, from 1989 until 2014. Overall rates of voucher deposition were alarmingly low, at under 25%. This rate increased significantly over time, with 35% of papers reporting on vouchers in 2014. Relative to the global mean, entomological research had a significantly higher rate of voucher deposition (46%), whereas researchers studying crustaceans deposited vouchers less than 6% of the time, significantly less than the mean. Researchers working in museums had a significantly higher frequency of voucher deposition. Our results suggest a significant culture shift about the process of vouchering specimens is required. There must be more education and mentoring about voucher specimens within laboratories and across different fields of study. Principal investigators and granting agencies need a proactive approach to ensuring specimen-level data are properly, long-term curated. Editorial boards and journals can also adopt policies to ensure papers are published only if explicit statements about the deposition of voucher specimens is provided. Although the gap is significant, achieving a higher rate of voucher specimen deposition is a worthy goal to ensure all research efforts are preserved for future generations. PMID:26339546

  11. A National Virtual Specimen Database for Early Cancer Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crichton, Daniel; Kincaid, Heather; Kelly, Sean; Thornquist, Mark; Johnsey, Donald; Winget, Marcy

    2003-01-01

    Access to biospecimens is essential for enabling cancer biomarker discovery. The National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) comprises and integrates a large number of laboratories into a network in order to establish a collaborative scientific environment to discover and validate disease markers. The diversity of both the institutions and the collaborative focus has created the need for establishing cross-disciplinary teams focused on integrating expertise in biomedical research, computational and biostatistics, and computer science. Given the collaborative design of the network, the EDRN needed an informatics infrastructure. The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, the National Cancer Institute,and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) teamed up to build an informatics infrastructure creating a collaborative, science-driven research environment despite the geographic and morphology differences of the information systems that existed within the diverse network. EDRN investigators identified the need to share biospecimen data captured across the country managed in disparate databases. As a result, the informatics team initiated an effort to create a virtual tissue database whereby scientists could search and locate details about specimens located at collaborating laboratories. Each database, however, was locally implemented and integrated into collection processes and methods unique to each institution. This meant that efforts to integrate databases needed to be done in a manner that did not require redesign or re-implementation of existing system

  12. Novel Use of Preoperative Epidermal Coloring of Very Small Dermatological Specimens-Protocol for Reduction of Lost Specimens.

    PubMed

    Surprenant, David; Garib, George; Hutchens, Kelli; Dreifke, Michael; Speiser, Jodi; Winterfield, Laura; Peterson, Anthony; Krol, Cindy; Adams, William; Tung, Rebecca

    2016-07-01

    Small tissue biopsies are often difficult to visualize and can be easily lost or mishandled. The authors hypothesized that full epidermal surface coloration of small skin lesions with a sterile skin marker (gentian violet ink) before performing shave biopsy would make small gross specimens easier to identify without impacting microscopic appearance. Live evaluation of 4 inked and 4 noninked gross (2-3 mm) specimens in covered and uncovered formalin-containing jars by 50 consecutive health care personnel demonstrated that inked specimens were significantly (P < 0.001) easier to visualize than noninked specimens. Additionally, a blinded dermatopathologist evaluated 25 inked and 25 noninked specimens microscopically. Utilization of this inking process did not interfere with histopathologic assessment or impede diagnosis. This pilot study describes an easily implementable quality improvement measure that may decrease the rate of loss and mishandling of specimens. PMID:26675356

  13. Influence of Specimen Preparation and Specimen Size on the Transverse Tensile Strength and Scatter of Glass Epoxy Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OBrien, T. Kevin; Chawan, Arun D.; DeMarco, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    The influence of specimen polishing, specimen configuration, and specimen size on the transverse tension strength of two glass epoxy materials loaded in three and four point bending was evaluated. Polishing machined edges, and/or tension side failure surfaces, was detrimental to specimen strength characterization instead of yielding a higher, more accurate, strength as a result of removing inherent manufacture and handling flaws. Transverse tension strength was sensitive to span length due to the classical weakest link effect. However, strength was less sensitive to volume changes achieved by increasing specimen width. The Weibull scaling law over-predicted changes in transverse tension strengths in three point bend tests and under-predicted changes in transverse tension strengths in four point bend tests. Furthermore, the Weibull slope varied with specimen configuration, volume, and sample size. Hence, the utility of this scaling law for predicting transverse tension strength is unclear.

