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Sample records for adult spoken corpora

  1. Biomechanically Preferred Consonant-Vowel Combinations Fail to Appear in Adult Spoken Corpora

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, D. H.; Giulivi, Sara; Nam, Hosung; Levitt, Andrea G.; Hallé, Pierre; Goldstein, Louis M.

    2012-01-01

    Certain consonant/vowel (CV) combinations are more frequent than would be expected from the individual C and V frequencies alone, both in babbling and, to a lesser extent, in adult language, based on dictionary counts: Labial consonants co-occur with central vowels more often than chance would dictate; coronals co-occur with front vowels, and velars with back vowels (Davis & MacNeilage, 1994). Plausible biomechanical explanations have been proposed, but it is also possible that infants are mirroring the frequency of the CVs that they hear. As noted, previous assessments of adult language were based on dictionaries; these “type” counts are incommensurate with the babbling measures, which are necessarily “token” counts. We analyzed the tokens in two spoken corpora for English, two for French and one for Mandarin. We found that the adult spoken CV preferences correlated with the type counts for Mandarin and French, not for English. Correlations between the adult spoken corpora and the babbling results had all three possible outcomes: significantly positive (French), uncorrelated (Mandarin), and significantly negative (English). There were no correlations of the dictionary data with the babbling results when we consider all nine combinations of consonants and vowels. The results indicate that spoken frequencies of CV combinations can differ from dictionary (type) counts and that the CV preferences apparent in babbling are biomechanically driven and can ignore the frequencies of CVs in the ambient spoken language. PMID:23420980

  2. Biomechanically Preferred Consonant-Vowel Combinations Fail to Appear in Adult Spoken Corpora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, D. H.; Giulivi, Sara; Nam, Hosung; Levitt, Andrea G.; Halle, Pierre; Goldstein, Louis M.

    2012-01-01

    Certain consonant/vowel (CV) combinations are more frequent than would be expected from the individual C and V frequencies alone, both in babbling and, to a lesser extent, in adult language, based on dictionary counts: Labial consonants co-occur with central vowels more often than chance would dictate; coronals co-occur with front vowels, and…

  3. The Spoken Word as Arts-Based Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriweather, Lisa R.

    2011-01-01

    Arts-based adult education has been embraced by a growing number of adult educators. These educators have explored its potential in the workplace, in the community and in academia. This article contributes to this work by exploring the Spoken Word, an art form located within the genre of poetry, and its potential as a tool of arts-based adult…

  4. JH Biosynthesis by Reproductive Tissues and Corpora Allata in Adult Longhorned Beetles, Apriona germari

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report on juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis from long-chain intermediates by specific reproductive system tissues and the corpora allata (CA) prepared from adult longhorned beetles, Apriona germari. Testes, male accessory glands (MAGs), ovaries and CA contain the long-chain intermediates in the ...

  5. The Effect of Redundant Cues on Comprehension of Spoken Messages by Aphasic Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venus, Carol A.; Canter, Gerald J.

    1987-01-01

    Aphasic adults (N=16) with severe auditory comprehension impairment were evaluated for comprehension of redundant and nonredundant spoken and/or gestured messages. Results indicated redundancy was not reliably superior to spoken messages alone. (Author/DB)

  6. Spoken Oral Language and Adult Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhtiari, Dariush; Greenberg, Daphne; Patton-Terry, Nicole; Nightingale, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Oral language is a critical component to the development of reading acquisition. Much of the research concerning the relationship between oral language and reading ability is focused on children, while there is a paucity of research focusing on this relationship for adults who struggle with their reading. Oral language as defined in this paper…

  7. Conveying Information about Adjective Meanings in Spoken Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    This study examined information about adjective meanings available in adults' spoken discourse in the original 27 CHILDES corpora of typically developing English-speaking children. In order to increase the probability that adjectives would be novel to children to whom they were addressed, only "rare" adjectives were examined (those that occurred…

  8. Novel Spoken Word Learning in Adults with Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Peggy S.

    2013-01-01

    A high percentage of individuals with dyslexia struggle to learn unfamiliar spoken words, creating a significant obstacle to foreign language learning after early childhood. The origin of spoken-word learning difficulties in this population, generally thought to be related to the underlying literacy deficit, is not well defined (e.g., Di Betta…

  9. A Corpus-Based Study on Turkish Spoken Productions of Bilingual Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agçam, Reyhan; Bulut, Adem

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated whether monolingual adult speakers of Turkish and bilingual adult speakers of Arabic and Turkish significantly differ regarding their spoken productions in Turkish. Accordingly, two groups of undergraduate students studying Turkish Language and Literature at a state university in Turkey were presented two videos on a…

  10. Differences between young and older adults' spoken language production in descriptions of negative versus neutral pictures.

    PubMed

    Castro, Nichol; James, Lori E

    2014-01-01

    Young and older participants produced oral picture descriptions that were analyzed to determine the impact of negative emotional content on spoken language production. An interaction was found for speech disfluencies: young adults' disfluencies did not vary, whereas older adults' disfluencies increased, for negative compared to neutral pictures. Young adults adopted a faster speech rate while describing negative compared to neutral pictures, but older adults did not. Reference errors were uncommon for both age groups, but occurred more during descriptions of negative than neutral pictures. Our findings indicate that negative content can be differentially disruptive to older adults' spoken language production, and add to the literature on aging, emotion, and cognition by exploring effects within the domain of language production.

  11. Delayed Anticipatory Spoken Language Processing in Adults with Dyslexia—Evidence from Eye-tracking.

    PubMed

    Huettig, Falk; Brouwer, Susanne

    2015-05-01

    It is now well established that anticipation of upcoming input is a key characteristic of spoken language comprehension. It has also frequently been observed that literacy influences spoken language processing. Here, we investigated whether anticipatory spoken language processing is related to individuals' word reading abilities. Dutch adults with dyslexia and a control group participated in two eye-tracking experiments. Experiment 1 was conducted to assess whether adults with dyslexia show the typical language-mediated eye gaze patterns. Eye movements of both adults with and without dyslexia closely replicated earlier research: spoken language is used to direct attention to relevant objects in the environment in a closely time-locked manner. In Experiment 2, participants received instructions (e.g., 'Kijk naar de(COM) afgebeelde piano(COM)', look at the displayed piano) while viewing four objects. Articles (Dutch 'het' or 'de') were gender marked such that the article agreed in gender only with the target, and thus, participants could use gender information from the article to predict the target object. The adults with dyslexia anticipated the target objects but much later than the controls. Moreover, participants' word reading scores correlated positively with their anticipatory eye movements. We conclude by discussing the mechanisms by which reading abilities may influence predictive language processing.

  12. Delayed Anticipatory Spoken Language Processing in Adults with Dyslexia—Evidence from Eye-tracking.

    PubMed

    Huettig, Falk; Brouwer, Susanne

    2015-05-01

    It is now well established that anticipation of upcoming input is a key characteristic of spoken language comprehension. It has also frequently been observed that literacy influences spoken language processing. Here, we investigated whether anticipatory spoken language processing is related to individuals' word reading abilities. Dutch adults with dyslexia and a control group participated in two eye-tracking experiments. Experiment 1 was conducted to assess whether adults with dyslexia show the typical language-mediated eye gaze patterns. Eye movements of both adults with and without dyslexia closely replicated earlier research: spoken language is used to direct attention to relevant objects in the environment in a closely time-locked manner. In Experiment 2, participants received instructions (e.g., 'Kijk naar de(COM) afgebeelde piano(COM)', look at the displayed piano) while viewing four objects. Articles (Dutch 'het' or 'de') were gender marked such that the article agreed in gender only with the target, and thus, participants could use gender information from the article to predict the target object. The adults with dyslexia anticipated the target objects but much later than the controls. Moreover, participants' word reading scores correlated positively with their anticipatory eye movements. We conclude by discussing the mechanisms by which reading abilities may influence predictive language processing. PMID:25820191

  13. Relations among Linguistic and Cognitive Skills and Spoken Word Recognition in Adults with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collison, Elizabeth A.; Munson, Benjamin; Carney, Arlene Earley

    2004-01-01

    This study examined spoken word recognition in adults with cochlear implants (CIs) to determine the extent to which linguistic and cognitive abilities predict variability in speech-perception performance. Both a traditional consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC)-repetition measure and a gated-word recognition measure (F. Grosjean, 1996) were used.…

  14. Relationships among vocabulary size, nonverbal cognition, and spoken word recognition in adults with cochlear implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collison, Elizabeth A.; Munson, Benjamin; Carney, Arlene E.

    2002-05-01

    Recent research has attempted to identify the factors that predict speech perception performance among users of cochlear implants (CIs). Studies have found that approximately 20%-60% of the variance in speech perception scores can be accounted for by factors including duration of deafness, etiology, type of device, and length of implant use, leaving approximately 50% of the variance unaccounted for. The current study examines the extent to which vocabulary size and nonverbal cognitive ability predict CI listeners' spoken word recognition. Fifteen postlingually deafened adults with nucleus or clarion CIs were given standardized assessments of nonverbal cognitive ability and expressive vocabulary size: the Expressive Vocabulary Test, the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-III, and the Woodcock-Johnson-III Test of Cognitive Ability, Verbal Comprehension subtest. Two spoken word recognition tasks were administered. In the first, listeners identified isophonemic CVC words. In the second, listeners identified gated words varying in lexical frequency and neighborhood density. Analyses will examine the influence of lexical frequency and neighborhood density on the uniqueness point in the gating task, as well as relationships among nonverbal cognitive ability, vocabulary size, and the two spoken word recognition measures. [Work supported by NIH Grant P01 DC00110 and by the Lions 3M Hearing Foundation.

  15. Comparability of lexical corpora: word frequency in phonological generalization.

    PubMed

    Gierut, Judith A; Dale, Rachel A

    2007-06-01

    Statistical regularities in language have been examined for new insight to the language acquisition process. This line of study has aided theory advancement, but it also has raised methodological concerns about the applicability of corpora data to child populations. One issue is whether it is appropriate to extend the regularities observed in the speech of adults to developing linguistic systems. The purpose of this paper is to establish the comparability of lexical corpora in accounting for behavioural effects of word frequency on children's phonological generalization. Four word frequency corpora were evaluated in comparison of child/adult and written/spoken sources. These were applied post-hoc to generalization data previously reported for two preschool children. Results showed that the interpretation of phonological generalization was the same within and across children, regardless of the corpus being used. Phonological gains were more evident in low than high frequency words. The findings have implications for the design of probabilistic studies of language acquisition and clinical treatment programmes.

  16. Constructing the Taiwanese Componet of the Louvain International Database of Spoken English Interlanguage (LINDSEI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Lan-fen

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the compilation of a corpus of Taiwanese students' spoken English, which is one of the sub-corpora of the Louvain International Database of Spoken English Interlanguage (LINDSEI) (Gilquin, De Cock, & Granger, 2010). LINDSEI is one of the largest corpora of learner speech. The compilation process follows the design criteria…

  17. Modelling longitudinal changes in older adults' memory for spoken discourse: findings from the ACTIVE cohort.

    PubMed

    Payne, Brennan R; Gross, Alden L; Parisi, Jeanine M; Sisco, Shannon M; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A L; Marsiske, Michael; Rebok, George W

    2014-01-01

    Episodic memory shows substantial declines with advancing age, but research on longitudinal trajectories of spoken discourse memory (SDM) in older adulthood is limited. Using parallel process latent growth curve models, we examined 10 years of longitudinal data from the no-contact control group (N = 698) of the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) randomised controlled trial in order to test (1) the degree to which SDM declines with advancing age, (2) the predictors of these age-related declines and (3) the within-person relationship between longitudinal changes in SDM and longitudinal changes in fluid reasoning and verbal ability over 10 years, independent of age. Individuals who were younger, were White, had more years of formal education, were male and had better global cognitive function and episodic memory performance at baseline demonstrated greater levels of SDM on average. However, only age at baseline uniquely predicted longitudinal changes in SDM, such that declines accelerated with greater age. Independent of age, within-person decline in reasoning ability over the 10-year study period was substantially correlated with decline in SDM (r = .87). An analogous association with SDM did not hold for verbal ability. The findings suggest that longitudinal declines in fluid cognition are associated with reduced spoken language comprehension. Unlike findings from memory for written prose, preserved verbal ability may not protect against developmental declines in memory for speech.

  18. Linguistic Corpora and Lexicography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meijs, Willem

    1996-01-01

    Overviews the development of corpus linguistics, reviews the use of corpora in modern lexicography, and presents central issues in ongoing work aimed at broadening the scope of lexicographical use of corpus data. Focuses on how the field has developed in relation to the production of new monolingual English dictionaries by major British…

  19. Online Lexical Competition during Spoken Word Recognition and Word Learning in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Lisa; Weighall, Anna; Brown, Helen; Gaskell, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    Lexical competition that occurs as speech unfolds is a hallmark of adult oral language comprehension crucial to rapid incremental speech processing. This study used pause detection to examine whether lexical competition operates similarly at 7-8 years and tested variables that influence "online" lexical activity in adults. Children…

  20. Functions of the cortico-basal ganglia circuits for spoken language may extend beyond emotional-affective modulation in adults.

    PubMed

    Hanakawa, Takashi; Hosoda, Chihiro

    2014-12-01

    We support Ackermann et al.'s proposal that the cortico-basal ganglia circuits may play essential roles in the evolution of spoken language. Here we discuss further evidence indicating that the cortico-basal ganglia circuits may contribute to various aspects of spoken language including planning, learning, and controlling of speech in adulthood.

  1. Decreased Sensitivity to Phonemic Mismatch in Spoken Word Processing in Adult Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janse, Esther; de Bree, Elise; Brouwer, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Initial lexical activation in typical populations is a direct reflection of the goodness of fit between the presented stimulus and the intended target. In this study, lexical activation was investigated upon presentation of polysyllabic pseudowords (such as "procodile for crocodile") for the atypical population of dyslexic adults to see to what…

  2. Spoken Lebanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feghali, Maksoud N.

    This book teaches the Arabic Lebanese dialect through topics such as food, clothing, transportation, and leisure activities. It also provides background material on the Arab World in general and the region where Lebanese Arabic is spoken or understood--Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Palestine--in particular. This language guide is based on the phonetic…

  3. Adult age differences in the use of prosody for syntactic parsing and recall of spoken sentences.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, A; Wayland, S C; Stine, E A

    1992-09-01

    In this experiment, young and elderly adults listened to and recalled sentences that were varied in speech rate through computer-controlled time compression. Half of the sentences at each speech rate were presented with a normal prosodic pattern that reinforced the lexically defined syntactic structure of the sentences, and half were presented with a prosodic contour that conflicted with that structure. Both young and elderly subjects showed better recall for slower speech rates and when prosody was consistent with syntactic structure, but these effects were larger for elderly subjects. When syntax and prosody were placed in conflict, elderly subjects were more likely than the young to reconstruct the lexical content of the presented sentences to produce responses with a syntactic structure consistent with the prosody marking. Although elderly adults may be disadvantaged by rapid speech input rates, we show that they rely on normal prosody to aid syntactic parsing as a step toward language comprehension.

  4. Grammatical processing of spoken language in child and adult language learners.

    PubMed

    Felser, Claudia; Clahsen, Harald

    2009-06-01

    This article presents a selective overview of studies that have investigated auditory language processing in children and late second-language (L2) learners using online methods such as event-related potentials (ERPs), eye-movement monitoring, or the cross-modal priming paradigm. Two grammatical phenomena are examined in detail, children's and adults' processing of German plural inflections (Lück et al. Brain Res 1077:144-152, 2006; Hahne et al. J Cognitive Neurosci 18:121-134, 2006; Clahsen et al. J Child Language 34:601-622, 2007) and language learners' processing of filler-gap dependencies in English (Felser C, Roberts L Second Language Res 23:9-36, 2007; Roberts et al. J Psycholinguist Res 36:175-188, 2007). The results from these studies reveal clear differences between native and nonnative processing in both domains of grammar, suggesting that nonnative listeners rely less on grammatical parsing routines during processing than either child or adult native listeners. We also argue that factors such as slower processing speed or cognitive resource limitations only provide a partial account of our findings.

  5. Regulation of the corpora allata in male larvae of the cockroach Diploptera punctata

    SciTech Connect

    Paulson, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    The regulation of corpora allata was studied in final instar males of Diploptera punctata. The glands were manipulated in vivo and removed to determine the effect by in vitro radiochemical assay for juvenile hormone synthesis. Corpora allata were also treated with putative regulatory factors in vitro. During the final stadium the corpora allata were inhibited both by nerves and by humoral factors. Neural inhibition was shown by an increase in juvenile hormone synthesis following denervation of the corpora allata. This operation elicited an extra larval instar. Humoral inhibition was shown by the decline in juvenile hormone synthesis of adult female corpora allata following transplantation into final instar larval hosts, and conversely the increase in juvenile hormone synthesis by larval corpora allata following implantation into adult females. Humoral inhibition was prevented by decapitation of larvae prior to the head critical period for molting and restored by implantation of a larval brain, showing that the brain is the source of this inhibition.

  6. Audiovisual spoken word training can promote or impede auditory-only perceptual learning: prelingually deafened adults with late-acquired cochlear implants versus normal hearing adults

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Lynne E.; Eberhardt, Silvio P.; Auer, Edward T.

    2014-01-01

    Training with audiovisual (AV) speech has been shown to promote auditory perceptual learning of vocoded acoustic speech by adults with normal hearing. In Experiment 1, we investigated whether AV speech promotes auditory-only (AO) perceptual learning in prelingually deafened adults with late-acquired cochlear implants. Participants were assigned to learn associations between spoken disyllabic C(=consonant)V(=vowel)CVC non-sense words and non-sense pictures (fribbles), under AV and then AO (AV-AO; or counter-balanced AO then AV, AO-AV, during Periods 1 then 2) training conditions. After training on each list of paired-associates (PA), testing was carried out AO. Across all training, AO PA test scores improved (7.2 percentage points) as did identification of consonants in new untrained CVCVC stimuli (3.5 percentage points). However, there was evidence that AV training impeded immediate AO perceptual learning: During Period-1, training scores across AV and AO conditions were not different, but AO test scores were dramatically lower in the AV-trained participants. During Period-2 AO training, the AV-AO participants obtained significantly higher AO test scores, demonstrating their ability to learn the auditory speech. Across both orders of training, whenever training was AV, AO test scores were significantly lower than training scores. Experiment 2 repeated the procedures with vocoded speech and 43 normal-hearing adults. Following AV training, their AO test scores were as high as or higher than following AO training. Also, their CVCVC identification scores patterned differently than those of the cochlear implant users. In Experiment 1, initial consonants were most accurate, and in Experiment 2, medial consonants were most accurate. We suggest that our results are consistent with a multisensory reverse hierarchy theory, which predicts that, whenever possible, perceivers carry out perceptual tasks immediately based on the experience and biases they bring to the task. We

  7. Integrating Learner Corpora and Natural Language Processing: A Crucial Step towards Reconciling Technological Sophistication and Pedagogical Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granger, Sylviane; Kraif, Olivier; Ponton, Claude; Antoniadis, Georges; Zampa, Virginie

    2007-01-01

    Learner corpora, electronic collections of spoken or written data from foreign language learners, offer unparalleled access to many hitherto uncovered aspects of learner language, particularly in their error-tagged format. This article aims to demonstrate the role that the learner corpus can play in CALL, particularly when used in conjunction with…

  8. Peptidomic Analysis of the Brain and Corpora Cardiaca-Corpora Allata Complex in the Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoguang; Ning, Xia; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Wenfeng; Zhao, Zhangwu; Zhang, Qingwen

    2012-01-01

    The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is an important economic insect for silk production. However, many of the mature peptides relevant to its various life stages remain unknown. Using RP-HPLC, MALDI-TOF MS, and previously identified peptides from B. mori and other insects in the transcriptome database, we created peptide profiles showing a total of 6 ion masses that could be assigned to peptides in eggs, including one previously unidentified peptide. A further 49 peptides were assigned to larval brains. 17 new mature peptides were identified in isolated masses. 39 peptides were found in pupal brains with 8 unidentified peptides. 48 were found in adult brains with 12 unidentified peptides. These new unidentified peptides showed highly significant matches in all MS analysis. These matches were then searched against the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database to provide new annotations for these mature peptides. In total, 59 mature peptides in 19 categories were found in the brains of silkworms at the larval, pupal, and adult stages. These results demonstrate that peptidomic variation across different developmental stages can be dramatic. Moreover, the corpora cardiaca-corpora allata (CC-CA) complex was examined during the fifth larval instar. A total of 41 ion masses were assigned to peptides. PMID:23316247

  9. The company that words keep: comparing the statistical structure of child- versus adult-directed language.

    PubMed

    Hills, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    Does child-directed language differ from adult-directed language in ways that might facilitate word learning? Associative structure (the probability that a word appears with its free associates), contextual diversity, word repetitions and frequency were compared longitudinally across six language corpora, with four corpora of language directed at children aged 1.0 to 5.0, and two adult-directed corpora representing spoken and written language. Statistics were adjusted relative to shuffled corpora. Child-directed language was found to be more associative, repetitive and consistent than adult-directed language. Moreover, these statistical properties of child-directed language better predicted word acquisition than the same statistics in adult-directed language. Word frequency and repetitions were the best predictors within word classes (nouns, verbs, adjectives and function words). For all word classes combined, associative structure, contextual diversity and word repetitions best predicted language acquisition. These results support the hypothesis that child-directed language is structured in ways that facilitate language acquisition.

  10. Text exposure predicts spoken production of complex sentences in eight and twelve year old children and adults

    PubMed Central

    Montag, Jessica L.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2015-01-01

    There is still much debate about the nature of the experiential and maturational changes that take place during childhood to bring about the sophisticated language abilities of an adult. The present study investigated text exposure as a possible source of linguistic experience that plays a role in the development of adult-like language abilities. Corpus analyses of object and passive relative clauses (Object: The book that the woman carried; Passive: The book that was carried by the woman) established the frequencies of these sentence types in child-directed speech and children's literature. We found that relative clauses of either type were more frequent in the written corpus, and that the ratio of passive to object relatives was much higher in the written corpus as well. This analysis suggests that passive relative clauses are much more frequent in a child's linguistic environment if they have high rates of text exposure. We then elicited object and passive relative clauses using a picture-description production task with eight and twelve year old children and adults. Both group and individual differences were consistent with the corpus analyses, such that older individuals and individuals with more text exposure produced more passive relative clauses. These findings suggest that the qualitatively different patterns of text versus speech may be an important source of linguistic experience for the development of adult-like language behavior. PMID:25844625

  11. Text exposure predicts spoken production of complex sentences in 8- and 12-year-old children and adults.

    PubMed

    Montag, Jessica L; MacDonald, Maryellen C

    2015-04-01

    There is still much debate about the nature of the experiential and maturational changes that take place during childhood to bring about the sophisticated language abilities of an adult. The present study investigated text exposure as a possible source of linguistic experience that plays a role in the development of adult-like language abilities. Corpus analyses of object and passive relative clauses (Object: The book that the woman carried; Passive: The book that was carried by the woman) established the frequencies of these sentence types in child-directed speech and children's literature. We found that relative clauses of either type were more frequent in the written corpus, and that the ratio of passive to object relatives was much higher in the written corpus as well. This analysis suggests that passive relative clauses are much more frequent in a child's linguistic environment if they have high rates of text exposure. We then elicited object and passive relative clauses using a picture-description production task with 8- and 12-year-old children and adults. Both group and individual differences were consistent with the corpus analyses, such that older individuals and individuals with more text exposure produced more passive relative clauses. These findings suggest that the qualitatively different patterns of text versus speech may be an important source of linguistic experience for the development of adult-like language behavior.

  12. Using Monolingual and Bilingual Corpora in Lexicography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miangah, Tayebeh Mosavi

    2009-01-01

    Constructing and exploiting different types of corpora are among computer applications exposed to the researchers in different branches of science including lexicography. In lexicography, different types of corpora may be of great help in finding the most appropriate uses of words and expressions by referring to numerous examples and citations.…

  13. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-02-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  14. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-01-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  15. A Word by Any Other Intonation: FMRI Evidence for Implicit Memory Traces for Pitch Contours of Spoken Words in Adult Brains

    PubMed Central

    Inspector, Michael; Manor, David; Amir, Noam; Kushnir, Tamar; Karni, Avi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Intonation may serve as a cue for facilitated recognition and processing of spoken words and it has been suggested that the pitch contour of spoken words is implicitly remembered. Thus, using the repetition suppression (RS) effect of BOLD-fMRI signals, we tested whether the same spoken words are differentially processed in language and auditory brain areas depending on whether or not they retain an arbitrary intonation pattern. Experimental design Words were presented repeatedly in three blocks for passive and active listening tasks. There were three prosodic conditions in each of which a different set of words was used and specific task-irrelevant intonation changes were applied: (i) All words presented in a set flat monotonous pitch contour (ii) Each word had an arbitrary pitch contour that was set throughout the three repetitions. (iii) Each word had a different arbitrary pitch contour in each of its repetition. Principal findings The repeated presentations of words with a set pitch contour, resulted in robust behavioral priming effects as well as in significant RS of the BOLD signals in primary auditory cortex (BA 41), temporal areas (BA 21 22) bilaterally and in Broca's area. However, changing the intonation of the same words on each successive repetition resulted in reduced behavioral priming and the abolition of RS effects. Conclusions Intonation patterns are retained in memory even when the intonation is task-irrelevant. Implicit memory traces for the pitch contour of spoken words were reflected in facilitated neuronal processing in auditory and language associated areas. Thus, the results lend support for the notion that prosody and specifically pitch contour is strongly associated with the memory representation of spoken words. PMID:24391713

  16. Research on Spoken Dialogue Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aist, Gregory; Hieronymus, James; Dowding, John; Hockey, Beth Ann; Rayner, Manny; Chatzichrisafis, Nikos; Farrell, Kim; Renders, Jean-Michel

    2010-01-01

    Research in the field of spoken dialogue systems has been performed with the goal of making such systems more robust and easier to use in demanding situations. The term "spoken dialogue systems" signifies unified software systems containing speech-recognition, speech-synthesis, dialogue management, and ancillary components that enable human users to communicate, using natural spoken language or nearly natural prescribed spoken language, with other software systems that provide information and/or services.

  17. Spoken Turkish. Book One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuown, Norman A.; Koylan, Sadi

    This is the first volume of a self-teaching textbook designed as a general introduction to spoken Turkish. It is a newly reformulated education of a text originally published for the armed forces in 1945. The method used in this manual requires either that a native speaker of Turkish be on hand during the course or that the recorded voice of a…

  18. Spoken Turkish. Book Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuown, Norman A.; Koylan, Sadi

    This is the second volume of a self-teaching textbook designed as a general introduction to spoken Turkish. It is a newly reformulated edition of a text originally published for the armed forces in 1945. The method used in this manual requires either that a native speaker of Turkish be on hand during the course or that the recorded voice of a…

  19. SPOKEN ENGLISH FOR TURKS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WISE, SHELDON; AND OTHERS

    "SPOKEN ENGLISH FOR TURKS," BASED ON ROBERT B. LEES'"KONUSULAN INGILIZCE" (WASHINGTON, D.C., AMERICAN COUNCIL OF LEARNED SOCIETIES, 1957), COMPRISES A GRADED AND CONTROLLED SERIES OF BEGINNING TO ADVANCED TEXTS FOR TURKISH STUDENTS OF ENGLISH AT COLLEGE PREPARATORY LEVEL. ORAL-AURAL IN APPROACH, A KEY FEATURE OF THE SERIES IS ITS USE OF A…

  20. The Spoken Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yule, George

    1989-01-01

    An analysis is made of research focusing on how speaking and listening activities are relevant to the language classroom. Current thinking is reviewed on spoken language, with a focus on pronunciation, as a medium of information transfer and of interpersonal exchange. (66 references) (GLR)

  1. Assessment of Spoken English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolfe, Elizabeth

    This study examined the usefulness of an evaluation procedure designed to measure performance in spoken English. Rating involved assessment of the prose reading and conversation skills of 57 first-year students at Wellington Teachers' College, New Zealand. Specific topics of investigation included the consistency of "general impression" ratings…

  2. Teaching the Spoken Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gillian

    1981-01-01

    Issues involved in teaching and assessing communicative competence are identified and applied to adolescent native English speakers with low levels of academic achievement. A distinction is drawn between transactional versus interactional speech, short versus long speaking turns, and spoken language influenced or not influenced by written…

  3. Proposed Framework for the Evaluation of Standalone Corpora Processing Systems: An Application to Arabic Corpora

    PubMed Central

    Al-Thubaity, Abdulmohsen; Alqifari, Reem

    2014-01-01

    Despite the accessibility of numerous online corpora, students and researchers engaged in the fields of Natural Language Processing (NLP), corpus linguistics, and language learning and teaching may encounter situations in which they need to develop their own corpora. Several commercial and free standalone corpora processing systems are available to process such corpora. In this study, we first propose a framework for the evaluation of standalone corpora processing systems and then use it to evaluate seven freely available systems. The proposed framework considers the usability, functionality, and performance of the evaluated systems while taking into consideration their suitability for Arabic corpora. While the results show that most of the evaluated systems exhibited comparable usability scores, the scores for functionality and performance were substantially different with respect to support for the Arabic language and N-grams profile generation. The results of our evaluation will help potential users of the evaluated systems to choose the system that best meets their needs. More importantly, the results will help the developers of the evaluated systems to enhance their systems and developers of new corpora processing systems by providing them with a reference framework. PMID:25610910

  4. Predictors of spoken language learning

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Patrick C. M.; Ettlinger, Marc

    2011-01-01

    We report two sets of experiments showing that the large individual variability in language learning success in adults can be attributed to neurophysiological, neuroanatomical, cognitive, and perceptual factors. In the first set of experiments, native English-speaking adults learned to incorporate lexically meaningfully pitch patterns in words. We found those who were successful to have higher activation in bilateral auditory cortex, larger volume in Heschl’s Gyrus, and more accurate pitch pattern perception. All of these measures were performed before training began. In the second set of experiments, native English-speaking adults learned a phonological grammatical system governing the formation of words of an artificial language. Again, neurophysiological, neuroanatomical, and cognitive factors predicted to an extent how well these adults learned. Taken together, these experiments suggest that neural and behavioral factors can be used to predict spoken language learning. These predictors can inform the redesign of existing training paradigms to maximize learning for learners with different learning profiles. Learning outcomes: Readers will be able to: (a) understand the linguistic concepts of lexical tone and phonological grammar, (b) identify the brain regions associated with learning lexical tone and phonological grammar, and (c) identify the cognitive predictors for successful learning of a tone language and phonological rules. PMID:21601868

  5. Functional characterization of an allatotropin receptor expressed in the corpora allata of mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Nouzova, Marcela; Brockhoff, Anne; Mayoral, Jaime G.; Goodwin, Marianne; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Noriega, Fernando G.

    2011-01-01

    Allatotropin is an insect neuropeptide with pleiotropic actions on a variety of different tissues. In the present work we describe the identification, cloning and functional and molecular characterization of an Aedes aegypti allatotropin receptor (AeATr) and provide a detailed quantitative study of the expression of the AeATr gene in the adult mosquito. Analysis of the tissue distribution of AeATr mRNA in adult female revealed high transcript levels in the nervous system (brain, abdominal, thoracic and ventral ganglia), corpora allata-corpora cardiaca complex and ovary. The receptor is also expressed in heart, hindgut and male testis and accessory glands. Separation of the corpora allata (CA) and corpora cardiaca followed by analysis of gene expression in the isolated glands revealed expression of the AeATr primarily in the CA. In the female CA, the AeATr mRNA levels were low in the early pupae, started increasing 6 hours before adult eclosion and reached a maximum 24 hours after female emergence. Blood feeding resulted in a decrease in transcript levels. The pattern of changes of AeATr mRNA resembles the changes in JH biosynthesis. Fluorometric Imaging Plate Reader recordings of calcium transients in HEK293 cells expressing the AeATr showed a selective response to A. aegypti allatotropin stimulation in the low nanomolar concentration range. Our studies suggest that the AeATr play a role in the regulation of JH synthesis in mosquitoes. PMID:21839791

  6. Comparing English Vocabulary in a Spoken Learner Corpus with a Native Speaker Corpus: Pedagogical Implications Arising from an Empirical Study in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirato, Junko; Stapleton, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Insights from corpus linguistics have come to be seen as having a significant impact in second language pedagogy. Learner corpora, or collections of texts spoken or written by non-native speakers (NNS) of a language, are now being used for the purposes of enhancing language teaching. Specifically, by comparing the corpus of NNS with native…

  7. Mining Quality Phrases from Massive Text Corpora

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jialu; Shang, Jingbo; Wang, Chi; Ren, Xiang; Han, Jiawei

    2015-01-01

    Text data are ubiquitous and play an essential role in big data applications. However, text data are mostly unstructured. Transforming unstructured text into structured units (e.g., semantically meaningful phrases) will substantially reduce semantic ambiguity and enhance the power and efficiency at manipulating such data using database technology. Thus mining quality phrases is a critical research problem in the field of databases. In this paper, we propose a new framework that extracts quality phrases from text corpora integrated with phrasal segmentation. The framework requires only limited training but the quality of phrases so generated is close to human judgment. Moreover, the method is scalable: both computation time and required space grow linearly as corpus size increases. Our experiments on large text corpora demonstrate the quality and efficiency of the new method. PMID:26705375

  8. Metaphor identification in large texts corpora.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Yair; Assaf, Dan; Cohen, Yohai; Last, Mark; Argamon, Shlomo; Howard, Newton; Frieder, Ophir

    2013-01-01

    Identifying metaphorical language-use (e.g., sweet child) is one of the challenges facing natural language processing. This paper describes three novel algorithms for automatic metaphor identification. The algorithms are variations of the same core algorithm. We evaluate the algorithms on two corpora of Reuters and the New York Times articles. The paper presents the most comprehensive study of metaphor identification in terms of scope of metaphorical phrases and annotated corpora size. Algorithms' performance in identifying linguistic phrases as metaphorical or literal has been compared to human judgment. Overall, the algorithms outperform the state-of-the-art algorithm with 71% precision and 27% averaged improvement in prediction over the base-rate of metaphors in the corpus.

  9. Sharing Spoken Language: Sounds, Conversations, and Told Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birckmayer, Jennifer; Kennedy, Anne; Stonehouse, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Infants and toddlers encounter numerous spoken story experiences early in their lives: conversations, oral stories, and language games such as songs and rhymes. Many adults are even surprised to learn that children this young need these kinds of natural language experiences at all. Adults help very young children take a step along the path toward…

  10. Grammar and the Spoken Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Ronald; McCarthy, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Argues that second language teaching that aims to foster speaking skills and natural spoken interaction should be based upon the grammar of spoken language, not on grammars that mainly reflect written norms. Using evidence from a mini-corpus of conversational English, it is shown that popular pedagogical grammars are deficient in conversational…

  11. Grammar and the Spoken Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Ronald; McCarthy, Michael

    This paper argues that second language instruction that aims to foster speaking skills and natural spoken interaction should be based upon the grammar of the spoken language, and not on grammars that reflect written norms. Using evidence from a corpus of conversational English, this examination focuses on how four grammatical features that occur…

  12. From Pedagogically Relevant Corpora to Authentic Language Learning Contents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    The potential of corpora for language learning and teaching has been widely acknowledged and their ready availability on the Web has facilitated access for a broad range of users, including language teachers and learners. However, the integration of corpora into general language learning and teaching practice has so far been disappointing. In this…

  13. Learner Corpora: The Missing Link in EAP Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilquin, Gaetanelle; Granger, Sylviane; Paquot, Magali

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the place of learner corpora, i.e. corpora containing authentic language data produced by learners of a foreign/second language, in English for academic purposes (EAP) pedagogy and sets out to demonstrate that they have a valuable contribution to make to the field. Following an initial brief introduction to corpus-based…

  14. Corpora and Language Assessment: The State of the Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Kwanghyun

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines the current state of and recent developments in the use of corpora for language assessment and considers future directions with a special focus on computational methodology. Because corpora began to make inroads into language assessment in the 1990s, test developers have increasingly used them as a reference resource to…

  15. The Importance of Corpora in Translation Studies: A Practical Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bermúdez Bausela, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of corpora in Translation Studies, particularly with the so-called "'ad hoc' corpus" or "translator's corpus" as a working tool both in the classroom and for the professional translator. We believe that corpora are an inestimable source not only for terminology and phraseology extraction (cf. Maia,…

  16. Enhanced Plasticity in Spoken Language Acquisition for Child Learners: Evidence from Phonetic Training Studies in Child and Adult Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannakopoulou, Anastasia; Uther, Maria; Ylinen, Sari

    2013-01-01

    Speech sounds that contain multiple phonetic cues are often difficult for foreign-language learners, especially if certain cues are weighted differently in the foreign and native languages. Greek adult and child speakers of English were studied to determine the effect of native language on second-language (L2) cue weighting and, in particular, to…

  17. The Acceleration of Spoken-Word Processing in Children's Native-Language Acquisition: An ERP Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojima, Shiro; Matsuba-Kurita, Hiroko; Nakamura, Naoko; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    Healthy adults can identify spoken words at a remarkable speed, by incrementally analyzing word-onset information. It is currently unknown how this adult-level speed of spoken-word processing emerges during children's native-language acquisition. In a picture-word mismatch paradigm, we manipulated the semantic congruency between picture contexts…

  18. The determinants of spoken and written picture naming latencies.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Patrick; Chalard, Marylène; Méot, Alain; Fayol, Michel

    2002-02-01

    The influence of nine variables on the latencies to write down or to speak aloud the names of pictures taken from Snodgrass and Vanderwart (1980) was investigated in French adults. The major determinants of both written and spoken picture naming latencies were image variability, image agreement and age of acquisition. To a lesser extent, name agreement was also found to have an impact in both production modes. The implications of the findings for theoretical views of both spoken and written picture naming are discussed. PMID:11839103

  19. Success and failure in teaching the [r]-[l] contrast to Japanese adults: tests of a Hebbian model of plasticity and stabilization in spoken language perception.

    PubMed

    McCandliss, Bruce D; Fiez, Julie A; Protopapas, Athanassios; Conway, Mary; McClelland, James L

    2002-06-01

    A Hebbian model of learning predicts that adults may be able to acquire a nonnative speech contrast if they are trained with stimuli that are exaggerated to make them perceptually distinct. To test these ideas, we asked Japanese adults to identify contrasting [r]-[l] stimuli (e.g., rock-lock) in two training conditions. In the adaptive condition, the [r]-[l] contrast was exaggerated at first and then adjusted to maintain accurate identification. In the fixed condition, a fixed pair of stimuli were used that were distinguishable by native English speakers but difficult for the Japanese learners to discriminate. To examine whether feedback contributes to learning, we ran separate groups with and without feedback in the fixed and the adaptive conditions. Without feedback, 3 days of adaptive training produced substantial improvements, but 3 days of fixed training produced no benefit relative to control, consistent with the Hebbian account. With feedback, both fixed and adaptive training led to robust improvements, and the benefit of training transferred to a second continuum (e.g., road-load). The results are consistent with Hebbian models that are augmented to be sensitive to feedback.

  20. Recognizing Young Readers' Spoken Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wei; Mostow, Jack; Aist, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Free-form spoken input would be the easiest and most natural way for young children to communicate to an intelligent tutoring system. However, achieving such a capability poses a challenge both to instruction design and to automatic speech recognition. To address the difficulties of accepting such input, we adopt the framework of predictable…

  1. 20-Hydroxyecdysone stimulation of juvenile hormone biosynthesis by the mosquito corpora allata.

    PubMed

    Areiza, Maria; Nouzova, Marcela; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Noriega, Fernando G

    2015-09-01

    Juvenile hormone III (JH) is synthesized by the corpora allata (CA) and plays a key role in mosquito development and reproduction. JH titer decreases in the last instar larvae allowing pupation and metamorphosis to progress. As the anti-metamorphic role of JH comes to an end, the CA of the late pupa (or pharate adult) becomes again "competent" to synthesize JH, which plays an essential role orchestrating reproductive maturation. 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) prepares the pupae for ecdysis, and would be an ideal candidate to direct a developmental program in the CA of the pharate adult mosquito. In this study, we provide evidence that 20E acts as an age-linked hormonal signal, directing CA activation in the mosquito pupae. Stimulation of the inactive brain-corpora allata-corpora cardiaca complex (Br-CA-CC) of the early pupa (24 h before adult eclosion or -24 h) in vitro with 20E resulted in a remarkable increase in JH biosynthesis, as well as increase in the activity of juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT). Addition of methyl farnesoate but not farnesoic acid also stimulated JH synthesis by the Br-CA-CC of the -24 h pupae, proving that epoxidase activity is present, but not JHAMT activity. Separation of the CA-CC complex from the brain (denervation) in the -24 h pupae also activated JH synthesis. Our results suggest that an increase in 20E titer might override an inhibitory effect of the brain on JH synthesis, phenocopying denervation. All together these findings provide compelling evidence that 20E acts as a developmental signal that ensures proper reactivation of JH synthesis in the mosquito pupae.

  2. Effects of Aging and Noise on Real-Time Spoken Word Recognition: Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-David, Boaz M.; Chambers, Craig G.; Daneman, Meredyth; Pichora-Fuller, M. Kathleen; Reingold, Eyal M.; Schneider, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To use eye tracking to investigate age differences in real-time lexical processing in quiet and in noise in light of the fact that older adults find it more difficult than younger adults to understand conversations in noisy situations. Method: Twenty-four younger and 24 older adults followed spoken instructions referring to depicted…

  3. Adaptive interface for spoken dialog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusan, Sorin; Flanagan, James

    2002-05-01

    Speech has become increasingly important in human-computer interaction. Spoken dialog interfaces rely on automatic speech recognition, speech synthesis, language understanding, and dialog management. A main issue in dialog systems is that they typically are limited to pre-programmed vocabularies and sets of sentences. The research reported here focuses on developing an adaptive spoken dialog interface capable of acquiring new linguistic units and their corresponding semantics during the human-computer interaction. The adaptive interface identifies unknown words and phrases in the users utterances and asks the user for the corresponding semantics. The user can provide the meaning or the semantic representation of the new linguistic units through multiple modalities, including speaking, typing, pointing, touching, or showing. The interface then stores the new linguistic units in a semantic grammar and creates new objects defining the corresponding semantic representation. This process takes place during natural interaction between user and computer and, thus, the interface does not have to be rewritten and compiled to incorporate the newly acquired language. Users can personalize the adaptive spoken interface for different domain applications, or according to their personal preferences. [Work supported by NSF.

  4. Investigating the Promise of Learner Corpora: Methodological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendar, Nick; Chapelle, Carol A.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers working with learner corpora promise quantitative results that would be of greater practical value in areas such as CALL than those from small-scale and qualitative studies. However, learner corpus research has not yet had an impact on practices in teaching and assessment. Significant methodological issues need to be examined if…

  5. Annotation of Korean Learner Corpora for Particle Error Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sun-Hee; Jang, Seok Bae; Seo, Sang-Kyu

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we focus on particle errors and discuss an annotation scheme for Korean learner corpora that can be used to extract heuristic patterns of particle errors efficiently. We investigate different properties of particle errors so that they can be later used to identify learner errors automatically, and we provide resourceful annotation…

  6. Proficiency Level--A Fuzzy Variable in Computer Learner Corpora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsen, Cecilie

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the proficiency level of texts in Computer Learner Corpora (CLCs). A claim is made that proficiency levels are often poorly defined in CLC design, and that the methods used for level assignment of corpus texts are not always adequate. Proficiency level can therefore, best be described as a fuzzy variable in CLCs,…

  7. Using Teacher-Developed Corpora in the CBI Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salsbury, Tom; Crummer, Crista

    2008-01-01

    This article argues for the use of teacher-generated corpora in content-based courses. Using a content course for engineering and architecture students as an example, the article explains how a corpus consisting of texts from textbooks and journal articles helped students learn grammar, vocabulary, and writing. The article explains how the corpus…

  8. Comparability of Lexical Corpora: Word Frequency in Phonological Generalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierut, Judith A.; Dale, Rachel A.

    2007-01-01

    Statistical regularities in language have been examined for new insight to the language acquisition process. This line of study has aided theory advancement, but it also has raised methodological concerns about the applicability of corpora data to child populations. One issue is whether it is appropriate to extend the regularities observed in the…

  9. Extracting Useful Semantic Information from Large Scale Corpora of Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Ray Padilla, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Extracting and representing semantic information from large scale corpora is at the crux of computer-assisted knowledge generation. Semantic information depends on collocation extraction methods, mathematical models used to represent distributional information, and weighting functions which transform the space. This dissertation provides a…

  10. Developmental Differences in the Influence of Phonological Similarity on Spoken Word Processing in Mandarin Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Malins, Jeffrey G.; Gao, Danqi; Tao, Ran; Booth, James R.; Shu, Hua; Joanisse, Marc F.; Liu, Li; Desroches, Amy S.

    2014-01-01

    The developmental trajectory of spoken word recognition has been well established in Indo-European languages, but to date remains poorly characterized in Mandarin Chinese. In this study, typically developing children (N = 17; mean age 10;5) and adults (N = 17; mean age 24) performed a picture-word matching task in Mandarin while we recorded ERPs. Mismatches diverged from expectations in different components of the Mandarin syllable; namely, word-initial phonemes, word-final phonemes, and tone. By comparing responses to different mismatch types, we uncovered evidence suggesting that both children and adults process words incrementally. However, we also observed key developmental differences in how subjects treated onset and rime mismatches. This was taken as evidence for a stronger influence of top-down processing on spoken word recognition in adults compared to children. This work therefore offers an important developmental component to theories of Mandarin spoken word recognition. PMID:25278419

  11. Building Spoken Language in the First Plane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettmann, Joen

    2016-01-01

    Through a strong Montessori orientation to the parameters of spoken language, Joen Bettmann makes the case for "materializing" spoken knowledge using the stimulation of real objects and real situations that promote mature discussion around the sensorial aspect of the prepared environment. She lists specific materials in the classroom…

  12. The Neural Substrates of Spoken Idiom Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillert, Dieter G.; Buracas, Giedrius T.

    2009-01-01

    To examine the neural correlates of spoken idiom comprehension, we conducted an event-related functional MRI study with a "rapid sentence decision" task. The spoken sentences were equally familiar but varied in degrees of "idiom figurativeness". Our results show that "figurativeness" co-varied with neural activity in the left ventral dorsolateral…

  13. How Do Raters Judge Spoken Vocabulary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how raters come to their decisions when judging spoken vocabulary. Segmental rating was introduced to quantify raters' decision-making process. It is hoped that this simulated study brings fresh insight to future methodological considerations with spoken data. Twenty trainee raters assessed five Chinese…

  14. Spoken Word Processing Creates a Lexical Bottleneck

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleland, Alexandra A.; Tamminen, Jakke; Quinlan, Philip T.; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2012-01-01

    We report 3 experiments that examined whether presentation of a spoken word creates an attentional bottleneck associated with lexical processing in the absence of a response to that word. A spoken word and a visual stimulus were presented in quick succession, but only the visual stimulus demanded a response. Response times to the visual stimulus…

  15. Computer Corpora and the Language Classroom: On the Potential and Limitations of Computer Corpora in Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltenbock, Gunther; Mehlmauer-Larcher, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    With computer corpora firmly established as research tools in linguistics, their application for language teaching purposes is also increasingly advocated to the extent that corpus-based language teaching has even been praised as the new revolution in language teaching (cf. Sinclair, 2004b). This article takes a more critical view and examines…

  16. A Corpus-Based EAP Course for NNS Doctoral Students: Moving from Available Specialized Corpora to Self-Compiled Corpora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, David; Swales, John

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of an experimental, innovative course in corpus-informed EAP for doctoral students. Participants were given access to specialized corpora of academic writing and speaking, instructed in the tools of the trade (web- and PC-based concordancers) and gradually inducted into the skills needed to best exploit the data…

  17. Controlling robots with spoken commands

    SciTech Connect

    Beugelsdijk, T.; Phelan, P.

    1987-10-01

    A robotic system for handling radioactive materials has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Because of safety considerations, the robot must be under the control of a human operator continuously. In this paper we describe the implementation of a voice-recognition system that makes such control possible, yet permits the robot to perform preprogrammed manipulations without the operator's intervention. We also describe the training given both the operator and the voice recognition-system, as well as practical problems encountered during routine operation. A speech synthesis unit connected to the robot's control computer provides audible feedback to the operator. Thus, when a task is completed or if an emergency develops, the computer provides an appropriate spoken message. Implementation and operation of this commercially available hardware are discussed.

  18. Prepositional phrases spoken and heard

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Vicki L.

    1981-01-01

    The relation between verbal and nonverbal behavior with common syntactic properties was investigated, using retarded and nonretarded children. Reinforcement was contingent on either verbal or nonverbal responses whereas responses of the other repertoire had no experimental consequences. Changes sometimes occurred in the unreinforced (collateral) repertoire, but they were always changes in the stimulus control of pre-existing topographies. A contingency involving responses of one repertoire never instated new topographies in the collateral repertoire. This suggested that the problem of “cross-modality generalization” should be reformulated to distinguish explicitly between instating new topographies and changing the stimulus control of pre-existing topographies. The result confirmed Skinner's hypothesis about “the same response spoken and heard” and clarified some anomalies in previous studies. PMID:16812213

  19. Cognitive aging and hearing acuity: modeling spoken language comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Wingfield, Arthur; Amichetti, Nicole M.; Lash, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The comprehension of spoken language has been characterized by a number of “local” theories that have focused on specific aspects of the task: models of word recognition, models of selective attention, accounts of thematic role assignment at the sentence level, and so forth. The ease of language understanding (ELU) model (Rönnberg et al., 2013) stands as one of the few attempts to offer a fully encompassing framework for language understanding. In this paper we discuss interactions between perceptual, linguistic, and cognitive factors in spoken language understanding. Central to our presentation is an examination of aspects of the ELU model that apply especially to spoken language comprehension in adult aging, where speed of processing, working memory capacity, and hearing acuity are often compromised. We discuss, in relation to the ELU model, conceptions of working memory and its capacity limitations, the use of linguistic context to aid in speech recognition and the importance of inhibitory control, and language comprehension at the sentence level. Throughout this paper we offer a constructive look at the ELU model; where it is strong and where there are gaps to be filled. PMID:26124724

  20. [Neuromediator bioamines in the histogenesis of corpora lutea].

    PubMed

    Pogorelov, Iu V; Dindiaev, S V

    1994-01-01

    The role of neuromediator bioamines in histogenesis of corpora lutea was under study. Cryostate slices of ovaries from 27 cats were treated after A. Bjorklund's fluorescent histochemical method modified by V. N. Shvalev and N. I. Zhuchkova. The content of serotonin and catecholamines was measured cytospectrofluorometrically in varicose dilatations and intervaricose sites of perivascular plexuses and terminals, in membranous and parenchymatous macrophages of corpus luteum. A reliably increased content of the examined neuromediators was found in all the tested nervous structures at the stage of glandular metamorphosis and corpus luteum maturity. Serotonin and catecholamines are believed to be needed for glandular metamorphosis and corpus luteum maturation. A higher level of catecholamines at the stage of corpora lutea maturity in comparison with serotonin may be explained by an activating effect of these neuromediators on progesterone synthesis. Catecholamines may be necessary for luteolithic action of prostaglandins. Macrophages seem to inactivate mediator excess. PMID:7899443

  1. Feature-level sentiment analysis by using comparative domain corpora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Changqin; Ren, Fuji

    2016-06-01

    Feature-level sentiment analysis (SA) is able to provide more fine-grained SA on certain opinion targets and has a wider range of applications on E-business. This study proposes an approach based on comparative domain corpora for feature-level SA. The proposed approach makes use of word associations for domain-specific feature extraction. First, we assign a similarity score for each candidate feature to denote its similarity extent to a domain. Then we identify domain features based on their similarity scores on different comparative domain corpora. After that, dependency grammar and a general sentiment lexicon are applied to extract and expand feature-oriented opinion words. Lastly, the semantic orientation of a domain-specific feature is determined based on the feature-oriented opinion lexicons. In evaluation, we compare the proposed method with several state-of-the-art methods (including unsupervised and semi-supervised) using a standard product review test collection. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of using comparative domain corpora.

  2. Homology of insect corpora allata and vertebrate adenohypophysis?

    PubMed

    Wirmer, Andrea; Bradler, Sven; Heinrich, Ralf

    2012-09-01

    Animal species of various phyla possess neuroendocrine glands whose hormonal products regulate developmental and physiological mechanisms and directly impact behavior. Two examples, the corpora allata of insects and the vertebrate adenohypophysis have previously been regarded as analogous tissues that evolved independently from diffuse epidermal nerve nets of early metazoans. More recent developmental and functional studies accumulated evidence suggesting that the bilaterian nervous systems including its modern parts (e.g. pallium or cortex and mushroom bodies) and its neuroendocrine appendages (that are considered to be more ancient structures) possess a single evolutionary origin. The corpora allata of insects and the vertebrate adenohypophysis share a number of characteristics in respect of morphology, control of hormone release by RFamides, metabolites produced by closely related cytochrome P450 enzymes and gene expression during embryonic development. This review incorporates latest findings into an extensive description of similarities between insect corpora allata and vertebrate adenohypophysis that should encourage further studies about the onto- and phylogenetic origin of these neuroendocrine glands.

  3. Eye movements during spoken word recognition in Russian children.

    PubMed

    Sekerina, Irina A; Brooks, Patricia J

    2007-09-01

    This study explores incremental processing in spoken word recognition in Russian 5- and 6-year-olds and adults using free-viewing eye-tracking. Participants viewed scenes containing pictures of four familiar objects and clicked on a target embedded in a spoken instruction. In the cohort condition, two object names shared identical three-phoneme onsets. In the noncohort condition, all object names had unique onsets. Coarse-grain analyses of eye movements indicated that adults produced looks to the competitor on significantly more cohort trials than on noncohort trials, whereas children surprisingly failed to demonstrate cohort competition due to widespread exploratory eye movements across conditions. Fine-grain analyses, in contrast, showed a similar time course of eye movements across children and adults, but with cohort competition lingering more than 1s longer in children. The dissociation between coarse-grain and fine-grain eye movements indicates a need to consider multiple behavioral measures in making developmental comparisons in language processing. PMID:17560596

  4. Famous talker effects in spoken word recognition.

    PubMed

    Maibauer, Alisa M; Markis, Teresa A; Newell, Jessica; McLennan, Conor T

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that talker-specific representations affect spoken word recognition relatively late during processing. However, participants in these studies were listening to unfamiliar talkers. In the present research, we used a long-term repetition-priming paradigm and a speeded-shadowing task and presented listeners with famous talkers. In Experiment 1, half the words were spoken by Barack Obama, and half by Hillary Clinton. Reaction times (RTs) to repeated words were shorter than those to unprimed words only when repeated by the same talker. However, in Experiment 2, using nonfamous talkers, RTs to repeated words were shorter than those to unprimed words both when repeated by the same talker and when repeated by a different talker. Taken together, the results demonstrate that talker-specific details can affect the perception of spoken words relatively early during processing when words are spoken by famous talkers.

  5. Famous talker effects in spoken word recognition.

    PubMed

    Maibauer, Alisa M; Markis, Teresa A; Newell, Jessica; McLennan, Conor T

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that talker-specific representations affect spoken word recognition relatively late during processing. However, participants in these studies were listening to unfamiliar talkers. In the present research, we used a long-term repetition-priming paradigm and a speeded-shadowing task and presented listeners with famous talkers. In Experiment 1, half the words were spoken by Barack Obama, and half by Hillary Clinton. Reaction times (RTs) to repeated words were shorter than those to unprimed words only when repeated by the same talker. However, in Experiment 2, using nonfamous talkers, RTs to repeated words were shorter than those to unprimed words both when repeated by the same talker and when repeated by a different talker. Taken together, the results demonstrate that talker-specific details can affect the perception of spoken words relatively early during processing when words are spoken by famous talkers. PMID:24366633

  6. Predictors of Spoken Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Patrick C. M.; Ettlinger, Marc

    2011-01-01

    We report two sets of experiments showing that the large individual variability in language learning success in adults can be attributed to neurophysiological, neuroanatomical, cognitive, and perceptual factors. In the first set of experiments, native English-speaking adults learned to incorporate lexically meaningfully pitch patterns in words. We…

  7. Talker Familiarity and Spoken Word Recognition in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Susannah V.

    2015-01-01

    Research with adults has shown that spoken language processing is improved when listeners are familiar with talkers' voices, known as the familiar talker advantage. The current study explored whether this ability extends to school-age children, who are still acquiring language. Children were familiarized with the voices of three German-English…

  8. Tonal Language Background and Detecting Pitch Contour in Spoken and Musical Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Catherine J.; Keller, Peter E.; Tyler, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    An experiment investigated the effect of tonal language background on discrimination of pitch contour in short spoken and musical items. It was hypothesized that extensive exposure to a tonal language attunes perception of pitch contour. Accuracy and reaction times of adult participants from tonal (Thai) and non-tonal (Australian English) language…

  9. Integration of Partial Information within and across Modalities: Contributions to Spoken and Written Sentence Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kimberly G.; Fogerty, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the extent to which partial spoken or written information facilitates sentence recognition under degraded unimodal and multimodal conditions. Method: Twenty young adults with typical hearing completed sentence recognition tasks in unimodal and multimodal conditions across 3 proportions of preservation. In the unimodal…

  10. Juvenile hormone biosynthesis gene expression in the corpora allata of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) female castes.

    PubMed

    Bomtorin, Ana Durvalina; Mackert, Aline; Rosa, Gustavo Conrado Couto; Moda, Livia Maria; Martins, Juliana Ramos; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile; Hartfelder, Klaus; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) controls key events in the honey bee life cycle, viz. caste development and age polyethism. We quantified transcript abundance of 24 genes involved in the JH biosynthetic pathway in the corpora allata-corpora cardiaca (CA-CC) complex. The expression of six of these genes showing relatively high transcript abundance was contrasted with CA size, hemolymph JH titer, as well as JH degradation rates and JH esterase (jhe) transcript levels. Gene expression did not match the contrasting JH titers in queen and worker fourth instar larvae, but jhe transcript abundance and JH degradation rates were significantly lower in queen larvae. Consequently, transcriptional control of JHE is of importance in regulating larval JH titers and caste development. In contrast, the same analyses applied to adult worker bees allowed us inferring that the high JH levels in foragers are due to increased JH synthesis. Upon RNAi-mediated silencing of the methyl farnesoate epoxidase gene (mfe) encoding the enzyme that catalyzes methyl farnesoate-to-JH conversion, the JH titer was decreased, thus corroborating that JH titer regulation in adult honey bees depends on this final JH biosynthesis step. The molecular pathway differences underlying JH titer regulation in larval caste development versus adult age polyethism lead us to propose that mfe and jhe genes be assayed when addressing questions on the role(s) of JH in social evolution.

  11. Juvenile Hormone Biosynthesis Gene Expression in the corpora allata of Honey Bee (Apis mellifera L.) Female Castes

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Gustavo Conrado Couto; Moda, Livia Maria; Martins, Juliana Ramos; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile; Hartfelder, Klaus; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) controls key events in the honey bee life cycle, viz. caste development and age polyethism. We quantified transcript abundance of 24 genes involved in the JH biosynthetic pathway in the corpora allata-corpora cardiaca (CA-CC) complex. The expression of six of these genes showing relatively high transcript abundance was contrasted with CA size, hemolymph JH titer, as well as JH degradation rates and JH esterase (jhe) transcript levels. Gene expression did not match the contrasting JH titers in queen and worker fourth instar larvae, but jhe transcript abundance and JH degradation rates were significantly lower in queen larvae. Consequently, transcriptional control of JHE is of importance in regulating larval JH titers and caste development. In contrast, the same analyses applied to adult worker bees allowed us inferring that the high JH levels in foragers are due to increased JH synthesis. Upon RNAi-mediated silencing of the methyl farnesoate epoxidase gene (mfe) encoding the enzyme that catalyzes methyl farnesoate-to-JH conversion, the JH titer was decreased, thus corroborating that JH titer regulation in adult honey bees depends on this final JH biosynthesis step. The molecular pathway differences underlying JH titer regulation in larval caste development versus adult age polyethism lead us to propose that mfe and jhe genes be assayed when addressing questions on the role(s) of JH in social evolution. PMID:24489805

  12. Working Memory Load Affects Processing Time in Spoken Word Recognition: Evidence from Eye-Movements.

    PubMed

    Hadar, Britt; Skrzypek, Joshua E; Wingfield, Arthur; Ben-David, Boaz M

    2016-01-01

    In daily life, speech perception is usually accompanied by other tasks that tap into working memory capacity. However, the role of working memory on speech processing is not clear. The goal of this study was to examine how working memory load affects the timeline for spoken word recognition in ideal listening conditions. We used the "visual world" eye-tracking paradigm. The task consisted of spoken instructions referring to one of four objects depicted on a computer monitor (e.g., "point at the candle"). Half of the trials presented a phonological competitor to the target word that either overlapped in the initial syllable (onset) or at the last syllable (offset). Eye movements captured listeners' ability to differentiate the target noun from its depicted phonological competitor (e.g., candy or sandal). We manipulated working memory load by using a digit pre-load task, where participants had to retain either one (low-load) or four (high-load) spoken digits for the duration of a spoken word recognition trial. The data show that the high-load condition delayed real-time target discrimination. Specifically, a four-digit load was sufficient to delay the point of discrimination between the spoken target word and its phonological competitor. Our results emphasize the important role working memory plays in speech perception, even when performed by young adults in ideal listening conditions. PMID:27242424

  13. Using the Visual World Paradigm to Study Retrieval Interference in Spoken Language Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Sekerina, Irina A; Campanelli, Luca; Van Dyke, Julie A

    2016-01-01

    The cue-based retrieval theory (Lewis et al., 2006) predicts that interference from similar distractors should create difficulty for argument integration, however this hypothesis has only been examined in the written modality. The current study uses the Visual World Paradigm (VWP) to assess its feasibility to study retrieval interference arising from distractors present in a visual display during spoken language comprehension. The study aims to extend findings from Van Dyke and McElree (2006), which utilized a dual-task paradigm with written sentences in which they manipulated the relationship between extra-sentential distractors and the semantic retrieval cues from a verb, to the spoken modality. Results indicate that retrieval interference effects do occur in the spoken modality, manifesting immediately upon encountering the verbal retrieval cue for inaccurate trials when the distractors are present in the visual field. We also observed indicators of repair processes in trials containing semantic distractors, which were ultimately answered correctly. We conclude that the VWP is a useful tool for investigating retrieval interference effects, including both the online effects of distractors and their after-effects, when repair is initiated. This work paves the way for further studies of retrieval interference in the spoken modality, which is especially significant for examining the phenomenon in pre-reading children, non-reading adults (e.g., people with aphasia), and spoken language bilinguals.

  14. Using the Visual World Paradigm to Study Retrieval Interference in Spoken Language Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Sekerina, Irina A; Campanelli, Luca; Van Dyke, Julie A

    2016-01-01

    The cue-based retrieval theory (Lewis et al., 2006) predicts that interference from similar distractors should create difficulty for argument integration, however this hypothesis has only been examined in the written modality. The current study uses the Visual World Paradigm (VWP) to assess its feasibility to study retrieval interference arising from distractors present in a visual display during spoken language comprehension. The study aims to extend findings from Van Dyke and McElree (2006), which utilized a dual-task paradigm with written sentences in which they manipulated the relationship between extra-sentential distractors and the semantic retrieval cues from a verb, to the spoken modality. Results indicate that retrieval interference effects do occur in the spoken modality, manifesting immediately upon encountering the verbal retrieval cue for inaccurate trials when the distractors are present in the visual field. We also observed indicators of repair processes in trials containing semantic distractors, which were ultimately answered correctly. We conclude that the VWP is a useful tool for investigating retrieval interference effects, including both the online effects of distractors and their after-effects, when repair is initiated. This work paves the way for further studies of retrieval interference in the spoken modality, which is especially significant for examining the phenomenon in pre-reading children, non-reading adults (e.g., people with aphasia), and spoken language bilinguals. PMID:27378974

  15. Working Memory Load Affects Processing Time in Spoken Word Recognition: Evidence from Eye-Movements

    PubMed Central

    Hadar, Britt; Skrzypek, Joshua E.; Wingfield, Arthur; Ben-David, Boaz M.

    2016-01-01

    In daily life, speech perception is usually accompanied by other tasks that tap into working memory capacity. However, the role of working memory on speech processing is not clear. The goal of this study was to examine how working memory load affects the timeline for spoken word recognition in ideal listening conditions. We used the “visual world” eye-tracking paradigm. The task consisted of spoken instructions referring to one of four objects depicted on a computer monitor (e.g., “point at the candle”). Half of the trials presented a phonological competitor to the target word that either overlapped in the initial syllable (onset) or at the last syllable (offset). Eye movements captured listeners' ability to differentiate the target noun from its depicted phonological competitor (e.g., candy or sandal). We manipulated working memory load by using a digit pre-load task, where participants had to retain either one (low-load) or four (high-load) spoken digits for the duration of a spoken word recognition trial. The data show that the high-load condition delayed real-time target discrimination. Specifically, a four-digit load was sufficient to delay the point of discrimination between the spoken target word and its phonological competitor. Our results emphasize the important role working memory plays in speech perception, even when performed by young adults in ideal listening conditions. PMID:27242424

  16. Using the Visual World Paradigm to Study Retrieval Interference in Spoken Language Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Sekerina, Irina A.; Campanelli, Luca; Van Dyke, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    The cue-based retrieval theory (Lewis et al., 2006) predicts that interference from similar distractors should create difficulty for argument integration, however this hypothesis has only been examined in the written modality. The current study uses the Visual World Paradigm (VWP) to assess its feasibility to study retrieval interference arising from distractors present in a visual display during spoken language comprehension. The study aims to extend findings from Van Dyke and McElree (2006), which utilized a dual-task paradigm with written sentences in which they manipulated the relationship between extra-sentential distractors and the semantic retrieval cues from a verb, to the spoken modality. Results indicate that retrieval interference effects do occur in the spoken modality, manifesting immediately upon encountering the verbal retrieval cue for inaccurate trials when the distractors are present in the visual field. We also observed indicators of repair processes in trials containing semantic distractors, which were ultimately answered correctly. We conclude that the VWP is a useful tool for investigating retrieval interference effects, including both the online effects of distractors and their after-effects, when repair is initiated. This work paves the way for further studies of retrieval interference in the spoken modality, which is especially significant for examining the phenomenon in pre-reading children, non-reading adults (e.g., people with aphasia), and spoken language bilinguals. PMID:27378974

  17. Using pictographs to enhance recall of spoken medical instructions II.

    PubMed

    Houts, P S; Witmer, J T; Egeth, H E; Loscalzo, M J; Zabora, J R

    2001-06-01

    The first study in this series [Houts PS, Bachrach R, Witmer JT, Tringali CA, Bucher JA, Localio RA. Patient Educ. Couns. 1998;35:83-8] found that recall of spoken medical instructions averaged 14% but that, when pictographs (drawings representing the instructions) accompanied the spoken instructions and were present during recall, 85% of medical instructions were remembered correctly. Those findings suggested that spoken instructions plus pictographs may be a way to give people with low literacy skills access to medical information that is normally available only in written form. However, there were three important limitations to that study: (1) the subjects were literate and perhaps literate people remember pictograph meanings better than people with low literacy skills; (2) only short term recall was tested and, for medical information to be useful clinically, it must be remembered for significant periods of time and (3) a maximum of 50 instructions were shown in pictographs, whereas managing complex illnesses may require remembering several hundred instructions. This study addresses those limitations by investigating 4-week recall of 236 medical instructions accompanied by pictographs by people with low literacy skills. Subjects were 21 adult clients of an inner city job training program who had less than fifth grade reading skills. Results showed 85% mean correct recall of pictograph meanings immediately after training (range from 63 to 99%) and 71% after 4 weeks (range from 33 to 94%). These results indicate that people with low literacy skills can, with the help of pictographs, recall large amounts of medical information for significant periods of time. The impact of pictographs on symptom management and patient quality of life remains to be studied.

  18. Use of English Corpora as a Primary Resource to Teach English to the Bengali Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dash, Niladri Sekhar

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we argue in favour of teaching English as a second language to the Bengali learners with direct utilisation of English corpora. The proposed strategy is meant to be assisted with computer and is based on data, information, and examples retrieved from the present-day English corpora developed with various text samples composed by…

  19. How Can We Use Corpus Wordlists for Language Learning? Interfaces between Computer Corpora and Expert Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-Hua; Bruncak, Radovan

    2015-01-01

    With the advances in technology, wordlists retrieved from computer corpora have become increasingly popular in recent years. The lexical items in those wordlists are usually selected, according to a set of robust frequency and dispersion criteria, from large corpora of authentic and naturally occurring language. Corpus wordlists are of great value…

  20. Syllable Frequency and Spoken Word Recognition: An Inhibitory Effect.

    PubMed

    González-Alvarez, Julio; Palomar-García, María-Angeles

    2016-08-01

    Research has shown that syllables play a relevant role in lexical access in Spanish, a shallow language with a transparent syllabic structure. Syllable frequency has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on visual word recognition in Spanish. However, no study has examined the syllable frequency effect on spoken word recognition. The present study tested the effect of the frequency of the first syllable on recognition of spoken Spanish words. A sample of 45 young adults (33 women, 12 men; M = 20.4, SD = 2.8; college students) performed an auditory lexical decision on 128 Spanish disyllabic words and 128 disyllabic nonwords. Words were selected so that lexical and first syllable frequency were manipulated in a within-subject 2 × 2 design, and six additional independent variables were controlled: token positional frequency of the second syllable, number of phonemes, position of lexical stress, number of phonological neighbors, number of phonological neighbors that have higher frequencies than the word, and acoustical durations measured in milliseconds. Decision latencies and error rates were submitted to linear mixed models analysis. Results showed a typical facilitatory effect of the lexical frequency and, importantly, an inhibitory effect of the first syllable frequency on reaction times and error rates.

  1. Syllable Frequency and Spoken Word Recognition: An Inhibitory Effect.

    PubMed

    González-Alvarez, Julio; Palomar-García, María-Angeles

    2016-08-01

    Research has shown that syllables play a relevant role in lexical access in Spanish, a shallow language with a transparent syllabic structure. Syllable frequency has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on visual word recognition in Spanish. However, no study has examined the syllable frequency effect on spoken word recognition. The present study tested the effect of the frequency of the first syllable on recognition of spoken Spanish words. A sample of 45 young adults (33 women, 12 men; M = 20.4, SD = 2.8; college students) performed an auditory lexical decision on 128 Spanish disyllabic words and 128 disyllabic nonwords. Words were selected so that lexical and first syllable frequency were manipulated in a within-subject 2 × 2 design, and six additional independent variables were controlled: token positional frequency of the second syllable, number of phonemes, position of lexical stress, number of phonological neighbors, number of phonological neighbors that have higher frequencies than the word, and acoustical durations measured in milliseconds. Decision latencies and error rates were submitted to linear mixed models analysis. Results showed a typical facilitatory effect of the lexical frequency and, importantly, an inhibitory effect of the first syllable frequency on reaction times and error rates. PMID:27287267

  2. Spoken Grammar and Its Role in the English Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses key issues and considerations for teachers wanting to incorporate spoken grammar activities into their own teaching and also focuses on six common features of spoken grammar, with practical activities and suggestions for teaching them in the language classroom. The hope is that this discussion of spoken grammar and its place…

  3. Well Spoken: Teaching Speaking to All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Erik

    2011-01-01

    All teachers at all grade levels in all subjects have speaking assignments for students, but many teachers believe they don't know how to teach speaking, and many even fear public speaking themselves. In his new book, "Well Spoken", veteran teacher and education consultant Erik Palmer shares the art of teaching speaking in any classroom. Teachers…

  4. "Jaja" in Spoken German: Managing Knowledge Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taleghani-Nikazm, Carmen; Golato, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In line with the other contributions to this issue on teaching pragmatics, this paper provides teachers of German with a two-day lesson plan for integrating authentic spoken language and its associated cultural background into their teaching. Specifically, the paper discusses how "jaja" and its phonetic variants are systematically used…

  5. An Introduction to Spoken Baoule. Preliminary Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Richard R.; Saraka, Albert B.

    The material in this text on spoken Baoule (an Akan language of the Niger-Congo group of African languages) is presented in "microwave" format, in a series of short, two-phase cycles. Suggestions to the teacher, a brief explanation of the transcription system used, and a note on tones preface the first section of 15 cycles, which deal with…

  6. Spoken Language and the Concept of Fluency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajavaara, Kari; Lehtonen, Jaakko

    1978-01-01

    Language teaching typically reflects current research, and, until quite recently, grammatical competence (e.g., in the Chomskyan sense) was the major target of linguistic research. Emphasizing the spoken language, the term "fluency," as applied to the foreign language performance of a language learner, is correlated to foreign language…

  7. Spoken Finnish: Book One [and] Book Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebeok, Thomas A.

    This course in spoken Finnish is intended for use in introductory conversational classes. Book I and Book II, combined in this text, are divided into five major parts, each containing five learning units and one unit devoted to review. Each unit contains sections including (1) basic sentences, (2) word study and review of basic sentences, (3)…

  8. Handbook for Spoken Mathematics: (Larry's Speakeasy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Lawrence A.; And Others

    This handbook is directed toward those who have to deal with spoken mathematics, yet have insufficient background to know the correct verbal expression for the written symbolic one. It compiles consistent and well-defined ways of uttering mathematical expressions so listeners will receive clear, unambiguous, and well-pronounced representations.…

  9. SPOKEN COCHABAMBA QUECHUA, UNITS 13-24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LASTRA, YOLANDA; SOLA, DONALD F.

    UNITS 13-24 OF THE SPOKEN COCHABAMBA QUECHUA COURSE FOLLOW THE GENERAL FORMAT OF THE FIRST VOLUME (UNITS 1-12). THIS SECOND VOLUME IS INTENDED FOR USE IN AN INTERMEDIATE OR ADVANCED COURSE AND INCLUDES MORE COMPLEX DIALOGS, CONVERSATIONS, "LISTENING-INS," AND DICTATIONS, AS WELL AS GRAMMAR AND EXERCISE SECTIONS COVERING ADDITIONAL GRAMMATICAL…

  10. TNF-α knockout mice have increased corpora cavernosa relaxation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Erectile dysfunction (ED) is considered an early clinical manifestation of vascular disease and an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events associated with endothelial dysfunction and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, suppresses endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression. Aim Considering that nitric oxide (NO) is of critical importance in penile erection, we hypothesized that blockade of TNF-α actions would increase cavernosal smooth muscle relaxation through an increase in NOS expression. Methods In vitro organ bath studies were used to measure cavernosal reactivity in wild type and TNF-α knockout (TNF-α KO) mice and NOS expression was evaluated by western blot. In addition, spontaneous erections (in vivo) were evaluated by videomonitoring the animals (30 min.). Collagen and elastin expression were evaluated by Masson trichrome and Verhoff-van Gieson stain reaction, respectively. Main Outcome Measures Corpora cavernosa from TNF-α KO mice exhibited increased NO-dependent relaxation, which was associated with increased eNOS and neuronal NOS (nNOS) cavernosal expression. Results Cavernosal strips from TNF-α KO mice displayed increased endothelium-dependent [97.4±5.3 vs Control: 76.3±6.3, %] and nonadrenergic-noncholinergic (NANC) [93.3±3.0 vs Control: 67.5±16.0; 16 Hz] relaxation compared to control animals. These responses were associated with increased protein expression of eNOS and nNOS (p<0.05). Sympathetic-mediated [0.69±0.16 vs Control: 1.22±0.22; 16 Hz] as well as phenylephrine-induced contractile responses [1.6±0.1 vs Control: 2.5±0.1, mN] were attenuated in cavernosal strips from TNF-α KO mice. Additionally, corpora cavernosa from TNF-α KO mice displayed increased collagen and elastin expression. In vivo experiments demonstrated that TNF-α KO mice display increased number of spontaneous erections. Conclusion Corpora cavernosa from

  11. The acceleration of spoken-word processing in children's native-language acquisition: an ERP cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ojima, Shiro; Matsuba-Kurita, Hiroko; Nakamura, Naoko; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2011-04-01

    Healthy adults can identify spoken words at a remarkable speed, by incrementally analyzing word-onset information. It is currently unknown how this adult-level speed of spoken-word processing emerges during children's native-language acquisition. In a picture-word mismatch paradigm, we manipulated the semantic congruency between picture contexts and spoken words, and recorded event-related potential (ERP) responses to the words. Previous similar studies focused on the N400 response, but we focused instead on the onsets of semantic congruency effects (N200 or Phonological Mismatch Negativity), which contain critical information for incremental spoken-word processing. We analyzed ERPs obtained longitudinally from two age cohorts of 40 primary-school children (total n=80) in a 3-year period. Children first tested at 7 years of age showed earlier onsets of congruency effects (by approximately 70ms) when tested 2 years later (i.e., at age 9). Children first tested at 9 years of age did not show such shortening of onset latencies 2 years later (i.e., at age 11). Overall, children's onset latencies at age 9 appeared similar to those of adults. These data challenge the previous hypothesis that word processing is well established at age 7. Instead they support the view that the acceleration of spoken-word processing continues beyond age 7.

  12. The Company That Words Keep: Comparing the Statistical Structure of Child- versus Adult-Directed Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Does child-directed language differ from adult-directed language in ways that might facilitate word learning? Associative structure (the probability that a word appears with its free associates), contextual diversity, word repetitions and frequency were compared longitudinally across six language corpora, with four corpora of language directed at…

  13. Proliferative activity of preovulatory follicles and newly formed corpora lutea in cycling rats from late prooestrus to early oestrus

    PubMed Central

    GAYTÁN, FRANCISCO; BELLIDO, CARMEN; MORALES, CONCEPCIÓN; AGUILAR, ENRIQUE; SÁNCHEZ-CRIADO, JOSÉ EUGENIO

    1997-01-01

    Ovaries from adult cycling rats were studied from 1600 h on the day of prooestrus to 0700 h on the day of oestrus in order to relate the cyclic hormonal changes to the proliferative activity of preovulatory and postovulatory (i.e. newly-formed corpora lutea) follicles. Proliferative activity was studied by the immunohistochemical demonstration of DNA-incorporated 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). The proliferative activity of granulosa cells (GC) in large preovulatory follicles showed a centripetal pattern and decreased during prooestrus, reaching a minimum at 2100 h. However, a proliferative wave was found in the GC of preovulatory follicles at 0200 h on the day of oestrus and in those of newly-formed corpora lutea at 0700 h on the day of oestrus. These results suggest that the granulosa cells of preovulatory follicles show maturational changes that followed a different pattern, depending on their location within the follicle, and that the proliferative wave found from 0200 to 0700 h on oestrus is important for the establishment of the number of steroidogenic cells in the cyclic corpus luteum. PMID:9418999

  14. Spoken word recognition without a TRACE

    PubMed Central

    Hannagan, Thomas; Magnuson, James S.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    How do we map the rapid input of spoken language onto phonological and lexical representations over time? Attempts at psychologically-tractable computational models of spoken word recognition tend either to ignore time or to transform the temporal input into a spatial representation. TRACE, a connectionist model with broad and deep coverage of speech perception and spoken word recognition phenomena, takes the latter approach, using exclusively time-specific units at every level of representation. TRACE reduplicates featural, phonemic, and lexical inputs at every time step in a large memory trace, with rich interconnections (excitatory forward and backward connections between levels and inhibitory links within levels). As the length of the memory trace is increased, or as the phoneme and lexical inventory of the model is increased to a realistic size, this reduplication of time- (temporal position) specific units leads to a dramatic proliferation of units and connections, begging the question of whether a more efficient approach is possible. Our starting point is the observation that models of visual object recognition—including visual word recognition—have grappled with the problem of spatial invariance, and arrived at solutions other than a fully-reduplicative strategy like that of TRACE. This inspires a new model of spoken word recognition that combines time-specific phoneme representations similar to those in TRACE with higher-level representations based on string kernels: temporally independent (time invariant) diphone and lexical units. This reduces the number of necessary units and connections by several orders of magnitude relative to TRACE. Critically, we compare the new model to TRACE on a set of key phenomena, demonstrating that the new model inherits much of the behavior of TRACE and that the drastic computational savings do not come at the cost of explanatory power. PMID:24058349

  15. "Do That Again": Evaluating Spoken Dialogue Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Frankie; Rayner, Manny; Hockey, Beth Ann

    2000-01-01

    We present a new technique for evaluating spoken dialogue interfaces that allows us to separate the dialogue behavior from the rest of the speech system. By using a dialogue simulator that we have developed, we can gather usability data on the system s dialogue interaction and behaviors that can guide improvements to the speech interface. Preliminary testing has shown promising results, suggesting that it is possible to test properties of dialogue separately from other factors such as recognition quality.

  16. Neural stages of spoken, written, and signed word processing in beginning second language learners

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Matthew K.; Ferjan Ramirez, Naja; Torres, Christina; Hatrak, Marla; Mayberry, Rachel I.; Halgren, Eric

    2013-01-01

    We combined magnetoencephalography (MEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine how sensory modality, language type, and language proficiency interact during two fundamental stages of word processing: (1) an early word encoding stage, and (2) a later supramodal lexico-semantic stage. Adult native English speakers who were learning American Sign Language (ASL) performed a semantic task for spoken and written English words, and ASL signs. During the early time window, written words evoked responses in left ventral occipitotemporal cortex, and spoken words in left superior temporal cortex. Signed words evoked activity in right intraparietal sulcus that was marginally greater than for written words. During the later time window, all three types of words showed significant activity in the classical left fronto-temporal language network, the first demonstration of such activity in individuals with so little second language (L2) instruction in sign. In addition, a dissociation between semantic congruity effects and overall MEG response magnitude for ASL responses suggested shallower and more effortful processing, presumably reflecting novice L2 learning. Consistent with previous research on non-dominant language processing in spoken languages, the L2 ASL learners also showed recruitment of right hemisphere and lateral occipital cortex. These results demonstrate that late lexico-semantic processing utilizes a common substrate, independent of modality, and that proficiency effects in sign language are comparable to those in spoken language. PMID:23847496

  17. Models of spoken-word recognition.

    PubMed

    Weber, Andrea; Scharenborg, Odette

    2012-05-01

    All words of the languages we know are stored in the mental lexicon. Psycholinguistic models describe in which format lexical knowledge is stored and how it is accessed when needed for language use. The present article summarizes key findings in spoken-word recognition by humans and describes how models of spoken-word recognition account for them. Although current models of spoken-word recognition differ considerably in the details of implementation, there is general consensus among them on at least three aspects: multiple word candidates are activated in parallel as a word is being heard, activation of word candidates varies with the degree of match between the speech signal and stored lexical representations, and activated candidate words compete for recognition. No consensus has been reached on other aspects such as the flow of information between different processing levels, and the format of stored prelexical and lexical representations. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:387-401. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1178 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  18. Primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the corpora cavernosa presented as a perineal mass

    PubMed Central

    Carlos, González-Satué; Ivanna, Valverde Vilamala; Gustavo, Tapia Melendo; Joan, Areal Calama; Javier, Sanchez Macias; Luis, Ibarz Servio

    2012-01-01

    Primary male genital lymphomas may appear rarely in testis, and exceptionally in the penis and prostate, but there is not previous evidence of a lymphoma arising from the corpora cavernosa. We report the first case in the literature of a primary diffuse cell B lymphoma of the corpora cavernosa presented with low urinary tract symptoms, perineal pain and palpable mass. Diagnosis was based on trucut biopsy, histopathological studies and computed tomographic images. PMID:22919138

  19. CommonSense: a preprocessing system to identify errors in large transcribed corpora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Propper, Ryan; Mohajer, Keyvan; Pratt, Vaughan

    2006-04-01

    A system was designed to locate and correct errors in large transcribed corpora. The program, called CommonSense, relies on a set of rules that identify mistakes related to homonyms, words with distinct definitions but identical pronunciations. The system was run on the 1996 and 1997 Broadcast News Speech Corpora, and correctly identified more than 400 errors in these data. Future work may extend CommonSense to automatically correct errors in hypothesis files created as the output of speech recognition systems.

  20. Setting the Tone: An ERP Investigation of the Influences of Phonological Similarity on Spoken Word Recognition in Mandarin Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malins, Jeffrey G.; Joanisse, Marc F.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influences of phonological similarity on the time course of spoken word processing in Mandarin Chinese. Event related potentials were recorded while adult native speakers of Mandarin ("N" = 19) judged whether auditory words matched or mismatched visually presented pictures. Mismatching words were of the following nature:…

  1. Citation Matching in Sanskrit Corpora Using Local Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Abhinandan S.; Rao, Shrisha

    Citation matching is the problem of finding which citation occurs in a given textual corpus. Most existing citation matching work is done on scientific literature. The goal of this paper is to present methods for performing citation matching on Sanskrit texts. Exact matching and approximate matching are the two methods for performing citation matching. The exact matching method checks for exact occurrence of the citation with respect to the textual corpus. Approximate matching is a fuzzy string-matching method which computes a similarity score between an individual line of the textual corpus and the citation. The Smith-Waterman-Gotoh algorithm for local alignment, which is generally used in bioinformatics, is used here for calculating the similarity score. This similarity score is a measure of the closeness between the text and the citation. The exact- and approximate-matching methods are evaluated and compared. The methods presented can be easily applied to corpora in other Indic languages like Kannada, Tamil, etc. The approximate-matching method can in particular be used in the compilation of critical editions and plagiarism detection in a literary work.

  2. How Hierarchical Topics Evolve in Large Text Corpora.

    PubMed

    Cui, Weiwei; Liu, Shixia; Wu, Zhuofeng; Wei, Hao

    2014-12-01

    Using a sequence of topic trees to organize documents is a popular way to represent hierarchical and evolving topics in text corpora. However, following evolving topics in the context of topic trees remains difficult for users. To address this issue, we present an interactive visual text analysis approach to allow users to progressively explore and analyze the complex evolutionary patterns of hierarchical topics. The key idea behind our approach is to exploit a tree cut to approximate each tree and allow users to interactively modify the tree cuts based on their interests. In particular, we propose an incremental evolutionary tree cut algorithm with the goal of balancing 1) the fitness of each tree cut and the smoothness between adjacent tree cuts; 2) the historical and new information related to user interests. A time-based visualization is designed to illustrate the evolving topics over time. To preserve the mental map, we develop a stable layout algorithm. As a result, our approach can quickly guide users to progressively gain profound insights into evolving hierarchical topics. We evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method on Amazon's Mechanical Turk and real-world news data. The results show that users are able to successfully analyze evolving topics in text data.

  3. How Hierarchical Topics Evolve in Large Text Corpora.

    PubMed

    Cui, Weiwei; Liu, Shixia; Wu, Zhuofeng; Wei, Hao

    2014-12-01

    Using a sequence of topic trees to organize documents is a popular way to represent hierarchical and evolving topics in text corpora. However, following evolving topics in the context of topic trees remains difficult for users. To address this issue, we present an interactive visual text analysis approach to allow users to progressively explore and analyze the complex evolutionary patterns of hierarchical topics. The key idea behind our approach is to exploit a tree cut to approximate each tree and allow users to interactively modify the tree cuts based on their interests. In particular, we propose an incremental evolutionary tree cut algorithm with the goal of balancing 1) the fitness of each tree cut and the smoothness between adjacent tree cuts; 2) the historical and new information related to user interests. A time-based visualization is designed to illustrate the evolving topics over time. To preserve the mental map, we develop a stable layout algorithm. As a result, our approach can quickly guide users to progressively gain profound insights into evolving hierarchical topics. We evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method on Amazon's Mechanical Turk and real-world news data. The results show that users are able to successfully analyze evolving topics in text data. PMID:26356942

  4. An fMRI Study of Concreteness Effects during Spoken Word Recognition in Aging. Preservation or Attenuation?

    PubMed Central

    Roxbury, Tracy; McMahon, Katie; Coulthard, Alan; Copland, David A.

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether healthy aging influences concreteness effects (i.e., the processing advantage seen for concrete over abstract words) and its associated neural mechanisms. We conducted an fMRI study on young and older healthy adults performing auditory lexical decisions on concrete vs. abstract words. We found that spoken comprehension of concrete and abstract words appears relatively preserved for healthy older individuals, including the concreteness effect. This preserved performance was supported by altered activity in left hemisphere regions including the inferior and middle frontal gyri, angular gyrus, and fusiform gyrus. This pattern is consistent with age-related compensatory mechanisms supporting spoken word processing. PMID:26793097

  5. Integration of partial information for spoken and written sentence recognition by older listeners.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kimberly G; Fogerty, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Older adults have difficulty understanding speech in challenging listening environments. Combining multisensory signals may facilitate speech recognition. This study measured recognition of interrupted spoken and written sentences by older adults for different preserved stimulus proportions. Unimodal performance was first examined when only interrupted text or speech stimuli were presented. Multimodal performance with concurrently presented text and speech stimuli was tested with delayed and simultaneous participant responses. Older listeners performed better in unimodal speech-only compared to text-only conditions across all proportions preserved. Performance was also better in delayed multimodal conditions. Comparison to a younger sample suggests age-related amodal processing declines.

  6. TEES 2.2: Biomedical Event Extraction for Diverse Corpora

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The Turku Event Extraction System (TEES) is a text mining program developed for the extraction of events, complex biomedical relationships, from scientific literature. Based on a graph-generation approach, the system detects events with the use of a rich feature set built via dependency parsing. The TEES system has achieved record performance in several of the shared tasks of its domain, and continues to be used in a variety of biomedical text mining tasks. Results The TEES system was quickly adapted to the BioNLP'13 Shared Task in order to provide a public baseline for derived systems. An automated approach was developed for learning the underlying annotation rules of event type, allowing immediate adaptation to the various subtasks, and leading to a first place in four out of eight tasks. The system for the automated learning of annotation rules is further enhanced in this paper to the point of requiring no manual adaptation to any of the BioNLP'13 tasks. Further, the scikit-learn machine learning library is integrated into the system, bringing a wide variety of machine learning methods usable with TEES in addition to the default SVM. A scikit-learn ensemble method is also used to analyze the importances of the features in the TEES feature sets. Conclusions The TEES system was introduced for the BioNLP'09 Shared Task and has since then demonstrated good performance in several other shared tasks. By applying the current TEES 2.2 system to multiple corpora from these past shared tasks an overarching analysis of the most promising methods and possible pitfalls in the evolving field of biomedical event extraction are presented. PMID:26551925

  7. Talker familiarity and spoken word recognition in school-age children*

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Susannah V.

    2014-01-01

    Research with adults has shown that spoken language processing is improved when listeners are familiar with talkers’ voices, known as the familiar talker advantage. The current study explored whether this ability extends to school-age children, who are still acquiring language. Children were familiarized with the voices of three German–English bilingual talkers and were tested on the speech of six bilinguals, three of whom were familiar. Results revealed that children do show improved spoken language processing when they are familiar with the talkers, but this improvement was limited to highly familiar lexical items. This restriction of the familiar talker advantage is attributed to differences in the representation of highly familiar and less familiar lexical items. In addition, children did not exhibit accent-general learning; despite having been exposed to German-accented talkers during training, there was no improvement for novel German-accented talkers. PMID:25159173

  8. Beyond Single Words: The Most Frequent Collocations in Spoken English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Dongkwang; Nation, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This study presents a list of the highest frequency collocations of spoken English based on carefully applied criteria. In the literature, more than forty terms have been used for designating multi-word units, which are generally not well defined. To avoid this confusion, six criteria are strictly applied. The ten million word BNC spoken section…

  9. Attentional Capture of Objects Referred to by Spoken Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salverda, Anne Pier; Altmann, Gerry T. M.

    2011-01-01

    Participants saw a small number of objects in a visual display and performed a visual detection or visual-discrimination task in the context of task-irrelevant spoken distractors. In each experiment, a visual cue was presented 400 ms after the onset of a spoken word. In experiments 1 and 2, the cue was an isoluminant color change and participants…

  10. The Dynamics of Lexical Competition during Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnuson, James S.; Dixon, James A.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2007-01-01

    The sounds that make up spoken words are heard in a series and must be mapped rapidly onto words in memory because their elements, unlike those of visual words, cannot simultaneously exist or persist in time. Although theories agree that the dynamics of spoken word recognition are important, they differ in how they treat the nature of the…

  11. Linguistic Adaptations During Spoken and Multimodal Error Resolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oviatt, Sharon; Bernard, Jon; Levow, Gina-Anne

    1998-01-01

    Analyzed the types and magnitude of linguistic adaptation occurring during spoken and multimodal human-computer error resolution. Researchers collected samples of users' spoken and written input immediately before and after recognition errors and at different spiral depths. Results indicated that human language changes in at least three different…

  12. We Asked...You Told Us. Language Spoken at Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Washington, DC. Economics and Statistics Administration.

    Responses to the 1990 United States census question concerning languages other than English that are spoken at home are summarized. It was found that in 1990, 14 percent of the population 5 years and older spoke a language other than English at home, as contrasted with 11 percent in 1980. Languages spoken most commonly at home in descending order…

  13. Orthographic Facilitation in Chinese Spoken Word Recognition: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Lijuan; Desroches, Amy S.; Liu, Youyi; Xia, Zhichao; Shu, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Orthographic influences in spoken word recognition have been previously examined in alphabetic languages. However, it is unknown whether orthographic information affects spoken word recognition in Chinese, which has a clean dissociation between orthography (O) and phonology (P). The present study investigated orthographic effects using event…

  14. Spoken Language Research and ELT: Where Are We Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmis, Ivor

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between spoken language research and ELT practice over the last 20 years. The first part is retrospective. It seeks first to capture the general tenor of recent spoken research findings through illustrative examples. The article then considers the sociocultural issues that arose when the relevance of these…

  15. Written vs. spoken eyewitness accounts: does modality of testing matter?

    PubMed

    Sauerland, Melanie; Sporer, Siegfried L

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to test whether the modality of testing (written vs. spoken) matters when obtaining eyewitness statements. Writing puts higher demands on working memory than speaking because writing is slower, less practiced, and associated with the activation of graphemic representations for spelling words (Kellogg, 2007). Therefore, we hypothesized that witnesses' spoken reports should elicit more details than written ones. Participants (N = 192) watched a staged crime video and then gave a spoken or written description of the course of action and the perpetrator. As expected, spoken crime and perpetrator descriptions contained more details than written ones, although there was no difference in accuracy. However, the most critical (central) crime and perpetrator information was both more extensive and more accurate when witnesses gave spoken descriptions. In addition to cognitive factors, social factors are considered which may drive the effect.

  16. Spoken language can have its impact on the respiratory passage.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Jyothi M P; D'Souza, Deepak Herald

    2010-07-01

    Spoken language, due its chronic impact, could be looked upon as one of the factors for its role, either in prevention or causation of respiratory illnesses. There will be variations in articulatory-aerodynamics and respiratory system dynamics among the spoken languages. Geographic variation of disease patterns and uncertain etiologies of some respiratory illnesses, which occur due to insult to the mucosal barrier or the defense mechanism of the respiratory passage, may be explained by the hypothesis of unhealthy language. Habituation to a particular spoken language could mask the symptoms of phonotrauma. Other respiratory illnesses could initiate from the phonotrauma by spoken language. There exist lacunae in the research of languages. Finding out the healthy language could mean relative freedom from respiratory illnesses. Healthy spoken language could relieve the stress on vocal cords and improve the defense mechanism of the respiratory passage.