  14. Morphological features of Ixodes persulcatus and I. ricinus hybrids: nymphs and adults.

    PubMed

    Bugmyrin, Sergey V; Belova, Oxana A; Bespyatova, Liubov A; Ieshko, Eugeniy P; Karganova, Galina G

    2016-07-01

    Our aim was to reveal morphological features of first-generation Ixodes persulcatus and I. ricinus hybrids (nymphs and adults) obtained under laboratory conditions for further study of natural populations of these species in sympatry foci. In 65 nymphs of three groups I. ricinus (23 specimens), I. persulcatus (21 specimens), and hybrids (21 specimens), 16 parameters were evaluated (length/width of the scutum and capitulum, length of the hypostome, palp, tarsus I, coxa I, sternal setae, and various scutal and alloscutal setae) and discrimination analysis was performed allowing differentiation of hybrid nymphs from original species. General effectiveness of classification of I. ricinus, I. persulcatus, and hybrids was >95 %. Discriminant functions are presented allowing classification of I. persulcatus, I. ricinus, and hybrid nymphs. For description of morphology, 27 adult hybrids (13 males and 14 females) were examined under a stereo microscope at 14-28× (without preparation of permanent mounts). The following morphological distinctions of hybrids from original species were described: posterior marginal groove is not clear (as in I. ricinus) and absence of syncoxa on coxa I (as in I persulcatus). In hybrid males, simultaneous absence of syncoxa on coxa I (as in I. persulcatus) and a long internal spur on coxa I (as in I. ricinus) can be used as a diagnostic feature. Based on the detected characteristics, 10 of 157 ticks collected in Karelia in I. ricinus and I. persulcatus sympatry area were classified as hybrids. PMID:26984610

  15. 76 FR 29794 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Teen Dating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... respondents for each portion of the collection: ] Concept Mapping Participation Targets Young Task Preteens... Targets Suggested location Preteens Teens Young Adults Total (11-13) (14-18) Adults regional...

  16. The Alaska Area Specimen Bank: a tribal-federal partnership to maintain and manage a resource for health research.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Alan J; Hennessy, Thomas; Bulkow, Lisa; Smith, H Sally

    2013-01-01

    Banked biospecimens from a defined population are a valuable resource that can be used to assess early markers for illness or to determine the prevalence of a disease to aid the development of intervention strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality. The Alaska Area Specimen Bank (AASB) currently contains 266,353 residual biologic specimens (serum, plasma, whole blood, tissue, bacterial cultures) from 83,841 persons who participated in research studies, public health investigations and clinical testing conducted by the U.S. Public Health Service and Alaska Native tribal health organisations dating back to 1961. The majority (95.7%) are serum specimens, 77% were collected between 1981 and 1994 and 85% were collected from Alaska Native people. Oversight of the specimen bank is provided by a working group with representation from tribal, state and federal health organisations, the Alaska Area IRB and a specimen bank committee which ensures the specimens are used in accordance with policies and procedures developed by the working group. PMID:23599909

  17. Revealing Invisible Beauty, Ultra Detailed: The Influence of Low Cost UV Exposure on Natural History Specimens in 2D+ Digitization.

    PubMed

    Brecko, Jonathan; Mathys, Aurore; Dekoninck, Wouter; De Ceukelaire, Marleen; VandenSpiegel, Didier; Semal, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Digitization of the natural history specimens usually occurs by taking detailed pictures from different sides or producing 3D models. Additionally this is normally limited to imaging the specimen while exposed by light of the visual spectrum. However many specimens can see in or react to other spectra as well. Fluorescence is a well known reaction to the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum by animals, plants, minerals etc. but rarely taken into account while examining natural history specimens. Our tests show that museum specimens still fluoresce when exposed to UV light of 395 nm and 365 nm, even after many years of preservation. When the UV exposure is used in the digitization of specimens using our low cost focus stacking (2D+) setup, the resulting pictures reveal more detail than the conventional 2D+ images. Differences in fluorescence using 395 nm or 365 nm UV lights were noticed, however there isn't a preferred wavelength as some specimens react more to the first, while others have better results with the latter exposure. Given the increased detail and the low cost of the system, UV exposure should be considered while digitizing natural history museum collections. PMID:27536993