  17. Arginase II Deletion Increases Corpora Cavernosa Relaxation in Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Toque, Haroldo; Tostes, Rita; Yao, Lin; Xu, Zhimin; Webb, Clinton R.; Caldwell, Ruth; Caldwell, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes-induced erectile dysfunction involves elevated arginase (Arg) activity and expression. Because nitric oxide (NO) synthase and Arg share and compete for their substrate L-arginine, NO production is likely linked to regulation of Arg. Arg is highly expressed and implicated in erectile dysfunction. Aim It was hypothesized that Arg-II isoform deletion enhances relaxation function of corpora cavernosal (CC) smooth muscle in a streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic model. Methods Eight weeks after STZ-induced diabetes, vascular functional studies, Arg activity assay, and protein expression levels of Arg and constitutive NOS (using western blots) were assessed in CC tissues from non-diabetic wild type (WT), diabetic (D) WT (WT+D), Arg-II knockout (KO) and Arg-II KO+D mice (N=8–10 per group). Main Outcome Measures Inhibition or lack of arginase results in facilitation of CC relaxation in diabetic CC. Results Strips of CC from Arg-II KO mice exhibited an enhanced maximum endothelium-dependent relaxation (from 70+3% to 84+4%) and increased nitrergic relaxation (by 55%, 71%, 42%, 42%, and 24% for 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 Hz, respectively) compared to WT mice. WT+D mice showed a significant reduction of endothelium-dependent maximum relaxation (44+8%), but this impairment of relaxation was significantly prevented in Arg-II KO+D mice (69+4%). Sympathetic-mediated and alpha-adrenergic agent-induced contractile responses also were increased in CC strips from D compared to non-D controls. Contractile responses were significantly lower in Arg-II KO control and D versus the WT groups. WT+D mice increased Arg activity (1.5-fold) and Arg-II protein expression and decreased total and phospho-eNOS at Ser-1177, and nNOS levels. These alterations were not seen in Arg-II KO mice. Additionally, the Arg inhibitor BEC (50 μM) enhanced nitrergic and endothelium-dependent relaxation in CC of WT+D mice. Conclusion These studies show for the first time that Arg-II deletion improves CC

  18. Ultrasonic imaging of equine ovarian follicles and corpora lutea.

    PubMed

    Ginther, O J

    1988-08-01

    One of the most profound theriogenology applications of transrectal diagnostic ultrasonography in mares involves the imaging of ovarian follicles and corpora lutea. The resolving capabilities (frequency) and quality of the scanner directly affect the minimal size of a structure that can be imaged and the quality of the image. High-frequency scanners (5 or 7.5 MHz) of good quality can image a 2-mm follicle and the corpus luteum throughout its functional life. A low-frequency scanner (3 or 3.5 MHz) can image a 6-mm follicle and the corpus luteum for several days after ovulation. Equine follicles are excellent subjects for transrectal imaging because they are large, filled with fluid, and readily accessible. Event the small follicles (less than 10 mm) can be diagnostically important in evaluating whether ovarian infertility has occurred and whether the follicles are responding to treatment for follicular stimulation. The large, preovulatory follicles are of special interest. Averaged over a group of 79 periods, the following significant changes were found in the preovulatory follicle: increasing diameter, shape change from spherical to pear-shaped or conical, and increasing thickness of the follicular wall. No significant changes were found in the echogenicity (gray-scale value) of the wall or fluid. In retrospect, the diameter of the follicle seemed as useful for predicting impending ovulation as any of the other ultrasound criteria. The occurrence of ovulation is readily detected by the disappearance of a large follicle that was present at a recent previous examination. In addition, the ovulation site on the day of ovulation is detectable. In one study, the site was correctly identified in 24 of 24 mares. A small amount of residual follicular fluid can sometimes (7 of 10 in one study) be detected at the site of ovulation. The residual fluid usually disappears over a period of 0.5 to 20 hours. Subsequently, the developing corpus luteum may form a central nonechogenic

  19. Developing a corpus of spoken language variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmichael, Lesley; Wright, Richard; Wassink, Alicia Beckford

    2003-10-01

    We are developing a novel, searchable corpus as a research tool for investigating phonetic and phonological phenomena across various speech styles. Five speech styles have been well studied independently in previous work: reduced (casual), careful (hyperarticulated), citation (reading), Lombard effect (speech in noise), and ``motherese'' (child-directed speech). Few studies to date have collected a wide range of styles from a single set of speakers, and fewer yet have provided publicly available corpora. The pilot corpus includes recordings of (1) a set of speakers participating in a variety of tasks designed to elicit the five speech styles, and (2) casual peer conversations and wordlists to illustrate regional vowels. The data include high-quality recordings and time-aligned transcriptions linked to text files that can be queried. Initial measures drawn from the database provide comparison across speech styles along the following acoustic dimensions: MLU (changes in unit duration); relative intra-speaker intensity changes (mean and dynamic range); and intra-speaker pitch values (minimum, maximum, mean, range). The corpus design will allow for a variety of analyses requiring control of demographic and style factors, including hyperarticulation variety, disfluencies, intonation, discourse analysis, and detailed spectral measures.

  20. Automatic discrimination of emotion from spoken Finnish.

    PubMed

    Toivanen, Juhani; Väyrynen, Eero; Seppänen, Tapio

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, experiments on the automatic discrimination of basic emotions from spoken Finnish are described. For the purpose of the study, a large emotional speech corpus of Finnish was collected; 14 professional actors acted as speakers, and simulated four primary emotions when reading out a semantically neutral text. More than 40 prosodic features were derived and automatically computed from the speech samples. Two application scenarios were tested: the first scenario was speaker-independent for a small domain of speakers while the second scenario was completely speaker-independent. Human listening experiments were conducted to assess the perceptual adequacy of the emotional speech samples. Statistical classification experiments indicated that, with the optimal combination of prosodic feature vectors, automatic emotion discrimination performance close to human emotion recognition ability was achievable. PMID:16038449

  1. Morphometric Correlates of the Ovary and Ovulatory Corpora in the Bowhead Whale, Balaena mysticetus.

    PubMed

    Tarpley, Raymond J; Hillmann, Daniel J; George, John C; Zeh, Judith E; Suydam, Robert S

    2016-06-01

    Gross morphology and morphometry of the bowhead whale ovary, including ovulatory corpora, were investigated in 50 whales from the Chukchi and Beaufort seas off the coast of Alaska. Using the presence of ovarian corpora to define sexual maturity, 23 sexually immature whales (7.6-14.2 m total body length) and 27 sexually mature whales (14.2-17.7 m total body length) were identified. Ovary pair weights ranged from 0.38 to 2.45 kg and 2.92 to 12.02 kg for sexually immature and sexually mature whales, respectively. In sexually mature whales, corpora lutea (CLs) and/or large corpora albicantia (CAs) projected beyond ovary surfaces. CAs became increasingly less interruptive of the surface contour as they regressed, while remaining identifiable within transverse sections of the ovarian cortex. CLs formed large globular bodies, often with a central lumen, featuring golden parenchymas enfolded within radiating fibrous cords. CAs, sometimes vesicular, featured a dense fibrous core with outward fibrous projections through the former luteal tissue. CLs (never more than one per ovary pair) ranged from 6.7 to 15.0 cm in diameter in 13 whales. Fetuses were confirmed in nine of the 13 whales, with the associated CLs ranging from 8.3 to 15.0 cm in diameter. CLs from four whales where a fetus was not detected ranged from 6.7 to 10.6 cm in diameter. CA totals ranged from 0 to 22 for any single ovary, and from 1 to 41 for an ovary pair. CAs measured from 0.3 to 6.3 cm in diameter, and smaller corpora were more numerous, suggesting an accumulating record of ovulation. Neither the left nor the right ovary dominated in the production of corpora. Anat Rec, 299:769-797, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Deep bottleneck features for spoken language identification.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bing; Song, Yan; Wei, Si; Liu, Jun-Hua; McLoughlin, Ian Vince; Dai, Li-Rong

    2014-01-01

    A key problem in spoken language identification (LID) is to design effective representations which are specific to language information. For example, in recent years, representations based on both phonotactic and acoustic features have proven their effectiveness for LID. Although advances in machine learning have led to significant improvements, LID performance is still lacking, especially for short duration speech utterances. With the hypothesis that language information is weak and represented only latently in speech, and is largely dependent on the statistical properties of the speech content, existing representations may be insufficient. Furthermore they may be susceptible to the variations caused by different speakers, specific content of the speech segments, and background noise. To address this, we propose using Deep Bottleneck Features (DBF) for spoken LID, motivated by the success of Deep Neural Networks (DNN) in speech recognition. We show that DBFs can form a low-dimensional compact representation of the original inputs with a powerful descriptive and discriminative capability. To evaluate the effectiveness of this, we design two acoustic models, termed DBF-TV and parallel DBF-TV (PDBF-TV), using a DBF based i-vector representation for each speech utterance. Results on NIST language recognition evaluation 2009 (LRE09) show significant improvements over state-of-the-art systems. By fusing the output of phonotactic and acoustic approaches, we achieve an EER of 1.08%, 1.89% and 7.01% for 30 s, 10 s and 3 s test utterances respectively. Furthermore, various DBF configurations have been extensively evaluated, and an optimal system proposed.

  3. Deep Bottleneck Features for Spoken Language Identification

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Bing; Song, Yan; Wei, Si; Liu, Jun-Hua; McLoughlin, Ian Vince; Dai, Li-Rong

    2014-01-01

    A key problem in spoken language identification (LID) is to design effective representations which are specific to language information. For example, in recent years, representations based on both phonotactic and acoustic features have proven their effectiveness for LID. Although advances in machine learning have led to significant improvements, LID performance is still lacking, especially for short duration speech utterances. With the hypothesis that language information is weak and represented only latently in speech, and is largely dependent on the statistical properties of the speech content, existing representations may be insufficient. Furthermore they may be susceptible to the variations caused by different speakers, specific content of the speech segments, and background noise. To address this, we propose using Deep Bottleneck Features (DBF) for spoken LID, motivated by the success of Deep Neural Networks (DNN) in speech recognition. We show that DBFs can form a low-dimensional compact representation of the original inputs with a powerful descriptive and discriminative capability. To evaluate the effectiveness of this, we design two acoustic models, termed DBF-TV and parallel DBF-TV (PDBF-TV), using a DBF based i-vector representation for each speech utterance. Results on NIST language recognition evaluation 2009 (LRE09) show significant improvements over state-of-the-art systems. By fusing the output of phonotactic and acoustic approaches, we achieve an EER of 1.08%, 1.89% and 7.01% for 30 s, 10 s and 3 s test utterances respectively. Furthermore, various DBF configurations have been extensively evaluated, and an optimal system proposed. PMID:24983963

  4. Deep bottleneck features for spoken language identification.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bing; Song, Yan; Wei, Si; Liu, Jun-Hua; McLoughlin, Ian Vince; Dai, Li-Rong

    2014-01-01

    A key problem in spoken language identification (LID) is to design effective representations which are specific to language information. For example, in recent years, representations based on both phonotactic and acoustic features have proven their effectiveness for LID. Although advances in machine learning have led to significant improvements, LID performance is still lacking, especially for short duration speech utterances. With the hypothesis that language information is weak and represented only latently in speech, and is largely dependent on the statistical properties of the speech content, existing representations may be insufficient. Furthermore they may be susceptible to the variations caused by different speakers, specific content of the speech segments, and background noise. To address this, we propose using Deep Bottleneck Features (DBF) for spoken LID, motivated by the success of Deep Neural Networks (DNN) in speech recognition. We show that DBFs can form a low-dimensional compact representation of the original inputs with a powerful descriptive and discriminative capability. To evaluate the effectiveness of this, we design two acoustic models, termed DBF-TV and parallel DBF-TV (PDBF-TV), using a DBF based i-vector representation for each speech utterance. Results on NIST language recognition evaluation 2009 (LRE09) show significant improvements over state-of-the-art systems. By fusing the output of phonotactic and acoustic approaches, we achieve an EER of 1.08%, 1.89% and 7.01% for 30 s, 10 s and 3 s test utterances respectively. Furthermore, various DBF configurations have been extensively evaluated, and an optimal system proposed. PMID:24983963

  5. 31 CFR 358.7 - Where do I send my bearer corpora and detached bearer coupons to be converted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... detached bearer coupons to be converted? 358.7 Section 358.7 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Where do I send my bearer corpora and detached bearer coupons to be converted? Send bearer corpora and detached bearer coupons to be converted to: Bureau of the Public Debt, Division of Customer Service, P....

  6. The Use of General and Specialized Corpora as Reference Sources for Academic English Writing: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ji-Yeon

    2014-01-01

    Corpora have been suggested as valuable sources for teaching English for academic purposes (EAP). Since previous studies have mainly focused on corpus use in classroom settings, more research is needed to reveal how students react to using corpora on their own and what should be provided to help them become autonomous corpus users, considering…

  7. 31 CFR 358.6 - What is the procedure for converting bearer corpora and detached bearer coupons to book-entry?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... bearer corpora and detached bearer coupons to book-entry? 358.6 Section 358.6 Money and Finance: Treasury... PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY CONVERSION OF BEARER CORPORA AND DETACHED BEARER COUPONS § 358.6 What is the procedure for converting bearer corpora and detached bearer coupons to...

  8. Direct and Indirect Access to Corpora: An Exploratory Case Study Comparing Students' Error Correction and Learning Strategy Use in L2 Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Hyunsook; Jo, Jung Won

    2014-01-01

    Studies on students' use of corpora in L2 writing have demonstrated the benefits of corpora not only as a linguistic resource to improve their writing abilities but also as a cognitive tool to develop their learning skills and strategies. Most of the corpus studies, however, adopted either direct use or indirect use of corpora by students,…

  9. Automatic concept recognition using the Human Phenotype Ontology reference and test suite corpora

    PubMed Central

    Groza, Tudor; Köhler, Sebastian; Doelken, Sandra; Collier, Nigel; Oellrich, Anika; Smedley, Damian; Couto, Francisco M; Baynam, Gareth; Zankl, Andreas; Robinson, Peter N.

    2015-01-01

    Concept recognition tools rely on the availability of textual corpora to assess their performance and enable the identification of areas for improvement. Typically, corpora are developed for specific purposes, such as gene name recognition. Gene and protein name identification are longstanding goals of biomedical text mining, and therefore a number of different corpora exist. However, phenotypes only recently became an entity of interest for specialized concept recognition systems, and hardly any annotated text is available for performance testing and training. Here, we present a unique corpus, capturing text spans from 228 abstracts manually annotated with Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) concepts and harmonized by three curators, which can be used as a reference standard for free text annotation of human phenotypes. Furthermore, we developed a test suite for standardized concept recognition error analysis, incorporating 32 different types of test cases corresponding to 2164 HPO concepts. Finally, three established phenotype concept recognizers (NCBO Annotator, OBO Annotator and Bio-LarK CR) were comprehensively evaluated, and results are reported against both the text corpus and the test suites. The gold standard and test suites corpora are available from http://bio-lark.org/hpo_res.html. Database URL: http://bio-lark.org/hpo_res.html PMID:25725061

  10. Gonadotropin binding sites in human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the menstrual cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Shima, K.; Kitayama, S.; Nakano, R.

    1987-05-01

    Gonadotropin binding sites were localized by autoradiography after incubation of human ovarian sections with /sup 125/I-labeled gonadotropins. The binding sites for /sup 125/I-labeled human follicle-stimulating hormone (/sup 125/I-hFSH) were identified in the granulosa cells and in the newly formed corpora lutea. The /sup 125/I-labeled human luteinizing hormone (/sup 125/I-hLH) binding to the thecal cells increased during follicular maturation, and a dramatic increase was preferentially observed in the granulosa cells of the large preovulatory follicle. In the corpora lutea, the binding of /sup 125/I-hLH increased from the early luteal phase and decreased toward the late luteal phase. The changes in 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in the corpora lutea corresponded to the /sup 125/I-hLH binding. Thus, the changes in gonadotropin binding sites in the follicles and corpora lutea during the menstrual cycle may help in some important way to regulate human ovarian function.

  11. Training L2 Writers to Reference Corpora as a Self-Correction Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Corpora have the potential to support the L2 writing process at the discourse level in contrast to the isolated dictionary entries that many intermediate writers rely on. To take advantage of this resource, learners need to be trained, which involves practising corpus research and referencing skills as well as learning to make data-based…

  12. Corpora Processing and Computational Scaffolding for a Web-Based English Learning Environment: The CANDLE Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Hsien-Chin; Chang, Jason S; Chen, Hao-Jan; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Liaw, Meei-Ling; Gao, Zhao-Ming; Jang, Jyh-Shing Roger; Yeh, Yuli; Chuang, Thomas C.; You, Geeng-Neng

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an innovative web-based environment for English language learning with advanced data-driven and statistical approaches. The project uses various corpora, including a Chinese-English parallel corpus ("Sinorama") and various natural language processing (NLP) tools to construct effective English learning tasks…

  13. The Application of Corpora in Teaching Grammar: The Case of English Relative Clause

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahragard, Rahman; Kushki, Ali; Ansaripour, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to see if the provision of implementing corpora on English relative clauses would prove useful for Iranian EFL learners or not. Two writing classes were held for the participants of intermediate level. A record of 15 writing samples produced by each participant was kept in the form of a portfolio. Participants'…

  14. Signed and Spoken Language: A Unique Underlying System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peperkamp, Sharon; Mehler, Jacques

    1999-01-01

    Reviews research from the fields of cognitive neuroscience and psycholinguistics, comparing spoken and signed language by looking at data concerning either cortical representations or early acquisition. (Author/VWL)

  15. Stimulus-based similarity and the recognition of spoken words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, Edward T.

    2003-10-01

    Spoken word recognition has been hypothesized to be achieved via a competitive process amongst perceptually similar lexical candidates in the mental lexicon. In this process, lexical candidates are activated as a function of their perceived similarity to the spoken stimulus. The evidence supporting this hypothesis has largely come from studies of auditory word recognition. In this talk, evidence from our studies of visual spoken word recognition will be reviewed. Visual speech provides the opportunity to highlight the importance of stimulus-driven perceptual similarity because it presents a different pattern of segmental similarity than is afforded by auditory speech degraded by noise. Our results are consistent with stimulus-driven activation followed by competition as general spoken word recognition mechanism. In addition, results will be presented from recent investigations of the direct prediction of perceptual similarity from measurements of spoken stimuli. High levels of correlation have been observed between the predicted and perceptually obtained distances for a large set of spoken consonants. These results support the hypothesis that the perceptual structure of English consonants and vowels is predicted by stimulus structure without the need for an intervening level of abstract linguistic representation. [Research supported by NSF IIS 9996088 and NIH DC04856.

  16. Luteinizing hormone receptors in human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the menstrual cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Yamoto, M.; Nakano, R.; Iwasaki, M.; Ikoma, H.; Furukawa, K.

    1986-08-01

    The binding of /sup 125/I-labeled human luteinizing hormone (hLH) to the 2000-g fraction of human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the entire menstrual cycle was examined. Specific high affinity, low capacity receptors for hLH were demonstrated in the 2000-g fraction of both follicles and corpora lutea. Specific binding of /sup 125/I-labeled hLH to follicular tissue increased from the early follicular phase to the ovulatory phase. Specific binding of /sup 125/I-labeled hLH to luteal tissue increased from the early luteal phase to the midluteal phase and decreased towards the late luteal phase. The results of the present study indicate that the increase and decrease in receptors for hLH during the menstrual cycle might play an important role in the regulation of the ovarian cycle.

  17. Evaluating gold standard corpora against gene/protein tagging solutions and lexical resources

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Motivation The identification of protein and gene names (PGNs) from the scientific literature requires semantic resources: Terminological and lexical resources deliver the term candidates into PGN tagging solutions and the gold standard corpora (GSC) train them to identify term parameters and contextual features. Ideally all three resources, i.e. corpora, lexica and taggers, cover the same domain knowledge, and thus support identification of the same types of PGNs and cover all of them. Unfortunately, none of the three serves as a predominant standard and for this reason it is worth exploring, how these three resources comply with each other. We systematically compare different PGN taggers against publicly available corpora and analyze the impact of the included lexical resource in their performance. In particular, we determine the performance gains through false positive filtering, which contributes to the disambiguation of identified PGNs. Results In general, machine learning approaches (ML-Tag) for PGN tagging show higher F1-measure performance against the BioCreative-II and Jnlpba GSCs (exact matching), whereas the lexicon based approaches (LexTag) in combination with disambiguation methods show better results on FsuPrge and PennBio. The ML-Tag solutions balance precision and recall, whereas the LexTag solutions have different precision and recall profiles at the same F1-measure across all corpora. Higher recall is achieved with larger lexical resources, which also introduce more noise (false positive results). The ML-Tag solutions certainly perform best, if the test corpus is from the same GSC as the training corpus. As expected, the false negative errors characterize the test corpora and – on the other hand – the profiles of the false positive mistakes characterize the tagging solutions. Lex-Tag solutions that are based on a large terminological resource in combination with false positive filtering produce better results, which, in addition, provide

  18. A Linear-RBF Multikernel SVM to Classify Big Text Corpora

    PubMed Central

    Romero, R.; Iglesias, E. L.; Borrajo, L.

    2015-01-01

    Support vector machine (SVM) is a powerful technique for classification. However, SVM is not suitable for classification of large datasets or text corpora, because the training complexity of SVMs is highly dependent on the input size. Recent developments in the literature on the SVM and other kernel methods emphasize the need to consider multiple kernels or parameterizations of kernels because they provide greater flexibility. This paper shows a multikernel SVM to manage highly dimensional data, providing an automatic parameterization with low computational cost and improving results against SVMs parameterized under a brute-force search. The model consists in spreading the dataset into cohesive term slices (clusters) to construct a defined structure (multikernel). The new approach is tested on different text corpora. Experimental results show that the new classifier has good accuracy compared with the classic SVM, while the training is significantly faster than several other SVM classifiers. PMID:25879039

  19. Structural correlates of spoken language abilities: A surface-based region-of interest morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Roehrich-Gascon, Didier; Small, Steven L; Tremblay, Pascale

    2015-10-01

    Brain structure can predict many aspects of human behavior, though the extent of this relationship in healthy adults, particularly for language-related skills, remains largely unknown. The objective of the present study was to explore this relation using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on a group of 21 healthy young adults who completed two language tasks: (1) semantic fluency and (2) sentence generation. For each region of interest, cortical thickness, surface area, and volume were calculated. The results show that verbal fluency scores correlated mainly with measures of brain morphology in the left inferior frontal cortex and bilateral insula. Sentence generation scores correlated with structure of the left inferior parietal and right inferior frontal regions. These results reveal that the anatomy of several structures in frontal and parietal lobes is associated with spoken language performance. The presence of both negative and positive correlations highlights the complex relation between brain and language.

  20. Combining MEDLINE and publisher data to create parallel corpora for the automatic translation of biomedical text

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most of the institutional and research information in the biomedical domain is available in the form of English text. Even in countries where English is an official language, such as the United States, language can be a barrier for accessing biomedical information for non-native speakers. Recent progress in machine translation suggests that this technique could help make English texts accessible to speakers of other languages. However, the lack of adequate specialized corpora needed to train statistical models currently limits the quality of automatic translations in the biomedical domain. Results We show how a large-sized parallel corpus can automatically be obtained for the biomedical domain, using the MEDLINE database. The corpus generated in this work comprises article titles obtained from MEDLINE and abstract text automatically retrieved from journal websites, which substantially extends the corpora used in previous work. After assessing the quality of the corpus for two language pairs (English/French and English/Spanish) we use the Moses package to train a statistical machine translation model that outperforms previous models for automatic translation of biomedical text. Conclusions We have built translation data sets in the biomedical domain that can easily be extended to other languages available in MEDLINE. These sets can successfully be applied to train statistical machine translation models. While further progress should be made by incorporating out-of-domain corpora and domain-specific lexicons, we believe that this work improves the automatic translation of biomedical texts. PMID:23631733

  1. What is the coverage of SNOMED CT®on scientific medical corpora?

    PubMed

    Kokkinakis, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of a large scale mapping of SNOMED CT on scientific medical corpora. The aim is to automatically access the validity, reliability and coverage of the Swedish SNOMED-CT translation, the largest, most extensive available resource of medical terminology. The method described here is based on the generation of predominantly safe harbor term variants which together with simple linguistic processing and the already available SNOMED term content are mapped to large corpora. The results show that term variations are very frequent and this may have implication on technological applications (such as indexing and information retrieval, decision support systems, text mining) using SNOMED CT. Naïve approaches to terminology mapping and indexing would critically affect the performance, success and results of such applications. SNOMED CT appears not well-suited for automatically capturing the enormous variety of concepts in scientific corpora (only 6,3% of all SNOMED terms could be directly matched to the corpus) unless extensive variant forms are generated and fuzzy and partial matching techniques are applied with the risk of allowing the recognition of a large number of false positives and spurious results.

  2. Incremental comprehension of spoken quantifier sentences: Evidence from brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Freunberger, Dominik; Nieuwland, Mante S

    2016-09-01

    Do people incrementally incorporate the meaning of quantifier expressions to understand an unfolding sentence? Most previous studies concluded that quantifiers do not immediately influence how a sentence is understood based on the observation that online N400-effects differed from offline plausibility judgments. Those studies, however, used serial visual presentation (SVP), which involves unnatural reading. In the current ERP-experiment, we presented spoken positive and negative quantifier sentences ("Practically all/practically no postmen prefer delivering mail, when the weather is good/bad during the day"). Different from results obtained in a previously reported SVP-study (Nieuwland, 2016) sentence truth-value N400 effects occurred in positive and negative quantifier sentences alike, reflecting fully incremental quantifier comprehension. This suggests that the prosodic information available during spoken language comprehension supports the generation of online predictions for upcoming words and that, at least for quantifier sentences, comprehension of spoken language may proceed more incrementally than comprehension during SVP reading. PMID:27346365

  3. Natural discourse reference generation reduces cognitive load in spoken systems

    PubMed Central

    Campana, E.; Tanenhaus, M. K.; Allen, J. F.; Remington, R.

    2014-01-01

    The generation of referring expressions is a central topic in computational linguistics. Natural referring expressions – both definite references like ‘the baseball cap’ and pronouns like ‘it’ – are dependent on discourse context. We examine the practical implications of context-dependent referring expression generation for the design of spoken systems. Currently, not all spoken systems have the goal of generating natural referring expressions. Many researchers believe that the context-dependency of natural referring expressions actually makes systems less usable. Using the dual-task paradigm, we demonstrate that generating natural referring expressions that are dependent on discourse context reduces cognitive load. Somewhat surprisingly, we also demonstrate that practice does not improve cognitive load in systems that generate consistent (context-independent) referring expressions. We discuss practical implications for spoken systems as well as other areas of referring expression generation. PMID:25328423

  4. Natural discourse reference generation reduces cognitive load in spoken systems.

    PubMed

    Campana, E; Tanenhaus, M K; Allen, J F; Remington, R

    2011-07-01

    The generation of referring expressions is a central topic in computational linguistics. Natural referring expressions - both definite references like 'the baseball cap' and pronouns like 'it' - are dependent on discourse context. We examine the practical implications of context-dependent referring expression generation for the design of spoken systems. Currently, not all spoken systems have the goal of generating natural referring expressions. Many researchers believe that the context-dependency of natural referring expressions actually makes systems less usable. Using the dual-task paradigm, we demonstrate that generating natural referring expressions that are dependent on discourse context reduces cognitive load. Somewhat surprisingly, we also demonstrate that practice does not improve cognitive load in systems that generate consistent (context-independent) referring expressions. We discuss practical implications for spoken systems as well as other areas of referring expression generation.

  5. Accessory corpora lutea formation in pregnant Hokkaido sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) investigated by examination of ovarian dynamics and steroid hormone concentrations.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Yojiro; Matsuura, Yukiko; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Saga, Shin-Ichi; Okuyama, Hideto; Fukui, Daisuke; Bando, Gen; Nagano, Masashi; Katagiri, Seiji; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Tsubota, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Generally, sika deer conceive a single fetus, but approximately 80% of pregnant females have two corpora lutea (CLs). The function of the accessory CL (ACL) is unknown; moreover, the process of ACL formation is unclear, and understanding this is necessary to know its role. To elucidate the process of ACL formation, the ovarian dynamics of six adult Hokkaido sika deer females were examined ultrasonographically together with peripheral estradiol-17β and progesterone concentrations. ACLs formed in three females that conceived at the first estrus of the breeding season, but not in those females that conceived at the second estrus. After copulation, postconception ovulation of the dominant follicle of the first wave is induced by an increase in estradiol-17β, which leads to formation of an ACL. A relatively low concentration of progesterone after the first estrus of the breeding season is considered to be responsible for the increase in estradiol-17β after copulation. PMID:25482110

  6. Accessory corpora lutea formation in pregnant Hokkaido sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) investigated by examination of ovarian dynamics and steroid hormone concentrations

    PubMed Central

    YANAGAWA, Yojiro; MATSUURA, Yukiko; SUZUKI, Masatsugu; SAGA, Shin-ichi; OKUYAMA, Hideto; FUKUI, Daisuke; BANDO, Gen; NAGANO, Masashi; KATAGIRI, Seiji; TAKAHASHI, Yoshiyuki; TSUBOTA, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Generally, sika deer conceive a single fetus, but approximately 80% of pregnant females have two corpora lutea (CLs). The function of the accessory CL (ACL) is unknown; moreover, the process of ACL formation is unclear, and understanding this is necessary to know its role. To elucidate the process of ACL formation, the ovarian dynamics of six adult Hokkaido sika deer females were examined ultrasonographically together with peripheral estradiol-17β and progesterone concentrations. ACLs formed in three females that conceived at the first estrus of the breeding season, but not in those females that conceived at the second estrus. After copulation, postconception ovulation of the dominant follicle of the first wave is induced by an increase in estradiol-17β, which leads to formation of an ACL. A relatively low concentration of progesterone after the first estrus of the breeding season is considered to be responsible for the increase in estradiol-17β after copulation. PMID:25482110

  7. Usable, real-time, interactive spoken language systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhoul, J.; Bates, M.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this project was to make the next significant advance in human-machine interaction by developing a spoken language system (SLS) that operates in real-time while maintaining high accuracy on cost-effective COTS (commercial, off-the-shelf) hardware. The system has a highly interactive user interface, is largely user independent and to be easily portable to new applications. The BBN HARC spoken language system consists of Byblos speech recognition system and the Delphi or HUM language understanding system.

  8. Test Review: BEST Plus Spoken Language Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Moere, Alistair

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of BEST Plus is to assess the ability to understand and use unprepared, conversational, everyday language within topic areas generally covered in adult education courses. It is one of several standardized assessments approved by the National Reporting System (NRS, 2008), which is the accountability system for federally funded ESL and…

  9. In a Manner of Speaking: Assessing Frequent Spoken Figurative Idioms to Assist ESL/EFL Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Lynn E.

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines criteria to define a figurative idiom, and then compares the frequent figurative idioms identified in two sources of spoken American English (academic and contemporary) to their frequency in spoken British English. This is done by searching the spoken part of the British National Corpus (BNC), to see whether they are frequent…

  10. The Time Course of Variability Effects in the Perception of Spoken Language: Changes across the Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLennan, Conor T.

    2006-01-01

    Although spoken language is communicated via a rapidly varying signal, human listeners recognize spoken words both quickly and accurately. Nonetheless, variability in speech does have implications for both the processes and representations involved in spoken language perception. Moreover, variability effects have been observed across the lifespan,…

  11. Instructional Benefits of Spoken Words: A Review of Cognitive Load Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyuga, Slava

    2012-01-01

    Spoken words have always been an important component of traditional instruction. With the development of modern educational technology tools, spoken text more often replaces or supplements written or on-screen textual representations. However, there could be a cognitive load cost involved in this trend, as spoken words can have both benefits and…

  12. Spoken Language Processing Model: Bridging Auditory and Language Processing to Guide Assessment and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medwetsky, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This article outlines the author's conceptualization of the key mechanisms that are engaged in the processing of spoken language, referred to as the spoken language processing model. The act of processing what is heard is very complex and involves the successful intertwining of auditory, cognitive, and language mechanisms. Spoken language…

  13. On-Line Orthographic Influences on Spoken Language in a Semantic Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Perre, Laetitia; Dufau, Stephane; Ziegler, Johannes C.

    2009-01-01

    Literacy changes the way the brain processes spoken language. Most psycholinguists believe that orthographic effects on spoken language are either strategic or restricted to meta-phonological tasks. We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to investigate the locus and the time course of orthographic effects on spoken word recognition in a…

  14. Understanding Non-Restrictive "Which"-Clauses in Spoken English, Which Is Not an Easy Thing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Hongyin; McCarthy, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    Reexamines the notion of non-restrictive relative clauses (NRRCs) in light of spoken corpus evidence, based on analysis of 692 occurrences of non-restrictive "which"-clauses in British and American spoken English data. Reviews traditional conceptions of NRRCs and recent work on the broader notion of subordination in spoken grammar. Presents…

  15. Spoken Grammar: What Is It and How Can We Teach It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Michael; Carter, Ronald

    1995-01-01

    This article argues that consideration by teachers of spoken English shows that learners need to be given choices between written and spoken grammars, that the interpersonal implications of spoken grammars are important, and that methodologically inductive learning may be more appropriate than the presentation-practice-production approaches…

  16. Discourse Markers and Spoken English: Nonnative Use in the Turkish EFL Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asik, Asuman; Cephe, Pasa Tevfik

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the production of discourse markers by non-native speakers of English and their occurrences in their spoken English by comparing them with those used in native speakers' spoken discourse. Because discourse markers (DMs) are significant items in spoken discourse of native speakers, a study about the use of DMs by nonnative…

  17. Speech-Language Pathologists: Vital Listening and Spoken Language Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, K. Todd; Perigoe, Christina B.

    2010-01-01

    Determining the most effective methods and techniques to facilitate the spoken language development of individuals with hearing loss has been a focus of practitioners for centuries. Due to modern advances in hearing technology, earlier identification of hearing loss, and immediate enrollment in early intervention, children with hearing loss are…

  18. Context and Spoken Word Recognition in a Novel Lexicon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revill, Kathleen Pirog; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2008-01-01

    Three eye movement studies with novel lexicons investigated the role of semantic context in spoken word recognition, contrasting 3 models: restrictive access, access-selection, and continuous integration. Actions directed at novel shapes caused changes in motion (e.g., looming, spinning) or state (e.g., color, texture). Across the experiments,…

  19. "Context and Spoken Word Recognition in a Novel Lexicon": Correction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revill, Kathleen Pirog; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2009-01-01

    Reports an error in "Context and spoken word recognition in a novel lexicon" by Kathleen Pirog Revill, Michael K. Tanenhaus and Richard N. Aslin ("Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 2008[Sep], Vol 34[5], 1207-1223). Figure 9 was inadvertently duplicated as Figure 10. Figure 9 in the original article was correct.…

  20. Prosodic Parallelism—Comparing Spoken and Written Language

    PubMed Central

    Wiese, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The Prosodic Parallelism hypothesis claims adjacent prosodic categories to prefer identical branching of internal adjacent constituents. According to Wiese and Speyer (2015), this preference implies feet contained in the same phonological phrase to display either binary or unary branching, but not different types of branching. The seemingly free schwa-zero alternations at the end of some words in German make it possible to test this hypothesis. The hypothesis was successfully tested by conducting a corpus study which used large-scale bodies of written German. As some open questions remain, and as it is unclear whether Prosodic Parallelism is valid for the spoken modality as well, the present study extends this inquiry to spoken German. As in the previous study, the results of a corpus analysis recruiting a variety of linguistic constructions are presented. The Prosodic Parallelism hypothesis can be demonstrated to be valid for spoken German as well as for written German. The paper thus contributes to the question whether prosodic preferences are similar between the spoken and written modes of a language. Some consequences of the results for the production of language are discussed. PMID:27807425

  1. Spoken Word Recognition of Chinese Words in Continuous Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Michael C. W.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the role of positional probability of syllables played in recognition of spoken word in continuous Cantonese speech. Because some sounds occur more frequently at the beginning position or ending position of Cantonese syllables than the others, so these kinds of probabilistic information of syllables may cue the locations…

  2. Call and Responsibility: Critical Questions for Youth Spoken Word Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Susan; West, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In this article, Susan Weinstein and Anna West embark on a critical analysis of the maturing field of youth spoken word poetry (YSW). Through a blend of firsthand experience, analysis of YSW-related films and television, and interview data from six years of research, the authors identify specific dynamics that challenge young poets as they…

  3. Testing Spoken English for Credit within the Indian University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhary, Shreesh

    2008-01-01

    Courses in Spoken English (SE) are yet to be acceptable in Indian universities because conducting session-end tests in SE is assumed to be logistically difficult and academically problematic. This article argues that it need not necessarily be so; session-end tests can be conducted just as in other courses. With voice recording, preferably a…

  4. Animated and Static Concept Maps Enhance Learning from Spoken Narration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adesope, Olusola O.; Nesbit, John C.

    2013-01-01

    An animated concept map represents verbal information in a node-link diagram that changes over time. The goals of the experiment were to evaluate the instructional effects of presenting an animated concept map concurrently with semantically equivalent spoken narration. The study used a 2 x 2 factorial design in which an animation factor (animated…

  5. Spoken Idiom Recognition: Meaning Retrieval and Word Expectancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabossi, Patrizia; Fanari, Rachele; Wolf, Kinou

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates recognition of spoken idioms occurring in neutral contexts. Experiment 1 showed that both predictable and non-predictable idiom meanings are available at string offset. Yet, only predictable idiom meanings are active halfway through a string and remain active after the string's literal conclusion. Experiment 2 showed that…

  6. L2 Gender Facilitation and Inhibition in Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behney, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the role of grammatical gender facilitation and inhibition in second language (L2) learners' spoken word recognition. Native speakers of languages that have grammatical gender are sensitive to gender marking when hearing and recognizing a word. Gender facilitation refers to when a given noun that is preceded by an…

  7. SPOKEN MARATHI. BOOK I, FIRST-YEAR INTENSIVE COURSE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KAVADI, NARESH B.; SOUTHWORTH, FRANKLIN C.

    "SPOKEN MARATHI" PRESENTS THE BEGINNING STUDENT WITH THE BASIC PHONOLOGY AND STRUCTURE OF MODERN MARATHI. IT IS ASSUMED THAT THE STUDENT WILL SPEND MOST OF HIS STUDY TIME LISTENING TO AND SPEAKING THE LANGUAGE, EITHER WITH A NATIVE SPEAKER INSTRUCTOR OR WITH RECORDED MATERIALS. THIS TEXT IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE MATERIAL FOR A ONE-YEAR INTENSIVE…

  8. A Comparison between Written and Spoken Narratives in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrns, Ingrid; Wengelin, Asa; Broberg, Malin; Hartelius, Lena

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore how a personal narrative told by a group of eight persons with aphasia differed between written and spoken language, and to compare this with findings from 10 participants in a reference group. The stories were analysed through holistic assessments made by 60 participants without experience of aphasia…

  9. Lexical Representation of Phonological Variation in Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranbom, Larissa J.; Connine, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

    There have been a number of mechanisms proposed to account for recognition of phonological variation in spoken language. Five of these mechanisms were considered here, including underspecification, inference, feature parsing, tolerance, and a frequency-based representational account. A corpus analysis and five experiments using the nasal flap…

  10. The Impact of Orthographic Consistency on German Spoken Word Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyermann, Sandra; Penke, Martina

    2014-01-01

    An auditory lexical decision experiment was conducted to find out whether sound-to-spelling consistency has an impact on German spoken word processing, and whether such an impact is different at different stages of reading development. Four groups of readers (school children in the second, third and fifth grades, and university students)…

  11. Enduring Advantages of Early Cochlear Implantation for Spoken Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geers, Anne E.; Nicholas, Johanna G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors sought to determine whether the precise age of implantation (AOI) remains an important predictor of spoken language outcomes in later childhood for those who received a cochlear implant (CI) between 12 and 38 months of age. Relative advantages of receiving a bilateral CI after age 4.5 years, better…

  12. Reading Spoken Words: Orthographic Effects in Auditory Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chereau, Celine; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Dumay, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments examined the involvement of orthography in spoken word processing using a task--unimodal auditory priming with offset overlap--taken to reflect activation of prelexical representations. Two types of prime-target relationship were compared; both involved phonological overlap, but only one had a strong orthographic overlap (e.g.,…

  13. Visual Speech Primes Open-Set Recognition of Spoken Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchwald, Adam B.; Winters, Stephen J.; Pisoni, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Visual speech perception has become a topic of considerable interest to speech researchers. Previous research has demonstrated that perceivers neurally encode and use speech information from the visual modality, and this information has been found to facilitate spoken word recognition in tasks such as lexical decision (Kim, Davis, & Krins, 2004).…

  14. Using Pictographs To Enhance Recall of Spoken Medical Instructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houts, Peter S.; Bachrach, Rebecca; Witmer, Judith T.; Tringali, Carol A.; Bucher, Julia A.; Localio, Russell A.

    1998-01-01

    Tests the hypothesis that pictographs can improve recall of spoken medical instructions. Junior college subjects (N=21) listened to two lists of actions, one of which was accompanied by pictographs during both listening and recall while the other was not. Mean correct recall was 85% with pictographs and 14% without, indicating that pictographs can…

  15. Spoken Word Recognition in Toddlers Who Use Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieco-Calub, Tina M.; Saffran, Jenny R.; Litovsky, Ruth Y.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the time course of spoken word recognition in 2-year-old children who use cochlear implants (CIs) in quiet and in the presence of speech competitors. Method: Children who use CIs and age-matched peers with normal acoustic hearing listened to familiar auditory labels, in quiet or in the presence of…

  16. Orthographic Facilitation Effects on Spoken Word Production: Evidence from Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Qingfang; Weekes, Brendan Stuart

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to investigate the time course of orthographic facilitation on picture naming in Chinese. We used a picture-word paradigm to investigate orthographic and phonological facilitation on monosyllabic spoken word production in native Mandarin speakers. Both the stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) and the picture-word…

  17. Contextualizing Reflective Dialogue in a Spoken Conversational Tutor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pon-Barry, Heather; Clark, Brady; Schultz, Karl; Bratt, Elizabeth Owen; Peters, Stanley; Haley, David

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe the ways that SCoT, a Spoken Conversational Tutor, uses flexible and adaptive planning as well as multimodal task modeling to support the contextualization of learning in reflective dialogues. Past research on human tutoring has shown reflective discussions (discussions occurring after problem-solving) to be effective in…

  18. Hemispheric Differences in Indexical Specificity Effects in Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Julio; McLennan, Conor T.

    2007-01-01

    Variability in talker identity, one type of indexical variation, has demonstrable effects on the speed and accuracy of spoken word recognition. Furthermore, neuropsychological evidence suggests that indexical and linguistic information may be represented and processed differently in the 2 cerebral hemispheres, and is consistent with findings from…

  19. Time Pressure and Phonological Advance Planning in Spoken Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damian, Markus F.; Dumay, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    Current accounts of spoken production debate the extent to which speakers plan ahead. Here, we investigated whether the scope of phonological planning is influenced by changes in time pressure constraints. The first experiment used a picture-word interference task and showed that picture naming latencies were shorter when word distractors shared…

  20. Spoken English. "Educational Review" Occasional Publications Number Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Andrew; And Others

    Modifications of current assumptions both about the nature of the spoken language and about its functions in relation to personality development are suggested in this book. The discussion covers an explanation of "oracy" (the oral skills of speaking and listening); the contributions of linguistics to the teaching of English in Britain; the…

  1. Associations among Play, Gesture and Early Spoken Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Suzanne; Rumney, Lisa; Holler, Judith; Kidd, Evan

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the developmental interrelationships between play, gesture use and spoken language development in children aged 18-31 months. The children completed two tasks: (i) a structured measure of pretend (or "symbolic") play and (ii) a measure of vocabulary knowledge in which children have been shown to gesture.…

  2. L2 Performance in Text-Chat and Spoken Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauro, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    The present study builds upon research in the CAF (complexity, accuracy, fluency) framework for examining learner performance to compare the lexical and syntactic complexity of learner output in spoken discourse and synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC) during completion of narrative tasks. Data were generated from transcripts and…

  3. Languages Spoken by English Learners (ELs). Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on languages spoken by English learners (ELs) are: (1) Twenty most common EL languages, as reported in states' top five lists: SY 2013-14; (2) States,…

  4. Inferring Speaker Affect in Spoken Natural Language Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pon-Barry, Heather Roberta

    2013-01-01

    The field of spoken language processing is concerned with creating computer programs that can understand human speech and produce human-like speech. Regarding the problem of understanding human speech, there is currently growing interest in moving beyond speech recognition (the task of transcribing the words in an audio stream) and towards…

  5. Attitudes towards Literary Tamil and Standard Spoken Tamil in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saravanan, Vanithamani

    2007-01-01

    This is the first empirical study that focused on attitudes towards two varieties of Tamil, Literary Tamil (LT) and Standard Spoken Tamil (SST), with the multilingual state of Singapore as the backdrop. The attitudes of 46 Singapore Tamil teachers towards speakers of LT and SST were investigated using the matched-guise approach along with…

  6. Lexical Competition in Non-Native Spoken-Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Andrea; Cutler, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Four eye-tracking experiments examined lexical competition in non-native spoken-word recognition. Dutch listeners hearing English fixated longer on distractor pictures with names containing vowels that Dutch listeners are likely to confuse with vowels in a target picture name ("pencil," given target "panda") than on less confusable distractors…

  7. Pedagogy for Liberation: Spoken Word Poetry in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiore, Mia

    2015-01-01

    The Black Arts Movement of the 1960s and 1970s, hip hop of the 1980s and early 1990s, and spoken word poetry have each attempted to initiate the dialogical process outlined by Paulo Freire as necessary in overturning oppression. Each art form has done this by critically engaging with the world and questioning dominant systems of power. However,…

  8. Bilinguals Show Weaker Lexical Access during Spoken Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shook, Anthony; Goldrick, Matthew; Engstler, Caroline; Marian, Viorica

    2015-01-01

    When bilinguals process written language, they show delays in accessing lexical items relative to monolinguals. The present study investigated whether this effect extended to spoken language comprehension, examining the processing of sentences with either low or high semantic constraint in both first and second languages. English-German…

  9. Ragnar Rommetveit's Approach to Everyday Spoken Dialogue from Within.

    PubMed

    Kowal, Sabine; O'Connell, Daniel C

    2016-04-01

    The following article presents basic concepts and methods of Ragnar Rommetveit's (born 1924) hermeneutic-dialogical approach to everyday spoken dialogue with a focus on both shared consciousness and linguistically mediated meaning. He developed this approach originally in his engagement of mainstream linguistic and psycholinguistic research of the 1960s and 1970s. He criticized this research tradition for its individualistic orientation and its adherence to experimental methodology which did not allow the engagement of interactively established meaning and understanding in everyday spoken dialogue. As a social psychologist influenced by phenomenological philosophy, Rommetveit opted for an alternative conceptualization of such dialogue as a contextualized, partially private world, temporarily co-established by interlocutors on the basis of shared consciousness. He argued that everyday spoken dialogue should be investigated from within, i.e., from the perspectives of the interlocutors and from a psychology of the second person. Hence, he developed his approach with an emphasis on intersubjectivity, perspectivity and perspectival relativity, meaning potential of utterances, and epistemic responsibility of interlocutors. In his methods, he limited himself for the most part to casuistic analyses, i.e., logical analyses of fictitious examples to argue for the plausibility of his approach. After many years of experimental research on language, he pursued his phenomenologically oriented research on dialogue in English-language publications from the late 1980s up to 2003. During that period, he engaged psycholinguistic research on spoken dialogue carried out by Anglo-American colleagues only occasionally. Although his work remained unfinished and open to development, it provides both a challenging alternative and supplement to current Anglo-American research on spoken dialogue and some overlap therewith. PMID:26597220

  10. Ragnar Rommetveit's Approach to Everyday Spoken Dialogue from Within.

    PubMed

    Kowal, Sabine; O'Connell, Daniel C

    2016-04-01

    The following article presents basic concepts and methods of Ragnar Rommetveit's (born 1924) hermeneutic-dialogical approach to everyday spoken dialogue with a focus on both shared consciousness and linguistically mediated meaning. He developed this approach originally in his engagement of mainstream linguistic and psycholinguistic research of the 1960s and 1970s. He criticized this research tradition for its individualistic orientation and its adherence to experimental methodology which did not allow the engagement of interactively established meaning and understanding in everyday spoken dialogue. As a social psychologist influenced by phenomenological philosophy, Rommetveit opted for an alternative conceptualization of such dialogue as a contextualized, partially private world, temporarily co-established by interlocutors on the basis of shared consciousness. He argued that everyday spoken dialogue should be investigated from within, i.e., from the perspectives of the interlocutors and from a psychology of the second person. Hence, he developed his approach with an emphasis on intersubjectivity, perspectivity and perspectival relativity, meaning potential of utterances, and epistemic responsibility of interlocutors. In his methods, he limited himself for the most part to casuistic analyses, i.e., logical analyses of fictitious examples to argue for the plausibility of his approach. After many years of experimental research on language, he pursued his phenomenologically oriented research on dialogue in English-language publications from the late 1980s up to 2003. During that period, he engaged psycholinguistic research on spoken dialogue carried out by Anglo-American colleagues only occasionally. Although his work remained unfinished and open to development, it provides both a challenging alternative and supplement to current Anglo-American research on spoken dialogue and some overlap therewith.

  11. Automatic extraction of property norm-like data from large text corpora.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Colin; Devereux, Barry; Korhonen, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Traditional methods for deriving property-based representations of concepts from text have focused on either extracting only a subset of possible relation types, such as hyponymy/hypernymy (e.g., car is-a vehicle) or meronymy/metonymy (e.g., car has wheels), or unspecified relations (e.g., car--petrol). We propose a system for the challenging task of automatic, large-scale acquisition of unconstrained, human-like property norms from large text corpora, and discuss the theoretical implications of such a system. We employ syntactic, semantic, and encyclopedic information to guide our extraction, yielding concept-relation-feature triples (e.g., car be fast, car require petrol, car cause pollution), which approximate property-based conceptual representations. Our novel method extracts candidate triples from parsed corpora (Wikipedia and the British National Corpus) using syntactically and grammatically motivated rules, then reweights triples with a linear combination of their frequency and four statistical metrics. We assess our system output in three ways: lexical comparison with norms derived from human-generated property norm data, direct evaluation by four human judges, and a semantic distance comparison with both WordNet similarity data and human-judged concept similarity ratings. Our system offers a viable and performant method of plausible triple extraction: Our lexical comparison shows comparable performance to the current state-of-the-art, while subsequent evaluations exhibit the human-like character of our generated properties. PMID:25019134

  12. Lynx reproduction--long-lasting life cycle of corpora lutea in a feline species.

    PubMed

    Jewgenow, Katarina; Painer, Johanna; Amelkina, Olga; Dehnhard, Martin; Goeritz, Frank

    2014-04-01

    A review of lynxes' reproductive biology and comparison between the reproductive cycles of the domestic cat and lynxes is presented. Three of the four lynx species (the bobcat excluded) express quite similar reproductive pattern (age at sexual maturity, estrus and pregnancy length, litter size). Similarly to the domestic cat, the bobcat is polyestric and can have more than one litter per year. Domestic cats and many other felid species are known to express anovulatory, pregnant and pseudo-pregnant reproductive cycles in dependence on ovulation induction and fertilization. The formation of corpora lutea (CLs) occurs after ovulation. In pregnant animals, luteal function ends with parturition, whereas during pseudo-pregnancy a shorter life span and lower hormone secretion are observed. The life cycle of corpora lutea in Eurasian lynxes is different from the pattern described in domestic cats. Lynx CLs produce progestagens in distinctive amounts permanently for at least two years, regardless of their origin (pregnancy or pseudo-pregnancy). It is suggested that long-lasting CLs induce a negative feedback to inactivate folliculogenesis, turning a normally polyestric cycle observed in most felids into a monoestric cycle in lynxes.

  13. How reading acquisition changes children's spoken language network.

    PubMed

    Monzalvo, Karla; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine

    2013-12-01

    To examine the influence of age and reading proficiency on the development of the spoken language network, we tested 6- and 9-years-old children listening to native and foreign sentences in a slow event-related fMRI paradigm. We observed a stable organization of the peri-sylvian areas during this time period with a left dominance in the superior temporal sulcus and inferior frontal region. A year of reading instruction was nevertheless sufficient to increase activation in regions involved in phonological representations (posterior superior temporal region) and sentence integration (temporal pole and pars orbitalis). A top-down activation of the left inferior temporal cortex surrounding the visual word form area, was also observed but only in 9year-olds (3years of reading practice) listening to their native language. These results emphasize how a successful cultural practice, reading, slots in the biological constraints of the innate spoken language network.

  14. 31 CFR 358.6 - What is the procedure for converting bearer corpora and detached bearer coupons to book-entry?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the procedure for converting bearer corpora and detached bearer coupons to book-entry? 358.6 Section 358.6 Money and Finance: Treasury... § 358.6 What is the procedure for converting bearer corpora and detached bearer coupons to...

  15. Spoken and written dream communication: differences and methodological aspects.

    PubMed

    Casagrande, Maria; Cortini, Paolo

    2008-03-01

    Based on structural differences between spoken and written language, the purpose of this paper was to investigate whether spoken and written communication imply a different representation in reporting an experienced dream. In fact, the clausal-dynamic quality of the former and nominal-synoptic quality of the latter, with the consequent differences in length, cohesion and density, could enhance/reduce the perceptual character and narrative structure of report features often considered in order to assess sleep mentation. In particular, we wondered whether, after eliminating all the elements responsible for the more conspicuous quantitative differences across the two forms (false starts, repetitions, digressions, redundancies), we would obtain two equivalent ways of reporting dreams. Three hundred and two (101 males and 201 females) subjects, raging in age from 18 to 40 years, participated as volunteers in the study and were asked to complete a dream diary daily for 14 days, by tape-recording their own dreams and putting them down in writing. The reports were analyzed by a psycholinguistic system. Results indicated that the report modality is able to affect the dream experience representation, conditioning the figurative (re)translation carried out by the tester: written forms show a loss of hallucinatory information and a non-complete correspondence also of the bizarreness features with respect to the spoken texts. Partialling out for length eliminated any difference between spoken and written dream reports on bizarreness; on the other hand, controlling the sequence effect of the report did not introduce changes. Methodological and theoretical implications were discussed.

  16. The spread of the phonological neighborhood influences spoken word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Vitevitch, Michael S.

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments, the processing of words that had the same overall number of neighbors but varied in the spread of the neighborhood (i.e., the number of individual phonemes that could be changed to form real words) was examined. In an auditory lexical decision task, a naming task, and a same–different task, words in which changes at only two phoneme positions formed neighbors were responded to more quickly than words in which changes at all three phoneme positions formed neighbors. Additional analyses ruled out an account based on the computationally derived uniqueness points of the words. Although previous studies (e.g., Luce & Pisoni, 1998) have shown that the number of phonological neighbors influences spoken word recognition, the present results show that the nature of the relationship of the neighbors to the target word—as measured by the spread of the neighborhood—also influences spoken word recognition. The implications of this result for models of spoken word recognition are discussed. PMID:17533890

  17. Individual differences in online spoken word recognition: Implications for SLI.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Bob; Samelson, Vicki M; Lee, Sung Hee; Tomblin, J Bruce

    2010-02-01

    Thirty years of research has uncovered the broad principles that characterize spoken word processing across listeners. However, there have been few systematic investigations of individual differences. Such an investigation could help refine models of word recognition by indicating which processing parameters are likely to vary, and could also have important implications for work on language impairment. The present study begins to fill this gap by relating individual differences in overall language ability to variation in online word recognition processes. Using the visual world paradigm, we evaluated online spoken word recognition in adolescents who varied in both basic language abilities and non-verbal cognitive abilities. Eye movements to target, cohort and rhyme objects were monitored during spoken word recognition, as an index of lexical activation. Adolescents with poor language skills showed fewer looks to the target and more fixations to the cohort and rhyme competitors. These results were compared to a number of variants of the TRACE model (McClelland & Elman, 1986) that were constructed to test a range of theoretical approaches to language impairment: impairments at sensory and phonological levels; vocabulary size, and generalized slowing. None of the existing approaches were strongly supported, and variation in lexical decay offered the best fit. Thus, basic word recognition processes like lexical decay may offer a new way to characterize processing differences in language impairment. PMID:19836014

  18. Individual differences in online spoken word recognition: Implications for SLI

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, Bob; Samelson, Vicki M.; Lee, Sung Hee; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years of research has uncovered the broad principles that characterize spoken word processing across listeners. However, there have been few systematic investigations of individual differences. Such an investigation could help refine models of word recognition by indicating which processing parameters are likely to vary, and could also have important implications for work on language impairment. The present study begins to fill this gap by relating individual differences in overall language ability to variation in online word recognition processes. Using the visual world paradigm, we evaluated online spoken word recognition in adolescents who varied in both basic language abilities and non-verbal cognitive abilities. Eye movements to target, cohort and rhyme objects were monitored during spoken word recognition, as an index of lexical activation. Adolescents with poor language skills showed fewer looks to the target and more fixations to the cohort and rhyme competitors. These results were compared to a number of variants of the TRACE model (McClelland & Elman, 1986) that were constructed to test a range of theoretical approaches to language impairment: impairments at sensory and phonological levels; vocabulary size, and generalized slowing. None were strongly supported, and variation in lexical decay offered the best fit. Thus, basic word recognition processes like lexical decay may offer a new way to characterize processing differences in language impairment. PMID:19836014

  19. Bilinguals Show Weaker Lexical Access During Spoken Sentence Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Shook, Anthony; Goldrick, Matthew; Engstler, Caroline; Marian, Viorica

    2015-12-01

    When bilinguals process written language, they show delays in accessing lexical items relative to monolinguals. The present study investigated whether this effect extended to spoken language comprehension, examining the processing of sentences with either low or high semantic constraint in both first and second languages. English-German bilinguals, German-English bilinguals and English monolinguals listened for target words in spoken English sentences while their eye-movements were recorded. Bilinguals' eye-movements reflected weaker lexical access relative to monolinguals; furthermore, the effect of semantic constraint differed across first versus second language processing. Specifically, English-native bilinguals showed fewer overall looks to target items, regardless of sentence constraint; German-native bilinguals activated target items more slowly and maintained target activation over a longer period of time in the low-constraint condition compared with monolinguals. No eye movements to cross-linguistic competitors were observed, suggesting that these lexical access disadvantages were present during bilingual spoken sentence comprehension even in the absence of overt interlingual competition.

  20. Stretched Verb Collocations with "Give": Their Use and Translation into Spanish Using the BNC and CREA Corpora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina-Plaza, Silvia; de Gregorio-Godeo, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Within the context of on-going research, this paper explores the pedagogical implications of contrastive analyses of multiword units in English and Spanish based on electronic corpora as a CALL resource. The main tenets of collocations from a contrastive perspective--and the points of contact and departure between both languages--are discussed…

  1. Relationships between spoken word and sign processing in children with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Giezen, Marcel R; Baker, Anne E; Escudero, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The effect of using signed communication on the spoken language development of deaf children with a cochlear implant (CI) is much debated. We report on two studies that investigated relationships between spoken word and sign processing in children with a CI who are exposed to signs in addition to spoken language. Study 1 assessed rapid word and sign learning in 13 children with a CI and found that performance in both language modalities correlated positively. Study 2 tested the effects of using sign-supported speech on spoken word processing in eight children with a CI, showing that simultaneously perceiving signs and spoken words does not negatively impact their spoken word recognition or learning. Together, these two studies suggest that sign exposure does not necessarily have a negative effect on speech processing in some children with a CI. PMID:24080074

  2. Data from eye-tracking corpora as evidence for theories of syntactic processing complexity.

    PubMed

    Demberg, Vera; Keller, Frank

    2008-11-01

    We evaluate the predictions of two theories of syntactic processing complexity, dependency locality theory (DLT) and surprisal, against the Dundee Corpus, which contains the eye-tracking record of 10 participants reading 51,000 words of newspaper text. Our results show that DLT integration cost is not a significant predictor of reading times for arbitrary words in the corpus. However, DLT successfully predicts reading times for nouns. We also find evidence for integration cost effects at auxiliaries, not predicted by DLT. For surprisal, we demonstrate that an unlexicalized formulation of surprisal can predict reading times for arbitrary words in the corpus. Comparing DLT integration cost and surprisal, we find that the two measures are uncorrelated, which suggests that a complete theory will need to incorporate both aspects of processing complexity. We conclude that eye-tracking corpora, which provide reading time data for naturally occurring, contextualized sentences, can complement experimental evidence as a basis for theories of processing complexity. PMID:18930455

  3. Identification of a glycogenolysis-inhibiting peptide from the corpora cardiaca of locusts.

    PubMed

    Clynen, Elke; Huybrechts, Jurgen; Baggerman, Geert; Van Doorn, Jan; Van Der Horst, Dick; De Loof, Arnold; Schoofs, Liliane

    2003-08-01

    A mass spectrometric study of the peptidome of the neurohemal part of the corpora cardiaca of Locusta migratoria and Schistocerca gregaria shows that it contains several unknown peptides. We were able to identify the sequence of one of these peptides as pQSDLFLLSPK. This sequence is identical to the part of the Locusta insulin-related peptide (IRP) precursor that is situated between the signal peptide and the B-chain. We designated this peptide as IRP copeptide. This IRP copeptide is also present in the pars intercerebralis, which is likely to be the site of synthesis. It is identical in both L. migratoria and S. gregaria. It shows no effect on the hemolymph lipid concentration in vivo or muscle contraction in vitro. The IRP copeptide is able to cause a decreased phosphorylase activity in locust fat body in vitro, opposite to the effect of the adipokinetic hormones and therefore possibly represents a glycogenolysis-inhibiting peptide. PMID:12865323

  4. Dynamics of extracellular matrix in ovarian follicles and corpora lutea of mice.

    PubMed

    Irving-Rodgers, Helen F; Hummitzsch, Katja; Murdiyarso, Lydia S; Bonner, Wendy M; Sado, Yoshikazu; Ninomiya, Yoshifumi; Couchman, John R; Sorokin, Lydia M; Rodgers, Raymond J

    2010-03-01

    Despite the mouse being an important laboratory species, little is known about changes in its extracellular matrix (ECM) during follicle and corpora lutea formation and regression. Follicle development was induced in mice (29 days of age/experimental day 0) by injections of pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin on days 0 and 1 and ovulation was induced by injection of human chorionic gonadotrophin on day 2. Ovaries were collected for immunohistochemistry (n=10 per group) on days 0, 2 and 5. Another group was mated and ovaries were examined on day 11 (n=7). Collagen type IV alpha1 and alpha2, laminin alpha1, beta1 and gamma1 chains, nidogens 1 and 2 and perlecan were present in the follicular basal lamina of all developmental stages. Collagen type XVIII was only found in basal lamina of primordial, primary and some preantral follicles, whereas laminin alpha2 was only detected in some preantral and antral follicles. The focimatrix, a specialised matrix of the membrana granulosa, contained collagen type IV alpha1 and alpha2, laminin alpha1, beta1 and gamma1 chains, nidogens 1 and 2, perlecan and collagen type XVIII. In the corpora lutea, staining was restricted to capillary sub-endothelial basal laminas containing collagen type IV alpha1 and alpha2, laminin alpha1, beta1 and gamma1 chains, nidogens 1 and 2, perlecan and collagen type XVIII. Laminins alpha4 and alpha5 were not immunolocalised to any structure in the mouse ovary. The ECM composition of the mouse ovary has similarities to, but also major differences from, other species with respect to nidogens 1 and 2 and perlecan. PMID:20033213

  5. How Do Adults Use Repetition? A Comparison of Conversations with Young Children and with Multiply-Handicapped Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bocerean, Christine; Canut, Emmanuelle; Musiol, Michel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to compare the types and functions of repetitions in two different corpora, one constituted of verbal interactions between adults and multiply-handicapped adolescents, the other between adults and young children of the same mental age as the adolescents. Our overall aim is to observe whether the communicative…

  6. Comprehending spoken metaphoric reference: a real-time analysis.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Mark T; Heredia, Roberto R

    2002-01-01

    Speakers and writers often use metaphor to describe someone or something in a referential fashion (e.g., The creampuff didn't show up for the fight to refer to a cowardly boxer). Research has demonstrated that readers do not comprehend metaphoric reference as easily as they do literal reference (Gibbs, 1990; Onishi & Murphy, 1993). In two experiments, we used a naming version of the cross-modal lexical priming (CMLP) paradigm to monitor the time-course of comprehending spoken metaphoric reference. In Experiment 1, listeners responded to visual probe words of either a figurative or literal nature that were presented at offset or 1000 ms after a critical prime word. Significant facilitatory priming was observed at prime offset to probes consistent with the metaphorical interpretation of the figuratively referring description, yet no priming was found for either probe type at the downstream location. In Experiment 2, we partially replicated Experiment 1 results at prime offset and found no priming at a probe point placed 1000 ms upstream from prime onset. Taken together, the data from these two experiments indicate that listeners are able to comprehend metaphoric reference faster than literal reference. Moreover, the effect appears to be strongest at prime offset, suggesting that activation of the nonliteral interpretation is closely tied to the relationship between the figuratively referring description and the intended referent. Implications for theories of metaphor comprehension, as well as for research in spoken metaphor, are discussed.

  7. Phonetic discrimination and non-native spoken-word recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Andrea; Cutler, Anne

    2002-05-01

    When phoneme categories of a non-native language do not correspond to those of the native language, non-native categories may be inaccurately perceived. This may impair non-native spoken-word recognition. Weber and Cutler investigated the effect of phonetic discrimination difficulties on competitor activation in non-native listening. They tested whether Dutch listeners use English phonetic contrasts to resolve potential competition. Eye movements of Dutch participants were monitored as they followed spoken English instructions to click on pictures of objects. A target picture (e.g., picture of a paddle) was always presented along with distractor pictures. The name of a distractor picture either shared initial segments with the name of the target picture (e.g., target paddle, /paedl/ and competitor pedal, /pEdl/) or not (e.g., strawberry and duck). Half of the target-competitor pairs contained English vowels that are often confused by Dutch listeners (e.g., /ae/ and /E/ as in ``paddle-pedal''), half contained vowels that are unlikely to be confused (e.g., /ae/ and /aI/ as in ``parrot-pirate''). Dutch listeners fixated distractor pictures with confusable English vowels longer than distractor pictures with distinct vowels. The results demonstrate that the sensitivity of non-native listeners to phonetic contrasts can result in spurious competitors that should not be activated for native listeners.

  8. What are effective phonological units in Cantonese spoken word planning?

    PubMed

    Wong, Andus Wing-Kuen; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

    2009-10-01

    Two picture-word interference experiments were conducted to investigate the nature of effective phonological units in Cantonese spoken word production. The names of the pictures were Cantonese monosyllables with a consonant+vowel+consonant (CVC) structure. Participants' picture-naming responses were faster when the target (e.g., "star" /sing1/) and the distractor shared the same CVC component (e.g., /sing4/, meaning "city"), the same CV component (e.g., /sik6/, "eat"), or the same VC component (e.g., /ging2/, "region"), as opposed to when they were unrelated, and the facilitation effects observed were comparable in size. Also, similar facilitation effects were obtained across the CV+tone-related and the VC+tone-related conditions, whereas no reliable effect was found in the V+tone-related condition. These results indicate that an effective phonological unit in spoken word planning is neither a syllable (without tone) nor a segmental unit, and that the possible candidates lie between the two, at least in Cantonese. PMID:19815794

  9. Immediate effects of anticipatory coarticulation in spoken-word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Salverda, Anne Pier; Kleinschmidt, Dave; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Two visual-world experiments examined listeners’ use of pre word-onset anticipatory coarticulation in spoken-word recognition. Experiment 1 established the shortest lag with which information in the speech signal influences eye-movement control, using stimuli such as “The … ladder is the target”. With a neutral token of the definite article preceding the target word, saccades to the referent were not more likely than saccades to an unrelated distractor until 200–240 ms after the onset of the target word. In Experiment 2, utterances contained definite articles which contained natural anticipatory coarticulation pertaining to the onset of the target word (“ The ladder … is the target”). A simple Gaussian classifier was able to predict the initial sound of the upcoming target word from formant information from the first few pitch periods of the article’s vowel. With these stimuli, effects of speech on eye-movement control began about 70 ms earlier than in Experiment 1, suggesting rapid use of anticipatory coarticulation. The results are interpreted as support for “data explanation” approaches to spoken-word recognition. Methodological implications for visual-world studies are also discussed. PMID:24511179

  10. Visual speech primes open-set recognition of spoken words

    PubMed Central

    Buchwald, Adam B.; Winters, Stephen J.; Pisoni, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Visual speech perception has become a topic of considerable interest to speech researchers. Previous research has demonstrated that perceivers neurally encode and use speech information from the visual modality, and this information has been found to facilitate spoken word recognition in tasks such as lexical decision (Kim, Davis, & Krins, 2004). In this paper, we used a cross-modality repetition priming paradigm with visual speech lexical primes and auditory lexical targets to explore the nature of this priming effect. First, we report that participants identified spoken words mixed with noise more accurately when the words were preceded by a visual speech prime of the same word compared with a control condition. Second, analyses of the responses indicated that both correct and incorrect responses were constrained by the visual speech information in the prime. These complementary results suggest that the visual speech primes have an effect on lexical access by increasing the likelihood that words with certain phonetic properties are selected. Third, we found that the cross-modality repetition priming effect was maintained even when visual and auditory signals came from different speakers, and thus different instances of the same lexical item. We discuss implications of these results for current theories of speech perception. PMID:21544260

  11. Listen carefully: the risk of error in spoken medication orders.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Bruce L; Dickey, Laura Walsh; Fisher, William M; Gibbons, Robert D; Lin, Swu-Jane; Luce, Paul A; McLennan, Conor T; Senders, John W; Yu, Clement T

    2010-05-01

    Clinicians and patients often confuse drug names that sound alike. We conducted auditory perception experiments in the United States to assess the impact of similarity, familiarity, background noise and other factors on clinicians' (physicians, family pharmacists, nurses) and laypersons' ability to identify spoken drug names. We found that accuracy increased significantly as the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio increased, as subjective familiarity with the name increased and as the national prescribing frequency of the name increased. For clinicians only, similarity to other drug names reduced identification accuracy, especially when the neighboring names were frequently prescribed. When one name was substituted for another, the substituted name was almost always a more frequently prescribed drug. Objectively measurable properties of drug names can be used to predict confusability. The magnitude of the noise and familiarity effects suggests that they may be important targets for intervention. We conclude that the ability of clinicians and lay people to identify spoken drug names is influenced by signal-to-noise ratio, subjective familiarity, prescribing frequency, and the similarity neighborhoods of drug names. PMID:20207461

  12. Does Emotional Disclosure About Stress Improve Health in Rheumatoid Arthritis? Randomized, Controlled Trials of Written and Spoken Disclosure

    PubMed Central

    Lumley, Mark A.; Leisen, James C.C.; Partridge, R. Ty; Meyer, Tina M.; Radcliffe, Alison M.; Macklem, Debra J.; Naoum, Linda A.; Cohen, Jay L.; Lasichak, Lydia M.; Lubetsky, Michael R.; Mosley-Williams, Angelia D.; Granda, Jose L.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the effects of disclosing stressful experiences among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have yielded inconsistent findings, perhaps due to different disclosure methods—writing or speaking—and various methodological limitations. We randomized adults with RA to a writing (n = 88) or speaking (to a recorder) sample (n = 93), and within each sample, to either disclosure or one of two control groups (positive or neutral events), which conducted 4, 20-minute, at-home sessions. Follow-up evaluations at 1, 3, and 6 months included self-reported, behavioral, physiological, and blinded physician-assessed outcomes. In both writing and speaking samples, the disclosure and control groups were comparably credible, and the linguistic content differed as expected. Covariance analyses at each follow-up point indicated that written disclosure had minimal effects compared to combined controls—only pain was reduced at 1 and 6 months, but no other outcomes improved. Spoken disclosure led to faster walking speed at 3 months, and reduced pain, swollen joints, and physician-rated disease activity at 6 months, but there were no effects on other outcomes. Latent growth curve modeling examined differences in the trajectory of change over follow-ups. Written disclosure improved affective pain and walking speed; spoken disclosure showed only a marginal benefit on sensory pain. In both analyses, disclosure's few benefits occurred relative to both positive and neutral control groups. We conclude that both written and spoken disclosure have modest benefits for patients with RA, particularly at 6 months, but these effects are limited in scope and consistency. PMID:21315515

  13. Redundancy in Foreign Language Reading Comprehension Instruction: Concurrent Written and Spoken Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diao, Yali; Sweller, John

    2007-01-01

    In an example of the redundancy effect, learning is inhibited when written and spoken text containing the same information is presented simultaneously rather than in written or spoken form alone. The current research was designed to investigate whether the redundancy effect applied to reading comprehension in English as a foreign language (EFL) by…

  14. Le Francais parle. Etudes sociolinguistiques (Spoken French. Sociolinguistic Studies). Current Inquiry into Languages and Linguistics 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibault, Pierrette

    This volume contains twelve articles dealing with the French language as spoken in Quebec. The following topics are addressed: (1) language change and variation; (2) coordinating expressions in the French spoken in Montreal; (3) expressive language as source of language change; (4) the role of correction in conversation; (5) social change and…

  15. The Cortical Organization of Lexical Knowledge: A Dual Lexicon Model of Spoken Language Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gow, David W., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Current accounts of spoken language assume the existence of a lexicon where wordforms are stored and interact during spoken language perception, understanding and production. Despite the theoretical importance of the wordform lexicon, the exact localization and function of the lexicon in the broader context of language use is not well understood.…

  16. How Do Syllables Contribute to the Perception of Spoken English? Insight from the Migration Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattys, Sven L.; Melhorn, James F.

    2005-01-01

    The involvement of syllables in the perception of spoken English has traditionally been regarded as minimal because of ambiguous syllable boundaries and overriding rhythmic segmentation cues. The present experiments test the perceptual separability of syllables and vowels in spoken English using the migration paradigm. Experiments 1 and 2 show…

  17. Listening, Language, and Learning: Skills of Highly Qualified Listening and Spoken Language Specialists in Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Ellen L.

    2010-01-01

    The knowledge base required of Listening and Spoken Language Specialists (LSLS) has been outlined in AG Bell Academy for Listening and Spoken Language publications and is available to applicants through these publications and the Academy website (www.agbellacademy.org). The LSLS certification exam serves to evaluate the applicant's breadth of…

  18. Spoken Spanish Language Development at the High School Level: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Aleidine J.; Theiler, Janine

    2014-01-01

    Communicative approaches to teaching language have emphasized the centrality of oral proficiency in the language acquisition process, but research investigating oral proficiency has been surprisingly limited, yielding an incomplete understanding of spoken language development. This study investigated the development of spoken language at the high…

  19. Effects of Ethnicity and Gender on Teachers' Evaluation of Students' Spoken Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    To update and extend research on teachers' expectations of students of different sociocultural groups, 57 Black, White, Asian, and Hispanic teachers were asked to evaluate responses spoken by Black, White, and Hispanic 2nd- and 3rd-grade boys and girls. The results show that responses perceived as spoken by minority boys, minority girls, and White…

  20. Word Up: Using Spoken Word and Hip Hop Subject Matter in Pre-College Writing Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirc, Geoffrey; Sutton, Terri

    2009-01-01

    In June 2008, the Department of English at the University of Minnesota partnered with the Minnesota Spoken Word Association to inaugurate an outreach literacy program for local high-school students and teachers. The four-day institute, named "In Da Tradition," used spoken word and hip hop to teach academic and creative writing to core-city…

  1. Asian/Pacific Islander Languages Spoken by English Learners (ELs). Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on Asian/Pacific Islander languages spoken by English Learners (ELs) include: (1) Top 10 Most Common Asian/Pacific Islander Languages Spoken Among ELs:…

  2. Phonological Competition within the Word: Evidence from the Phoneme Similarity Effect in Spoken Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.

    2012-01-01

    Theories of spoken production have not specifically addressed whether the phonemes of a word compete with each other for selection during phonological encoding (e.g., whether /t/ competes with /k/ in cat). Spoken production theories were evaluated and found to fall into three classes, theories positing (1) no competition, (2) competition among…

  3. Characteristics of the Transition to Spoken Words in Two Young Cochlear Implant Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertmer, David J.; Inniger, Kelli J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This investigation addressed two main questions: (a) How do toddlers' spoken utterances change during the first year of cochlear implant (CI) use? and (b) How do the time-courses for reaching spoken word milestones after implant activation compare with those reported for typically developing children? These questions were explored to…

  4. Why Are Written Picture Naming Latencies (Not) Longer than Spoken Naming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perret, Cyril; Laganaro, Marina

    2013-01-01

    The comparison between spoken and handwritten production in picture naming tasks represents an important source of information for building models of cognitive processes involved in writing. Studies using this methodology systematically reported longer latencies for handwritten than for spoken production. To uncover the origin of this difference…

  5. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 directly affects corpora lutea lifespan in Mediterranean buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) during diestrus: presence and in vitro effects on enzymatic and hormonal activities.

    PubMed

    Zerani, Massimo; Catone, Giuseppe; Maranesi, Margherita; Gobbetti, Anna; Boiti, Cristiano; Parillo, Francesco

    2012-08-01

    The expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH) receptor (GNRHR) and the direct role of GNRH1 on corpora lutea function were studied in Mediterranean buffalo during diestrus. Immunohistochemistry evidenced at early, mid, and late luteal stages the presence of GNRHR only in large luteal cells and GNRH1 in both small and large luteal cells. Real-time PCR revealed GNRHR and GNRH1 mRNA at the three luteal stages, with lowest values in late corpora lutea. In vitro corpora lutea progesterone production was greater in mid stages and lesser in late luteal phases, whereas prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2alpha) increased from early to late stages, and PGE2 was greater in the earlier-luteal phase. Cyclooxygenase 1 (prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1; PTGS1) activity did not change during diestrus, whereas PTGS2 increased from early to late stages, and PGE2-9-ketoreductase (PGE2-9-K) was greater in late corpora lutea. PTGS1 activity was greater than PTGS2 in early corpora lutea and lesser in late luteal phase. In corpora lutea cultured in vitro, the GNRH1 analog (buserelin) reduced progesterone secretion and increased PGF2alpha secretion as well as PTGS2 and PGE2-9-K activities at mid and late stages. PGE2 release and PTGS1 activity were increased by buserelin only in late corpora lutea. These results suggest that GNRH is expressed in all luteal cells of buffalo, whereas GNRHR is only expressed in large luteal phase. Additionally, GNRH directly down-regulates corpora lutea progesterone release, with the concomitant increases of PGF2alpha production and PTGS2 and PGE2-9-K enzymatic activities. PMID:22592497

  6. Understanding and producing the reduced relative construction: Evidence from ratings, editing and corpora

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Mary; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; McRae, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Tworating studies demonstrate that English speakers willingly produce reduced relatives with internal cause verbs (e.g., Whisky fermented in oak barrels can have a woody taste), and judge their acceptability based on factors known to influence ambiguity resolution, rather than on the internal/external cause distinction. Regression analyses demonstrate that frequency of passive usage predicts reduced relative frequency in corpora, but internal/external cause status does not. The authors conclude that reduced relatives with internal cause verbs are rare because few of these verbs occur in the passive. This contrasts with the claim in McKoon and Ratcliff (McKoon, G., & Ratcliff, R. (2003). Meaning through syntax: Language comprehension and the reduced relative clause construction. Psychological Review, 110, 490–525) that reduced relatives like The horse raced past the barn fell are rare and, when they occur, incomprehensible, because the meaning of the reduced relative construction prohibits the use of a verb with an internal cause event template. PMID:22162904

  7. Type VII Collagen Expression in the Human Vitreoretinal Interface, Corpora Amylacea and Inner Retinal Layers.

    PubMed

    Wullink, Bart; Pas, Hendri H; Van der Worp, Roelofje J; Kuijer, Roel; Los, Leonoor I

    2015-01-01

    Type VII collagen, as a major component of anchoring fibrils found at basement membrane zones, is crucial in anchoring epithelial tissue layers to their underlying stroma. Recently, type VII collagen was discovered in the inner human retina by means of immunohistochemistry, while proteomic investigations demonstrated type VII collagen at the vitreoretinal interface of chicken. Because of its potential anchoring function at the vitreoretinal interface, we further assessed the presence of type VII collagen at this site. We evaluated the vitreoretinal interface of human donor eyes by means of immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy, immunoelectron microscopy, and Western blotting. Firstly, type VII collagen was detected alongside vitreous fibers6 at the vitreoretinal interface. Because of its known anchoring function, it is likely that type VII collagen is involved in vitreoretinal attachment. Secondly, type VII collagen was found within cytoplasmic vesicles of inner retinal cells. These cells resided most frequently in the ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer. Thirdly, type VII collagen was found in astrocytic cytoplasmic inclusions, known as corpora amylacea. The intraretinal presence of type VII collagen was confirmed by Western blotting of homogenized retinal preparations. These data add to the understanding of vitreoretinal attachment, which is important for a better comprehension of common vitreoretinal attachment pathologies.

  8. Understanding and producing the reduced relative construction: Evidence from ratings, editing and corpora.

    PubMed

    Hare, Mary; Tanenhaus, Michael K; McRae, Ken

    2007-04-01

    Tworating studies demonstrate that English speakers willingly produce reduced relatives with internal cause verbs (e.g., Whisky fermented in oak barrels can have a woody taste), and judge their acceptability based on factors known to influence ambiguity resolution, rather than on the internal/external cause distinction. Regression analyses demonstrate that frequency of passive usage predicts reduced relative frequency in corpora, but internal/external cause status does not. The authors conclude that reduced relatives with internal cause verbs are rare because few of these verbs occur in the passive. This contrasts with the claim in McKoon and Ratcliff (McKoon, G., & Ratcliff, R. (2003). Meaning through syntax: Language comprehension and the reduced relative clause construction. Psychological Review, 110, 490-525) that reduced relatives like The horse raced past the barn fell are rare and, when they occur, incomprehensible, because the meaning of the reduced relative construction prohibits the use of a verb with an internal cause event template. PMID:22162904

  9. Corpora Amylacea of Brain Tissue from Neurodegenerative Diseases Are Stained with Specific Antifungal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Pisa, Diana; Alonso, Ruth; Rábano, Alberto; Carrasco, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The origin and potential function of corpora amylacea (CA) remains largely unknown. Low numbers of CA are detected in the aging brain of normal individuals but they are abundant in the central nervous system of patients with neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we show that CA from patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) contain fungal proteins as detected by immunohistochemistry analyses. Accordingly, CA were labeled with different anti-fungal antibodies at the external surface, whereas the central portion composed of calcium salts contain less proteins. Detection of fungal proteins was achieved using a number of antibodies raised against different fungal species, which indicated cross-reactivity between the fungal proteins present in CA and the antibodies employed. Importantly, these antibodies do not immunoreact with cellular proteins. Additionally, CNS samples from patients diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson's disease (PD) also contained CA that were immunoreactive with a range of antifungal antibodies. However, CA were less abundant in ALS or PD patients as compared to CNS samples from AD. By contrast, CA from brain tissue of control subjects were almost devoid of fungal immunoreactivity. These observations are consistent with the concept that CA associate with fungal infections and may contribute to the elucidation of the origin of CA. PMID:27013948

  10. Effect of number of corpora lutea and fetuses on concentrations of progesterone in blood of goats.

    PubMed

    Jarrell, V L; Dziuk, P J

    1991-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess relationships between 1) number of corpora lutea (CL) and concentrations of progesterone (P) in plasma of goats from onset of estrus (d 0) to d 45 of pregnancy and 2) concentration of P and number of fetuses on d 45. Blood from 79 pregnant goats was obtained on d 0 and 1 and at 48-h intervals thereafter to d 25 of gestation. Additional samples were collected every 5 d from d 25 to d 45. Plasma samples were analyzed for P by RIA. Fetuses and CL were counted at laparotomy on d 45 +/- 3. Six does had one CL, 47 had two and 26 had three or four. Concentrations of P were compared for 1) animals with different numbers of CL and 2) animals with the same number of CL but different numbers of fetuses on d 45. Concentration of P increased in all animals from d 3 to a maximum of 8.5 +/- .3 ng/ml on d 13, then P declined to 5 +/- .3 ng/ml by d 35. Goats with multiple CL had higher P than goats with one CL (P less than .01) from d 7 to d 30. Of goats with two CL, those with two fetuses at d 45 had higher P on d 13 than those with one fetus (P less than .01). The number of CL or fetuses did not influence the concentration of P after d 30. PMID:2016202

  11. Negative Feedbacks by Isoprenoids on a Mevalonate Kinase Expressed in the Corpora Allata of Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Noriega, Fernando G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Juvenile hormones (JH) regulate development and reproductive maturation in insects. JHs are synthesized through the mevalonate pathway (MVAP), an ancient metabolic pathway present in the three domains of life. Mevalonate kinase (MVK) is a key enzyme in the MVAP. MVK catalyzes the synthesis of phosphomevalonate (PM) by transferring the γ-phosphoryl group from ATP to the C5 hydroxyl oxygen of mevalonic acid (MA). Despite the importance of MVKs, these enzymes have been poorly characterized in insects. Results We functionally characterized an Aedes aegypti MVK (AaMVK) expressed in the corpora allata (CA) of the mosquito. AaMVK displayed its activity in the presence of metal cofactors. Different nucleotides were used by AaMVK as phosphoryl donors. In the presence of Mg2+, the enzyme has higher affinity for MA than ATP. The activity of AaMVK was regulated by feedback inhibition from long-chain isoprenoids, such as geranyl diphosphate (GPP) and farnesyl diphosphate (FPP). Conclusions AaMVK exhibited efficient inhibition by GPP and FPP (Ki less than 1 μM), and none by isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and dimethyl allyl pyrophosphate (DPPM). These results suggest that GPP and FPP might act as physiological inhibitors in the synthesis of isoprenoids in the CA of mosquitoes. Changing MVK activity can alter the flux of precursors and therefore regulate juvenile hormone biosynthesis. PMID:26566274

  12. Effects of Prostaglandin F2α on Corpora Lutea Formation and Function in Mated Bitches

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, M.; Post, K.; Mapletoft, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    Fifteen mated bitches were used to study the effects of prostaglandin F2α on ovarian endocrine function during the early and midluteal phase. Five dogs were kept as controls, five were given 250 μg/kg prostaglandin F2α twice daily between the first and fifth day of metestrus, and five were similarly treated with prostaglandin F2α between 31 and 35 days of metestrus. Function of corpora lutea was monitored by measuring serum progesterone concentrations during the first 45 days of gestation. Dogs treated with prostaglandin F2α during the early luteal phase had progesterone concentrations similar to controls and pregnancies were undisturbed in both groups. A dramatic decrease in serum progesterone concentration and abortion resulted after prostaglandin F2α administration at midpregnancy. These results indicate that prostaglandin F2α was not luteolytic during the early luteal phase and was therefore ineffective for preventing pregnancy at that time. However, at the dosage and frequency used in this study, prostaglandin F2α was luteolytic and abortifacient at midgestation. PMID:17422289

  13. Differential morphological effects in rat corpora lutea among ethylene glycol monomethyl ether, atrazine, and bromocriptine.

    PubMed

    Taketa, Yoshikazu; Inoue, Kaoru; Takahashi, Miwa; Yamate, Jyoji; Yoshida, Midori

    2013-07-01

    Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) or atrazine induces luteal cell hypertrophy in rats. Our previous study suggested that EGME stimulates both new and old corpora lutea (CL), while atrazine stimulates new CL. Bromocriptine (BRC) is known to suppress the luteolysis in rats. This study investigated the light- and electron-microscopic luteal changes induced by EGME, atrazine, or BRC. Female rats were treated with EGME (300 mg/kg/day), BRC (2 mg/kg/day), EGME and BRC (EGME + BRC), or atrazine (300 mg/kg/day) for 7 days. Luteal cell hypertrophy induced by EGME, EGME + BRC, and atrazine was subclassified into the following two types: CL hypertrophy, vacuolated type (CL-V) characterized by intracytoplasmic fine vacuoles, and CL hypertrophy, eosinophilic type (CL-E) characterized by eosinophilic and abundant cytoplasm. The proportions of CL-V and CL-E were different among the treatments. BRC-treated old CL showed lower proportion of endothelial cells and fibroblasts than normal old CL. Ultrastructural observation revealed that the luteal cells of CL-V contained abundant lipid droplets, whereas those of CL-E in EGME and EGME + BRC groups showed uniformly well-developed smooth endoplasmic reticulum. No clear ultrastructural difference was observed between the control CL and atrazine-treated CL-E. These results indicate that EGME, atrazine, and BRC have differential luteal morphological effects.

  14. Corpora Amylacea of Brain Tissue from Neurodegenerative Diseases Are Stained with Specific Antifungal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Pisa, Diana; Alonso, Ruth; Rábano, Alberto; Carrasco, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The origin and potential function of corpora amylacea (CA) remains largely unknown. Low numbers of CA are detected in the aging brain of normal individuals but they are abundant in the central nervous system of patients with neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we show that CA from patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) contain fungal proteins as detected by immunohistochemistry analyses. Accordingly, CA were labeled with different anti-fungal antibodies at the external surface, whereas the central portion composed of calcium salts contain less proteins. Detection of fungal proteins was achieved using a number of antibodies raised against different fungal species, which indicated cross-reactivity between the fungal proteins present in CA and the antibodies employed. Importantly, these antibodies do not immunoreact with cellular proteins. Additionally, CNS samples from patients diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson's disease (PD) also contained CA that were immunoreactive with a range of antifungal antibodies. However, CA were less abundant in ALS or PD patients as compared to CNS samples from AD. By contrast, CA from brain tissue of control subjects were almost devoid of fungal immunoreactivity. These observations are consistent with the concept that CA associate with fungal infections and may contribute to the elucidation of the origin of CA. PMID:27013948

  15. A corpora allata farnesyl diphosphate synthase in mosquitoes displaying a metal ion dependent substrate specificity

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Nyati, Pratik; Noriega, Fernando G.

    2015-01-01

    Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) is a key enzyme in isoprenoid biosynthesis, it catalyzes the head-to-tail condensation of dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) with two molecules of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) to generate farnesyl diphosphate (FPP), a precursor of juvenile hormone (JH). In this study, we functionally characterized an Aedes aegypti FPPS (AaFPPS) expressed in the corpora allata. AaFPPS is the only FPPS gene present in the genome of the yellow fever mosquito, it encodes a 49.6 kDa protein exhibiting all the characteristic conserved sequence domains on prenyltransferases. AaFPPS displays its activity in the presence of metal cofactors; and the product condensation is dependent of the divalent cation. Mg2+ ions lead to the production of FPP, while the presence of Co2+ ions lead to geranyl diphosphate (GPP) production. In the presence of Mg2+ the AaFPPS affinity for allylic substrates is GPP>DMAPP>IPP. These results suggest that AaFPPS displays “catalytic promiscuity”, changing the type and ratio of products released (GPP or FPP) depending on allylic substrate concentrations and the presence of different metal cofactors. This metal ion-dependent regulatory mechanism allows a single enzyme to selectively control the metabolites it produces, thus potentially altering the flow of carbon into separate metabolic pathways. PMID:26188328

  16. Steroid metabolism in corpora lutea of the western spotted skunk (Spilogale putorius latifrons).

    PubMed

    Ravindra, R; Bhatia, K; Mead, R A

    1984-11-01

    The present study reports steroid metabolism by corpora lutea (CL) obtained from skunks with diapausing embryos ('delay' CL) and with activated embryos (activated CL). CL from both reproductive periods were incubated with various radioactive precursors. Control incubations without any tissue or with 50 microliter of packed skunk blood cells were also conducted simultaneously. Incubation of skunk CL with [3H]-pregnenolone for 3 h resulted in 36% of the precursor accumulating as progesterone. Metabolism of [3H]dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to androstenedione proceeded with approximately the same amount of product accumulating (34-46%) as was observed in the conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone. These results suggest that delta 5 isomerase, 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, is the most prominent enzyme in skunk CL. Metabolism of [3H]pregnenolone to 17 alpha-hydroxypregnenolone and [3H]progesterone to 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone occurred at low rates (1-7%), suggesting the presence of C21 steroid 17 alpha-hydroxylase in skunk CL. Aromatase activity, as estimated by measuring accumulation of oestradiol-17 beta from [3H]testosterone, was demonstrated in activated CL. These results suggest that skunk CL appear to metabolize steroids in a manner similar to CL of other mustelids such as the ferret and American badger.

  17. Radioisotope penile plethysmography: A technique for evaluating corpora cavernosal blood flow during early tumescence

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, A.N.; Graham, M.M.; Ferency, G.F.; Miura, R.S.

    1989-04-01

    Radioisotope penile plethysmography is a nuclear medicine technique which assists in the evaluation of patients with erectile dysfunction. This technique attempts to noninvasively quantitate penile corpora cavernosal blood flow during early penile tumescence using technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells. Penile images and counts were acquired in a steady-state blood-pool phase prior to and after the administration of intracorporal papaverine. Penile counts, images, and time-activity curves were computer analyzed in order to determine peak corporal flow and volume changes. Peak corporal flow rates were compared to arterial integrity (determined by angiography) and venosinusoidal corporal leak (determined by cavernosometry). Peak corporal flow correlated well with arterial integrity (r = 0.91) but did not correlate with venosinusoidal leak parameters (r = 0.01). This report focuses on the methodology and the assumptions which form the foundation of this technique. The strong correlation of peak corporal flow and angiography suggests that radioisotope penile plethysmography could prove useful in the evaluation of arterial inflow disorders in patients with erectile dysfunction.

  18. Spoken commands control robot that handles radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, P.F.; Keddy, C.; Beugelsdojk. T.J.

    1989-01-01

    Several robotic systems have been developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory to handle radioactive material. Because of safety considerations, the robotic system must be under direct human supervision and interactive control continuously. In this paper, we describe the implementation of a voice-recognition system that permits this control, yet allows the robot to perform complex preprogrammed manipulations without the operator's intervention. To provide better interactive control, we connected to the robot's control computer, a speech synthesis unit, which provides audible feedback to the operator. Thus upon completion of a task or if an emergency arises, an appropriate spoken message can be reported by the control computer. The training programming and operation of this commercially available system are discussed, as are the practical problems encountered during operations.

  19. Reverse sequencing syllables of spoken words activates primary visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Ino, Tadashi; Asada, Tomohiko; Hirose, Syuichi; Ito, Jin; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2003-10-27

    Using fMRI, we investigated the neural correlates for sequencing the individual syllables of spoken words in reverse order. The comparison of this task to a control task requiring subjects to repeat identical syllables given acoustically revealed the activation of the primary visual cortex. Because one syllable is generally expressed by one kana character (Japanese phonogram), most subjects used a strategy in which the kana character string corresponding to the word was imagined visually and then read mentally in reverse order to perform the task effectively. Such strategy was not used during a control condition. These results suggest that the primary visual cortex plays a role in the generation of an imagined string.

  20. Phonological Units in Spoken Word Production: Insights from Cantonese

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Andus Wing-Kuen; Huang, Jian; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from previous psycholinguistic research suggests that phonological units such as phonemes have a privileged role during phonological planning in Dutch and English (aka the segment-retrieval hypothesis). However, the syllable-retrieval hypothesis previously proposed for Mandarin assumes that only the entire syllable unit (without the tone) can be prepared in advance in speech planning. Using Cantonese Chinese as a test case, the present study was conducted to investigate whether the syllable-retrieval hypothesis can be applied to other Chinese spoken languages. In four implicit priming (form-preparation) experiments, participants were asked to learn various sets of prompt-response di-syllabic word pairs and to utter the corresponding response word upon seeing each prompt. The response words in a block were either phonologically related (homogeneous) or unrelated (heterogeneous). Participants' naming responses were significantly faster in the homogeneous than in the heterogeneous conditions when the response words shared the same word-initial syllable (without the tone) (Exps.1 and 4) or body (Exps.3 and 4), but not when they shared merely the same word-initial phoneme (Exp.2). Furthermore, the priming effect observed in the syllable-related condition was significantly larger than that in the body-related condition (Exp. 4). Although the observed syllable priming effects and the null effect of word-initial phoneme are consistent with the syllable-retrieval hypothesis, the body-related (sub-syllabic) priming effects obtained in this Cantonese study are not. These results suggest that the syllable-retrieval hypothesis is not generalizable to all Chinese spoken languages and that both syllable and sub-syllabic constituents are legitimate planning units in Cantonese speech production. PMID:23144965

  1. Spoken Language Processing in the Clarissa Procedure Browser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rayner, M.; Hockey, B. A.; Renders, J.-M.; Chatzichrisafis, N.; Farrell, K.

    2005-01-01

    Clarissa, an experimental voice enabled procedure browser that has recently been deployed on the International Space Station, is as far as we know the first spoken dialog system in space. We describe the objectives of the Clarissa project and the system's architecture. In particular, we focus on three key problems: grammar-based speech recognition using the Regulus toolkit; methods for open mic speech recognition; and robust side-effect free dialogue management for handling undos, corrections and confirmations. We first describe the grammar-based recogniser we have build using Regulus, and report experiments where we compare it against a class N-gram recogniser trained off the same 3297 utterance dataset. We obtained a 15% relative improvement in WER and a 37% improvement in semantic error rate. The grammar-based recogniser moreover outperforms the class N-gram version for utterances of all lengths from 1 to 9 words inclusive. The central problem in building an open-mic speech recognition system is being able to distinguish between commands directed at the system, and other material (cross-talk), which should be rejected. Most spoken dialogue systems make the accept/reject decision by applying a threshold to the recognition confidence score. NASA shows how a simple and general method, based on standard approaches to document classification using Support Vector Machines, can give substantially better performance, and report experiments showing a relative reduction in the task-level error rate by about 25% compared to the baseline confidence threshold method. Finally, we describe a general side-effect free dialogue management architecture that we have implemented in Clarissa, which extends the "update semantics'' framework by including task as well as dialogue information in the information state. We show that this enables elegant treatments of several dialogue management problems, including corrections, confirmations, querying of the environment, and regression

  2. Implicit learning of nonadjacent phonotactic dependencies in the perception of spoken language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLennan, Conor T.; Luce, Paul A.