  18. Effect of the specimen length on ultrasonic P-wave velocity in some volcanic rocks and limestones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaman, Kadir; Kaya, Ayberk; Kesimal, Ayhan

    2015-12-01

    Ultrasonic P-wave velocity (UPV) is commonly used in different fields such as civil, mining, geotechnical, and rock engineering. One of the significant parameters which affect the UPV of rock materials is likely to be the length of test cores although it is not mentioned in the literature. In this study, in order to explore the influence of the specimen length on the UPV, rock samples were collected from eight different locations in Turkey. The NX-sized core specimens having different length of 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 mm were prepared. Before the analyses, rocks were divided into two groups in terms of their geological origins such as volcanic and chemical sedimentary (limestone) rocks. The UPV tests were carried out under dry and saturated conditions for each 200 core specimens. By evaluating the test results, it was shown that the length of the specimens significantly affects the UPV values. Based on the regression analyses, a method was developed to determine the threshold specimen length of studied rocks. Fluctuations in UPVdry and UPVsat values were generally observed for cores smaller than the threshold specimen length. In this study, the threshold specimen length was determined as 79 mm for volcanic rocks and 109 mm for limestones.

  19. On the Use of a Driven Wedge Test to Acquire Dynamic Fracture Energies of Bonded Beam Specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Dillard, David A.; Pohilt, David; Jacob, George Chennakattu; Starbuck, Michael; Rakesh, Kapania

    2011-01-01

    A driven wedge test is used to characterize the mode I fracture resistance of adhesively bonded composite beam specimens over a range of crosshead rates up to 1 m/s. The shorter moment arms (between wedge contact and crack tip) significantly reduce inertial effects and stored energy in the debonded adherends, when compared with conventional means of testing double cantilever beam (DCB) specimens. This permitted collecting an order of magnitude more crack initiation events per specimen than could be obtained with end-loaded DCB specimens bonded with an epoxy exhibiting significant stick-slip behavior. The localized contact of the wedge with the adherends limits the amount of both elastic and kinetic energy, significantly reduces crack advance during slip events, and facilitates higher resolution imaging of the fracture zone with high speed imaging. The method appears to work well under both quasi-static and high rate loading, consistently providing substantially more discrete fracture events for specimens exhibiting pronounced stick-slip failures. Deflections associated with beam transverse shear and root rotation for the shorter beams were not negligible, so simple beam theory was inadequate for obtaining qualitative fracture energies. Finite element analysis of the specimens, however, showed that fracture energies were in good agreement with values obtained from traditional DCB tests. The method holds promise for use in dynamic testing and for characterizing bonded or laminated materials exhibiting significant stick slip behavior, reducing the number of specimens required to characterize a sufficient number of fracture events.

  20. Revealing Invisible Beauty, Ultra Detailed: The Influence of Low Cost UV Exposure on Natural History Specimens in 2D+ Digitization

    PubMed Central

    Brecko, Jonathan; Mathys, Aurore; Dekoninck, Wouter; De Ceukelaire, Marleen; VandenSpiegel, Didier; Semal, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Digitization of the natural history specimens usually occurs by taking detailed pictures from different sides or producing 3D models. Additionally this is normally limited to imaging the specimen while exposed by light of the visual spectrum. However many specimens can see in or react to other spectra as well. Fluorescence is a well known reaction to the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum by animals, plants, minerals etc. but rarely taken into account while examining natural history specimens. Our tests show that museum specimens still fluoresce when exposed to UV light of 395 nm and 365 nm, even after many years of preservation. When the UV exposure is used in the digitization of specimens using our low cost focus stacking (2D+) setup, the resulting pictures reveal more detail than the conventional 2D+ images. Differences in fluorescence using 395 nm or 365 nm UV lights were noticed, however there isn’t a preferred wavelength as some specimens react more to the first, while others have better results with the latter exposure. Given the increased detail and the low cost of the system, UV exposure should be considered while digitizing natural history museum collections. PMID:27536993