    2001-05-01

    We investigated the learning of nonadjacent phonotactic dependencies in adults. Following previous research examining learning of dependencies at a grammatical level (Gomez, 2002), we manipulated the co-occurrence of nonadjacent phonological segments within a spoken syllable. Each listener was exposed to consonant-vowel-consonant nonword stimuli produced by one of two phonological grammars. Both languages contained the same adjacent dependencies between the initial consonant-vowel and final vowel-consonant sequences but differed on the co-occurrences of initial and final consonants. The number of possible types of vowels that intervened between the initial and final consonants was also manipulated. Listeners learning of nonadjacent segmental dependencies were evaluated in a speeded recognition task in which they heard (1) old nonwords on which they had been trained, (2) new nonwords generated by the grammar on which they had been trained, and (3) new nonwords generated by the grammar on which they had not been trained. The results provide evidence for listener's sensitivity to nonadjacent dependencies. However, this sensitivity is manifested as an inhibitory competition effect rather than a facilitative effect on pattern processing. [Research supported by Research Grant No. R01 DC 0265802 from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health.

  3. Synthesis and reception of prostaglandins in corpora lutea of domestic cat and lynx.

    PubMed

    Zschockelt, Lina; Amelkina, Olga; Siemieniuch, Marta J; Kowalewski, Mariusz P; Dehnhard, Martin; Jewgenow, Katarina; Braun, Beate C

    2016-08-01

    Felids show different reproductive strategies related to the luteal phase. Domestic cats exhibit a seasonal polyoestrus and ovulation is followed by formation of corpora lutea (CL). Pregnant and non-pregnant cycles are reflected by diverging plasma progesterone (P4) profiles. Eurasian and Iberian lynxes show a seasonal monooestrus, in which physiologically persistent CL (perCL) support constantly elevated plasma P4 levels. Prostaglandins (PGs) represent key regulators of reproduction, and we aimed to characterise PG synthesis in feline CL to identify their contribution to the luteal lifespan. We assessed mRNA and protein expression of PG synthases (PTGS2/COX2, PTGES, PGFS/AKR1C3) and PG receptors (PTGER2, PTGER4, PTGFR), and intra-luteal levels of PGE2 and PGF2α Therefore, CL of pregnant (pre-implantation, post-implantation, regression stages) and non-pregnant (formation, development/maintenance, early regression, late regression stages) domestic cats, and prooestrous Eurasian (perCL, pre-mating) and metoestrous Iberian (perCL, freshCL, post-mating) lynxes were investigated. Expression of PTGS2/COX2, PTGES and PTGER4 was independent of the luteal stage in the investigated species. High levels of luteotrophic PGE2 in perCL might be associated with persistence of luteal function in lynxes. Signals for PGFS/AKR1C3 expression were weak in mid and late luteal stages of cats but were absent in lynxes, concomitant with low PGF2α levels in these species. Thus, regulation of CL regression by luteal PGF2α seems negligible. In contrast, expression of PTGFR was evident in nearly all investigated CL of cat and lynxes, implying that luteal regression, e.g. at the end of pregnancy, is triggered by extra-luteal PGF2α.

  4. Synthesis and reception of prostaglandins in corpora lutea of domestic cat and lynx.

    PubMed

    Zschockelt, Lina; Amelkina, Olga; Siemieniuch, Marta J; Kowalewski, Mariusz P; Dehnhard, Martin; Jewgenow, Katarina; Braun, Beate C

    2016-08-01

    Felids show different reproductive strategies related to the luteal phase. Domestic cats exhibit a seasonal polyoestrus and ovulation is followed by formation of corpora lutea (CL). Pregnant and non-pregnant cycles are reflected by diverging plasma progesterone (P4) profiles. Eurasian and Iberian lynxes show a seasonal monooestrus, in which physiologically persistent CL (perCL) support constantly elevated plasma P4 levels. Prostaglandins (PGs) represent key regulators of reproduction, and we aimed to characterise PG synthesis in feline CL to identify their contribution to the luteal lifespan. We assessed mRNA and protein expression of PG synthases (PTGS2/COX2, PTGES, PGFS/AKR1C3) and PG receptors (PTGER2, PTGER4, PTGFR), and intra-luteal levels of PGE2 and PGF2α Therefore, CL of pregnant (pre-implantation, post-implantation, regression stages) and non-pregnant (formation, development/maintenance, early regression, late regression stages) domestic cats, and prooestrous Eurasian (perCL, pre-mating) and metoestrous Iberian (perCL, freshCL, post-mating) lynxes were investigated. Expression of PTGS2/COX2, PTGES and PTGER4 was independent of the luteal stage in the investigated species. High levels of luteotrophic PGE2 in perCL might be associated with persistence of luteal function in lynxes. Signals for PGFS/AKR1C3 expression were weak in mid and late luteal stages of cats but were absent in lynxes, concomitant with low PGF2α levels in these species. Thus, regulation of CL regression by luteal PGF2α seems negligible. In contrast, expression of PTGFR was evident in nearly all investigated CL of cat and lynxes, implying that luteal regression, e.g. at the end of pregnancy, is triggered by extra-luteal PGF2α. PMID:27222595

  5. The time course of indexical specificity effects in the perception of spoken words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLennan, Conor T.; Luce, Paul A.

    2003-10-01

    This research investigates the time-course of indexical specificity effects in spoken word recognition by examining the circumstances under which the variability in the speaking rate affects the participant's perception of spoken words. Previous research has demonstrated that variability has both representational and processing consequences. The current research examines one of the conditions expected to influence the extent to which indexical variability plays a role in spoken word recognition, namely the time-course of processing. Based on our past work, it was hypothesized that indexical specificity effects associated with the speaking rate would only affect later stages of processing in spoken word recognition. The results confirm this hypothesis: Specificity effects are only in evidence when processing is relatively slow. [Research supported (in part) by Research Grant No. R01 DC 0265801 from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health.

  6. Scaling laws and model of words organization in spoken and written language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Chunhua; Lin, Ruokuang; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Ma, Qianli D. Y.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2016-01-01

    A broad range of complex physical and biological systems exhibits scaling laws. The human language is a complex system of words organization. Studies of written texts have revealed intriguing scaling laws that characterize the frequency of words occurrence, rank of words, and growth in the number of distinct words with text length. While studies have predominantly focused on the language system in its written form, such as books, little attention is given to the structure of spoken language. Here we investigate a database of spoken language transcripts and written texts, and we uncover that words organization in both spoken language and written texts exhibits scaling laws, although with different crossover regimes and scaling exponents. We propose a model that provides insight into words organization in spoken language and written texts, and successfully accounts for all scaling laws empirically observed in both language forms.

  7. The employment of a spoken language computer applied to an air traffic control task.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laveson, J. I.; Silver, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    Assessment of the merits of a limited spoken language (56 words) computer in a simulated air traffic control (ATC) task. An airport zone approximately 60 miles in diameter with a traffic flow simulation ranging from single-engine to commercial jet aircraft provided the workload for the controllers. This research determined that, under the circumstances of the experiments carried out, the use of a spoken-language computer would not improve the controller performance.

  8. Why Dose Frequency Affects Spoken Vocabulary in Preschoolers With Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Paul J; Woynaroski, Tiffany; Fey, Marc E; Warren, Steven F; Gardner, Elizabeth

    2015-07-01

    In an earlier randomized clinical trial, daily communication and language therapy resulted in more favorable spoken vocabulary outcomes than weekly therapy sessions in a subgroup of initially nonverbal preschoolers with intellectual disabilities that included only children with Down syndrome (DS). In this reanalysis of the dataset involving only the participants with DS, we found that more therapy led to larger spoken vocabularies at posttreatment because it increased children's canonical syllabic communication and receptive vocabulary growth early in the treatment phase.

  9. A cascaded neuro-computational model for spoken word recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoya, Tetsuya; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2010-03-01

    In human speech recognition, words are analysed at both pre-lexical (i.e., sub-word) and lexical (word) levels. The aim of this paper is to propose a constructive neuro-computational model that incorporates both these levels as cascaded layers of pre-lexical and lexical units. The layered structure enables the system to handle the variability of real speech input. Within the model, receptive fields of the pre-lexical layer consist of radial basis functions; the lexical layer is composed of units that perform pattern matching between their internal template and a series of labels, corresponding to the winning receptive fields in the pre-lexical layer. The model adapts through self-tuning of all units, in combination with the formation of a connectivity structure through unsupervised (first layer) and supervised (higher layers) network growth. Simulation studies show that the model can achieve a level of performance in spoken word recognition similar to that of a benchmark approach using hidden Markov models, while enabling parallel access to word candidates in lexical decision making.

  10. Effects of speech clarity on recognition memory for spoken sentences.

    PubMed

    Van Engen, Kristin J; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Smiljanic, Rajka

    2012-01-01

    Extensive research shows that inter-talker variability (i.e., changing the talker) affects recognition memory for speech signals. However, relatively little is known about the consequences of intra-talker variability (i.e. changes in speaking style within a talker) on the encoding of speech signals in memory. It is well established that speakers can modulate the characteristics of their own speech and produce a listener-oriented, intelligibility-enhancing speaking style in response to communication demands (e.g., when speaking to listeners with hearing impairment or non-native speakers of the language). Here we conducted two experiments to examine the role of speaking style variation in spoken language processing. First, we examined the extent to which clear speech provided benefits in challenging listening environments (i.e. speech-in-noise). Second, we compared recognition memory for sentences produced in conversational and clear speaking styles. In both experiments, semantically normal and anomalous sentences were included to investigate the role of higher-level linguistic information in the processing of speaking style variability. The results show that acoustic-phonetic modifications implemented in listener-oriented speech lead to improved speech recognition in challenging listening conditions and, crucially, to a substantial enhancement in recognition memory for sentences. PMID:22970141

  11. Clarissa Spoken Dialogue System for Procedure Reading and Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hieronymus, James; Dowding, John

    2004-01-01

    Speech is the most natural modality for humans use to communicate with other people, agents and complex systems. A spoken dialogue system must be robust to noise and able to mimic human conversational behavior, like correcting misunderstandings, answering simple questions about the task and understanding most well formed inquiries or commands. The system aims to understand the meaning of the human utterance, and if it does not, then it discards the utterance as being meant for someone else. The first operational system is Clarissa, a conversational procedure reader and navigator, which will be used in a System Development Test Objective (SDTO) on the International Space Station (ISS) during Expedition 10. In the present environment one astronaut reads the procedure on a Manual Procedure Viewer (MPV) or paper, and has to stop to read or turn pages, shifting focus from the task. Clarissa is designed to read and navigate ISS procedures entirely with speech, while the astronaut has his eyes and hands engaged in performing the task. The system also provides an MPV like graphical interface so the procedure can be read visually. A demo of the system will be given.

  12. Lexical frequency and acoustic reduction in spoken Dutch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluymaekers, Mark; Ernestus, Mirjam; Baayen, R. Harald

    2005-10-01

    This study investigates the effects of lexical frequency on the durational reduction of morphologically complex words in spoken Dutch. The hypothesis that high-frequency words are more reduced than low-frequency words was tested by comparing the durations of affixes occurring in different carrier words. Four Dutch affixes were investigated, each occurring in a large number of words with different frequencies. The materials came from a large database of face-to-face conversations. For each word containing a target affix, one token was randomly selected for acoustic analysis. Measurements were made of the duration of the affix as a whole and the durations of the individual segments in the affix. For three of the four affixes, a higher frequency of the carrier word led to shorter realizations of the affix as a whole, individual segments in the affix, or both. Other relevant factors were the sex and age of the speaker, segmental context, and speech rate. To accommodate for these findings, models of speech production should allow word frequency to affect the acoustic realizations of lower-level units, such as individual speech sounds occurring in affixes.

  13. Investigating joint attention mechanisms through spoken human-robot interaction.

    PubMed

    Staudte, Maria; Crocker, Matthew W

    2011-08-01

    Referential gaze during situated language production and comprehension is tightly coupled with the unfolding speech stream (Griffin, 2001; Meyer, Sleiderink, & Levelt, 1998; Tanenhaus, Spivey-Knowlton, Eberhard, & Sedivy, 1995). In a shared environment, utterance comprehension may further be facilitated when the listener can exploit the speaker's focus of (visual) attention to anticipate, ground, and disambiguate spoken references. To investigate the dynamics of such gaze-following and its influence on utterance comprehension in a controlled manner, we use a human-robot interaction setting. Specifically, we hypothesize that referential gaze is interpreted as a cue to the speaker's referential intentions which facilitates or disrupts reference resolution. Moreover, the use of a dynamic and yet extremely controlled gaze cue enables us to shed light on the simultaneous and incremental integration of the unfolding speech and gaze movement. We report evidence from two eye-tracking experiments in which participants saw videos of a robot looking at and describing objects in a scene. The results reveal a quantified benefit-disruption spectrum of gaze on utterance comprehension and, further, show that gaze is used, even during the initial movement phase, to restrict the spatial domain of potential referents. These findings more broadly suggest that people treat artificial agents similar to human agents and, thus, validate such a setting for further explorations of joint attention mechanisms.

  14. Foreign Language Tutoring in Oral Conversations Using Spoken Dialog Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungjin; Noh, Hyungjong; Lee, Jonghoon; Lee, Kyusong; Lee, Gary Geunbae

    Although there have been enormous investments into English education all around the world, not many differences have been made to change the English instruction style. Considering the shortcomings for the current teaching-learning methodology, we have been investigating advanced computer-assisted language learning (CALL) systems. This paper aims at summarizing a set of POSTECH approaches including theories, technologies, systems, and field studies and providing relevant pointers. On top of the state-of-the-art technologies of spoken dialog system, a variety of adaptations have been applied to overcome some problems caused by numerous errors and variations naturally produced by non-native speakers. Furthermore, a number of methods have been developed for generating educational feedback that help learners develop to be proficient. Integrating these efforts resulted in intelligent educational robots — Mero and Engkey — and virtual 3D language learning games, Pomy. To verify the effects of our approaches on students' communicative abilities, we have conducted a field study at an elementary school in Korea. The results showed that our CALL approaches can be enjoyable and fruitful activities for students. Although the results of this study bring us a step closer to understanding computer-based education, more studies are needed to consolidate the findings.

  15. Using spoken words to guide open-ended category formation.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Aneesh; Seabra Lopes, Luís

    2011-11-01

    Naming is a powerful cognitive tool that facilitates categorization by forming an association between words and their referents. There is evidence in child development literature that strong links exist between early word-learning and conceptual development. A growing view is also emerging that language is a cultural product created and acquired through social interactions. Inspired by these studies, this paper presents a novel learning architecture for category formation and vocabulary acquisition in robots through active interaction with humans. This architecture is open-ended and is capable of acquiring new categories and category names incrementally. The process can be compared to language grounding in children at single-word stage. The robot is embodied with visual and auditory sensors for world perception. A human instructor uses speech to teach the robot the names of the objects present in a visually shared environment. The robot uses its perceptual input to ground these spoken words and dynamically form/organize category descriptions in order to achieve better categorization. To evaluate the learning system at word-learning and category formation tasks, two experiments were conducted using a simple language game involving naming and corrective feedback actions from the human user. The obtained results are presented and discussed in detail.

  16. Bimodal Bilinguals Co-activate Both Languages during Spoken Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Shook, Anthony; Marian, Viorica

    2012-01-01

    Bilinguals have been shown to activate their two languages in parallel, and this process can often be attributed to overlap in input between the two languages. The present study examines whether two languages that do not overlap in input structure, and that have distinct phonological systems, such as American Sign Language (ASL) and English, are also activated in parallel. Hearing ASL-English bimodal bilinguals’ and English monolinguals’ eye-movements were recorded during a visual world paradigm, in which participants were instructed, in English, to select objects from a display. In critical trials, the target item appeared with a competing item that overlapped with the target in ASL phonology. Bimodal bilinguals looked more at competing items than at phonologically unrelated items, and looked more at competing items relative to monolinguals, indicating activation of the sign-language during spoken English comprehension. The findings suggest that language co-activation is not modality specific, and provide insight into the mechanisms that may underlie cross-modal language co-activation in bimodal bilinguals, including the role that top-down and lateral connections between levels of processing may play in language comprehension. PMID:22770677

  17. Characterization of porcine autism susceptibility candidate 2 as a candidate gene for the number of corpora lutea in pigs.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shuji; Hayashi, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2011-07-01

    In a previous study, we mapped two quantitative trait loci (QTL) approximately 50cM apart, both influencing the number of corpora lutea in pigs on chromosome 3. One locus included functional candidate genes for proteins related to specific aspects of fertility, such as the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor and the luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor. However, specific genes related to the second locus have not yet been identified. This study aims to identify another candidate gene influencing the number of corpora lutea in pigs. Using 12 polymorphic markers, we fine-mapped a narrow region of pig chromosome 3 that had been shown to contain a QTL for corpora lutea. In the critical region, only 1 gene, autism susceptibility candidate 2 (AUTS2), was identified as a positional candidate. Our results demonstrate that the porcine AUTS2 gene consists of 19 exons with a complete open reading frame of 3768bp encoding an AUTS2 protein of 1256 amino acids. We screened the whole coding sequence and parts of the untranslated region for polymorphisms in an F(2) population of Duroc×Meishan crosses. We found 1 ins/del and 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), including 2 nonsynonymous variants, c.943C>T in exon 7 and c.2828C>T in exon 19, resulting in P315S and A943V, respectively. The SNP c.943C>T within a proline-rich domain was genotyped in several breeds; the C allele occurred in all breeds, whereas the T allele occurred only in Meishan pigs. Using in situ hybridization, the mRNA expression of the AUTS2 gene was observed on granulosa cells in the porcine ovary and thus may be associated with hormone sensitivity. PMID:21641132

  18. Usefulness of electromyography of the cavernous corpora (CC EMG) in the diagnosis of arterial erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Virseda-Chamorro, M; Lopez-Garcia-Moreno, A M; Salinas-Casado, J; Esteban-Fuertes, M

    2012-01-01

    Electromyography (EMG) of the corpora cavernosa (CC-EMG) is able to record the activity of the erectile tissue during erection, and thus has been used as a diagnostic technique in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED). The present study examines the usefulness of the technique in the diagnosis of arterial ED. A cross-sectional study was made of 35 males with a mean age of 48.5 years (s.d. 11.34), referred to our center with ED for >1 year. The patients were subjected to CC-EMG and a penile Doppler ultrasound study following the injection of 20 μg of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). The patients were divided into three groups according to their response to the intracavernous injection of PGE1: Group 1 (adequate erection and reduction/suppression of EMG activity); Group 2 (insufficient erection and persistence of EMG activity); and Group 3 (insufficient erection and reduction/suppression of EMG activity). Patient classification according to response to the intracavernous injection of PGE1 was as follows: Group 1: six patients (17%), Group 2: 18 patients (51%), and Group 3: 11 patients (31%). Patients diagnosed with arterial insufficiency according to Doppler ultrasound (systolic arterial peak velocity <30 mm s(-1) in both arteries) were significantly older than those without such damage (54.5 versus 41.8 years, respectively; s.d. 11.12). The patients in Group 3 showed a significantly lower maximum systolic velocity in both arteries than the subjects belonging to Group 2. Likewise, a statistically significant relationship was observed between the diagnosis of arterial insufficiency and patient classification in Group 3. The confirmation of insufficient erection associated with reduction/suppression of EMG activity showed a sensitivity of 66.7% (confidence interval between 50 and 84%) and a specificity of 92.9% (confidence interval between 84 and 100%) in the diagnosis of arterial ED. Owing to the high specificity of CC-EMG response to the injection of PGE1, this test is

  19. Training and evaluation corpora for the extraction of causal relationships encoded in biological expression language (BEL)

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Sumit; Ansari, Sam; Kodamullil, Alpha T.; Karki, Reagon; Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Catlett, Natalie L.; Hayes, William; Szostak, Justyna; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Success in extracting biological relationships is mainly dependent on the complexity of the task as well as the availability of high-quality training data. Here, we describe the new corpora in the systems biology modeling language BEL for training and testing biological relationship extraction systems that we prepared for the BioCreative V BEL track. BEL was designed to capture relationships not only between proteins or chemicals, but also complex events such as biological processes or disease states. A BEL nanopub is the smallest unit of information and represents a biological relationship with its provenance. In BEL relationships (called BEL statements), the entities are normalized to defined namespaces mainly derived from public repositories, such as sequence databases, MeSH or publicly available ontologies. In the BEL nanopubs, the BEL statements are associated with citation information and supportive evidence such as a text excerpt. To enable the training of extraction tools, we prepared BEL resources and made them available to the community. We selected a subset of these resources focusing on a reduced set of namespaces, namely, human and mouse genes, ChEBI chemicals, MeSH diseases and GO biological processes, as well as relationship types ‘increases’ and ‘decreases’. The published training corpus contains 11 000 BEL statements from over 6000 supportive text excerpts. For method evaluation, we selected and re-annotated two smaller subcorpora containing 100 text excerpts. For this re-annotation, the inter-annotator agreement was measured by the BEL track evaluation environment and resulted in a maximal F-score of 91.18% for full statement agreement. In addition, for a set of 100 BEL statements, we do not only provide the gold standard expert annotations, but also text excerpts pre-selected by two automated systems. Those text excerpts were evaluated and manually annotated as true or false supportive in the course of the BioCreative V BEL track task

  20. Immuno-endocrine mechanisms connected with the creation of corpora lutea persistent in animal ovaries.

    PubMed

    Kucharski, J; Jana, B

    2005-01-01

    Factors which induce the corpus luteum persistent (CLP) creation in animal ovaries are located in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and also in the uterus. In cows and likewise in others animals, various mediators of inflammatory reaction are released, mainly proinflammatory cytokines from inflamed uterus into the blood and lymph. Afterwards the cytokines cross the blood-brain barrier, and though the brain mediators alter the hormonal profile and amplitude pulses of the hormones release in the hypothalamus and the pituitary. Until it is known, that cytokines: IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-alpha and also IFN-alpha, administered into the median eminence, cause an increase in corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations and decrease in the pituitary gland hormones secretion. The immune system, represented in the corpora lutea (CL) by numerous macrophages/monocytes, limphocytes and neutrophils plays an important role in the luteolysis process. The stimulating factor of the infiltration of these cells is an increased PRL level. The preovulatory increase in PRL level regulates the number of macrophages in newly-formed CL and later influences the number of these cells in the luteolysis period. The pulsatory release and high levels of the hypophyseal oxytocin (OT) and uterine PGF2alpha ensure the beginning and the normal course of the luteolysis period. The cytokines decrease OT concentration and disorder its pulsatory release from the pituitary. In these circumstances the quantity of the uterine PGF2alpha reaching ovaries, is insufficient to begin luteolysis. In the inflamed uterus, the elevation of PGE2 and PGI2 synthesis takes place. Both prostaglandins cause smooth uterine muscles relaxation and the dilatation of blood and lymph vessels in this organ. In these conditions, the blood and lymph outflow from the uterus is several times slower than in the control animals. The secretion of P4 and E2 from CLP, in comparison with

  1. Training and evaluation corpora for the extraction of causal relationships encoded in biological expression language (BEL).

    PubMed

    Fluck, Juliane; Madan, Sumit; Ansari, Sam; Kodamullil, Alpha T; Karki, Reagon; Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Catlett, Natalie L; Hayes, William; Szostak, Justyna; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Success in extracting biological relationships is mainly dependent on the complexity of the task as well as the availability of high-quality training data. Here, we describe the new corpora in the systems biology modeling language BEL for training and testing biological relationship extraction systems that we prepared for the BioCreative V BEL track. BEL was designed to capture relationships not only between proteins or chemicals, but also complex events such as biological processes or disease states. A BEL nanopub is the smallest unit of information and represents a biological relationship with its provenance. In BEL relationships (called BEL statements), the entities are normalized to defined namespaces mainly derived from public repositories, such as sequence databases, MeSH or publicly available ontologies. In the BEL nanopubs, the BEL statements are associated with citation information and supportive evidence such as a text excerpt. To enable the training of extraction tools, we prepared BEL resources and made them available to the community. We selected a subset of these resources focusing on a reduced set of namespaces, namely, human and mouse genes, ChEBI chemicals, MeSH diseases and GO biological processes, as well as relationship types 'increases' and 'decreases'. The published training corpus contains 11 000 BEL statements from over 6000 supportive text excerpts. For method evaluation, we selected and re-annotated two smaller subcorpora containing 100 text excerpts. For this re-annotation, the inter-annotator agreement was measured by the BEL track evaluation environment and resulted in a maximal F-score of 91.18% for full statement agreement. In addition, for a set of 100 BEL statements, we do not only provide the gold standard expert annotations, but also text excerpts pre-selected by two automated systems. Those text excerpts were evaluated and manually annotated as true or false supportive in the course of the BioCreative V BEL track task

  2. The Role of Grammatical Category Information in Spoken Word Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Duràn, Carolina Palma; Pillon, Agnesa

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the role of lexical syntactic information such as grammatical gender and category in spoken word retrieval processes by using a blocking paradigm in picture and written word naming experiments. In Experiments 1, 3, and 4, we found that the naming of target words (nouns) from pictures or written words was faster when these target words were named within a list where only words from the same grammatical category had to be produced (homogeneous category list: all nouns) than when they had to be produced within a list comprising also words from another grammatical category (heterogeneous category list: nouns and verbs). On the other hand, we detected no significant facilitation effect when the target words had to be named within a homogeneous gender list (all masculine nouns) compared to a heterogeneous gender list (both masculine and feminine nouns). In Experiment 2, using the same blocking paradigm by manipulating the semantic category of the items, we found that naming latencies were significantly slower in the semantic category homogeneous in comparison with the semantic category heterogeneous condition. Thus semantic category homogeneity caused an interference, not a facilitation effect like grammatical category homogeneity. Finally, in Experiment 5, nouns in the heterogeneous category condition had to be named just after a verb (category-switching position) or a noun (same-category position). We found a facilitation effect of category homogeneity but no significant effect of position, which showed that the effect of category homogeneity found in Experiments 1, 3, and 4 was not due to a cost of switching between grammatical categories in the heterogeneous grammatical category list. These findings supported the hypothesis that grammatical category information impacts word retrieval processes in speech production, even when words are to be produced in isolation. They are discussed within the context of extant theories of lexical production. PMID

  3. Seeing the Talker's Face Improves Free Recall of Speech for Young Adults with Normal Hearing but Not Older Adults with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Mary; Mishra, Sushmit; Stenfelt, Stefan; Lunner, Thomas; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Seeing the talker's face improves speech understanding in noise, possibly releasing resources for cognitive processing. We investigated whether it improves free recall of spoken two-digit numbers. Method: Twenty younger adults with normal hearing and 24 older adults with hearing loss listened to and subsequently recalled lists of 13…

  4. Balanced intervention for adolescents and adults with language impairment: a clinical framework.

    PubMed

    Fallon, Karen A; Katz, Lauren A; Carlberg, Rachel

    2015-02-01

    Providing effective intervention services for adolescents and adults who struggle with spoken and written language presents a variety of unique challenges. This article discusses the 5S Framework (skills, strategies, school, student buy-in, and stakeholders) for designing and implementing balanced spoken and written language interventions for adolescents and adults. An in-depth case illustration highlights the usefulness of the framework for targeting the language and literacy skills of adolescents and young adults. By describing and illustrating the five key components of the intervention framework, the article provides a useful clinical tool to help guide clinicians and educators who serve the needs of adolescents and adults who struggle with spoken and written language. PMID:25633140

  5. On the Nature of Talker Variability Effects on Recall of Spoken Word Lists

    PubMed Central

    Goldinger, Stephen D.; Pisoni, David B.; Logan, John S.

    2012-01-01

    In a recent study, Martin, Mullennix, Pisoni, and Summers (1989) reported that subjects’ accuracy in recalling lists of spoken words was better for words in early list positions when the words were spoken by a single talker than when they were spoken by multiple talkers. The present study was conducted to examine the nature of these effects in further detail. Accuracy of serial-ordered recall was examined for lists of words spoken by either a single talker or by multiple talkers. Half the lists contained easily recognizable words, and half contained more difficult words, according to a combined metric of word frequency, lexical neighborhood density, and neighborhood frequency. Rate of presentation was manipulated to assess the effects of both variables on rehearsal and perceptual encoding. A strong interaction was obtained between talker variability and rate of presentation. Recall of multiple-talker lists was affected much more than single-talker lists by changes in presentation rate. At slow presentation rates, words in early serial positions produced by multiple talkers were actually recalled more accurately than words produced by a single talker. No interaction was observed for word confusability and rate of presentation. The data provide support for the proposal that talker variability affects the accuracy of recall of spoken words not only by increasing the processing demands for early perceptual encoding of the words, but also by affecting the efficiency of the rehearsal process itself. PMID:1826729

  6. Impact of cognitive function and dysarthria on spoken language and perceived speech severity in multiple sclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feenaughty, Lynda

    judged each speech sample using the perceptual construct of Speech Severity using a visual analog scale. Additional measures obtained to describe participants included the Sentence Intelligibility Test (SIT), the 10-item Communication Participation Item Bank (CPIB), and standard biopsychosocial measures of depression (Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen; BDI-FS), fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale; FSS), and overall disease severity (Expanded Disability Status Scale; EDSS). Healthy controls completed all measures, with the exception of the CPIB and EDSS. All data were analyzed using standard, descriptive and parametric statistics. For the MSCI group, the relationship between neuropsychological test scores and speech-language variables were explored for each speech task using Pearson correlations. The relationship between neuropsychological test scores and Speech Severity also was explored. Results and Discussion: Topic familiarity for descriptive discourse did not strongly influence speech production or perceptual variables; however, results indicated predicted task-related differences for some spoken language measures. With the exception of the MSCI group, all speaker groups produced the same or slower global speech timing (i.e., speech and articulatory rates), more silent and filled pauses, more grammatical and longer silent pause durations in spontaneous discourse compared to reading aloud. Results revealed no appreciable task differences for linguistic complexity measures. Results indicated group differences for speech rate. The MSCI group produced significantly faster speech rates compared to the MSDYS group. Both the MSDYS and the MSCI groups were judged to have significantly poorer perceived Speech Severity compared to typically aging adults. The Task x Group interaction was only significant for the number of silent pauses. The MSDYS group produced fewer silent pauses in spontaneous speech and more silent pauses in the reading task compared to other groups. Finally

  7. Examining the effects of variation in emotional tone of voice on spoken word recognition.

    PubMed

    Krestar, Maura L; McLennan, Conor T

    2013-09-01

    Emotional tone of voice (ETV) is essential for optimal verbal communication. Research has found that the impact of variation in nonlinguistic features of speech on spoken word recognition differs according to a time course. In the current study, we investigated whether intratalker variation in ETV follows the same time course in two long-term repetition priming experiments. We found that intratalker variability in ETVs affected reaction times to spoken words only when processing was relatively slow and difficult, not when processing was relatively fast and easy. These results provide evidence for the use of both abstract and episodic lexical representations for processing within-talker variability in ETV, depending on the time course of spoken word recognition.

  8. Is This Enough? A Qualitative Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Teacher-Training Course on the Use of Corpora in Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenko-Szymanska, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes a teacher-training course on the use of corpora in language education offered to graduate students at the Institute of Applied Linguistics, University of Warsaw. It also presents the results of two questionnaires distributed to the students prior to and after the second edition of the course. The main aims of the course are: to…

  9. The Effect of the Integration of Corpora in Reading Comprehension Classrooms on English as a Foreign Language Learners' Vocabulary Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordani, Yahya

    2013-01-01

    This study used a randomized pretest-posttest control group design to examine the effect of the integration of corpora in general English courses on the students' vocabulary development. To enhance the learners' lexical repertoire and thereby improve their reading comprehension, an online corpus-based approach was integrated into 42…

  10. Use of a microdebrider for corporeal excavation and penile prosthesis implantation in men with severely fibrosed corpora cavernosa: a new minimal invasive surgical technique

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, İbrahim Halil; Yonguç, Tarık; Aydoğdu, Özgü; Değirmenci, Tansu; Arslan, Murat; Minareci, Süleyman

    2015-01-01

    Objective To propose a new minimal invasive surgical technique using a microdebrider (shaver) to excavate the fibrosed corpora cavernosa for penile prosthesis implantation in patients with severe fibrosis. Material and methods Two patients with severe corporeal fibrosis were implanted with a penile prosthesis using this technique. In the first patient, fibrosis was due to neglected idiopathic ischemic priapism and the second patient had his prosthesis extruded because of erosion in another center. Both patients were counseled about the procedure and the possible complications related to the experimental nature of the technique. A written informed consent was obtained from both patients. Excavation of the corpora was performed using microdebrider in both patients. Results Both operations were performed successfully without any intraoperative complications, including urethral injury or perforation of the tunica. The mean operation time was 57 min. The postoperative period was uneventful without any infection, migration, erosion, or mechanical failure. The penile length was increased nearly 2 cm in both patients, and the penile girth was increased around 30% in the patient who underwent inflatable penile prosthesis implantation. Conclusion The microdebrider potentially provides an important advance in patients with severe corporeal fibrosis to excavate the fibrosed corpora cavernosa for penile prosthesis implantation. The main advantages include fast, safe, and effective excavation of fibrous corpora cavernosa adequate for a satisfactory penile prosthesis implantation. PMID:26516594

  11. Writing Versus Reading in Traditional and Functional Adult Literacy Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonanni, C.

    1971-01-01

    The author suggests a novel approach to adult literacy education - stressing expressive writing instead of primer reading, and relating the basic spelling patterns of the written language to the already possessed corresponding sound patterns of the spoken language rather than teaching alphabets and letters. (AN)

  12. Semantic Encoding of Spoken Sentences: Adult Aging and the Preservation of Conceptual Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Deborah M.; McGrath, Lauren M.; Prentice, Kristen J.; Wingfield, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    Traditional models of human memory have postulated the need for a brief phonological or verbatim representation of verbal input as a necessary gateway to a higher level conceptual representation of the input. Potter has argued that meaningful sentences may be encoded directly in a conceptual short-term memory (CSTM) running parallel in time to…

  13. Research note: exceptional absolute pitch perception for spoken words in an able adult with autism.

    PubMed

    Heaton, Pamela; Davis, Robert E; Happé, Francesca G E

    2008-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder, characterised by deficits in socialisation and communication, with repetitive and stereotyped behaviours [American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual for mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: APA]. Whilst intellectual and language impairment is observed in a significant proportion of diagnosed individuals [Gillberg, C., & Coleman, M. (2000). The biology of the autistic syndromes (3rd ed.). London: Mac Keith Press; Klinger, L., Dawson, G., & Renner, P. (2002). Autistic disorder. In E. Masn, & R. Barkley (Eds.), Child pyschopathology (2nd ed., pp. 409-454). New York: Guildford Press], the disorder is also strongly associated with the presence of highly developed, idiosyncratic, or savant skills [Heaton, P., & Wallace, G. (2004) Annotation: The savant syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45 (5), 899-911]. We tested identification of fundamental pitch frequencies in complex tones, sine tones and words in AC, an intellectually able man with autism and absolute pitch (AP) and a group of healthy controls with self-reported AP. The analysis showed that AC's naming of speech pitch was highly superior in comparison to controls. The results suggest that explicit access to perceptual information in speech is retained to a significantly higher degree in autism.

  14. Directory of Spoken-Voice Audio-Cassettes, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Gerald, Ed.

    Most listings in this catalog, which draws on many sources of production and is not a guide to one company's output, are for programs of college or adult level interest, with the exception of the "Careers" listings, geared toward high school students. The catalog also has lists of producers of children's cassettes and those designed for school…

  15. Apples and Oranges: Developmental Discontinuities in Spoken-Language Processing?

    PubMed

    Creel, Sarah C; Quam, Carolyn

    2015-12-01

    Much research focuses on speech processing in infancy, sometimes generating the impression that speech-sound categories do not develop further. Yet other studies suggest substantial plasticity throughout mid-childhood. Differences between infant versus child and adult experimental methods currently obscure how language processing changes across childhood, calling for approaches that span development.

  16. Intervention Effects on Spoken-Language Outcomes for Children with Autism: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, L. H.; Kaiser, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although spoken-language deficits are not core to an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis, many children with ASD do present with delays in this area. Previous meta-analyses have assessed the effects of intervention on reducing autism symptomatology, but have not determined if intervention improves spoken language. This analysis…

  17. Speaking is silver, writing is golden? The role of cognitive and social factors in written versus spoken witness accounts.

    PubMed

    Sauerland, Melanie; Krix, Alana C; van Kan, Nikki; Glunz, Sarah; Sak, Annabel

    2014-08-01

    Contradictory empirical findings and theoretical accounts exist that are in favor of either a written or a spoken superiority effect. In this article, we present two experiments that put the recall modality effect in the context of eyewitness reports to another test. More specifically, we investigated the role of cognitive and social factors in the effect. In both experiments, participants watched a videotaped staged crime and then gave spoken or written accounts of the event and the people involved. In Experiment 1, 135 participants were assigned to written, spoken-videotaped, spoken-distracted, or spoken-voice recorded conditions to test for the impact of cognitive demand and social factors in the form of interviewer presence. Experiment 2 (N = 124) tested the idea that instruction comprehensiveness differentially impacts recall performance in written versus spoken accounts. While there was no evidence for a spoken superiority effect, we found some support for a written superiority effect for description quantity, but not accuracy. Furthermore, any differences found in description quantity as a function of recall modality could be traced back to participants' free reports. Following up with cued open-ended questions compensated for this effect, although at the expense of description accuracy. This suggests that current police practice of arbitrarily obtaining written or spoken accounts is mostly unproblematic.

  18. Speaking is silver, writing is golden? The role of cognitive and social factors in written versus spoken witness accounts.

    PubMed

    Sauerland, Melanie; Krix, Alana C; van Kan, Nikki; Glunz, Sarah; Sak, Annabel

    2014-08-01

    Contradictory empirical findings and theoretical accounts exist that are in favor of either a written or a spoken superiority effect. In this article, we present two experiments that put the recall modality effect in the context of eyewitness reports to another test. More specifically, we investigated the role of cognitive and social factors in the effect. In both experiments, participants watched a videotaped staged crime and then gave spoken or written accounts of the event and the people involved. In Experiment 1, 135 participants were assigned to written, spoken-videotaped, spoken-distracted, or spoken-voice recorded conditions to test for the impact of cognitive demand and social factors in the form of interviewer presence. Experiment 2 (N = 124) tested the idea that instruction comprehensiveness differentially impacts recall performance in written versus spoken accounts. While there was no evidence for a spoken superiority effect, we found some support for a written superiority effect for description quantity, but not accuracy. Furthermore, any differences found in description quantity as a function of recall modality could be traced back to participants' free reports. Following up with cued open-ended questions compensated for this effect, although at the expense of description accuracy. This suggests that current police practice of arbitrarily obtaining written or spoken accounts is mostly unproblematic. PMID:24604628

  19. Word reading skill predicts anticipation of upcoming spoken language input: a study of children developing proficiency in reading.

    PubMed

    Mani, Nivedita; Huettig, Falk

    2014-10-01

    Despite the efficiency with which language users typically process spoken language, a growing body of research finds substantial individual differences in both the speed and accuracy of spoken language processing potentially attributable to participants' literacy skills. Against this background, the current study took a look at the role of word reading skill in listeners' anticipation of upcoming spoken language input in children at the cusp of learning to read; if reading skills affect predictive language processing, then children at this stage of literacy acquisition should be most susceptible to the effects of reading skills on spoken language processing. We tested 8-year-olds on their prediction of upcoming spoken language input in an eye-tracking task. Although children, like in previous studies to date, were successfully able to anticipate upcoming spoken language input, there was a strong positive correlation between children's word reading skills (but not their pseudo-word reading and meta-phonological awareness or their spoken word recognition skills) and their prediction skills. We suggest that these findings are most compatible with the notion that the process of learning orthographic representations during reading acquisition sharpens pre-existing lexical representations, which in turn also supports anticipation of upcoming spoken words. PMID:24955519

  20. L'Enonce Toura-Cote d'Ivoire (The Spoken Language of Toura-Ivory Coast).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearth, Thomas

    The spoken language of Toura, a language spoken by nearly 20,000 inhabitants of a mountainous region situated in the north of Man, the administrative center of the West Ivory Coast, is systematically analyzed in this linguistic study. Sixteen major chapters include: (1) grammatical generalizations, (2) phonemic unities, (3) classification of…

  1. Crafting "The Humble Prose of Living": Rethinking Oral/Written Relations in the Echoes of Spoken Word

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Anne Haas

    2005-01-01

    The art of spoken word has captured youthful spirits all over the country, especially in heterogeneous urban centers. In this essay, the author opens up for re-consideration a central issue in language arts education, one suggested by the very writing of spoken word: how educators think about the relationship between oral and written language and…

  2. Spoken Language Scores of Children Using Cochlear Implants Compared to Hearing Age-Mates at School Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geers, Ann E.; Moog, Jean S.; Biedenstein, Julia; Brenner, Christine; Hayes, Heather

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated three questions: Is it realistic to expect age-appropriate spoken language skills in children with cochlear implants (CIs) who received auditory-oral intervention during the preschool years? What characteristics predict successful spoken language development in this population? Are children with CIs more proficient in some…

  3. Word reading skill predicts anticipation of upcoming spoken language input: a study of children developing proficiency in reading.

    PubMed

    Mani, Nivedita; Huettig, Falk

    2014-10-01

    Despite the efficiency with which language users typically process spoken language, a growing body of research finds substantial individual differences in both the speed and accuracy of spoken language processing potentially attributable to participants' literacy skills. Against this background, the current study took a look at the role of word reading skill in listeners' anticipation of upcoming spoken language input in children at the cusp of learning to read; if reading skills affect predictive language processing, then children at this stage of literacy acquisition should be most susceptible to the effects of reading skills on spoken language processing. We tested 8-year-olds on their prediction of upcoming spoken language input in an eye-tracking task. Although children, like in previous studies to date, were successfully able to anticipate upcoming spoken language input, there was a strong positive correlation between children's word reading skills (but not their pseudo-word reading and meta-phonological awareness or their spoken word recognition skills) and their prediction skills. We suggest that these findings are most compatible with the notion that the process of learning orthographic representations during reading acquisition sharpens pre-existing lexical representations, which in turn also supports anticipation of upcoming spoken words.

  4. A Critique of Mark D. Allen's "The Preservation of Verb Subcategory Knowledge in a Spoken Language Comprehension Deficit"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemmerer, David

    2008-01-01

    Allen [Allen, M. (2005). "The preservation of verb subcategory knowledge in a spoken language comprehension deficit." "Brain and Language, 95", 255-264.] reports a single patient, WBN, who, during spoken language comprehension, is still able to access some of the syntactic properties of verbs despite being unable to access some of their semantic…

  5. Are Young Children with Cochlear Implants Sensitive to the Statistics of Words in the Ambient Spoken Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Ling-Yu; McGregor, Karla K.; Spencer, Linda J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether children with cochlear implants (CIs) are sensitive to statistical characteristics of words in the ambient spoken language, whether that sensitivity changes in expected ways as their spoken lexicon grows, and whether that sensitivity varies with unilateral or bilateral implantation.…

  6. Impact of cognitive function and dysarthria on spoken language and perceived speech severity in multiple sclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feenaughty, Lynda

    judged each speech sample using the perceptual construct of Speech Severity using a visual analog scale. Additional measures obtained to describe participants included the Sentence Intelligibility Test (SIT), the 10-item Communication Participation Item Bank (CPIB), and standard biopsychosocial measures of depression (Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen; BDI-FS), fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale; FSS), and overall disease severity (Expanded Disability Status Scale; EDSS). Healthy controls completed all measures, with the exception of the CPIB and EDSS. All data were analyzed using standard, descriptive and parametric statistics. For the MSCI group, the relationship between neuropsychological test scores and speech-language variables were explored for each speech task using Pearson correlations. The relationship between neuropsychological test scores and Speech Severity also was explored. Results and Discussion: Topic familiarity for descriptive discourse did not strongly influence speech production or perceptual variables; however, results indicated predicted task-related differences for some spoken language measures. With the exception of the MSCI group, all speaker groups produced the same or slower global speech timing (i.e., speech and articulatory rates), more silent and filled pauses, more grammatical and longer silent pause durations in spontaneous discourse compared to reading aloud. Results revealed no appreciable task differences for linguistic complexity measures. Results indicated group differences for speech rate. The MSCI group produced significantly faster speech rates compared to the MSDYS group. Both the MSDYS and the MSCI groups were judged to have significantly poorer perceived Speech Severity compared to typically aging adults. The Task x Group interaction was only significant for the number of silent pauses. The MSDYS group produced fewer silent pauses in spontaneous speech and more silent pauses in the reading task compared to other groups. Finally

  7. Development of Lexical-Semantic Language System: N400 Priming Effect for Spoken Words in 18- and 24-Month Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rama, Pia; Sirri, Louah; Serres, Josette

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether developing language system, as measured by a priming task for spoken words, is organized by semantic categories. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a priming task for spoken words in 18- and 24-month-old monolingual French learning children. Spoken word pairs were either semantically related…

  8. A Spoken-Language Intervention for School-Aged Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffie, Andrea; Machalicek, Wendy; Bullard, Lauren; Nelson, Sarah; Mello, Melissa; Tempero-Feigles, Robyn; Castignetti, Nancy; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Using a single case design, a parent-mediated spoken-language intervention was delivered to three mothers and their school-aged sons with fragile X syndrome, the leading inherited cause of intellectual disability. The intervention was embedded in the context of shared storytelling using wordless picture books and targeted three empirically derived…

  9. Horizontal Flow of Semantic and Phonological Information in Chinese Spoken Sentence Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jin-Chen; Yang, Yu-Fang

    2008-01-01

    A variant of the picture--word interference paradigm was used in three experiments to investigate the horizontal information flow of semantic and phonological information between nouns in spoken Mandarin Chinese sentences. Experiment 1 demonstrated that there is a semantic interference effect when the word in the second phrase (N3) and the first…

  10. A Method for Assessing the Language Development of Students Who Use Signed-and-Spoken English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara

    1987-01-01

    Analyzing language use samples of students who use bimodal (signed-and-spoken) communication can help assess specific language skills, determine language development level, and measure progress over time. Tables present an example of bimodal transcription, semantic and pragmatic skills taxonomies, and the milestones of pragmatic development. (VW)

  11. Textual, Genre and Social Features of Spoken Grammar: A Corpus-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Llantada, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a corpus-based approach to teaching and learning spoken grammar for English for Academic Purposes with reference to Bhatia's (2002) multi-perspective model for discourse analysis: a textual perspective, a genre perspective and a social perspective. From a textual perspective, corpus-informed instruction helps students identify…

  12. Chunk Learning and the Development of Spoken Discourse in a Japanese as a Foreign Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the development of spoken discourse among L2 learners of Japanese who received extensive practice on grammatical chunks. Participants in this study were 22 college students enrolled in an elementary Japanese course. They received instruction on a set of grammatical chunks in class through communicative drills and the…

  13. Assessing spoken word recognition in children who are deaf or hard of hearing: a translational approach.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Karen Iler; Prusick, Lindsay; French, Brian; Gotch, Chad; Eisenberg, Laurie S; Young, Nancy

    2012-06-01

    Under natural conditions, listeners use both auditory and visual speech cues to extract meaning from speech signals containing many sources of variability. However, traditional clinical tests of spoken word recognition routinely employ isolated words or sentences produced by a single talker in an auditory-only presentation format. The more central cognitive processes used during multimodal integration, perceptual normalization, and lexical discrimination that may contribute to individual variation in spoken word recognition performance are not assessed in conventional tests of this kind. In this article, we review our past and current research activities aimed at developing a series of new assessment tools designed to evaluate spoken word recognition in children who are deaf or hard of hearing. These measures are theoretically motivated by a current model of spoken word recognition and also incorporate "real-world" stimulus variability in the form of multiple talkers and presentation formats. The goal of this research is to enhance our ability to estimate real-world listening skills and to predict benefit from sensory aid use in children with varying degrees of hearing loss. PMID:22668766

  14. Cross-Language Perception of Cantonese Vowels Spoken by Native and Non-Native Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Connie K.; Attina, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of native language background on listeners' perception of native and non-native vowels spoken by native (Hong Kong Cantonese) and non-native (Mandarin and Australian English) speakers. They completed discrimination and an identification task with and without visual cues in clear and noisy conditions. Results…

  15. Parent Telegraphic Speech Use and Spoken Language in Preschoolers with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venker, Courtney E.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Meyer, Allison; Sindberg, Heidi; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: There is considerable controversy regarding whether to use telegraphic or grammatical input when speaking to young children with language delays, including children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined telegraphic speech use in parents of preschoolers with ASD and associations with children's spoken language 1 year…

  16. Scope of Lexical Access in Spoken Sentence Production: Implications for the Conceptual-Syntactic Interface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allum, Paul H.; Wheeldon, L.

    2009-01-01

    Building on P. H. Allum and L. Wheeldon (2007), the authors conducted 5 experiments to investigate the scope of lexical access during spoken sentence production in Japanese and English. Speakers described pairs of pictured objects, and on critical trials, 1 object was previewed. In Japanese, sentence onset is speeded by the preview of each of the…

  17. Planning Scope in Spoken Sentence Production: The Role of Grammatical Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allum, Paul H.; Wheeldon, Linda R.

    2007-01-01

    Four experiments investigate the scope of grammatical planning during spoken sentence production in Japanese and English. Experiment 1 shows that sentence latencies vary with length of sentence-initial subject phrase. Exploiting the head-final property of Japanese, Experiments 2 and 3 extend this result by showing that in a 2-phrase subject…

  18. Why Dose Frequency Affects Spoken Vocabulary in Preschoolers with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Paul J.; Woynaroski, Tiffany; Fey, Marc E.; Warren, Steven F.; Gardner, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    In an earlier randomized clinical trial, daily communication and language therapy resulted in more favorable spoken vocabulary outcomes than weekly therapy sessions in a subgroup of initially nonverbal preschoolers with intellectual disabilities that included only children with Down syndrome (DS). In this reanalysis of the dataset involving only…

  19. Recognition of Signed and Spoken Language: Different Sensory Inputs, the Same Segmentation Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfanidou, Eleni; Adam, Robert; Morgan, Gary; McQueen, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Signed languages are articulated through simultaneous upper-body movements and are seen; spoken languages are articulated through sequential vocal-tract movements and are heard. But word recognition in both language modalities entails segmentation of a continuous input into discrete lexical units. According to the Possible Word Constraint (PWC),…

  20. The Slow Developmental Time Course of Real-Time Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigler, Hannah; Farris-Trimble, Ashley; Greiner, Lea; Walker, Jessica; Tomblin, J. Bruce; McMurray, Bob

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the developmental time course of spoken word recognition in older children using eye tracking to assess how the real-time processing dynamics of word recognition change over development. We found that 9-year-olds were slower to activate the target words and showed more early competition from competitor words than…

  1. Spoken and Written Narratives in Swedish Children and Adolescents with Hearing Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asker-Arnason, Lena; Akerlund, Viktoria; Skoglund, Cecilia; Ek-Lagergren, Ingela; Wengelin, Asa; Sahlen, Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    Twenty 10- to 18-year-old children and adolescents with varying degrees of hearing impairment (HI) and hearing aids (HA), ranging from mild-moderate to severe, produced picture-elicited narratives in a spoken and written version. Their performance was compared to that of 63 normally hearing (NH) peers within the same age span. The participants…

  2. Developing and Testing EVALOE: A Tool for Assessing Spoken Language Teaching and Learning in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gràcia, Marta; Vega, Fàtima; Galván-Bovaira, Maria José

    2015-01-01

    Broadly speaking, the teaching of spoken language in Spanish schools has not been approached in a systematic way. Changes in school practices are needed in order to allow all children to become competent speakers and to understand and construct oral texts that are appropriate in different contexts and for different audiences both inside and…

  3. Do Phonological Constraints on the Spoken Word Affect Visual Lexical Decision?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yang; Moreno, Miguel A.; Carello, Claudia; Turvey, M. T.

    2013-01-01

    Reading a word may involve the spoken language in two ways: in the conversion of letters to phonemes according to the conventions of the language's writing system and the assimilation of phonemes according to the language's constraints on speaking. If so, then words that require assimilation when uttered would require a change in the phonemes…

  4. Overt vs. Null Direct Objects in Spoken Brazilian Portuguese: A Semantic/Pragmatic Account.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwenter, Scott A.; Silva, Glaucia

    2002-01-01

    Examines the semantic/pragmatic constraints on null objects spoken in Brazilian Portuguese (BP) in detail, and situates BP null objects in the broader crosslinguistic perspective of differential object marking. Demonstrates that semantic/pragmatic dimensions of animacy and specificity, and in particular their interaction, must be taken into…

  5. The Interface between Morphology and Phonology: Exploring a Morpho-Phonological Deficit in Spoken Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a…

  6. Using Unscripted Spoken Texts in the Teaching of Second Language Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Elvis

    2014-01-01

    Most spoken texts that are used in second language (L2) listening classroom activities are scripted texts, where the text is written, revised, polished, and then read aloud with artificially clear enunciation and slow rate of speech. This article explores the field's overreliance on these scripted texts, at the expense of including unscripted…

  7. Learning and Consolidation of New Spoken Words in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Lisa; Powell, Anna; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Norbury, Courtenay

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by rich heterogeneity in vocabulary knowledge and word knowledge that is not well accounted for by current cognitive theories. This study examines whether individual differences in vocabulary knowledge in ASD might be partly explained by a difficulty with consolidating newly learned spoken words…

  8. Intentional and Reactive Inhibition during Spoken-Word Stroop Task Performance in People with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pompon, Rebecca Hunting; McNeil, Malcolm R.; Spencer, Kristie A.; Kendall, Diane L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The integrity of selective attention in people with aphasia (PWA) is currently unknown. Selective attention is essential for everyday communication, and inhibition is an important part of selective attention. This study explored components of inhibition--both intentional and reactive inhibition--during spoken-word production in PWA and in…

  9. Professional Training in Listening and Spoken Language--A Canadian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Several factors undoubtedly influenced the development of listening and spoken language options for children with hearing loss in Canada. The concept of providing auditory-based rehabilitation was popularized in Canada in the 1960s through the work of Drs. Daniel Ling and Agnes Ling in Montreal. The Lings founded the McGill University Project for…

  10. A Prerequisite to L1 Homophone Effects in L2 Spoken-Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakai, Satsuki; Lindsay, Shane; Ota, Mitsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    When both members of a phonemic contrast in L2 (second language) are perceptually mapped to a single phoneme in one's L1 (first language), L2 words containing a member of that contrast can spuriously activate L2 words in spoken-word recognition. For example, upon hearing cattle, Dutch speakers of English are reported to experience activation…

  11. Beyond Rhyme or Reason: ERPs Reveal Task-Specific Activation of Orthography on Spoken Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Perre, Laetitia; Ziegler, Johannes C.

    2011-01-01

    Metaphonological tasks, such as rhyme judgment, have been the primary tool for the investigation of the effects of orthographic knowledge on spoken language. However, it has been recently argued that the orthography effect in rhyme judgment does not reflect the automatic activation of orthographic codes but rather stems from sophisticated response…

  12. Examining the Time Course of Indexical Specificity Effects in Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLennan, Conor T.; Luce, Paul A.

    2005-01-01

    Variability in talker identity and speaking rate, commonly referred to as indexical variation, has demonstrable effects on the speed and accuracy of spoken word recognition. The present study examines the time course of indexical specificity effects to evaluate the hypothesis that such effects occur relatively late in the perceptual processing of…

  13. The Contribution of the Inferior Parietal Cortex to Spoken Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geranmayeh, Fatemeh; Brownsett, Sonia L. E.; Leech, Robert; Beckmann, Christian F.; Woodhead, Zoe; Wise, Richard J. S.

    2012-01-01

    This functional MRI study investigated the involvement of the left inferior parietal cortex (IPC) in spoken language production (Speech). Its role has been apparent in some studies but not others, and is not convincingly supported by clinical studies as they rarely include cases with lesions confined to the parietal lobe. We compared Speech with…

  14. Consequences of the Now-or-Never bottleneck for signed versus spoken languages.

    PubMed

    Emmorey, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Signed and spoken languages emerge, change, are acquired, and are processed under distinct perceptual, motor, and memory constraints. Therefore, the Now-or-Never bottleneck has different ramifications for these languages, which are highlighted in this commentary. The extent to which typological differences in linguistic structure can be traced to processing differences provides unique evidence for the claim that structure is processing. PMID:27562833

  15. Infant perceptual development for faces and spoken words: An integrated approach

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Tamara L; Robbins, Rachel A; Best, Catherine T

    2014-01-01

    There are obvious differences between recognizing faces and recognizing spoken words or phonemes that might suggest development of each capability requires different skills. Recognizing faces and perceiving spoken language, however, are in key senses extremely similar endeavors. Both perceptual processes are based on richly variable, yet highly structured input from which the perceiver needs to extract categorically meaningful information. This similarity could be reflected in the perceptual narrowing that occurs within the first year of life in both domains. We take the position that the perceptual and neurocognitive processes by which face and speech recognition develop are based on a set of common principles. One common principle is the importance of systematic variability in the input as a source of information rather than noise. Experience of this variability leads to perceptual tuning to the critical properties that define individual faces or spoken words versus their membership in larger groupings of people and their language communities. We argue that parallels can be drawn directly between the principles responsible for the development of face and spoken language perception. PMID:25132626

  16. Does Discourse Congruence Influence Spoken Language Comprehension before Lexical Association? Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudewyn, Megan A.; Gordon, Peter C.; Long, Debra; Polse, Lara; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine how lexical association and discourse congruence affect the time course of processing incoming words in spoken discourse. In an event-related potential (ERP) norming study, we presented prime-target pairs in the absence of a sentence context to obtain a baseline measure of lexical priming. We observed a…

  17. Mental Imagery as Revealed by Eye Movements and Spoken Predicates: A Test of Neurolinguistic Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elich, Matthew; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Tested Bandler and Grinder's proposal that eye movement direction and spoken predicates are indicative of sensory modality of imagery. Subjects reported images in the three modes, but no relation between imagery and eye movements or predicates was found. Visual images were most vivid and often reported. Most subjects rated themselves as visual,…

  18. Information Density in the Development of Spoken and Written Narratives in English and Hebrew

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Dorit; Berman, Ruth A.

    2006-01-01

    This study compares what we term information density in spoken versus written discourse by distinguishing between 2 broad classes of material in narrative texts: narrative information as conveyed through three types of propositional content--events, descriptions, and interpretations (Berman, 1997)--and ancillary information as conveyed by…

  19. Spoken Language Development in Oral Preschool Children with Permanent Childhood Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarant, Julia Z.; Holt, Colleen M.; Dowell, Richard C.; Rickards, Field W.

    2009-01-01

    This article documented spoken language outcomes for preschool children with hearing loss and examined the relationships between language abilities and characteristics of children such as degree of hearing loss, cognitive abilities, age at entry to early intervention, and parent involvement in children's intervention programs. Participants were…

  20. Differential Processing of Thematic and Categorical Conceptual Relations in Spoken Word Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Hansen, Samuel; McMahon, Katie L.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of semantic context effects in spoken word production have typically distinguished between categorical (or taxonomic) and associative relations. However, associates tend to confound semantic features or morphological representations, such as whole-part relations and compounds (e.g., BOAT-anchor, BEE-hive). Using a picture-word interference…

  1. Are Phonological Representations of Printed and Spoken Language Isomorphic? Evidence from the Restrictions on Unattested Onsets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berent, Iris

    2008-01-01

    Are the phonological representations of printed and spoken words isomorphic? This question is addressed by investigating the restrictions on onsets. Cross-linguistic research suggests that onsets of rising sonority are preferred to sonority plateaus, which, in turn, are preferred to sonority falls (e.g., bnif, bdif, lbif). Of interest is whether…

  2. Spoken Grammar Practice and Feedback in an ASR-Based CALL System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Bart Penning; Cucchiarini, Catia; Bodnar, Stephen; Strik, Helmer; van Hout, Roeland

    2015-01-01

    Speaking practice is important for learners of a second language. Computer assisted language learning (CALL) systems can provide attractive opportunities for speaking practice when combined with automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology. In this paper, we present a CALL system that offers spoken practice of word order, an important aspect of…

  3. Windows into Sensory Integration and Rates in Language Processing: Insights from Signed and Spoken Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, So-One K.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation explores the hypothesis that language processing proceeds in "windows" that correspond to representational units, where sensory signals are integrated according to time-scales that correspond to the rate of the input. To investigate universal mechanisms, a comparison of signed and spoken languages is necessary. Underlying the…

  4. AI-Based Chatterbots and Spoken English Teaching: A Critical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sha, Guoquan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of various approaches implemented, whether the classical "three Ps" (presentation, practice, and production) or communicative language teaching (CLT), is to achieve communicative competence. Although a lot of software developed for teaching spoken English is dressed up to raise interaction, its methodology is largely rooted in tradition.…

  5. On-Line Syntax: Thoughts on the Temporality of Spoken Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    One fundamental difference between spoken and written language has to do with the "linearity" of speaking in time, in that the temporal structure of speaking is inherently the outcome of an interactive process between speaker and listener. But despite the status of "linearity" as one of Saussure's fundamental principles, in practice little more…

  6. Phonotactics Constraints and the Spoken Word Recognition of Chinese Words in Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Two word-spotting experiments were conducted to examine the question of whether native Cantonese listeners are constrained by phonotactics information in spoken word recognition of Chinese words in speech. Because no legal consonant clusters occurred within an individual Chinese word, this kind of categorical phonotactics information of Chinese…

  7. Quantifying the "Degree of Linguistic Demand" in Spoken Intelligence Test Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Damien C.; McGrew, Kevin S.; Evans, Jeffrey J.

    2011-01-01

    The linguistic demand of spoken instructions on individually administered norm-referenced psychological and educational tests is of concern when examining individuals who have varying levels of language processing ability or varying cultural backgrounds. The authors present a new method for analyzing the level of verbosity, complexity, and total…

  8. Native Speakers' Perceptions of Nonnative Speakers: Related to Phonetic Errors and Spoken Grammatical Errors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ruth; Jenks, Frederick L.

    A study investigated the perceptions of native English-speakers concerning the spoken grammatical and phonetic (accent) errors of non-native speakers. Speech samples were collected from three non-native speakers of English of varied linguistic backgrounds (German, Spanish, and Arabic) and one speaker of North American English. Each of the four…

  9. Pointing and Reference in Sign Language and Spoken Language: Anchoring vs. Identifying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barberà, Gemma; Zwets, Martine

    2013-01-01

    In both signed and spoken languages, pointing serves to direct an addressee's attention to a particular entity. This entity may be either present or absent in the physical context of the conversation. In this article we focus on pointing directed to nonspeaker/nonaddressee referents in Sign Language of the Netherlands (Nederlandse Gebarentaal,…

  10. Infant perceptual development for faces and spoken words: an integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Watson, Tamara L; Robbins, Rachel A; Best, Catherine T

    2014-11-01

    There are obvious differences between recognizing faces and recognizing spoken words or phonemes that might suggest development of each capability requires different skills. Recognizing faces and perceiving spoken language, however, are in key senses extremely similar endeavors. Both perceptual processes are based on richly variable, yet highly structured input from which the perceiver needs to extract categorically meaningful information. This similarity could be reflected in the perceptual narrowing that occurs within the first year of life in both domains. We take the position that the perceptual and neurocognitive processes by which face and speech recognition develop are based on a set of common principles. One common principle is the importance of systematic variability in the input as a source of information rather than noise. Experience of this variability leads to perceptual tuning to the critical properties that define individual faces or spoken words versus their membership in larger groupings of people and their language communities. We argue that parallels can be drawn directly between the principles responsible for the development of face and spoken language perception.

  11. A Transactional Model of Spoken Vocabulary Variation in Toddlers with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woynaroski, Tiffany; Yoder, Paul J.; Fey, Marc E.; Warren, Steven F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined (a) whether dose frequency of milieu communication teaching (MCT) affects children's canonical syllabic communication and (b) whether the relation between early canonical syllabic communication and later spoken vocabulary is mediated by parental linguistic mapping in children with intellectual disabilities (ID).…

  12. An Analysis of Selected Korean Hedges in Spoken Discourse: Sociopragmatic and Pragmalinguistic Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Yeonhee

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation presents an empirical analysis of Korean hedges in contemporary spoken discourse. The data analyzed was drawn from my corpus based on approximately 17 hours of unplanned, naturally occurring conversations. This study classified lexical and syntactic hedges in my corpus and investigated the frequency of individual hedge items. It…

  13. Syntactic Priming Persists while the Lexical Boost Decays: Evidence from Written and Spoken Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartsuiker, Robert J.; Bernolet, Sarah; Schoonbaert, Sofie; Speybroeck, Sara; Vanderelst, Dieter

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments in written and spoken dialogue tested the predictions of two distinct accounts of syntactic encoding in sentence production: a lexicalist, residual activation account and an implicit-learning account. Experiments 1 and 2 showed syntactic priming (i.e., the tendency to reuse the syntactic structure of a prime sentence in the…

  14. The Evolution of Iranian French Learners' Spoken Interlanguage from a Cognitive Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrabi, Marzieh; Rahmatian, Rouhollah; Safa, Parivash; Armiun, Novid

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the spoken corpus of thirty Iranian learners of French at four levels (A1, A2, B1 and B2). The data were collected in a pseudo-longitudinal manner in semi-directed interviews with half closed and open questions to analyze the learners' syntactic errors (omission, addition, substitution and displacement). The most frequent…

  15. Crossmodal Semantic Priming by Naturalistic Sounds and Spoken Words Enhances Visual Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yi-Chuan; Spence, Charles

    2011-01-01

    We propose a multisensory framework based on Glaser and Glaser's (1989) general reading-naming interference model to account for the semantic priming effect by naturalistic sounds and spoken words on visual picture sensitivity. Four experiments were designed to investigate two key issues: First, can auditory stimuli enhance visual sensitivity when…

  16. Parental Reports of Spoken Language Skills in Children with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berglund, Eva; Eriksson, Marten; Johansson, Irene

    2001-01-01

    Spoken language in 330 children with Down syndrome (ages 1-5) and 336 normally developing children (ages 1,2) was compared. Growth trends, individual variation, sex differences, and performance on vocabulary, pragmatic, and grammar scales as well as maximum length of utterance were explored. Three- and four-year-old Down syndrome children…

  17. Interference Effects on the Recall of Pictures, Printed Words, and Spoken Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, John K.; Bruning, Roger H.

    1982-01-01

    Nouns were presented in triads as pictures, printed words, or spoken words and followed by various types of interference. Measures of short- and long-term memory were obtained. In short-term memory, pictorial superiority occurred with acoustic, and visual and acoustic, but not visual interference. Long-term memory showed superior recall for…

  18. Spoken Organizational Lecture Cues and Student Notetaking as Facilitators of Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titsworth, B. Scott; Kiewra, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has shown that providing written organizational lecture cues boosts notetaking and that boosting notetaking raises achievement. Lecture learning literature, however, is silent on whether spoken organizational lecture cues boost notetaking and achievement. To find out, participants listened to a lecture that contained or did not…

  19. Perception and Lateralization of Spoken Emotion by Youths with High-Functioning Forms of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Kimberly F.; Montgomery, Allen A.; Abramson, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    The perception and the cerebral lateralization of spoken emotions were investigated in children and adolescents with high-functioning forms of autism (HFFA), and age-matched typically developing controls (TDC). A dichotic listening task using nonsense passages was used to investigate the recognition of four emotions: happiness, sadness, anger, and…

  20. Discourse Markers and Spoken English: Native and Learner Use in Pedagogic Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Loretta; Carter, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    This study examines and compares the production of discourse markers by native speakers and learners of English based on a pedagogic sub-corpus from CANCODE, a corpus of spoken British English, and a corpus of interactive classroom discourse of secondary pupils in Hong Kong. The results indicate that in both groups discourse markers serve as…

  1. Contrastive Analysis of Turkish and English in Turkish EFL Learners' Spoken Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiz, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at finding whether L1 Turkish caused interference errors on Turkish EFL learners' spoken English discourse. Whether English proficiency level had any effect on the number of errors learners made was further investigated. The participants were given the chance to choose one of the two alternative topics to speak about. The…

  2. Individual Differences in Inhibitory Control Relate to Bilingual Spoken Word Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Julie; Pivneva, Irina; Titone, Debra

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether individual differences in inhibitory control relate to bilingual spoken word recognition. While their eye movements were monitored, native English and native French English-French bilinguals listened to English words (e.g., "field") and looked at pictures corresponding to the target, a within-language competitor…

  3. Italians Use Abstract Knowledge about Lexical Stress during Spoken-Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulpizio, Simone; McQueen, James M.

    2012-01-01

    In two eye-tracking experiments in Italian, we investigated how acoustic information and stored knowledge about lexical stress are used during the recognition of tri-syllabic spoken words. Experiment 1 showed that Italians use acoustic cues to a word's stress pattern rapidly in word recognition, but only for words with antepenultimate stress.…

  4. Teachers' Use of Simultaneous Communication: Effects on the Signed and Spoken Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, M. B.; Power, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    This study examined the correspondence between spoken English and Australasian Signed English when used simultaneously by four teachers of deaf Australian students. The teachers were more than 90 percent accurate in reproducing on their hands what they were saying but at some cost to the oral aspects of the simultaneous communication. (Author/JDD)

  5. Phonological Neighborhood Effects in Spoken Word Production: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peramunage, Dasun; Blumstein, Sheila E.; Myers, Emily B.; Goldrick, Matthew; Baese-Berk, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the neural systems underlying lexically conditioned phonetic variation in spoken word production. Participants were asked to read aloud singly presented words, which either had a voiced minimal pair (MP) neighbor (e.g., cape) or lacked a minimal pair (NMP) neighbor (e.g., cake). The voiced neighbor never appeared in the…

  6. Conversations over Video Conferences: An Evaluation of the Spoken Aspects of Video-Mediated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Conaill, Brid; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Considers reasons for the lack of acceptance of video communication; examines differences between spoken characteristics of video-mediated communication and face-to-face interaction; and evaluates two video communication systems in the United Kingdom, an Integrated Services Digital Network and LIVE-NET (London Interactive Video Education Network).…

  7. Using Key Part-of-Speech Analysis to Examine Spoken Discourse by Taiwanese EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yen-Liang

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on a corpus analysis of samples of spoken discourse between a group of British and Taiwanese adolescents, with the aim of exploring the statistically significant differences in the use of grammatical categories between the two groups of participants. The key word method extended to a part-of-speech level using the web-based…

  8. Literacy in the Mainstream Inner-City School: Its Relationship to Spoken Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Lucy; Botting, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the language and literacy skills of 11-year-olds attending a mainstream school in an area of social and economic disadvantage. The proportion of these young people experiencing difficulties in decoding and reading comprehension was identified and the relationship between spoken language skills and reading comprehension…

  9. Comprehension of Spoken, Written and Signed Sentences in Childhood Language Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, D. V. M.

    1982-01-01

    Nine children suffering from Landau-Kleffner (L-K) syndrome and 25 children with developmental expressive disorders were tested for comprehension of English grammatical structures in spoken, written, and signed language modalities. L-K children demonstrated comprehension problems in all three language modalities and tended to treat language as…

  10. Children's Verbal Working Memory: Role of Processing Complexity in Predicting Spoken Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magimairaj, Beula M.; Montgomery, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the role of processing complexity of verbal working memory tasks in predicting spoken sentence comprehension in typically developing children. Of interest was whether simple and more complex working memory tasks have similar or different power in predicting sentence comprehension. Method: Sixty-five children (6- to…

  11. Word Order in Spoken German: Syntactic Right-Expansions as an Interactionally Constructed Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeldt, Juliane

    2009-01-01

    In real time interaction, the ordering of words is one of the resources participants-to-talk rely on in the negotiation of shared meaning. This dissertation investigates the emergence of syntactic right-expansions in spoken German as a systematic resource in the organization of talk-in-interaction. Employing the methodology of conversation…

  12. The Temporal Dynamics of Spoken Word Recognition in Adverse Listening Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouwer, Susanne; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the temporal dynamics of spoken word recognition in noise and background speech. In two visual-world experiments, English participants listened to target words while looking at four pictures on the screen: a target (e.g. "candle"), an onset competitor (e.g. "candy"), a rhyme competitor (e.g.…

  13. Spoken Word Recognition in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucas, Tom; Riches, Nick; Baird, Gillian; Pickles, Andrew; Simonoff, Emily; Chandler, Susie; Charman, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Spoken word recognition, during gating, appears intact in specific language impairment (SLI). This study used gating to investigate the process in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders plus language impairment (ALI). Adolescents with ALI, SLI, and typical language development (TLD), matched on nonverbal IQ listened to gated words that varied…

  14. Using Language Sample Analysis to Assess Spoken Language Production in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jon F.; Andriacchi, Karen; Nockerts, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This tutorial discusses the importance of language sample analysis and how Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT) software can be used to simplify the process and effectively assess the spoken language production of adolescents. Method: Over the past 30 years, thousands of language samples have been collected from typical…

  15. The Effect of the Temporal Structure of Spoken Words on Paired-Associate Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Sarah C.; Dahan, Delphine

    2010-01-01

    In a series of experiments, participants learned to associate black-and-white shapes with nonsense spoken labels (e.g., "joop"). When tested on their recognition memory, participants falsely recognized as correct a shape paired with a label that began with the same sounds as the shape's original label (onset-overlapping lure; e.g., "joob") more…

  16. Role of Working Memory in Children's Understanding Spoken Narrative: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, James W.; Polunenko, Anzhela; Marinellie, Sally A.

    2009-01-01

    The role of phonological short-term memory (PSTM), attentional resource capacity/allocation, and processing speed on children's spoken narrative comprehension was investigated. Sixty-seven children (6-11 years) completed a digit span task (PSTM), concurrent verbal processing and storage (CPS) task (resource capacity/allocation), auditory-visual…

  17. Expected Test Scores for Preschoolers with a Cochlear Implant Who Use Spoken Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholas, Johanna G.; Geers, Ann E.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The major purpose of this study was to provide information about expected spoken language skills of preschool-age children who are deaf and who use a cochlear implant. A goal was to provide "benchmarks" against which those skills could be compared, for a given age at implantation. We also examined whether parent-completed checklists of…

  18. The Debate over Literary Tamil versus Standard Spoken Tamil: What Do Teachers Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saravanan, Vanithamani; Lakshmi, Seetha; Caleon, Imelda S.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to determine the attitudes toward Standard Spoken Tamil (SST) and Literary Tamil (LT) of 46 Tamil teachers in Singapore. The teachers' attitudes were used as an indicator of the acceptance or nonacceptance of SST as a viable option in the teaching of Tamil in the classroom, in which the focus has been largely on LT. The…

  19. The Roles of Tonal and Segmental Information in Mandarin Spoken Word Recognition: An Eyetracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malins, Jeffrey G.; Joanisse, Marc F.

    2010-01-01

    We used eyetracking to examine how tonal versus segmental information influence spoken word recognition in Mandarin Chinese. Participants heard an auditory word and were required to identify its corresponding picture from an array that included the target item ("chuang2" "bed"), a phonological competitor (segmental: chuang1 "window"; cohort:…

  20. Gesture in Multiparty Interaction: A Study of Embodied Discourse in Spoken English and American Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Emily P.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is an examination of gesture in two game nights: one in spoken English between four hearing friends and another in American Sign Language between four Deaf friends. Analyses of gesture have shown there exists a complex integration of manual gestures with speech. Analyses of sign language have implicated the body as a medium…

  1. "Authenticity" in Language Testing: Evaluating Spoken Language Tests for International Teaching Assistants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoekje, Barbara; Linnell, Kimberly

    1994-01-01

    Bachman's framework of language testing and standard of authenticity for language testing instruments were used to evaluate three instruments--the SPEAK (Spoken Proficiency English Assessment Kit) test, OPI (Oral Proficiency Interview), and a performance test--as language tests for nonnative-English-speaking teaching assistants. (Contains 53…

  2. Authentic ESL Spoken Materials: Soap Opera and Sitcom versus Natural Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Surmi, Mansoor Ali

    2012-01-01

    TV shows, especially soap operas and sitcoms, are usually considered by ESL practitioners as a source of authentic spoken conversational materials presumably because they reflect the linguistic features of natural conversation. However, practitioners might be faced with the dilemma of how to evaluate whether such conversational materials reflect…

  3. Bidialectal African American Adolescents' Beliefs about Spoken Language Expectations in English Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godley, Amanda; Escher, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the perspectives of bidialectal African American adolescents--adolescents who speak both African American Vernacular English (AAVE) and Standard English--on spoken language expectations in their English classes. Previous research has demonstrated that many teachers hold negative views of AAVE, but existing scholarship has…

  4. Orthographic Consistency Affects Spoken Word Recognition at Different Grain-Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dich, Nadya

    2014-01-01

    A number of previous studies found that the consistency of sound-to-spelling mappings (feedback consistency) affects spoken word recognition. In auditory lexical decision experiments, words that can only be spelled one way are recognized faster than words with multiple potential spellings. Previous studies demonstrated this by manipulating…

  5. Teaching Spoken Discourse Markers Explicitly: A Comparison of III and PPP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Christian; Carter, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on mixed methods classroom research carried out at a British university. The study investigates the effectiveness of two different explicit teaching frameworks, Illustration--Interaction--Induction (III) and Present--Practice--Produce (PPP) used to teach the same spoken discourse markers (DMs) to two different groups of…

  6. Different patterns of spoken and written word comprehension deficit in aphasic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Warrington, Elizabeth K

    2011-09-01

    This study presents neuropsychological evidence for differences in the semantic representations underpinning spoken and written word comprehension. Potential modality-based discrepancies in the semantic system were examined by testing whether spoken word (auditory-verbal input) and written word (visual-verbal input) comprehension exhibited the same effect profile on variables typically used to distinguish so-called access and storage disorders (e.g., response consistency, sensitivity to item frequency). The study was based on the premise that damage to a common set of semantic representations should have an equivalent impact upon comprehension performance irrespective of input modality, whereas damage to partially dissociable semantic representations may give rise to different qualities of deficit (access/storage) in the comprehension of stimuli presented in different input modalities (spoken/written). The study involved two patients with global aphasia following left middle cerebral artery stroke (F.B.I. and H.O.P.). The two patients showed matched performance on conventional tests of single word comprehension with clear evidence of semantic impairment for stimuli presented in both the spoken and written input modalities. However, in H.O.P., spoken and written word comprehension was affected in the same way by variations in stimulus category, frequency, and multiple stimulus presentations, whilst in F.B.I., there were clear differences between input modalities with all three variables. More specifically, F.B.I.'s written word comprehension was significantly affected by category (living > nonliving) and frequency (high > low) but not multiple presentations (single = multiple), more consistent with degradation of stored representations (storage deficit). By contrast, his spoken word comprehension was unaffected by category (living = nonliving) and frequency (high = low) but was affected by multiple presentations (single > multiple; serial

  7. Different patterns of spoken and written word comprehension deficit in aphasic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Warrington, Elizabeth K

    2011-09-01

    This study presents neuropsychological evidence for differences in the semantic representations underpinning spoken and written word comprehension. Potential modality-based discrepancies in the semantic system were examined by testing whether spoken word (auditory-verbal input) and written word (visual-verbal input) comprehension exhibited the same effect profile on variables typically used to distinguish so-called access and storage disorders (e.g., response consistency, sensitivity to item frequency). The study was based on the premise that damage to a common set of semantic representations should have an equivalent impact upon comprehension performance irrespective of input modality, whereas damage to partially dissociable semantic representations may give rise to different qualities of deficit (access/storage) in the comprehension of stimuli presented in different input modalities (spoken/written). The study involved two patients with global aphasia following left middle cerebral artery stroke (F.B.I. and H.O.P.). The two patients showed matched performance on conventional tests of single word comprehension with clear evidence of semantic impairment for stimuli presented in both the spoken and written input modalities. However, in H.O.P., spoken and written word comprehension was affected in the same way by variations in stimulus category, frequency, and multiple stimulus presentations, whilst in F.B.I., there were clear differences between input modalities with all three variables. More specifically, F.B.I.'s written word comprehension was significantly affected by category (living > nonliving) and frequency (high > low) but not multiple presentations (single = multiple), more consistent with degradation of stored representations (storage deficit). By contrast, his spoken word comprehension was unaffected by category (living = nonliving) and frequency (high = low) but was affected by multiple presentations (single > multiple; serial

  8. Characteristics of the Transition to Spoken Words in Two Young Cochlear Implant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Ertmer, David J.; Inniger, Kelli J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This investigation addressed two main questions: (1) How do toddler's spoken utterances change during the first year of Cochlear Implant (CI) use? (2) How do the time-courses for reaching spoken word milestones after implant activation compare with those reported for typically developing children? These questions were explored to increase understanding of early semantic development in children who receive cochlear implants before their second birthdays. Methods Monthly recordings of mother-child interactions were gathered during the first year of CI use by a boy and a girl whose cochlear implants were activated at 11 and 21 months of age, respectively. Child utterances were classified as non-words, pre-words, single words, or word combinations and the percentages of these utterance types were calculated for each month. Data were compared to published findings for typically developing children for the number of months of robust hearing (i.e., auditory access to conversational speech) needed to reach spoken word milestones, and the chronological ages at which milestones were achieved. Results The main findings were that the percentages of non-words and pre-words decreased as single words and word combinations increased; both children achieved most spoken word milestones with fewer months of robust hearing experience than reported for typically developing children; the youngest recipient achieved more milestones within typical age-ranges than the child implanted later in life. Conclusions The children's expeditious gains in spoken word development appeared to be facilitated by interactions among their pre-implant hearing experiences, their relatively advanced physical, cognitive, and social maturity, participation in intervention programs, and the introduction of robust hearing within the Utterance Acquisition phase of language development as proposed in the Neurolingusitic theory (Locke, 1997). PMID:19717658

  9. Word identification and eye fixation locations in visual and visual-plus-auditory presentations of spoken sentences.

    PubMed

    Lansing, Charissa R; McConkie, George W

    2003-05-01

    In this study, we investigated where people look on talkers' faces as they try to understand what is being said. Sixteen young adults with normal hearing and demonstrated average speechreading proficiency were evaluated under two modality presentation conditions: vision only versus vision plus low-intensity sound. They were scored for the number of words correctly identified from 80 unconnected sentences spoken by two talkers. The results showed two competing tendencies: an eye primacy effect that draws the gaze to the talkers eyes during silence and an information source attraction effect that draws the gaze to the talker's mouth during speech periods. Dynamic shifts occur between eyes and mouth prior to speech onset and following the offset of speech, and saccades tend to be suppressed during speech periods. The degree to which the gaze is drawn to the mouth during speech and the degree to which saccadic activity is suppressed depend on the difficulty of the speech identification task. Under the most difficult modality presentation condition, vison only, accuracy was related to average sentence difficulty and individual proficiency in visual speech perception, but not to the proportion of gaze time directed toward the talkers mouth or toward other parts of the talker's face.

  10. A genomic scan of porcine reproductive traits reveals possible quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for number of corpora lutea.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, P J; Paszek, A A; Beattie, C W; Alexander, L J; Wheeler, M B; Schook, L B

    1999-06-01

    Reproductive traits have low heritabilities, are expressed in only one sex, and are not measurable until sexual maturity (Avalos and Smith, Anim Prod 44:153, 1987). Using traditional methods, selection for reproductive traits is relatively less effective than selecting for growth or carcass traits. Traits most affected by a small number of genes with major effects rather than many genes with small effects are most amenable to MAS. As part of our porcine genome scan to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of economic importance in marker-assisted selective (MAS) breeding programs, we examined 8 reproductive and farrowing traits in the University of Illinois (UI) Meishan x Yorkshire Resource Family. Gilts were genotyped with 119 microsatellite markers (MS) with intervals averaging 24 cM over all 18 porcine autosomes. F-ratios supporting QTL location were calculated by the least squares regression method. Results suggestive of linkage at the 5% genome-wide level were observed for the number of stillborn piglets on Chromosome (Chr) 4 (SSC4) (p-value = 0.0001), corpora lutea on SSC8 (p-value = 0.00027), and gestation length on SSC9 (p-value = 0.00019). Results for additional loci relevant to litter size, number of corpora lutea on SSC15 and 7 (p-value = 0.0029 and 0.0028 at 107 and 150 cM, respectively), gestation length on SSC15 and 1 (p-value = 0.0017 and 0.0069 at 96 and 166 cM, respectively), uterine length on SSC7 and 5 (p-value = 0.0044 and 0.0075 at 148 and 1 cM, respectively) and piglets born per litter on SSC6 (p-value = 0.0075 at 102 cM), were not statistically significant at the 5% genome-wide level. Thus, the use of a linked marker to facilitate selection for reproductive traits has considerable potential. By using linked markers, selection can be applied to both sexes before sexual maturity, making genetic selection considerably more efficient and less costly.

  11. A real-time spoken-language system for interactive problem-solving, combining linguistic and statistical technology for improved spoken language understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Robert C.; Cohen, Michael H.

    1993-09-01

    Under this effort, SRI has developed spoken-language technology for interactive problem solving, featuring real-time performance for up to several thousand word vocabularies, high semantic accuracy, habitability within the domain, and robustness to many sources of variability. Although the technology is suitable for many applications, efforts to date have focused on developing an Air Travel Information System (ATIS) prototype application. SRI's ATIS system has been evaluated in four ARPA benchmark evaluations, and has consistently been at or near the top in performance. These achievements are the result of SRI's technical progress in speech recognition, natural-language processing, and speech and natural-language integration.

  12. Factors affecting spontaneous reduction of corpora lutea and twin embryos during the late embryonic/early fetal period in multiple-ovulating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    López-Gatius, F; García-Ispierto, I; Hunter, R H F

    2010-02-01

    Spontaneous reduction of advanced twin embryos has been described in high-producing, Holstein-Fresian (Bos taurus) dairy herds. The first objective of the current study was to determine whether management and cow factors could have an effect on such a reduction in twin pregnancies during the early fetal period. Because loss of a corpus luteum was noted in cows suffering twin reduction, we expanded our study to include multiple-ovulating cows carrying singletons. Pregnancy was diagnosed and confirmed from Days 28 to 34 and 56 to 62 postinsemination. Sixty-nine (23.5%) of 293 pregnant cows with two corpora lutea carrying singletons and 132 (28.4%) of 464 twin pregnancies recorded on first pregnancy diagnosis subsequently lost one of the corpora lutea or one of the embryos, respectively. Thirty-four (25.8%) of the 132 twin pregnancies suffering embryo reduction lost one corpus luteum along with the embryo. Corpus luteum reduction always occurred in the ovary ipsilateral to the gravid horn suffering embryo reduction. Binary logistic regressions were performed considering corpus luteum and embryo reduction as dependent variables in single and twin pregnancies, respectively, and several management- and cow-related factors as independent variables. In cows carrying singletons, the risk of corpus luteum reduction was 14.3 (1/0.07) times lower for a given herd, whereas the interaction season by laterality significantly affected corpus luteum reduction such that in cows with two corpora lutea ipsilateral to the horn of pregnancy, the risk of reduction decreased during the winter period. In cows carrying twins, ipsilateral twin pregnancies were 3.45 (1/0.29) times more likely to undergo the loss of one embryo than bilateral twin pregnancies. As an overall conclusion, both corpora lutea and embryos were vulnerable to the effects of stress factors during the early fetal period in cows maintaining their pregnancies. A strong unilateral relationship between the corpus luteum and

  13. Physiologically persistent Corpora lutea in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) - longitudinal ultrasound and endocrine examinations intra-vitam.

    PubMed

    Painer, Johanna; Jewgenow, Katarina; Dehnhard, Martin; Arnemo, Jon M; Linnell, John D C; Odden, John; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Goeritz, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Felids generally follow a poly-estrous reproductive strategy. Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) display a different pattern of reproductive cyclicity where physiologically persistent corpora lutea (CLs) induce a mono-estrous condition which results in highly seasonal reproduction. The present study was based around a sono-morphological and endocrine study of captive Eurasian lynx, and a control-study on free-ranging lynx. We verified that CLs persist after pregnancy and pseudo-pregnancy for at least a two-year period. We could show that lynx are able to enter estrus in the following year, while CLs from the previous years persisted in structure and only temporarily reduced their function for the period of estrus onset or birth, which is unique among felids. The almost constant luteal progesterone secretion (average of 5 ng/ml serum) seems to prevent folliculogenesis outside the breeding season and has converted a poly-estrous general felid cycle into a mono-estrous cycle specific for lynx. The hormonal regulation mechanism which causes lynx to have the longest CL lifespan amongst mammals remains unclear. The described non-felid like ovarian physiology appears to be a remarkably non-plastic system. The lynx's reproductive ability to adapt to environmental and anthropogenic changes needs further investigation.

  14. Physiologically Persistent Corpora lutea in Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) – Longitudinal Ultrasound and Endocrine Examinations Intra-Vitam

    PubMed Central

    Painer, Johanna; Jewgenow, Katarina; Dehnhard, Martin; Arnemo, Jon M.; Linnell, John D. C.; Odden, John; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.; Goeritz, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Felids generally follow a poly-estrous reproductive strategy. Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) display a different pattern of reproductive cyclicity where physiologically persistent corpora lutea (CLs) induce a mono-estrous condition which results in highly seasonal reproduction. The present study was based around a sono-morphological and endocrine study of captive Eurasian lynx, and a control-study on free-ranging lynx. We verified that CLs persist after pregnancy and pseudo-pregnancy for at least a two-year period. We could show that lynx are able to enter estrus in the following year, while CLs from the previous years persisted in structure and only temporarily reduced their function for the period of estrus onset or birth, which is unique among felids. The almost constant luteal progesterone secretion (average of 5 ng/ml serum) seems to prevent folliculogenesis outside the breeding season and has converted a poly-estrous general felid cycle into a mono-estrous cycle specific for lynx. The hormonal regulation mechanism which causes lynx to have the longest CL lifespan amongst mammals remains unclear. The described non-felid like ovarian physiology appears to be a remarkably non-plastic system. The lynx's reproductive ability to adapt to environmental and anthropogenic changes needs further investigation. PMID:24599348

  15. The influence of trilostane on steroid hormone metabolism in canine adrenal glands and corpora lutea-an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Ouschan, C; Lepschy, M; Zeugswetter, F; Möstl, E

    2012-03-01

    Trilostane is widely used to treat hyperadrenocorticism in dogs. Trilostane competitively inhibits the enzyme 3-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), which converts pregnenolone (P5) to progesterone (P4) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to androstendione (A4). Although trilostane is frequently used in dogs, the molecular mechanism underlying its effect on canine steroid hormone biosynthesis is still an enigma. Multiple enzymes of 3β-HSD have been found in humans, rats and mice and their presence might explain the contradictory results of studies on the effectiveness of trilostane. We therefore investigated the influence of trilostane on steroid hormone metabolism in dogs by means of an in vitro model. Canine adrenal glands from freshly euthanized dogs and corpora lutea (CL) were incubated with increasing doses of trilostane. Tritiated P5 or DHEA were used as substrates. The resulting radioactive metabolites were extracted, separated by thin layer chromatography and visualized by autoradiography. A wide variety of radioactive metabolites were formed in the adrenal glands and in the CL, indicating high metabolic activity in both tissues. In the adrenal cortex, trilostane influences the P5 metabolism in a dose- and time-dependent manner, while DHEA metabolism and metabolism of both hormones in the CL were unaffected. The results indicate for the first time that there might be more than one enzyme of 3β-HSD present in dogs and that trilostane selectively inhibits P5 conversion to P4 only in the adrenal gland.

  16. The influence of trilostane on steroid hormone metabolism in canine adrenal glands and corpora lutea-an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Ouschan, C; Lepschy, M; Zeugswetter, F; Möstl, E

    2012-03-01

    Trilostane is widely used to treat hyperadrenocorticism in dogs. Trilostane competitively inhibits the enzyme 3-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), which converts pregnenolone (P5) to progesterone (P4) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to androstendione (A4). Although trilostane is frequently used in dogs, the molecular mechanism underlying its effect on canine steroid hormone biosynthesis is still an enigma. Multiple enzymes of 3β-HSD have been found in humans, rats and mice and their presence might explain the contradictory results of studies on the effectiveness of trilostane. We therefore investigated the influence of trilostane on steroid hormone metabolism in dogs by means of an in vitro model. Canine adrenal glands from freshly euthanized dogs and corpora lutea (CL) were incubated with increasing doses of trilostane. Tritiated P5 or DHEA were used as substrates. The resulting radioactive metabolites were extracted, separated by thin layer chromatography and visualized by autoradiography. A wide variety of radioactive metabolites were formed in the adrenal glands and in the CL, indicating high metabolic activity in both tissues. In the adrenal cortex, trilostane influences the P5 metabolism in a dose- and time-dependent manner, while DHEA metabolism and metabolism of both hormones in the CL were unaffected. The results indicate for the first time that there might be more than one enzyme of 3β-HSD present in dogs and that trilostane selectively inhibits P5 conversion to P4 only in the adrenal gland. PMID:22113849

  17. "We communicated that way for a reason": language practices and language ideologies among hearing adults whose parents are deaf.

    PubMed

    Pizer, Ginger; Walters, Keith; Meier, Richard P

    2013-01-01

    Families with deaf parents and hearing children are often bilingual and bimodal, with both a spoken language and a signed one in regular use among family members. When interviewed, 13 American hearing adults with deaf parents reported widely varying language practices, sign language abilities, and social affiliations with Deaf and Hearing communities. Despite this variation, the interviewees' moral judgments of their own and others' communicative behavior suggest that these adults share a language ideology concerning the obligation of all family members to expend effort to overcome potential communication barriers. To our knowledge, such a language ideology is not similarly pervasive among spoken-language bilingual families, raising the question of whether there is something unique about family bimodal bilingualism that imposes different rights and responsibilities on family members than spoken-language family bilingualism does. This ideology unites an otherwise diverse group of interviewees, where each one preemptively denied being a "typical CODA [children of deaf adult]."

  18. Form-based priming in spoken word recognition: the roles of competition and bias.

    PubMed

    Goldinger, S D; Luce, P A; Pisoni, D B; Marcario, J K

    1992-11-01

    Phonological priming of spoken words refers to improved recognition of targets preceded by primes that share at least one of their constituent phonemes (e.g., BULL-BEER). Phonetic priming refers to reduced recognition of targets preceded by primes that share no phonemes with targets but are phonetically similar to targets (e.g., BULL-VEER). Five experiments were conducted to investigate the role of bias in phonological priming. Performance was compared across conditions of phonological and phonetic priming under a variety of procedural manipulations. Ss in phonological priming conditions systematically modified their responses on unrelated priming trials in perceptual identification, and they were slower and more errorful on unrelated trials in lexical decision than were Ss in phonetic priming conditions. Phonetic and phonological priming effects display different time courses and also different interactions with changes in proportion of related priming trials. Phonological priming involves bias; phonetic priming appears to reflect basic properties of activation and competition in spoken word recognition.

  19. Preliminary findings of similarities and differences in the signed and spoken language of children with autism.

    PubMed

    Shield, Aaron

    2014-11-01

    Approximately 30% of hearing children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not acquire expressive language, and those who do often show impairments related to their social deficits, using language instrumentally rather than socially, with a poor understanding of pragmatics and a tendency toward repetitive content. Linguistic abnormalities can be clinically useful as diagnostic markers of ASD and as targets for intervention. Studies have begun to document how ASD manifests in children who are deaf for whom signed languages are the primary means of communication. Though the underlying disorder is presumed to be the same in children who are deaf and children who hear, the structures of signed and spoken languages differ in key ways. This article describes similarities and differences between the signed and spoken language acquisition of children on the spectrum. Similarities include echolalia, pronoun avoidance, neologisms, and the existence of minimally verbal children. Possible areas of divergence include pronoun reversal, palm reversal, and facial grammar. PMID:25321855

  20. The Temporal Dynamics of Spoken Word Recognition in Adverse Listening Conditions.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Susanne; Bradlow, Ann R

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the temporal dynamics of spoken word recognition in noise and background speech. In two visual-world experiments, English participants listened to target words while looking at four pictures on the screen: a target (e.g. candle), an onset competitor (e.g. candy), a rhyme competitor (e.g. sandal), and an unrelated distractor (e.g. lemon). Target words were presented in quiet, mixed with broadband noise, or mixed with background speech. Results showed that lexical competition changes throughout the observation window as a function of what is presented in the background. These findings suggest that, rather than being strictly sequential, stream segregation and lexical competition interact during spoken word recognition. PMID:26420754

  1. Decoding vowels and consonants in spoken and imagined words using electrocorticographic signals in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Xiaomei; Barbour, Dennis L.; Leuthardt, Eric C.; Schalk, Gerwin

    2011-08-01

    Several stories in the popular media have speculated that it may be possible to infer from the brain which word a person is speaking or even thinking. While recent studies have demonstrated that brain signals can give detailed information about actual and imagined actions, such as different types of limb movements or spoken words, concrete experimental evidence for the possibility to 'read the mind', i.e. to interpret internally-generated speech, has been scarce. In this study, we found that it is possible to use signals recorded from the surface of the brain (electrocorticography) to discriminate the vowels and consonants embedded in spoken and in imagined words, and we defined the cortical areas that held the most information about discrimination of vowels and consonants. The results shed light on the distinct mechanisms associated with production of vowels and consonants, and could provide the basis for brain-based communication using imagined speech.

  2. The influence of sublexical and lexical representations on the processing of spoken words in English

    PubMed Central

    VITEVITCH, MICHAEL S.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research suggests that sublexical and lexical representations are involved in spoken word recognition. The current experiment examined when sublexical and lexical representations are used in the processing of real words in English. The same set of words varying in phonotactic probability/neighbourhood density was presented in three different versions of a same-different matching task: (1) mostly real words as filler items, (2) an equal number of words and nonsense words as filler items and (3) mostly nonsense words as filler items. The results showed that lexical representations were used in version 1 of the same-different matching task to process the words, whereas sublexical representations were used in version 3 of the same-different matching task to process the words. Finally, in version 2 of the same-different matching task individual variation was observed in the form of distinct sublexical and lexical biases. Implications for the processing of spoken words are discussed. PMID:14564833

  3. A comparison of the McGurk effect for spoken and sung syllables.

    PubMed

    Quinto, Lena; Thompson, William Forde; Russo, Frank A; Trehub, Sandra E

    2010-08-01

    The importance of visual cues in speech perception is illustrated by the McGurk effect, whereby a speaker's facial movements affect speech perception. The goal of the present study was to evaluate whether the McGurk effect is also observed for sung syllables. Participants heard and saw sung instances of the syllables /ba/ and /ga/ and then judged the syllable they perceived. Audio-visual stimuli were congruent or incongruent (e.g., auditory /ba/ presented with visual /ga/). The stimuli were presented as spoken, sung in an ascending and descending triad (C E G G E C), and sung in an ascending and descending triad that returned to a semitone above the tonic (C E G G E C#). Results revealed no differences in the proportion of fusion responses between spoken and sung conditions confirming that cross-modal phonemic information is integrated similarly in speech and song.

  4. The power of the spoken word: sociolinguistic cues influence the misinformation effect.

    PubMed

    Vornik, Lana A; Sharman, Stefanie J; Garry, Maryanne

    2003-01-01

    We investigated whether the sociolinguistic information delivered by spoken, accented postevent narratives would influence the misinformation effect. New Zealand subjects listened to misleading postevent information spoken in either a New Zealand (NZ) or North American (NA) accent. Consistent with earlier research, we found that NA accents were seen as more powerful and more socially attractive. We found that accents per se had no influence on the misinformation effect but sociolinguistic factors did: both power and social attractiveness affected subjects' susceptibility to misleading postevent suggestions. When subjects rated the speaker highly on power, social attractiveness did not matter; they were equally misled. However, when subjects rated the speaker low on power, social attractiveness did matter: subjects who rated the speaker high on social attractiveness were more misled than subjects who rated it lower. There were similar effects for confidence. These results have implications for our understanding of social influences on the misinformation effect.

  5. Phonologic-graphemic transcodifier for Portuguese Language spoken in Brazil (PLB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragadasilva, Francisco Jose; Saotome, Osamu; Deoliveira, Carlos Alberto

    An automatic speech-to-text transformer system, suited to unlimited vocabulary, is presented. The basic acoustic unit considered are the allophones of the phonemes corresponding to the Portuguese language spoken in Brazil (PLB). The input to the system is a phonetic sequence, from a former step of isolated word recognition of slowly spoken speech. In a first stage, the system eliminates phonetic elements that don't belong to PLB. Using knowledge sources such as phonetics, phonology, orthography, and PLB specific lexicon, the output is a sequence of written words, ordered by probabilistic criterion that constitutes the set of graphemic possibilities to that input sequence. Pronunciation differences of some regions of Brazil are considered, but only those that cause differences in phonological transcription, because those of phonetic level are absorbed, during the transformation to phonological level. In the final stage, all possible written words are analyzed for orthography and grammar point of view, to eliminate the incorrect ones.

  6. Preliminary findings of similarities and differences in the signed and spoken language of children with autism.

    PubMed

    Shield, Aaron

    2014-11-01

    Approximately 30% of hearing children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not acquire expressive language, and those who do often show impairments related to their social deficits, using language instrumentally rather than socially, with a poor understanding of pragmatics and a tendency toward repetitive content. Linguistic abnormalities can be clinically useful as diagnostic markers of ASD and as targets for intervention. Studies have begun to document how ASD manifests in children who are deaf for whom signed languages are the primary means of communication. Though the underlying disorder is presumed to be the same in children who are deaf and children who hear, the structures of signed and spoken languages differ in key ways. This article describes similarities and differences between the signed and spoken language acquisition of children on the spectrum. Similarities include echolalia, pronoun avoidance, neologisms, and the existence of minimally verbal children. Possible areas of divergence include pronoun reversal, palm reversal, and facial grammar.

  7. Targeted Help for Spoken Dialogue Systems: Intelligent Feedback Improves Naive Users' Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hockey, Beth Ann; Lemon, Oliver; Campana, Ellen; Hiatt, Laura; Aist, Gregory; Hieronymous, Jim; Gruenstein, Alexander; Dowding, John

    2003-01-01

    We present experimental evidence that providing naive users of a spoken dialogue system with immediate help messages related to their out-of-coverage utterances improves their success in using the system. A grammar-based recognizer and a Statistical Language Model (SLM) recognizer are run simultaneously. If the grammar-based recognizer suceeds, the less accurate SLM recognizer hypothesis is not used. When the grammar-based recognizer fails and the SLM recognizer produces a recognition hypothesis, this result is used by the Targeted Help agent to give the user feed-back on what was recognized, a diagnosis of what was problematic about the utterance, and a related in-coverage example. The in-coverage example is intended to encourage alignment between user inputs and the language model of the system. We report on controlled experiments on a spoken dialogue system for command and control of a simulated robotic helicopter.

  8. The cortical organization of lexical knowledge: A dual lexicon model of spoken language processing

    PubMed Central

    Gow, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Current accounts of spoken language assume the existence of a lexicon where wordforms are stored and interact during spoken language perception, understanding and production. Despite the theoretical importance of the wordform lexicon, the exact localization and function of the lexicon in the broader context of language use is not well understood. This review draws on evidence from aphasia, functional imaging, neuroanatomy, laboratory phonology and behavioral results to argue for the existence of parallel lexica that facilitate different processes in the dorsal and ventral speech pathways. The dorsal lexicon, localized in the inferior parietal region including the supramarginal gyrus, serves as an interface between phonetic and articulatory representations. The ventral lexicon, localized in the posterior superior temporal sulcus and middle temporal gyrus, serves as an interface between phonetic and semantic representations. In addition to their interface roles, the two lexica contribute to the robustness of speech processing. PMID:22498237

  9. Demonstration of a Spoken Dialogue Interface for Planning Activities of a Semi-autonomous Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowding, John; Frank, Jeremy; Hockey, Beth Ann; Jonsson, Ari; Aist, Gregory

    2002-01-01

    Planning and scheduling in the face of uncertainty and change pushes the capabilities of both planning and dialogue technologies by requiring complex negotiation to arrive at a workable plan. Planning for use of semi-autonomous robots involves negotiation among multiple participants with competing scientific and engineering goals to co-construct a complex plan. In NASA applications this plan construction is done under severe time pressure so having a dialogue interface to the plan construction tools can aid rapid completion of the process. But, this will put significant demands on spoken dialogue technology, particularly in the areas of dialogue management and generation. The dialogue interface will need to be able to handle the complex dialogue strategies that occur in negotiation dialogues, including hypotheticals and revisions, and the generation component will require an ability to summarize complex plans. This demonstration will describe a work in progress towards building a spoken dialogue interface to the EUROPA planner for the purposes of planning and scheduling the activities of a semi-autonomous robot. A prototype interface has been built for planning the schedule of the Personal Satellite Assistant (PSA), a mobile robot designed for micro-gravity environments that is intended for use on the Space Shuttle and International Space Station. The spoken dialogue interface gives the user the capability to ask for a description of the plan, ask specific questions about the plan, and update or modify the plan. We anticipate that a spoken dialogue interface to the planner will provide a natural augmentation or alternative to the visualization interface, in situations in which the user needs very targeted information about the plan, in situations where natural language can express complex ideas more concisely than GUI actions, or in situations in which a graphical user interface is not appropriate.

  10. A perception- and PDE-based nonlinear transformation for processing spoken words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yingyong; Xin, Jack

    2001-02-01

    Speech signals are often produced or received in the presence of noise, which is known to degrade the performance of a speech recognition system. In this paper, a perception- and PDE-based nonlinear transformation was developed to process spoken words in noisy environment. Our goal is to distinguish essential speech features and suppress noise so that the processed words are better recognized by a computer software. The nonlinear transformation was made on the spectrogram (short-term Fourier spectra) of speech signals, which reveals the signal energy distribution in time and frequency. The transformation reduces noise through time adaptation (reducing temporally slowly varying portions of spectra) and enhances spectral peaks (formants) by evolving a focusing quadratic fourth-order PDE. Short-term spectra of speech signals were initially divided into three (low, mid and high) frequency bands based on the critical bandwidth of human audition. An algorithm was developed to trace the upper and lower intensity envelopes of signal in each band. The difference between the upper and lower envelopes reflects the signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio of each band. Constant, low SNR signals in each band were adaptively decreased to reduce noise. Then evolution of the focusing PDE was used to enhance the spectral peaks, and further reduce noise interference. Numerical results on noisy spoken words indicated that the transformed spectral pattern of the spoken words was insensitive to noise for SNR ranging from 0 to 20 dB (decibel). The spectral distances between noisy words and original words decreased after the transformation. A numerical experiment was performed on 11 spoken words at SNR=5 dB. A noisy word is recognized numerically by computing the closest L2 spectral distance from the clean template. The experiment reached a recognition rate as high as 100%. Analyses on the properties of the transformation are provided.

  11. Understanding the Relationship between Latino Students' Preferred Learning Styles and Their Language Spoken at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado Torres, Sonia Enid

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between Latino students' learning styles and their language spoken at home. Results of the study indicated that students who spoke Spanish at home had higher means in the Active Experimentation modality of learning (M = 31.38, SD = 5.70) than students who spoke English (M = 28.08,…

  12. How long-term memory and accentuation interact during spoken language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoqing; Yang, Yufang

    2013-04-01

    Spoken language comprehension requires immediate integration of different information types, such as semantics, syntax, and prosody. Meanwhile, both the information derived from speech signals and the information retrieved from long-term memory exert their influence on language comprehension immediately. Using EEG (electroencephalogram), the present study investigated how the information retrieved from long-term memory interacts with accentuation during spoken language comprehension. Mini Chinese discourses were used as stimuli, with an interrogative or assertive context sentence preceding the target sentence. The target sentence included one critical word conveying new information. The critical word was either highly expected or lowly expected given the information retrieved from long-term memory. Moreover, the critical word was either consistently accented or inconsistently de-accented. The results revealed that for lowly expected new information, inconsistently de-accented words elicited a larger N400 and larger theta power increases (4-6 Hz) than consistently accented words. In contrast, for the highly expected new information, consistently accented words elicited a larger N400 and larger alpha power decreases (8-14 Hz) than inconsistently de-accented words. The results suggest that, during spoken language comprehension, the effect of accentuation interacted with the information retrieved from long-term memory immediately. Moreover, our results also have important consequences for our understanding of the processing nature of the N400. The N400 amplitude is not only enhanced for incorrect information (new and de-accented word) but also enhanced for correct information (new and accented words).

  13. The Influence of the Phonological Neighborhood Clustering-Coefficient on Spoken Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kit Ying; Vitevitch, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Clustering coefficient—a measure derived from the new science of networks—refers to the proportion of phonological neighbors of a target word that are also neighbors of each other. Consider the words bat, hat, and can, all of which are neighbors of the word cat; the words bat and hat are also neighbors of each other. In a perceptual identification task, words with a low clustering coefficient (i.e., few neighbors are neighbors of each other) were more accurately identified than words with a high clustering coefficient (i.e., many neighbors are neighbors of each other). In a lexical decision task, words with a low clustering coefficient were responded to more quickly than words with a high clustering coefficient. These findings suggest that the structure of the lexicon, that is the similarity relationships among neighbors of the target word measured by clustering coefficient, influences lexical access in spoken word recognition. Simulations of the TRACE and Shortlist models of spoken word recognition failed to account for the present findings. A framework for a new model of spoken word recognition is proposed. PMID:19968444

  14. The socially weighted encoding of spoken words: a dual-route approach to speech perception

    PubMed Central

    Sumner, Meghan; Kim, Seung Kyung; King, Ed; McGowan, Kevin B.

    2014-01-01

    Spoken words are highly variable. A single word may never be uttered the same way twice. As listeners, we regularly encounter speakers of different ages, genders, and accents, increasing the amount of variation we face. How listeners understand spoken words as quickly and adeptly as they do despite this variation remains an issue central to linguistic theory. We propose that learned acoustic patterns are mapped simultaneously to linguistic representations and to social representations. In doing so, we illuminate a paradox that results in the literature from, we argue, the focus on representations and the peripheral treatment of word-level phonetic variation. We consider phonetic variation more fully and highlight a growing body of work that is problematic for current theory: words with different pronunciation variants are recognized equally well in immediate processing tasks, while an atypical, infrequent, but socially idealized form is remembered better in the long-term. We suggest that the perception of spoken words is socially weighted, resulting in sparse, but high-resolution clusters of socially idealized episodes that are robust in immediate processing and are more strongly encoded, predicting memory inequality. Our proposal includes a dual-route approach to speech perception in which listeners map acoustic patterns in speech to linguistic and social representations in tandem. This approach makes novel predictions about the extraction of information from the speech signal, and provides a framework with which we can ask new questions. We propose that language comprehension, broadly, results from the integration of both linguistic and social information. PMID:24550851

  15. I Feel You: The Design and Evaluation of a Domotic Affect-Sensitive Spoken Conversational Agent

    PubMed Central

    Lutfi, Syaheerah Lebai; Fernández-Martínez, Fernando; Lorenzo-Trueba, Jaime; Barra-Chicote, Roberto; Montero, Juan Manuel

    2013-01-01

    We describe the work on infusion of emotion into a limited-task autonomous spoken conversational agent situated in the domestic environment, using a need-inspired task-independent emotion model (NEMO). In order to demonstrate the generation of affect through the use of the model, we describe the work of integrating it with a natural-language mixed-initiative HiFi-control spoken conversational agent (SCA). NEMO and the host system communicate externally, removing the need for the Dialog Manager to be modified, as is done in most existing dialog systems, in order to be adaptive. The first part of the paper concerns the integration between NEMO and the host agent. The second part summarizes the work on automatic affect prediction, namely, frustration and contentment, from dialog features, a non-conventional source, in the attempt of moving towards a more user-centric approach. The final part reports the evaluation results obtained from a user study, in which both versions of the agent (non-adaptive and emotionally-adaptive) were compared. The results provide substantial evidences with respect to the benefits of adding emotion in a spoken conversational agent, especially in mitigating users' frustrations and, ultimately, improving their satisfaction. PMID:23945740

  16. Adaptation to Pronunciation Variations in Indonesian Spoken Query-Based Information Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestari, Dessi Puji; Furui, Sadaoki

    Recognition errors of proper nouns and foreign words significantly decrease the performance of ASR-based speech applications such as voice dialing systems, speech summarization, spoken document retrieval, and spoken query-based information retrieval (IR). The reason is that proper nouns and words that come from other languages are usually the most important key words. The loss of such words due to misrecognition in turn leads to a loss of significant information from the speech source. This paper focuses on how to improve the performance of Indonesian ASR by alleviating the problem of pronunciation variation of proper nouns and foreign words (English words in particular). To improve the proper noun recognition accuracy, proper-noun specific acoustic models are created by supervised adaptation using maximum likelihood linear regression (MLLR). To improve English word recognition, the pronunciation of English words contained in the lexicon is fixed by using rule-based English-to-Indonesian phoneme mapping. The effectiveness of the proposed method was confirmed through spoken query based Indonesian IR. We used Inference Network-based (IN-based) IR and compared its results with those of the classical Vector Space Model (VSM) IR, both using a tf-idf weighting schema. Experimental results show that IN-based IR outperforms VSM IR.

  17. I feel you: the design and evaluation of a domotic affect-sensitive spoken conversational agent.

    PubMed

    Lutfi, Syaheerah Lebai; Fernández-Martínez, Fernando; Lorenzo-Trueba, Jaime; Barra-Chicote, Roberto; Montero, Juan Manuel

    2013-01-01

    We describe the work on infusion of emotion into a limited-task autonomous spoken conversational agent situated in the domestic environment, using a need-inspired task-independent emotion model (NEMO). In order to demonstrate the generation of affect through the use of the model, we describe the work of integrating it with a natural-language mixed-initiative HiFi-control spoken conversational agent (SCA). NEMO and the host system communicate externally, removing the need for the Dialog Manager to be modified, as is done in most existing dialog systems, in order to be adaptive. The first part of the paper concerns the integration between NEMO and the host agent. The second part summarizes the work on automatic affect prediction, namely, frustration and contentment, from dialog features, a non-conventional source, in the attempt of moving towards a more user-centric approach. The final part reports the evaluation results obtained from a user study, in which both versions of the agent (non-adaptive and emotionally-adaptive) were compared. The results provide substantial evidences with respect to the benefits of adding emotion in a spoken conversational agent, especially in mitigating users' frustrations and, ultimately, improving their satisfaction. PMID:23945740

  18. How long-term memory and accentuation interact during spoken language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoqing; Yang, Yufang

    2013-04-01

    Spoken language comprehension requires immediate integration of different information types, such as semantics, syntax, and prosody. Meanwhile, both the information derived from speech signals and the information retrieved from long-term memory exert their influence on language comprehension immediately. Using EEG (electroencephalogram), the present study investigated how the information retrieved from long-term memory interacts with accentuation during spoken language comprehension. Mini Chinese discourses were used as stimuli, with an interrogative or assertive context sentence preceding the target sentence. The target sentence included one critical word conveying new information. The critical word was either highly expected or lowly expected given the information retrieved from long-term memory. Moreover, the critical word was either consistently accented or inconsistently de-accented. The results revealed that for lowly expected new information, inconsistently de-accented words elicited a larger N400 and larger theta power increases (4-6 Hz) than consistently accented words. In contrast, for the highly expected new information, consistently accented words elicited a larger N400 and larger alpha power decreases (8-14 Hz) than inconsistently de-accented words. The results suggest that, during spoken language comprehension, the effect of accentuation interacted with the information retrieved from long-term memory immediately. Moreover, our results also have important consequences for our understanding of the processing nature of the N400. The N400 amplitude is not only enhanced for incorrect information (new and de-accented word) but also enhanced for correct information (new and accented words). PMID:23376769

  19. Recognition memory for Braille or spoken words: an fMRI study in early blind.

    PubMed

    Burton, Harold; Sinclair, Robert J; Agato, Alvin

    2012-02-15

    We examined cortical activity in early blind during word recognition memory. Nine participants were blind at birth and one by 1.5years. In an event-related design, we studied blood oxygen level-dependent responses to studied ("old") compared to novel ("new") words. Presentation mode was in Braille or spoken. Responses were larger for identified "new" words read with Braille in bilateral lower and higher tier visual areas and primary somatosensory cortex. Responses to spoken "new" words were larger in bilateral primary and accessory auditory cortex. Auditory cortex was unresponsive to Braille words and occipital cortex responded to spoken words but not differentially with "old"/"new" recognition. Left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex had larger responses to "old" words only with Braille. Larger occipital cortex responses to "new" Braille words suggested verbal memory based on the mechanism of recollection. A previous report in sighted noted larger responses for "new" words studied in association with pictures that created a distinctiveness heuristic source factor which enhanced recollection during remembering. Prior behavioral studies in early blind noted an exceptional ability to recall words. Utilization of this skill by participants in the current study possibly engendered recollection that augmented remembering "old" words. A larger response when identifying "new" words possibly resulted from exhaustive recollecting the sensory properties of "old" words in modality appropriate sensory cortices. The uniqueness of a memory role for occipital cortex is in its cross-modal responses to coding tactile properties of Braille. The latter possibly reflects a "sensory echo" that aids recollection.

  20. I feel you: the design and evaluation of a domotic affect-sensitive spoken conversational agent.

    PubMed

    Lutfi, Syaheerah Lebai; Fernández-Martínez, Fernando; Lorenzo-Trueba, Jaime; Barra-Chicote, Roberto; Montero, Juan Manuel

    2013-08-13

    We describe the work on infusion of emotion into a limited-task autonomous spoken conversational agent situated in the domestic environment, using a need-inspired task-independent emotion model (NEMO). In order to demonstrate the generation of affect through the use of the model, we describe the work of integrating it with a natural-language mixed-initiative HiFi-control spoken conversational agent (SCA). NEMO and the host system communicate externally, removing the need for the Dialog Manager to be modified, as is done in most existing dialog systems, in order to be adaptive. The first part of the paper concerns the integration between NEMO and the host agent. The second part summarizes the work on automatic affect prediction, namely, frustration and contentment, from dialog features, a non-conventional source, in the attempt of moving towards a more user-centric approach. The final part reports the evaluation results obtained from a user study, in which both versions of the agent (non-adaptive and emotionally-adaptive) were compared. The results provide substantial evidences with respect to the benefits of adding emotion in a spoken conversational agent, especially in mitigating users' frustrations and, ultimately, improving their satisfaction.

  1. Semantic Richness Effects in Spoken Word Recognition: A Lexical Decision and Semantic Categorization Megastudy

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Winston D.; Yap, Melvin J.; Lau, Mabel C.; Ng, Melvin M. R.; Tan, Luuan-Chin

    2016-01-01

    A large number of studies have demonstrated that semantic richness dimensions [e.g., number of features, semantic neighborhood density, semantic diversity , concreteness, emotional valence] influence word recognition processes. Some of these richness effects appear to be task-general, while others have been found to vary across tasks. Importantly, almost all of these findings have been found in the visual word recognition literature. To address this gap, we examined the extent to which these semantic richness effects are also found in spoken word recognition, using a megastudy approach that allows for an examination of the relative contribution of the various semantic properties to performance in two tasks: lexical decision, and semantic categorization. The results show that concreteness, valence, and number of features accounted for unique variance in latencies across both tasks in a similar direction—faster responses for spoken words that were concrete, emotionally valenced, and with a high number of features—while arousal, semantic neighborhood density, and semantic diversity did not influence latencies. Implications for spoken word recognition processes are discussed. PMID:27445936

  2. The effect of orthographic form-cuing on the phonological preparation unit in spoken word production.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuchu; Wang, Min; Idsardi, William

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments using the form-preparation paradigm were conducted to investigate the effect of orthographic form-cuing on the phonological preparation unit during spoken word production with native Mandarin speakers. In both experiments, participants were instructed to memorize nine prompt-response monosyllabic word pairs, after which an associative naming session was conducted in which the prompts were presented and participants were asked to say the corresponding response names as quickly and accurately as possible. In both experiments, the response words in the homogeneous lists shared the same onsets, or shared the same rimes; the response names had no common aspects of pronunciation in the heterogeneous lists. Chinese characters (Experiment 1) and Pinyin (phonetic transcription of the characters) (Experiment 2) were used to investigate the effect of the orthographic form. Significant onset facilitation and rime inhibition was shown for Pinyin syllables but not for characters. The contrasts of the onset and rime effect in the two orthographic forms suggest that a specific phonological unit is promoted in spoken word production in a certain orthographic form. Pinyin cued the participants to prepare the onset whereas Chinese characters did not. The rime interference effect may arise as a result of lexical competition in spoken word production. PMID:25398357

  3. Semantic Richness Effects in Spoken Word Recognition: A Lexical Decision and Semantic Categorization Megastudy.

    PubMed

    Goh, Winston D; Yap, Melvin J; Lau, Mabel C; Ng, Melvin M R; Tan, Luuan-Chin

    2016-01-01

    A large number of studies have demonstrated that semantic richness dimensions [e.g., number of features, semantic neighborhood density, semantic diversity , concreteness, emotional valence] influence word recognition processes. Some of these richness effects appear to be task-general, while others have been found to vary across tasks. Importantly, almost all of these findings have been found in the visual word recognition literature. To address this gap, we examined the extent to which these semantic richness effects are also found in spoken word recognition, using a megastudy approach that allows for an examination of the relative contribution of the various semantic properties to performance in two tasks: lexical decision, and semantic categorization. The results show that concreteness, valence, and number of features accounted for unique variance in latencies across both tasks in a similar direction-faster responses for spoken words that were concrete, emotionally valenced, and with a high number of features-while arousal, semantic neighborhood density, and semantic diversity did not influence latencies. Implications for spoken word recognition processes are discussed. PMID:27445936

  4. Orthographic Activation in L2 Spoken Word Recognition Depends on Proficiency: Evidence from Eye-Tracking.

    PubMed

    Veivo, Outi; Järvikivi, Juhani; Porretta, Vincent; Hyönä, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    The use of orthographic and phonological information in spoken word recognition was studied in a visual world task where L1 Finnish learners of L2 French (n = 64) and L1 French native speakers (n = 24) were asked to match spoken word forms with printed words while their eye movements were recorded. In Experiment 1, French target words were contrasted with competitors having a longer ( vs. ) or a shorter word initial phonological overlap ( vs. ) and an identical orthographic overlap. In Experiment 2, target words were contrasted with competitors of either longer ( vs. ) or shorter word initial orthographic overlap ( vs. ) and of an identical phonological overlap. A general phonological effect was observed in the L2 listener group but not in the L1 control group. No general orthographic effects were observed in the L2 or L1 groups, but a significant effect of proficiency was observed for orthographic overlap over time: higher proficiency L2 listeners used also orthographic information in the matching task in a time-window from 400 to 700 ms, whereas no such effect was observed for lower proficiency listeners. These results suggest that the activation of orthographic information in L2 spoken word recognition depends on proficiency in L2. PMID:27512381

  5. Does Discourse Congruence Influence Spoken Language Comprehension before Lexical Association? Evidence from Event-Related Potentials.

    PubMed

    Boudewyn, Megan A; Gordon, Peter C; Long, Debra; Polse, Lara; Swaab, Tamara Y

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this study was to examine how lexical association and discourse congruence affect the time course of processing incoming words in spoken discourse. In an ERP norming study, we presented prime-target pairs in the absence of a sentence context to obtain a baseline measure of lexical priming. We observed a typical N400 effect when participants heard critical associated and unassociated target words in word pairs. In a subsequent experiment, we presented the same word pairs in spoken discourse contexts. Target words were always consistent with the local sentence context, but were congruent or not with the global discourse (e.g., "Luckily Ben had picked up some salt and pepper/basil", preceded by a context in which Ben was preparing marinara sauce (congruent) or dealing with an icy walkway (incongruent). ERP effects of global discourse congruence preceded those of local lexical association, suggesting an early influence of the global discourse representation on lexical processing, even in locally congruent contexts. Furthermore, effects of lexical association occurred earlier in the congruent than incongruent condition. These results differ from those that have been obtained in studies of reading, suggesting that the effects may be unique to spoken word recognition.

  6. Orthographic Activation in L2 Spoken Word Recognition Depends on Proficiency: Evidence from Eye-Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Veivo, Outi; Järvikivi, Juhani; Porretta, Vincent; Hyönä, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    The use of orthographic and phonological information in spoken word recognition was studied in a visual world task where L1 Finnish learners of L2 French (n = 64) and L1 French native speakers (n = 24) were asked to match spoken word forms with printed words while their eye movements were recorded. In Experiment 1, French target words were contrasted with competitors having a longer ( vs. ) or a shorter word initial phonological overlap ( vs. ) and an identical orthographic overlap. In Experiment 2, target words were contrasted with competitors of either longer ( vs. ) or shorter word initial orthographic overlap ( vs. ) and of an identical phonological overlap. A general phonological effect was observed in the L2 listener group but not in the L1 control group. No general orthographic effects were observed in the L2 or L1 groups, but a significant effect of proficiency was observed for orthographic overlap over time: higher proficiency L2 listeners used also orthographic information in the matching task in a time-window from 400 to 700 ms, whereas no such effect was observed for lower proficiency listeners. These results suggest that the activation of orthographic information in L2 spoken word recognition depends on proficiency in L2. PMID:27512381

  7. Spoken word recognition by Latino children learning Spanish as their first language*

    PubMed Central

    HURTADO, NEREYDA; MARCHMAN, VIRGINIA A.; FERNALD, ANNE

    2010-01-01

    Research on the development of efficiency in spoken language understanding has focused largely on middle-class children learning English. Here we extend this research to Spanish-learning children (n=49; M=2;0; range=1;3–3;1) living in the USA in Latino families from primarily low socioeconomic backgrounds. Children looked at pictures of familiar objects while listening to speech naming one of the objects. Analyses of eye movements revealed developmental increases in the efficiency of speech processing. Older children and children with larger vocabularies were more efficient at processing spoken language as it unfolds in real time, as previously documented with English learners. Children whose mothers had less education tended to be slower and less accurate than children of comparable age and vocabulary size whose mothers had more schooling, consistent with previous findings of slower rates of language learning in children from disadvantaged backgrounds. These results add to the cross-linguistic literature on the development of spoken word recognition and to the study of the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) factors on early language development. PMID:17542157

  8. Effects of stimulus variability on perception and representation of spoken words in memory.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, L C; Sommers, M S; Pisoni, D B

    1995-10-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the effects of stimulus variability on the memory representations for spoken words. A serial recall task was used to study the effects of changes in speaking rate, talker variability, and overall amplitude on the initial encoding, rehearsal, and recall of lists of spoken words. Interstimulus interval (ISI) was manipulated to determine the time course and nature of processing. The results indicated that at short ISIs, variations in both talker and speaking rate imposed a processing cost that was reflected in poorer serial recall for the primary portion of word lists. At longer ISIs, however, variation in talker characteristics resulted in improved recall in initial list positions, whereas variation in speaking rate had no effect on recall performance. Amplitude variability had no effect on serial recall across all ISIs. Taken together, these results suggest that encoding of stimulus dimensions such as talker characteristics, speaking rate, and overall amplitude may be the result of distinct perceptual operations. The effects of these sources of stimulus variability in speech are discussed with regard to perceptual saliency, processing demands, and memory representation for spoken words.

  9. Sizing up the competition: quantifying the influence of the mental lexicon on auditory and visual spoken word recognition.

    PubMed

    Strand, Julia F; Sommers, Mitchell S

    2011-09-01

    Much research has explored how spoken word recognition is influenced by the architecture and dynamics of the mental lexicon (e.g., Luce and Pisoni, 1998; McClelland and Elman, 1986). A more recent question is whether the processes underlying word recognition are unique to the auditory domain, or whether visually perceived (lipread) speech may also be sensitive to the structure of the mental lexicon (Auer, 2002; Mattys, Bernstein, and Auer, 2002). The current research was designed to test the hypothesis that both aurally and visually perceived spoken words are isolated in the mental lexicon as a function of their modality-specific perceptual similarity to other words. Lexical competition (the extent to which perceptually similar words influence recognition of a stimulus word) was quantified using metrics that are well-established in the literature, as well as a statistical method for calculating perceptual confusability based on the phi-square statistic. Both auditory and visual spoken word recognition were influenced by modality-specific lexical competition as well as stimulus word frequency. These findings extend the scope of activation-competition models of spoken word recognition and reinforce the hypothesis (Auer, 2002; Mattys et al., 2002) that perceptual and cognitive properties underlying spoken word recognition are not specific to the auditory domain. In addition, the results support the use of the phi-square statistic as a better predictor of lexical competition than metrics currently used in models of spoken word recognition.

  10. [Morphological and functional changes in 3 beta-HSD positive cells in corpora lutea during pregnancy in rats].

    PubMed

    Miyauchi, F; Kato, H; Torigoe, T; Midgley, A R

    1989-05-01

    On days 5, 10, 15 and 20 of pregnancy, rat corpora lutea (CLs) were dissected and dissociated into single cell suspensions by enzyme treatments. To assess 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) activity, a histochemical suspension-staining procedure was used. The number of cells positive for 3 beta-HSD in CL were 148.0 +/- 13.7, 130.1 +/- 25.4, 134.0 +/- 23.5 and 116.8 +/- 13.5 X 10(3) cells on days 5, 10, 15 and 20 of pregnancy, respectively. The 3 beta-HSD positive cells increased in size from 18.5 +/- 0.28 microns on day 5 to 35.7 +/- 0.50 microns on day 20 of pregnancy. The suspended luteal cells were incubated in serum-free DME-F12 for 20 hours with or without human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, 100 ng/ml) or dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP, 10mM) to test their functionality, and progesterone accumulation was determined by radioimmunoassay. Progesterone secretion from the 3 beta-HSD positive cells was maintained at the same levels until day 15 and decreased significantly on day 20 of pregnancy. However the response to hCG stimulation of the 3 beta-HSD positive cells decreased significantly on day 20, the 3 beta-HSD positive cells maintained the same responsiveness to dbcAMP stimulation on progesterone secretion throughout pregnancy. These data suggest that the steroidogenic rat luteal cells may be regulated by morphologically and functionally different mechanisms, and that progesterone may be secreted by at least two different pathways.

  11. Effect of treatment with methylprednisolone on duration of pseudopregnancy and on macrophages and T lymphocytes in rabbit corpora lutea.

    PubMed

    Seiner, S J; Schramm, W; Keyes, P L

    1992-09-01

    The potential role of macrophages and T lymphocytes in the destruction of the corpus luteum at the end of the luteal phase was investigated by treating pseudopregnant rabbits with the immunosuppressant glucocorticoid methylprednisolone. Eleven specific pathogen-free New Zealand White rabbits were injected with pregnant mares' serum gonadotrophin (40 iu, i.m.), followed 2 days later by human chorionic gonadotrophin (40 iu, i.v.) to stimulate ovulation. The following day (day 1 of pseudo-pregnancy) all animals had an oestradiol-filled Silastic capsule implanted s.c., to ensure that oestradiol, the luteotrophic hormone in this species, would not be limiting. From day 10 of pseudopregnancy, three animals were injected with a low dose of methylprednisolone (2 mg kg-1 per day) until day 20. Three other animals were injected with a higher dose of methylprednisolone (20 mg kg-1 per day) from day 13 of pseudopregnancy until day 19. Five animals served as control, vehicle-injected animals. Blood samples were taken at intervals and assayed for progesterone. Immunofluorescence was used to stain luteal tissue for macrophages, T lymphocytes and class II antigens, and positive cells were counted under high-power magnification. Methylprednisolone treatment reduced (by about 70%), but did not eliminate, the macrophages in the regressing corpora lutea. In contrast, the high dose of methylprednisolone essentially eliminated T lymphocytes, and reduced (by about 90%) the number of cells expressing class II antigen in the luteal tissue. Despite the effects of methylprednisolone on these cells, serum progesterone profiles were not altered by treatment with methylprednisolone, and pseudopregnancy was of normal duration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Effect of 2 corpora lutea on blood perfusion, peripheral progesterone, and hepatic steroid-inactivating enzymes in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Voelz, B E; Cline, G F; Hart, C G; Lemley, C O; Larson, J E

    2015-01-01

    The luteal structure that develops postovulation is critical to the facilitation and maintenance of pregnancy in dairy cattle. The objectives of this experiment were to determine if the induction of an accessory corpus luteum (CL), via human chorionic gonadotropin, altered blood perfusion of CL, peripheral concentrations of progesterone, or hepatic steroid-inactivating enzymes. Twenty-eight late-lactation Holstein cows were synchronized using the Ovsynch protocol and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups. Cows received either an injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (1,000IU, i.m.) to induce an accessory CL (cows had exactly 2CL in 1 ovary) or no treatment (cows had exactly 1CL). Corpora lutea were examined daily from d 10 to 18 (d 0 was induced ovulation) via Doppler ultrasonography and a blood sample was collected. Volume of the CL was recorded, as well as images and videos of each CL, which were analyzed for blood perfusion. On d 13, a liver biopsy was performed to analyze hepatic steroid-inactivating enzymes. Cows with 1 or 2CL had similar peripheral concentrations of progesterone. Cows with 2CL had similar luteal volumes to cows with 1CL but cows with 2CL had greater total luteal blood perfusion. Hepatic enzyme [cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A, 3A, and 2C, aldo-keto reductase 1C, and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase] activities did not differ between cows with 1 and 2CL. Overall, the observed increase in total luteal blood perfusion in cows with 2CL did not correspond to differences in peripheral concentrations of progesterone or clearance of progesterone measured by the hepatic enzyme activity. This could indicate that induction of an accessory CL would not affect concentrations of progesterone necessary to maintain pregnancy.

  13. Adult Speakers' Tongue-Palate Contact Patterns for Bilabial Stops within Complex Clusters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zharkova, Natalia; Schaeffler, Sonja; Gibbon, Fiona E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies using Electropalatography (EPG) have shown that individuals with speech disorders sometimes produce articulation errors that affect bilabial targets, but currently there is limited normative data available. In this study, EPG and acoustic data were recorded during complex word final sps clusters spoken by 20 normal adults. A total…

  14. Discrimination Skills Predict Effective Preference Assessment Methods for Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, May S. H.; Nguyen, Duong; Yu, C. T.; Thorsteinsson, Jennifer R.; Martin, Toby L.; Martin, Garry L.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the relationship between three discrimination skills (visual, visual matching-to-sample, and auditory-visual) and four stimulus modalities (object, picture, spoken, and video) in assessing preferences of leisure activities for 7 adults with developmental disabilities. Three discrimination skills were measured using the Assessment of…

  15. Comparative metabolism of branched-chain amino acids to precursors of juvenile hormone biogenesis in corpora allata of lepidopterous versus nonlepidopterous insects

    SciTech Connect

    Brindle, P.A.; Schooley, D.A.; Tsai, L.W.; Baker, F.C.

    1988-08-05

    Comparative studies were performed on the role of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis using several lepidopterous and nonlepidopterous insects. Corpora cardiaca-corpora allata complexes (CC-CA, the corpora allata being the organ of JH biogenesis) were maintained in culture medium containing a uniformly /sup 14/C-labeled BCAA, together with (methyl-/sup 3/H)methionine as mass marker for JH quantification. BCAA catabolism was quantified by directly analyzing the medium for the presence of /sup 14/C-labeled propionate and/or acetate, while JHs were extracted, purified by liquid chromatography, and subjected to double-label liquid scintillation counting. Our results indicate that active BCAA catabolism occurs within the CC-CA of lepidopterans, and this efficiently provides propionyl-CoA (from isoleucine or valine) for the biosynthesis of the ethyl branches of JH I and II. Acetyl-CoA, formed from isoleucine or leucine catabolism, is also utilized by lepidopteran CC-CA for biosynthesizing JH III and the acetate-derived portions of the ethyl-branched JHs. In contrast, CC-CA of nonlepidopterans fail to catabolize BCAA. Consequently, exogenous isoleucine or leucine does not serve as a carbon source for the biosynthesis of JH III by these glands, and no propionyl-CoA is produced for genesis of ethyl-branched JHs. This is the first observation of a tissue-specific metabolic difference which in part explains why these novel homosesquiterpenoids exist in lepidopterans, but not in nonlepidopterans.

  16. Dose-Volume Parameters of the Corpora Cavernosa Do Not Correlate With Erectile Dysfunction After External Beam Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer: Results From a Dose-Escalation Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Wielen, Gerard J. van der Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Dohle, Gert R.; Putten, Wim L.J. van; Incrocci, Luca

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: To analyze the correlation between dose-volume parameters of the corpora cavernosa and erectile dysfunction (ED) after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between June 1997 and February 2003, a randomized dose-escalation trial comparing 68 Gy and 78 Gy was conducted. Patients at our institute were asked to participate in an additional part of the trial evaluating sexual function. After exclusion of patients with less than 2 years of follow-up, ED at baseline, or treatment with hormonal therapy, 96 patients were eligible. The proximal corpora cavernosa (crura), the superiormost 1-cm segment of the crura, and the penile bulb were contoured on the planning computed tomography scan and dose-volume parameters were calculated. Results: Two years after EBRT, 35 of the 96 patients had developed ED. No statistically significant correlations between ED 2 years after EBRT and dose-volume parameters of the crura, the superiormost 1-cm segment of the crura, or the penile bulb were found. The few patients using potency aids typically indicated to have ED. Conclusion: No correlation was found between ED after EBRT for prostate cancer and radiation dose to the crura or penile bulb. The present study is the largest study evaluating the correlation between ED and radiation dose to the corpora cavernosa after EBRT for prostate cancer. Until there is clear evidence that sparing the penile bulb or crura will reduce ED after EBRT, we advise to be careful in sparing these structures, especially when this involves reducing treatment margins.

  17. Symbolic gestures and spoken language are processed by a common neural system.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiang; Gannon, Patrick J; Emmorey, Karen; Smith, Jason F; Braun, Allen R

    2009-12-01

    Symbolic gestures, such as pantomimes that signify actions (e.g., threading a needle) or emblems that facilitate social transactions (e.g., finger to lips indicating "be quiet"), play an important role in human communication. They are autonomous, can fully take the place of words, and function as complete utterances in their own right. The relationship between these gestures and spoken language remains unclear. We used functional MRI to investigate whether these two forms of communication are processed by the same system in the human brain. Responses to symbolic gestures, to their spoken glosses (expressing the gestures' meaning in English), and to visually and acoustically matched control stimuli were compared in a randomized block design. General Linear Models (GLM) contrasts identified shared and unique activations and functional connectivity analyses delineated regional interactions associated with each condition. Results support a model in which bilateral modality-specific areas in superior and inferior temporal cortices extract salient features from vocal-auditory and gestural-visual stimuli respectively. However, both classes of stimuli activate a common, left-lateralized network of inferior frontal and posterior temporal regions in which symbolic gestures and spoken words may be mapped onto common, corresponding conceptual representations. We suggest that these anterior and posterior perisylvian areas, identified since the mid-19th century as the core of the brain's language system, are not in fact committed to language processing, but may function as a modality-independent semiotic system that plays a broader role in human communication, linking meaning with symbols whether these are words, gestures, images, sounds, or objects. PMID:19923436

  18. Syllable frequency and word frequency effects in spoken and written word production in a non-alphabetic script

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingfang; Wang, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The effects of word frequency (WF) and syllable frequency (SF) are well-established phenomena in domain such as spoken production in alphabetic languages. Chinese, as a non-alphabetic language, presents unique lexical and phonological properties in speech production. For example, the proximate unit of phonological encoding is syllable in Chinese but segments in Dutch, French or English. The present study investigated the effects of WF and SF, and their interaction in Chinese written and spoken production. Significant facilitatory WF and SF effects were observed in spoken as well as in written production. The SF effect in writing indicated that phonological properties (i.e., syllabic frequency) constrain orthographic output via a lexical route, at least, in Chinese written production. However, the SF effect over repetitions was divergent in both modalities: it was significant in the former two repetitions in spoken whereas it was significant in the second repetition only in written. Due to the fragility of the SF effect in writing, we suggest that the phonological influence in handwritten production is not mandatory and universal, and it is modulated by experimental manipulations. This provides evidence for the orthographic autonomy hypothesis, rather than the phonological mediation hypothesis. The absence of an interaction between WF and SF showed that the SF effect is independent of the WF effect in spoken and written output modalities. The implications of these results on written production models are discussed. PMID:24600420

  19. Lexical effects on spoken word recognition in children with normal hearing a

    PubMed Central

    Krull, Vidya; Choi, Sangsook; Kirk, Karen Iler; Prusick, Lindsay; French, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Summary This paper outlines the development of a theoretically-motivated sentence recognition test for children. Previous sentence tests such as the Lexical Neighborhood Test and the Multisyllabic Lexical Neighborhood Test examined lexical effects on children's recognition of words. In previous studies related to their test development, lexical characteristics were confounded. This study examines independent effects of word frequency and lexical density on a new test of spoken word recognition in children. Results show that word frequency and lexical density influence word recognition both independently, and in combination. Lexical density appears to be more heavily weighted than word frequency in children. PMID:19701087

  20. Effects of word frequency, contextual diversity, and semantic distinctiveness on spoken word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Brendan T.; Gruenenfelder, Thomas M.; Pisoni, David B.; Jones, Michael N.

    2012-01-01

    The relative abilities of word frequency, contextual diversity, and semantic distinctiveness to predict accuracy of spoken word recognition in noise were compared using two data sets. Word frequency is the number of times a word appears in a corpus of text. Contextual diversity is the number of different documents in which the word appears in that corpus. Semantic distinctiveness takes into account the number of different semantic contexts in which the word appears. Semantic distinctiveness and contextual diversity were both able to explain variance above and beyond that explained by word frequency, which by itself explained little unique variance. PMID:22894319

  1. Copula filtration of spoken language signals on the background of acoustic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolchenko, Lilia V.; Sinitsyn, Rustem B.

    2010-09-01

    This paper is devoted to the filtration of acoustic signals on the background of acoustic noise. Signal filtering is done with the help of a nonlinear analogue of a correlation function - a copula. The copula is estimated with the help of kernel estimates of the cumulative distribution function. At the second stage we suggest a new procedure of adaptive filtering. The silence and sound intervals are detected before the filtration with the help of nonparametric algorithm. The results are confirmed by experimental processing of spoken language signals.

  2. Phonological Neighborhood Effects in Spoken Word Production: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Peramunage, D.; Blumstein, S. E.; Myers, E.B.; Goldrick, M.; Baese-Berk, M.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the neural systems underlying lexically conditioned phonetic variation in spoken word production. Participants were asked to read aloud singly presented words which either had a voiced minimal pair (MP) neighbor (e.g. cape) or lacked a minimal pair (NMP) neighbor (e.g. cake). The voiced neighbor never appeared in the stimulus set. Behavioral results showed longer voice-onset time for MP target words, replicating earlier behavioral results (Baese-Berk & Goldrick, 2009). fMRI results revealed reduced activation for MP words compared to NMP words in a network including the left posterior superior temporal gyrus, the supramarginal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and precentral gyrus. These findings support cascade models of spoken word production and show that neural activation at the lexical level modulates activation in those brain regions involved in lexical selection, phonological planning, and ultimately motor plans for production. The facilitatory effects for words with minimal pair neighbors suggest that competition effects reflect the overlap inherent in the phonological representation of the target word and its minimal pair neighbor. PMID:20350185

  3. [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] Spoken Word Processing: Evidence from Divided Attention Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Shafiee Nahrkhalaji, Saeedeh; Lotfi, Ahmad Reza; Koosha, Mansour

    2016-10-01

    The present study aims to reveal some facts concerning first language ([Formula: see text] and second language ([Formula: see text] spoken-word processing in unbalanced proficient bilinguals using behavioral measures. The intention here is to examine the effects of auditory repetition word priming and semantic priming in first and second languages of these bilinguals. The other goal is to explore the effects of attention manipulation on implicit retrieval of perceptual and conceptual properties of spoken [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] words. In so doing, the participants performed auditory word priming and semantic priming as memory tests in their [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. In a half of the trials of each experiment, they carried out the memory test while simultaneously performing a secondary task in visual modality. The results revealed that effects of auditory word priming and semantic priming were present when participants processed [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] words in full attention condition. Attention manipulation could reduce priming magnitude in both experiments in [Formula: see text]. Moreover, [Formula: see text] word retrieval increases the reaction times and reduces accuracy on the simultaneous secondary task to protect its own accuracy and speed.

  4. Experimentally-induced Increases in Early Gesture Lead to Increases in Spoken Vocabulary

    PubMed Central

    LeBarton, Eve Sauer; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Raudenbush, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Differences in vocabulary that children bring with them to school can be traced back to the gestures they produce at 1;2, which, in turn, can be traced back to the gestures their parents produce at the same age (Rowe & Goldin-Meadow, 2009b). We ask here whether child gesture can be experimentally increased and, if so, whether the increases lead to increases in spoken vocabulary. Fifteen children aged 1;5 participated in an 8-week at-home intervention study (6 weekly training sessions plus follow-up 2 weeks later) in which all were exposed to object words, but only some were told to point at the named objects. Before each training session and at follow-up, children interacted naturally with caregivers to establish a baseline against which changes in communication were measured. Children who were told to gesture increased the number of gesture meanings they conveyed, not only during training but also during interactions with caregivers. These experimentally-induced increases in gesture led to larger spoken repertoires at follow-up. PMID:26120283

  5. Positive Emotional Language in the Final Words Spoken Directly Before Execution

    PubMed Central

    Hirschmüller, Sarah; Egloff, Boris

    2016-01-01

    How do individuals emotionally cope with the imminent real-world salience of mortality? DeWall and Baumeister as well as Kashdan and colleagues previously provided support that an increased use of positive emotion words serves as a way to protect and defend against mortality salience of one’s own contemplated death. Although these studies provide important insights into the psychological dynamics of mortality salience, it remains an open question how individuals cope with the immense threat of mortality prior to their imminent actual death. In the present research, we therefore analyzed positivity in the final words spoken immediately before execution by 407 death row inmates in Texas. By using computerized quantitative text analysis as an objective measure of emotional language use, our results showed that the final words contained a significantly higher proportion of positive than negative emotion words. This emotional positivity was significantly higher than (a) positive emotion word usage base rates in spoken and written materials and (b) positive emotional language use with regard to contemplated death and attempted or actual suicide. Additional analyses showed that emotional positivity in final statements was associated with a greater frequency of language use that was indicative of self-references, social orientation, and present-oriented time focus as well as with fewer instances of cognitive-processing, past-oriented, and death-related word use. Taken together, our findings offer new insights into how individuals cope with the imminent real-world salience of mortality. PMID:26793135

  6. Brain-to-text: decoding spoken phrases from phone representations in the brain.

    PubMed

    Herff, Christian; Heger, Dominic; de Pesters, Adriana; Telaar, Dominic; Brunner, Peter; Schalk, Gerwin; Schultz, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    It has long been speculated whether communication between humans and machines based on natural speech related cortical activity is possible. Over the past decade, studies have suggested that it is feasible to recognize isolated aspects of speech from neural signals, such as auditory features, phones or one of a few isolated words. However, until now it remained an unsolved challenge to decode continuously spoken speech from the neural substrate associated with speech and language processing. Here, we show for the first time that continuously spoken speech can be decoded into the expressed words from intracranial electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings.Specifically, we implemented a system, which we call Brain-To-Text that models single phones, employs techniques from automatic speech recognition (ASR), and thereby transforms brain activity while speaking into the corresponding textual representation. Our results demonstrate that our system can achieve word error rates as low as 25% and phone error rates below 50%. Additionally, our approach contributes to the current understanding of the neural basis of continuous speech production by identifying those cortical regions that hold substantial information about individual phones. In conclusion, the Brain-To-Text system described in this paper represents an important step toward human-machine communication based on imagined speech. PMID:26124702

  7. Modeling Longitudinal Changes in Older Adults’ Memory for Spoken Discourse: Findings from the ACTIVE Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Brennan R.; Gross, Alden L.; Parisi, Jeanine M.; Sisco, Shannon M.; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A. L.; Marsiske, Michael; Rebok, George W.

    2014-01-01

    Episodic memory shows substantial declines with advancing age, but research on longitudinal trajectories of spoken discourse memory (SDM) in older adulthood is limited. Using parallel process latent growth curve models, we examined 10 years of longitudinal data from the no-contact control group (N = 698) of the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) randomized controlled trial in order to test (a) the degree to which SDM declines with advancing age, (b) predictors of these age-related declines, and (c) the within-person relationship between longitudinal changes in SDM and longitudinal changes in fluid reasoning and verbal ability over 10 years, independent of age. Individuals who were younger, White, had more years of formal education, were male, and had better global cognitive function and episodic memory performance at baseline demonstrated greater levels of SDM on average. However, only age at baseline uniquely predicted longitudinal changes in SDM, such that declines accelerated with greater age. Independent of age, within-person decline in reasoning ability over the 10-year study period was substantially correlated with decline in SDM (r = .87). An analogous association with SDM did not hold for verbal ability. The findings suggest that longitudinal declines in fluid cognition are associated with reduced spoken language comprehension. Unlike findings from memory for written prose, preserved verbal ability may not protect against developmental declines in memory for speech. PMID:24304364

  8. Accessing characters in spoken Chinese disyllables: An ERP study on the resolution of auditory ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuqian; Huang, Guoliang; Huang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Chinese differs from most Indo-European languages in its phonological, lexical, and syntactic structures. One of its unique properties is the abundance of homophones at the monosyllabic/morphemic level, with the consequence that monosyllabic homophones are all ambiguous in speech perception. Two-morpheme Chinese words can be composed of two high homophone-density morphemes (HH words), two low homophone-density morphemes (LL words), or one high and one low homophone-density morphemes (LH or HL words). The assumption of a simple inhibitory homophone effect is called into question in the case of disyllabic spoken word recognition, in which the recognition of one morpheme is affected by semantic information given by the other. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to trace on-line competitions among morphemic homophones in accessing Chinese disyllables. Results showing significant differences in ERP amplitude when comparing LL and LH words, but not when comparing LL and HL words, suggested that the first morpheme cannot be accessed without feedback from the second morpheme. Most importantly, analyses of N400 amplitude among different densities showed a converse homophone effect in which LL words, rather than LH or HL words, triggered larger N400. These findings provide strong evidence of a dynamic integration system at work during spoken Chinese disyllable recognition. PMID:26589544

  9. Learning and consolidation of new spoken words in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Lisa; Powell, Anna; Gareth Gaskell, M; Norbury, Courtenay

    2014-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by rich heterogeneity in vocabulary knowledge and word knowledge that is not well accounted for by current cognitive theories. This study examines whether individual differences in vocabulary knowledge in ASD might be partly explained by a difficulty with consolidating newly learned spoken words and/or integrating them with existing knowledge. Nineteen boys with ASD and 19 typically developing (TD) boys matched on age and vocabulary knowledge showed similar improvements in recognition and recall of novel words (e.g. 'biscal') 24 hours after training, suggesting an intact ability to consolidate explicit knowledge of new spoken word forms. TD children showed competition effects for existing neighbors (e.g. 'biscuit') after 24 hours, suggesting that the new words had been integrated with existing knowledge over time. In contrast, children with ASD showed immediate competition effects that were not significant after 24 hours, suggesting a qualitative difference in the time course of lexical integration. These results are considered from the perspective of the dual-memory systems framework.

  10. Causal Influence of Articulatory Motor Cortex on Comprehending Single Spoken Words: TMS Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Schomers, Malte R.; Kirilina, Evgeniya; Weigand, Anne; Bajbouj, Malek; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2015-01-01

    Classic wisdom had been that motor and premotor cortex contribute to motor execution but not to higher cognition and language comprehension. In contrast, mounting evidence from neuroimaging, patient research, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) suggest sensorimotor interaction and, specifically, that the articulatory motor cortex is important for classifying meaningless speech sounds into phonemic categories. However, whether these findings speak to the comprehension issue is unclear, because language comprehension does not require explicit phonemic classification and previous results may therefore relate to factors alien to semantic understanding. We here used the standard psycholinguistic test of spoken word comprehension, the word-to-picture-matching task, and concordant TMS to articulatory motor cortex. TMS pulses were applied to primary motor cortex controlling either the lips or the tongue as subjects heard critical word stimuli starting with bilabial lip-related or alveolar tongue-related stop consonants (e.g., “pool” or “tool”). A significant cross-over interaction showed that articulatory motor cortex stimulation delayed comprehension responses for phonologically incongruent words relative to congruous ones (i.e., lip area TMS delayed “tool” relative to “pool” responses). As local TMS to articulatory motor areas differentially delays the comprehension of phonologically incongruous spoken words, we conclude that motor systems can take a causal role in semantic comprehension and, hence, higher cognition. PMID:25452575

  11. Psycholinguistic norms for action photographs in French and their relationships with spoken and written latencies.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Patrick; Boyer, Bruno; Méot, Alain; Fayol, Michel; Droit, Sylvie

    2004-02-01

    A set of 142 photographs of actions (taken from Fiez & Tranel, 1997) was standardized in French on name agreement, image agreement, conceptual familiarity, visual complexity, imageability, age of acquisition, and duration of the depicted actions. Objective word frequency measures were provided for the infinitive modal forms of the verbs and for the cumulative frequency of the verbal forms associated with the photographs. Statistics on the variables collected for action items were provided and compared with the statistics on the same variables collected for object items. The relationships between these variables were analyzed, and certain comparisons between the current database and other similar published databases of pictures of actions are reported. Spoken and written naming latencies were also collected for the photographs of actions, and multiple regression analyses revealed that name agreement, image agreement, and age of acquisition are the major determinants of action naming speed. Finally, certain analyses were performed to compare object and action naming times. The norms and the spoken and written naming latencies corresponding to the pictures are available on the Internet (http://www.psy.univ-bpclermont.fr/~pbonin/pbonin-eng.html) and should be of great use to researchers interested in the processing of actions. PMID:15190708

  12. Task modulation of disyllabic spoken word recognition in Mandarin Chinese: a unimodal ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xianjun; Yang, Jin-Chen; Chang, Ruohan; Guo, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    Using unimodal auditory tasks of word-matching and meaning-matching, this study investigated how the phonological and semantic processes in Chinese disyllabic spoken word recognition are modulated by top-down mechanism induced by experimental tasks. Both semantic similarity and word-initial phonological similarity between the primes and targets were manipulated. Results showed that at early stage of recognition (~150–250 ms), an enhanced P2 was elicited by the word-initial phonological mismatch in both tasks. In ~300–500 ms, a fronto-central negative component was elicited by word-initial phonological similarities in the word-matching task, while a parietal negativity was elicited by semantically unrelated primes in the meaning-matching task, indicating that both the semantic and phonological processes can be involved in this time window, depending on the task requirements. In the late stage (~500–700 ms), a centro-parietal Late N400 was elicited in both tasks, but with a larger effect in the meaning-matching task than in the word-matching task. This finding suggests that the semantic representation of the spoken words can be activated automatically in the late stage of recognition, even when semantic processing is not required. However, the magnitude of the semantic activation is modulated by task requirements. PMID:27180951

  13. Brain-to-text: decoding spoken phrases from phone representations in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Herff, Christian; Heger, Dominic; de Pesters, Adriana; Telaar, Dominic; Brunner, Peter; Schalk, Gerwin; Schultz, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    It has long been speculated whether communication between humans and machines based on natural speech related cortical activity is possible. Over the past decade, studies have suggested that it is feasible to recognize isolated aspects of speech from neural signals, such as auditory features, phones or one of a few isolated words. However, until now it remained an unsolved challenge to decode continuously spoken speech from the neural substrate associated with speech and language processing. Here, we show for the first time that continuously spoken speech can be decoded into the expressed words from intracranial electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings.Specifically, we implemented a system, which we call Brain-To-Text that models single phones, employs techniques from automatic speech recognition (ASR), and thereby transforms brain activity while speaking into the corresponding textual representation. Our results demonstrate that our system can achieve word error rates as low as 25% and phone error rates below 50%. Additionally, our approach contributes to the current understanding of the neural basis of continuous speech production by identifying those cortical regions that hold substantial information about individual phones. In conclusion, the Brain-To-Text system described in this paper represents an important step toward human-machine communication based on imagined speech. PMID:26124702

  14. Horizontal flow of semantic and phonological information in Chinese spoken sentence production.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-Chen; Yang, Yu-Fang

    2008-01-01

    A variant of the picture-word interference paradigm was used in three experiments to investigate the horizontal information flow of semantic and phonological information between nouns in spoken Mandarin Chinese sentences. Experiment 1 demonstrated that there is a semantic interference effect when the word in the second phrase (N3) and the first noun in the initial phrase (N1) are semantically related, while there is no effect when N3 and the second noun in the initial phrase (N2) are semantically related. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that there is a phonological facilitation effect only when the two phonologically related words are both in the initial phrase, and there is no effect when they are in different phrases. Reinforcing the findings of an earlier study of horizontal information flow by Smith and Wheeldon (2004), our results indicate that there is a temporal overlap in the access of the nouns in spoken Mandarin Chinese sentences and a flow of semantic and phonological information between these nouns. Moreover, our results are incompatible with a wholly parallel view of horizontal information flow and instead provide support for a view which is partly serial and partly parallel in nature. PMID:19626927

  15. Prosodic evaluation of accent distributions in spoken news bulletins of Flemish newsreaders.

    PubMed

    Swerts, Marc; Marsi, Erwin

    2012-10-01

    The current article describes research on whether the goodness of a particular speaking style correlates with the way speakers distribute pitch accents in their speech. Study 1 analyzed two Flemish newsreaders, who, according to poll ratings, had previously been judged to represent a good vs bad speaker. A perception study in which participants had to assess the quality of spoken paragraphs produced by either of the two speakers confirmed that one speaker was rated as significantly and consistently better than the other one. An exploration of the accent distributions in those paragraphs showed that the accent distributions of the better speaker were more similar to the ones of a gold standard, i.e., the accent distributions as predicted by two independent intonation experts. Study 2 compared synthetic versions of a selection of the paragraphs of study 1, generated by a Dutch text-to-speech system. It compared three basically identical versions of the texts, except that they had different accent distributions according to the gold standard, or to distributions as observed in the productions of the two newsreaders. A perception study revealed that the versions of the bad speaker were rated as being significantly worse than the other versions. The two studies thus show that variation in accent distribution can indeed affect the way spoken texts are assessed in terms of their perceived quality. PMID:23039454

  16. Brain basis of phonological awareness for spoken language in children and its disruption in dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Kovelman, Ioulia; Norton, Elizabeth S; Christodoulou, Joanna A; Gaab, Nadine; Lieberman, Daniel A; Triantafyllou, Christina; Wolf, Maryanne; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gabrieli, John D E

    2012-04-01

    Phonological awareness, knowledge that speech is composed of syllables and phonemes, is critical for learning to read. Phonological awareness precedes and predicts successful transition from language to literacy, and weakness in phonological awareness is a leading cause of dyslexia, but the brain basis of phonological awareness for spoken language in children is unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural correlates of phonological awareness using an auditory word-rhyming task in children who were typical readers or who had dyslexia (ages 7-13) and a younger group of kindergarteners (ages 5-6). Typically developing children, but not children with dyslexia, recruited left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) when making explicit phonological judgments. Kindergarteners, who were matched to the older children with dyslexia on standardized tests of phonological awareness, also recruited left DLPFC. Left DLPFC may play a critical role in the development of phonological awareness for spoken language critical for reading and in the etiology of dyslexia. PMID:21693783

  17. Electrophysiological Correlates of Emotional Content and Volume Level in Spoken Word Processing

    PubMed Central

    Grass, Annika; Bayer, Mareike; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2016-01-01

    For visual stimuli of emotional content as pictures and written words, stimulus size has been shown to increase emotion effects in the early posterior negativity (EPN), a component of event-related potentials (ERPs) indexing attention allocation during visual sensory encoding. In the present study, we addressed the question whether this enhanced relevance of larger (visual) stimuli might generalize to the auditory domain and whether auditory emotion effects are modulated by volume. Therefore, subjects were listening to spoken words with emotional or neutral content, played at two different volume levels, while ERPs were recorded. Negative emotional content led to an increased frontal positivity and parieto-occipital negativity—a scalp distribution similar to the EPN—between ~370 and 530 ms. Importantly, this emotion-related ERP component was not modulated by differences in volume level, which impacted early auditory processing, as reflected in increased amplitudes of the N1 (80–130 ms) and P2 (130–265 ms) components as hypothesized. However, contrary to effects of stimulus size in the visual domain, volume level did not influence later ERP components. These findings indicate modality-specific and functionally independent processing triggered by emotional content of spoken words and volume level. PMID:27458359

  18. The Hebrew CHILDES corpus: transcription and morphological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Aviad; MacWhinney, Brian; Nir, Bracha

    2014-01-01

    We present a corpus of transcribed spoken Hebrew that reflects spoken interactions between children and adults. The corpus is an integral part of the CHILDES database, which distributes similar corpora for over 25 languages. We introduce a dedicated transcription scheme for the spoken Hebrew data that is sensitive to both the phonology and the standard orthography of the language. We also introduce a morphological analyzer that was specifically developed for this corpus. The analyzer adequately covers the entire corpus, producing detailed correct analyses for all tokens. Evaluation on a new corpus reveals high coverage as well. Finally, we describe a morphological disambiguation module that selects the correct analysis of each token in context. The result is a high-quality morphologically-annotated CHILDES corpus of Hebrew, along with a set of tools that can be applied to new corpora. PMID:25419199

  19. The Activation of Embedded Words in Spoken Word Identification Is Robust but Constrained: Evidence from the Picture-Word Interference Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Davis, Colin J.; Mattys, Sven L.; Damian, Markus F.; Hanley, Derek

    2009-01-01

    Three picture-word interference (PWI) experiments assessed the extent to which embedded subset words are activated during the identification of spoken superset words (e.g., "bone" in "trombone"). Participants named aloud pictures (e.g., "brain") while spoken distractors were presented. In the critical condition, superset distractors contained a…

  20. "We Communicated That Way for a Reason": Language Practices and Language Ideologies among Hearing Adults Whose Parents Are Deaf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizer, Ginger; Walters, Keith; Meier, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Families with deaf parents and hearing children are often bilingual and bimodal, with both a spoken language and a signed one in regular use among family members. When interviewed, 13 American hearing adults with deaf parents reported widely varying language practices, sign language abilities, and social affiliations with Deaf and Hearing…

  1. The Development and Validation of the "Academic Spoken English Strategies Survey (ASESS)" for Non-Native English Speaking Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Rui M.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the three-year development and validation of a new assessment tool--the Academic Spoken English Strategies Survey (ASESS). The questionnaire is the first of its kind to assess the listening and speaking strategy use of non-native English speaking (NNES) graduate students. A combination of sources was used to develop the…

  2. Defining Spoken Language Benchmarks and Selecting Measures of Expressive Language Development for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Rogers, Sally; Cooper, Judith; Landa, Rebecca; Lord, Catherine; Paul, Rhea; Rice, Mabel; Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Wetherby, Amy; Yoder, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this article are twofold: (a) to offer a set of recommended measures that can be used for evaluating the efficacy of interventions that target spoken language acquisition as part of treatment research studies or for use in applied settings and (b) to propose and define a common terminology for describing levels of spoken…

  3. Building Language Blocks in L2 Japanese: Chunk Learning and the Development of Complexity and Fluency in Spoken Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2008-01-01

    This pilot study examined the development of complexity and fluency of second language (L2) spoken production among L2 learners who received extensive practice on grammatical chunks as constituent units of discourse. Twenty-two students enrolled in an elementary Japanese course at a U.S. university received classroom instruction on 40 grammatical…

  4. Teaching Pragmatic Awareness of Spoken Requests to Chinese EAP Learners in the UK: Is Explicit Instruction Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halenko, Nicola; Jones, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of explicit interventional treatment on developing pragmatic awareness and production of spoken requests in an EAP context (taken here to mean those studying/using English for academic purposes in the UK) with Chinese learners of English at a British higher education institution. The study employed…

  5. The Sociolinguistics of Variety Identification and Categorisation: Free Classification of Varieties of Spoken English Amongst Non-Linguist Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the examination of non-linguists' evaluations of different speech varieties, in recent years sociolinguists and sociophoneticians have afforded greater attention towards the ways in which naïve listeners perceive, process, and encode spoken language variation, including the identification of language varieties as regionally or…

  6. Implementing directives that involve prepositions with children with autism: a comparison of spoken cues with two types of augmented input.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Ralf W; Laubscher, Emily; Sorce, James; Koul, Rajinder; Flynn, Suzanne; Hotz, Lindsy; Abramson, Jennifer; Fadie, Holly; Shane, Howard

    2013-06-01

    Some children with autism face considerable challenges with comprehension, including difficulties following spoken directives involving prepositional relations. The use of augmented input through visual modalities might be an effective means for supplementing spoken language. The purpose of this preliminary study was to compare spoken input with two augmented input modalities (i.e., speech + visual cues) in terms of children's ability to follow directives involving prepositions. The augmented input modalities consisted of static scene cues (i.e., photographic or pictorial visual scenes that portray relevant concepts and their relationships) and dynamic scene cues (i.e., full-motion video clips that depict the actions underlying relevant concepts and their relationships). A within-subjects design involving nine children with autism or pervasive developmental disorders-not otherwise specified was used to examine the effectiveness of the three input conditions. Results indicated that both static scene cues and dynamic scene cues were more effective than spoken cues, but there were no differences between static scene cues and dynamic scene cues. Results are discussed in terms of appropriate instructional inputs for children with autism. Limitations are noted and directions for future research are posited.

  7. Predictors of Early Reading Skill in 5-Year-Old Children with Hearing Loss Who Use Spoken Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the concurrent association between early reading skills and phonological awareness (PA), print knowledge, language, cognitive, and demographic variables in 101 five-Year-Old Children with prelingual hearing losses ranging from mild to profound who communicated primarily via spoken language. All participants were fitted…

  8. Assessing Multimodal Spoken Word-in-Sentence Recognition in Children with Normal Hearing and Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Rachael Frush; Kirk, Karen Iler; Hay-McCutcheon, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine multimodal spoken word-in-sentence recognition in children. Method: Two experiments were undertaken. In Experiment 1, the youngest age with which the multimodal sentence recognition materials could be used was evaluated. In Experiment 2, lexical difficulty and presentation modality effects were examined, along with test-retest…

  9. L[subscript 1] and L[subscript 2] Spoken Word Processing: Evidence from Divided Attention Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiee Nahrkhalaji, Saeedeh; Lotfi, Ahmad Reza; Koosha, Mansour

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to reveal some facts concerning first language (L[subscript 1]) and second language (L[subscript 2]) spoken-word processing in unbalanced proficient bilinguals using behavioral measures. The intention here is to examine the effects of auditory repetition word priming and semantic priming in first and second languages of…

  10. The Spoken Language of Disadvantaged Children in Israel--A Look at Some Pragmatic Strategies of Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheintuch, Gloria

    1981-01-01

    The spoken language of Israeli children from various socioeconomic and ethnic groups was compared in terms of pragmatic strategies of communication in order to evaluate whether disadvantaged children were linguistically deficient. Interviews were conducted with a sample of 11- and 12-year-old children from privileged and disadvantaged backgrounds.…

  11. Word Detection in Sung and Spoken Sentences in Children With Typical Language Development or With Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Planchou, Clément; Clément, Sylvain; Béland, Renée; Cason, Nia; Motte, Jacques; Samson, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have reported that children score better in language tasks using sung rather than spoken stimuli. We examined word detection ease in sung and spoken sentences that were equated for phoneme duration and pitch variations in children aged 7 to 12 years with typical language development (TLD) as well as in children with specific language impairment (SLI ), and hypothesized that the facilitation effect would vary with language abilities. Method: In Experiment 1, 69 children with TLD (7–10 years old) detected words in sentences that were spoken, sung on pitches extracted from speech, and sung on original scores. In Experiment 2, we added a natural speech rate condition and tested 68 children with TLD (7–12 years old). In Experiment 3, 16 children with SLI and 16 age-matched children with TLD were tested in all four conditions. Results: In both TLD groups, older children scored better than the younger ones. The matched TLD group scored higher than the SLI group who scored at the level of the younger children with TLD . None of the experiments showed a facilitation effect of sung over spoken stimuli. Conclusions: Word detection abilities improved with age in both TLD and SLI groups. Our findings are compatible with the hypothesis of delayed language abilities in children with SLI , and are discussed in light of the role of durational prosodic cues in words detection. PMID:26767070

  12. Does It Really Matter whether Students' Contributions Are Spoken versus Typed in an Intelligent Tutoring System with Natural Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Mello, Sidney K.; Dowell, Nia; Graesser, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    There is the question of whether learning differs when students speak versus type their responses when interacting with intelligent tutoring systems with natural language dialogues. Theoretical bases exist for three contrasting hypotheses. The "speech facilitation" hypothesis predicts that spoken input will "increase" learning, whereas the "text…

  13. Influence of Spoken Language on the Initial Acquisition of Reading/Writing: Critical Analysis of Verbal Deficit Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos-Sanchez, Jose Luis; Cuadrado-Gordillo, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the results of a quasi-experimental study of whether there exists a causal relationship between spoken language and the initial learning of reading/writing. The subjects were two matched samples each of 24 preschool pupils (boys and girls), controlling for certain relevant external variables. It was found that there was no…

  14. The Interaction of Lexical Semantics and Cohort Competition in Spoken Word Recognition: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhuang, Jie; Randall, Billi; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A.; Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Tyler, Lorraine K.

    2011-01-01

    Spoken word recognition involves the activation of multiple word candidates on the basis of the initial speech input--the "cohort"--and selection among these competitors. Selection may be driven primarily by bottom-up acoustic-phonetic inputs or it may be modulated by other aspects of lexical representation, such as a word's meaning…

  15. Words Spoken with Insistence: "Wak'as" and the Limits of the Bolivian Multi-Institutional Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuelenaere, Laurence Janine

    2009-01-01

    Building on 18 months of fieldwork in the Bolivian highlands, this dissertation examines how traversing landscapes, through the mediation of spatial practices and spoken words, are embedded in systems of belief. By focusing on "wak'as" (i.e. sacred objects) and on how the inhabitants of the Altiplano relate to the Andean deities known as "wak'as,"…

  16. N400 brain responses to spoken phrases paired with photographs of scenes: implications for visual scene displays in AAC systems.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Krista M; Stutzman, Allyson; Seisler, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems are often implemented for individuals whose speech cannot meet their full communication needs. One type of aided display is called a Visual Scene Display (VSD). VSDs consist of integrated scenes (such as photographs) in which language concepts are embedded. Often, the representations of concepts on VSDs are perceptually similar to their referents. Given this physical resemblance, one may ask how well VSDs support development of symbolic functioning. We used brain imaging techniques to examine whether matches and mismatches between the content of spoken messages and photographic images of scenes evoke neural activity similar to activity that occurs to spoken or written words. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded from 15 college students who were shown photographs paired with spoken phrases that were either matched or mismatched to the concepts embedded within each photograph. Of interest was the N400 component, a negative deflecting wave 400 ms post-stimulus that is considered to be an index of semantic functioning. An N400 response in the mismatched condition (but not the matched) would replicate brain responses to traditional linguistic symbols. An N400 was found, exclusively in the mismatched condition, suggesting that mismatches between spoken messages and VSD-type representations set the stage for the N400 in ways similar to traditional linguistic symbols.

  17. Spoken Language Comprehension of Phrases, Simple and Compound-Active Sentences in Non-Speaking Children with Severe Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geytenbeek, Joke J. M.; Heim, Margriet J. M.; Knol, Dirk L.; Vermeulen, R. Jeroen; Oostrom, Kim J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Children with severe cerebral palsy (CP) (i.e. "non-speaking children with severely limited mobility") are restricted in many domains that are important to the acquisition of language. Aims To investigate comprehension of spoken language on sentence type level in non-speaking children with severe CP. Methods & Procedures…

  18. Effects of lexical prosody and word familiarity on lexical access of spoken Japanese words.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Takahiro

    2006-07-01

    Lexical prosody (e.g., stress and pitch accent) has been shown to constrain lexical activation of spoken words in various languages. In the present study, whether or not the constraint of lexical prosody is affected by word familiarity in lexical access of Japanese words was examined using a cross-modal priming task. The stimuli were pairs of prosodically different homophones (minimal accent pairs). When the targets were more familiar members of minimal accent pairs, the responses were facilitated by prior presentations of primes that were prosodically different homophones of the targets, suggesting that lexical prosody did not constrain lexical activation. In contrast, when less familiar members of minimal accent pairs were used as the targets, the prosodically different homophones did not facilitate the responses to the targets. These results suggest that the constraint of lexical prosody is not so strong but is affected by the factor of word relative familiarity.

  19. Tracking the time course of phonetic cue integration during spoken word recognition.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Bob; Clayards, Meghan A; Tanenhaus, Michael K; Aslin, Richard N

    2008-12-01

    Speech perception requires listeners to integrate multiple cues that each contribute to judgments about a phonetic category. Classic studies of trading relations assessed the weights attached to each cue but did not explore the time course of cue integration. Here, we provide the first direct evidence that asynchronous cues to voicing (/b/ vs. /p/) and manner (/b/ vs. /w/) contrasts become available to the listener at different times during spoken word recognition. Using the visual world paradigm, we show that the probability of eye movements to pictures of target and of competitor objects diverge at different points in time after the onset of the target word. These points of divergence correspond to the availability of early (voice onset time or formant transition slope) and late (vowel length) cues to voicing and manner contrasts. These results support a model of cue integration in which phonetic cues are used for lexical access as soon as they are available. PMID:19001568

  20. Voice tracking and spoken word recognition in the presence of other voices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Violanda, Renante; Saloma, Caesar

    2004-12-01

    We study the human hearing process by modeling the hair cell as a thresholded Hopf bifurcator and compare our calculations with experimental results involving human subjects in two different multi-source listening tasks of voice tracking and spoken-word recognition. In the model, we observed noise suppression by destructive interference between noise sources which weakens the effective noise strength acting on the hair cell. Different success rate characteristics were observed for the two tasks. Hair cell performance at low threshold levels agree well with results from voice-tracking experiments while those of word-recognition experiments are consistent with a linear model of the hearing process. The ability of humans to track a target voice is robust against cross-talk interference unlike word-recognition performance which deteriorates quickly with the number of uncorrelated noise sources in the environment which is a response behavior that is associated with linear systems.

  1. The effect of written text on comprehension of spoken English as a foreign language.

    PubMed

    Diao, Yali; Chandler, Paul; Sweller, John

    2007-01-01

    Based on cognitive load theory, this study investigated the effect of simultaneous written presentations on comprehension of spoken English as a foreign language. Learners' language comprehension was compared while they used 3 instructional formats: listening with auditory materials only, listening with a full, written script, and listening with simultaneous subtitled text. Listening with the presence of a script and subtitles led to better understanding of the scripted and subtitled passage but poorer performance on a subsequent auditory passage than listening with the auditory materials only. These findings indicated that where the intention was learning to listen, the use of a full script or subtitles had detrimental effects on the construction and automation of listening comprehension schemas. PMID:17650920

  2. Semantic Relations Cause Interference in Spoken Language Comprehension When Using Repeated Definite References, Not Pronouns.

    PubMed

    Peters, Sara A; Boiteau, Timothy W; Almor, Amit

    2016-01-01

    The choice and processing of referential expressions depend on the referents' status within the discourse, such that pronouns are generally preferred over full repetitive references when the referent is salient. Here we report two visual-world experiments showing that: (1) in spoken language comprehension, this preference is reflected in delayed fixations to referents mentioned after repeated definite references compared with after pronouns; (2) repeated references are processed differently than new references; (3) long-term semantic memory representations affect the processing of pronouns and repeated names differently. Overall, these results support the role of semantic discourse representation in referential processing and reveal important details about how pronouns and full repeated references are processed in the context of these representations. The results suggest the need for modifications to current theoretical accounts of reference processing such as Discourse Prominence Theory and the Informational Load Hypothesis.

  3. The evolutionary history of genes involved in spoken and written language: beyond FOXP2

    PubMed Central

    Mozzi, Alessandra; Forni, Diego; Clerici, Mario; Pozzoli, Uberto; Mascheretti, Sara; Guerini, Franca R.; Riva, Stefania; Bresolin, Nereo; Cagliani, Rachele; Sironi, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Humans possess a communication system based on spoken and written language. Other animals can learn vocalization by imitation, but this is not equivalent to human language. Many genes were described to be implicated in language impairment (LI) and developmental dyslexia (DD), but their evolutionary history has not been thoroughly analyzed. Herein we analyzed the evolution of ten genes involved in DD and LI. Results show that the evolutionary history of LI genes for mammals and aves was comparable in vocal-learner species and non-learners. For the human lineage, several sites showing evidence of positive selection were identified in KIAA0319 and were already present in Neanderthals and Denisovans, suggesting that any phenotypic change they entailed was shared with archaic hominins. Conversely, in FOXP2, ROBO1, ROBO2, and CNTNAP2 non-coding changes rose to high frequency after the separation from archaic hominins. These variants are promising candidates for association studies in LI and DD. PMID:26912479

  4. The evolutionary history of genes involved in spoken and written language: beyond FOXP2.

    PubMed

    Mozzi, Alessandra; Forni, Diego; Clerici, Mario; Pozzoli, Uberto; Mascheretti, Sara; Guerini, Franca R; Riva, Stefania; Bresolin, Nereo; Cagliani, Rachele; Sironi, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Humans possess a communication system based on spoken and written language. Other animals can learn vocalization by imitation, but this is not equivalent to human language. Many genes were described to be implicated in language impairment (LI) and developmental dyslexia (DD), but their evolutionary history has not been thoroughly analyzed. Herein we analyzed the evolution of ten genes involved in DD and LI. Results show that the evolutionary history of LI genes for mammals and aves was comparable in vocal-learner species and non-learners. For the human lineage, several sites showing evidence of positive selection were identified in KIAA0319 and were already present in Neanderthals and Denisovans, suggesting that any phenotypic change they entailed was shared with archaic hominins. Conversely, in FOXP2, ROBO1, ROBO2, and CNTNAP2 non-coding changes rose to high frequency after the separation from archaic hominins. These variants are promising candidates for association studies in LI and DD. PMID:26912479

  5. Phonological Neighborhood Competition Affects Spoken Word Production Irrespective of Sentential Context

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Neal P.; Reilly, Megan; Blumstein, Sheila E.

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments examined the influence of phonologically similar neighbors on articulation of words’ initial stop consonants in order to investigate the conditions under which lexically-conditioned phonetic variation arises. In Experiment 1, participants produced words in isolation. Results showed that the voice-onset time (VOT) of a target’s initial voiceless stop was predicted by its overall neighborhood density, but not by its having a voicing minimal pair. In Experiment 2, participants read aloud the same targets after semantically predictive sentence contexts and after neutral sentence contexts. Results showed that, although VOTs were shorter in words produced after predictive contexts, the neighborhood density effect on VOT production persisted irrespective of context. These findings suggest that global competition from a word’s neighborhood affects spoken word production independently of contextual modulation and support models in which activation cascades automatically and obligatorily among all of a selected target word’s phonological neighbors during acoustic-phonetic encoding. PMID:26124538

  6. Independent effects of orthographic and phonological facilitation on spoken word production in Mandarin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingfang; Chen, Hsuan-Chih; Weekes, Brendan Stuart; Yang, Yufang

    2009-01-01

    A picture-word interference paradigm with visually presented distractors was used to investigate the independent effects of orthographic and phonological facilitation on Mandarin monosyllabic word production. Both the stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) and the picture-word relationship along different lexical dimensions were varied. We observed a pure orthographic facilitation effect and a pure phonological facilitation effect, and found that the patterns of orthographic and phonological facilitation were different. Of most interest, the additive effects of orthographic and phonological facilitation at -150-ms and 0-ms SOAs indicated that the orthographic effect was largely independent of the phonological effect on spoken picture naming. We argue that the present findings are useful for constraining theoretical models of language production and contend that theoretical models of word production need to consider independent effects of orthography and phonology on picture naming, at least in Chinese. PMID:19334418

  7. Semantic Relations Cause Interference in Spoken Language Comprehension When Using Repeated Definite References, Not Pronouns

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Sara A.; Boiteau, Timothy W.; Almor, Amit

    2016-01-01

    The choice and processing of referential expressions depend on the referents' status within the discourse, such that pronouns are generally preferred over full repetitive references when the referent is salient. Here we report two visual-world experiments showing that: (1) in spoken language comprehension, this preference is reflected in delayed fixations to referents mentioned after repeated definite references compared with after pronouns; (2) repeated references are processed differently than new references; (3) long-term semantic memory representations affect the processing of pronouns and repeated names differently. Overall, these results support the role of semantic discourse representation in referential processing and reveal important details about how pronouns and full repeated references are processed in the context of these representations. The results suggest the need for modifications to current theoretical accounts of reference processing such as Discourse Prominence Theory and the Informational Load Hypothesis. PMID:26973552

  8. A Spoken-Language Intervention for School-Aged Boys With Fragile X Syndrome.

    PubMed

    McDuffie, Andrea; Machalicek, Wendy; Bullard, Lauren; Nelson, Sarah; Mello, Melissa; Tempero-Feigles, Robyn; Castignetti, Nancy; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2016-05-01

    Using a single case design, a parent-mediated spoken-language intervention was delivered to three mothers and their school-aged sons with fragile X syndrome, the leading inherited cause of intellectual disability. The intervention was embedded in the context of shared storytelling using wordless picture books and targeted three empirically derived language-support strategies. All sessions were implemented through distance videoteleconferencing. Parent education sessions were followed by 12 weekly clinician coaching and feedback sessions. Data were collected weekly during independent homework and clinician observation sessions. Relative to baseline, mothers increased their use of targeted strategies, and dyads increased the frequency and duration of story-related talking. Generalized effects of the intervention on lexical diversity and grammatical complexity were observed. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:27119214

  9. The role of visual representations during the lexical access of spoken words

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Gwyneth; Poeppel, David

    2015-01-01

    Do visual representations contribute to spoken word recognition? We examine, using MEG, the effects of sublexical and lexical variables at superior temporal (ST) areas and the posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) compared with that of word imageability at visual cortices. Embodied accounts predict early modulation of visual areas by imageability - concurrently with or prior to modulation of pMTG by lexical variables. Participants responded to speech stimuli varying continuously in imageability during lexical decision with simultaneous MEG recording. We employed the linguistic variables in a new type of correlational time course analysis to assess trial-by-trial activation in occipital, ST, and pMTG regions of interest (ROIs). The linguistic variables modulated the ROIs during different time windows. Critically, visual regions reflected an imageability effect prior to effects of lexicality on pMTG. This surprising effect supports a view on which sensory aspects of a lexical item are not a consequence of lexical activation. PMID:24814579

  10. The Influence of Topic Status on Written and Spoken Sentence Production.

    PubMed

    Cowles, H Wind; Ferreira, Victor S

    2011-12-01

    Four experiments investigate the influence of topic status and givenness on how speakers and writers structure sentences. The results of these experiments show that when a referent is previously given, it is more likely to be produced early in both sentences and word lists, confirming prior work showing that givenness increases the accessibility of given referents. When a referent is previously given and assigned topic status, it is even more likely to be produced early in a sentence, but not in a word list. Thus, there appears to be an early mention advantage for topics that is present in both written and spoken modalities, but is specific to sentence production. These results suggest that information-structure constructs like topic exert an influence that is not based only on increased accessibility, but also reflects mapping to syntactic structure during sentence production.

  11. Potato not Pope: human brain potentials to gender expectation and agreement in Spanish spoken sentences

    PubMed Central

    Wicha, Nicole Y.Y.; Bates, Elizabeth A.; Moreno, Eva M.; Kutas, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Event-related potentials were used to examine the role of grammatical gender in auditory sentence comprehension. Native Spanish speakers listened to sentence pairs in which a drawing depicting a noun was either congruent or incongruent with sentence meaning, and agreed or disagreed in gender with the immediately preceding spoken article. Semantically incongruent drawings elicited an N400 regardless of gender agreement. A similar negativity to prior articles of gender opposite to that of the contextually expected noun suggests that listeners predict specific words during comprehension. Gender disagreements at the drawing also elicited an increased negativity with a later onset and distribution distinct from the canonical N400, indicating that comprehenders attend to gender agreement, even when one of the words is only implicitly represented by a drawing. PMID:12853110

  12. Resting-state low-frequency fluctuations reflect individual differences in spoken language learning.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhizhou; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Wang, Suiping; Wong, Patrick C M

    2016-03-01

    A major challenge in language learning studies is to identify objective, pre-training predictors of success. Variation in the low-frequency fluctuations (LFFs) of spontaneous brain activity measured by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) has been found to reflect individual differences in cognitive measures. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the extent to which initial spontaneous brain activity is related to individual differences in spoken language learning. We acquired RS-fMRI data and subsequently trained participants on a sound-to-word learning paradigm in which they learned to use foreign pitch patterns (from Mandarin Chinese) to signal word meaning. We performed amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) analysis, graph theory-based analysis, and independent component analysis (ICA) to identify functional components of the LFFs in the resting-state. First, we examined the ALFF as a regional measure and showed that regional ALFFs in the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance, whereas ALFFs in the default mode network (DMN) regions were negatively correlated with learning performance. Furthermore, the graph theory-based analysis indicated that the degree and local efficiency of the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance. Finally, the default mode network and several task-positive resting-state networks (RSNs) were identified via the ICA. The "competition" (i.e., negative correlation) between the DMN and the dorsal attention network was negatively correlated with learning performance. Our results demonstrate that a) spontaneous brain activity can predict future language learning outcome without prior hypotheses (e.g., selection of regions of interest--ROIs) and b) both regional dynamics and network-level interactions in the resting brain can account for individual differences in future spoken language learning success. PMID

  13. Cross-modal metaphorical mapping of spoken emotion words onto vertical space.

    PubMed

    Montoro, Pedro R; Contreras, María José; Elosúa, María Rosa; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    From the field of embodied cognition, previous studies have reported evidence of metaphorical mapping of emotion concepts onto a vertical spatial axis. Most of the work on this topic has used visual words as the typical experimental stimuli. However, to our knowledge, no previous study has examined the association between affect and vertical space using a cross-modal procedure. The current research is a first step toward the study of the metaphorical mapping of emotions onto vertical space by means of an auditory to visual cross-modal paradigm. In the present study, we examined whether auditory words with an emotional valence can interact with the vertical visual space according to a 'positive-up/negative-down' embodied metaphor. The general method consisted in the presentation of a spoken word denoting a positive/negative emotion prior to the spatial localization of a visual target in an upper or lower position. In Experiment 1, the spoken words were passively heard by the participants and no reliable interaction between emotion concepts and bodily simulated space was found. In contrast, Experiment 2 required more active listening of the auditory stimuli. A metaphorical mapping of affect and space was evident but limited to the participants engaged in an emotion-focused task. Our results suggest that the association of affective valence and vertical space is not activated automatically during speech processing since an explicit semantic and/or emotional evaluation of the emotionally valenced stimuli was necessary to obtain an embodied effect. The results are discussed within the framework of the embodiment hypothesis. PMID:26322007

  14. Cross-modal metaphorical mapping of spoken emotion words onto vertical space

    PubMed Central

    Montoro, Pedro R.; Contreras, María José; Elosúa, María Rosa; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    From the field of embodied cognition, previous studies have reported evidence of metaphorical mapping of emotion concepts onto a vertical spatial axis. Most of the work on this topic has used visual words as the typical experimental stimuli. However, to our knowledge, no previous study has examined the association between affect and vertical space using a cross-modal procedure. The current research is a first step toward the study of the metaphorical mapping of emotions onto vertical space by means of an auditory to visual cross-modal paradigm. In the present study, we examined whether auditory words with an emotional valence can interact with the vertical visual space according to a ‘positive-up/negative-down’ embodied metaphor. The general method consisted in the presentation of a spoken word denoting a positive/negative emotion prior to the spatial localization of a visual target in an upper or lower position. In Experiment 1, the spoken words were passively heard by the participants and no reliable interaction between emotion concepts and bodily simulated space was found. In contrast, Experiment 2 required more active listening of the auditory stimuli. A metaphorical mapping of affect and space was evident but limited to the participants engaged in an emotion-focused task. Our results suggest that the association of affective valence and vertical space is not activated automatically during speech processing since an explicit semantic and/or emotional evaluation of the emotionally valenced stimuli was necessary to obtain an embodied effect. The results are discussed within the framework of the embodiment hypothesis. PMID:26322007

  15. Adult Books for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Considers the differences between young adult and adult books and maintains that teachers must be familiar with young adults' tastes for both. Suggests that traffic between these publishing divisions is a two-way street, with young adults reading adult books and adults reading young adult books. (TB)

  16. Automatic detection and segmentation of bovine corpora lutea in ultrasonographic ovarian images using genetic programming and rotation invariant local binary patterns.

    PubMed

    Dong, Meng; Eramian, Mark G; Ludwig, Simone A; Pierson, Roger A

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we propose a fully automatic algorithm to detect and segment corpora lutea (CL) using genetic programming and rotationally invariant local binary patterns. Detection and segmentation experiments were conducted and evaluated on 30 images containing a CL and 30 images with no CL. The detection algorithm correctly determined the presence or absence of a CL in 93.33 % of the images. The segmentation algorithm achieved a mean (±standard deviation) sensitivity and specificity of 0.8693 ± 0.1371 and 0.9136 ± 0.0503, respectively, over the 30 CL images. The mean root mean squared distance of the segmented boundary from the true boundary was 1.12 ± 0.463 mm and the mean maximum deviation (Hausdorff distance) was 3.39 ± 2.00 mm. The success of these algorithms demonstrates that similar algorithms designed for the analysis of in vivo human ovaries are likely viable.

  17. Evidence for a luteotropic role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma: expression and in vitro effects on enzymatic and hormonal activities in corpora lutea of pseudopregnant rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zerani, Massimo; Maranesi, Margherita; Brecchia, Gabriele; Gobbetti, Anna; Boiti, Cristiano; Parillo, Francesco

    2013-03-01

    The expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and its role in corpora lutea (CL) function were studied in pseudopregnant rabbits. Corpora lutea were collected at an early stage (Day 4), midstage (Day 9), and late stage (Day 13) of pseudopregnancy. Immunohistochemistry found evidence for the presence of PPARgamma in the perinuclear cytoplasm and nucleus of all the luteal cells; immunoreactivity decreased from the early to the late stage, with immunonegativity of the nuclei of late stage CL. PPARgamma mRNA transcript was expressed in all the luteal stages with the lowest level in the late stage. In CL cultured in vitro, the PPARgamma agonist (15-deoxy delta12,14 prostaglandin J2 [15d-PGJ2], 200 nM) increased and the antagonist (T0070907, 50 nM) decreased progesterone secretion at early and midluteal stages, whereas 15d-PGJ2 reduced and T0070907 increased PGF2alpha at the same stages. Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) activity was reduced by 15d-PGJ2 and increased by T0070907 in CL of early and midluteal stages. Conversely, 15d-PGJ2 increased and T0070907 reduced 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) activity in early and midluteal stage CL. PGE2 in vitro secretion as well as PTGS1 and 20alpha-HSD enzymatic activities were not affected by 15d-PGJ2 and T0070907 in any CL types. These results indicate that PPARgamma plays a luteotropic role in pseudopregnant rabbits, through PTGS2 down-regulation and 3beta-HSD up-regulation, with a consequent PGF2alpha decrease and progesterone increase.

  18. Semantic information mediates visual attention during spoken word recognition in Chinese: Evidence from the printed-word version of the visual-world paradigm.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei; Qu, Qingqing; Li, Xingshan

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether the activation of semantic information during spoken word recognition can mediate visual attention's deployment to printed Chinese words. We used a visual-world paradigm with printed words, in which participants listened to a spoken target word embedded in a neutral spoken sentence while looking at a visual display of printed words. We examined whether a semantic competitor effect could be observed in the printed-word version of the visual-world paradigm. In Experiment 1, the relationship between the spoken target words and the printed words was manipulated so that they were semantically related (a semantic competitor), phonologically related (a phonological competitor), or unrelated (distractors). We found that the probability of fixations on semantic competitors was significantly higher than that of fixations on the distractors. In Experiment 2, the orthographic similarity between the spoken target words and their semantic competitors was manipulated to further examine whether the semantic competitor effect was modulated by orthographic similarity. We found significant semantic competitor effects regardless of orthographic similarity. Our study not only reveals that semantic information can affect visual attention, it also provides important new insights into the methodology employed to investigate the semantic processing of spoken words during spoken word recognition using the printed-word version of the visual-world paradigm. PMID:26993126

  19. Pronunciation Lessons for Teachers of Classes of Adults of Mainly South East Asian Origin at Near-Beginning to Intermediate Levels of English as a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksen, Tove Anne

    The lessons are intended for teenage and adult students. Focus is on placement of the tongue, jaw, lips, any movements involved, and whether the sound is whispered (voiced) or spoken (voiceless). Consonants are taught in pairs so students realize the distinctions necessary to avoid misunderstandings. Lessons include (1) final consonants, (2)…

  20. Child-centered collaborative conversations that maximize listening and spoken language development for children with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Garber, Ashley S; Nevins, Mary Ellen

    2012-11-01

    In the period that begins with early intervention enrollment and ends with the termination of formal education, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) will have numerous opportunities to form professional relationships that can enhance any child's listening and spoken language accomplishments. SLPs who initiate and/or nurture these relationships are urged to place the needs of the child as the core value that drives decision making. Addressing this priority will allow for the collaborative conversations necessary to develop an effective intervention plan at any level. For the SLP, the purpose of these collaborative conversations will be twofold: identifying the functional communication needs of the child with hearing loss across settings and sharing practical strategies to encourage listening and spoken language skill development. Auditory first, wait time, sabotage, and thinking turns are offered as four techniques easily implemented by all service providers to support the child with hearing loss in all educational settings.